These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

PubMed Central

The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in ?265 males from eight castes of different rank to ?750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%–30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (?600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated that the upper castes have a higher affinity to Europeans than to Asians, and the upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are the lower castes. Collectively, all five datasets show a trend toward upper castes being more similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more similar to Asians. We conclude that Indian castes are most likely to be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities of castes to Asians and Europeans. PMID:11381027

Bamshad, Michael; Kivisild, Toomas; Watkins, W. Scott; Dixon, Mary E.; Ricker, Chris E.; Rao, Baskara B.; Naidu, J. Mastan; Prasad, B.V. Ravi; Reddy, P. Govinda; Rasanayagam, Arani; Papiha, Surinder S.; Villems, Richard; Redd, Alan J.; Hammer, Michael F.; Nguyen, Son V.; Carroll, Marion L.; Batzer, Mark A.; Jorde, Lynn B.

2001-01-01

2

Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic structure, affinities, and diversity of the 1 billion Indians hold important keys to numerous unanswered questions regarding the evolution of human populations and the forces shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Although there have been several recent studies of South Indian caste groups, North Indian caste groups, and South Indian Muslims using Y-chromosomal markers, overall, the Indian population has still not been well studied compared to other geographical populations. In particular, no genetic study has been conducted on Shias and Sunnis from North India. Aim This study aims to investigate genetic variation and the gene pool in North Indians. Subjects and methods A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped. Results Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only. Conclusion The results revealed that a substantial part of today’s North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history. PMID:19058044

Zhao, Zhongming; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha

2009-01-01

3

126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

4

Ghost illness in a North Indian village  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substantial number of ghost possessions that came to our attention during fieldwork in a North Indian village in 1977-1978 let to a thorough study of ghost beliefs as part of a holistic study of village life. Ghosts are not phantoms floating on the periphery of village life, the concern only of children and the credulous. Rather, the study shows

Ruth S. Freed; Stanley A. Freed

1990-01-01

5

The North American Indian and the Eskimo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of the North American Indian, the Eskimo, and in the fields of ethnology and anthropology. The…

San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

6

The North American Indians. A Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of 52 original articles by outstanding authorities on American Indians is organized by culture areas to provide a general introduction to the study of the aboriginal populations of North America. An attempt has been made to include articles representative of the major theoretical points of view (historical, psychological,…

Owen, Roger C., Ed.; And Others

7

Learning Aids for North American Indian Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Native American Studies Department at the University of California - Davis has made available Learning Aids for North American Indian Languages, a resource offering "information on published and 'semi-published' teaching and general reference materials for North American Indian languages or groups of languages." It is a page of pointers to citations for dictionaries, descriptive grammars, pedagogic materials collections of bilingual narratives, and tapes, among others. This large resource is arranged alphabetically by language group, and also contains many cross references. Over 100 language groups are included, from Abenaki to Yukon languages. Citations contain bibliographic information and are thoroughly annotated. Learning Aids has been compiled from the "Society of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas Newsletter."

8

2. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF MANSARD RODF SHOWING CAST SUNBURST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF MANSARD RODF SHOWING CAST SUNBURST MOTIF IN PEDIMENTS, BRACKETED AND DENTILLED CORNICE AND DECORATIVE WINDOW TREATMENT - West Lexington Street, Number 310 (Commercial Building), 310 West Lexington Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

9

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

10

Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Background Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. Results We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations from the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. Genetic differentiation among Tamil castes is low (RST = 0.96% for 45 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers), reflecting a largely common origin. Nonetheless, caste- and continent-specific patterns are evident. For 32 lineage-defining Y-chromosome SNPs, Tamil castes show higher affinity to Europeans than to eastern Asians, and genetic distance estimates to the Europeans are ordered by caste rank. For 32 lineage-defining mitochondrial SNPs and hypervariable sequence (HVS) 1, Tamil castes have higher affinity to eastern Asians than to Europeans. For 45 autosomal STRs, upper and middle rank castes show higher affinity to Europeans than do lower rank castes from either Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh. Local between-caste variation (Tamil Nadu RST = 0.96%, Andhra Pradesh RST = 0.77%) exceeds the estimate of variation between these geographically separated groups (RST = 0.12%). Low, but statistically significant, correlations between caste rank distance and genetic distance are demonstrated for Tamil castes using Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal data. Conclusion Genetic data from Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal STRs are in accord with historical accounts of northwest to southeast population movements in India. The influence of ancient and historical population movements and caste social structure can be detected and replicated in South Indian caste populations from two different geographic regions. PMID:19077280

Watkins, WS; Thara, R; Mowry, BJ; Zhang, Y; Witherspoon, DJ; Tolpinrud, W; Bamshad, MJ; Tirupati, S; Padmavati, R; Smith, H; Nancarrow, D; Filippich, C; Jorde, LB

2008-01-01

11

66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. THE IRON RUNNER IS IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE BLOWERS CONTROL ROOM IS IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPHER. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

12

Plains Indians of North America. Grade Level: Fourth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a fourth-grade teaching unit on the Plains Indians of North America. It is composed of a content outline, statement of unit goals, unit behavioral objectives, initiating activities, developmental activities, closing activities, unit evaluation plan, and a bibliography. The content outline shows that the unit covers the Plains Indian's…

Parker, Beth

13

Ghost illness in a north Indian village.  

PubMed

The substantial number of ghost possessions that came to our attention during fieldwork in a North Indian village in 1977-78 led to a thorough study of ghost beliefs as part of a holistic study of village life. Ghosts are not phantoms floating on the periphery of village life, the concern only of children and the credulous. Rather, the study shows that ghosts are linked with basic Hindu beliefs, village lore, ancient curing practices and theories, the diagnosis of illness and treatment of disease, individual stress and anxiety, and family, lineage, and village histories. Ghost possession, a subsidiary and dramatic form of ghost illness, is behavior in which the ghost speaks from its victim who undergoes a range of alternate states. Unpredictable events and heightened personal stress generally precede episodes of ghost possession. Cases of ghost illness and ghost possession include children and adults of both sexes and a range of ages. Our data contradict the village stereotype that only women suffer from ghost possession. Villagers have recourse to both traditional remedies and Western biomedicine to treat ghost illness. PMID:2309139

Freed, R S; Freed, S A

1990-01-01

14

Guide to Reference Sources Dealing with North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an annotated bibliography of reference sources dealing with North American Indians and includes selected unpublished resources in the Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota. Among the resources presented are encyclopedias, biographical dictionaries, handbooks, general indexes, government publications, theses, and dissertations.…

Swindler, Luke

15

North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells.

Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W.; de Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

2014-05-01

16

Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

17

Strange country this: lesbianism and North American Indian tribes.  

PubMed

This article is an exploration of historical names and functions of gay and lesbian people among traditional North American Indian tribes. Some detailed descriptions of individual offices are included, such as "manly hearted" women and shamanic cross-dressing men, as well as the original definition of "dyke" and "ceremonial lesbian" as described by Paula Gunn Allen (Laguna Pueblo). PMID:3531323

Grahn, J

1986-05-01

18

First on the Land: The North Carolina Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for students at the secondary level, this book details the historical development (10,000 B.C. to the present) of the 3 American Indian linguistic groups located in the 4 geographical areas of North Carolina (the Algonquians on the coast, the Iroquoians, including the Tuscarora on the coastal plain and the Cherokee in the mountains, and…

Wetmore, Ruth Y.

19

Motivations of North American Indians in Athletic Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on the motives of North American Indians in holding their athletic games. Data were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology" published between 1881 and 1933. Anthropologists, artifact collectors, artist-writers, and historians provided primary evidential sources for athletic game motivation. Included…

Pesavento, Wilma J.

20

Nutrition, Growth and Development of North American Indian Children. Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the special health needs of disadvantaged minority groups, in May 1969 the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development cosponsored a conference on these needs for North American Indian children. The monograph, based on this conference, summarizes previous knowledge, provides new information, and emphasizes the role of…

Moore, William M., Ed.; And Others

21

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N

T. Kivisild; S. Rootsi; M. Metspalu; S. Mastana; K. Kaldma; J. Parik; E. Metspalu; M. Adojaan; H.-V. Tolk; V. Stepanov; M. Gölge; E. Usanga; S. S. Papiha; C. Cinnio?lu; R. King; L. Cavalli-Sforza; P. A. Underhill; R. Villems

2003-01-01

22

Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System  

PubMed Central

Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4–6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India. PMID:23209694

Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R. Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G.; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

2012-01-01

23

C. Szwedzicki: The North American Indian Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Cincinnati Libraries has compiled a digitized collection of work by 20th Century American Indian artists that was originally published from the years 1929 to 1953 in Nice, France. The digitized collection is composed of 364 images and six texts. There are a few ways to search or browse the collection, including utilizing an introductory essay written by Janet Catherine Berlo, Professor of Art History and Visual and Cultural Studies at the University of Rochester, New York. In addition to providing an excellent introduction, the "essay includes links to images and can be used as a navigational tool to the collection." On the left hand side of the page two additional viewers visitors can use to browse the collection, the "Insight Browser" and the "Insight Java Client". The former is a basic viewer, and the latter is a more advanced viewer which requires a one-time download. Both have a "Click Here For Details and Help" link below their description, for those visitors who may need further assistance. Many of the images in the collection are of people and activities, depicted in bright colors, but there is also a set of images of ceramic jars and canteens that show the many patterns in which they were decorated. Important images and documentation of the Battle of the Little Big Horn can also be found within the collection, in the reproductions of the now lost ledger art of Amos Bad Heart Bull.

24

North Indian Muslims: enclaves of foreign DNA or Hindu converts?  

PubMed

The mtDNA composition of two Muslim sects from the northern Indian province of Uttar Pradesh, the Sunni and Shia, have been delineated using sequence information from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVI and HVII, respectively) as well as coding region polymorphisms. A comparison of this data to that from Middle Eastern, Central Asian, North East African, and other Indian groups reveals that, at the mtDNA haplogroup level, both of these Indo-Sunni and Indo-Shia populations are more similar to each other and other Indian groups than to those from the other regions. In addition, these two Muslim sects exhibit a conspicuous absence of West Asian mtDNA haplogroups suggesting that their maternal lineages are of Indian origin. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the maternal lineage data indicates differences between the Sunni and Shia collections of Uttar Pradesh with respect to the relative distributions of Indian-specific M sub-haplogroups (Indo Shia > Indo Sunni) and the R haplogroup (Indo Sunni > Indo Shia), a disparity that does not appear to be related to social status or geographic regions within India. Finally, the mtDNA data integrated with the Y-chromosome results from an earlier study, which indicated a major Indian genetic (Y-chromosomal) contribution as well, suggests a scenario of Hindu to Islamic conversion in these two populations. However, given the substantial level of the African/Middle Eastern YAP lineage in the Indo-Shia versus its absence in the Indo-Sunni, it is likely that this conversion was somewhat gender biased in favor of females in the Indo-Shia. PMID:17427927

Terreros, Maria C; Rowold, Diane; Luis, Javier R; Khan, Faisal; Agrawal, Suraksha; Herrera, Rene J

2007-07-01

25

North American Indian rock art and hallucinogenic drugs.  

PubMed

It is proposed that the aboriginal rock paintings in two areas of North America may have been produced by shamans while they were under the influence of hallucinogenic agents derived from plants. The first of these areas is the Chumash and Yokuts Indian region of California, where polychrome paintings show designs similar to those visualized during the trance induced by decoctions of jimsonweed (Datura species). The second area is the lower Pecos River region of Texas, where shamanistic figures display traits considered to be conceptual analogues of the mescal bean (Sophora secundiflora) cult as practiced during historic times by Great Plains Indians. Although the evidence is only circumstantial, the proposed connections between these rock drawings and mind-expanding pharmacologic compounds fit well into the documented relationship that encompasses hallucinogenic drugs and certain movable objects of pre-Columbian American art. PMID:344916

Wellmann, K F

1978-04-14

26

Modelling the influence of North Atlantic multidecadal warmth on the Indian summer rainfall  

E-print Network

Modelling the influence of North Atlantic multidecadal warmth on the Indian summer rainfall Oscillation (AMO) increases Indian summer rainfall. The intensification is driven by extratropical North summer rainfall, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L05804, doi:10.1029/2007GL032901. 1. Introduction [2

27

Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide  

E-print Network

propagate into the North Indian Ocean (hereaf- ter NIO) as coastal Kelvin waves [McCreary et al., 1993 that the intraseasonal equatorial Kelvin waves propagate into the NIO in the form of coastal Kelvin waves. This studyOrigins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal

28

Chemical oceanography of the Indian Ocean, north of the equator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical oceanographic studies in the North Indian Ocean have revealed several interesting and unique features. These are caused by the diverse conditions prevailing in the area which include immense river runoff in the northeast (Bay of Bengal) and a large excess of evaporation over precipitation and runoff in the northwest (Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf and Red Sea), resulting in the formation of several low- and high-salinity water masses. The occurrence of coastal upwelling seasonally makes the region highly fertile, and the existence of Asian landmass, forming the northern boundary, prevents quick renewal of subsurface layers. Consequently, dissolved oxygen gets severely depleted below the thermocline and reducing conditions prevail at intermediate depths (ca. 150-1200m) resulting in the reduction of nitrate (denitrification). The North Indian Ocean may contribute up to 10% of the global marine denitrification. The "denitrified" nitrogen, when combined with the rate of photosynthetic production reaching below the euphotic zone, gives the average residence time of water between 75 and 1200m as 43-51 years. The inorganic nutrient concentrations in the subsurface layers are very high in close proximity of the euphotic zone. The two-layered circulation leads to an active recycling of nutrients. The presence of organic fractions of nitrogen and phosphorus in significant concentrations in the deep water suggest that oxidation of organic matter is incomplete even great depths. The relationships between the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and nutrients and the stoichiometric composition of organic matter, deduced from the oxidative ratios and by analysis of plankton, are not very different from other oceanic areas. Higher nutrients and lower oxygen concentrations occur in the bottom layer as compared to the overlying water column in deep waters of the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, suggesting that considerable quantities of organic matter reach the deep-sea floor, probably as fecal pellets, and get oxidized in the bottom layer. Very high silicate concentrations occur in the bottom water, especially in the Arabian Sea, decreasing steadily southward, indicating the solution of diatomaceous sediments from the sea floor. The silicate-rich waters appear to move southward over the north-bound, silicate-poor bottom water, resulting in the occurrence of a deep silicate maximum. The calcium: chlorinity ratio in the North Indian Ocean is appreciably higher than the oceanic averages. This is probably due to: (1) a high rate of river runoff in relatively small area; and (2) excessive stripping of calcium at the surface associated with a high biological productivity and its subsequent addition and regeneration in the bottom waters. The upward flux of calcium appears to be higher than in other oceanic areas. Other major constituents investigated (fluoride and magnesium) do not show any anomally. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface waters of the North Indian Ocean is higher than that in the atmosphere which results in a net flux of carbon dioxide from the sea to the atmosphere. Stagnation of intermediate layers, coupled with high organic productivity at the surface, results in high total carbon dioxide content at these levels. An increase in carbonate ion concentration occurs with depth in deep waters (>1000m). Calcite saturation depth varies from 1000 to 3000m, increasing proressively southward. The lysocline lies at about 4000m depth, while the carbonate critical depth is located at 4000-5100m. The lysocline appears to be related to the "critical carbonate ion concentration" of 90±5 ?m kg -1.

Gupta, R. Sen; Naqvi, S. W. A.

29

The caste based mosaic of Indian politics C H R I S T O P H E J A F FR E L O T  

E-print Network

The caste based mosaic of Indian politics C H R I S T O P H E J A F FR E L O T WHILE caste politics voters, are associated with a single caste and/or religious community � and this is also true of some that this redrawing of the frontiers of the state in large part stemmed from the demands of dominant castes. In 1947

Boyer, Edmond

30

Teleconnections due the north Indian Ocean tropical disturbances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teleconnections due to long lasting intense tropical disturbances in the north Indian Ocean are investigated in this study. The analyses is carried out for both the pre-monsoon (April-May) and post-monsoon (Oct-Dec) periods. The OLR distribution of the pre-monsoon tropical storms in the Bay of Bengal shows a dipole like structure. The composite plot reveals strong negative OLR anomalies over the Bay region and strong positive OLR anomalies near the Indonesian region. The composite also shows negative OLR anomalies extending from the north-west Pacific region to the western Japan, which is remote from the origin of the Bay of Bengal disturbances. The associated surface temperature anomalies show positive surface temperature anomalies over the northwestern parts of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan with cold anomalies over the Arabian region which is also remote to the region of the tropical disturbances. Further analyses of the anomalies shows that, the negative OLR anomalies over western Japan are due to the Rossby waves generated by the heating over the Bay besides the enhancement of the Pacific-Japan teleconnection. However, the post-monsoon disturbances in the Bay of Bengal and the disturbances formed in the Arabian Sea in both pre- and post-monsoon seasons do not develop remote teleconnections associated with the above type of Rossby wave mechanism.

Jayanthi, V.; Behera, S. K.; Masumoto, Y.; Yamagata, T.

2012-12-01

31

Modelling the influence of North Atlantic multidecadal warmth on the Indian summer rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensemble experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model reveal that a positive (warm) ocean phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) increases Indian summer rainfall. The intensification is driven by extratropical North Atlantic warmth, with some cancellation associated with monsoon weakening in response to tropical North Atlantic warmth. Mechanistically, warm extratropical North Atlantic SSTs increase local rainfall, inducing an arching

Shuanglin Li; Judith Perlwitz; Xiaowei Quan; Martin P. Hoerling

2008-01-01

32

Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Tracks in the North Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclones are regarded as one of the most dangerous meteorological phenomena of the tropical region. The probability of landfall of a tropical cyclone depends on its movement (trajectory). Analysis of trajectories of tropical cyclones could be useful for identifying potentially predictable characteristics. There is long history of analysis of tropical cyclones tracks. A common approach is using different clustering techniques to group the cyclone tracks on the basis of certain characteristics. Various clustering method have been used to study the tropical cyclones in different ocean basins like western North Pacific ocean (Elsner and Liu, 2003; Camargo et al., 2007), North Atlantic Ocean (Elsner, 2003; Gaffney et al. 2007; Nakamura et al., 2009). In this study, tropical cyclone tracks in the North Indian Ocean basin, for the period 1961-2010 have been analyzed and grouped into clusters based on their spatial characteristics. A tropical cyclone trajectory is approximated as an open curve and described by its first two moments. The resulting clusters have different centroid locations and also differently shaped variance ellipses. These track characteristics are then used in the standard clustering algorithms which allow the whole track shape, length, and location to be incorporated into the clustering methodology. The resulting clusters have different genesis locations and trajectory shapes. We have also examined characteristics such as life span, maximum sustained wind speed, landfall, seasonality, many of which are significantly different across the identified clusters. The clustering approach groups cyclones with higher maximum wind speed and longest life span in to one cluster. Another cluster includes short duration cyclonic events that are mostly deep depressions and significant for rainfall over Eastern and Central India. The clustering approach is likely to prove useful for analysis of events of significance with regard to impacts.

Patwardhan, A.; Paliwal, M.; Mohapatra, M.

2011-12-01

33

Indian Studies at the University of North Dakota  

E-print Network

Affiliated Tribes, Sioux History, Contemporary Plains Indian Culture, and Traditional Plains Tribes are examples of the regional emphasis. Other courses feature Indian Country as a whole. One concern is that the two American Indian languages offered... body of the university (the state has four percent). The majority of the 370 Indian students are from Turtle Mountain Reservation (Chippewa). A significant number come from the Three Affiliated Tribes (Mandan, Hidatsa, Ankara), Standing Rock...

Gagnon, Gregory

2002-03-01

34

An Evaluation of Education for Indians. Robeson County, North Carolina 1975-1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of the academic achievement of American Indian students in the Robeson County, North Carolina School Administrative Unit are presented in this document. As part of an evaluation of an educational program funded under the Indian Elementary and Secondary School Assistance Act, this document reflects program impact upon the county, its Lumbee…

Maynor, Waltz

35

North American Indians; A Comprehensive Annotated Bibliography for the Secondary Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 1,490 books and articles published between 1871-1971 are listed in this annotated bibliography on the North American Indian. The bibliography is primarily for secondary teachers and educators and those who are concerned about securing materials relating to American Indians. (FF)

Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Indian Education Center.

36

North American Indian Alliance Mental Health Needs Assessment Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of 30 mental health service providers and 74 American Indian consumers of such services in Butte, Montana, examined mental health services offered for adults and children, service use by American Indians, referral practices, providers' and consumers' perceptions of the mental health needs of American Indians, and consumers' interest in…

Barron, Lloyd; Oge, Linda L.; Markovich, Joseph

1999-01-01

37

Rhomboid fossa in the clavicles of North Indians.  

PubMed

The incidence and size of the rhomboid fossa were studied in paired clavicles of North Indians obtained from 20 neonates, 60 children, and 789 adult bodies of known age and sex on which postmortem examinations had been performed by the senior author (except in cases of neonates). The fossa was absent in the newborns but was present bilaterally in 44% of male and 54% of female children below 18 years of age and in 16.5% of male and 20.8% of female children unilaterally. Statistically the sexual differences were not significant (P greater than 0.05). In the adults, the incidence of bilateral fossa was 58.70% in males and 54.14% in females and a unilateral fossa was seen in 13.29% of males and 16.56% of females, but the sexual difference in both cases was insignificant (P greater than 0.05). However, in unilateral cases, the incidence of the fossa was greater on the right than on the left side in both male (P less than 0.001) and female (P less than 0.001) bones. Although racial differences cannot be ruled out, no sexual or side differences in the incidence of the fossa could be found. Factors responsible for creating a deep fossa unilaterally are not understood. PMID:3728658

Jit, I; Kaur, H

1986-05-01

38

Dd-antigen-antibody system in five caste groups in north India.  

PubMed

Antigen Dd, a polymorphic antigen found in extracts of certain human dandruff specimens, was investigated in five caste groups of north India. The incidence of antigen Dd-positive type varied from 21.21 per cent in Brahmins to 29.08 per cent in the Jat Sikhs of Punjab. However, a high frequency (45%) was observed in the Sunni Muslims of Kashmir, which differed significantly, when compared with different caste groups of Punjab. Family studies on 44 families indicated its inherited nature, the mode of inheritance being autosomal dominant. PMID:1774101

Berry, V; Kaur, H

1991-12-01

39

North American Indian Language Materials, 1890-1965: An Annotated Bibliography of Monographic Works. American Indian Bibliographic Series No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 187 monographs cited in this annotated bibliography on North American Indian language materials cover the period 1890-1965, updating the 9 linguistic bibliographies compiled by James C. Pilling for the U.S. Bureau of (American) Ethnology. Filling the gap between Pilling's works (variously published between 1887 and 1894), this bibliography is…

Evans, G. Edward; Clark, Jeffrey

40

77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs made a final agency determination to acquire approximately 305.49 acres of land in trust for gaming purposes for the North...Secretary--Indian Affairs decided to accept approximately 305.49 acres of land in trust for the North Fork Rancheria of...

2012-12-03

41

The Response of the Indian Monsoon to North Atlantic Freshwater Forcing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoclimate records indicate that during some past abrupt climate changes, such as Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles and the 8.2 ka event, the Indian monsoon weakened and temperatures in the North Atlantic fell. It has been hypothesized that pulses of freshwater added to the North Atlantic could have led to this remote climate response in Asia. However, the physical mechanisms for the teleconnection

C. Morrill; B. L. Otto-Bliesner

2006-01-01

42

CAST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

2012-02-06

43

CAST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

2012-02-03

44

Depression and guilt in Indian and north american patients: a comparative study.  

PubMed

One hundred and nineteen Indian and one hundred and fourteen North American depressed patients were compared to assess the differences in psychopathology. The study revealed two important findings: 1) Indian patients scored significantly higher than American patients on the HAMD items of poor appetite, hypochondriasis, diurnal variation, and psychomotor retardation; and lower on the items of anxiety and middle insomnia. 2) Guilt was expressed less often by Indian patients. Guilt was more common among those who felt that God was responsible for their depression and in those who believed in reincarnation. These differences may be related to cultural factors and not to religious beliefs. PMID:21776166

Ananth, J; Engelsman, F; Ghadirian, A M; Wohl, M; Shamasundara, P; Narayanan, H S

1993-01-01

45

Some Concepts of Sacred Space Among North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since sacred space is revealed in the symbolism of the center, and sacred time is revealed in traditional Native American cosmogony (according to Mircea Eliade), the symbols of the center and the myths of origin were analyzed for the: Naskapi; Pomo; Paiute; Navajo; Ojibwa; and Delaware American Indians. Analysis revealed the following: (1) for the…

Hatfield, John T.; Irby, Charles C.

46

North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch-South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar

Hendrik M. van Akena

47

North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch–South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar

Hendrik M. van Aken; Herman Ridderinkhof; Wilhelmus P. M. de Ruijter

2004-01-01

48

Response of tropical cyclone potential intensity over the north Indian Ocean to global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of tropical cyclone (TC) potential intensity (PI) and the associated environmental control parameters over the North Indian Ocean (NIO) to the doubled CO2 concentration are assessed based on the ensemble simulation from 15 coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) participated in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Forth Assessment Report (AR4). The results show that the annual mean

Jinhua Yu; Yuqing Wang

2009-01-01

49

Integrating HyperInstruments, Musical Robots & Machine Musicianship for North Indian Classical Music  

E-print Network

, USA ABSTRACT This paper describes a system enabling a human to perform music with a robot in real-time challenging, but fascinating at the same time. This is facilitated by the fact that music is a languageIntegrating HyperInstruments, Musical Robots & Machine Musicianship for North Indian Classical

Tzanetakis, George

50

On the Phase Relations between the Western North Pacific, Indian, and Australian Monsoons*  

E-print Network

On the Phase Relations between the Western North Pacific, Indian, and Australian Monsoons* DEJUN GU Guangzhou Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, and Key Open Laboratory for Tropical Monsoon, China Laboratory for Tropical Monsoon, China Meteorological Administration, Guangzhou, China (Manuscript received

Li, Tim

51

Establishment of soft tissue norms for the north Indian population based on laymen perception.  

