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1

Abortion index and mortality of offspring among women of different age, caste and population groups of north Indian Muslims.  

PubMed

The Muslims of Aligarh city are predominantly Sunnis, although there are also a considerable number of Shias. Among the Sunnis, approximately a quarter belong to Syed, Sheikh, Moghal and Pathan groups, and three-quarters belong to various lower biradaris. In the present study, 304 women attending the Primary Health Centre of the J. N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, were surveyed and the following recorded among Muslim women of high-rank (Ashraf) and low-rank (Ajlaf) castes: incidence of marriage, age of the mother at the time of marriage, present age of the mother, abortions, still births, pre-reproductive mortality and overall mortality. The Ashraf are comprised of the Sheikh, Syed and Pathan, whereas the Ajlafs have Qureshi, Saifi and Ansari biradaris. Maternal age was scored as above and below 45 years in each biradari. Significant effects of maternal age were seen on mortality of offspring, whereas populations did not show consistent differences, except when Ashrafs and Ajlafs were considered separately. The results show higher mortality and abortions for various groups. This may be due to various biological and socio-cultural factors, including hidden inbreeding in the remote past. PMID:17850687

Ara, Gulshan; Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Beg, Tanveer; Afzal, Mohammad

2007-09-13

2

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH CASTING SUPERINTENDENT OVERSEEING TRANSFER OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH CASTING SUPERINTENDENT OVERSEEING TRANSFER OF MOLTEN METAL TO A CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

3

Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.  

PubMed

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups. PMID:19341319

Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

2008-10-01

4

DOES CASTE MATTER FOR WAGES IN THE INDIAN LABOR MARKET?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores whether pay gaps on the basis of caste are still evident in the Indian labor market using data from the most recent round of the nationally representative National Sample Survey. Caste in India is the primary source of stratificatio n. The hypothesis is that the hierarchical nature of the caste system and the strong association of ritual

PUJA VASUDEVA DUTTA

5

Independent origins of Indian caste and tribal paternal lineages.  

PubMed

The origins of the nearly one billion people inhabiting the Indian subcontinent and following the customs of the Hindu caste system are controversial: are they largely derived from Indian local populations (i.e. tribal groups) or from recent immigrants to India? Archaeological and linguistic evidence support the latter hypothesis, whereas recent genetic data seem to favor the former hypothesis. Here, we analyze the most extensive dataset of Indian caste and tribal Y chromosomes to date. We find that caste and tribal groups differ significantly in their haplogroup frequency distributions; caste groups are homogeneous for Y chromosome variation and more closely related to each other and to central Asian groups than to Indian tribal or any other Eurasian groups. We conclude that paternal lineages of Indian caste groups are primarily descended from Indo-European speakers who migrated from central Asia approximately 3,500 years ago. Conversely, paternal lineages of tribal groups are predominantly derived from the original Indian gene pool. We also provide evidence for bidirectional male gene flow between caste and tribal groups. In comparison, caste and tribal groups are homogeneous with respect to mitochondrial DNA variation, which may reflect the sociocultural characteristics of the Indian caste society. PMID:14761656

Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S M; Stoneking, Mark

2004-02-01

6

DE LAVAUD CASTING FACING NORTH, NOTE CORE MOUNTED IN PREPARATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DE LAVAUD CASTING FACING NORTH, NOTE CORE MOUNTED IN PREPARATION FOR NEXT PIPE CASTING. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

7

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

PubMed Central

The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in ?265 males from eight castes of different rank to ?750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%–30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (?600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated that the upper castes have a higher affinity to Europeans than to Asians, and the upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are the lower castes. Collectively, all five datasets show a trend toward upper castes being more similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more similar to Asians. We conclude that Indian castes are most likely to be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities of castes to Asians and Europeans.

Bamshad, Michael; Kivisild, Toomas; Watkins, W. Scott; Dixon, Mary E.; Ricker, Chris E.; Rao, Baskara B.; Naidu, J. Mastan; Prasad, B.V. Ravi; Reddy, P. Govinda; Rasanayagam, Arani; Papiha, Surinder S.; Villems, Richard; Redd, Alan J.; Hammer, Michael F.; Nguyen, Son V.; Carroll, Marion L.; Batzer, Mark A.; Jorde, Lynn B.

2001-01-01

8

Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations.  

PubMed

The origins and affinities of the approximately 1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in approximately 265 males from eight castes of different rank to approximately 750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%-30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (approximately 600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated that the upper castes have a higher affinity to Europeans than to Asians, and the upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are the lower castes. Collectively, all five datasets show a trend toward upper castes being more similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more similar to Asians. We conclude that Indian castes are most likely to be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities of castes to Asians and Europeans. PMID:11381027

Bamshad, M; Kivisild, T; Watkins, W S; Dixon, M E; Ricker, C E; Rao, B B; Naidu, J M; Prasad, B V; Reddy, P G; Rasanayagam, A; Papiha, S S; Villems, R; Redd, A J; Hammer, M F; Nguyen, S V; Carroll, M L; Batzer, M A; Jorde, L B

2001-06-01

9

Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic structure, affinities, and diversity of the 1 billion Indians hold important keys to numerous unanswered questions regarding the evolution of human populations and the forces shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Although there have been several recent studies of South Indian caste groups, North Indian caste groups, and South Indian Muslims using Y-chromosomal markers, overall, the Indian population has still not been well studied compared to other geographical populations. In particular, no genetic study has been conducted on Shias and Sunnis from North India. Aim This study aims to investigate genetic variation and the gene pool in North Indians. Subjects and methods A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped. Results Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only. Conclusion The results revealed that a substantial part of today’s North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history.

Zhao, Zhongming; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha

2009-01-01

10

HLA-B27 allele diversity in Indians: impact of ethnic origin and the caste system.  

PubMed

HLA-B27 is a serological specificity which encompasses an increasing number of subtypes that show varied racial/ethnic prevalence in the world. Here, data from 5129 Indians (4500 population and caste; 629 tribal) is compiled from the literature. In addition, HLA-B27 subtyping of 58 positive individuals from Maharastra is presented. Analysis revealed an increased B27 antigen frequency among the north Indian groups (>5%) compared to the south Indian groups (<5%). HLA-B27 subtyping identified B*2704 (34.48%), B*2705 (36.2%), B*2707 (15.51%), B*2708 (10.34%) and B*2714 (3.44%) alleles in the population groups from Maharastra, but these differed in their distribution among the caste and tribal groups studied. The study showed that more extensive subtyping in other Indian caste groups will be necessary to resolve the evolutionary implications of HLA-B27 subtypes and their relationship to disease association in the Indian context. PMID:14725340

Shankarkumar, U

2003-01-01

11

Casting shadows: Dalit assertion in Indian literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation tracks the emergence of literary narratives by and about Dalit communities in India from the 1950s to the 1990s. Examining the literary texts from a historical materialist perspective, I explore their articulation of self-identity and resistance against the caste system. The materialist methodology enables discussion of the literature's focus on labor and the body, while centrally posing the

Shalini Ramachandran

2003-01-01

12

4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH NEWER CHECK AND TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

13

Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. RESULTS: We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations

W. s. Watkins; R. Thara; B. j. Mowry; Y. Zhang; D. j. Witherspoon; W. Tolpinrud; M. j. Bamshad; S. Tiripati; R. Padmavati; H. Smith; D. Nancarrow; C. Filippich; L. b. Jorde

2008-01-01

14

Alu Polymorphic Insertions Reveal Genetic Structure of North Indian Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations

Manorama Tripathi; Piyush Tripathi; Ugam Kumari Chauhan; Rene J. Herrera; Suraksha Agrawal

2008-01-01

15

Learning Aids for North American Indian Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Native American Studies Department at the University of California - Davis has made available Learning Aids for North American Indian Languages, a resource offering "information on published and 'semi-published' teaching and general reference materials for North American Indian languages or groups of languages." It is a page of pointers to citations for dictionaries, descriptive grammars, pedagogic materials collections of bilingual narratives, and tapes, among others. This large resource is arranged alphabetically by language group, and also contains many cross references. Over 100 language groups are included, from Abenaki to Yukon languages. Citations contain bibliographic information and are thoroughly annotated. Learning Aids has been compiled from the "Society of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas Newsletter."

16

Traditional occupations and nutritional adaptation among Central Indian caste populations.  

PubMed

The socioeconomic milieu has benefits and drawbacks for determining level of nutrition. The Indian population provides an excellent example of nutrition-driven adaptation. The present paper deals with the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and traditional occupation and process of adaptation among adult males of Central India. Anthropometric data collected by the Anthropological Survey of India on stature, sitting height and weight of 6663 adult males belonging to 22 castes were used for computation of BMI and Cormic index. The caste groups earning their living as labourers are found to be shortest (157.4+/-6.5 cm), and the caste group practising priesthood are tallest (168.6+/-6.6 cm). The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency is found to be highest (72%) among castes earning their living as daily wage labourers. The ANOVA on Cormic index and BMI suggests that people within the same occupational group are more homogeneous than those from different occupational groups. The t test also supports the homogeneity of the same occupational group. PMID:18088450

Gautam, Rajesh K

2007-12-19

17

American Indians of West North Central Region by County.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for counties in the West North Central region with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marit...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

18

Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Background Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. Results We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations from the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. Genetic differentiation among Tamil castes is low (RST = 0.96% for 45 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers), reflecting a largely common origin. Nonetheless, caste- and continent-specific patterns are evident. For 32 lineage-defining Y-chromosome SNPs, Tamil castes show higher affinity to Europeans than to eastern Asians, and genetic distance estimates to the Europeans are ordered by caste rank. For 32 lineage-defining mitochondrial SNPs and hypervariable sequence (HVS) 1, Tamil castes have higher affinity to eastern Asians than to Europeans. For 45 autosomal STRs, upper and middle rank castes show higher affinity to Europeans than do lower rank castes from either Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh. Local between-caste variation (Tamil Nadu RST = 0.96%, Andhra Pradesh RST = 0.77%) exceeds the estimate of variation between these geographically separated groups (RST = 0.12%). Low, but statistically significant, correlations between caste rank distance and genetic distance are demonstrated for Tamil castes using Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal data. Conclusion Genetic data from Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal STRs are in accord with historical accounts of northwest to southeast population movements in India. The influence of ancient and historical population movements and caste social structure can be detected and replicated in South Indian caste populations from two different geographic regions.

Watkins, WS; Thara, R; Mowry, BJ; Zhang, Y; Witherspoon, DJ; Tolpinrud, W; Bamshad, MJ; Tirupati, S; Padmavati, R; Smith, H; Nancarrow, D; Filippich, C; Jorde, LB

2008-01-01

19

The Indian Caste System as a Means of Contract Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caste system in India has been dated to approximately 1000 B.C. and still aff ects the lives of a billion people in South Asia. The persistence of this system of social stratification for 3000 years of changing economic and social environments is puzzling. This paper formalizes a model of the caste system to better understand the institution and the

Kripa Freitas

2006-01-01

20

The Political Economy of North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

Moore, John H., Ed.

21

The Political Economy of North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

Moore, John H., Ed.

22

Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

23

North Dakota Off-Reservation Indian Health Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory study into the health problems of off-reservation Indians in North Dakota, carried out in the summer of 1971, is reported. The study addressed the adequacy of health care delivery to this group; the legal, social, and cultural factors affec...

R. Sullivan

1972-01-01

24

Singing Voice Detection in North Indian Classical Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Singing voice detection is essential for content- based applications such as those involving melody extraction and singer identification. This article is concerned with the accurate detection of singing voice phrases in north Indian classical vocal music. The component sound sources in such music fit into a typical framework (voice, rhythm and drone). We have used this a-priori knowledge to enhance

Vishweshwara Rao; S. Ramakrishnan; Preeti Rao

2008-01-01

25

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

PubMed Central

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools.

Kivisild, T.; Rootsi, S.; Metspalu, M.; Mastana, S.; Kaldma, K.; Parik, J.; Metspalu, E.; Adojaan, M.; Tolk, H.-V.; Stepanov, V.; Golge, M.; Usanga, E.; Papiha, S. S.; Cinnioglu, C.; King, R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.; Underhill, P. A.; Villems, R.

2003-01-01

26

The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations.  

PubMed

Two tribal groups from southern India--the Chenchus and Koyas--were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools. PMID:12536373

Kivisild, T; Rootsi, S; Metspalu, M; Mastana, S; Kaldma, K; Parik, J; Metspalu, E; Adojaan, M; Tolk, H-V; Stepanov, V; Gölge, M; Usanga, E; Papiha, S S; Cinnio?lu, C; King, R; Cavalli-Sforza, L; Underhill, P A; Villems, R

2003-01-20

27

Mastodon butchery by North American Paleo-Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has often been argued that North American Paleo-Indians hunted both mammoths and mastodons1-3. However, while numerous archaeological sites involving mammoths (genus Mammuthus) are recognized3,4, very few sites demonstrate direct human association with mastodons5-8. I report here a taphonomic analysis of several late Pleistocene mastodon (Mammut americanum) skeletons excavated in southern Michigan which provides compelling evidence of mastodon butchery. Butchery

Daniel C. Fisher

1984-01-01

28

Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System  

PubMed Central

Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4–6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India.

Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R. Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G.; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

2012-01-01

29

C. Szwedzicki: The North American Indian Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Cincinnati Libraries has compiled a digitized collection of work by 20th Century American Indian artists that was originally published from the years 1929 to 1953 in Nice, France. The digitized collection is composed of 364 images and six texts. There are a few ways to search or browse the collection, including utilizing an introductory essay written by Janet Catherine Berlo, Professor of Art History and Visual and Cultural Studies at the University of Rochester, New York. In addition to providing an excellent introduction, the "essay includes links to images and can be used as a navigational tool to the collection." On the left hand side of the page two additional viewers visitors can use to browse the collection, the "Insight Browser" and the "Insight Java Client". The former is a basic viewer, and the latter is a more advanced viewer which requires a one-time download. Both have a "Click Here For Details and Help" link below their description, for those visitors who may need further assistance. Many of the images in the collection are of people and activities, depicted in bright colors, but there is also a set of images of ceramic jars and canteens that show the many patterns in which they were decorated. Important images and documentation of the Battle of the Little Big Horn can also be found within the collection, in the reproductions of the now lost ledger art of Amos Bad Heart Bull.

30

Determination of stature from cephalo-facial dimensions in a North Indian population.  

PubMed

A forensic medicine specialist, while a conducting medico-legal autopsy, is often asked to opine about the identity of the deceased in unknown fragmentary and dismembered remains. Determination of stature is an important aspect in establishing identity in such cases. Sometimes, cephalo-facial remains are brought for postmortem and forensic examination. The aim of the present study was to estimate the stature from cephalo-facial dimensions in a sample of 252 Koli male adolescents from North India. As a part of Indian caste system, Kolis are an endogamous group of North India. Along with stature, sixteen cephalo-facial measurements were taken on each subject. The findings suggest that all the cephalo-facial measurements are significantly correlated with stature (P<0.001, P<0.01); the measurements of the cephalic region have strong correlation with stature than those of the facial region. This was also supported by the regression analysis, which shows that the cephalic measurements give better prediction of stature. Reliability of the regression formulae was checked by comparing the estimated and actual stature within the same sample (genetically homogeneous population, n=252) and in another sample taken from a mixed population of North India (genetically heterogeneous population, n=90). PMID:17306595

Krishan, Kewal; Kumar, Raj

2007-02-15

31

Mental health and North American Indian\\/Native communities: Cultural transactions, education, and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical issues in the delivery of mental health services to North American Indians~Natives residing in rural areas are discussed by (a) describing Indian populations~communities; (b) briefly summarizing available literature concerning the nature of mental health problems within Indian communities; (c) examining Indian belief systems relevant to participation in mental health service de6very processes; (d) exploring community expectations for structuring participatory

Damian McShane

1987-01-01

32

The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia

Swarkar Sharma; Ekta Rai; Prithviraj Sharma; Mamata Jena; Shweta Singh; Katayoon Darvishi; Audesh K Bhat; A J S Bhanwer; Pramod Kumar Tiwari; Rameshwar N K Bamezai; RNK Bamezai

2009-01-01

33

The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system.  

PubMed

Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has contributed to the higher castes in India. Y-haplogroup R1a1* has a widespread distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup R1a1* in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group. Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins. However, it is important to discover novel Y-chromosomal binary marker(s) for a higher resolution of R1a1* and confirm the present conclusions. PMID:19158816

Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Prithviraj; Jena, Mamata; Singh, Shweta; Darvishi, Katayoon; Bhat, Audesh K; Bhanwer, A J S; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

2009-01-09

34

Modelling the influence of North Atlantic multidecadal warmth on the Indian summer rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensemble experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model reveal that a positive (warm) ocean phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) increases Indian summer rainfall. The intensification is driven by extratropical North Atlantic warmth, with some cancellation associated with monsoon weakening in response to tropical North Atlantic warmth. Mechanistically, warm extratropical North Atlantic SSTs increase local rainfall, inducing an arching extratropical wavetrain response. The latter leads to intensified northern subsidence of monsoon mean meridional streamflow as well as widespread low surface pressure over North Africa, the Middle East and the western Indian Ocean contributing to a strengthened Indian monsoon trough and increased monsoon rainfall. Warm tropical North Atlantic SSTs primarily increase local tropical Atlantic rainfall that induces a tropically-confined response consisting of low level easterly wind anomalies over the Indian Ocean and dynamically induced subsident drying over India.

Li, Shuanglin; Perlwitz, Judith; Quan, Xiaowei; Hoerling, Martin P.

2008-03-01

35

Cultures in the North: Aleut; Athabascan Indian; Eskimo; Haida Indian; Tlingit Indian; Tsimpshian Indian. Multi-Media Resource List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wide variety of books and informational resources presently available about the American Indian people of Alaska reflect their cultural diversity. Intended to assist the teacher in identifying, collecting, and assessing useful materials on the Alaska Native cultures, this publication cites approximately 406 books, periodicals, films,…

Isto, Sarah A., Comp.

36

Cultures in the North: Aleut; Athabascan Indian; Eskimo; Haida Indian; Tlingit Indian; Tsimpshian Indian. Multi-Media Resource List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The wide variety of books and informational resources presently available about the American Indian people of Alaska reflect their cultural diversity. Intended to assist the teacher in identifying, collecting, and assessing useful materials on the Alaska Native cultures, this publication cites approximately 406 books, periodicals, films,…

Isto, Sarah A., Comp.

37

Modelling the influence of North Atlantic multidecadal warmth on the Indian summer rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensemble experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model reveal that a positive (warm) ocean phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) increases Indian summer rainfall. The intensification is driven by extratropical North Atlantic warmth, with some cancellation associated with monsoon weakening in response to tropical North Atlantic warmth. Mechanistically, warm extratropical North Atlantic SSTs increase local rainfall, inducing an arching

Shuanglin Li; Judith Perlwitz; Xiaowei Quan; Martin P. Hoerling

2008-01-01

38

Role of south Indian Ocean swells in modulating the north Indian Ocean wave climate through modelling and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementation and validation of a third generation wave model, Wavewatch III was used to study the characteristics of the south Indian ocean swells and their propagation in the north Indian Ocean. The NCEP reanalysis wind data (2.5° x 2.5°) has been used to generate the wind waves for the entire Indian Ocean during 2006 - 2007. The modelled wave parameters have been compared with measured buoy data and with merged altimeter data. The model results show good agreement with the buoy and altimeter data. A case study is carried out to study the propagation of the swells generated at the roaring 40°S in the Indian Ocean during May 2007. The "southern swell" occurred during May 2007 has been successfully reproduced in the wave model, which confirmed by the comparison of modelled significant wave heights with the merged altimeter significant wave heights. These swells were generated in the Atlantic ocean near the southern tip of South Africa and propagated towards the north Indian Ocean. These waves touches the Madagascar region and further hits the La Reunion islands after three days thus creating numerous damages near the islands. The magnitude of the swell is around 15m near the generation area and it reduces to around 6m near the La Reunion islands while propagating towards the north Indian Ocean. Further the swell energy is spataially distributed in the northern and southern Indian Ocean. The study reveals that the swells generated in the roaring forties and propagating in the SW/SSW direction influences more to Bay of Bengal than Arabian Sea. This occurs during pre-monsoon season primarily because large scale winds are weak in the north Indian Ocean during this period and hence swells from south Indian Ocean dominates at this time. The case of "southern swell" also happened to be at the same season. Further wave parameters were extracted at few locations in the northern Indian Ocean to study the impact of May 2007 swells on the wave climate. An average of around 1m wave height was noted at these locations during the normal period (in the absence of swells) whereas during the swell propagation, an increment of 1 to 2m was observed in the wave height. A constant wave height of 2m was observed at a point extracted in mid Bay of Bengal during the swell propagation. After the swells are completely dissipated, the wave heights are reduced back to 1m. The results presented in this paper prove that the propagation of the swells in the Indian Ocean coming from oceans other than Indian Ocean can be very well studied using the wind wave model.

Samiksha, S. V.; Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V. M.; Rashmi, R.

2012-04-01

39

The politicization of the peasantry in a North Indian state: I  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past three decades, the dominant party in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (U. P.), the Indian National Congress, has undergone a secular decline in its support in state legislative assembly elections. The principal factor in its decline has been its inability to establish a stable basis of support among the midle peasantry, particularly among the so?called

Paul R. Brass

1980-01-01

40

Impact of the Indian and the North Pacific Ocean on ENSO in a Hybrid Coupled Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the impacts of the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean on El Nino and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) statistics through a series of numerical experiments with a hybrid coupled model. In the control run, an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is coupled to the Zebiak-Cane simple ocean model in the tropical Pacific. Outside the tropical Pacific climotological sea surface temperatures are prescribed in the control simulation. In the first (second) experiment, a slab thermodynamic mixed layer model is coupled to the AGCM in the Indian (North Pacific) Ocean. The inclusion of the Indian Ocean has little impact on the ENSO amplitude, however, the Indian Ocean modifies the ENSO frequency via interactions with the Indian monsoon. The power spectrum of the Indian monsoon rainfall has significant biennial time scale around 20~30 months in the first experiment, which may enhance the biennial time scale of ENSO variability through a shift of the horizontal structure of zonal wind stress variability in the central equatorial Pacific. On the other hand, the North Pacific Ocean (i.e., the second experiment) differently acts to modify the ENSO statistics in terms of amplitude and frequency compared to the Indian Ocean. By comparing directly the two idealized experiments we discussed how differently the North Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean acts to the ENSO variability.

Yeh, S.; Park, Y.; Kim, C.

2008-12-01

41

Depression and guilt in Indian and north american patients: a comparative study.  

PubMed

One hundred and nineteen Indian and one hundred and fourteen North American depressed patients were compared to assess the differences in psychopathology. The study revealed two important findings: 1) Indian patients scored significantly higher than American patients on the HAMD items of poor appetite, hypochondriasis, diurnal variation, and psychomotor retardation; and lower on the items of anxiety and middle insomnia. 2) Guilt was expressed less often by Indian patients. Guilt was more common among those who felt that God was responsible for their depression and in those who believed in reincarnation. These differences may be related to cultural factors and not to religious beliefs. PMID:21776166

Ananth, J; Engelsman, F; Ghadirian, A M; Wohl, M; Shamasundara, P; Narayanan, H S

1993-01-01

42

Facial Indices of North and South Indian Adults: Reliability in Stature Estimation and Sexual Dimorphism  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Anthropological studies have document differences in craniofacial features as well as in body characteristics among different populations. The variations in the facial morphology arise through a differential growth and they help us in distinguishing one person from another. These are controlled by a number of factors which include genetic heritage, climate and environment in which we live. Very few researchers from India have worked on these facial features with respect to population and environment. The present work was undertaken to determine whether facial variations were subjected to sexual dimorphism. In addition, comparison of facial indices was made, in order to determine possible variations between south and north Indian populations. Methods: The sample consisted of 200 individuals, 100 each from north and south Indian regions. Various facial parameters were determined on the basis of international anatomical description and facial indices were calculated. Results: North Indian males and females had highest facial height and upper facial height. Facial width of south Indians was more as compared to that of north Indians in both sexes. Regression equation was calculated to compare the probable height with actual height. Conclusion: All the facial parameters and facial indices were found to be statistically highly significant and they showed inter-regional and gender variations. These indices will be beneficial in facial reconstruction surgeries, maxillofacial surgeries, and in forensic medicine, for estimating the stature and sex of an individual.

LC, Prasanna; S, Bhosale; AS, D'Souza; H, Mamatha; RH, Thomas; KS, Sachin

2013-01-01

43

Increasing Rate of Diabetes in Pregnancy Among American Indian and White Mothers in Montana and North Dakota, 1989–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess trends in diabetes in pregnancy in American Indian and whites mothers in Montana and North Dakota. Methods: Montana and North Dakota birth records were utilized to assess trends in any diabetes in pregnancy in American Indians and whites from 1989 to 2000. Results: From 1989 through 2000, there were 133,991 and

Kathleen R. Moum; Gregory S. Holzman; Todd S. Harwell; Sherri L. Parsons; Sandra D. Adams; Carrie S. Oser; Michael R. Spence; Steven D. Helgerson; Dorothy Gohdes

2004-01-01

44

MTHFR Gene Polymorphism and Its Relationship with Plasma Homocysteine and Folate in a North Indian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of elevated homocysteine and its relation with plasma folate and the methylenetetrahydrofolate\\u000a reductase (MTHFR) gene in the population of North India. This study evaluates MTHFR gene polymorphism and its relationship with plasma homocysteine and folate levels in a healthy North Indian population. The\\u000a age of the 200 subjects included in this

Usha Kant Misra; Jayantee Kalita; Amit Kumar Srivastava; Suraksha Agarwal

2010-01-01

45

Some Concepts of Sacred Space Among North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since sacred space is revealed in the symbolism of the center, and sacred time is revealed in traditional Native American cosmogony (according to Mircea Eliade), the symbols of the center and the myths of origin were analyzed for the: Naskapi; Pomo; Paiute; Navajo; Ojibwa; and Delaware American Indians. Analysis revealed the following: (1) for…

Hatfield, John T.; Irby, Charles C.