PubMed

In this study we aimed to determine the soft tissue norms for the North Indian population based on the laymen perception of facial esthetics and to test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in cephalometric measurement between North Indians and White Americans norms. Two sets (Facial frontal and profile photographs) of 170 standardized facial photographs (76 males and 94 females in the age group of 18-28 years) were taken. A panel of judges which consisted of 20 laymen evaluated the photographs on the visual analogue scale to select a sample of 120 subjects (60 males and 60 females), which included individuals with esthetically pleasing appearance. Digital lateral cephalograms were made and anatomic landmarks were identified directly on the digital images. Seventeen soft tissue variables taken from Subtenley's, Holdaway's, Ricketts and Legan's analysis were calculated electronically using the Dolphin (version 9) software package. Most measurements were similar to the white American norms, some differences were noticed in nasal prominence, basic upper lip thickness, and 'H' angle measurements. The independent-sample t test was used to compare the measurement differences of the North Indian men and women. North Indian males have relatively prominent and thicker upper lip, and increased basic upper lip thickness than the females. Lower lip was found to be more protrusive in females than in males. PMID:24644392

Gupta, Ankur; Garg, Jaishree; Anand, Neelima; Hegde, Manjunath; Parashar, Sandeep

2014-03-01

52

Current Biology, Vol. 14, 231235, February 3, 2004, 2004 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2004.01.024 Independent Origins of Indian Caste  

E-print Network

. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2004.01.024 Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal Paternal Lineages diversity of India as well as forD-04103 Leipzig Germany investigating the origins of caste populations of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine absence of Y chromosome haplogroups in just two tribal and six caste groups

Cordaux, Richard

53

Implications of the deep circulation and ventilation of the Indian Ocean on the renewal mechanism of North Atlantic Deep Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Indian Ocean sector of the ``great ocean conveyor'' scheme the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) replacement is realized by the transformation of the sinking Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the Southern Ocean to a prevailingly upward flow in the northern Indian Ocean. This water -mass transformation scenario has been studied by using hydrographic data including potential temperature, salinity,

Yuzhu You

2000-01-01

54

North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic,observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch–South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar

Hendrik M. Van Aken; Herman Ridderinkhof; Wilhelmus P. m. De Ruijter

55

Economic importance of black tree lichen ( Bryoria fremontii ) to the Indians of western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bryoria fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D. Hawksw. (syn.Alectoria fremontii Tuck.) was an important source of food for the interior Indian peoples of western North America from northern British Columbia\\u000a to northern California. It and related species were also used as materials for clothing and medicine and are known to appear\\u000a in native mythical traditions. The extent of the use of

Nancy J. Turner

1977-01-01

56

Evaluation of mixed dentition analyses in north Indian population: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Mixed dentition regression equations analyses (Moyers, Tanaka-Johnston) are based on European population, reliability of these methods is questionable over other population. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on total 260 study models. This study was done in two phases. In the first phase, linear regression equations were made. In the second phase, comparison of actual values of sum of mesiodistal width of canine, first and second premolars with the predicted values proposed by Moyers, Tanaka-Johnston, and the new proposed mixed dentition analysis for North Indian population were made. Results: Set of four linear regression equations for predicting sum of mesiodistal width of permanent canine, first premolar and second premolar in North Indian population from sum of mesiodistal width of mandibular incisors and mandibular first molars, were proposed as; (a) for males, maxillary arch, Y = 2.9 + 0.40X, (b) mandibular arch Y = 3.91 + 0.37X (c) for females, maxillary arch Y = 0.56 + 0.45X (d) mandibular arch Y = 1.14 + 0.42X. Moyers and Tanaka-Johnston, mixed dentition analysis, is found to be overestimating the mesiodistal width of unerupted canine and premolars in North Indian population.

Goyal, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Vijay P.; Tandon, Pradeep; Nagar, Amit; Singh, Gyan P.

2014-01-01

57

How the North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation may have influenced the Indian summer monsoon during the past two millennia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations have indicated that the North Atlantic SST variations have persistent effects on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall at multidecadal and longer timescales. The question of how such influences may have been achieved is addressed in this study using both instrumentation data of the 20th century and proxy records of the last 2000 years. Major results show that the North

Song Feng; Qi Hu

2008-01-01

58

Indian Monsoon and North Atlantic Oscillation Signals Reflected by Cl and Na-+ in a Shallow Ice Core from the Dasuopu Glacier, Xixiabangma, Himalaya  

E-print Network

Indian Monsoon and North Atlantic Oscillation Signals Reflected by Cl and Na- + in a Shallow Ice Atlantic Oscillation. #12; the existence of a teleconnection between the Cl and Na- + concentrations in this shallow ice core and the North

Howat, Ian M.

59

Establishment of reference interval for liver specific biochemical parameters in apparently healthy north Indian population.  

PubMed

Reference intervals (RI) are the most common decision support tool used for interpretation of numerical laboratory reports. The quality of the RI can play as large a role in result interpretation as the quality of the result itself. As such there is hardly any study examining RI for liver specific biochemical parameters in Indian population especially north Indians having drastically different food habits as compared to rest of the India. So there is a need to establish the RI for north Indian population. Present study was conducted on 2,021 apparently healthy individuals of north Indian origin ranging in age from 15-60 years, were selected randomly using defined criteria. Lipemic, hemolysed, icteric and stored samples were also excluded adopting preanalytical criteria for rejection of sample. Non parametric methodology for determination of RI was adopted as most of the biochemical parameters included revealed non Gaussian distribution. Data were analyzed for middle 95 percentile (2.5th-97.5th percentile), median and 95 % confidence interval using SPSS software package version 10.0. The upper and the lower limit of RI (reported Vs observed) for bilirubin (0-1.2 Vs 0.30-1.30 mg/dL), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transferase (SGOT) (0-41 Vs 13-52.80 IU/L), serum glutamate pyruvate transferase (SGPT) (0-50 Vs 10-68 IU/L) showed wide variation as compared to reported standard RI however Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) (0-50 Vs 5.00-50.60 IU/L) remained within the reported standard RI. Further gender wise evaluation revealed higher cutoff in males (AST 14-55, ALT 11-70.35, GGT 6.76-51.09 in IU/L, bilirubin (0.40-1.34 mg/dL) as compared to females (SGOT 13-50.43, SGPT 9-63.43, GGT 3.92-48.70 in IU/L, Bilirubin 0.30-1.20 mg/dL) for both enzymatic and non enzymatic biochemical parameters. The variations may be attributed to dietary pattern smoking and alcoholism. PMID:24381418

Yadav, Dharamveer; Mishra, Sandhya; Gupta, Monika; John, P J; Sharma, Praveen

2013-01-01

60

Overweight and Obesity Among North American Indian Infants, Children, and Youth  

PubMed Central

The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults’ size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan. PMID:22378356

SCHELL, LAWRENCE M.; GALLO, MIA V.

2012-01-01

61

Overweight and obesity among North American Indian infants, children, and youth.  

PubMed

The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults' size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan. PMID:22378356

Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V

2012-01-01

62

Association study of Neuregulin-1 gene polymorphisms in a north Indian schizophrenia sample  

PubMed Central

Background Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene polymorphisms have been proposed as risk factors for several common disorders. Associations with cognitive variation have also been tested. With regard to Schizophrenia (SZ) risk, studies of Caucasian ancestry samples indicate associations more consistently than East Asian samples, suggesting heterogeneity. To exploit the differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure across ethnic groups, we conducted a SZ case-control study (that included cognitive evaluations) in a sample from the north Indian population. Methods NRG1 variants (n= 35 SNPs, three microsatellite markers) were initially analyzed among cases (DSM IV criteria, n = 1007) and controls (n=1019, drawn from two groups) who were drawn from the same geographical region in North India. Nominally significant associations with SZ were next analyzed in relation to neurocognitive measures estimated with a computerized neurocognitive battery in a subset of the sample (n=116 cases, n=170 controls). Results Three variants and one microsatellite showed allelic association with SZ (rs35753505, rs4733263, rs6994992, and microsatellite 420 M9-1395, p ? 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons). A six marker haplotype 221121 (rs35753505-rs6994992-rs1354336-rs10093107-rs3924999-rs11780123) showed (p=0.0004) association after Bonferroni corrections. Regression analyses with the neurocognitive measures showed nominal (uncorrected) associations with emotion processing and attention at rs35753505 and rs6994992, respectively. Conclusions Suggestive associations with SZ and SZ-related neurocognitive measures were detected with two SNPs from the NRG1 promoter region in a north Indian cohort. The functional role of the alleles merits further investigation. PMID:23360725

Kukshal, Prachi; Bhatia, Triptish; Bhagwat, A. M.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Deshpande, Smita N.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Thelma, B. K.

2013-01-01

63

Party politics and the north Indian peasantry: The rise of the Bharatiya Kranti Dal in Uttar Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 20 years politics in the rural areas of north India has been transformed by the emergence of non?Congress parties with strong support among the prosperous strata of the peasantry. Studies of these developments have placed different emphases on the importance of class and caste factors, as well as drawing attention to the existence of blocs of potential

Ian Duncan

1988-01-01

64

Hydrothermal Plume Anomalies Along the Central Indian Ridge Immediately North of the Rodrigues Triple Junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water column turbidity, temperature and salinity were investigated along the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) from 25°19'S to 23°48'S during a December 2005 cruise on board Chinese R/V Dayang 1. Measurements were made using NOAA's MARP (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder) sensors during CTD casts, TV grabber operations, and tow-yo transects, yielding the following results on hydrothermal plume anomalies: (1) Strong hydrothermal plume anomalies were recorded over the previously discovered Kairei Vent (25°19.2'S, 70°02.4'E) and Edmond Vent (23°52.8'S, 69°34.2'E), with the plume anomalies concentrated at depths of 2,170-2,370 m and 2,600-3,200 m, respectively. Sulfide samples were recovered at these vent sites together with video recording of live hydrothermal vent colonies. (2) No visible turbidity anomalies were detected near the Knorr Seamount near 24°30'S during both tow-yo transects and in situ CTD and TV grabber deployments. (3) Significant turbidity anomaly was detected from 24° S to 23°56'S along a ridge segment. The maximum turbidity value was centered at about 24° S at a depth of 2,800 m. This location is close to a water column anomaly site reported by Pluger et al. (1990). (4) A few other new areas with noticeable turbidity anomalies were detected during the six tow-yo transects. The most noticeable anomaly area is near 24°10'S, 69°44'E, where both a tow-yo profile and an in-situ CTD cast showed significant turbidity anomalies within depth ranges of 2,600-3,000 m.

Zhu, J.; Lin, J.; Guo, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhou, B.; R/v Dayang 1, S.; Baker, E. T.

2006-12-01

65

Native Agency and the Making of "The North American Indian": Alexander B. Upshaw and Edward S. Curtis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The twenty volumes of ethnographic text and pictorial photography and the twenty portfolios of large, finely printed photogravures that together comprise "The North American Indian" were the product of an extraordinary labor by Edward S. Curtis, an extensive and shifting team of co-workers, and the participation of hundreds of Native Americans. By…

Zamir, Shamoon

2007-01-01

66

The impact of decadal-scale Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies on Sahelian rainfall and the North Atlantic Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the tropical Indian Ocean show a pronounced warming since the 1950s. We have analyzed the impact of this warming on Sahelian rainfall and on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) by conducting ensemble experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model. Additionally, we investigate the impact of the other two tropical oceans on these two climate

J. Bader; M. Latif

2003-01-01

67

North Indian heavy rainfall event during June 2013: diagnostics and extended range prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian summer monsoon of 2013 covered the entire country by 16 June, one month earlier than its normal date. Around that period, heavy rainfall was experienced in the north Indian state of Uttarakhand, which is situated on the southern slope of Himalayan Ranges. The heavy rainfall and associated landslides caused serious damages and claimed many lives. This study investigates the scientific rationale behind the incidence of the extreme rainfall event in the backdrop of large scale monsoon environment. It is found that a monsoonal low pressure system that provided increased low level convergence and abundant moisture, and a midlatitude westerly trough that generated strong upper level divergence, interacted with each other and helped monsoon to cover the entire country and facilitated the occurrence of the heavy rainfall event in the orographic region. The study also examines the skill of an ensemble prediction system (EPS) in predicting the Uttarakhand event on extended range time scale. The EPS is implemented on both high (T382) and low (T126) resolution versions of the coupled general circulation model CFSv2. Although the models predicted the event 10-12 days in advance, they failed to predict the midlatitude influence on the event. Possible reasons for the same are also discussed. In both resolutions of the model, the event was triggered by the generation and northwestward movement of a low pressure system developed over the Bay of Bengal. The study advocates the usefulness of high resolution models in predicting extreme events.

Joseph, Susmitha; Sahai, A. K.; Sharmila, S.; Abhilash, S.; Borah, N.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Pillai, P. A.; Rajeevan, M.; Kumar, Arun

2014-08-01

68

Evaluation of official tropical cyclone track forecast over north Indian Ocean issued by India Meteorological Department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India Meteorological Department (IMD) introduced the objective tropical cyclone (TC) track forecast valid for next 24 hr over the north Indian Ocean (NIO) in 2003. It further extended the validity period up to 72 hr in 2009. Here an attempt is made to evaluate the TC track forecast issued by IMD during 2003-2011 (9 years) by calculating the direct position error (DPE) and skill in track forecast. The accuracy of TC track forecast has been analysed with respect to basin of formation (Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and NIO as whole), season of formation (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons), intensity of TCs (cyclonic storm and severe cyclonic storm or higher intensities) and type of track of TCs (climatological/straight moving and recurving/looping type). The average DPE is about 140, 262 and 386 km and skill is about 27%, 39% and 50%, respectively for 24, 48 and 72 hr forecasts over the NIO as a whole during 2009-2011. Though the DPE is higher and skill is less as compared to those in northwest Pacific and north Atlantic Ocean, the rate of decrease (increase) in DPE (skill) is higher over the NIO in recent years. The DPE (skill) over the NIO has decreased (increased) at the rate of about 7.3 km (3%) per year during 2003-2011 for 24 hr forecasts.

Mohapatra, M.; Nayak, D. P.; Sharma, R. P.; Bandyopadhyay, B. K.

2013-06-01

69

Dopaminergic gene polymorphisms and cognitive function in a north Indian schizophrenia cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Associations of polymorphisms from dopaminergic neurotransmitter pathway genes have been reported in Caucasian ancestry schizophrenia (SZ) samples. As studies investigating single SNPs with SZ have been inconsistent, more detailed analyses utilizing multiple SNPs with the diagnostic phenotype as well as cognitive function may be more informative. The analyses were conducted in a north Indian sample. Methods Indian SZ case-parent trios (n = 601 families); unscreened controls (n= 468) and an independent set of 118 trio families were analyzed. Representative SNPs in the Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3), dopamine transporter (SLC6A3), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (SLC18A2), catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) were genotyped using SNaPshot/SNPlex assays (n=59 SNPs). The Trail Making Test (TMT) was administered to a subset of the sample (n=260 cases and_n=302 parents). Results Eight SNPs were nominally associated with SZ in either case-control or family based analyses (p<0.05, rs7631540 and rs2046496 in DRD3; rs363399 and rs10082463 in SLC18A2; rs4680, rs4646315 and rs9332377 in COMT). rs6271 at DBH was associated in both analyses. Haplotypes of DRD3 SNPs incorporating rs7631540-rs2134655-rs3773678-rs324030-rs6280-rs905568 showed suggestive associations in both case-parent and trio samples. At SLC18A2, rs10082463 was nominally associated with psychomotor performance and rs363285 with executive functions using the TMT but did not withstand multiple corrections. Conclusions Though suggestive associations with dopaminergic genes were detected in this study, but convincing links between dopaminergic polymorphisms and SZ or cognitive function were not observed. PMID:23932573

Kukshal, Prachi; Chowdari, Kodavali Venkat; Srivastava, Vibhuti; Wood, Joel; McClain, Lora; Bhatia, Triptish; Bhagwat, A. M.; Deshpande, Smita Neelkanth; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit Laxmikant; Thelma, B. K.

2013-01-01

70

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part IIa: The Northern Plains. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part IIa of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes in the Northern Plains (Montana and North Dakota). Documents are presented relative to the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation, the Blackfeet Tribe of the…

Fay, George E., Comp.

71

In a changing climate weakening tropical easterly jet induces more violent tropical storms over the north Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) of summer monsoon over the north Indian ocean is weakening in recent years. The absolute easterly shear shows a strong negative correlation (significant at 99.9% level by students' two sided t-test) with the number of severe storms suggesting that a decrease in easterly shear is favorable for the formation of more severe tropical storms. For the first time in recorded history a category 5 Hurricane formed in June 2007 together with two more severe tropical storms over the north Indian ocean. Thus if the present decreasing trend of TEJ intensity continues there is a strong likelihood of the formation of tropical cyclones of hurricane intensity even during the summer monsoon. Presently these intense systems are known to form only in the pre and post monsoon seasons, when the vertical wind shear is small.

Rao, V. Brahmananda; Ferreira, Camila C.; Franchito, S. H.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.

2008-08-01

72

Telling Stories About Indigeneity and Canadian Sport: The Spectacular Cree & Ojibway Indian Hockey Barnstorming Tour of North America, 1928  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January and February 1928, 14 hockey-playing Natives from northeastern Ontario undertook a celebrated barnstorming tour of 17 cities and towns in the United States and Canada. Traveling by charter bus, the “Cree & Ojibway Indian Hockey Tour” was a well-promoted and cleverly-planned road trip that began in North Bay and swung through southwestern Ontario before it reached its real

Andrew C. Holman

2009-01-01

73

Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the Western North Pacific-East Asian Monsoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of 50-yr NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data reveal remarkably different interannual variability between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) in their temporal-spatial structures, relationships to El Niño, and teleconnections with midlatitude circulations. Thus, two circulation indices are necessary, which measure the variability of the ISM and WNPSM, respectively. A weak WNPSM features suppressed convection along

Bin Wang; Renguang Wu; K.-M. Lau

2001-01-01

74

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of proterozoic mafic dykes in north Kerala, southwestern Indian Shield - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mafic dyke intrusions occur in three distinct orientations ( NNW-SSE and NW-SE and NE-SW) in north Kerala regions, the southwestern part of the Indian Shield. Dating of two NNW-SSE trending dykes by K-Ar method has yielded Middle Proterozoic ages (ca. 1660 Ma and ca. 1420 Ma respectively). Our initial geochemical results on these dyke rocks (0.65-0.15 wt pct K2O, 0.37-0.38 wt pct P2O5, 3.30-1.00 wt pct TiO2, 11-1 p.p.m. Rb, 250-90 p.p.m. Sr, 230-40 p.p.m. Ba, 160-40 p.p.m. Zr, and 30-10 x chondrite rare earth elemental abundances) indicate a transitional character between abyssal and plateau tholeiites. Petrogenetic modelling suggests that the dyke compositions have been derived by different degrees of partial melting of a heterogenous source mantle. The mantle sources with accessory amphibole and/or garnet, variably enriched in LREE and LIL elements, are compatible with the observed geochemical data.

Radhakrishna, T.; Gopakumar, K.; Murali, A. V.; Mitchell, J. G.

1991-01-01

75

Prevalence of impacted and supernumerary teeth in the North Indian population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Dental impaction is a very frequent problem. Supernumerary teeth, or hyperdontia, are the presence of additional teeth to the normal series in the either of the dentition. The presence of impacted and/or supernumerary teeth can cause various complications. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of impacted and supernumerary teeth in the North Indian population. Study Design: The panoramic radiographic records of 4750 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 were examined for this retrospective study. The ages of the patients ranged from 8 to 72 years, with a mean of 34.6 years. Results: A total of 798 (16.8%) patients presented with 1126 impacted teeth. Impacted canines were the most prevalent (9.7%), followed by impacted premolars (4.3%). Supernumerary teeth (1.6%) and impacted molars (1.2%) were less prevalent. Among the 842 impacted teeth, the most frequently affected teeth were the canines (56.7%), followed by premolars (27.8%), and supernumerary teeth (9.3%), while the prevalence of impacted molars was quite lower (6.2%). Conclusion: The most frequently impacted teeth were maxillary canines and the mesiodens were the most common supernumerary tooth. The early diagnosis of supernumerary and impacted teeth is essential to prevent malocclusion and malalignment of permanent teeth demonstrating the importance of panoramic radiographs in their detection. Key words:Impacted, supernumerary, prevalence, canines, mesiodens. PMID:24790709

Maheshwari, Sneha

2014-01-01

76

Oscillatory Climate Modes in the Indian Monsoon, North Atlantic and Tropical Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we concentrate on potential teleconnections among the Indian monsoon, Tropical Pacific Ocean, and the North Atlantic. Most teleconnection studies so far were based on correlations between climatic time series from the regions of interest; often the correlations found in this way were no larger in absolute magnitude than 0.6, and they did not clarify in which frequency band the teleconnection under investigation was most active. To explore in greater depth the commonalities between the well-documented records of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and the Indian monsoon rain records we adopt here the viewpoint of synchronization between chaotic oscillators. Our synchronization analysis is based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and it is partly described in (Feliks 2010). It differs from that of previous studies that relied on SSA and on multichannel SSA (M-SSA) inasmuch as we rely upon the recently proposed varimax rotation of M-SSA eigenvectors (Groth & Ghil 2011) in order to improve the separation of oscillations and the identification of synchronized oscillators. With no need for any a priori phase definition for each of the subsystems, M-SSA is able to automatically identify multiple oscillatory modes and detect whether these modes are shared by phase- and frequency-locked oscillators; even if the oscillatory behavior is getting swamped by the observational noise. Given the presence of high stochasticity in the system's dynamics, we raise in particular the question of a reasonable spectral resolution as well as the robustness and reliability of M-SSA results with respect to parameter changes. In this study we show that interannual oscillatory modes exist in all the climatic records at hand, with statistically significant oscillatory modes having periods of 2.2-2.7 yr, 3.2-3.6 yr, 5 yr and 6-8 yr. Such a clustering of periodicities raises the possibility of teleconnection between these regions. A key result is that the 7-8-yr and 2.7-yr oscillatory modes in all three regions are strongly synchronized, and the energy ratio analysis suggests that the NAO induces these modes in the other two regions. Both these modes in the NAO appear to be connected to intrinsic modes of variability of the Gulf Stream front. In agreement with some recent studies, it was found here that the South Asian monsoon is not slaved to forcing from the equatorial Pacific, although it does interact strongly with it. The energy-ratio analysis pinpointed this to be the case in particular for the quasi-biennial oscillatory modes. Feliks, Ghil, and Robertson (2010), Oscillatory climate modes in the Eastern Mediterranean and their synchronization with the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 23 (15), 4060-4079. Groth and Ghil (2011), Multivariate singular spectrum analysis and the road to phase synchronization. Phys. Rev. E, 84, 036206

Groth, Andreas; Ghil, Michael; Feliks, Yizhak; Robertson, Andrew

2013-04-01

77

Early Pliocene closing of the Indonesian Seaway: evidence from north-east Indian Ocean and Tropical Pacific deep sea cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep sea cores from sites 214 and 758 A (Ninetyeast Ridge, north-east Indian Ocean), 761 B (Wombat Plateau, north-east Indian Ocean) and 586 B (Ontong Java Plateau, Tropical Pacific) are ideally located for comparison of late Neogene planktic foraminiferal biogeography and paleoceanographic records of tropical Indian and Pacific oceans to infer the timing of closing of the Indonesian Seaway. A consistent stratigraphy was developed between sites 214 and 586 B using graphic correlation and was integrated with the paleomagnetic time scale of Berggren et al. (1985) to provide an accurate chronology to compare interocean stratigraphic ranges of late Neogene planktic foraminifera. Tropical planktic foraminifera occur throughout each sequence at all sites. At each site the Miocene-Pliocene boundary is defined by the first appearance of Globorotalia tumida (5.2 Ma), the early/late Pliocene boundary by the first appearance of Globigerinoides fistulosus (3.2 Ma) and the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary by the last appearance of G. fistulosus (1.6 Ma). Neogene planktic foraminiferal assemblages at sites 214, 758A, 761 B and 586B are generally similar until the beginning of the Pliocene (5.2 Ma) when the faunal record indicates divergence. A notable difference is complete absence of early Pliocene taxon Pulleniatina spectabilis from all the Indian Ocean sites. This difference suggests that the Indonesian Seaway became an effective biogeographic barrier to planktic foraminifera at the beginning of the Pliocene. However, there is still exchange of surface waters through this Seaway. Earlier studies suggested a Middle to Late Miocene occurrence for this biogeographic barrier. P. spectabilis evolved from P. primalis in the equatorial Pacific at about 5.2 Ma. It is a short-ranging early Pliocene species spanning about 1.3 my and occurred only in Pacific, unlike earlier suggestions of a broader distribution into the Indian Ocean.

Srinivasan, M. S.; Sinha, D. K.

1998-04-01

78

Three Dimensional Aerosol Climatology over India and the North Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical models are indispensable tools to study aerosol effects on climate, including both aerosol direct and indirect radiative effects and their role in precipitation. But, agreement among the models has not been achieved, and thus it is not possible to accurately and confidently attain estimates of aerosol effects on climate. The lack of reliable knowledge on global three-dimensional (3D) aerosol climatology has prevented us from assessing the degree to which the disagreement in their aerosol climatic effects may come from differences of aerosol vertical structures in their simulations. To that end, we created a six year, global 3D extinction coefficient dataset for each aerosol species identifiable by the Level 2, Version 3, 5 km Aerosol Profile product from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) as a tool to improve 3D model representations. Here we describe the 3D structure of aerosol in the Middle East, India, and the Northern Indian Ocean and some of the interesting dynamical features responsible for the vertical structure and external mixing of aerosol species. One interesting feature in the 3D structure during boreal summer is a well-defined EC core located 0 - 10°N, 40°E - 90°E (Somalia across the Indian subcontinent), centered at 3 km. This is controlled by a shallow meridional circulation about the core. Additionally, the Somali Low-Level Jet exists at this location, but is usually located below the core (~850 mb). Another interesting feature is a strong EC core located 0 - 15°N, 60°E - 90°E below 0.5 km. Polluted dust (external mixture of dust and smoke) and marine aerosol are collocated in this area with maximum AODs of ~0.5 and ~0.2 respectively. Due to the wind stress over ocean, collocation of aerosol species, altitude, and lack of transport pathway for polluted dust, it is possible that this is an example of aerosol misclassification by the CALIPSO algorithm, probably misclassifying marine aerosol as polluted dust. The origin of much of the polluted dust, the most prominent aerosol species in the region, is the mixing of dust and smoke from Africa. Low-level southerly winds south of 10°N transport smoke northward while northerly winds north of 10°N transport dust southward and upward due to orographic lifting. At their area of convergence, zonal wind transports the now elevated polluted dust eastward toward the Indian subcontinent. Subsidence and monsoon circulation reversal during boreal winter and fall limit vertical and horizontal aerosol transport from the India, particularly in the highly populated and always polluted Indo¬-Gangetic Plain. Polluted dust, polluted continental (non-elevated smoke), and smoke aerosols are confined near the surface and located over high population density areas and known biomass burning locations. Himalayan topography is an obvious barrier for the northward extent of aerosol. However, it also acts to create a meridional circulation limiting the southward extent of aerosol. Although transport pathways and the spatial structure of aerosol are well documented in the 2D sense, understanding the mechanisms controlling the vertical structure in concert with observation of the structure will be a valuable tool in reducing the uncertainty of aerosol effects in model simulations.

Adams, A.; Zhang, C.

2013-12-01

79

Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic

Andreas Schmittner; Eric D. Galbraith; Steven W. Hostetler; Thomas F. Pedersen; Rong Zhang

2007-01-01

80

A study of sex differences in fingerprint ridge density in a North Indian young adult population.  

PubMed

Fingerprints have considerable value in morphological, biological, anthropological and forensic studies. Fingerprints collected from the crime scene and from the items of evidence of crime have been successfully used to identify suspects, victims or any other person who had touched the surface in question. The thickness of epidermal ridges varies between individuals; females are supposed to have finer ridges than males and therefore a greater ridge density. The present research is an attempt to distinguish sex from fingerprint ridge density in the radial, ulnar and lower areas of a fingerprint in a North Indian population. A total of 194 individuals (97 males and 97 females) aged between 18 and 25 years were included in the study and fingerprints were collected from each finger of the participants. Thus, a total of 1940 fingerprints were obtained and epidermal ridges were counted in the radial, ulnar, and lower areas of each fingerprint. The radial and ulnar areas are the 5 mm × 5 mm areas on the radial and ulnar side of the central core respectively while the lower area is designated as 5 mm × 5 mm area adjoining the flexion crease of the terminal phalanx on a fingerprint. The fingerprint ridge density in radial, ulnar and lower areas and between sexes was compared statistically using t-test. The results indicate that the females tend to have a significantly higher ridge density than males in the three areas analyzed in the study. The fingerprint ridge density in the ulnar and radial areas of the fingerprints is significantly higher than the lower area. The present study suggests that the fingerprint ridge density can be a relevant and useful morphological parameter in distinguishing sex of a latent fingerprint of unknown origin from the scene of crime. The findings can also be useful in identification of mutilated remains when a dismembered hand is brought for medico-legal examination. PMID:23622462

Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Ngangom, Chitrabala

2013-05-01

81

Study of sense of coherence health promoting behavior in north Indian students  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: With advances in knowledge about health promotion, public health professionals are in search for the determinants of personal health behaviours. This study was carried out to explore the level of engagement of north Indian students in health promoting behaviours; to determine their sense of coherence scores; and to ascertain the determinants of health promoting behaviours of these students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in four randomly selected colleges of Chandigarh during 2007-2008 in 200 students (100 male, 100 female). Their health promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP) and sense of coherence (SOC) scores were estimated using interviews. The data were analyzed using Pearson's product moment correlation, and also stepwise linear regression analysis. Results: Mean HPLP and SOC scores of the students were 138.69 and 130.87, respectively. Females cared more about their health than males. Male students were more involved in physical activities. There was a linear correlation between the total SOC and HPLP scores (r=0.3). Female students (63%) consulted doctors more than males (50%) and washed their hands more regularly (P<0.05). Only 13 per cent students practiced yoga regularly. Female students had more meaningful relationships with friends and had more faith in God. Regression equation revealed that the two independent variables (SOC and age) accounted for 10.8 per cent of the variance in HPLP. Interpretation & conclusion: Students with higher SOC scores had higher HPLP scores. Female students were more health conscious than male students. In general, college students in Chandigarh had a good health promoting lifestyle and good sense of coherence. PMID:22199103

Suraj, Senjam; Singh, Amarjeet

2011-01-01

82

NESTROFT - A Valuable, Cost Effective Screening Test for Beta Thalassemia Trait in North Indian Punjabi Population  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Beta-thalassemia continues to be a cause of significant burden to the society, particularly in the poorer developing countries. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of “NESTROFT” (Naked Eye Single Tube Red Cell Osmotic Fragility Test) as a useful screening tool in the diagnosis of beta thalassemia trait. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 150 subjects in the department of haematology in a tertiary health care center in north Indian state of Punjab. In group I, 111 cases diagnosed as microcytic hypochromic anaemia were selected. In group II, 39 individuals (the family members of known cases of beta thalassemia major) were selected. Complete haemogram, NESTROFT and HbA2 levels by electrophoresis were done and the results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Of the 111 cases in group I, 20 (18%) gave positive results with NESTROFT while 91 cases (82%) tested negative. In group II, out of 39 cases, 30 (76.92%) tested positive with NESTROFT while 9 gave a negative result. In group I, out of 20 NESTROFT positive cases, only 3 had HbA2 levels more than 3.5%. In group II, all the 30 NESTROFT positive cases had HbA2 levels more than 3.5%. The test showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 85.47%, a positive predictive value of 66% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: Thus, NESTROFT is a valuable, cost-effective screening test for beta thalassemia trait and appears to be a valid test in rural setting with financial constraints. PMID:24551637

Piplani, Sanjay; Manan, Rahul; Lalit, Monika; Manjari, Mridu; Bhasin, Tajinder; Bawa, Jasmine

2013-01-01

83

Association of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism with BMD and Homocysteine in Premenopausal North Indian Women  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Osteoporosis (OP) is a common nutrigenomic disease associated with various genetic components. Observational studies have indicated that mildly elevated homocysteine was a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Yet there is no clear biologic mechanism for an effect of homocysteine on bone.The aim of this study was to investigate the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, and to verify the association of these polymorphisms with bone mineral density and homocysteine in premenopausal women of northern India. Material and Methods: We included 402 north Indian patients with altered BMD, both Osteopenic (OPN) and Osteoporosis, and normal controls. Genotype identification for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method, correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Homocysteine (Hcy), Folate and Vitamin B12. Results: The study groups did not differ in terms of age, weight and body mass indices. Prevalence of Genotype frequencies (GFs) for MTHFRC677T OP were (n: 402): CC 361 (89.8%), CT 25 (6.22%), TT 16 (3.98%) and that for MTHFR A1298C were (n: 402) AA 353(87.81%), AC 29(7.21%), CC 20(4.98%). Folate was significantly lower in the OP group than those in both the other groups, while there was no significant difference in Hcy in the OP group relative to OPN, as compared to controls. Conclusion: The GFs for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were not different between both groups. In conclusion, polymorphism of the MTHFR 677T is associated with small differences in BMD with folate levels. Further, more investigations should be done in larger studies for other epigenetic pathways, that may increase the risk of Osteoporosis. PMID:24551672

Pandey, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Ankur; Polipalli, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Sangeeta; Kapoor, Seema

2013-01-01

84

Assessment of Health-Promoting Behavior and Lifestyle of Adolescents of a North Indian City  

PubMed Central

Background: Several health-compromising behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol) as well as health-enhancing behaviors (e.g., physical exercise, nutrition) are adopted in adolescence and they often persist into adulthood. Thus, there is a definite need to investigate the health behavior of adolescents rather than focus on adults since it will be far more difficult for adults to change their unhealthy habits adopted in their youth. Therefore, the present study was conducted to ascertain health-promoting behavior and lifestyle of university graduates of Chandigarh. Methods: The present cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in Chandigarh during 2009 among university graduates of Chandigarh aged 17-20 years. A semi-structured, pretested questionnaire comprising of 28 items was used to get information from students regarding their involvement in diet, physical exercise, spirituality and philanthropy. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference of the respondents were measured using standardized equipments and procedures. Results: Mean score of health-promoting lifestyle profile of university graduates was found to be 67.5 ± 12.1 (maximum attainable score = 106). Fourteen students were found to be overweight. Frequent intake of fast food and less consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by the students. Majority of students exercised as part of their daily routine. Conclusions: The result of the study showed that North Indian students had reasonably good orientations toward health behaviors, with a mean score of 67.5. The topics related to diet, physical exercise, spiritual growth and philanthropy promotion should be incorporated within the curriculum of students for their all round personality development. PMID:24319559

Raj, Sonika; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Singh, Amarjeet

2013-01-01

85

Changes in erosion and ocean circulation recorded in the Hf isotopic compositions of North Atlantic and Indian Ocean ferromanganese crusts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution Hf isotopic records are presented for hydrogenetic Fe–Mn crusts from the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans. BM1969 from the western North Atlantic has previously been shown to record systematically decreasing Nd isotopic compositions from about 60 to ?4 Ma, at which time both show a rapid decrease to unradiogenic Nd composition, thought to be related to the increasing influence of NADW or glaciation in the northern hemisphere. During the Oligocene, North Atlantic Hf became progressively less radiogenic until in the mid-Miocene (?15 Ma) it reached +1. It then shifted gradually back to an ?Hf value of +3 at 4 Ma, since when it has decreased rapidly to about ?1 at the present day. The observed shifts in the Hf isotopic composition were probably caused by variation in intensity of erosion as glaciation progressed in the northern hemisphere. Ferromanganese crusts SS663 and 109D are from about 5500 m depth in the Indian Ocean and are now separated by ?2300 km across the Mid-Indian Ridge. They display similar trends in Hf isotopic composition from 20 to 5 Ma, with the more northern crust having a composition that is consistently more radiogenic (by ?2 ?Hf units). Paradoxically, during the last 20 Ma the Hf isotopic compositions of the two crusts have converged despite increased separation and subsidence relative to the ridge. A correlatable negative excursion at ?5 Ma in the two records may reflect a short-term increase in erosion caused by the activation of the Himalayan main central thrust. Changes to unradiogenic Hf in the central Indian Ocean after 5 Ma may alternatively have been caused by the expanding influence of NADW into the Mid-Indian Basin via circum-Antarctic deep water or a reduction of Pacific flow through the Indonesian gateway. In either case, these results illustrate the utility of the Hf isotope system as a tracer of paleoceanographic changes, capable of responding to subtle changes in erosional regime not readily resolved using other isotope systems.

Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, John N.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.; Hein, James R.; Günther, Detlef

2000-01-01

86

MTHFR C677T Predisposes to POAG but Not to PACG in a North Indian Population: A Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by the C677T genetic variant in MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) has been implicated in neuronal cell death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), which is a characteristic feature of glaucoma. However, association of MTHFR C677T with glaucoma has been controversial because of inconsistent results across association studies. Association between MTHFR C677T and glaucoma has not been reported in Indian population. Therefore, with a focus on neurodegenerative death of RGC in glaucoma, the current study aimed to investigate association of MTHFR C677T with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) in a North Indian population. A total of 404 participants (231 patients and 173 controls) were included in this study. Genotyping was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. A few random samples were also tested by direct sequencing. Genotypic and allelic distributions of the POAG and PACG cohorts were compared to that of controls by chi-square test and odds ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals. Genotypic and allelic distributions between POAG cases and controls were significantly different (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01 respectively). Unlike POAG, we did not find significant difference in the genotypic and allelic distributions of C677T between PACG cases and controls (p>0.05). We also observed a higher proportion of TT associated POAG in females than that in males. However, this is a preliminary indication of gender specific risk of C677T that needs to be replicated in a larger cohort of males and females. The present investigation on MTHFR C677T and glaucoma reveals that the TT genotype and T allele of this polymorphism are significant risk factors for POAG but not for PACG in North Indian population. Ours is the first report demonstrating association of MTHFR C677T with POAG but not PACG in individuals from North India. PMID:25054348

Gupta, Shashank; Bhaskar, Pradeep Kumar; Bhardwaj, Ritu; Chandra, Abhishek; Chaudhry, Vidya Nair; Chaudhry, Prashaant; Ali, Akhtar; Mukherjee, Ashim; Mutsuddi, Mousumi

2014-01-01

87

The assessment of developmental status using the Ages and Stages questionnaire-3 in nutritional research in north Indian young children  

PubMed Central

Objective and background For large epidemiological studies in low and middle-income countries, inexpensive and easily administered developmental assessment tools are called for. This report evaluates the feasibility of the assessment tool Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3.edition (ASQ-3) “home procedure” in a field trial in 422 North Indian young children. Methods ASQ-3 was translated and adjusted for a North Indian Hindi setting. Three examiners were trained by a clinical psychologist to perform the assessments. During the main study, ten % of the assessments were done by two examiners to estimate inter-observer agreement. During all sessions, the examiners recorded whether the scoring was based on observation of the skill during the session, or on caregiver’s report of the child’s skill. Intra class correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the agreement between the raters and between the raters and a gold standard. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and standardized alphas were calculated to measure internal consistency. Principal findings Inter-observer agreement was strong both during training exercises and during the main study. In the Motor subscales and the Problem Solving subscale most items could be observed during the session. The standardized alphas for the total ASQ-3 scale across all ages were strong, while the alpha values for the different subscales and age levels varied. The correlations between the total score and the subscale scores were consistently strong, while the correlations between subscale scores were moderate. Conclusions/significance We found that the translated and adjusted ASQ-3 “home procedure” was a feasible procedure for the collection of reliable data on the developmental status in infants and young children. Examiners were effectively trained over a short period of time, and the total ASQ scores showed adequate variability. However, further adjustments are needed to obtain satisfying alpha values in all subscales, and to ensure variability in all items when transferred to a North Indian cultural context. PMID:23617745

2013-01-01

88

Role of 677C?T polymorphism a single substitution in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in North Indian infertile men.  

PubMed

Failure or severe difficulty in conceiving a child is surprisingly common, worldwide problem. Half of these cases are due to male factors with defects in sperm (1 in 15 men) being the single most common cause. Also about 60-75 % of male infertility cases are idiopathic, since the molecular mechanisms underlying the defects remain unknown. DNA methylation is crucial for spermatogenesis and high methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity in adult testis than other organs in mouse, signifies its critical role in spermatogenesis. According to recent findings there is a correlation of epigenetic regulation of several imprinted genes with disturbed spermatogenesis and fertility. Consequently any change in the MTHFR gene sequence can modify the spermatogenesis including transmission of infertility to the carriers. The aim of the study is to analyze the distribution of the single nucleotide polymorphism C677T in the MTHFR gene in 637 North Indian infertile patients and 364 fertile North Indian men as controls by using PCR-RFLP technique and Chi Square test for statistical analysis. The average MTHFR 677CC, 677CT, 677TT genotype frequencies of total infertile men were 70.17, 24.17, 5.65 % in infertile men and 75.27, 21.7, 2.74 % in controls, respectively. The average frequency of the MTHFR 677T allele was 17.73 % in infertile men as compared to 13.59 % in controls. The statistical difference was significant. Disease risk was found 2.27-folds increased in patients who were carrying T allele. We found an association of C677T polymorphism with male infertility and that it may be a genetic risk factor for male infertility in North Indian population. PMID:24366618

Naqvi, Hena; Hussain, Syed Rizwan; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Farzana; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narayain; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

2014-02-01

89

Urinary casts  

MedlinePLUS

... casts; Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood cell casts ... dehydration, exercise, or (water pills) diuretic medicines. Red blood cell casts are a sign of bleeding into ...

90

Clinical experience with exenatide in obese North Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective: To share our clinical experience with exenatide in obese North Indian subjects with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: We share our experience with use of exenatide in 74 patients treated at Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India Subjects included obese / overweight subjects (mean weight and BMI; 97.67 ± 5.6 kg and 34.56 kg/m2) with known history of type 2 DM (Mean: 9 ± 5.6 years) and maintaining suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c >7%) on oral antidiabetic agents, with or without basal insulin. Metformin and sulphonylureas were continued (with dose adjustment if indicated), as was basal insulin (glargine / detemir). TZDs and DPP4 inhibitors were discontinued. The dose of exenatide was increased to 10 mcg twice a day after 4-12 weeks. 56 patients completed minimum 3 month therapy. 42 patients completed 6 months, 32, 9 months and 25 completed 12 months. Data of patients who had completed at-least 3 months of therapy was included for analysis. Results and Discussion: 69.77, 67.44, and 13.95% of the patients were receiving metformin, secretagogues or thiazolidinediones alone or in combination; 17.76% of the patients were on basal insulin. The change in fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels were significant at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months with p-value <0.05. The mean weight loss at one, three, and six months and one year was 1.7 ± 1.3, 3.8 ± 2.5, 6.3 ± 3.4, and 8.3 ± 4.3 kg, respectively (P <0.05). The mean HbA1c (baseline: 8.8 ± 1.3%) at 3, 6 months and at one year was 7.8 ± 0.9, 7.7 ± 0.8 and 7.2 ± 0.8 (P <0.05). Thirty-five percent of the patients had a ‘good’ A1c value (< 7%) at the end of 12 months. 13 patients discontinued exenatide (three due to lack of response, six due to cost of therapy and four due to severe nausea). Nausea was the most common side effect, occurring in 95% patients within 1 month, although the incidence declined with passage of time. Conclusions: Clinical use of Exenatide is associated with significant improvement in glycemic control and major weight loss (8.3±4.3 kg at 1 year) in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Nausea is the most common side effect. In conclusion, exenatide is a effective and useful option for treatment of type 2 diabetes in obese Indian subjects. PMID:23776858

Bawa, Tarunika; Dhingra, Vibha; Malhotra, Nidhi; Wasir, Jasjeet S.; Mithal, Ambrish

2013-01-01

91

Relook at lipoprotein (A): Independent risk factor of coronary artery disease in North Indian population  

PubMed Central

Aims Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels have shown wide ethnic variations. Sparse data on mean Lp(a) levels, its link with clinical variables and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in North Indian population needed further studies. Methods 150 patients, each of single vessel disease (SVD), double vessel disease (DVD) and triple vessel disease (TVD) with 150 healthy controls were drawn for the study. Serum Lp(a) estimation was performed by immunoturbidimetric method. Results Lp(a) had a skewed distribution. Median Lp(a) level was significantly raised in cases as compared to controls (median 30.30 vs. 20 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Cases with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, 55.8%) had significantly higher median Lp(a) levels as compared to those with chronic stable angina (35.4 mg/dl vs. 23 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Significant difference in median Lp(a) levels were observed in patients with DVD or TVD versus control (30, 39.05 vs 20 mg/dl, p < 0.008). Lp(a) level was found to be an independent risk factor for CAD (AOR{adjusted odds ratio} 1.018, 95% CI 1.010–1.027; p < 0.001). Analysis using Lp(a) as categorical variable showed that progressive increase in Lp(a) concentration was associated with increased risk of CAD [AOR from lowest to highest quartile (1, 1.04, 1.43 and 2.65, p value for trend = 0.00026)]. Multivariably AOR of CAD for subjects with Lp(a) in the highest quartile (above 40 mg/dl) compared to those with Lp(a) ?40 mg/dl was 2.308 (95% CI 1.465–3.636, p < 0.001). Conclusion Lp(a) above 40 mg/dl (corresponding to 75th percentile)assessed by an isoform insensitive assay is an independent risk factor for CAD. Raised Lp(a) level is also associated with increased risk of ACS and multivessel CAD. PMID:24973831

Yusuf, Jamal; Yadav, Neeraj; Mukhopadhyay, Saibal; Goyal, Abhishek; Mehta, Vimal; Trehan, Vijay; Tyagi, Sanjay

2014-01-01

92

A study on atmospheric and oceanic processes in the north Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on oceanic and atmospheric processes in the Indian Ocean are an active and important area of scientific research. Understanding how intraseasonal and interannual variations impact both the ocean and atmosphere will aid in delineating potential feedback mechanisms and global teleconnections. Thanks to recent efforts focused on expanding observational capabilities and developing models for this region, researchers have been able to begin investigating atmospheric and oceanic processes in the Indian Ocean. This study focuses on the impact of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on tropical cyclone activity over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and on developing a method for estimating the barrier layer thickness (BLT) in the Indian Ocean from satellite observations. National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-2) and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis data are used to investigate the alterations in atmospheric and oceanic conditions that impact tropical cyclones during ENSO events over a 33-year time frame (1979-2011). Atmospheric conditions are shown to be more favorable for tropical cyclone development during La Nina over the BoB due to the favorable alteration of large-scale wind, moisture, and vorticity distributions. By combining multiple satellite observations, including the recently launched Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius SAC-D salinity missions, BLT estimates for the Indian Ocean are generated with the use of a multilinear regression model (MRM). The performance of the MRM is evaluated for the Southeast Arabian Sea (SEAS), Bay of Bengal (BoB), and Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean (EEIO) where barrier layer formation is most rigorous. Results from the MRM suggest that salinity measurements obtained from Aquarius and SMOS can be useful for tracking and predicting the BLT in the Indian Ocean.

Felton, Clifford S.

93

Casting Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

Wright, Michael D.; And Others

1992-01-01

94

The north-northwest aftershock pattern of the June 28, 1992 Landers earthquake and the probability of large earthquakes in Indian Wells Valley  

SciTech Connect

Immediately following the June 28, 1992 Landers earthquake, a strong north-northwest pattern of aftershocks and triggered earthquakes developed. The most intense pattern developed between the north end of primary rupture on the Emerson fault and southern Owens Valley. The trend of seismicity cuts through the east-west trending Garlock fault at a high angle. The Garlock fault has no apparent affect on the trend or pattern. Within the aftershock zone, south of the Garlock fault, the Calico and Blackwater faults provide the most likely pathway for the Mojave shear zone into Indian Wells and Owens Valleys. In Indian Wells Valley the seismically active Little Lake fault aligns well with the Blackwater fault to the south and the southern Owens Valley fault zone to the north. Several recent research papers suggest that Optimum Coulomb failure stress changes caused by the Landers earthquake have enhanced the probability of earthquakes within the north-northwest trending aftershock zone. This increase has greater significance when the presumed Optimum Coulomb failure stress changes caused by the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake and its affects on Indian Wells Valley are considered. Indian Wells Valley and the Coso Volcanic field may have received two significant stress increases from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the last 120 years. If these two earthquakes increased the shear stress of aults in the Indian Wells/Coso areas, the most likely site for the next large earthquake within the Mojave shear zone may be there. The rate of seismicity within Indian Wells Valley had increased since 1980 including a magnitude 5.0 earthquake in 1982.

Roquemore, G.R. (Irvine Valley College, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Simila, G.A. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1993-04-01

95

The Indian Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

Strong, Augusta

1969-01-01

96

Estimation of mean sea surfaces in the north Atlantic, the Pacific and the Indian Ocean using GEOS-3 altimeter data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mean surfaces of several regions of the world's oceans were estimated using GEOS-3 altimeter data. The northwest Atlantic, the northeast Pacific off the coast of California, the Indian Ocean, the southwest Pacific, and the Phillipine Sea are included. These surfaces have been oriented with respect to a common earth center-of-mass system by constraining the separate solutions to conform to precisely determined laser reference control orbits. The same reference orbits were used for all regions assuring continuity of the separate solutions. Radial accuracies of the control orbits were in the order of one meter. The altimeter measured sea surface height crossover differences were minimized by the adjustment of tilt and bias parameters for each pass with the exception of laser reference control passes. The tilt and bias adjustments removed long wavelength errors which were primarily due to orbit error. Ocean tides were evaluated. The resolution of the estimated sea surfaces varied from 0.25 degrees off the east coast of the United States to about 2 degrees in part of the Indian Ocean near Australia. The rms crossover discrepancy after adjustment varied from 30 cm to 70 cm depending upon geographic location. Comparisons of the altimeter derived mean sea surface in the North Atlantic with the 5 feet x 5 feet GEM-8 detailed gravimetric geoid indicated a relative consistency of better than a meter.

Marsh, J. G.; Martin, T. V.; Mccarthy, J. J.; Chovitz, P. S.

1979-01-01

97

Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Results Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. Conclusion The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was reflected among the southern populations, distinguishing them from the northern groups. Our study also indicates a heterogeneous origin for Lyngayat and Iyengar owing to their genetic proximity with southern populations and northern Brahmins. The high-ranking communities, in particular, Iyengar, Lyngayat, Vanniyar and northern Brahmins might have experienced genetic admixture from East Asian and European ethnic groups. PMID:15317657

Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, VK

2004-01-01

98

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

99

Therapeutic Dosing of Acenocoumarol: Proposal of a Population Specific Pharmacogenetic Dosing Algorithm and Its Validation in North Indians  

PubMed Central

Objectives To develop a population specific pharmacogenetic acenocoumarol dosing algorithm for north Indian patients and show its efficiency in dosage prediction. Methods Multiple and linear stepwise regression analyses were used to include age, sex, height, weight, body surface area, smoking status, VKORC1 -1639 G>A, CYP4F2 1347 G>A, CYP2C9*2,*3 and GGCX 12970 C>G polymorphisms as variables to generate dosing algorithms. The new dosing models were compared with already reported algorithms and also with the clinical data for various performance measures. Odds ratios for association of genotypes with drug sensitive and resistant groups were calculated. Results The pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm generated by multiple regression analysis explains 41.4% (p-value <0.001) of dosage variation. Validation of the new algorithm showed its predictive ability to be better than the already established algorithms based on similar variables. Its validity in our population is reflected by increased sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and decreased rates of over- and under- estimation in comparison to clinical data. The VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism was found to be strongly associated with acenocoumarol sensitivity according to recessive model. Conclusions We have proposed an efficient north India specific pharmacogenetic acenocoumarol dosing algorithm which might become a baseline for personalised medicine approach for treatment of patients in future. PMID:22629463

Rathore, Saurabh Singh; Agarwal, Surendra Kumar; Pande, Shantanu; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Mittal, Tulika; Mittal, Balraj

2012-01-01

100

Gender variation in morphological patterns of lip prints among some north Indian populations  

PubMed Central

Background: Personal identification is an integral part of forensic investigations. For the same, DNA profiling and fingerprints are the most commonly used tools. But these evidences are not ubiquitous and may not necessarily be obtained from the crime scene. In such a scenario, other physical and trace evidences play a pivotal role and subsequently the branches employed are forensic osteology, odontology, biometrics, etc. A relatively recent field in the branch of forensic odontology is cheiloscopy or the study of lip prints. A comparison of lip prints from the crime scene and those obtained from the suspects may be useful in the identification or narrowing down the investigation. Aim: The purpose of the present study is to determine the gender and population variability in the morphological patterns of lip prints among brahmins, Jats, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana, India. Settings and Design: Samples were collected from Jats, brahmins, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana. The total sample size consisted of 1399 individuals including 781 males and 618 females in the age group of 8–60 years. Care was taken not to collect samples from genetically related individuals. The technique was standardized by recording lip prints of 20 persons and analyzing them. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were collected by using a corporate's invisible tape and analyzed using a hand lens. The patterns were studied along the entire length and breadth of both the upper and the lower lip. The data were analyzed by SPSS statistical package version 17 to determine the frequencies and percentages of occurrence of the pattern types in each population group and a comparison between males and females among the groups was carried out by using the z test. Results and Conclusions: The z-test comparison between patterns of males and females shows significant differences with respect to pattern types I’, II, III, and IV among brahmins; I’, II, III, IV, and Y among Jats; and I, I’, II, III, and V among scheduled castes. Thus, it can be concluded that the variability of the lip print pattern can help sex differentiation among groups and that more studies on the lip print pattern should be carried out to bring new dimensions to forensic anthropology and to aid the law enforcement agencies. PMID:23087577

Vats, Yogesh; Dhall, Jasmine Kaur; Kapoor, AK

2012-01-01

101

Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the Western North Pacific-East Asian Monsoons(.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of 50-yr NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data reveal remarkably different interannual variability between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) in their temporal-spatial structures, relationships to El Niño, and teleconnections with midlatitude circulations. Thus, two circulation indices are necessary, which measure the variability of the ISM and WNPSM, respectively. A weak WNPSM features suppressed convection along 10°-20°N and enhanced rainfall along the mei-yu/baiu front. So the WNPSM index also provides a measure for the east Asian summer monsoon. An anomalous WNPSM exhibits a prominent meridional coupling among the Australian high, cross-equatorial flows, WNP monsoon trough, WNP subtropical high, east Asian subtropical front, and Okhotsk high. The WNP monsoon has leading spectral peaks at 50 and 16 months, whereas the Indian monsoon displays a primary peak around 30 months. The WNPSM is weak during the decay of an El Niño, whereas the ISM tends to abate when an El Niño develops. Since the late 1970s, the WNPSM has become more variable, but its relationship with El Niño remained steady; in contrast, the ISM has become less variable and its linkage with El Niño has dramatically declined. These contrasting features are in part attributed to the differing processes of monsoon-ocean interaction.Also found is a teleconnection between a suppressed WNPSM and deficient summer rainfall over the Great Plains of the United States. This boreal summer teleconnection is forced by the heat source fluctuation associated with the WNPSM and appears to be established through excitation of Rossby wave trains and perturbation of the jet stream that further excites downstream optimum unstable modes.

Wang, Bin; Wu, Renguang; Lau, K.-M.

2001-10-01

102

Proportion and pattern of dystrophin gene deletions in North Indian Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population-based variations in frequency and distribution of dystrophin gene deletions have been recognized in Duchenne\\/Becker\\u000a (DMD\\/BMD) muscular dystrophy patients. In the present study, DNA samples from 121 unrelated DMD\\/BMD patients from North India\\u000a were analyzed for deletional studies with multiplex PCR and Southern hybridization. A total of 88 (73%) patients showed intragenic\\u000a deletions in the dystrophin gene. The observed proportion

Vinita Singh; Shirish Sinha; Sudhish Mishra; Lakshmi Shankar Chaturvedi; Sunil Pradhan; Rama Devi Mittal; Balraj Mittal

1997-01-01

103

Patterns of diagnosis disclosure and its correlates in HIV-Infected North Indian children.  

PubMed

This facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the patterns of disclosure of HIV positive serostatus among 145 Indian children aged >5 years. Only 60 (41.4%) children were aware of their HIV-positive status. Disclosure was most frequently done by parents [51/60 (85%)] at a mean age of 9.1 ± 1.4 years. The rate of inaccurate disclosure was high [64/85 (75.3%)]. No information regarding their illness was given to 21/85 (24.7%) children. The most common reason for non-disclosure was that the child is too young [79/85 (92.9%)]. The factors favoring disclosure were increasing duration since diagnosis of HIV infection [odds ratio (OR) = 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.93], non-perinatal mode of transmission (OR = 6.14; 95% CI 2.01-15.80), ART initiation (OR = 3.05; 95% CI 1.33-7.01), school enrolment (OR = 3.52; 95% CI 1.44-7.57) and caregiver educated beyond fifth grade (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.21-5.96). Detailed guidelines on disclosure are required focusing on children of school-going age with perinatal infection who are not on ART and with caregivers of low educational status. PMID:21149240

Bhattacharya, Malobika; Dubey, Anand Prakash; Sharma, Mahesh

2011-12-01

104

Callionymus omanensis, a new species of dragonet from Oman, north-western Indian Ocean (Teleostei: Callionymidae).  