46

The North American Indian; A Bibliography of Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed by the Housing and Urban Development (HUD) library to meet the recent surge of interest in ethnic minorities and their problems, this annotated bibliography on community development relative to American Indians is divided into two parts. Utilization material published between 1969 and 1974, Part 1 presents 403 citations which are author…

Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

47

Estimation of stature from dimensions of hands and feet in a North Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

In medico-legal autopsies, establishing personal identity of the victims is often required. Estimation of stature from extremities and their parts plays an important role in identifying the dead in forensic examinations. The study examines the relationship between stature and dimensions of hands and feet among Rajputs of Himachal Pradesh – a North Indian endogamous group. The purpose for understanding these

Kewal Krishan; Abhilasha Sharma

2007-01-01

48

Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and carotid intima–media thickness in north Indian type 2 diabetic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and in the development of atherosclerosis, especially in subgroups of the population like those with type 2 diabetes. Although triglycerides are generally increased in the postprandial period, the association between postprandial triglyceride (ppTG) levels and atherosclerosis has not been investigated in north Indian type 2 diabetic subjects known to

Jamal Ahmad; Basharat Hameed; Gautam Das; Mohammad A. Siddiqui; Ibne Ahmad

2005-01-01

49

Distribution of Net-Sampled Phytoplankton as Effected by Hydrological Conditions in the North Indian Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the northwestern part of the Indian Ocean in October-December 1960, areas with both high and low phytoplankton quantities were distinguished. Rich areas were situated to the north of 12 degrees N and to the south of 8 degrees N, the barren area being f...

U. A. Ivanov V. Zernova

1967-01-01

50

A new atlas of temperature and salinity for the North Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most used temperature and salinity climatology for the world ocean, including the Indian Ocean, is the World Ocean Atlas (WOA) (Antonov et al 2006, 2010; Locarnini et al 2006, 2010) because of the vast amount of data used in its preparation. The WOA climatology does not, however, include all the available hydrographic data from the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), leading to the potential for improvement if the data from this region are included to prepare a new climatology. We use all the data that went into the preparation of the WOA ( Antonov et al 2010; Locarnini et al 2010), but add considerable data from Indian sources, to prepare new annual, seasonal, and monthly climatologies of temperature and salinity for the Indian Ocean. The addition of data improves the climatology considerably in the Indian EEZ, the differences between the new North Indian Ocean Atlas (NIOA) and WOA being most significant in the Bay of Bengal, where the patchiness seen in WOA, an artifact of the sparsity of data, was eliminated in NIOA. The significance of the new climatology is that it presents a more stable climatological value for the temperature and salinity fields in the Indian EEZ.

Chatterjee, A.; Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Reddy, G. V.; Michael, G. S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalkrishna, V. V.; Rama Rao, E. P.; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.; Sanjeevan, V. N.

2012-06-01

51

Traditions and reproductive technology in an urbanizing north Indian village  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the practices of prenatal sex determination and sex-selective abortion through ethnographic research in Shahargaon, a Jat village undergoing rapid urbanization and cultural change in north India. The paper presents the sociodemographic outcomes of sex-selective abortion practiced within a system of patriarchy, manifested in terms of son preference and daughter disfavor. It argues that changes from an agriculture

Sunil K. Khanna

1997-01-01

52

Can't Buy Me Love: A Field Experiment Exploring the Tradeoff Between Income and Caste in the Indian Matrimonial Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to measure discriminatory preferences using a field experiment in an established matrimonial market in India. Indian marriages exhibit strong marital segregation along caste lines, and grooms typically advertise their income in matrimonial advertisements. This combination yields an ideal opportunity to measure discriminatory preferences in terms of foregone financial opportunities. We place matrimonial ads in a leading Bengali

Subhasish Dugar; Haimanti Bhattacharya; David Reiley

53

Health Consultation: North Indian Bend Wash Central Ground Treatment Facility, Scottsdale, Maricopa County, Arizona. EPA Facility ID: AZD980695969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The North Indian Bend Wash (NIBW) Superfund site was added to the National Priorities List in 1983. As part of the remediation, the Central Groundwater Treatment Facility (CGTF) was built by several key entities. These entities include, the United States ...

2006-01-01

54

Endosulfan and Other Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Maternal and Cord Blood in North Indian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are exposed to various environmental chemicals such as organochlorine pesticide residues, heavy metals, polychlorinatedbiphenyls\\u000a (PCBs) etc. There is paucity of data regarding the present blood levels of organochlorine residues in North Indian population\\u000a with reference to reproductive health. The present study was designed to analyze the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues\\u000a in maternal and cord blood samples of normal

Rahul Pathak; Sanvidhan G. Suke; Rafat S. Ahmed; A. K. Tripathi; Kiran Guleria; C. S. Sharma; S. D. Makhijani; Meenu Mishra; B. D. Banerjee

2008-01-01

55

Wave modelling for the north Indian Ocean using MSMR analysed winds  

Microsoft Academic Search

NCMRWF (National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast) winds assimilated with MSMR (Multi?channel Scanning Microwave Radiometer) winds are used as input to MIKE21 Offshore Spectral Wave model (OSW), which takes into account wind?induced wave growth, nonlinear wave?wave interaction, wave breaking, bottom friction and wave refraction. The model domain covers the north Indian Ocean, bounded by the equator and to 30° N,

P. Vethamony; K. Sudheesh; S. P. Rupali; M. T. Babu; S. Jayakumar; A. K. Saran; S. K. Basu; R. Kumar; A. Sarkar

2006-01-01

56

The effects of migration on the establishment of networks: caste disintegration and reformation among the Indians of Fiji.  

PubMed

"This article focuses on how migration auspices affect the formation of migrant networks and ethnic communities. Using ethnographic data and migration histories to focus on caste ¿reformation' in the subcommunities of the Indians of Fiji, the ability to reestablish and maintain subcaste group ¿extensions' in Fiji is shown as directly related to the migration auspices that originally established the community. By determining the characteristics of migrants, the reason for migrating, and the magnitude and duration of migration streams, migration auspices define a migration type. This migration type affects the strength and density of social ties present in migration streams. It also affects the strength and density of network ties that members of a migrant community can establish in a receiving society." PMID:12293998

Grieco, E M

1998-01-01

57

Prevalence of CYP2C8 polymorphisms in a North Indian population.  

PubMed

CYP2C8 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes; it affects the activity of various drugs used in routine clinical practice, including amiodarone, chloroquine, amodiaquine, and repaglinide, as well as endogenous compounds, such as arachidonic acid and retonic acid. It is also the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of the widely used anticancer drug Paclitaxel, which has a very narrow therapeutic index. There is evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP2C8 gene influence the adverse reactions and/or the efficacy of drugs metabolized by this enzyme. We examined the allele and genotype frequencies of widely studied functional polymorphisms of the CYP2C8 gene in a North Indian population. We assayed the genomic DNA of at least 251 healthy unrelated North Indians for CYP2C8*2, CYP2C8*3 (G416A, A1196G), and CYP2C8*4 genetic polymorphisms by RFLP technique. These results were compared to information on other populations. The allelic frequencies of CYP2C8*2, CYP2C8*3, and CYP2C8*4 were found to be 3, 4, and 4% respectively. The two CYP2C8*3 polymorphisms (G416A and A1196G) were found to be completely linked to each other. Allele frequencies of CYP2C8 genetic variants in northern Indians were found to have a distinct pattern that differs from that of southern Indian and other global populations. This is the first report from North India on CYP2C8 polymorphisms. Ethnic differences with respect to polymorphisms are the molecular basis of interethnic variability in pharmacokinetics. Our study may help in rational use of drugs that are substrates for CYP2C8 in this population. PMID:23884769

Minhas, S; Setia, N; Pandita, S; Saxena, R; Verma, I C; Aggarwal, S

2013-07-08

58

How the North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation may have influenced the Indian summer monsoon during the past two millennia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations have indicated that the North Atlantic SST variations have persistent effects on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall at multidecadal and longer timescales. The question of how such influences may have been achieved is addressed in this study using both instrumentation data of the 20th century and proxy records of the last 2000 years. Major results show that the North

Song Feng; Qi Hu

2008-01-01

59

Cholesterol ester transfer protein and apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms in hyperlipidemic Asian Indians in North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the distribution of the polymorphic variants of CETP\\u000a TaqIB and ApoE genes and their association with lipid and anthropometric parameters in hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic Asian Indians in\\u000a North India. CETP\\u000a TaqIB and ApoE polymorphism were assayed by PCR–RFLP in hyperlipidemic (n = 220) and normolipidemic (n = 367) subjects. Plasma lipids levels were estimated using commercially available kits from Randox (USA). The

Kiran Meena; Anoop Misra; Naval Vikram; Shakir Ali; R. M. Pandey; Kalpana Luthra

2011-01-01

60

The 2008 Survey of Indian Third-Party Logistics (3PL) Service Providers: Comparisons with the 2004 Survey of Indian 3PLs and 2006 Survey of North American 3PLs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a survey of Indian third-party logistics (3PL) providers and compares the state of the industry with that in 2004 based on an earlier survey. The 3PL industries of India and North America are also compared. The survey finds that the Indian 3PL industry lags behind North America in terms of global reach and breadth of service. Indian

Subrata Mitra

2011-01-01

61

Aerosol size distributions in the north and south Indian ocean during the northeast monsoon season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of aerosol size distributions (3- to 1000-nm diameter) were made over the Indian Ocean (15°N, 75°E to 70°S, 11°E) during the onward (December 12, 1996 to January 6, 1997) and return (March 9 to April 5, 1997) cruises of the XVI Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctic. Observations show that during the January to April period, the environment over the Indian Ocean undergoes a transition from a relatively clean to a fairly polluted one. Our observations of the large concentrations and the North-to-South positive gradient of aerosol concentration over the northern Indian Ocean strongly support the transport of aerosols and trace gases with the seasonal northeasterly winds from the Indian subcontinent to the Indian Ocean. The results also indicate the production of new particles over the oceanic region by the gas-to-particle conversion processes. During this season, because of the persistent northeasterly winds and the shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to the Southern Hemisphere in this region, the air pollutants over the northern Indian Ocean are carried into the Southern Hemisphere with the cross-equatorial flow and reach up to the southern limit of the ITCZ. Some pockets of very high aerosol concentrations have been observed in and around the ITCZ. The nucleation mode particles are observed in great abundance up to 30°S. From the Indian coast to 5°N, aerosol particles are observed to have bimodal size distributions with a maximum in accumulation mode at 133-nm diameter and a minimum for nucleation/Aitken mode particles of <74 nm in diameter. The size distributions gradually change to trimodal ones with another minimum appearing for the coarse mode particles>422 nm in the 5°N-Equator belt and are generally trimodal in the Southern Hemisphere. Transport of the nucleation mode particles from the free troposphere to the marine boundary layer (MBL) associated with the large-scale subsidence and the subsequent North-to-South transport of these and continental aerosols with the seasonal northeasterly surface winds over the Indian Ocean is proposed to explain the high concentration of the nucleation mode particles observed up to the ITCZ. Size distributions change to Junge's power-law type in regions of high aerosol concentration inside the ITCZ. Comparatively small concentrations with almost uniform size distributions that are typical of the pristine air in the Southern Hemisphere are observed from 42°S to 56°S. Some high peaks in aerosol concentration that can be associated with the low-pressure systems that encircle Antarctica are observed in the 60-70°S latitudinal belt. Further, our observations strongly demonstrate the effect of wind direction on the land-to-ocean transport of the atmospheric aerosols.

Deshpande, C. G.; Kamra, A. K.

62

Common Variants in CRP and LEPR Influence High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels in North Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHigh sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels are shown to be influenced by genetic variants in Europeans; however, little is explored in Indian population.MethodsHerein, we comprehensively evaluated association of all previously reported genetic determinants of hsCRP levels, including 18 cis (proximal to CRP gene) and 73 trans-acting (distal to CRP gene) variants in 4,200 North Indians of Indo-European ethnicity. First, we

Anubha Mahajan; Rubina Tabassum; Sreenivas Chavali; Om Prakash Dwivedi; Ganesh Chauhan; Saurabh Ghosh; Nikhil Tandon; Dwaipayan Bharadwaj

2011-01-01

63

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VII: The Indian Tribes of California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The publication, Part VII of a series, includes the charters, constitutions, articles of association or community organization, and by-laws of California Indians on 16 reservations and rancherias. Legal documents from the following groups are provided: Hoopa, Me-Wuk, and Paiute Indians; the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians; the Mission Creek…

Fay, George E., Comp.