PubMed

A new species of deep-living dragonet Callionymus omanensis from Oman is described on the basis of a single male specimen collected in a trawl from 500 m depth off the coast of Oman. The new species is characterized within the subgenus Bathycallionymus by having a small branchial opening; head short (3·9 in proportion to standard length); eye large (2·4 in proportion to head length); preopercular spine with a long, upcurved main tip, with a small antrorse barb and a larger antrorse spine, and with a strong antrorse spine laterally at the preopercular-spine base, ventral margin smooth; first dorsal fin slightly higher than second dorsal fin (male); second dorsal fin distally straight; 17 pectoral fin rays; distal end of caudal fin slightly pointed, with two median unbranched rays bearing short filaments; first dorsal fin with basal black spot reaching from first to fourth membranes, third membrane with an ocellated distal black blotch; second dorsal fin with vertical dark grey bars; distal three-fourths of anal fin black; upper half of caudal fin with oblique dark grey bars; pelvic fin dark grey, second ray basally with a black blotch. The new species is compared with similar species. Revised keys to callionymid species of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, as well as species of the subgenus Bathycallionymus, are presented. PMID:25098471

Fricke, R; Jawad, L A; Al-Mamry, J M

2014-11-01

105

Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America  

PubMed Central

Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases. PMID:23342378

Rempel, Julia D.; Uhanova, Julia

2012-01-01

106

Correlates of response to Olanzapine in a North Indian Schizophrenia sample.  

PubMed

Olanzapine is widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia and is considered a first line medication in India. Along with other factors, the variation in response and side effects to this agent may be accounted for by genetic differences among patients. Olanzapine was administered for 6 weeks to Indian subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV, n=130), as part of an open label study. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed, and 10 polymorphic markers from seven genes (dopamine D1, D2, D3 and D4 receptors, serotonin 2A receptor and the drug-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2 and CYP2D6)), together with demographic and clinical variables, were analyzed as potential predictors of response. Olanzapine was efficacious, but significant weight gain was noted. Baseline weight and a 120 bp deletion polymorphism at the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene were associated with changes in symptom scores. Predictable covariates of treatment response were also noted. These results merit replicate studies. PMID:19000940

Thomas, Pramod; Srivastava, Vibhuti; Singh, Anuradha; Mathur, Priya; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Lerer, Bernard; Thelma, B K; Deshpande, Smita N

2008-12-15

107

Q-structure beneath the north and central Indian Ocean from the inversion of observed Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by 57 earthquakes which occurred in the north and central Indian Ocean (extending to 40°S) and recorded at Indian seismograph and other WWSSN stations such as HOW, SHL, VIS, MDR, HYB, KOD, CHG, TRD, POO, BOM, GOA, NDI, NIL and QUE are analysed. Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients are estimated at periods of 15-100 s using the spectral amplitude of these waves for 98 different paths across the Bay of Bengal Fan, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. The large standard deviations observed in the surface wave attenuation coefficients may be a result of regional variation of the attenuative properties of the crust and upper mantle beneath these regions. Love wave attenuation coefficients are found to vary from 0.000 03 to 0.000 45 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 03 to 0.000 85 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.000 35 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Similarly, Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients vary from 0.000 03 to 0.0004 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 06 to 0.0007 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.0007 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Backus and Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q-1 models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. Inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data shows a high-attenuation zone centred at a depth of > 120 km ( Q? ? 125) for the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, a high-attenuation zone ( Q? ? 40-70) occurs at a depth of 60-160 km for the Arabian Fan at 100-160 km ( Q? ? 115) for the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge, and at 80-160 km ( Q? ? 80) for the Indian Ocean across the Ninetyeast Ridge. The Q?-1 models show a lithosphere thickness of 120 km beneath the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, lithosphere thickness of 70, 100 and 80 km is estimated beneath the Arabian Fan, and the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge and across Ninetyeast Ridge, respectively. The base of the lithosphere is identified as the depth at which there is a significant increase in the Q?-1 value, which attains its maximum value in the asthenosphere. The thinning of Indian lithosphere beneath the Arabian Fan suggests high temperature below Moho depth (60 km from surface) which has caused a high-attenuation zone at this shallow depth.

Singh, D. D.

108

Low hygiene and exposure to infections may be associated with increased risk for ulcerative colitis in a North Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have attempted to link hygiene hypothesis with IBD. However most of these studies come from developed countries where the level of hygiene is high and universal. Very little data is available from developing countries. The present study explores the truth of hygiene hypotheses and other risk factors for ulcerative colitis (UC) in a North Indian population where the prevalence of UC has been increasing. Methods A total of 518 patients diagnosed with UC and 188 age-matched controls were included in the study. A structured questionnaire concerning socio-demographics and level of hygiene was completed by all participants. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the association between hygiene-related factors and the risk for UC. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Results There was a higher proportion of females (P<0.001), and a higher educational status (P=0.01) in UC patients compared with controls. A family history of IBD was present in 7.2% of cases and non-existent in controls. On multivariate analysis, after accounting for potential confounders, having a private bed (P<0.001), and having better toilet facilities [(RCA versus none, P=0.01; Flush toilet versus none, P=0.01), (RCA LATRINE as a toilet technology used in rural areas where no flush facility exists. It was developed under RCA project)] were inversely associated with risk for UC whereas owning a pet (P=0.01) and stressful events like a death in the family (P=0.01) were associated with greater risks for UC. Conclusion Our study does not provide definitive evidence to support hygiene hypothesis and rather suggests that the rising incidence of UC in North India may be attributable to inadequate sanitary measures or other as yet unidentified factors. PMID:24976449

Sood, Ajit; Amre, Devendra; Midha, Vandana; Sharma, Suresh; Sood, Neena; Thara, Amandeep; Bansal, Manu; Juyal, Garima; Thelma, Bittianda Kuttapa; Seidman, Ernest

2014-01-01

109

American Indian Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

American Indian Studies Certificate American Indian Studies at UWM The Certificate in American understanding of the Native American tribal nations in North America. All of the United States at one time was American Indian land; however, most of it was transferred gradually to the United States of America

Saldin, Dilano

110

Response of Douglas-fir leaf area index and litterfall dynamics to Swiss needle cast in north coastal Oregon, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources of variation in leaf area index (LAI; m2 of projected leaf area per m2 of ground area) and its seasonal dynamics are not well known in managed Douglas-fir stands, despite the importance of leaf\\u000a area in forecasting forest growth, particularly in stands impacted by insects or disease. The influence of Swiss needle cast\\u000a (SNC) on coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii

Aaron R. Weiskittel; Douglas A. Maguire

2007-01-01

111

Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic can cause large and synchronous variations of oxygen minimum zones, throughout the Northern Hemisphere of the Indian and Pacific oceans, consistent with the paleoclimate records. Cold periods in the North Atlantic are associated with reduced nutrient delivery to the upper Indo-Pacific oceans, thereby decreasing productivity. Reduced export production diminishes subsurface respiration of organic matter leading to higher oxygen concentrations and less denitrification. This effect of reduced oxygen consumption dominates at low latitudes. At high latitudes in the Southern Ocean and North Pacific, increased mixed layer depths and steepening of isopycnals improve ocean ventilation and oxygen supply to the subsurface. Atmospheric teleconnections through changes in wind-driven ocean circulation modify this basin-scale pattern regionally. These results suggest that changes in the Atlantic Ocean circulation, similar to those projected by climate models to possibly occur in the centuries to come because of anthropogenic climate warming, can have large effects on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles even in remote areas. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

Schmittner, A.; Galbraith, E. D.; Hostetler, S. W.; Pedersen, T. F.; Zhang, R.

2007-01-01

112

Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 105 colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. Results: ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Interpretation & conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn. PMID:23703344

Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

2013-01-01

113

Prevalence and the relationship of oral mucosal lesions in tobacco users and denture wearers in the North Indian population  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and the relationship of oral mucosal lesions in tobacco users and denture wearers in a North Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 3,749 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 and December 2012, for the treatment of dental problems other than oral mucosal lesions. The ages ranged from 28 years to 83 years, with a mean age of 49.7 years. The results were evaluated using the Pearson Chi-square test, with Yate’s correction and ANOVA tests. Results: A total of 2,318 patients were diagnosed with lesions associated with the use tobacco and the wearing of dentures. The most frequently seen lesion was melanin pigmentation (29.9%) followed by linea alba (22.2%) and frictional keratosis (19.9%). Ulcers (6.1%) were the most common oral lesion seen in patients who wore dentures, followed by hyperplasia (4.8%). A statistically significant relation (P < 0.05) was established between tobacco and melanin pigmentation, frictional keratosis, traumatic ulcerations and leukoplakia. In those who wore dentures a statistically significant relation (P < 0.05) was found between candidiasis, traumatic ulceration and frictional keratosis. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the association of frictional keratosis with tobacco users and wearers of dentures can help in determining the diagnosis and treatment plan for oral cancer. Wearers of dentures should also be recalled for periodic checks at regular intervals and optimum preventive measures implemented. PMID:24672277

Patil, Santosh; Yadav, Nidhi; Patil, Prashant; Kaswan, Sumita

2013-01-01

114

Fur Production as a Specialized Activity in a World System: Indians in the North American Fur Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the fur trade as critical fulcrum in Indian-White contact, focusing on craft specialization as the Native response to the international market system. Describes effects on Indian dependence on European trade goods, Native territorial boundaries and population distribution, social and family structures, and animal populations. Contains 73…

Kardulias, P. Nick

1990-01-01

115

Growth faulting and syntectonic casting of the Dawson Creek Graben Complex: A North American craton-marginal trough; Carboniferous-Permian Peace River Embayment, western Canada  

SciTech Connect

The Dawson Creek Graben Complex was a 150 {times} 300 km, craton-perpendicular trough near the western North American craton margin. Sedimentary infill spanned 100 million years, and this tectonically controlled basin provides a comparison with other craton-marginal troughs or aulacogens, such as the Big Snowy, Uinta, Delaware, and Southern Oklahoma. The authors suspect that the graben complex was controlled by outboard, Antler-like orogeny and perhaps some strike-slip control. This syntectonic graben infill model provides a basis for developing new structural-stratigraphic plays in this mature basin. This extensional trough rests on a former basement arch and is centered in the broadly downwarped Peace River embayment. Sediment infill records several graben casting stages beginning with westernmost down-dropping, which then extended eastward and was accompanied by an increase in growth-type block faulting. Subsidence and faulting decay was followed by a retreat to western areas and tectonic stabilization. The complex was an arcuate half-graben, steep to the north, that widened asymmetrically and increased in depth to the west through time. The complex contained a principal half-graben with neighboring satellite grabens; throughout the complex are numerous kilometer-scale horst and graben blocks. The horsts subsided slower than neighboring grabens. This differential subsidence along block-bounding syn- and postdepositional growth-type normal faults controlled formation and bed thickness, as did inter- and intraformational unconformities.

Barclay, J.E.; Utting, J. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Krause, F.F.; Campbell, R.I. (Calamity Resources, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1991-06-01

116

Analysis of the impact of cyclones on Chlorophyll-a in North Indian Ocean; a remote sensing approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bay of Bengal (BOB) is considered to be less productive than the Arabian Sea (AS). Earlier studies attributed the reason to be strong stratified layer, which is not broken normally, for its less productivity. Monsoon winds with less wind speed are unable to break the stratified layer. Hypothetically, had there not been stratified layer in BOB, its productivity would have been comparable to that of AS. To meet the requirement of breaking stratified layer higher wind speeds are required, which are produced during cyclones. Thus the seasonal productivity comparisons has been done during cyclones, cyclones are quite common in different seasons in both BOB and AS. Four seasons of monsoon that North Indian Ocean (NIO) experience are; Spring intermonsoon (Apr - May), Southwest monsoon (June - Sep), Fall intermonsoon (Oct - Nov) and Northeast monsoon (Dec - Mar). Fourteen cyclones have been observed covering all the four seasons during for the years 1998 - 2006. During the southwest and fall seasons, cyclones occurred in either BOB or In AS and thus the comparison could not be done. Thus BOB and AS productivity during cyclones has been performed independently with out comparison between them. During the spring intermonsoon four cyclones, two in BOB (two in AS) have been observed. Four parameters of SST drop, MLD deepening, raise the percent of chlorophyll-a and increase in NPP have been derived. The parameters estimated in BOB (AS) during the cyclones are: SST drop of 5o C to 6.5o C (6.5o C to 8.5o C), MLD deepening of 30m to 90m (30m to 120m), raise in chlorophyll-a by 220 During northeast monsoon seven cyclones, four in BOB (three in AS) have been observed. In BOB, out of four cyclones, two were observed in north and two in south, where as in AS one in north and two in south were observed. Comparison was made based on latitude considering availability of sun light to be the same. The parameters estimated in northern BOB (AS) during the cyclones are: SST drop of 1.5o C to 3.75o C (7o C), MLD deepening of 20m to 50m (50m to 120m), raise in chlorophyll-a by 14 As already mentioned independent basin study has been done during Southwest monsoon over AS. The parameters observed during the only one cyclone are: SST drop of 7o C, MLD deepening of 40m to 85m, raise the chlorophyll-a by 192 During the fall intermonsoon over BOB, two cyclones (TC04B and TC05B) occurred consecutively in the same year. The parameters retrieved during TC04B (TC05B) are: SST drop of 5.7o C (4o C), MLD deepening of 20m to 70m (20m to 90m), raise in chlorophyll-a by 109 It has been observed that cyclone is breaking the stratified layer, bringing nutrients and increases productivity. Doubt will arise whether high wind speeds are sufficient to raise the productivity. If this were true, there should have been increase in chlorophyll-a throughout the cyclone wake. Satellite images reveal that the increase is not substantial and equal along the cyclone wake. The reason for this is the cyclone eye formation, its symmetricity, and the resonance effect that are contributing to raise in productivity due to more upwelling. Cyclones, increases productivity are helping reduce the green house gas (CO2) which is fixed into the ocean from the atmosphere. Thus atmospheric temperature falls down delaying early global warming. Earlier studies neglected the cyclone's effect while computing seasonal productivity changes. Now that cyclone plays a curtail role in the productivity enhancement, care has to be taken.

Rao Neerukattu, Srinivasa; H, Rao K.; v, Ramana I.; v, Rao M.; v, Murali Krishna I.; Anjanwyulu, A.

117

Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Polymorphisms, Haplotypes and Activity in Predicting CAD Risk in North-West Indian Punjabis  

PubMed Central

Background Human serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) prevents oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and hydrolyzes the oxidized form, therefore preventing the development of atherosclerosis. The polymorphisms of PON1 gene are known to affect the PON1 activity and thereby coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. As studies are lacking in North-West Indian Punjabi's, a distinct ethnic group with high incidence of CAD, we determined PON1 activity, genotypes and haplotypes in this population and correlated them with the risk of CAD. Methodology/Principal Findings 350 angiographically proven (?70% stenosis) CAD patients and 300 healthy controls were investigated. PON1 activity was determined towards paraoxon (Paraoxonase; PONase) and phenylacetate (Arylesterase; AREase) substrates. In addition, genotyping was carried out by using multiplex PCR, allele specific oligonucleotide –PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and haplotyping was determined by PHASE software. The serum PONase and AREase activities were significantly lower in CAD patients as compared to the controls. All studied polymorphisms except L55M had significant effect on PONase activity. However AREase activity was not affected by them. In a logistic regression model, after adjustment for the conventional risk factors for CAD, QR (OR: 2.73 (1.57–4.72)) and RR (OR, 16.24 (6.41–41.14)) genotypes of Q192R polymorphism and GG (OR: 2.07 (1.02–4.21)) genotype of ?162A/G polymorphism had significantly higher CAD risk. Haplotypes L-T-G-Q-C (OR: 3.25 (1.72–6.16)) and L-T-G-R-G (OR: 2.82 (1.01–7.80)) were also significantly associated with CAD. Conclusions In conclusion this study shows that CAD patients had lower PONase and AREase activities as compared to the controls. The coding Q192R polymorphism, promoter ?162A/G polymorphism and L-T-G-Q-C and L-T-G-R-G haplotypes are all independently associated with CAD. PMID:21629682

Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Surjit; Maturu, V. Nagarjuna; Sharma, Yash Paul; Gill, Kiran Dip

2011-01-01

118

Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

Schaap, Bryan D.

2004-01-01

119

A Note on Caste Subhash Kak  

E-print Network

. In an example of reality being fashioned in the image of a simulacrum, many Indians have started believing the conversion of the other castes to Islam? Does this represent a variant of Hindu religion where the caste converted to Islam in Kashmir is wrong. The Kashmiri Hindus preserve appellations, such as r

Koppelman, David M.

120

Relationship between polymorphisms in beta -2 adrenergic receptor gene and ischemic stroke in North Indian Population: a hospital based case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is a multi-factorial disease and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of the present case control study was to check the relationship between beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in North Indian Population. Methods In a hospital based case control study, patients with ischemic stroke and control subjects from outpatient department and neurology ward of All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi. Genotyping was performed by using Polymerase chain reaction–Restriction fragment length polymorphism. Frequency distributions of genotypes and alleles were compared between cases and controls using multivariate logistic regression. Results In this study, 224 patients and 224 age-and sex-matched control subjects were recruited. Mean age of cases and controls were 53.9?±?13.4 and 53.6?±?12.9 years respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent association between Gln27Glu polymorphism and large vessel stroke (LVD) under a recessive model of inheritance (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3 to 11). An age-stratified analysis, suggested independent association between Gln27Glu polymorphism and ischemic stroke, large vessel disease and small vessel disease stroke who had onset of disease at an older age. Conclusions The findings of the present study suggest that Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene may confer higher risk of large vessel disease stroke in a North Indian population. Prospective studies with larger sample size are required for independent validation. PMID:24966013

2014-01-01

121

Democracy and the Recasting of Caste in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three books under review offer a fascinating account of how the processes of democracy and the practices of the modern Indian state have refashioned caste as an important feature of social stratification and self-definition. But the implication of the recasting of caste varies in the three accounts. According to Zoya Hasan, caste is an important marker of socio-economic backwardness

Juned Shaikh

2010-01-01

122

Directory of American Indian Tribes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory provides general information on American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and lands. The information was compiled from several resources including the "Federal Register," the Bureau of Indian Affairs, "The Native American Almanac" (A. Hirschfelder, M. K. de Montano), the "Atlas of North American Indian Tribes" (Carl Waldman), the…

Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff. Inst. for Human Development.

123

Die Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Mechanical properties of creep resistant zinc die casting alloys; Studies on a gravity die cast zinc base alloy; Parashot system for turbulence-free injection of metal; Zinc--the versatile metal; Prevention of metal dribble on hot chamber die ca...

1977-01-01

124

A therapy to live by: Public health, the self and nationalism in the practice of a North Indian yoga society  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I focus on the relationship between concepts of self and health in modern North India. Drawing on field research in a popular yoga society, I argue that yoga therapy, as practiced by the Bharatiya Yog Sansthan of Delhi, provides a reconceptualization of what can be meant by public health. Using studies that challenge both the essentialist and

Joseph S. Alter

1997-01-01

125

Role of natural external forcing factors in modulating the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation and their relationship on inter-decadal timescale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use reconstructed data and multi-centennial integrations performed with the Bergen Climate Model Version 2 to investigate the impact of natural external forcing factors on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the potential relationship between the ISM rainfall and the winter NAO on decadal to inter-decadal timescales. The model simulations include a 600-year control integration (CTL600) and a 600-year integration with time-varied natural external forcing factors from 1400 to 1999 (EXT600). Both reconstructed data and the simulation showed increased ISM rainfall 2-3 years after strong volcanic eruptions. Strong volcanic eruptions decrease the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST), which increases the strength of the southwesterly winds over the Arabian Sea. With negative externally-forced radiative anomaly, the lower stratospheric pole-to-equator winter temperature gradient is enhanced, leading to a positive winter NAO anomaly with a time lag of 1 year. There is no significant correlation between the winter NAO and ISM rainfall in CTL600. However, the ISM rainfall is significantly positively correlated with the winter NAO in EXT600, with the NAO leading by 2-4 years, which is consistent with the NAO-ISM rainfall relationship in the reconstructed data. We suggest that natural external forcing factors regulate the inter-decadal variability of both the winter NAO and the ISM rainfall and thus likely lead to an increased statistical but not causal relationship between them on the inter-decadal timescale over the past centuries.

Cui, Xuedong; Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Guo, Dong; Li, Shuanglin; Johannessen, Ola M.

2014-10-01

126

Die Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Recording technical information in pressure diecasting; Influence of copper addition on the dendritic structure of ILZRO-12; Graphite innoculated alloys for pressure die casting; Zinc--The versatile metal; Removal of scales from die cooling chan...

1978-01-01

127

Hair casts  

PubMed Central

Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

2014-01-01

128

Hair casts.  

PubMed

Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

Parmar, Sweta S; Parmar, Kirti S; Shah, Bela J

2014-10-01

129

Association of the Myostatin Gene with Obesity, Abdominal Obesity and Low Lean Body Mass and in Non-Diabetic Asian Indians in North India  

PubMed Central

Background To determine the association of the A55T and K153R polymorphisms of the Myostatin gene with obesity, abdominal obesity and lean body mass (LBM) in Asian Indians in north India. Materials and Methods A total of 335 subjects (238 men and 97 women) were assessed for anthropometry, % body fat (BF), LBM and biochemical parameters. Associations of Myostatin gene polymorphisms were evaluated with anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters. In A55T polymorphism, BMI (p?=?0.04), suprailiac skinfold (p?=?0.05), total skinfold (p?=?0.008), %BF (p?=?0.002) and total fat mass (p?=?0.003) were highest and % LBM (p?=?0.03) and total LBM (Kg) were lowest (p?=?0.04) in subjects with Thr/Thr genotype as compared to other genotypes. Association analysis of K153R polymorphism showed that subjects with R/R genotype had significantly higher BMI (p?=?0.05), waist circumference (p?=?0.04), %BF (p?=?0.04) and total fat mass (p?=?0.03), and lower %LBM (p?=?0.02) and total LBM [(Kg), (p?=?0.04)] as compared to other genotypes. Using a multivariate logistic regression model after adjusting for age and sex, subjects with Thr/Thr genotype of A55T showed high risk for high %BF (OR, 3.92, 95% Cl: 2.61–12.41), truncal subcutaneous adiposity (OR, 2.9, 95% Cl: 1.57–6.60)] and low LBM (OR, 0.64, 95% CI: 0.33–0.89) whereas R/R genotype of K153R showed high risk of obesity (BMI; OR, 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2–12.9; %BF, OR, 3.6, 95% CI: 1.04–12.4), abdominal obesity (OR, 2.12, 95% CI: 2.71–14.23) and low LBM (OR, 0.61, 95% CI: 0.29–0.79). Conclusions/Significance We report that variants of Myostatin gene predispose to obesity, abdominal obesity and low lean body mass in Asian Indians in north India. PMID:22916099

Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Nigam, Priyanka; Misra, Anoop; Guleria, Randeep; Luthra, Kalpana; Jain, S. K.; Qadar Pasha, M. A.

2012-01-01

130

Marry for What? Caste and Mate Selection in Modern India  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes how preferences for a noneconomic characteristic (e.g., caste) can affect equilibrium patterns of matching, and empirically evaluates this in the context of middle-class Indian arranged marriages. We ...

Banerjee, Abhijit

131

Association between angiotensin converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and intracerebral haemorrhage in North Indian population: a case control study and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion polymorphism and ICH with an ACE level in a North Indian population. Patient with ICH and age- and sex- matched control subjects were recruited. Case control study design was used. Genotyping was performed by using Polymerase chain reaction. Serum ACE levels were measured by colorimetric method. Our results were integrated with other reported studies across different countries in a meta-analysis. One hundred and six patients with ICH and 106 age- and sex- matched control subjects were recruited. Mean age of cases and control subjects were 53.4 ± 1 and 52.9 ± 13.4, respectively. The DD genotypes were more frequency distributed in cases compared with controls (OR 2; 95 % CI, 1.02-3.8, P = 0.04) under a recessive model of inheritance. Meta-analysis suggests significant association between ACE I/D polymorphism and risk of ICH (OR 1.98; 95 % CI, 1.53-2.57) under the recessive model of inheritance and under the dominant model of inheritance (OR 1.31; 95 % CI, 1.18-1.45). The findings of the present study show a significant association between ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism and ICH. Meta-analysis indicate that ACE I/D polymorphism may be a susceptible marker for risk factor of ICH in Asian population. PMID:25016961

Kumar, A; Prasad, K; Vivekanandhan, S; Srivastava, A; Goswami, S; Srivastava, M V P; Tripathi, M

2014-12-01

132

A normative study to evaluate inclination and angulation of teeth in North Indian population and comparision of expression of torque in preadjusted appliances  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate angulation and inclination of teeth from the study models of individuals with normal occlusion and evaluation of actual expression of torque expressed by three different bracket systems. Materials and Methods: In this study, the inclination and angulation were measured on 30 study models of North Indian individuals. A self-developed instrument (torque angle gauge) was used for the measurement. Fifteen study models were duplicated for the evaluation of torque expression in the bracket of three different manufacturers with different shape and size of bases. Results: The results give the mean, minimum and maximum, standard deviation of the normative data individually for each tooth. A significant correlation was noted in the angulation of maxillary canine and first premolar, and between premolars; and between mandibular central incisor with lateral incisor and canine, and between premolars. Conclusions: There was a highly significant correlation of teeth angulation and inclination in the maxillary and mandibular arch. Though the error in expression of torque was not significant, but it showed a large range, indicating the need to vary the position of brackets in different bracket systems for achieving optimum torque. PMID:25143932

Verma, Sanjeev; Singh, SP; Utreja, Ashok

2014-01-01

133

Indian Control of Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the Federal Government of Canada has the legal responsibility for Indian education, only Indian people can develop a philosophy of education based on Indian values. A conflict of cultural values, which is imposed through education, causes many drop-outs and failures among young Indians. Indian children must be able to preserve their own…

Manuel, George

134

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

135

The Indian Heritage of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book nominated for the National Book Award, the author presents the past, present, and future of the Indians of North, Central, and South America with current archaeological findings which add to the knowledge about Indians. As noted, the volume contains information from the works of a large number of people who, since the time of…

Josephy, Alvin M., Jr.

136

Morphometric sexual dimorphism of human sternum in a north Indian autopsy sample: sexing efficacy of different statistical techniques and a comparison with other sexing methods.  

PubMed

Forensic anthropologists have proposed different sex determination methods based on metric and non-metric skeletal features of various bones. The main objective of the present investigation was to evaluate sexual dimorphism in human sternum and make comparative analysis based on studies by several workers who used different methodologies and techniques. For this study, 343 sternums were collected and examined from 252 male and 91 female cadavers of a north Indian population. Significant differences were noticed between the mean sternal measurements measured directly on bone specimens in present study and those measured indirectly on radiographs or CT scan images reported by previous researchers. Comparative analysis of absolute sternal measurements showed concordance with some earlier Indian studies but discordance with most other population studies conducted worldwide. Limiting points gave much higher sex accuracy levels than the demarking points. The calculated multivariate DFA equation (y=-14.222+0.076MBL+0.137WS_1) and regression equation (y=36.675-0.198MBL-0.405WS_1) correctly estimated sex of 84.8% and 89.8% sternums, respectively. Multivariate analyses gave more striking results than the univariate ones. Though logistic regression analysis gave higher accuracy rates but discriminant function analysis was found to be a more reliable statistical tool for sex determination because of low sex biases. The sexing efficacies of the dry and wet sternums did not differ significantly, so bone specimens are equally reliable as the radiographs or CT scans for sex determination. The sternal area and the combined length were found the best parameters among all the criteria and methods considered. The changes in the body proportions, nutritional, environmental, climatic changes, etc., are attributable to secular changes in sterna measurements when compared to Jit et al. [13]. The osteometric techniques are better representative of biological identity of the deceased because of some inherent defects associated with radiographic methods. Like other sex-predictive bones of the human skeleton, the sternum can also be a valuable adjunct for sex determination of unknown subjects. PMID:23562145

Singh, Jagmahender; Pathak, R K

2013-05-10

137

Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0.49). Evidence for validity was comparatively lower for Dun & Bradstreet, online Yellow Pages, and the NC Department of Agriculture. Conclusions Secondary data sources both over- and under-represented the food environment; they were particularly problematic for identifying convenience stores and specialty markets. More attention is needed to improve the validity of existing data sources, especially for rural local food environments. PMID:23173781

2012-01-01

138

Project CAST.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

139

Association of -2549 Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor with Breast Cancer in North Indian Patients  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ?2549 insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in susceptibility to sporadic breast cancer. Methods: DNA samples of 94 breast cancer patients and 94 unrelated healthy control individuals with matched age and gender from the same geographical region of Punjab, North West India were screened for the ?2549 I/D polymorphism. Serum VEGF-C (sVEGF-C) levels of breast cancer patients and healthy controls were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The frequency of the II, ID, and DD genotype was 23.40 versus 10.64%, 48.94 versus 52.13%, and 27.66 versus 37.23%, in patients and controls, respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed for genotype distribution among the patients and controls (?2=6.039, p=0.049). There was a significant increase in the I allele frequency in the patients as compared with controls (47.86 versus 36.70%, p=0.028). The sVEGF-C levels were also considerably higher in patients as compared to healthy controls (p<0.01). Conclusions: The VEGF ?2549 I/D polymorphism has a role in the susceptibility to breast cancer in the Amritsar region of Punjab, India. PMID:23390884

Kapahi, Ruhi; Manjari, Mridu; Uppal, Manjit Singh; Singh, Neeti Rajan; Sambyal, Vasudha

2013-01-01

140

Association of genetic variants of cancer stem cell gene CD44 haplotypes with gallbladder cancer susceptibility in North Indian population.  

PubMed

CD44 is an important marker for cancer stem cells. Germline variants in CD44 gene have been associated with susceptibility to breast and nasopharyngeal carcinomas but no study in gallbladder cancer (GBC) has been done yet. The present study included 405 GBC patients and 200 healthy controls from North India. Tagger SNPs for CD44 were selected from the GIH population data. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP and Taqman probes. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS. Bonferroni correction was applied in subgroup analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed no individual association of CD44 polymorphisms with GBC risk. However, [CCAT] haplotype was associated with overall reduced risk of GBC [P?=?0.04, odds ratios (OR)?=?0.47]. Gender stratification revealed that [CCAT] and [TAGT] haplotypes were significantly associated with decreased risk in female GBC patients [P?=?0.022, OR?=?0.38; P?=?0.011, OR?=?0.17, respectively]. The CAAT haplotype was marginally associated with low GBC risk in patients with co-existing gallstones [P?=?0.026, OR?=?0.53]. The cancer risk was not further modified with tobacco usage or age of onset. In silico analysis showed change in transcriptional regulation of selected SNPs. This study reports an important role of CD44 haplotypes with reduced risk of GBC. PMID:24186075

Sharma, Kiran Lata; Yadav, Anu; Gupta, Annapurna; Tulsayan, Sonam; Kumar, Vijay; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Balraj

2014-03-01

141

American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)

Dennis, Matthew

2003-01-01

142

NOL11, Implicated in the Pathogenesis of North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis, Is Required for Pre-rRNA Transcription and Processing  

PubMed Central

The fundamental process of ribosome biogenesis requires hundreds of factors and takes place in the nucleolus. This process has been most thoroughly characterized in baker's yeast and is generally well conserved from yeast to humans. However, some of the required proteins in yeast are not found in humans, raising the possibility that they have been replaced by functional analogs. Our objective was to identify non-conserved interaction partners for the human ribosome biogenesis factor, hUTP4/Cirhin, since the R565W mutation in the C-terminus of hUTP4/Cirhin was reported to cause North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC). By screening a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library derived from human liver, and through affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we identified an uncharacterized nucleolar protein, NOL11, as an interaction partner for hUTP4/Cirhin. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that NOL11 is conserved throughout metazoans and their immediate ancestors but is not found in any other phylogenetic groups. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that NOL11 is a component of the human ribosomal small subunit (SSU) processome. siRNA knockdown of NOL11 revealed that it is involved in the cleavage steps required to generate the mature 18S rRNA and is required for optimal rDNA transcription. Furthermore, abnormal nucleolar morphology results from the absence of NOL11. Finally, yeast two-hybrid analysis shows that NOL11 interacts with the C-terminus of hUTP4/Cirhin and that the R565W mutation partially disrupts this interaction. We have therefore identified NOL11 as a novel protein required for the early stages of ribosome biogenesis in humans. Our results further implicate a role for NOL11 in the pathogenesis of NAIC. PMID:22916032

Freed, Emily F.; Prieto, Jose-Luis; McCann, Kathleen L.; McStay, Brian; Baserga, Susan J.

2012-01-01

143

Identification and characterization of a distinct banana bunchy top virus isolate of Pacific-Indian Oceans group from North-East India.  

PubMed

Banana bunch top virus (BBTV) is considered to be a serious threat to banana production. A new isolate of the virus (BBTV-Umiam) was identified and characterized from local banana mats growing in mid-hills of Meghalaya in North-East India. The complete nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of six full-length ssDNA components (DNA R, DNA U3, DNA S, DNA M, DNA C and DNA N) sharing major common region (CR-M) and a stem-loop common region (CR-SL). BBTV-Umiam showed a unique deletion of 20 nucleotides in the intergenic region of DNA R, the absence of predicted open reading frame (ORF) in DNA U3 and probability for a small ORF in DNA U3 expecting functional evidence at transcriptional level. Phylogenetic analysis based on 88 complete nucleotide sequence of BBTV DNA R available in GenBank generated two broad clusters of Pacific-Indian Oceans (PIO) and South-East Asian (SEA) groups including BBTV-Umiam within PIO cluster. However, BBTV-Umiam was identified as the most distinct member of the PIO group with 100% bootstrap support. This was further supported by the phylogenetic grouping of each genomic component of BBTV-Umiam at the distant end of PIO group during clustering of 21 complete BBTV sequences. BBTV-Umiam shared relatively less nucleotide identity with PIO group for each genomic component (85.0-95.4%) and corresponding ORF (93.8-97.5%) than that of earlier PIO isolates (91.5-99.6% and 96.0-99.3%, respectively). Recombination analysis revealed two intra-component and five inter-component recombination events in BBTV-Umiam, but none of them was unique. Moreover, the isolate was identified as major parental sequence for intra-component recombination event spanning the replication-associated protein encoding region in Tongan BBTV DNA R. The current study indicated differential evolution of BBTV in North-East India (Meghalaya). The natural occurrence of hybrids of Musa balbisiana and M. acuminata in this geographically isolated region could be the contributing factor in accumulating genetic distinctiveness in BBTV-Umiam which need further characterization. PMID:24468493

Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Behere, Ganesh T; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Ngachan, S V

2014-04-01

144

Invertebrate Casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE communication in NATURE, vol. xxvii. p. 46, induces me to state the following fact. Engaged this summer in an economic survey of the North Transcontinental Survey for the North Pacific Railroad in the camp just opposite Umatilla, near the Columbia River, Washington Territory, I observed, on June 26, the nympha of a new species of Ophiogomphus, then very common,

H. A. Hagen

1882-01-01

145

American Indian Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Pai-ute weapon, described by Mr. Mason in your last number (p. 107), although extremely interesting and quite new to me, appears scarcely sufficiently characteristic of a war weapon to form an exception to the statement of Schoolcraft, that the clubs of the North American Indians as a rule are curved. It would be interesting if it could be ascertained

1875-01-01

146

Robeson County Indian Education Needs Assessment, FY-79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robeson County, North Carolina, has the largest Indian population in the state. There are 25,684 Lumbee Indians in the county; Indian students comprise 61 percent of the school population. In compliance with Title IV-A regulations, a 1978-79 needs assessment was conducted to allow the Indian community participation in the development of cultural…

Woods, Ruth Dial; And Others

147

Casting methods  

DOEpatents

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

148

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of Indian Tribes of North America. Part I: The Sioux Tribes of South Dakota. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To facilitate the study and understanding of present-day Indian tribal organization and governmental procedures, the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of…

Fay, George E., Comp.

149

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part IV: The Southwest (Navajo--Zuni). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part IV of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, articles of association, and by-laws of Indian tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. Documents are included relative to the Navajo Tribe of Arizona and New Mexico; the Eastern Navajo Council--New Mexico; the…

Fay, George E., Comp.

150

9. Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, reconstructed isometric detail of bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, reconstructed isometric detail of bridge framing by Willie Graham and Mark R. Wenger, 3/4', 1991 - North River Canal System, Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, West side of Buena Vista, Buena Vista, Roanoke City, VA

151

Clamshell Casting! Stefanie Wuhrer  

E-print Network

Clamshell Casting! By Stefanie Wuhrer A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research acceptance of the thesis, Clamshell Casting! submitted by Stefanie Wuhrer Douglas Howe (Director is casting, where liquid is poured into a cast and the cast is removed once the liquid has hardened. We

Wuhrer, Stefanie

152

Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several value body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni (Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and where applicable, with data on sand castings.

Sikka, V. K.; Mitchell, A.

1984-10-01

153

Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique  

SciTech Connect

Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several valve body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni(Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, Charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and, where applicable, with data on sand castings. 22 figures.

Sikka, V.K.; Mitchell, A.

1984-10-01

154

p53-mediated biliary defects caused by knockdown of cirh1a, the zebrafish homolog of the gene responsible for North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis.  

PubMed

North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NAIC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, progressive cholestatic disease of infancy affecting the Cree-Ojibway first Nations of Quebec. All NAIC patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (R565W) in CIRH1A, the human homolog of the yeast nucleolar protein Utp4. Utp4 is part of the t-Utp subcomplex of the small subunit (SSU) processome, a ribonucleoprotein complex required for ribosomal RNA processing and small subunit assembly. NAIC has thus been proposed to be a primary ribosomal disorder (ribosomopathy); however, investigation of the pathophysiologic mechanism of this disease has been hindered by lack of an animal model. Here, using a morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-based loss-of-function strategy, we have generated a model of NAIC in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish Cirhin shows substantial homology to the human homolog, and cirh1a mRNA is expressed in developing hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. Injection of two independent MOs directed against cirh1a at the one-cell stage causes defects in canalicular and biliary morphology in 5 dpf larvae. In addition, 5 dpf Cirhin-deficient larvae have dose-dependent defects in hepatobiliary function, as assayed by the metabolism of an ingested fluorescent lipid reporter. Previous yeast and in vitro studies have shown that defects in ribosome biogenesis cause stabilization and nuclear accumulation of p53, which in turn causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Thus, the nucleolus appears to function as a cellular stress sensor in some cell types. In accordance with this hypothesis, transcriptional targets of p53 are upregulated in Cirhin-deficient zebrafish embryos, and defects in biliary function seen in Cirhin-deficient larvae are completely abrogated by mutation of tp53. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence of a role for Cirhin in biliary development, and support the hypothesis that congenital defects affecting ribosome biogenesis can activate a cellular stress response mediated by p53. PMID:24147052

Wilkins, Benjamin J; Lorent, Kristin; Matthews, Randolph P; Pack, Michael

2013-01-01

155

p53-Mediated Biliary Defects Caused by Knockdown of cirh1a, the Zebrafish Homolog of the Gene Responsible for North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NAIC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, progressive cholestatic disease of infancy affecting the Cree-Ojibway first Nations of Quebec. All NAIC patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (R565W) in CIRH1A, the human homolog of the yeast nucleolar protein Utp4. Utp4 is part of the t-Utp subcomplex of the small subunit (SSU) processome, a ribonucleoprotein complex required for ribosomal RNA processing and small subunit assembly. NAIC has thus been proposed to be a primary ribosomal disorder (ribosomopathy); however, investigation of the pathophysiologic mechanism of this disease has been hindered by lack of an animal model. Here, using a morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-based loss-of-function strategy, we have generated a model of NAIC in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish Cirhin shows substantial homology to the human homolog, and cirh1a mRNA is expressed in developing hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. Injection of two independent MOs directed against cirh1a at the one-cell stage causes defects in canalicular and biliary morphology in 5 dpf larvae. In addition, 5 dpf Cirhin-deficient larvae have dose-dependent defects in hepatobiliary function, as assayed by the metabolism of an ingested fluorescent lipid reporter. Previous yeast and in vitro studies have shown that defects in ribosome biogenesis cause stabilization and nuclear accumulation of p53, which in turn causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Thus, the nucleolus appears to function as a cellular stress sensor in some cell types. In accordance with this hypothesis, transcriptional targets of p53 are upregulated in Cirhin-deficient zebrafish embryos, and defects in biliary function seen in Cirhin-deficient larvae are completely abrogated by mutation of tp53. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence of a role for Cirhin in biliary development, and support the hypothesis that congenital defects affecting ribosome biogenesis can activate a cellular stress response mediated by p53. PMID:24147052

Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Lorent, Kristin; Matthews, Randolph P.; Pack, Michael

2013-01-01

156

Wisconsin Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

157

Role of TLR4 C>1196T (Thr399Ile) and TLR4 A>896G (Asp299Gly) polymorphisms in a North Indian population with asthma: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the most important TLR among the pattern recognition receptors which recognizes lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. They identify a highly conserved structure of microbes called pathogen-associated molecular patterns and activate immune and inflammatory responses that have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. The role of TLR4 gene polymorphisms in asthma was detected in a total of 964 individuals, including 483 healthy controls and 481 asthma patients from a North Indian population. The genotyping was carried out using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Statistical analysis revealed that the heterozygous genotype as well as the mutant (T) allele of the TLR4 C>1196T (Thr399Ile) polymorphism shows resistance towards asthma with OR = 0.70, 95% CI (0.49-0.99), P corrected value = 0.046 and OR = 0.72, 95% CI (0.52-0.98), P corrected value = 0.039, respectively. However, no association was found between the TLR4 A>896G (Asp299Gly) polymorphism and asthma patients (P > 0.05). This is the first study conducted in India conferring TLR4 (Thr399Ile) polymorphism resistance towards asthma, while lack of association was found between TLR4 (Asp299Gly) polymorphism and asthma in the studied North Indian population. PMID:25331070

Sinha, S; Singh, J; Jindal, S K; Birbian, N; Singla, N

2014-12-01

158

Thin Wall Iron Castings  

SciTech Connect

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

2001-10-31

159

LLNL casting technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting

A. B. Shapiro; W. J. Comfort III

1994-01-01

160

Soft sediment deformation associated with the passage of North Atlantic Deep water through the deep Ariel Graben, Mozambique Ridge southwest Indian Ocean.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between bottom water currents and seafloor sediments are well known. Bottom current generated bedforms are varied both morphologicaly and sedimentologicaly. Sediment transport and deposition, associated with bottom water circulation, plays a significant role is sculpting seafloor morphology in all ocean basins. Indeed, bedforms have been used to great effect to define the presence, direction and strength of bottom water circulation globally. Here we present new multibeam swath bathymetry and high frequency seismic data from the Natal Valley and Mozambique Ridge, southwest Indian Ocean. These data show a deep (-3200 m) channel-like feature (Ariel Graben, situated at 28° 30"S on the Mozambique Ridge) connecting the northern Natal Valley to the Mozambique Basin. A distinct W - E change in seafloor morphology and seismic character is noted moving from the Natal Valley through the Ariel Graben. The northern flank of the graben exhibits smooth plastered drifts which give way to undulating seafloor in the east. The plastered drifts are characterised by distinct bottom echoes, with several discontinuous sub-bottom reflections. In contrast, the undulating seafloor is characterised by distinct hyperbolic echoes, with occasional indistinct sub-bottom reflectors. The W - E orientated undulations are straight crested, parallel / sub-parallel to the local isobaths. Wavelength is variable, ranging from 600 m to 1200 m. Cross-sectional symmetry of these features varies from symmetrical to asymmetrical, with board crests and narrow troughs. When asymmetrical, the lower (south-facing) limb is the longer (511.76 m average) than the upper (north-facing) limb (323.53 m average). The lower limbs are also steeper than the upper limbs; calculated averages being 3.80° and 1.55°, respectively. Overall, the slope on which the undulations are found, is south-facing with a gradient of 1.54°, however, the area affected by undulations is slightly steeper (average slope of 1.75°). Beyond -3000 m, the lower limit of the undulations, the gradient increases to 4.71°. The total slope average in this eastern region is 0.54° steeper than in the west area. The channel floor, no longer flat, is ca. 440 m wide at -3160 m depth. The Ariel Graben represents a deep saddle across the Mozambique Ridge at 28°30"S. This saddle provides a northern-most passage for the transport of NADW from the northern Natal Valley to the Mozambique Ridge. Evidence of this transport is manifest as crudely developed plastered drifts in the west and a soft sediment deformation field in the east of the study area. Here, current flow stripping, due to increased curvature of the saddle axis, results in deposition of suspended load in accordance with reduced current velocity. The steepened northern graben flank in this area provides limited accommodation space which promotes high sedimentation. Deposited sediments overcome the necessary shear stresses, resulting in soft sediment deformation in the form of down-slope growth faulting and generation of undulating sea-floor morphology.

Wiles, Errol; Green, Andrew; Watkeys, Mike; Jokat, Wilfried; Krocker, Ralph

2014-05-01

161

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

Fay, George E., Comp.

162

Indian Education Programs in British Columbia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The British North America Act of 1867, the founding constitution of Canada, provides that all matters pertaining to Indians and Indian lands are under Federal jurisdiction. Because of this, the province of British Columbia (BC) has not felt it could do much for native peoples and little attention has been paid to the extension of provincial…

Kelly, Reg

163

Acculturation, Alcoholism and Indian Style Alcoholics Anonymous  

Microsoft Academic Search

end of the 18th century, they did not want to expose the Indians to alcohol and offered them only tea and coffee to drink, using muskets, ammunition, blankets, iron and copper for barter. But once it became known that a lucrative fur trade was awaiting adventurers along the western coast of North America, exploitation of the Indians by whisky traders

Louise Jilek-Aall

164

Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.

165

BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

166

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds Bethlehem Steel Corporation, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

167

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

168

Indian Education in the American Colonies, 1607-1783.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indian schooling in colonial America was continuously immersed in the exchange between cultures that involved religion, land ownership, disease, alcohol, and warfare, and was molded by trade in furs and hides, and Indian slaves. In the past two decades American scholars have begun to reinterpret colonial North American Indian history and the…

Szasz, Margaret Connell

169

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part XII: The Basin-Plateau Tribes (cont'd.). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XII, is a continuation of the publication on Basin-Plateau Indian groups: the Ely Indian Colony and Reno-Sparks Indian Colony of…

Fay, George E., Comp.

170

LLNL casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

1994-01-01

171

LLNL casting technology  

SciTech Connect

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III [eds.

1994-01-01

172

Egyptian Caste System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understand the culture, character, and societal characteristics of different classes in the ancient Egyptian caste system Understand the culture, character, and societal characteristics of different classes in the ancient Egyptian caste system Go to these sites to learn about the Egyptian Caste System ...

Issen, Ms.

2009-09-17

173

OF INVESTMENT CASTS ALLOYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformation and cracking of cast parts due to thermal stresses and hindered shrinkage are fre- quent casting defects. Whereas the numerical simulation of mold filling and solidification are already state of the art, applications of a thermal stress analysis are rarely found. The present study reveals how a combined thermo-mechanical model can be used for the investment casting process by

L. C. Würker; M. Fackeldey; P. R. Sahm; B. G. Thomas

174

Casting and Molding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore the process used to cast and mold molten metal, glass, and plastics. Using gelatin, the learner will work with a variety of molds to create castings. When the shapes are unmolded, the learner can tactually explore the casts.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-06-26

175

137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.  

PubMed

Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios could be attributed to close-in fallout Pu delivered from the Enewetak and Bikini Atolls by ocean currents of branches of the North Equatorial Current to the Southeast Asian seas. PMID:16165190

Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

2006-07-31

176

Indian Sports Nicknames/Logos: Affective Difference between American Indian and Non-Indian College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed the…

LaRocque, Angela R.; McDonald, J. Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Ferraro, F. Richard

2011-01-01

177

Evaluation of electroslag castings  

SciTech Connect

Results of evaluations of electroslag castings of ferritic (2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo and 9 Cr-1 Mo) and austenitic (CF8M or type 316) steels are presented. The castings have been characterized for surface finish, cracking, solidification structure, chemical composition, hardness, ferrite distribution, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties, and creep properties. Pertinent data are compared with equivalent data for sand castings and wrought products of the same materials. Based on the results of these studies, the properties of electroslag castings compare favorably with those of sand castings and wrought materials.

Judkins, R.R.; Sikka, V.K.

1985-01-01

178

A 550 ka record of aeolian activity near North West Cape, Australia: inferences from grain-size distributions and bulk chemistry of SE Indian Ocean deep-sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrigenous fraction of sediments from a deep-sea sediment core recovered from the northwestern Western Australian continental slope offshore North West Cape, SE Indian Ocean, reveals a history of Western Australian climate throughout the last 550 ka. End-member modelling of a data set of grain-size distributions (n=438) of the terrigenous sediment fraction allows to interpret the record in terms of aeolian and fluvial sediment deposition, both related to palaeo-environmental conditions in the North West Cape area. The data set can be best described by two aeolian end members and one fluvial one. Changes in the ratio of the two aeolian end members over the fluvial one are interpreted as aridity variations in northwestern Western Australia. These grain-size data are compared with bulk geochemical data obtained by XRF scans of the core. Log-ratios of the elements Zr/Fe and Ti/Ca, which indicate a terrigenous origin, corroborate the grain-size data. We postulate that the mid- to late Quaternary near North West Cape climate was relatively arid during the glacial and relatively humid during the interglacial stages, owing to meridional shifts in the atmospheric circulation system. Opposite to published palaeo-environmental records from the same latitude (20°S) offshore Chile and offshore Namibia, the Australian aridity record does not show the typical southern hemisphere climate variability of humid glacials and dry interglacials, which we interpret to be the result of the relatively large land mass of the Australian continent, which emphasises a strong monsoonal climatic system.

Stuut, Jan-Berend; Temmesfeld, Felix; De Deckker, Patrick

2014-05-01

179

Advances in aluminum casting technology  

SciTech Connect

This symposium focuses on the improvements of aluminum casting quality and reliability through a better understanding of processes and process variables, and explores the latest innovations in casting-process design that allow increasing use of the castings to replace complex assemblies and heavy steel and cast-iron components in aerospace and automotive applications. Presented are 35 papers by international experts in the various aspects of the subject. The contents include: Semisolid casting; Computer-aided designing of molds and castings; Casting-process modeling; Aluminum-matrix composite castings; HIPing of castings; Progress in the US car project; Die casting and die design; and Solidification and properties.

Tiryakioglu, M.; Campbell, J. (eds.)

1998-01-01

180

Secular Trends in Menarcheal Age in India-Evidence from the Indian Human Development Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified. Methods We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15–49 years) in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey. Results The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77) in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85) among women born prior to 1955–1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67) among women born during late 1985–1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955–1964 (95% CI: 14.89–15.11) to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63–12.56) during 1985–1989. Conclusion The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women. PMID:25369507

Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Tripathi, Niharika; Subramanian, S. V.

2014-01-01

181

Indian Summer  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

182

Improving Metal Casting Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

1998-01-01

183

Cast aluminized explosives (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status and future trends of aluminized explosives. The major focus is on cast compositions,\\u000a which encompass both the melt-cast trinitrotoluene (TNT) based and the slurry cast polymer-based compositions. Widely reported\\u000a RDX and HMX based aluminized compositions with TNT used as a binder are discussed in detail. Various researchers have suggested\\u000a a 15–20% Al content as

P. P. Vadhe; R. B. Pawar; R. K. Sinha; S. N. Asthana; A. Subhananda Rao

2008-01-01

184

Toll-like Receptor 1 743 A>G, 1805 T>G & Toll-like Receptor 6 745 C>T gene polymorphism and tuberculosis: a case control study of north Indian population from Agra (India).  

PubMed

Infection with Mycobacteriumtuberculosis possibly depends on host genetic factors and is thought to be the major cause of differential susceptibility to the disease. In the present study, 205 pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 127 healthy controls were studied for the association of Toll-like Receptor (TLR) variants (TLR1 variants 743A>G and 1805T>G, and TLR6 variant 745 C>T) in north Indian population. The frequency of heterozygous genotypes (AG) in TB cases (0.47) and HCs (0.61), differed significantly (p value = 0.02). The association of AG genotypes in HCs was adjusted for gender as gender was observed to be a confounder and M-H OR was found to be 0.62 (p = 0.044). On categorizing the cases basing on AFB smear positivity, the heterozygous genotypes (AG) was found to be associated with low bacillary load (scanty and 1+) (P = 0.002). No association was observed for either TLR1 1805 T>G or TLR6 745 C>T polymorphism. Level of serum IL6 was found to be significantly higher among healthy controls with TLR1 GG genotype compared to healthy controls with AA (p = 0.035) and AG (p = 0.005) genotypes. Thus, it may be suggested that the heterozygous condition for TLR1 743 A>G provide resistance from the disease. However, in depth study is required to understand the mechanism for possible protective responses. PMID:24984237

Sinha, Ekata; Biswas, Sanjay K; Mittal, Mayank; Bajaj, Bharat; Singh, Vandana; Arela, Nidhi; Katoch, Vishwa M; Mohanty, Keshar Kunja

2014-08-01

185

Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page

Hickey, Barbara

186

Indian Orphanages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

187

Comparison of transradial and transfemoral artery approach for percutaneous coronary angiography and angioplasty: A retrospective seven-year experience from a north Indian center  

PubMed Central

Background With the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary artery procedures have become even more important. Our study has compared transradial to transfemoral artery approach for coronary procedures in Indian population. Aims and objective Comparison of transradial and transfemoral artery approach for percutaneous coronary procedures. Material & methods 26,238 patients, who underwent percutaneous coronary artery procedures, were divided into two groups depending upon transradial and transfemoral artery approach and compared for the various demographic and clinical characteristics, risk factors profile, vascular access and procedural details. Results 26,238 patients underwent percutaneous coronary procedures at our center. 81% were male and 19% were female. 55.65% and 44.35% procedures were done through transfemoral and transradial approach, respectively. 17,417 (66.38%) coronary angiographies were done, out of which 53.92% were transradial and 46.08% were transfemoral procedures. 8821 (33.62%) Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) were done, out of which 25.46% and 74.54% were done through transradial and transfemoral approach, respectively. Mean fluoroscopy time was 4.40 ± 3.55 min for transradial and 3.30 ± 3.66 min for transfemoral CAG (p < 0.001). For PTCA mean fluoroscopy time was 13.53 ± 2.53 min for transradial and 12.61 ± 9.524 min for transfemoral PTCA (p < 0.001). Minor and major procedure related complications and total duration of hospital stay were lower in transradial as compared to transfemoral group. Conclusion The number of percutaneous transradial procedures have increased significantly with reduced complication rates and comparable success rate to transfemoral approach, along with the additional benefits to patient in terms of patient comfort, preference and reduced cost of health delivery. PMID:23992998

Tewari, Satyendra; Sharma, Naveen; Kapoor, Aditya; Syal, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Sudeep; Garg, Naveen; Goel, Pravin K.