64

Impact of XPD gene polymorphism on risk of prostate cancer on north Indian population.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men next to skin cancer in the developed world. Risk of disease varies most prominently with age, ethnicity, family history, and diet. Genetic polymorphism of some genes has been implicated in increasing the risk. The XPD (Xeroderma pigmentosum group D) gene codes for a DNA helicase involved in transcription and nucleotide excision repair. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of XPD 751 Lys/Gln polymorphism on risk of prostate cancer on north Indian patients. Blood sample from 150 prostate cancer patients, 150 from Prostate Hyper Plasia and equal number of samples from healthy control groups was collected from North India. The polymerase chain reaction and restrictive fragment length polymorphism techniques were implemented. Statistically non-significant increase risk of prostate cancer was observed with patients having Gln/Gln genotype (OR 1.62, 95% CI). PMID:22116596

Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Berhane, Nega; Melese, Shiferaw; Mahdi, Salih Abdul; Gupta, Libsy; Thakur, Hitender; Singh, Neha

2011-11-25

65

Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

66

Policy and planning implications of home-based infant stimulation programs for native Indians in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidisciplinary infant stimulation programs for native Indian children and their parents in North America have been developed in response to serious health, educational and social conditions. The common characteristics of the programs typically include local initiation and development in response to local needs, a preventive rather than compensatory focus, multidisciplinary content, use of para-professional staff, and the active involvement of

Margie I. Mayfield

1986-01-01

67

Ocean surface wind prediction in the north Indian Ocean from in situ and satellite observations using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibility of predicting surface wind speed in the north Indian Ocean from in situ observations and surface wind components from satellite scatterometer observations using an approach based on genetic algorithm (GA) has been demonstrated in this work. The approach, unlike other prediction methods, provides explicit analytical forecast equation. Predictions made up to 3 days in advance have been found to

Sujit Basu; K. Satheesan; Abhijit Sarkar; C. M. Kishtawal

2005-01-01

68

Relationships between cloud condensation nuclei spectra and aerosol particles on a south-north transect of the Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do anthropogenic emissions affect cloud microphysical properties? One parameter needed to answer the preceding question is a link between the aerosol number distribution and the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) supersaturation spectrum for polluted and unpolluted air masses. On a south-north cruise in the Indian Ocean in March of 1998, we found that measured CCN spectra and CCN spectra calculated from

Will Cantrell; Glenn Shaw; Caroline Leck; Lenart Granat; Hélène Cachier

2000-01-01

69

Native Agency and the Making of "The North American Indian": Alexander B. Upshaw and Edward S. Curtis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The twenty volumes of ethnographic text and pictorial photography and the twenty portfolios of large, finely printed photogravures that together comprise "The North American Indian" were the product of an extraordinary labor by Edward S. Curtis, an extensive and shifting team of co-workers, and the participation of hundreds of Native Americans.…

Zamir, Shamoon

2007-01-01

70

Divorce in a rural north Indian area: evidence from Himachali villages.  

PubMed

This study focuses on divorce patterns in 10 rural villages near Shimla town, the capital of Himachal Pradesh, India. Data were obtained from a survey conducted in 1988 among 338 ever married women. Most villagers are Hindus. Caste groups include Brahmins (13%), Rajputs (45%), and Sudras (42%). Indian divorce consists in a permanent separation without legal formalities or an informal process within the panchayat judicial system. Large national studies indicate low levels of divorce, while local anthropological studies indicate high levels in some areas. This study in 1988 indicates that over 17% of women (58 out of 338) in Himachal villages were divorced at least once. Evidence suggests that divorces by cohort were higher prior to 1960. About 30% of women who married during 1951-60, 13% of women who married during 1971-80, and 3% of women who married during 1981-88 were divorced at least once. The mean age of marriage for ever divorced women was much lower than for never divorced women. The mean age at divorce was also much lower than the mean age at marriage among never divorced women. The variables associated with divorce at the 0.05 level of significance were marriage age, level of female education, age difference of spouses, and level of education of spouse and caste. Women who married before the age of 13 years were three times more likely to divorce than women who married at ages 13-15 years. Women with at least 5 years of education were four times less likely to divorce than uneducated women. Brahmin women were less likely to divorce. Women with uneducated husbands had a 50% greater chance of being divorced than women with primary educated husbands. Women who were younger by 10 years than their spouse were six times more likely to divorce. PMID:12347820

Singh, M

1996-09-01

71

Indian summer monsoon influence on the climate in the North Atlantic-European region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that climate anomalies over the North Atlantic-Europe (NAE) can influence the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability. It is, however, still an outstanding question whether the latter has a significant impact on the former. In this study, observational evidences indicate that the interannual variability of ISM is closely linked to the climate anomalies over NAE. A strong ISM is often associated with significant above normal precipitation over most of western Europe. Meanwhile, positive surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies are usually observed over the Mediterranean, accompanied by below normal SAT in Western Europe during a strong ISM summer. The situation is just opposite during a weak ISM summer. A global primitive equation model is utilized to assess the mechanism of the above observed connection.

Lin, Hai; Wu, Zhiwei

2012-07-01

72

Glacial fluctuations of the Indian monsoon and their relationship with North Atlantic abrupt climate change: new data and climate experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several paleoclimate records such as Chinese loess and speleothem sequences or upwelling indicators present large variations of the Asian monsoon system during the last glaciation. Here, a unique record in the northern Andaman Sea (core MD77-176) is used to reconstruct the variations of the hydrological cycle of the Bay of Bengal. The high resolution salinity record displays large millennial scale oscillations over the period 40 000 to 11 000 yr BP that are synchronous with the Greenland ice core record of changes in polar air temperature during the last glaciations. Events of high (resp. low) salinity in the Bay of Bengal, i.e. weak (resp. strong) Indian monsoon, correspond to cold (resp. warm) events in the North Atlantic. We use the IPSL_CM4 model to study the processes that can explain the relationship between the Indian monsoon and the North Atlantic climate. A modelling experiment represents such a rapid event in the North Atlantic under glacial conditions by increasing the freshwater flux in the North Atlantic and reducing the intensity of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. This freshwater hosing results in a weakening of the Indian monsoon rainfall and circulation. The changes in the continental runoff and local hydrological cycle are responsible for the changes in salinity of the Bay of Bengal in the model. This is a favourable comparison with the new salinity record presented here. Additional sensitivity experiments are produced with the LMDZ atmospheric model to analyse the teleconnection mechanisms between the North Atlantic and the Indian monsoon. The changes over the tropical Atlantic are shown to be essential in triggering perturbations of the subtropical jet over Eurasia that in turn affect the intensity of the Indian monsoon.

Marzin, C.; Kallel, N.; Kageyama, M.; Duplessy, J.-C.; Braconnot, P.

2012-12-01

73

Paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphism & its relation with lipids in north west Indian Punjabis.  

PubMed

We investigated 190 healthy, unrelated and randomly selected, north-west Indian Punjabis (M:102; F:88) for paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphism by dual substrate method and also determined lipid variables i.e., total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) in them to determine any relationship between PON1 activity, PON1 phenotypes and lipids. The basal plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity, and PON activity in presence of 1 Mol NaCl (salt activated paraoxonase i.e., SAP) were estimated by using paraoxon as substrate whereas the, phenyl acetate esterase (A) activity was estimated by using phenylacetate as substrate. Based on the ratio of SAP/A activity, three distinct phenotypes of PON1 could be determined with gene frequencies of PON*A (low activity) and PON*B (high activity) allele being 0.847 and 0.153 respectively. In the whole population on partial correlation after normalising the variables and after adjusting the lipids for age and body mass index (BMI), a significant negative correlation was observed between SAP/A ratio and TC (r = -0.290; P < 0.01) and LDL (r = -0.154; P < 0.05). However, on analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) after normalizing the lipid variables and adjusting these for age and body mass index (BMI), no significant difference could be observed in lipid profile of these three phenotypes. The lack of a significant relationship between lipids and PON1 phenotypes, suggests that PON phenotype does not significantly influence the lipid profile in north-west Indian Punjabis. However, a significant negative correlation between the PON activity and TC and LDL suggests that low PON activity could be a risk factor for atherosclerosis in these subjects. PMID:10645101

Singh, S; Verma, M; Nain, C K; Leelamma, C O; Goel, R C

1999-10-01

74

Intraseasonal oscillation of total precipitable water over North Indian Ocean and its application in the diagnostic study of coastal rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) is reported to be a useful sensor to measure the atmospheric and oceanic parameters even in cloudy conditions. Vertically integrated specific humidity, Total Precipitable Water (TPW) retrieved from the water vapour absorption channel (22GHz.) along with 10m wind speed and rain rate derived from TMI is used to investigate the moisture variation over North Indian Ocean. Intraseasonal Oscillations (ISO) of TPW during the summer monsoon seasons 1998, 1999, and 2000 over North Indian Ocean is explored using wavelet analysis. The dominant waves in TPW during the monsoon periods and the differences in ISO over Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal are investigated. The northward propagation of TPW anomaly and its coherence with the coastal rainfall is also studied. For the diagnostic study of heavy rainfall spells over the west coast, the intrusion of TPW over the North Arabian Sea is seen to be a useful tool.

Sajith, V.; Santosh, K. R.; Ram Mohan, H. S.

2003-10-01

75

Estimation of stature from index and ring finger length in a North Indian adolescent population.  

PubMed

The identification of commingled mutilated remains is a challenge to forensic experts and hence, a need of studies on estimation of stature from various body parts in different population groups. Such studies can help in narrowing down the pool of possible victim matches in cases of identification from dismembered remains. Studies pertaining to stature estimation among adolescents are limited owing to the ongoing growth process and growth spurt during adolescent period. In view of the limited literature on the estimation of stature in adolescent group, the present preliminary research was taken up to report the correlation between index and ring finger length and stature in a North Indian adolescent population. Three anthropometric measurements; Stature, Index finger length (IFL) and ring finger length (RFL) were taken on the subjects included in the study. Mean stature, IFL and RFL were significantly larger in males than females. Statistically significant correlation was observed between stature, IFL and RFL in right and left hands. Pearson correlation (r) was higher among males than females. Among males and females correlation coefficient was higher for the IFL than the RFL. The present research derives the linear regression models and multiplication factors for estimating stature from IFL and RFL and concludes that the living stature can be predicted from the IFL and RFL with a reasonable accuracy in adolescent population of North India. PMID:22687770

Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Asha, Ningthoukhongjam

2012-01-14

76

Prevalence and predictors of tobacco use among Lumbee Indian women in Robeson County, North Carolina.  

PubMed

Tobacco use among some Native American tribes is high compared to the overall US population. Little is known, however, about tobacco use among Native Americans in North Carolina, a state with strong economic ties to tobacco. To assess the epidemiology of tobacco use in this population, data from the North Carolina Native American Cervical Cancer Project was reviewed. Nine hundred eighty-two Lumbee Indian women in Robeson County provided general demographic information as well as information on cancer risk knowledge, attitudes and behaviors during the 5-year study. Women were selected from the community using a random sample of 5200 persons from the tribal roll of approximately 40,000 persons. 20.6% of women were current smokeless tobacco users, while 23.7% were current smokers. Demographic and social support predictors were unique for the different types of tobacco use. Cigarette smoking was associated with younger age, higher education, excellent or good self-reported health, having a recent physical exam, separated or divorced marital status, low church participation, and alcohol consumption. Conversely, use of smokeless tobacco was associated with older age, lower education level, fair or poor self-reported health, widowed marital status, and having a high number of friends. These data show a high prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among women in this population, and a contrast in the predictors of tobacco use by source. Intervention programs for tobacco use cessation should be sensitive to these differences. PMID:9149953

Spangler, J G; Bell, R A; Dignan, M B; Michielutte, R

1997-04-01

77

Glacial fluctuations of the Indian monsoon and their relationship with North Atlantic climate: new data and modelling experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several paleoclimate records such as from Chinese loess, speleothems or upwelling indicators in marine sediments present large variations of the Asian monsoon system during the last glaciation. Here, we present a new record from the northern Andaman Sea (core MD77-176) which shows the variations of the hydrological cycle of the Bay of Bengal. The high-resolution record of surface water ?18O dominantly reflects salinity changes and displays large millennial-scale oscillations over the period 40 000 to 11 000 yr BP. Their timing and sequence suggests that events of high (resp. low) salinity in the Bay of Bengal, i.e. weak (resp. strong) Indian monsoon, correspond to cold (resp. warm) events in the North Atlantic and Arctic, as documented by the Greenland ice core record. We use the IPSL_CM4 Atmosphere-Ocean coupled General Circulation Model to study the processes that could explain the teleconnection between the Indian monsoon and the North Atlantic climate. We first analyse a numerical experiment in which such a rapid event in the North Atlantic is obtained under glacial conditions by increasing the freshwater flux in the North Atlantic, which results in a reduction of the intensity of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. This freshwater hosing results in a weakening of the Indian monsoon rainfall and circulation. The changes in the continental runoff and local hydrological cycle are responsible for an increase in salinity in the Bay of Bengal. This therefore compares favourably with the new sea water ?18O record presented here and the hypothesis of synchronous cold North Atlantic and weak Indian monsoon events. Additional sensitivity experiments are produced with the LMDZ atmospheric model to analyse the teleconnection mechanisms between the North Atlantic and the Indian monsoon. The changes over the tropical Atlantic are shown to be essential in triggering perturbations of the subtropical jet over Africa and Eurasia, that in turn affect the intensity of the Indian monsoon. These relationships are also found to be valid in additional coupled model simulations in which the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is forced to resume.