2013-01-01

188

Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

1997-01-01

189

Casting in Sport  

PubMed Central

Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the “least hard” of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558257

DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

1994-01-01

190

Clean Metal Casting  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

191

Mechanisms of stabilization of earthworm casts and artificial casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh casts were collected from the earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa, and artificial casts were also made. The casts were subjected to ageing, drying-rewetting, and sterilization by hexanol vapour. Clay dispersion was determined, as a measure of the lack of stability of the casts. Two soils were used, the topsoil of a recently reclaimed polder soil in the Netherlands and the

J. C. Y. Marinissen; A. R. Dexter

1990-01-01

192

Navajo Indians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's learn about Utah History! Let's learn about the Navajo Indians. Learning Objective After reading and researching information about the Navajo tribe, students will be able understand the culture and traditions of this tribe and make comparisons to their own culture, by researching, writing about and creating Navajo jewelry and completing a cultural comparison worksheet. Grades 3 4th Grade Content Area(s) Social Studies Content Targets History, culture ...

Chamberlain, Keshia

2009-11-28

193

New approaches in microcasting: permanent mold casting and composite casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, microcasting was based on investment casting. New approaches are now the permanent mold casting and composite\\u000a casting of micro parts. Casting was performed with aluminum bronze of the type CuAl10Ni5Fe4. Permanent mold casting was commenced with steel mold inserts in a lost mold. The development of a band heater enabled the\\u000a heating of permanent molds inside the

G. Baumeister; D. Buqezi-Ahmeti; J. Glaser; H.-J. Ritzhaupt-Kleissl

2011-01-01

194

Supplementary Fig. 1. Geographical definition of the fourteen regions. NPO North Pacific Ocean, NAM North America, NAO North Atlantic Ocean, EUR Europe, ASI Asia, TPO  

E-print Network

, NAM ­ North America, NAO ­ North Atlantic Ocean, EUR ­ Europe, ASI ­ Asia, TPO ­ Tropical Pacific Ocean, TAO ­ Tropical Atlantic Ocean, AFR ­ Africa, TIO ­ Tropical Indian Ocean, SPO ­ South Pacific Ocean, SAM ­ South America, SAO ­ South Atlantic Ocean, SIO ­ South Indian Ocean, OCE ­ Oceania. 5 #12

Meskhidze, Nicholas

195

29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN BEND POND LABELLED 'SETTLING BASIN,' STEAM/DIESEL PLANT AND OTHER FEATURES. 1951 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

196

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

197

Rock Climbers in Indian Creek, Utah: The Next Environmental Menace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highway 211 in southeastern Utah is a spur that leads you through the Indian Creek Valley and west to the Needles District of Canyonlands National Park. It is a lonely road, or at least it used to be, whose path skirts the north foothills of the Abajo Mountains, and catches up with Indian Creek as it carves down through the

Amelia Patterson

198

Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

199

The lost-wax casting of icons, utensils, bells, and other items in South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian artisans and craftsmen have long been masters at extracting and shaping metals and alloys, as proven by archaeological finds from the 2nd—3rd millennia B.C. For example, two well-known artifacts, castings of the dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro and the Mother Goddess of Adichanallur, Tamilnadu, depict a high degree of metallurgical knowledge. Those castings were formed by the lost wax process, which later was modified and became known as investment casting. In various parts of India, this age-old casting process is still being practiced, without any major modifications. This paper discusses details of the process used by the Indian artisans of Swamimalai, Tamilnadu, and Mannar, Kerala, South India in shaping copper-base alloys into icons and utensils, bells, and lamps.

Pillai, R. M.; Pilhii, S. G. K.; Damodaran, A. D.

2002-10-01

200

PGC-1alpha Thr394Thr and Gly482Ser variants are significantly associated with T2DM in two North Indian populations: a replicate case-control study.  

PubMed

The recent observations that Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1A) is responsible for the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying agents and that ROS triggers insulin resistance, support the role that this gene could play in the onset of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two PGC1A variants Thr394Thr (rs2970847) and Gly482Ser (rs8192673) were genotyped in 822 subjects (351 T2DM cases and 471 controls) from two North Indian populations, represented as Group 1 (Kashmir population) and Group 2 (Punjab and Jammu population). Both Groups 1 and 2 showed a significant association of Thr394Thr variant with T2DM after applying Bonferroni corrections (P=0.001 and 0.012, respectively). Logistic regression analysis for Thr394Thr susceptible genotypes together (rs2970847 G/A and A/A) conferred a 1.89-(95%CI 1.25-2.85) fold higher risk for T2DM in Group 1 and 1.81-(95%CI 1.19-2.78) fold risk in Group 2. The susceptible, Ser482 (rs8192673 G/A and A/A) genotypes, gave a 2.04 (95%CI 1.47-3.03) fold higher risk for T2DM in Group 1. Mitochondrial genotype backgrounds observed in association with T2DM (Bhat et al. 2007), when studied in combination with PGC1A variants, showed an increased prevalence in controls with mt10398G and 16189T along with G/G genotype background at the two polymorphic loci of PGC1A. These observations suggest that the two genotype backgrounds together could provide protection against T2DM. PMID:17390150

Bhat, Audesh; Koul, Anil; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Swarkar; Dhar, M K; Bamezai, R N K

2007-06-01

201

A Winning Cast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

2001-01-01

202

The Indian Reorganization Act in Nevada: Creation of the Yomba Reservation  

E-print Network

Laguna Niguel, Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of IndianIndians [of Nye County north of Beatty] own[ed] about 300 head of cattle and perhaps 50 head of horses" (LagunaLaguna Niguel, "The Nye County Shoshone Project"), The Nye County Shoshone Committee was organized in response to the efforts of the Indian

Rusco, Elmer R.

1991-01-01

203

"The Bewitching Tyranny of Custom": The Social Costs of Indian Drinking in Colonial America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colonial accounts depict how the alcohol trade destabilized Indian communities in colonial British America during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Despite the social costs of alcohol use within Indian communities, liquor remained a staple of Indian-colonist trade, perhaps because it facilitated the conquest of eastern North America. (LP)

Mancall, Peter C.

1993-01-01

204

Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps  

DOEpatents

Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Schaeffer, Jon Conrad (Greenville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT)

2002-01-01

205

Women psychiatrists--Indian impetus.  

PubMed

Incredible India is a multicultural, multilingual, multifaceted, country of contradictions, where the women mental health professionals are participating in substantially increasing numbers. Evolving social, cultural and economical factors have facilitated the empowerment of women which is reflected in the health services. The contemporary Indian Woman Medical Professional is liberated, articulate and free. Remunerative employment has decreased economic vulnerability and dependence on men. Her decisions though, from choosing medicine as a vocation, opting for psychiatry, to specializing in a particular field are all coloured by class, caste, sex, region and religion. Cultural expectations and influences set norms for all in a society, dictating the behaviour and attitude of colleagues, superiors, patients, family and that of the psychiatrist herself. Egalitarianism, while on the rise, the long tradition of social hierarchies replicates themselves in professional arenas. An ever increasing number, women are still less than 10% of all Indian psychiatrists. Women psychiatrists continue to be underrepresented as policy makers in most psychiatric organizations and institutes. This article will discuss some of the experiences of the young Indian woman psychiatrist influencing her life architecture. PMID:18833903

Ruksheda, Syeda N

2008-01-01

206

Omaha Indian Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The oral traditions of many North American Indian groups are generally well known, though access to existing sound recordings and the like can often be limited to on-site listening booths at major museums and archives. This nice collection of traditional music from the Omaha tribe is a fine way to begin learning about these traditions. The online exhibit was created by the American Memory project at the Library of Congress and includes traditional Omaha music both from the 1890s and the 1980s. The selections from the 1890s include 44 wax cylinder recordings made by Francis La Flesche and Alice Cunningham Fletcher. Equally compelling are the 323 songs from the 1983 Omaha harvest celebration powwow that are also available here. The collection also includes a brief introductory essay, fieldnotes from the 1983 powwow, and an original program from the 1983 celebration.

207

International Indian Treaty Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is "an organization of indigenous peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the sovereignty and self determination of indigenous peoples." To achieve their broad goals, the IITC works to support networks of indigenous peoples around the world through their policy work in areas that include global trade, women's rights, reproductive health, and the environment. On their homepage, visitors can browse through thematic headings on the left-hand side of the page, such as "Treaty Conferences", "Cultural Rights", "Health/Toxics", and about a dozen additional listings. Visitors should also click on the "Web Content" tab to read flyers, United Nations resolutions, and draft declarations. Also, visitors can sign up to subscribe to the IITC's electronic news updates here.

208

Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique. [CF8M  

SciTech Connect

ELectroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several valve body castings of 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni(Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, Charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and sand castings.

Sikka, V.K.; Mitchell, A.

1984-01-01

209

The American Indian Studies Committee Interdisciplinary Major (CIM) is a program that  

E-print Network

The American Indian Studies Committee Interdisciplinary Major (CIM) is a program that provides students with a thorough understanding of the Native American tribal nations in North America. All of North America at one time was American Indian land; however most of it was gradually transferred to the United

Saldin, Dilano

210

The relation between caste ratios and division of labor in the ant genus Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten species of Pheidole, representing as many species groups from various localities in North and South America, Asia, and Africa, were analyzed to probe for possible relationships between caste ratios and division of labor.

Edward O. Wilson

1984-01-01

211

Swift fox reintroductions on the Blackfeet Indian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swift foxes (Vulpes velox) were once common prairie inhabitants throughout western North America and were integral components within ecosystems and some Native American tri- bal cultures. In response to extirpation from tribal lands, the Blackfeet Tribe and Defenders of Wildlife reintroduced 123 captive-raised swift foxes from 1998 to 2002 to the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana, USA. We used two success

David E. Ausband; Kerry R. Foresman

212

American Indian Prose and Poetry. An Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this anthology of translations of American Indian prose and poetry, it is pointed out that differences in styles and mental attitudes of various tribes are reflected through self-expression. In keeping with this, the compilation is organized according to geographical regions in North and South America, including Mexico and Central America.…

Astrov, Margot, Ed.

213

Indian cultural effects on user research methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern user research techniques such as Think Aloud usability testing were mainly designed and refined in Europe and North America. These techniques perform substantially differently in traditional Indian culture due to the participants' perception of social status differences between them and the moderator(s). Understanding and controlling these effects can make the difference between a successful research project and one that

Jack Beaton; Ripul Kumar

2010-01-01

214

American Indians: Hands-On Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes some of the teaching methods she uses to teach how different American Indian groups lived in different regions of the North American continent. Her lessons include a number of projects: (1) Practicing symbolic writing; (2) Creating a personal timeline; (3) Studying winter counts and creating a personalized…

Rethlefsen, Ann Lyle

2006-01-01

215

Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

Bryde, John F.

216

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 CASTING SHED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE #2 CASTING SHED IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE STOVES AND TOP WORKS OF THE #1 FURNACE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

217

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds; each pour is done with a three-man crew - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

218

Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 2 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 3 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 4 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 5 #12

Hickey, Barbara

219

DIVISION 04 MASONRY 04720 CAST STONE  

E-print Network

DIVISION 04 ­ MASONRY _____________________________________________________________ 04720 CAST STONE A. Design Considerations 1. Cast stone shall comply with ASTM C1364, Standard Specification for Cast Stone. 2. Care must be taken in the design of individual units of cast stone, working within

220

Casting Of Multilayer Ceramic Tapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedure for casting thin, multilayer ceramic membranes, commonly called tapes, involves centrifugal casting at accelerations of 1,800 to 2,000 times normal gravitational acceleration. Layers of tape cast one at a time on top of any previous layer or layers. Each layer cast from slurry of ground ceramic suspended in mixture of solvents, binders, and other components. Used in capacitors, fuel cells, and electrolytic separation of oxygen from air.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.

1991-01-01

221

True North, Magnetic North  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand why compass angles need to be corrected for regional magnetic variation. The magnetic compass, perfected slowly over years of experimentation, trial, and scientific endeavor, became the sailor's most common and most reliable direction-indicating aid, but is influenced by magnetic variabilities and the location of magnetic north. Terms introduced include compass, magnetic variation, true north, and magnetic north.

222

Magnesium die casting properties  

SciTech Connect

Numerous innovative applications of magnesium alloy die castings have recently been introduced by the automotive industry. This is the result of dedicated long-term development involving end users, die casters, and equipment and material suppliers. It is realized that superior product performance can only by obtained by fully exploiting the synergy of optimum design, processing route, and material selection. A particularly good example is provided by the rapid growth of magnesium die casting applications for safety parts, requiring high fracture toughness. In such applications, the favorable intrinsic properties of magnesium die casting alloys have been exploited to an extent which was formerly not believed possible. Introduction of new alloys such as AM50 has further expanded the range of properties attainable. Standard references on alloy properties do not reflect these developments, and there is a strong need for updated information. These data, reflecting recent advances in alloy chemistry and die casting technology, should be more current than those available in most sources of physical and mechanical properties.

NONE

1995-08-01

223

Cool Cast Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... may tell you to cover it with a plastic bag while you shower or you can get a special waterproof sleeve to cover it. Depending on where your cast or splint is on your body, you may find it easier to take a ...

224

Number Suppletion in North American Indian Languages  

E-print Network

. A Grammar of Southeastern Porno. UCPL 72. Newman, Stanley. 1965. Zuni Grammar. University of New Mexico Publi cations in Anthropology 14. Parks, Douglas R. 1976. A Grammar of Pawnee. New York: Garland. Radin, Paul. 1929. A Grammar of the Wappo...

Booker, Karen M.

1982-01-01

225

Mix/Cast Contamination Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

Wallentine, M.

2005-01-01

226

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the

Michael Bamshad; Toomas Kivisild; W. Scott Watkins; Mary E. Dixon; Chris E. Ricker; Baskara B. Rao; J. Mastan Naidu; B. V. Ravi Prasad; P. Govinda Reddy; Arani Rasanayagam; Surinder S. Papiha; Richard Villems; Alan J. Redd; Michael F. Hammer; Son V. Nguyen; Marion L. Carroll; Mark A. Batzer; Lynn B. Jorde

2001-01-01

227

Gender Inequity in Education and Employment in the Scheduled Castes and Tribes of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using ethnographic and statistical data, this paper presents a descriptive profile of scheduled caste and tribe women's status in Indian society. Findings indicate that relative to men, women in these groups have far more limited access to both educational and employment resources. (Contains 73 references.) (MDH)

Dunn, Dana

1993-01-01

228

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

229

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

230

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

231

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

232

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

233

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

234

Precision cast vs. wrought superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While cast polycrystalline superalloys recommend themselves in virtue of better 'buy-to-fly' ratios and higher strengthening gamma-prime volume fractions than those of wrought superalloys, the expansion of their use into such critical superalloy applications as gas turbine hot section components has been slowed by insufficient casting process opportunities for microstructural control. Attention is presently drawn, however, to casting process developments facilitating the production of defect-tolerant superalloy castings having improved fracture reliability. Integrally bladed turbine wheel and thin-walled turbine exhaust case near-net-shape castings have been produced by these means.

Tien, J. K.; Borofka, J. C.; Casey, M. E.

1986-01-01

235

AMCC casting development, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

1995-01-01

236

Towards the Creation of Appropriate Teaching Materials for High Proficiency ESL Learners: The Case of Indian Management Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of the textbooks used to teach Indian management students are South East Asian editions of U.S. publications. Although these provide a great deal of information on the business world, particularly in a North American context, outside of India, they do not always meet the needs of either the Indian ESL Learner, or of Indian business and…

Nickerson, Catherine

2008-01-01

237

Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 1 CTD002 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 2 CTD002 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 3 CTD002 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 4 CTD002 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 2

Hickey, Barbara

238

Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 1 CTD006 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 2 CTD006 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 3 CTD006 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 4 CTD006 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts

Hickey, Barbara

239

Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD006 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 1 #12;CTD006 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 2 #12;CTD006 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 3 #12;CTD006 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 4 #12;CTD006 Hickey, TT162, casts 6

Hickey, Barbara

240

Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 1 CTD003 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 2 CTD003 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 3 CTD003 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 4 CTD003 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 3

Hickey, Barbara

241

Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy  

SciTech Connect

The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

1998-11-01

242

American Indian Population in South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

Hess, Donna

243

Design for die casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to establish methods and a system for transforming finished (machined) part designs into shapes that are die castable. The major contribution from this work is a consistent and systematic method of analysing the shape of die castings. This research is necessary because computer-aided design\\/manufacturing\\/engineering (CAD\\/CAM\\/CAE) systems are only loosely coupled, making manufacturability analysis very

S. Y. LIOU; R. A. MILLER

1991-01-01

244

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-01-29

245

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-11-26

246

Continuous Casting for Aluminum Sheet: a Product Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous casting processes have been used successfully for more than 50 years to reduce the cost of manufacturing a variety of aluminum rolled products. Approximately 25% of North American flat-rolled sheet and foil is sourced from twin-roll cast or slab cast processes. Twin roll-casters provide a cost-effective solution for producing foil and light-gauge sheet from relatively low-alloyed aluminum (1xxx and 8xxx alloys). Slab casters, particularly Hazelett twin-belt machines, are well utilized in the production of 3xxx or 5xxx painted building products which require moderate strength and good corrosion resistance. Both foil and painted sheet are cost-sensitive commodity products with well-known metallurgical and quality requirements. There have been extensive trials and modest successes with continuous cast can stock and automotive sheet. However, they have not been widely adopted commercially due to generally lower levels of surface quality and formability compared with sheet produced from scalped direct chill (DC) cast ingot. The metallurgical requirements for can and auto sheet are considered in more detail with emphasis on the microstructural features which limit their application, e.g., particle distribution, grain size, and texture. Looking forward, slab casting offers the most viable opportunity for producing strong (i.e., higher alloy content), formable structural auto sheet with acceptable surface quality.

Sanders, Robert E.

2012-02-01

247

Metal casting extended assessments  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the Industrial Assessment Center program of the US Department of Energy initiated Extended Assessments as an option for some of their in-plant assessments. Intended for larger, more complex manufacturing facilities, the multi-day Extended Assessment allows the plant assessment team to explore more complex recommendations with the intent of encouraging major process and equipment changes. In this paper the authors describe the results of Extended Assessments at plants in the Metal Casting Industry, one of the DOE Industries of the Future. They visited five plants, two foundries and three die casting plants, with combined annual sales of $134 million and a combined annual production volume of 35,300 tons. The recommendations offered potential savings to each plant of an average $417,000 or 1.5% of average gross sales. A number of generalizations can be observed based on the assessments in the cast metals industry. First is that many of the smaller firms in this industry have been slow to adopt innovative technology. Off the shelf technologies are available that will help these firms reach the 21st Century. The concept of remelt of metal or scrap in the plant is an operation that can be improved. They found approximately two pounds of metal melted for every pound shipped. Finally, many opportunities exist outside of the core plant operations to reduce operating costs.

Ambs, L.; Kosanovic, D.; Muller, M.; Kasten, D.

1999-07-01

248

Ecological organization of Indian society.  

PubMed

Some of the factors involved in securing the well being of an Indian rural population in a sustainable and environmentally sound fashion are discussed. Population pressure on the land and declining productivity threaten the balance between man and nature. The options are to provide outside technological inputs and/or to empower the rural population who may be able to provide an intimate knowledge of the local environment and must be organized and motivated to value and protect their resource base. Attention in paid to the Indian caste system, resource use diversification, group size and range, group dynamics, elites and the ecosystem, the drain on rural resources, the iron triangle of beneficiaries of subsidies, of administrators of subsidies, and of politicians, and the growing strife. The Indian caste system is differentiated by its subgroups which maintain communication within the subgroup, and resource access is determined by an individual's affiliation with the subgroup. It is not a smooth continuum between subgroups. Inequalities in resource access can create social tensions and/or partitioning of resources. The example is given of the subgroups Gavlis and Kunbis, in the Western Ghats in Pune district of Maharashtra, where exchanges are made for livestock or surplus grain, and the multicaste system of 40 subgroups in Uttara Kannada, with occupations specific to each subgroup. In order to function effectively as a subgroup the numbers must be limited or splinter groups develop. Several estimates of possible ranges are given, i.e., an upper limit of 10,000 or the equivalent of a subcaste and 10-20 endogenous groups/larger village with an area of 1000 km. Mergers and group splits are described among the Gavlis in Western Ghat and Tirumal Nadivallas and settlers of the Andaman Islands. Historically, communities were self-sufficient and surrounded elite communities; they had their own self-government and organized local resources for sustainable use, even though this was sometimes inequitable but not overexploited. Elites formed on the surplus of resources, but there was little outflow to other regions. British colonial rule made tremendous changes which led to the lack of security within depressed subgroups. The resources were controlled by the elite in the iron triangle at the expense of the small landholder, landless agricultural workers, village artisans, tribals and nomads, and urban slum dwellers. There was no reason for efficient resource use, and development was wasteful and benefited the elites. Regionalism is growing as well as tension between the elites and the poorer members of minorities. PMID:12285490

Gadgil, M

1991-01-01

249

National Indian Education Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

Harvey, Karen Kay

2006-01-01

250

Urban American Indian Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document begins by dispelling several misperceptions about American Indians that are especially pernicious to older American Indians living in cities, and then goes on to discuss what is known about urban American Indian elders and the implications for planning and service delivery for Area Agencies on Aging and contractor agencies. It notes…

Kramer, Josea

251

American Indian Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quick look at the literature in American Indian studies reveals that it is divided about equally between historical research and studies of contemporary American Indians, reflecting the strong influence of history and anthropology in the field. American Indian studies overlaps many disciplines. Characterized as an "area study," it is unified by…

Snipp, C. Matthew

252

Nevada Indians Speak.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anthology presents Indian works which reflect the attitudes of the native Indian people of the State of Nevada, commencing with the possible first White-Indian contact in the 1820's when Anglo American fur trappers and Mexican traders entered the Great Basin. The writer points out in the Preface that no effort has been made to exclude native…

Forbes, Jack D., Ed.

253

Minnesota Indian Resources Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second edition of the directory of organizations operating in the Indian communities throughout the State of Minnesota is an attempt to compile all current information on resources available to the Minnesota Indian. The introductory section discusses the problems faced by the Indian American in urban sectors with reference to their life styles…

Mayer, Catherine M., Comp.; And Others

254

Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

Wilson, James

255

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200°C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

256

Fiber-Reinforced Slip Castings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition of silica fibers greatly reduces shrinkage and cracking during casting of ceramics. Fiber-reinforced slip-cast silica ceramics are also tougher and have lower dielectric loss. Silica fibers are hyperpure material containing only 1 part per million total metal-ion impurities. Hyperpure fibers ensure high reflectance and allow casting to be fired at temperature greater than 2,200 degrees F without loss of strength from devitrification.

Blome, J. C.; Drennan, D. N.; Keeser, H. M.

1982-01-01

257

Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator  

DOEpatents

A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-11-10

258

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

259

Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47 Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47 Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47, page 1 CTD038 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47 Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47, page 2 CTD039 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47 Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47, page 3 CTD039 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47 Hickey, TT162, Casts 38-47, page 4 CTD040 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

260

Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95 Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95 Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95, page 1 CTD091 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95 Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95, page 2 CTD091 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95 Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95, page 3 CTD091 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95 Hickey, TT136, casts 91-95, page 4 CTD091 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

261

Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82 Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82 Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82, page 1 CTD073 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82 Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82, page 2 CTD073 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82 Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82, page 3 CTD073 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82 Hickey, TT162, Casts 73-82, page 4 CTD074 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

262

Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 1 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 2 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 3 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 4 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201

Hickey, Barbara

263

Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 1 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 2 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 3 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 4 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

264

Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55 Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55, pager 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55 Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55, pager 1 CTD052 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55 Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55, pager 2 CTD052 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55 Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55, pager 3 CTD052 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55 Hickey, TT136, casts 52-55, pager 4 CTD052 #12;Hickey, TT

Hickey, Barbara

265

Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 1 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 2 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 3 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 4 #12;CTD041

Hickey, Barbara

266

Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 1 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 2 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 3 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 4 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

267

Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 1 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 2 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 3 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 4 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

268

Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 1 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 2 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 3 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 4 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

269

Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 1 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 2 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 3 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 4 #12;CTD037

Hickey, Barbara

270

Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 1 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 2 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 3 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts

Hickey, Barbara

271

Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 1 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 2 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 3 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 4 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

272

Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49 Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49 Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49, page 1 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49 Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49, page 2 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49 Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49, page 3 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49 Hickey, TT162, Casts 48-49, page 4 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

273

Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 1 CTD011 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 2 CTD011 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 3 CTD012 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 4 CTD013 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

274

Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72 Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72 Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72, page 1 CTD063 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72 Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72, page 2 CTD063 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72 Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72, page 3 CTD063 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72 Hickey, TT162, Casts 63-72, page 4 CTD064 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

275

Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 1 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 2 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 3 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 4 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

276

Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32 Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32 Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32, page 1 CTD026 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32 Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32, page 2 CTD026 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32 Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32, page 3 CTD027 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32 Hickey, W8201, casts 26-32, page 4 CTD027 #12;Hickey, W8201

Hickey, Barbara

277

Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD001 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 1 #12;CTD001 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 2 #12;CTD002 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 3 #12;CTD002 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 4 #12;CTD003 Hickey, W8201

Hickey, Barbara

278

Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 1 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 2 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 3 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 4 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

279

Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 1 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 2 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 3 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 4 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

280

Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47 Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47 Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47, page 1 CTD046 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47 Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47, page 2 CTD046 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47 Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47, page 3 CTD046 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47 Hickey, TT136, casts 46-47, page 4 CTD046 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

281

Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 1 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 2 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 3 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 4 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

282

Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 1 CTD017 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 2 CTD017 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 3 CTD018 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 4 CTD018 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

283

Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 1 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 2 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 3 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 4 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

284

2. GENERAL VIEW OF BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW OF BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; BOILER HOUSE ON LEFT; BLAST FURNACE, OVENS AND CASTING HOUSE BEYOND. - U.S. Steel Corporation, Clairton Works, Blast Furnace Blowing Engine Building, 400 State Street, Clairton, Allegheny County, PA

285

RAPID THICK STRIP CASTING - CONTINUOUS CASTING WITH MOVING MOULDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moving mould for the future… Due to mechanical reasons, conventional lubricated oscillating moulds limit the casting velocity. If the friction in the mould grows too strongly, the thin strand shell can tear, in a worst case followed by a breakout. However these constraints are not applicable to moving moulds. RTSC (Rapid Thick Strip Casting) is an innovative concept for the

R. Nagy; A. J. Hulek; D. Senk

286

Decadal trends in Indian Ocean ambient sound.  

PubMed

The increase of ocean noise documented in the North Pacific has sparked concern on whether the observed increases are a global or regional phenomenon. This work provides evidence of low frequency sound increases in the Indian Ocean. A decade (2002-2012) of recordings made off the island of Diego Garcia, UK in the Indian Ocean was parsed into time series according to frequency band and sound level. Quarterly sound level comparisons between the first and last years were also performed. The combination of time series and temporal comparison analyses over multiple measurement parameters produced results beyond those obtainable from a single parameter analysis. The ocean sound floor has increased over the past decade in the Indian Ocean. Increases were most prominent in recordings made south of Diego Garcia in the 85-105?Hz band. The highest sound level trends differed between the two sides of the island; the highest sound levels decreased in the north and increased in the south. Rate, direction, and magnitude of changes among the multiple parameters supported interpretation of source functions driving the trends. The observed sound floor increases are consistent with concurrent increases in shipping, wind speed, wave height, and blue whale abundance in the Indian Ocean. PMID:24180757

Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Bradley, David L; Niu, Xiaoyue Maggie

2013-11-01

287

COMPARISON OF FATIGUE BEHAVIOR FOR CENTRIFUGALLY CAST AND KEEL BLOCK CAST STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine if location through the wall thickness of centrifugal castings affects fatigue properties and to compare fatigue and monotonic tensile properties of centrifugal castings to statically cast keel block castings. Specimens were machined from centrifugal and keel block AISI 8630 steel castings. Centrifugal casting specimens were taken from three different locations (outer, middle

J. J. Gradman; R. I. Stephens; R. A. Hardin; C. Beckermann

288

Thermal fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the weekly measurements made by the advanced very high resolution radiometers of NOAA satellites were used to investigate the structure and space-time variability of large-scale fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean (30-60S and 20-150E) during the period of 1997-1999. Monthly SST gradient gave an overall view of five basic fronts: the North and South

A. G. Kostianoy; A. I. Ginzburg; M. Frankignoulle; B. Delille

2003-01-01

289

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2013-04-01

290

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2011-04-01

291

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

...8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2014-04-01

292

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2012-04-01

293

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2010-04-01

294

Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

Mihalow, Paula

1980-01-01

295

Surface carburization of steel castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shaping methods based on sand-resin mixtures have undoubted benefits and accordingly are increas? ingly used in the manufacture of highperformance iron, steel, and nonferrousalloy castings. However, they cannot be unconditionally recommended for lowcarbon steel castings. This is because heat from the molten metal destroys the organic components present in such molds. At low temperatures (150 °C), these mixtures mainly emit

E. B. Ten; O. A. Kol’; I. B. Badmazhapova; M. P. Klyuev

2011-01-01

296

Friction drilling of cast metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the friction drilling process, a nontraditional hole-making technique, for cast metals. In friction drilling, a rotating conical tool is applied to penetrate work-material and create a bushing in a single step without generating chip. The cast aluminum and magnesium alloys, two materials studied, are brittle compared to the ductile metal workpiece material used in previous friction drilling

Scott F. Miller; Jia Tao; Albert J. Shih

2006-01-01

297

Electroslag component casting. [Nickel aluminide  

SciTech Connect

This project is directed toward the development of electroslag-casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is also to develop a sufficient data base to permit electroslag casting to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. A total of 32 electroslag castings of 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, type 316, and nickel aluminide were procured from four facilities for evaluation (Table 1). The most complex castings procured during this program were the valve bodies shown in Figure 2. The castings were subjected to various heat treatments (Table 2), checked for chemical composition uniformity from top to bottom, and subjected to macrostructural evaluation and mechanical properties testing. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Sikka, V.K.

1986-01-01

298

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

299

North Pole Environmental Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) is a collection of the University of Washington's year-round un-manned scientific platforms in the Central Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Researchers will find images, data, and other information about the three types of measurement systems: Drifting Buoys, Oceanographic Mooring, and Aerial Surveys of Hydrographic Casts. Viewers can find links to the weather and other atmospheric conditions at the observatory. The site also provides links to news coverage pertaining to NPEO. Students can study the circulation patterns of the Freshwater Switchyard of the Arctic Ocean. Everyone can learn about the international research team's yearly expeditions to the observatory.

300

An evaluation of fiberglass cast application techniques.  

PubMed

Cylindrical casts constructed from 2, 3, 4, and 5 inch widths of fiberglass casting material were evaluated for strength in bending using an unstable fracture model. Five-inch casting material produced the strongest casts. The effect of longitudinal splinting with 2-inch fiberglass tape was evaluated in cylindrical casts constructed from 4-inch tape. Casts with splints on the compression side or with splints on both the tension and compression sides were stronger in bending than casts with a single splint on the tension side or casts without splints. PMID:7778250

Wilson, D G; Vanderby, R

1995-01-01

301

The Indian as American  

E-print Network

, had anything to do with Indians. Wherever American characteristics developed, they were not Indian characteristics. Most of the large-scale schemes we use to explain how Americans got that way similarly fail when applied to the Indian, because he... doctrinaire or systematic views as well. Millennialism, for instance, is understood to be a theological formalization of related ideas. Millenarian thinking antedates settlement, but it is interesting to see how closely it is tied over the centuries...

Levine, Stuart

1965-01-01

302

Indian medical journals.  

PubMed

Although Indian doctors produce half the articles published from the third world, little has been written about Indian medical journals. We examined 75 of the 113 serious English-language journals published in India. Of the 22 included in the Cumulated Index Medicus only 8 were judged by Indian and foreign referees to be of international standard. A survey of Indian authors indicated that foreign journals were chosen for the best papers because of their wider circulation, better refereeing practices, and punctuality. More than 98% of medical articles from India probably go unnoticed by the international medical community. PMID:1351561

Sahni, P; Reddy, P P; Kiran, R; Reddy, K S; Pande, G K; Nundy, S

1992-06-27

303

48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

2010-10-01

304

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

305

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

306

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

307

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

308

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

309

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

310

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

311

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

312

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

313

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

314

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

315

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

316

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

317

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

318

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

319

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

320

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

321

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

322

75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

2010-02-23

323

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

324

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

325

Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides) Germination affected by irrigation and bagging during seed production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy is the primary factor limiting stand establishment of Indian ricegrass [Oryzopsis hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Ricker] in rangeland reseedings in western North America. Our objective was to determine if irrigation or bagging of plants during seed production affected dormancy of two Indian ricegrass accessions, the cultivar Paloma and the experimental population PI 478833. Bagging of inflorescences for research

T. A. Jones; D. C. Nielson

1994-01-01

326

Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Volume 1, 4th Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 1 of the fourth edition of the encyclopedia contains directory and descriptive listings of organizations in the United States and Canada, resource materials concerning North American Indians, and a bibliography of in-print books about the American Indian. The first section of the volume contains source listings of government agencies,…

Klein, Barry T., Ed.

327

Factors and Events Leading to the Passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the historical background, contemporary factors, issues, and activities that led to the enactment of the Indian Child Welfare Act. Discusses actions of the Devils Lake Sioux of North Dakota in 1968 and involvement of the Association on American Indian Affairs, which led to Senate hearings in 1974 and passage of the act in 1978. (TM)

Mannes, Marc

1995-01-01

328

Communication and Conflict Resolution in Managing Tribal Governance Issues among American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In traditional North American Indian societies, decisions are made by consensus rather than by authorities. Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO), an organization concerned with the issue of tribal governance, considers poor communication and disagreements about issues of power, resources, and recognition to be among the causes for conflict…

Broome, Benjamin J.

329

25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

2010-04-01

330

The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

Bunge, Robert P.

1978-01-01

331

Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian has a beautiful online exhibit, Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian which is meant to accompany the in situ exhibition in Washington D.C. and New York. Scholder's work is the subject of much debate in the world of Native Art, as his work has no obvious Native American imagery in it and he oftentimes denied he was Native American. By clicking on "Biography" near the top of the page, a list of links, "The Early Years", "The IAIA Years", and "The 70s and After" will appear. Below these links a clickable timeline also appears which advances when rolled over with the mouse. Another way to get an introduction to Scholder's life and the exhibit is to click on the "Podcasts" link near the top of the page. The first podcast listed is "Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian". Visitors should also not miss looking at his bold and sometimes disturbing paintings and sculptures, under the "Works" tab near the top of the page. They can be viewed by either D.C. or New York displays, as well as by "Curator's Choice", which is the default view. Each piece of work is also accompanied by commentary offered by the curators. Just click on the artwork, and under the bottom right hand corner of the image is a speaker to click on, complete with the name of the curator doing the commentary.

2008-01-01

332

Instant Casting Movie Theater: The Future Cast System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a visual entertainment system called “Future Cast” which enables anyone to easily participate in a pre-recorded or pre-created film as an instant CG movie star. This system provides audiences with the amazing opportunity to join the cast of a movie in real-time. The Future Cast System can automatically perform all the processes required to make this possible, from capturing participants' facial characteristics to rendering them into the movie. Our system can also be applied to any movie created using the same production process. We conducted our first experimental trial demonstration of the Future Cast System at the Mitsui-Toshiba pavilion at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi Japan.

Maejima, Akinobu; Wemler, Shuhei; Machida, Tamotsu; Takebayashi, Masao; Morishima, Shigeo

333

Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

1993-01-01

334

Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan  

E-print Network

Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM;Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan

Hickey, Barbara

335

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

336

Contemporary American Indian Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his keynote address to the Fifth Annual American Indian Studies Consortium in 2005 David Wilkins began by commenting on earlier attempts to formally organize such a gathering in ways that might help establish and accredit Indian studies programs. He said he had the sense that the thrust of earlier meetings "was really an opportunity for Native…

Larson, Sidner

2009-01-01

337

INDIAN BACKGROUNDS Patuxent Wildlife  

E-print Network

of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12;#12;INDIAN BACKGROUNDS of the Patuxent Wildlife Research of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12; Exhibit the Indian hunted with spear and arrow to supply the necessities of life--food, clothing, and shelter

338

The Omaha Indians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly recounting the history of the Omaha American Indians, this article makes a plea for relocation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs local Agency in Macy near the Omaha reservation, suggesting that the Returned Students movement is a response to this need for the Agency's relocation. (JC)

Springer, W. F.

1976-01-01

339

An American Indian Anthology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anthology is intended to be a discovery for the many Americans whose superficial knowledge of the American Indians has been derived from history books, Hollywood films, and other stereotyped views of the Indian culture. Understanding and appreciation of a particular culture can be found in the stories and poetry of the people. This small…

Tvedten, Benet, Comp.

340

Titanium investiment casting defects: A metallographic overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although titanium castings have been used in aerospace structures for decades, those uses have largely been in secondary applications. Expanding the use of titanium castings in critical applications would be encouraged by a better understanding of investment casting defects in titanium alloy systems. This paper describes several types of casting-related defects that are identified as potentially affecting the design life

J. D. Cotton; L. P. Clark; H. R. Phelps

2006-01-01

341

Simulation of Dimensional Changes in Steel Casting  

E-print Network

Simulation of Dimensional Changes in Steel Casting Shouzhu (Hans) Ou and Christoph Beckermann Pattern allowances in casting of steel are predicted using the casting simulation software MAGMASOFT casting due to thermal effects (temperature differences) and volume changes (e.g., shrinkage, sand

Beckermann, Christoph

342

Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide  

E-print Network

Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide Version B January 27, 2003 IM-1002 Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide General information and protocols for using Novex® pre-cast gels www.invitrogen.com tech.....................................................................................................................1 Novex® Pre-Cast Gels

Kirschner, Marc W.

343

Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 1 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 2 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 3 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 4 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136

Hickey, Barbara

344

Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael

1993-01-01

345

Reclamation of Indian Historical Icons and Indian Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reclamation of Indian Historical Icons and Indian Identity studies how aboriginal artists-playwrights, filmmakers, and authors-use their art to take back appropriated Indian historical icons from their place in the colonizers' imperialist history, and to create representations of Indians that counteract the stereotypical ones created by the colonizers. Sherman Alexie and Monique Mojica work in a number of different genres, and

Danijela Jovic

2002-01-01

346

Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

Velie, Alan R.

1984-01-01

347

Investment casting design of experiment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Specific steps in the investment casting process were analyzed in a designed experiment. The casting`s sensitivity to changes in these process steps was experimentally determined Dimensional and radiographic inspection were used to judge the sensitivity of the casting. Thirty-six castings of different pedigrees were poured and measured. Some of the dimensional inspection was conducted during the processing. It was confirmed that wax fixturing, number of gates, gate location, pour and mold temperature, pour speed, and cooling profile all affected the radiographic quality of the casting. Gate and runner assembly techniques, number of gates, and mold temperature affect the dimensional quality of the casting.

Owens, R.

1997-10-01

348

Multi-layer Clouds Over the South Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on April 23, 2003. These clouds occur at multiple altitudes and exhibit a noticeable cyclonic circulation over the Southern Indian Ocean, to the north of Enderbyland, East Antarctica.

The image at left was created by overlying a natural-color view from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) camera with a color-coded stereo height field. MISR retrieves heights by a pattern recognition algorithm that utilizes multiple view angles to derive cloud height and motion. The opacity of the height field was then reduced until the field appears as a translucent wash over the natural-color image. The resulting purple, cyan and green hues of this aesthetic display indicate low, medium or high altitudes, respectively, with heights ranging from less than 2 kilometers (purple) to about 8 kilometers (green). In the lower right corner, the edge of the Antarctic coastline and some sea ice can be seen through some thin, high cirrus clouds.

The right-hand panel is a natural-color image from MISR's 70-degree backward viewing camera. This camera looks backwards along the path of Terra's flight, and in the southern hemisphere the Sun is in front of this camera. This perspective causes the cloud-tops to be brightly outlined by the sun behind them, and enhances the shadows cast by clouds with significant vertical structure. An oblique observation angle also enhances the reflection of light by atmospheric particles, and accentuates the appearance of polar clouds. The dark ocean and sea ice that were apparent through the cirrus clouds at the bottom right corner of the nadir image are overwhelmed by the brightness of these clouds at the oblique view.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 17794. The panels cover an area of 335 kilometers x 605 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 142 to 145 within World Reference System-2 path 155.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

349

Energy and Technolgy Assessment of Zinc and Magnesium Casting Plants, Technical Report Close-out, August 25,2006  

SciTech Connect

Twin City Die Castings Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota, Twin City Die Castings Company was awarded project No. DE-FG36-05GO15097 to perform plant wide assessments of ten (10) die casting facilities that produce zinc and magnesium alloy castings in order to determine improvements and potential cost savings in energy use. Mr. Heider filled the role of team leader for the project and utilized the North American Die Casting Association (NADCA) to conduct audits at team participant plants so as to hold findings specific to each plant proprietary. The intended benefits of the project were to improve energy use through higher operational and process efficiency for the plants assessed. An improvement in energy efficiency of 5 – 15% was targeted. The primary objectives of the project was to: 1) Expand an energy and technology tool developed by the NADCA under a previous DOE project titled, “Energy and Technology Assessment for Die Casting Plants” for assessing aluminum die casting plants to be more specifically applicable to zinc and magnesium die casting facilities. 2) Conduct ten (10) assessments of zinc and magnesium die casting plants, within eight (8) companies, utilizing the assessment tool to identify, evaluate and recommend opportunities to enhance energy efficiency, minimize waste, and improve productivity. 3) Transfer the assessment tool to the die casting industry at large.

Twin City Die Castings Company; Tom Heider; North American Die Castings Association

2006-08-25

350

Indian Music for the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian Music for the Classroom presents the different styles of Indian music and their cultural contexts, with chapters on Indian culture and sound, Indian classical vocal and instrumental music, folk music, film music, and traditional popular musics. From Hindi-Pop to bhangra to the Urdu ghazal, the book covers them all, as well as national songs, children's songs, and the devotional

Natalie Rose Sarrrazin

2009-01-01

351

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

352

Swift fox reintroductions on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swift foxes (Vulpes velox) were once common prairie inhabitants throughout western North America and were integral components within ecosystems and some Native American tribal cultures. In response to extirpation from tribal lands, the Blackfeet Tribe and Defenders of Wildlife reintroduced 123 captive-raised swift foxes from 1998 to 2002 to the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana, USA. We used two success criteria,

David E. Ausband; Kerry R. Foresman

2007-01-01

353

Recycling and Reincarnation: the Journeys of Indian Saris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the consumption of recycled sari clothing by Western tourists in India. Second-hand saris are traded across north India, and re-made into new styles of clothing for the Western market by local tailors. The saris are cut up, destroying both the Indian form of the garment and the structure of patterns across its surface. These are then transformed

Lucy Norris

2008-01-01

354

47. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, NORTH WALL, BUFFALO HUNT MURAL (LEFT) AND BREAKING CAMP AT WARTIME MURAL (RIGHT) (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

355

Knowledge management practices in Indian information technology companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper lays the foundations for the best practices in knowledge management and investigates the degree of awareness and implementation of KM principles and practices in Indian information technology (IT) companies. A purposive sample of 10 IT companies in North India was chosen for study and a survey was conducted with the objective of investigating the degree of awareness

Abhilasha Singh; Ebrahim Soltani

2010-01-01

356

Indian Heritage: A Selected Book List for All Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book list, a sampling of resources from the Denver Public Library, pertains to the Indians of North America, especially those west of the Mississippi River. The annotated list is divided into two main parts: "Adult and Young Adult Books, Films, and Records" and "Children's Books, Films, and Records." The bulk of the list is adult and young…

Denver Public Library, CO.

357

Titan Casts Revealing Shadow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in diameter, which corresponds to the size of a dime as viewed from about two and a half miles. Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Unlike almost all of Chandra's images which are made by focusing X-ray emission from cosmic sources, Titan's X-ray shadow image was produced in a manner similar to a medical X-ray. That is, an X-ray source (the Crab Nebula) is used to make a shadow image (Titan and its atmosphere) that is recorded on film (Chandra's ACIS detector). Titan's atmosphere, which is about 95% nitrogen and 5% methane, has a pressure near the surface that is one and a half times the Earth's sea level pressure. Voyager I spacecraft measured the structure of Titan's atmosphere at heights below about 300 miles (500 kilometers), and above 600 miles (1000 kilometers). Until the Chandra observations, however, no measurements existed at heights in the range between 300 and 600 miles. Understanding the extent of Titan's atmosphere is important for the planners of the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will reach Saturn in July of this year to begin a four-year tour of Saturn, its rings and its moons. The tour will include close flybys of Titan that will take Cassini as close as 600 miles, and the launching of the Huygens probe that will land on Titan's surface. Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan "If Titan's atmosphere has really expanded, the trajectory may have to be changed." said Tsunemi. The paper on these results has been accepted and is expected to appear in a June 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other members of the research team were Haroyoski Katayama (Osaka University), David Burrows and Gordon Garmine (Penn State University), and Albert Metzger (JPL). Chandra observed Titan from 9:04 to 18:46 UT on January 5, 2003, using its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters,

2004-05-01

358

Indian concepts on sexuality.  

PubMed

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

359

Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.  

PubMed Central

North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin. PMID:861896

Johnston, J. L.; Williams, C. N.; Weldon, K. L.

1977-01-01

360

Indian Policy and Westward Expansion  

E-print Network

, Indian wars, the Pacific railroad project, the extension of the frontier, schemes for the civilization of the Indians, etc., are topics in Western history which are more or less unrelated in the form in which they have usually been treated. Indian.... CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Position of the Indian Country—Time during which problem developed—Factors determining Indian policy: Settlement of the Pacific Coast, Transcontinental lines of communication and transportation, Westward expansion in the Trans...

Malin, James Claude

1921-11-01

361

Development of a 3-D thermal model of the low-pressure die-cast (LPDC) process of A356 aluminum alloy wheels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of the low-pressure die casting process for the production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels has been developed to predict the evolution of temperature within the wheel and die under the auspices of a collaborative research agreement between researchers at the University of British Columbia and a North American wheel casting facility. The heat transfer model represents a

B. Zhang; D. M. Maijer; S. L. Cockcroft

2007-01-01

362

Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities  

PubMed Central

Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with “Caucasoid” populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

2013-01-01

363

Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings  

SciTech Connect

The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

2002-07-30

364

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

365

A Tale of Two Inlets: Tidal Currents at Two Adjacent Inlets in the Indian River Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tidal currents and hydrography at two adjacent inlets of the Indian River Lagoon estuary (Florida) were recently measured using a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system. Although the two inlets—Sebastian Inlet and Port Canaveral Inlet—are separated by only 60 km, their characteristics and dynamics are quite unique. While Sebastian Inlet is a shallow (~4 m), curved inlet with a free connection to the estuary, Port Canaveral Inlet is dominated by a deep (~13 m), straight ship channel and has limited connectivity to the Banana River through a sector gate lock. Underway measurements of tidal currents were obtained using a bottom tracking acoustic Doppler current profiler; vertical casts of hydrography were obtained with a conductivity-temperature-depth profiling instrument; and continuous underway measurements of surface water hydrography were made using a Portable SeaKeeper system. Survey transects were performed to elucidate the along-channel variability of tidal flows, which appears to be significant in the presence of channel curvature. Ebb and flood tidal currents in Sebastian Inlet routinely exceeded 2.5 m/s from the surface to the bed, and an appreciable phase lag exists between tidal stage and current magnitude. The tidal currents at Port Canaveral Inlet were much smaller (~0.2 m/s) and appeared to be sensitive to meteorological forcing during the study period. Although the lagoon has free connections to the ocean 145 km to the north and 45 km to the south, Sebastian Inlet likely drains much of the lagoon to its north, an area of ~550 sq. km.

Webb, B. M.; Weaver, R. J.

2012-12-01

366

CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 1 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 2 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 3 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 4 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21

Hickey, Barbara

367

CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 1 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 2 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 3 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 4 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23

Hickey, Barbara

368

CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 1 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 2 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 3 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 4 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19

Hickey, Barbara

369

Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.

370

20. Detail of low crib dam and apron, looking north. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Detail of low crib dam and apron, looking north. Building across river is part of Muckleshoot Indian fish hatchery, constructed in 1989. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

371

Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture  

PubMed Central

The Siddis (Afro-Indians) are a tribal population whose members live in coastal Karnataka, Gujarat, and in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the Siddis to India from Africa about 300–500 years ago; however, there is little information about their more precise ancestral origins. Here, we perform a genome-wide survey to understand the population history of the Siddis. Using hundreds of thousands of autosomal markers, we show that they have inherited ancestry from Africans, Indians, and possibly Europeans (Portuguese). Additionally, analyses of the uniparental (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA) markers indicate that the Siddis trace their ancestry to Bantu speakers from sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate that the admixture between the African ancestors of the Siddis and neighboring South Asian groups probably occurred in the past eight generations (?200 years ago), consistent with historical records. PMID:21741027

Shah, Anish M.; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S.; Bhaskar, L.V.K.S.; Reddy, Alla G.; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B.; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2011-01-01

372

Magnesium-lithium casting alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

1974-01-01

373

CAST results and Axion review  

E-print Network

We present results from the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), together with a brief review on prospects on Axion searches with a variety of experimental techniques. CAST has explored masses up to 0.64 eV setting the most stringent limit on the axion-photon coupling, apart for the micro-eV region where ADMX is the most competitive experiment. CAST is aiming at surpassing the 1eV WMAP upper limit and possibly revisiting the operation in vacuum with extra sensitive X-ray detectors, while ADMX, using improved extra sensitive SQUID amplifiers will explore the micro-eV mass range.

T. Geralis; for the CAST collaboration

2009-05-26

374

Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations  

SciTech Connect

Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

2004-03-15

375

North Pole  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will be able to browse through the north pole and read messages from Santa, his elves, the reindeer and get a North Pole weather report. our 'I E-Mailed Santa' button (North Pole Productions, a division of Internet Access Inc, Ottawa, Canada).

376

Prevalence of multidrug-resistant, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus in nasal carriage, food, wastewater and paper currency in Jalandhar city (north-western), an Indian state of Punjab.  

PubMed

Development of multidrug-resistant pattern in the bacterial community is a major threat to the society. Staphylococcus aureus is perhaps the pathogen of the greatest concern because of its inherent virulence, its ability to cause a diverse array of life-threatening situations and capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions. The aims of this study is to investigate the multidrug-resistant pattern of the coagulase-positive S. aureus isolated from nasal carriage, food, paper currency and wastewater samples. We had also studied the multiple antibiotic resistance index and in vitro production of ?-lactamase. The study had found out 130 coagulase-positive S. aureus strains isolated from total of 595 samples such as anterior nares of preschool children (195), hospital nurses (100), drivers (76), food (86), wastewater (3) and paper currency (135) (Indian rupee). The biotypes pattern were as follows; A > D > B > C> UT. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) value clearly defines the multidrug-resistant pattern of the S. aureus among different sources. Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) of results obtained indicated that the difference in the antibiotic resistance observed in the 130 bacterial isolates against the 23 different antibiotics used in this study was statically significant (p?

Kumar, Harsh; Palaha, Rajdeep; Kaur, Navreet; Ratnakar, Wankhede Swapnil; Sodi, Aakanksha; Kaur, Manmeet; Katiyar, Richa; Sharma, Mamta; Kaur, Charanpreet; Kumar, Virendra

2015-01-01

377

Cast-a-Box: Casting Conditions and Macroporosity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An illustration of three-dimensional finite difference simulation of heat conduction with phase change and complex boundary conditions, this requires students to adjust boundary conditions to make the top surface of a regular hexahedral "casting" to freeze last, eliminating macroporosity.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-08-24

378

14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT...castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or...supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Noncritical...

2010-01-01

379

14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT...castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or...supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Noncritical...

2013-01-01

380

14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT...castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or...supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Noncritical...

2011-01-01

381

14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL...castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or...supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d)...

2011-01-01

382

14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL...castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or...supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d)...

2012-01-01

383

14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT...castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or...supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d) Noncritical...

2012-01-01

384

14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL...castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or...supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d)...

2010-01-01

385

14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL...castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or...supports and attachments, and cabin pressure valves. (d)...

2013-01-01

386

AcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University  

E-print Network

AcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University March 13, 2013 Pierce: This is AcademiCast--Texas Tech University's podcast series from the Office of the Provost as its candidate to lead the university. Nellis currently serves as president

Rock, Chris

387

AcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University  

E-print Network

of about $330,000. The university's National Wind Institute has also attractedAcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University August 30, 2013 Pierce: This is AcademiCast--Texas Tech University's podcast series from the Office of the Provost

Rock, Chris

388

Properties of electroslag castings: Part 1  

SciTech Connect

This part of several reports to be published on the properties of electroslag castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and type 316 stainless steel describes the properties of three electroslag-cast valve bodies of type 316 stainless steel. These castings were electroslag cast at the University of British Columbia in Canada from ORNL-supplied electrodes. The castings have been characterized for surface finish, cracking, solidification structure, chemical analysis, hardness, ferrite distribution, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties, and creep properties. Tensile data on these castings were compared with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code minimum values for sand castings. The creep data were compared with the data on sand castings and the ASME code minimum curve for wrought material. 29 figures, 7 tables.

Sikka, V.K.

1984-11-01

389

When Your Child Needs a Cast  

MedlinePLUS

... by an orthopedic specialist. Continue Before Getting a Cast For displaced fractures, the bone will need to ... should adjust a splint. Back Continue Short-Term Cast Care The area around the break will probably ...

390

Indian Ocean experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and

V. Ramanathan; P. J. Crutzen; J. Lelieveld; A. P. Mitra; D. Althausen; J. Anderson; M. O. Andreae; W. Cantrell; G. R. Cass; C. E. Chung; A. D. Clarke; J. A. Coakley; W. D. Collins; W. C. Conant; F. Dulac; J. Heintzenberg; A. J. Heymsfield; B. Holben; S. Howell; J. Hudson; A. Jayaraman; J. T. Kiehl; T. N. Krishnamurti; D. Lubin; G. McFarquhar; T. Novakov; J. A. Ogren; K. Priestley; J. M. Prospero; P. K. Quinn; K. Rajeev; P. Rasch; S. Rupert; R. Sadourny; S. K. Satheesh; G. E. Shaw; P. Sheridan; F. P. J. Valero

2001-01-01

391

The Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Assistance Program, Robeson County, N.C., 1973-74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major priority areas established by the American Indian (Lumbee) Parent Committee of the Indian Elementary and Secondary School Assistance Program for Robeson County, North Carolina were: remedial reading; additional vocational education; special guidance programs; accelerated training for gifted; specialists in math; and cultural enrichment…

Maynor, Waltz; Thompson, Vernon R.