Marzin, C.; Kallel, N.; Kageyama, M.; Duplessy, J.-C.; Braconnot, P.

2013-09-01

78

Telling Stories About Indigeneity and Canadian Sport: The Spectacular Cree & Ojibway Indian Hockey Barnstorming Tour of North America, 1928  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January and February 1928, 14 hockey-playing Natives from northeastern Ontario undertook a celebrated barnstorming tour of 17 cities and towns in the United States and Canada. Traveling by charter bus, the “Cree & Ojibway Indian Hockey Tour” was a well-promoted and cleverly-planned road trip that began in North Bay and swung through southwestern Ontario before it reached its real

Andrew C. Holman

2009-01-01

79

Characterisation of a psychrotolerant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas sp. strain PGERs17 (MTCC 9000) isolated from North Western Indian Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psychrotolerant, Gram negative, rod shaped, plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB) was isolated from high altitude of North\\u000a Western Indian Himalayas. The identity of the bacterium was confirmed by morphological, biochemical and sequencing of the\\u000a 16S rRNA gene. The sequence analysis revealed maximum similarity withPseudomonas vancouverensis. It exhibited tolerance to a wide pH range (5–12; optimum 7.0) and salt concentrations

Pankaj K. Mishra; Smita Mishra; Govindan Selvakumar; Shekhar C. Bisht; Jaideep K. Bisht; Samaresh Kundu; Hari Shankar Gupta

2008-01-01

80

Mesozoic deltaic system along the western margin of the Indian plate: lithofacies and depositional setting of Datta Formation, North Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1 km thick Mesozoic sedimentary sequence is exposed over a wide area in the Upper Indus basin of north Pakistan along\\u000a the western margin of the Indian Plate. The Mesozoic sequence is comprised of clastic facies in the lower part, while carbonate\\u000a facies are dominant in the upper part. About 200 m thick mixed sequence of interbedded sandstone, siltstone, clay, and

Iftikhar Ahmed Abbasi; Mohammad Haneef; Shams Obaid; Farukh Daud; Amjad Waheed Qureshi

81

Role of equatorial central Pacific and northwest of North Atlantic 2-metre surface temperatures in modulating Indian summer monsoon variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interannual variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) have been examined in association with the variability of 2-metre surface temperature (2mST), and lower- and upper-tropospheric pressure and wind patterns over the globe using ERA-40 reanalysis dataset. The analysis of 44-years (1958-2001) data reveals a recurrent negative phase of ENSO (La Niña) pattern. The increase in 2mST over tropical southwest Pacific and intensification of subtropical westerly jet stream over Indian Ocean due to the consequence of thermal wind balance. The intensification of jet forms anticyclonic anomaly which intensifies Mascarene High as the atmospheric response is equivalent barotropic over there. The Mascarene High intensifies the cross equatorial flow and hence Indian summer monsoon (ISM) circulation. While, during non-ENSO years data reveals a recurrent positive relationship of ISMR with 2mST anomaly over northwest of North Atlantic and intensification and shift of North Atlantic westerly jet stream to higher latitudes. The jet stream intensifies the meridional vorticity dipole, formed due to Azores High and the entrance of Asian subtropical westerly jet stream over North Atlantic and west Mediterranean Sea. A wave activity flux for stationary Rossby waves diverges out of the vorticity dipole toward downstream along the Asian jet stream over the Eurasian region. The jet stream acts as a wave guide and the successive troughs and ridges of the Rossby waves travel along the jet and influence upper-tropospheric Tibetan High and hence ISM circulation.

Yadav, R. K.

2009-03-01

82

Structure and isostatic compensation of the Comorin Ridge, north central Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bathymetry, gravity and magnetic data (about 9200 lkm) of the Comorin Ridge, north central Indian Ocean were investigated using the transfer function and forward model techniques to understand the mode of isostatic compensation and origin of the ridge. The ridge extends for about 500 km in NNW-SSE direction and associates with low-amplitude gravity anomalies ranging from 25 to 30 mGal compared to the ridge relief, suggesting that the anomalies are compensated at deeper depths. From Admittance analysis an Airy model or local compensation with an elastic plate thickness (Te) of about 3 km and crust thickness (t) of 15-20 km are suggested for the southern part of the Comorin Ridge (south of 5°N), whereas for the northern part a flexural plate model with an elastic thickness of about 15 km is obtained. Admittance analysis together with the results from gravity forward modelling reveal that the south part was emplaced on relatively weak oceanic crust with both surface and subsurface loading, while the north part was emplaced on the continental crust. Based on present studies and published plate kinematic models we interpret that the Comorin Ridge was evolved at about 90 Ma during the rift stage of Madagascar from the southwest of India. We have also demarcated the continent-ocean boundary (COB) west of Sri Lanka and southern tip of India, which runs across the strike of the ridge, placing the northern part of the ridge on continent and southern part on oceanic crust. On the southern part of the ridge eastern flank is steep-faulted up to 0.6 km and is controlled by the 79°E FZ and then by COB.

Sreejith, K. M.; Krishna, K. S.; Bansal, A. R.

2008-11-01

83

Lipoprotein (a) Levels in Relation to Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in North Indian Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is an established risk marker of coronary artery disease which is independent from other risk factors. Objective: The aim was to address the association between Lp (a) and CAD risk in North Indians. To evaluate whether high levels of lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is a predictor of risk and is related to the severity of CAD. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on 360 patients presenting with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed CAD in 270 patients and 90 patients without CAD. Lipoprotein (a) level, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed. Results: Lipoprotein (a) 21.0 mg/dL is associated with the presence of coronary lesions (P = 0.0001). A highly significant difference in Lp (a) levels was observed between normal coronaries vs. single-vessel disease, double-and triple-vessel disease ( P < 0.0001). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly raised in CAD group compared to normal coronary. Conclusion: Multivariate analysis found that Lp (a) was considered an independent predictor for severity of CAD and Lp (a) levels 21.0 mg/dL are associated with severe patterns of coronary atherosclerosis.

Ashfaq, Fauzia; Goel, Pravin Kumar; Sethi, Rishi; Khan, Mohd Idrees; Ali, Wahid; Idris, Mohd Zafar

2013-01-01

84

Nucleolar localization of cirhin, the protein mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

Cirhin (NP{sub 1}16219), the product of the CIRH1A gene is mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC/CIRH1A, OMIM 604901), a severe autosomal recessive intrahepatic cholestasis. It is a 686-amino-acid WD40-repeat containing protein of unknown function that is predicted to contain multiple targeting signals, including an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal, a C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a bipartite nuclear localization signal (BNLS). We performed the direct determination of subcellular localization of cirhin as a crucial first step in unraveling its biological function. Using EGFP and His-tagged cirhin fusion proteins expressed in HeLa and HepG2, cells we show that cirhin is a nucleolar protein and that the R565W mutation, for which all NAIC patients are homozygous, has no effect on subcellular localization. Cirhin has an active C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a unique nucleolar localization signal (NrLS) between residues 315 and 432. The nucleolus is not known to be important specifically for intrahepatic cholestasis. These observations provide a new dimension in the study of hereditary cholestasis.

Yu, Bin [Service de Genetique medicale, Centre de recherche, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, 3175 Cote Sainte-Catherine, Quebec, H3T1C5 (Canada); Mitchell, Grant A. [Service de Genetique medicale, Centre de recherche, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, 3175 Cote Sainte-Catherine, Quebec, H3T1C5 (Canada); Richter, Andrea [Service de Genetique medicale, Centre de recherche, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, 3175 Cote Sainte-Catherine, Quebec, H3T1C5 (Canada)]. E-mail: andrea.richter@umontreal.ca

2005-12-10

85

Influence of moist processes on track and intensity forecast of cyclones over the north Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we address the problem of incorporating moist processes (parameterizing the subgrid scale and resolving the grid scale) at resolutions of 10 km and 3.3 km (triple nested) in predicting the track and intensity of tropical cyclones over the north Indian Ocean. First, the sensitivity of three convective parameterization (CP) schemes on the cyclone track and intensity are evaluated. Kain-Fritsch (KF) shows a realistic simulation of track and intensity and therefore is considered for all the experiments at 10 km with four bulk microphysical (MP) schemes (hybrid experiments). At 3.3 km resolution the simulation is carried out resolving the grid-scale convection explicitly with the four MP schemes. Hybrid moist convection treatment at 10 km is found to produce a better simulation as compared to only explicit MP experiment at 3.3 km. The main reason is found to be heating within the inner core of the cyclone which is influenced dominantly by production of graupel hydrometeors in the inner core region. The latent heat released in the formation of graupel mixing ratio is responsible for net middle level heating rate in the cyclone core. Higher net heating in the middle level enhances the divergence in the upper level and convergence in the lower level which in turn helps in the intensification of the system. The role of graupel is further established by deactivating its production, where the model cannot simulate the midlevel heating and intensification of the system.

Mukhopadhyay, P.; Taraphdar, S.; Goswami, B. N.

2011-03-01

86

Association of interleukin 4 VNTR polymorphism and HIV/AIDS in a north Indian seropositive patients.  

PubMed

Despite different efforts made to intervene with the deadly nature of HIV/AIDS, all attempts remained unsuccessful due to complexity of the viral host interactions. The solution to HIV-1 pandemic is still to come, thus to assist the efforts being made to intervene with the deadly nature of the virus, different factors responsible for the disease burdens have to be looked into a systematic manner. As a result, the present study aimed to find out the association of IL-4 VNTR polymorphism with HIV-1 susceptibility and rate of disease progression. Three hundred cases and an equal number of sex and age matched controls were included for this study. The polymerase chain reaction assay was utilized to genotype IL-4 VNTR. The results of this study showed statistically significant variation among cases and controls in the distribution of the Rp2/Rp2 genotype (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.18-0.69; P value = 0.0014) indicating, thereby, a possibility of reduced risk of HIV-1 susceptibility. Thus, Rp2/Rp2 genotype of the IL-4 might have a role to play in reducing risk of HIV-1 susceptibility among a north Indian population. PMID:21713407

Sobti, Ranbiden Chandera; Berhane, Nega; Mahdi, Salih Abdul; Takur, Hitnder; Wanch, Ajay

2011-06-29

87

Mutation spectrum of CYP1B1 in North Indian congenital glaucoma patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose Mutations in Cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1) are a predominant cause of congenital glaucoma. This study was planned with the aim to identify the mutation profile of CYP1B1 in North Indian primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) patients. Methods After ethical clearance, 50 congenital glaucoma patients and 50 ethnically matched controls were recruited in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood and trabecular meshwork, and CYP1B1 was screened for the six most prevalent mutations (termination at 223 [Ter@223], Gly61Glu, Pro193Leu, Glu229Lys, Arg368His, and Arg390Cys) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). DNA sequencing was done to identify other mutations and for confirmation of RFLP positive samples. Results On PCR-RFLP, 21/50 cases (42%) were found positive for one or more of these mutations. However, on sequencing, we found that 23/50 (46%) harbored the CYPIB1 mutations. Ter@223 was found in 18%, p.R390H in 16%, and p.R368H in 8% of cases. Three novel mutations, p.L24R, p.F190L, and p.G329D, were identified by DNA sequencing. Leucine, phenylalanine, and glycine are conserved at the 24th, 190th, and 329th position in the CYP1B1 protein in different species, suggestive of important functions at these loci. Ter@223 was found to be the most prevalent mutation in our patients while p.R368H was most prevalent in southern India. The difference in frequency and mutation profile may be due to the heterogeneous Indian population. Pathogenic CYP1B1 mutations impair anterior chamber development and differentiation by blocking the aqueous outflow and raising intraocular pressure (IOP). Conclusions Three novel mutations were identified in this study. Studies of pathogenic sequence variants in CYP1B1 in different populations may contribute to a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis. This may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches in the near future.