392

A Comprehensive Evaluation of OEO Community Action Programs on Six Selected American Indian Reservations. Report 4 - Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) Community Action Programs (CAP) on 6 selected American Indian reservations (Gila River and Papago, Arizona; Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico; Pine Ridge, South Dakota; Turtle Mountain, North Dakota, and White Earth Chippewa, Minnesota) are evaluated. After considering the development of Indian

Smith, James G. E.; And Others

393

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING EXTRACTED FROM CASTING MACHINE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

394

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE PRIOR TO EXTRACTION FROM CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

395

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST, AS OPERATOR WATCHES TO ENSURE QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

396

New fibreglass casting system in orthopaedic practice.  

PubMed

The composition, manufacture and application of a new fibreglass casting system for use in orthopaedic practice are described. The performance of the first 51 fibreglass casts used in routine fracture work is reviewed. The advantages (the cast is waterprof, extremely light and strong) and the disadvantages (an ultraviolet light source is required to cure the cast and the fiberglass tape is rather expensive) are evaluated. PMID:979766

Davis, B; Dooley, B

1976-06-26

397

Die casting process optimization using Taguchi methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes various significant process parameters of the die casting method of AlSi9Cu13 aluminum alloy. An attempt has been made to obtain optimal settings of the die casting parameters, in order to yield the optimum casting density of the AlSi9Cu13 aluminum alloy castings. The process parameters considered were: piston velocity (first and second stage), metal temperature, filling time and

G. P. Syrcos

2003-01-01

398

Titanium investiment casting defects: A metallographic overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although titanium castings have been used in aerospace structures for decades, those uses have largely been in secondary applications.\\u000a Expanding the use of titanium castings in critical applications would be encouraged by a better understanding of investment\\u000a casting defects in titanium alloy systems. This paper describes several types of casting-related defects that are identified\\u000a as potentially affecting the design life

J. D. Cotton; L. P. Clark; H. R. Phelps

2006-01-01

399

North Dakota Community Grant Program Empowers North Dakotans to Prevent Cancer  

E-print Network

Cancer issues are a rising concern in North Dakota. Overall cancer incidence and death rates increase with increasing age after age 50 for both sexes, but with higher rates in males than females (North Dakota Cancer Registry, 2008). For North Dakotans, the five most common late-stage cancer diagnoses from 1997–2006 were lung cancer (80%), followed by colorectal (58%), cervical (45%), female breast (30%), and prostate (14%) cancers. Among these cancers, four of them—lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate—account for 55 % of cancer cases in North Dakota (ND Cancer Registry, 2008). These same four cancers account for 49 % of cancer deaths in the state (ND Division of Vital Records, 2008). While overall cancer incidence rates have been decreasing in recent years among U.S. whites and American Indians (Espey et al., 2007; CDC, 2010), high rates remain among American Indians residing

Cancer Burden

400

ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10  

E-print Network

ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 3 #12;ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 4 #12;ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101

Hickey, Barbara

401

Modified hygroscopic gold casting technique.  

PubMed

A modified hygrosopic gold casting technique has been described. It utilizes a dual-wax pattern with controlled amounts of water added to the setting investment to better influence both the location and amount of investment expansion. This technique has been used since 1970 with excellent clinical results. PMID:1090728

Cecconi, B T; Asgar, K

1975-02-01

402

The CAST time projection chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the three x-ray detectors of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment searching for solar axions is a time projection chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity x-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is set to a safe level during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62%. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 × 10-5 counts cm-2 s-1 keV-1 between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion photon coupling and mass.

Autiero, D.; Beltrán, B.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; Chesi, E.; Davenport, M.; Delattre, M.; Di Lella, L.; Formenti, F.; Irastorza, I. G.; Gómez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Lakic, B.; Luzón, G.; Morales, J.; Musa, L.; Ortiz, A.; Placci, A.; Rodrigurez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J. A.; Zioutas, K.

2007-06-01

403

Overview of ToxCast?  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2007, EPA launched ToxCast? in order to develop a cost-effective approach for prioritizing the toxicity testing of large numbers of chemicals in a short period of time. Using data from state-of-the-art high throughput screening (HTS) bioassays developed in the pharmaceutical i...

404

Tape casting of magnesium oxide.  

SciTech Connect

A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

2008-02-01

405

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

406

Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.

1998-09-01

407

Chimerical categories: caste, race, and genetics.  

PubMed

Is discrimination based on caste equivalent to racism? This paper explores the complex relationship between genetic, race and caste. It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste-based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa. PMID:14768649

Sabir, Sharjeel

2003-12-01

408

Research of semi solid casting of iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

One result of the research on semi solid casting of iron is the development of parts having qualities that combine the superior material properties of ferrous alloy with the dimensional accuracy of aluminum die-cast parts. Iron material composition, molding methods using optimal billet heating speeds and copper die materials and methods for the continuous casting of raw material billets were

Masayuki Tsuchiya; Hiroaki Ueno; Isamu Takagi

2003-01-01

409

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2011-04-01

410

A Microbiological Study of Earthworm Casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Microbiological, physical and chemical changes were followed in worm casts ageing in the field. Filamentous fungi and yeasts increased in number rapidly after the cast was produced, but not bacteria or actinomycetes which were initially numerous. Measurements of hyphal length confirmed the increased growth of fungi. Ageing casts showed a declining respiratory activity, possibly because the bacteria formed resting

J. N. Parle

1963-01-01

411

Master thesis Supercooled Simultaneous Composite Casting  

E-print Network

I Master thesis Supercooled Simultaneous Composite Casting for Microstructure Refinement of AlloySimultaneousCompositeCastingforMicrostructureRefinementofAlloy2008Kim,YongKi #12;3 SupercooledSimultaneousCompositeCasting for Microstructure Refinement of Alloy #12;4 Supercooled Simultaneous Composite Casting for Microstructure Refinement of Alloy by Kim

Cambridge, University of

412

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2012-04-01

413

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2014-04-01

414

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2010-04-01

415

Coping with type casts in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of type casts is pervasive in C. Although casts provide great flexibility in writing programs, their use obscures the meaning of programs, and can present obstacles during maintenance. Casts involving pointers to structures (C structs) are particularly problematic, because by using them, a programmer can interpret any memory region to be of any desired type, thereby compromising C's

Michael Siffr; Satish Chandra; Thomas Ball; Krishna Kunchithapadam; Thomas W. Reps

1999-01-01

416

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2013-04-01

417

Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian folk story; "How the Animals…

Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

418

Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

2005-01-01

419

Genetic diversity and admixture patterns in Indian populations.  

PubMed

India is a diverse land whose population holds the history of waves of human dispersal. Recent studies suggest two major ancestral contributions to most of the Indian sub-populations. However, present day Indians are thought to contain huge genetic diversity derived consequent to multiple cultural, linguistic and geographical variations. Genome-wide survey of individuals from current North (N-In) and South (S-In) India along with populations from HapMap Phase III and Indian sub-populations from HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium is performed. Multivariate analysis (MDS and PCA) was carried out after merging data from the current study and other consortia. Indian sub-populations clustered separately from populations of major global geographical regions in MDS and PCA in a loose agglomeration except for two Indian subpopulations clustering near far eastern populations. F(st) values indicated diversity among Indian sub-populations which was substantiated by STRUCTURE analysis suggesting the possibility of additional admixture events. PMID:22892377

Chakrabarti, Biswaroop; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Randeep; Dimitrova, Nevenka

2012-10-25

420

Association of American Indian Physicians  

MedlinePLUS

... Today. If you are an American Indian or Alaska Native physician become an AAIP member today and ... building assistance and services to American Indian and Alaska Native communities and students. Capacity Building Assistance Program ...

421

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

422

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

423

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

424

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

425

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment allows for multi- player games on video lottery terminals (VLTs). Dated: November 1, 2010. Larry Echo Hawk, Assistant Secretary--Indian...

2010-11-09

426

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography  

SciTech Connect

A new product development technology is emerging which could have a major impact on the investment casting industry. It's identified by several names, the most common of which is STEREOLITHOGRAPHY.'' This technology involves a three-dimensional printing process which will yield plastic parts (polymer models) from solid, surface, or wireframe CAD files. The concept links a CAD database to a process which guides a laser beam to solidify liquid photo-curable polymer into a programmed shaped. The process can produce models in far less time and at far less cost than can be done by other known (conventional) model producing methods. Parts that would normally require weeks or months to prototype with conventional processes can be produced in a matter of hours by Stereolithography. The Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, is engaged in a development project (funded by the Department of Energy) which is aimed at establishing this process as a practical, expedient, and cost-effective method fabricating prototype investment castings. The early phases of the project include procurement of a special designed test unit for several companies (Service Centers) involved in fabrication of models. These models are produced in various materials and used in experimental casting programs being conducted with four casting suppliers (two ferrous and two non-ferrous). This presentation will cover the objectives of the project and the results obtained up to this time. We will also briefly review future plans for the continuation of the project, until this new technology has been proven as a viable process for rapid development of investment castings.

Cromwell, W.E.

1990-11-01

427

CTD024Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD024Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26, page 1 #12;ATTEN ATTEN CTD024 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26, page 2 #12;ATTENATTEN CTD024 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26, page 3 #12;ATTEN ATTEN CTD024 Hickey, W8101, casts 24-26 Hickey, W8101, casts

Hickey, Barbara

428

CTD051Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53 Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD051Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53 Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53, page 1 #12;CTD051Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53 Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53, page 2 #12;CTD051Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53 Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53, page 3 #12;CTD051Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53 Hickey, TT162, casts 51-53, page 4 #12;CTD051Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

429

CTD031Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD031Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36, page 1 #12;CTD031 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36, page 2 #12;CTD031 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36, page 3 #12;CTD031 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36 Hickey, TT162, Casts 31-36, page 4 #12;CTD031

Hickey, Barbara

430

CTD054Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55 Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD054Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55 Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55, page 1 #12;CTD054Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55 Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55, page 2 #12;CTD054Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55 Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55, page 3 #12;CTD054Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55 Hickey, TT162, Casts 54-55, page 4 #12;CTD054Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

431

Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C

Hickey, Barbara

432

CTD025Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30 Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD025Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30 Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30, page 1 #12;CTD025Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30 Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30, page 2 #12;CTD025Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30 Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30, page 3 #12;CTD025Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30 Hickey, TT162, Casts 25-30, page 4 #12;CTD025Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

433

CTD033Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37 Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD033Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37 Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37, page 1 #12;CTD033Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37 Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37, page 2 #12;CTD033Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37 Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37, page 3 #12;CTD033Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37 Hickey, W8201, casts 33-37, page 4 #12;CTD033Hickey, W8201

Hickey, Barbara

434

The American Indian: A Microcourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

Glick, Norman; And Others

435

The Promise of Indian Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promising practices were shared during the American Indian School-to-Work Conference (Seattle, Washington, May 2000). Successful programs included such elements as emphasis on Indian cultural values, partnerships with local businesses and tribal colleges, cooperation among Indian school-to-work programs, community service, and connections to…

Stone, Patricia Mackey

2000-01-01

436

The Indian Mineral Development Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

Houle, Antoinette

1986-01-01

437

American Indians in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief draws on data from the 1980 and 1990 censuses and other sources to profile American Indian demographic trends and educational experiences. Highlights for 1988-90 include the following: (1) the American Indian population reached 1.9 million in 1990, up 38 percent from 1980; (2) the high school dropout rate for American Indians was 35.5…

O'Brien, Eileen M.

1992-01-01

438

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2012-12-28

439

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

440

Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

441

Facts about American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

442

Indian indigenous healers.  

PubMed

Indian perceptions of the practices of their indigenous healers and of doctors were investigated by interviewing 86 outpatients or their accompanying family member from a local psychiatric hospital's outpatient unit. Among the findings were: that relatively more healers than doctors revealed their diagnoses to the patient; and that the healers, when they did diagnose, did so in terms of 'trick' and 'evil' and treatment was largely with ashes, amulets and holy water. Surprisingly, relatively more patients appear to believe in the effectiveness of the doctors' treatment rather than the healers'. The results are discussed within the framework of the Indian concept of health and illness and further research possibilities are suggested. PMID:3738660

Bhana, K

1986-08-16

443

Mechanical evaluation of a soft cast material.  

PubMed

In this study, the structural and material properties of a new semi-rigid material, Scotchcast SoftCast (SCS), were compared to the properties of two rigid materials, plaster of paris (POP) and Scotchcast Plus (SCP). Cylinders and flat beams made from 4, 6, 8, and 10 layers of each casting material were tested in three-point bending and diametrical compression. Initial stiffness and yield force values of SCS casts were significantly lower than for casts of SCP and POP made of the same number of layers. Casts made from SCS may be indicated for non-rigid applications, but not where rigid immobilization is required. PMID:9263288

Zmurko, M G; Belkoff, S M; Herzenberg, J E

1997-08-01

444

Land-based turbine casting initiative  

SciTech Connect

To meet goals for the ATS program, technical advances developed for aircraft gas turbine engines need to be applied to land-based gas turbines. These advances include directionally solidified and single crystal castings, alloys tailored to exploit these microstructures, complex internal cooling schemes, and coatings. The proposed program to scale aircraft gas turbine casting technology up to land based gas turbine size components is based on low sulfur alloys, casting process development, post-cast process development, and establishing casting defect tolerance levels. The inspection side is also discussed.

Mueller, B.A.; Spicer, R.A. [Howmet Corp., Whitehall, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

445

Viscosity of casting fluxes used during continuous casting of steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molten flux viscosity of eighteen commercially available casting fluxes has been measured as a function of temperature in the range of 1223 to 1723 K. Results show that, at a constant temperature, the flux viscosity is primarily dependent on the mole fractions of SiO2 and A12O3. The calculated activation energy for viscous flow at 1573 K varies from 59 to 215 kJ/mol depending on the flux viscosity and the flux basicity ratio. The observed “breakpoints” in the viscosity vs temperature plots are explained in terms of precipitation of crystalline phases. The tendency for crystal precipitation is related to the relative viscosity and the basicity of the flux. Using X-ray diffraction techniques the precipitating crystal phases have been identified. Metallographic structures of quenched and air-solidified casting fluxes are reported.

Lanyi, Michael D.; Rosa, Casimir J.

1981-06-01

446

Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting  

SciTech Connect

The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

R. Allen Miller

2005-03-30

447

Asian Indian Immigrant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is an attempt to understand various theories that explain mental health issues of Asian Indian immigrant women. It further explores depression as a threat to mental health and also examines the various supports to mental health. The literature will delve into the ways in which systems deter or promote members of the chosen population in the maintenance

Sweta Tewary

2005-01-01

448

Indian Migration and Assimilation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper's stated purpose is to provide a better understanding of the migration adaptation process so that policies may later be developed that will minimize the amount of attitude change required for adaptation of the Indian to urban industrial life. Th...

R. Weinstein

1970-01-01

449

The Urban Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents six articles that provide a glimpse of the uniqueness of American Indian cultural conflict, focusing on aspects of the culture which warrant special attention. Since there are over 100 tribes, an effort was made to enumerate commonalities amongst the tribal cultures in looking at issues raised in the urban areas throughout…

Hanson, Winona DuBray

450

Indians of New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

451

Indian Reservation Water Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian tribes have uncertain claims to sizable water rights in the western states. State and federal officials are seeking to convert these rights to fixed entitlements in order to make clear to other users the amount of water legally available in various water systems. Two important questions are whether the tribes can find ways to put their rights to use

Richard B. Collins

1986-01-01

452

The Indian Space Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Indian Space program aimed at providing operation space services in communications and remote sensing and using state-of-the-art space technologies is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the development and operation of satellites and launch vehicles for providing these space services.

Talapatra, Dipak C.

1993-01-01

453

American Indian Recipes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

454

Indian Health Disparities  

MedlinePLUS

... MORTALITY DISPARITY RATES American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) in the IHS Service Area 2006-2008 ... Age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 population) AI/AN Rate 2006-2008 U.S. All Races Rate - ...

455

Indian School Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age from 4 to…

Johnston, Basil H.

456

Indian Astronomy: History of  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

2002-01-01

457

Indians as Archaeologists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a cooperative program between Fort Belknap College, in northern Montana, and an archeological firm designed to provide Native American students with hands-on experience in research and excavation of Indian artifacts. Reviews benefits of the partnership with respect to student experience and knowledge of ancient cultures. (MAB)

Badhorse, Beverly

1993-01-01

458

Indians of the Northwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

459

Pressure rig for repetitive casting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

Vasquez, Peter (inventor); Hutto, William R. (inventor); Philips, Albert R. (inventor)

1989-01-01

460

Indian aerosols: present status.  

PubMed

This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

2002-12-01

461

North Korean \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today some foreign observers have begun to claim significant changes in the North Korean ‘‘socialist realism’’ literary tradition, such as a broadening of the permissible range of topics and even some concessions to alternative discourses. This article investigates whether the most favored branch of contemporary North Korean literature, namely, ‘‘rural fiction,’’ has indeed become a conduit of political liberalization and,

Tatiana Gabroussenko

2009-01-01

462

Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts

Hickey, Barbara

463

Significant influence of the boreal summer monsoon flow on the Indian Ocean response during dipole events  

Microsoft Academic Search

A majority of positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events in the last 50-years were accompanied by enhanced summer-monsoon circulation and above-normal precipitation over central-north India. Given that IODs peak during boreal-autumn following the summer-monsoon season, this study examines the role of the summer-monsoon flow on the Indian Ocean (IO) response using a suite of ocean model experiments and supplementary data-diagnostics.

Krishnan Raghavan; Swapna Panickal

2010-01-01

464

APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS TO STEEL REFINING AND CASTING PROCESSES  

E-print Network

1 APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS TO STEEL REFINING AND CASTING PROCESSES Lifeng Zhang ladles, the continuous casting tundish, continuous casting mold and strand, and steel ingot casting, Continuous Casting, Ingot Casting, Inclusions INTRODUCTION Fluid flow during steelmaking, steel refining

Thomas, Brian G.

465

ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 11-18,20  

E-print Network

ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 11-18,20 Hickey, W8101, casts 11-18,20, page 1 #12;ATTENATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 11-18,20 Hickey, W8101, casts 11-18,20, page 2 #12;ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 11-18,20 Hickey, W8101, casts 11-18,20, page 3 #12;ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 11-18,20 Hickey

Hickey, Barbara

466

Indian sports nicknames/logos: affective difference between American Indian and non-Indian college students.  

PubMed

The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised (MAACL-R) before viewing two slide presentations of Fighting Sioux-related images: one neutral (i.e., non-controversial) and one controversial. Participants completed the MAACL-R after each presentation. They also completed the Nickname and Logo Distress Scale, and AI participants completed the Northern Plains Biculturalism Inventory to assess their degree of cultural orientation. Results showed that AIs experienced higher negative affect following both slide presentations than did MC participants. MC participants' affect was only changed following the controversial slide presentation. The findings suggest AI students may experience significantly higher levels of psychological distress when viewing even neutral images of AI nicknames/logos. PMID:22302279

LaRocque, Angela R; McDonald, J Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Ferraro, F Richard

2011-01-01

467

75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive...Description The Indian Health Service (IHS) is accepting...American Indians into Psychology Program. This...

2010-06-25

468

The monsoonal heat budget of the hydrosphere-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat budget of the combined hydrosphere-atmosphere system in the Indian Ocean sector (30°N to 30°S, 30°-120°E) is studied on the basis of surface ship observations and subsurface temperature casts to 400 dbar, analyses of the atmospheric heat and moisture transport in the layer surface to 100 mbar, published estimates of precipitation, and satellite measurements of net all-wave radiation at

Stefan Hastenrath; Lawrence Greischar

1993-01-01

469

Atmospheric-hydrospheric mechanisms of climate anomalies in the western equatorial Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmosphere-ocean mechanisms of rainfall anomalies at the coast of eastern Africa are studied using long-term ship observations in the Indian Ocean, surface current measurements, subsurface casts, upper air analyses by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, rain gauge series in eastern Africa and India, and an index of the Southern Oscillation (SO), the high-SO phase being defined by

Stefan Hastenrath; Achim Nicklis; Lawrence Greischar

1993-01-01

470

Tectonic Fabric of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and Continental Drift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The floor of the Indian Ocean is dominated by (1) the scismically active Mid-Oceanic Ridge, (2) scattered linear micro-continents (mostly meridional), and (3) fracture zones (some displace the axis of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge and others parallel the micro-continents). The pattern suggests that movement along the Diamantina Fracture Zone has displaced Australia to the cast relative to Broken Ridge. In the

B. C. Heezen; Marie Tharp

1965-01-01

471

Prevalences of diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hindu Indian subcommunities in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To seek differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and other coronary heart disease risk factors, and to identify factors associated with these differences within a Hindu Indian community. DESIGN--Population based cross sectional survey. SETTING--Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. SUBJECTS--Of 20 Hindu subcommunities categorised by caste in Dar-es-Salaam, seven were randomly selected. 1147 (76.7%) of 1495 subjects aged 15 or over participated. MAIN

K L Ramaiya; A B Swai; D G McLarty; R S Bhopal; K G Alberti

1991-01-01

472

Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

2004-03-30

473

Properties of electroslag castings. Part 2  

SciTech Connect

The quality, response to heat treatment, and mechanical properties of electroslag-cast step blocks from Cameron Iron Works and from Selectrotech, Inc., are described. The mechanical properties include Charpy impact, tensile, and creep. Properties of the electroslag castings were compared to determine the differences between casters, between wrought and electroslag cast properties, and between sand and electroslag castings. Results are presented to show that the electroslag casting process has a potential for producing properties similar to those of wrought material for 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo and 9 Cr-1 Mo steel and similar to those of sand-cast material for type 316 stainless steel. 5 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

Sikka, V.K.

1985-08-01

474

A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

1985-01-01

475

Indian Education Revisited: A Personal Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A veteran American Indian educator describes his experiences as a student, teacher, and administrator in Indian schools; the formation of the National Indian Education Association; and the events that influenced his views about the progress of "Indian education." He foresees positive changes in American Indian education and teacher education that…

Demmert, William G., Jr.

1999-01-01

476

Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives  

MedlinePLUS

... in American Indians and Alaska Natives Diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives American Indians/Alaska Natives (from the Office on Women’s ... as one of the health conditions common among American Indians/Alaska Natives. American Indian Health: An informational ...

477

78 FR 49120 - Courts of Indian Offenses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to add the following Indian tribes to the list of...established Courts of Indian Offenses (also known...Valley Band of Goshute Indians. Adding these tribes...and the Quapaw Tribe of Indians. On March 3, 2013...Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs. [FR...

2013-08-13

478

Complex network analysis of extreme precipitation over the Indian subcontinent.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian monsoon is a large scale pattern in the climate system of the Earth. The motivation of our work was to reveal spatial structures in strong precipitation over the Indian subcontinent, and their evolution during the year, because it is crucial as for understanding of monsoon regularities as well for India's agriculture and economy. We present an analysis of extreme rainfall over the Indian peninsula and Sri Lanka. Using the method of event synchronization we constructed networks of extreme rainfall events(heavier than the 90-th percentile) for three time periods: during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM, June-September), the Northeast monsoon (NEM, October - December, so called winter monsoon) and period before the summer monsoon (January - May). Obtained networks show how extreme rainfall for specific areas in India is synchronized with extreme rainfall for other areas in India. Analysis of degree centrality of the networks reveals clusters of extreme rainfall events in India which are strongly connected to maximal number of other areas with extreme rainfall events, e.g., North Pakistan and the Eastern Ghats. Additionally, betweenness centrality shows areas that are important in the sense of water transport in the networks (e.g. the Himalayas, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats etc.). By comparison of networks before the summer monsoon, during summer and winter monsoon season we determined how spatial patterns of rainfalls synchronization change during the year. These changes play a crucial role in the organization of the rainfall all over the Indian subcontinent.

Stolbova, Veronika; Kurths, Jürgen

2013-04-01

479

Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

2004-01-01

480

Reproductive Caste Beats a Hasty Retreat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of Australian gall-inducing thrips have a helping caste (soldiers). This caste is morphologically distinct and\\u000a has been shown to use these physical differences to be a more effective fighting force. Here we investigate behavioral differences\\u000a between castes of Kladothrips intermedius (Bagnall) when faced with the destruction of the gall; that is, walking behavior rather than fighting. Two parameters,

Sheena E. Fry; Holly E. Caravan; Thomas W. Chapman

481

Cast stainless steel aging: Mechanisms and predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charpy-impact and J-R curve data are presented for several experimental and commercial heats, as well as for reactor-aged material of CF-3, CF-8, and CF-8M grades of cast stainless steel. The effects of material variables on the embrittlement of cast stainless steels are evaluated. In general, the low carbon CF-3 grades of cast stainless steels are the most resistance and molybdenum-containing

O. K. Chopra; H. M. Chung

1989-01-01

482

Dental casting of titanium and Ni-Ti alloys by a new casting machine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a new casting machine for titanium and Ni-Ti alloys. Properties of cast pure titanium and Ni-Ti alloys were studied by means of the tensile and casting tests. As gas in the mold was removed by the mold being heated under a high vacuum, the reaction between the molten metal and the mold decreased. The new control system and the two types of crucibles developed proved very useful for prevention of internal macro-defects in castings and for improvement of castability. Mechanical properties and castability of pure titanium were improved. Ni-Ti alloys could be cast without loss of their shape-memory effect or super-elasticity characteristics. The new casting machine is thought to be promising for the casting of titanium and Ni-Ti alloys. Furthermore, we can cast these alloys using conventional techniques and investments. PMID:2685069

Hamanaka, H; Doi, H; Yoneyama, T; Okuno, O

1989-11-01

483

Carbonaceous aerosols over the Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX): Chemical characterization, optical properties, and probable sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured carbonaceous material and water-soluble ionic species in the fine fraction (Dp < 1.3 mum) of aerosol samples collected on NCAR's C-130 aircraft during the intensive field phase (February-March 1999) of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX). Polluted layers were present over most of the study region north of the equator at altitudes up to 3.2 km. The estimated aerosol

O. L. Mayol-Bracero; R. Gabriel; M. O. Andreae; T. W. Kirchstetter; T. Novakov; J. Ogren; P. Sheridan; D. G. Streets

2002-01-01

484

WinMod: An expert advisor for investment casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investment casting is an important method for fabricating a variety of high quality components in mechanical systems. Cast components, unfortunately, have a large design and gate\\/runner build time associated with their fabrication. In addition, casting engineers often require many years of actual experience in order to consistently pour high quality castings. Since 1989, Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating casting

H. P. Bivens; G. A. Jr. Williamson; G. F. Luger; R. G. Erdmann; M. C. Maguire; M. D. Baldwin; D. J. Anderson

1998-01-01

485

Feeding and Risering of High Alloy Steel Castings  

E-print Network

Feeding and Risering of High Alloy Steel Castings Kent D. Carlson, Shouzhu Ou and Christoph radiographically sound castings at 2 pct sensitivity. By comparing results between plate casting trials in an extensive set of casting simulations to numerically determine feeding distances for a wide range of casting

Beckermann, Christoph

486

Casting an Object with a Core Hee-Kap Ahn  

E-print Network

Casting an Object with a Core Hee-Kap Ahn Sang Won Bae Siu-Wing Cheng Kyung-Yong Chwa Abstract This paper addresses geometric problems that concern manufacturing an object using a cast with a core. In casting, molten material is poured into the cavity of the cast and allowed to solidify. The cast has two

Cheng, Siu-Wing

487

Indian Converts Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First published in 1727, the remarkable book "Indian Converts, or Some account of the lives and dying speeches of a considerable number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard" is now available in full online. Written by Experience Mayhew, the book provides remarkable insights into the lives and culture of four generations of Native Americans in colonial America. This digitized version was created at Reed College, and visitors can look through all four sections of the work, which include "Indian Ministers" and "Pious Children." Throughout the work, Mayhew details the books that different age groups were reading, provides insights into early New England pedagogy and childrearing practices, and also describes each individual in terms of their own genealogy and personal history. The truly fantastic thing about the site is that it also contains an archive with over 600 images and documents that further contextualize the work. Also, the site contains study guides designed for classroom use that cover artifact analysis, genealogy, and reading gravestones.

488