Tanwar, Mukesh; Dada, Tanuj; Sihota, Ramanjit; Das, Taposh K.; Yadav, Usha

2009-01-01

88

Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic

Andreas Schmittner; Eric D. Galbraith; Steven W. Hostetler; Thomas F. Pedersen; Rong Zhang

2007-01-01

89

Common Variants in CRP and LEPR Influence High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels in North Indians  

PubMed Central

Background High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels are shown to be influenced by genetic variants in Europeans; however, little is explored in Indian population. Methods Herein, we comprehensively evaluated association of all previously reported genetic determinants of hsCRP levels, including 18 cis (proximal to CRP gene) and 73 trans-acting (distal to CRP gene) variants in 4,200 North Indians of Indo-European ethnicity. First, we evaluated association of 91 variants from 12 candidate loci with hsCRP levels in 2,115 North Indians (1,042 non-diabetic subjects and 1,073 patients with type 2 diabetes). Then, cis and trans-acting variants contributing maximally to hsCRP level variation were further replicated in an independent 2,085 North Indians (1,047 patients with type 2 diabetes and 1,038 non-diabetic subjects). Results We found association of 12 variants from CRP, LEPR, IL1A, IL6, and IL6R with hsCRP levels in non-diabetic subjects. However, only rs3093059-CRP [??=?0.33, P?=?9.6×10?5] and the haplotype harboring rs3093059 risk allele [??=?0.32 µg/mL, P?=?1.4×10?4/Pperm?=?9.0×10?4] retained significance after correcting for multiple testing. The cis-acting variant rs3093059-CRP had maximum contribution to the variance in hsCRP levels (1.14%). Among, trans-acting variants, rs1892534-LEPR was observed to contribute maximally to hsCRP level variance (0.59%). Associations of rs3093059-CRP and rs1892534-LEPR were confirmed by replication and attained higher significance after meta-analysis [?meta?=?0.26/0.22; Pmeta?=?4.3×10?7/7.4×10?3 and ?meta?=??0.15/?0.12; Pmeta?=?2.0×10?6/1.6×10?6 for rs3093059 and rs1892534, respectively in non-diabetic subjects and all subjects taken together]. Conclusion In conclusion, we identified rs3093059 in CRP and rs1892534 in LEPR as major cis and trans-acting contributor respectively, to the variance in hsCRP levels in North Indian population.

Mahajan, Anubha; Tabassum, Rubina; Chavali, Sreenivas; Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Chauhan, Ganesh; Ghosh, Saurabh; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

2011-01-01

90

A study of sex differences in fingerprint ridge density in a North Indian young adult population.  

PubMed

Fingerprints have considerable value in morphological, biological, anthropological and forensic studies. Fingerprints collected from the crime scene and from the items of evidence of crime have been successfully used to identify suspects, victims or any other person who had touched the surface in question. The thickness of epidermal ridges varies between individuals; females are supposed to have finer ridges than males and therefore a greater ridge density. The present research is an attempt to distinguish sex from fingerprint ridge density in the radial, ulnar and lower areas of a fingerprint in a North Indian population. A total of 194 individuals (97 males and 97 females) aged between 18 and 25 years were included in the study and fingerprints were collected from each finger of the participants. Thus, a total of 1940 fingerprints were obtained and epidermal ridges were counted in the radial, ulnar, and lower areas of each fingerprint. The radial and ulnar areas are the 5 mm × 5 mm areas on the radial and ulnar side of the central core respectively while the lower area is designated as 5 mm × 5 mm area adjoining the flexion crease of the terminal phalanx on a fingerprint. The fingerprint ridge density in radial, ulnar and lower areas and between sexes was compared statistically using t-test. The results indicate that the females tend to have a significantly higher ridge density than males in the three areas analyzed in the study. The fingerprint ridge density in the ulnar and radial areas of the fingerprints is significantly higher than the lower area. The present study suggests that the fingerprint ridge density can be a relevant and useful morphological parameter in distinguishing sex of a latent fingerprint of unknown origin from the scene of crime. The findings can also be useful in identification of mutilated remains when a dismembered hand is brought for medico-legal examination. PMID:23622462

Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Ngangom, Chitrabala

2012-09-24

91

Study of sense of coherence health promoting behavior in north Indian students  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: With advances in knowledge about health promotion, public health professionals are in search for the determinants of personal health behaviours. This study was carried out to explore the level of engagement of north Indian students in health promoting behaviours; to determine their sense of coherence scores; and to ascertain the determinants of health promoting behaviours of these students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in four randomly selected colleges of Chandigarh during 2007-2008 in 200 students (100 male, 100 female). Their health promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP) and sense of coherence (SOC) scores were estimated using interviews. The data were analyzed using Pearson's product moment correlation, and also stepwise linear regression analysis. Results: Mean HPLP and SOC scores of the students were 138.69 and 130.87, respectively. Females cared more about their health than males. Male students were more involved in physical activities. There was a linear correlation between the total SOC and HPLP scores (r=0.3). Female students (63%) consulted doctors more than males (50%) and washed their hands more regularly (P<0.05). Only 13 per cent students practiced yoga regularly. Female students had more meaningful relationships with friends and had more faith in God. Regression equation revealed that the two independent variables (SOC and age) accounted for 10.8 per cent of the variance in HPLP. Interpretation & conclusion: Students with higher SOC scores had higher HPLP scores. Female students were more health conscious than male students. In general, college students in Chandigarh had a good health promoting lifestyle and good sense of coherence.

Suraj, Senjam; Singh, Amarjeet

2011-01-01

92

Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke--Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Subtypes in a North Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Posterior circulation stroke accounts for approximately 20% of all strokes with varied clinical presentation, which differ from strokes in anterior circulation, with reference to etiology, clinical features, and prognosis. Short penetrating and circumferential branches in the posterior circulation supply the brain stem, thalamus, cerebellum, occipital, and medial temporal lobes. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 80 participants of posterior circulation ischemic stroke from a registry of 944 participants attending a tertiary care referral university hospital. Patients were analyzed for demographics, stroke risk factors, clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, and stroke subtypes. Results: Posterior circulation ischemic stroke accounted for 80 (8.5%) of 944 of all strokes and 80 (10.45%) of 765 of ischemic stroke. Sixty-three were males with mean age 51.7 ± 14.4 years. Twenty-one participants were young (defined as age less than 45 years). Hypertension was found to be the most common risk factor (63.75%). Vertigo was the most common clinical symptom reported in 45 (56.25%) cases. Sixty-eight (85%) patients had large artery disease, 8 (10%) had documented cardioembolic source, 3 (3.75%) small artery disease, and 2 (2.5%) vasculitis. Posterior cerebral artery was most commonly involved. Topographically distal intracranial involvement was most frequent (66.25%) followed by proximal (30%) and middle intracranial territory (3.75%). Conclusions: Our study demonatrated the occurrence of posterior circulation stroke in relatively younger age group compared to the Western world. We also found higher percentage of large artery disease, while cardioembolism as a less frequent cause of posterior circulation ischemic stroke in North Indian population. Distal territory involvement was most common in our study.

Mehndiratta, Manmohan; Pandey, Sanjay; Nayak, Rajeev; Alam, Anwar

2012-01-01

93

Hormone receptor-related gene polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk in North Indian population.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyse the frequency and type of mutations in the coding region of androgen receptor (AR) and to determine the role of polymorphisms in the intron 1 of ERalpha, exon 5 of ERbeta, intron 7 of progesterone, exon 7 of the aromatase (CYP19) and exon 9 of VDR genes in the risk of prostate cancer. PCR-RFLP analysis of all above the genes was on 100 prostate cancer patients and an equal number of matching controls. The study also included PCR-SSCP analyses of exons 2-8 of AR gene. The genotype containing -/- allele of ERalpha gene was statistically significant for the risk of prostate cancer pose (OR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.08-6.70, P = 0.032) Rr genotype of ERbeta gene also have a higher risk (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 0.52-5.23) for prostate cancer. The Cys allele of CYP19 gene was also associated with statistically significant increased risk of prostate cancer (OR; 2.28, 95% CI, 1.20-4.35, P = 0.012). tt genotype of codon 352 of VDR gene showed an OR of 0.43 for (95% CI, 0.13-1.39) and an OR for Tt genotype was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.36-1.16). Taken together, the results showed that in North Indian population, ERalpha and CYP19 genes may be playing a role in the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:18483761

Onsory, Khadijeh; Sobti, R C; Al-Badran, Adnan Issa; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Taizo; Krishan, Awtar; Mohan, Harsh; Kaur, Pushpinder

2008-05-16

94

Screening of the LTBP2 gene in a north Indian population with primary congenital glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), a severe form of glaucoma that presents early in life, is an autosomal recessive eye disorder that results from defects in anterior eye segment. Null mutations in LTBP2 were reported in patients with PCG in Pakistani and Iranian families. This study was aimed to identify the mutation profile of the LTBP2 gene in north Indian patients with PCG. Methods After ethical clearance, 54 unrelated patients with PCG who were either negative or heterozygous for MYOC, CYP1B1, and FOXC1 mutations and 50 ethnically matched non-glaucomatous controls were recruited for the study. PCG diagnosis was established by the presence of buphthalmos in at least one affected eye and associated high intraocular pressure before the age of 3 years. LTBP2 was screened in genomic blood DNA for mutations, with PCR and direct sequencing of PCR amplified fragments. Results We observed one intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (rs3742793) between exons 6 and 7 in the LTBP2 gene in 18 patients with PCG. This nucleotide change resulted in cytosine (C) being replaced by guanosine (G) at position g.75070493. No pathogenic variants were identified in the LTBP2 gene in our cohort of patients. Conclusions LTBP2 gene mutations are not involved in the pathogenesis of primary congenital glaucoma in our patients. Thus, it is important to screen other glaucoma-associated loci and genes for involvement in congenital glaucoma in cases that are either negative or heterozygous for MYOC, CYP1B1, and FOXC1 mutations to have better insight into the disease pathogenesis.

Mohanty, Kuldeep; Tanwar, Mukesh; Dada, Rima

2013-01-01

95

Role of genetic polymorphism of estrogen receptor-alpha gene and risk of prostate cancer in north Indian population.  

PubMed

Present study depicted the role of polymorphisms in estrogen receptor-alpha gene in association with prostate cancer in north Indian population. The study was performed on 157 cases of prostate cancer, 170 cases of BPH, and 170 healthy Indian males diagnosed with prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and healthy males as controls. Determination of polymorphism in the ER-alpha gene was done by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with PvuII and XbaI enzymes. An association was observed between PvuII polymorphism of ER-alpha gene and that of prostate cancer. However, there was no such association with XbaI polymorphism in ER-alpha gene. PMID:19904497

Gupta, Lipsy; Thakur, Hitender; Sobti, Ranbir C; Seth, Amlesh; Singh, Sharwan K

2009-11-11

96

CONSTRUCTION AND STANDARDIZATION AF A SEX KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE (SKAQ), IN SIMPLE HINDI, FOR NORTH INDIAN POPULATION.  

PubMed Central

A self-administered questionnaire (SKAQ) in simple Hindi was constructed and standardized for assessing the knowledge and attitude of a north Indian population towards sex. SKAQ is a 55- item questionnaire split into two parts: a 35-item knowledge-part with dichotomous choice of responses and a 20-item attitude-part scorable on 3-point Likert scale. Higher scores indicated a better knowledge and a liberal attitude. Its test-retest reliability was established and discriminant validity demonstrated. Both males and females showed poor knowledge about and entertained conservative attitudes. Surprisingly, normal subjects were no different from patients with sexual problems.

Avasthi, Ajit K.; Varma, Vijoy K.; Nehra, Ritu; Das, Karobi

1992-01-01

97

The Interactive Effect of SIRT1 Promoter Region Polymorphism on Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility in the North Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have implicated genes mainly involved in the activity of pancreatic ? cells in type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility in the North Indian population. Recent literature on the role of SIRT1 as a potential master switch modulating insulin secretion and regulating gene expression in pancreatic ? cells has warranted an evaluation of SIRT1 promoter region polymorphisms in the North Indian population, which is the main focus of the present study. 1542 samples (692 T2D patients and 850 controls) were sequenced for the 1.46 kb region upstream the translation start site of the SIRT1 gene. We performed a functional characterization of the SIRT1 promoter region polymorphisms using luciferase assay and observed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12778366, in association with SIRT1 expression. We propose that TT, the high-expressing genotype of SNP rs12778366 in the SIRT1 promoter region and present in >80% of the North Indian population, was favored under conditions of feast-famine cycles in evolution, which has turned out to be a cause of concern in the present sedentary lifestyle under ad libitum conditions. Case-control association analysis did not implicate rs12778366 in T2DM per se in the studied population. However, our earlier reported risk genotype combinations of mt-ND3, PGC1?, and UCP2-866, when compared with the protective genotype combinations, in the background of the high-expressing TT genotype of SIRT1 SNP rs12778366, showed a very high additive risk [corrected odd ratio (OR)?=?8.91; p?=?6.5×10?11]. The risk level was considerably low in the genotype backgrounds of TX (OR?=?6.68; p?=?2.71×10?12) and CX (OR?=?3.74; p?=?4.0×10?3). In addition, we screened other reported T2D-associated polymorphisms: PIK3R1 rs3730089, IRS1 rs1801278, and PPP1R3 rs1799999, which did not show any significant association in North Indian population. The present paper emphasizes the importance of gene interactions in the biological pathways of T2D, a complex lifestyle disease.

Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Swarkar; Kaul, Surabhi; Jain, Kamal; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, Amarjit S.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

2012-01-01

98

Clinical experience with exenatide in obese North Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective: To share our clinical experience with exenatide in obese North Indian subjects with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: We share our experience with use of exenatide in 74 patients treated at Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India Subjects included obese / overweight subjects (mean weight and BMI; 97.67 ± 5.6 kg and 34.56 kg/m2) with known history of type 2 DM (Mean: 9 ± 5.6 years) and maintaining suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c >7%) on oral antidiabetic agents, with or without basal insulin. Metformin and sulphonylureas were continued (with dose adjustment if indicated), as was basal insulin (glargine / detemir). TZDs and DPP4 inhibitors were discontinued. The dose of exenatide was increased to 10 mcg twice a day after 4-12 weeks. 56 patients completed minimum 3 month therapy. 42 patients completed 6 months, 32, 9 months and 25 completed 12 months. Data of patients who had completed at-least 3 months of therapy was included for analysis. Results and Discussion: 69.77, 67.44, and 13.95% of the patients were receiving metformin, secretagogues or thiazolidinediones alone or in combination; 17.76% of the patients were on basal insulin. The change in fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels were significant at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months with p-value <0.05. The mean weight loss at one, three, and six months and one year was 1.7 ± 1.3, 3.8 ± 2.5, 6.3 ± 3.4, and 8.3 ± 4.3 kg, respectively (P <0.05). The mean HbA1c (baseline: 8.8 ± 1.3%) at 3, 6 months and at one year was 7.8 ± 0.9, 7.7 ± 0.8 and 7.2 ± 0.8 (P <0.05). Thirty-five percent of the patients had a ‘good’ A1c value (< 7%) at the end of 12 months. 13 patients discontinued exenatide (three due to lack of response, six due to cost of therapy and four due to severe nausea). Nausea was the most common side effect, occurring in 95% patients within 1 month, although the incidence declined with passage of time. Conclusions: Clinical use of Exenatide is associated with significant improvement in glycemic control and major weight loss (8.3±4.3 kg at 1 year) in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Nausea is the most common side effect. In conclusion, exenatide is a effective and useful option for treatment of type 2 diabetes in obese Indian subjects.

Bawa, Tarunika; Dhingra, Vibha; Malhotra, Nidhi; Wasir, Jasjeet S.; Mithal, Ambrish

2013-01-01

99

Marine geophysical study of the Comorin Ridge, North Central Indian Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine geophysical data are used to interpret the continental margin structure south of India and west of Sri Lanka in the northern Central Indian Basin. Free-air and isostatic anomaly maps are presented. They show the prominent Indian Ocean gravity low with values more negative than -100 mgal south-west of Sri Lanka. A steep gradient in the free-air and isostatic anomaly

Hans-Gert Kahle; Bhoopal R. Naini; Manik Talwani; Olav Eldholm

1981-01-01

100

Aerosol size distributions in the north and south Indian ocean during the northeast monsoon season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of aerosol size distributions (3- to 1000-nm diameter) were made over the Indian Ocean (15°N, 75°E to 70°S, 11°E) during the onward (December 12, 1996 to January 6, 1997) and return (March 9 to April 5, 1997) cruises of the XVI Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctic. Observations show that during the January to April period, the environment over

C. G. Deshpande; A. K. Kamra

2002-01-01

101

No association of DNA ligase-I polymorphism with the risk of lung cancer in north-Indian population.  

PubMed

DNA ligases play an essential role in repair, replication, and recombination of DNA, and catalyzes the formation of a phosphodiester bond at a nick junction on single- and double-strand breaks. We have conducted a hospital-based case-control study to examine the role of polymorphism of DNA repair gene ligase I (LIGI) in the context of lung cancer risk for north Indian population. One hundred, fifty-one primary lung cancer cases and an equal number of matching hospital controls were collected. The LIGI polymorphism was determined by using the PCR-RFLP method. The association between polymorphisms in the LIGI gene with the risk of lung cancer was estimated by computing odds ratios (ORs) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) using a Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis. The risk for lung cancer was not associated for individuals featuring LIGI (AC) (OR -0.8, 95% CI = 0.44-1.40) and (AA) (OR -0.8, 95% CI = 0.41-1.80) genotypes. The DNA repair gene (LIGI) may not be playing an important role in modulating the risk of lung cancer in the north Indian population. PMID:16907646

Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Kaur, Pushpinder; Kaur, Satinder; Janmeja, Ashok Kumar; Jindal, Surinder Kumar; Kishan, Jai; Raimondi, Sara

2006-08-01

102

DNA repair genes polymorphism (XPG and XRCC1) and association of prostate cancer in a north Indian population.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer related mortality. Genetic background may account for the difference in susceptibility of individuals to different diseases and the relationship between genetic polymorphism and some diseases has been extensively studied. There are several common polymorphisms in genes encoding DNA repair enzymes, some of these polymorphisms are reported to result in subtle structural alterations of the repair enzyme and modulation of the repair capacity. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of XPG Asp 1104His and XRCC1 Arg309Gln polymorphisms on risk of prostate cancer in north Indian population. Statistically significant increased risk of prostate cancer was observed on individuals that posses His/His genotype of XPG (OR 2.53, 95% CI 0.99-6.56, P = 0.031). In this study 150 prostate cancer diagnosed patients, 150 healthy controls and 150 BPH (benign prostate hyper plasia) were recruited from north Indian population. Moreover, individuals that carried the Gln/Gln genotype of XRCC1 also showed statistically increased risk of prostate cancer (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.07-4.00, P = 0.033). The Asp/Asp of XPG and Gln/Gln of XRCC1 in combination showed statistically increased risk of prostate cancer in cases (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.09-10.16, P = 0.032). PMID:21670956

Berhane, Nega; Sobti, Rabinder Chandera; Mahdi, Salih Abdul

2011-06-14

103

Association of variants in genes involved in pancreatic ?-cell development and function with type 2 diabetes in North Indians.  

PubMed

Variants in genes involved in pancreatic ?-cell development and function are known to cause monogenic forms of type 2 diabetes and are also associated with complex form. In this study, we studied the genetic association of polymorphisms in such important genes with type 2 diabetes in the high-risk Indians. We genotyped 91 polymorphisms in 19 genes (ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, INSM1, ISL1, KCNJ11, MAFA, MNX1, NEUROD1, NEUROG3, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, PAX4, PAX6, PDX1, USF1 and WFS1) in 2025 unrelated North Indians of Indo-European ethnicity comprising of 1019 diabetic and 1006 non-diabetic subjects. HNF4A promoter P2 polymorphisms rs1884613 and rs2144908, which are in high linkage disequilibrium, showed significant association with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR)=1.37 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.57), P=9.4 × 10(-6) for rs1884613 and OR=1.37 (95%CI 1.20-1.57), P=6.0 × 10(-6) for rs2144908), as previously shown in other populations. We observed body mass index-dependent association of these variants with type 2 diabetes in normal-weight/lean subjects. Variants in USF1, ABCC8, ISL1 and KCNJ11 showed nominal association, while haplotypes in these genes were significantly associated. rs3812704 upstream of NEUROG3 significantly increased risk for type 2 diabetes in normal-weight/lean subjects (OR=1.68 (95%CI 1.25-2.24), P=4.9 × 10(-4)). Thus, pancreatic ?-cell development and function genes contribute to susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in North Indians. PMID:21814221

Chavali, Sreenivas; Mahajan, Anubha; Tabassum, Rubina; Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Chauhan, Ganesh; Ghosh, Saurabh; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

2011-08-04

104

Differential serum cytokine levels are associated with cytokine gene polymorphisms in north Indians with active pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Globally only 5-10% of people encountering Mycobacterium tuberculosis have a lifetime risk of active disease indicating a strong host genetic bias towards development of tuberculosis. In the current study we investigated genotype variants pertaining to five cytokine genes namely IFNG, TNFA, IL4, IL10 and IL12 in the north Indian population with active pulmonary tuberculosis (APTB) and correlated the serum cytokine levels with the corresponding genotypes. Twenty five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including six loci examined for the first time in tuberculosis were selected for genotyping in 108 patients with APTB from north India and 48 healthy regional controls (HC). Applying exclusion criteria 12 SNPs passed all the filters and were analysed further. The serum cytokine concentrations were measured by ELISA. Compared to HC mean serum IFN-?, IL-12, IL-4, and IL-10 levels were higher in APTB (p = 0.3661, p = 0.0186, p = 0.003, p = 0.7, respectively). In contrast the mean serum TNF-? level was higher in HC (p = 0.007). Comparison of genotypes and serum levels of the corresponding cytokine genes reveal that though IFN-? and IL-4 levels were higher in APTB the genotype variants showed no difference between HC and APTB. In contrast the genotypes of the selected rsIDs in the TNFA, IL12 and IL10 genes showed significant association with the varying serum levels of corresponding cytokines. The variant of the TNFA gene at rs3093662, the IL12 gene at rs3213094 and rs3212220 and the IL10 gene at rs3024498 did show a strong indication to be of relevance to the immunity to tuberculosis. To our knowledge this is the first report from this region relating genotypes and serum cytokine levels in north Indian population. PMID:21463712

Abhimanyu; Mangangcha, Irengbam Rocky; Jha, Pankaj; Arora, Komal; Mukerji, Mitali; Banavaliker, Jayant Nagesh; Brahmachari, Vani; Bose, Mridula

2011-04-01

105

Bibliography of Health Issues Affecting North American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts: 1950-1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This bibliography of 2,414 journal articles provides health professionals and others with quick references on health and related issues of American Indians and Alaska Natives. The citations cover articles published in U.S. and Canadian medical and health-related journals between 1950 and 1988. Five sections deal with major health categories and…

Owens, Mitchell V., Comp.; And Others

106

Hostile witnesses, judicial interactions and out-of-court narratives in a north Indian district court  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the argument that people in India are strongly oriented towards litigation in court as against other forms of negotiation or advising. In spite of the centrality of the court system to Indian public life, the flow of cases arriving at court does not reflect any such fixed preference. Going to court may simply be a choice which

Daniela Berti

2010-01-01

107

Bibliography of Health and Disease in North American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts - 1969 to 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography was compiled for the express purpose of aiding research by those in the 'front line' of providing health services for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The majority of these references are from the computerized data base of the Nation...

J. W. Justice

1982-01-01

108

A Bibliography of Representative Materials on the Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography lists citations for 33 books and monographs; 57 pamphlets and periodical articles; and 16 dissertations, theses, and other unpublished sources on the Lumbee Indians. Entries are arranged under the above headings alphabetically by personal and/or corporate author, followed by title, imprint, and date of publication. (JPF)

Feehan, Paul G., Comp.

109

Bibliography of Health Issues Affecting North American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts: 1950-1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography of 2,414 journal articles provides health professionals and others with quick references on health and related issues of American Indians and Alaska Natives. The citations cover articles published in U.S. and Canadian medical and health-related journals between 1950 and 1988. Five sections deal with major health categories and…

Owens, Mitchell V., Comp.; And Others

110

A Study of the Contributing Factors Relating to Why American Indian Students Drop Out of Or Graduate from Educational Programs at the University of North Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate American Indians who enrolled at the University of North Dakota for academic years 1970-1979 were surveyed to determine factors contributing to attrition and retention. The final sample included 116 students, 71 dropouts and 45 graduates. A questionnaire and two information forms were designed to obtain information on biographical,…

Jeanotte, Leigh D.

111

Effectiveness of Gypsum and Pyrite for Sulfur Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Indian Mustard under Rainfed Conditions of North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were conducted for two consecutive years during the rabi season in sandy loam soils of Jammu (north India) under rainfed conditions to study the effect of gypsum and pyrite for sulfur (S) nutrition on the oil content, S uptake, and yield of Indian mustard. Application of S through gypsum or pyrite either in natural or ground form increased

K. R. Sharma; Sanjay Arora

2008-01-01

112

The north-northwest aftershock pattern of the June 28, 1992 Landers earthquake and the probability of large earthquakes in Indian Wells Valley  

SciTech Connect

Immediately following the June 28, 1992 Landers earthquake, a strong north-northwest pattern of aftershocks and triggered earthquakes developed. The most intense pattern developed between the north end of primary rupture on the Emerson fault and southern Owens Valley. The trend of seismicity cuts through the east-west trending Garlock fault at a high angle. The Garlock fault has no apparent affect on the trend or pattern. Within the aftershock zone, south of the Garlock fault, the Calico and Blackwater faults provide the most likely pathway for the Mojave shear zone into Indian Wells and Owens Valleys. In Indian Wells Valley the seismically active Little Lake fault aligns well with the Blackwater fault to the south and the southern Owens Valley fault zone to the north. Several recent research papers suggest that Optimum Coulomb failure stress changes caused by the Landers earthquake have enhanced the probability of earthquakes within the north-northwest trending aftershock zone. This increase has greater significance when the presumed Optimum Coulomb failure stress changes caused by the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake and its affects on Indian Wells Valley are considered. Indian Wells Valley and the Coso Volcanic field may have received two significant stress increases from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the last 120 years. If these two earthquakes increased the shear stress of aults in the Indian Wells/Coso areas, the most likely site for the next large earthquake within the Mojave shear zone may be there. The rate of seismicity within Indian Wells Valley had increased since 1980 including a magnitude 5.0 earthquake in 1982.

Roquemore, G.R. (Irvine Valley College, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Simila, G.A. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1993-04-01

113

Prevalence and Predictors of Tobacco Use Among Lumbee Indian Women in Robeson County, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco use among some Native American tribes is high compared to the overall US population. Little is known, however, about tobacco use among Native Americans in North Carolina, a state with strong economic ties to tobacco. To assess the epidemiology of tobacco use in this population, data from the North Carolina Native American Cervical Cancer Project was reviewed. Nine hundred

John Given Spangler; Ronny Antonio Bell; Mark Boberg Dignan; Robert Michielutte

1997-01-01

114

Prevalence of poor and rapid metabolizers of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6 in North Indian population residing in Indian national capital territory.  

PubMed

Identification of poor and rapid metabolizers for the category of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is important for understanding the differences in clinical responses of drugs metabolized by this enzyme. This study reports the prevalence of poor and rapid metabolizers in North Indian population residing in the National Capital Territory. The prevalence of poor and rapid metabolizers was determined in the target population for the category of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6 by measuring plasma bupropion, a drug metabolized by CYP2B6, and its metabolite. Bupropion (75 mg) was administered to 107 volunteers, and the drug (bupropion) and its metabolite (hydroxybupropion) were determined simultaneously by LCMS/MS in the plasma. CYP2B6 activity was measured as hydroxybupropion/bupropion ratio, and volunteers were categorized as rapid or poor metabolizers on the basis of cutoff value of log (hydroxybupropion/bupropion). Significant differences were observed between the mean metabolite/drug ratio of rapid metabolizers (Mean = 0.59) and poor metabolizers (Mean = 0.26) with p<0.0001. Results indicate that 20.56% individuals in the target population were poor metabolizers for the category of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6. Cutoff value defined in this study can be used as a tool for evaluating the status of CYP2B6 using bupropion as a probe drug. The baseline information would be clinically useful before administering the drugs metabolized by this isoform. PMID:23961363

Varshney, Ekta; Saha, Nilanjan; Tandon, Monika; Shrivastava, Vikesh; Ali, Shakir

2012-10-16

115

Casting Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

Wright, Michael D.; And Others

1992-01-01

116

Oxygen isotope records of Globigerina bulloides across a north-south transect in the south-western Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along a north-south transect (9.69°N to 55.01°S) in the southwestern Indian Ocean during the Indian Pilot Expedition to Southern Ocean (PESO), the oxygen isotopic analysis of planktic foraminifera ( Globigerina bulloides) from 23 surface sediment samples was carried out to assess the relationship between isotopic composition of G. bulloides and the prevailing physical (seawater temperature and salinity) conditions of the ambient seawater. An increasing trend in the ?18O value is noticed towards higher latitude. Apparently such an increase in ?18O values is inversely related to the temperature changes along the transect. However, slight mismatch is observed at a few stations due to calcification out of optimum conditions or due to the salinity changes. The preliminary results of the present study, if extended to the subsurface sediments coupled with other parameters, may contribute to the reconstruction of the paleohydrography of the region, especially the position of various seawater fronts during the geologic past albeit with areal limitation.

Khare, Neloy; Chaturvedi, Subodh Kumar; Saraswat, Rajeev

2009-06-01

117

Genetic relatedness of six North-Indian butterfly species (Lepidoptera :Pieridae) based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis.  

PubMed

The present work involves the assessment of level of genetic relatedness or divergence amongst the six North-Indian species of Lepidoptera belonging to family Pieridae and sub family Pierinae on the basis of sequence variation of 16S ribosomal RNA. The PCR amplified products of these species were directly sequenced using ABI Prism BigDye Terminator Sequencing Kits (Applied Biosystems). The multiple nucleotide sequence alignment analysis has revealed several differences across these species. Significantly high percentage of A + T base composition content ranging between 73.13% (Ixias pyrene ) and 79.20 % (Pieris brassica) was observed in studied species. The percentage divergence in the investigated species of Pieridae family varied from 5.5% to 21.7%. The two species of Catopsilia revealed minimum sequence divergence of only 5.5%, whereas the other two groups of Ixias and Pieris revealed 15.5% and 8.6% sequence divergence, respectively. Pieris canidia and Ixias pyrene are genetically most divergent (21.7%) amongst the studied lepidopteran species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence revealed grouping of six species of Lepidoptera in the form of two different clusters, each cluster being represented by two species from the same genera. The separate taxonomic grouping of these Indian species has been observed when compared with several species of Piernae and Coliadinae subfamilies from other country isolates. PMID:16951984

Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Kumari, Mamtesh; Gill, Tajinder Kaur; Singh, Jagmohan; Sodhi, Monika; Mukesh, Manishi; Bansal, Sugandha; Arya, Swati; Bisnoi, Savita

2006-09-02

118

Predicting cyclone tracks in the north Indian Ocean: An artificial neural network approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting cyclone tracks in the Indian Ocean has been a challenging problem. In this paper, we used past 12 hours of observations (2 positions, at 6 hourly intervals and the present position) to predict the position of a cyclone 24 hours in advance in terms of latitude and longitude. For this purpose we adopted an artificial neural network approach using 32 years (1971-2002) of tropical cyclone best track analysis over the Indian Ocean. The mean absolute error between the estimated and actual latitude (longitude) is 0.75 (0.87) degrees with correlation coefficient of 0.98 (0.99) for the prediction data set that was not used for developing the model. The mean error of estimation of the distance between the best track and the predicted positions is 137.5 km. Forecasts for 12, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours were also attempted.

Ali, M. M.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Jain, Sarika

2007-02-01

119

Comparison of a simple logarithmic and equivalent neutral wind approaches for converting buoy-measured wind speed to the standard height: special emphasis to North Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The difference between the transferred wind speed to 10-m height based on the equivalent neutral wind approach ( U n) and the logarithmic approach ( U log) is studied using in situ observations from the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans, with special emphasis given to the North Indian Ocean. The study included U n - U log variations with pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, air temperature, and sea surface temperature (SST). U n - U log variation with respect to air temperature ( T a) reveals that U n - U log is out of phase with air temperature. Further analysis found that U n - U log is in phase with SST ( T s) - T a and varies between -1.0 and 1.0 m/s over the North Indian Ocean, while for the rest of the Oceans, it is between -0.3 and 0.8 m/s. This higher magnitude of U n - U log over the North Indian Ocean is due to the higher range of T s - T a (-4 to 6 °C) in the North Indian Ocean. Associated physical processes suggested that the roughness length and friction velocity dependence on the air-sea temperature difference contributes to the U n - U log difference. The study is further extended to evaluate the behavior of U n - U log under cyclonic conditions (winds between 15 and 30 m/s), and it was found that the magnitude of Un - U log varies 0.5-1.5 m/s under the cyclonic wind conditions. The increasing difference with the wind speed is due to the increase in the momentum transfer coefficient with wind speed, which modifies the friction velocity significantly, resulting in U n higher than U log. Thus, under higher wind conditions, U n - U log can contribute up to half the retrieval error (5 % of the wind speed magnitude) to the satellite validation exercise.

Singh, Prem; Parekh, Anant; Attada, Raju

2013-02-01

120

Therapeutic Dosing of Acenocoumarol: Proposal of a Population Specific Pharmacogenetic Dosing Algorithm and Its Validation in North Indians  

PubMed Central

Objectives To develop a population specific pharmacogenetic acenocoumarol dosing algorithm for north Indian patients and show its efficiency in dosage prediction. Methods Multiple and linear stepwise regression analyses were used to include age, sex, height, weight, body surface area, smoking status, VKORC1 -1639 G>A, CYP4F2 1347 G>A, CYP2C9*2,*3 and GGCX 12970 C>G polymorphisms as variables to generate dosing algorithms. The new dosing models were compared with already reported algorithms and also with the clinical data for various performance measures. Odds ratios for association of genotypes with drug sensitive and resistant groups were calculated. Results The pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm generated by multiple regression analysis explains 41.4% (p-value <0.001) of dosage variation. Validation of the new algorithm showed its predictive ability to be better than the already established algorithms based on similar variables. Its validity in our population is reflected by increased sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and decreased rates of over- and under- estimation in comparison to clinical data. The VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism was found to be strongly associated with acenocoumarol sensitivity according to recessive model. Conclusions We have proposed an efficient north India specific pharmacogenetic acenocoumarol dosing algorithm which might become a baseline for personalised medicine approach for treatment of patients in future.

Rathore, Saurabh Singh; Agarwal, Surendra Kumar; Pande, Shantanu; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Mittal, Tulika; Mittal, Balraj

2012-01-01

121

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

122

Marine geophysical study of the Comorin Ridge, North Central Indian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine geophysical data are used to interpret the continental margin structure south of India and west of Sri Lanka in the northern Central Indian Basin. Free-air and isostatic anomaly maps are presented. They show the prominent Indian Ocean gravity low with values more negative than -100 mgal south-west of Sri Lanka. A steep gradient in the free-air and isostatic anomaly forms a NNW-SSE trending line extending south and striking parallel to the southwest coast of India. This line marks the eastern boundary of a topographic and basement high here named the `Comorin Ridge' which is also clearly seen on a sediment isopach map. The ridge seems to act as a barrier to the passage of Ganges Cone sediments to the west. A comparison of the eastern (landward) edge of the Comorin Ridge with similar structures of other passive continental margins such as those off southern South Africa (Agulhas Fracture zone), off the Falkland Plateau and off western Norway is made. It is suggested that the eastern edge of the Comorin Ridge may mark a significant structural crustal boundary.

Kahle, Hans-Gert; Naini, Bhoopal R.; Talwani, Manik; Eldholm, Olav

1981-05-01

123

Gender variation in morphological patterns of lip prints among some north Indian populations  

PubMed Central

Background: Personal identification is an integral part of forensic investigations. For the same, DNA profiling and fingerprints are the most commonly used tools. But these evidences are not ubiquitous and may not necessarily be obtained from the crime scene. In such a scenario, other physical and trace evidences play a pivotal role and subsequently the branches employed are forensic osteology, odontology, biometrics, etc. A relatively recent field in the branch of forensic odontology is cheiloscopy or the study of lip prints. A comparison of lip prints from the crime scene and those obtained from the suspects may be useful in the identification or narrowing down the investigation. Aim: The purpose of the present study is to determine the gender and population variability in the morphological patterns of lip prints among brahmins, Jats, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana, India. Settings and Design: Samples were collected from Jats, brahmins, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana. The total sample size consisted of 1399 individuals including 781 males and 618 females in the age group of 8–60 years. Care was taken not to collect samples from genetically related individuals. The technique was standardized by recording lip prints of 20 persons and analyzing them. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were collected by using a corporate's invisible tape and analyzed using a hand lens. The patterns were studied along the entire length and breadth of both the upper and the lower lip. The data were analyzed by SPSS statistical package version 17 to determine the frequencies and percentages of occurrence of the pattern types in each population group and a comparison between males and females among the groups was carried out by using the z test. Results and Conclusions: The z-test comparison between patterns of males and females shows significant differences with respect to pattern types I’, II, III, and IV among brahmins; I’, II, III, IV, and Y among Jats; and I, I’, II, III, and V among scheduled castes. Thus, it can be concluded that the variability of the lip print pattern can help sex differentiation among groups and that more studies on the lip print pattern should be carried out to bring new dimensions to forensic anthropology and to aid the law enforcement agencies.

Vats, Yogesh; Dhall, Jasmine Kaur; Kapoor, AK

2012-01-01

124

Who is a Muslim? Identities of exclusion—north Indian Muslims, c. 1860–1900  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second half of the nineteenth century, multiple and contested interpretations of the practices and scriptures of Islam emerged in north India, as different groupings of faith be-came formalised. Fundamental questions, such as who a Muslim was, were answered differently by each group, based on the exclusion of all other Muslims who did not subscribe to their school of

S. A. Zaidi

2010-01-01

125

Comparison of the deep crustal structure and seismicity of North America with the Indian subcontinent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize geophysical information from North America and India, and find many similarities in the deep crustal structure of the two continents. From this, we infer that similar processes have operated, partic ularly in the accretion and stabilization of the cratonic r e- gions. Seismic images and other data suggest that plate tectonic processes have been active, both in the

Walter D. Mooney; V. Vijaya Rao; P. R. Reddy; Gary S. Chulick; Shane T. Detweiler

2005-01-01

126

Seasonal variability of sea surface salinity and salt budget of the mixed layer of the north Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A subset of the recently published salinity database of the global oceans is utilized to characterize and explain the observed seasonal variability of sea surface salinity of the north Indian Ocean, in greater detail than has been possible previously. The influence of salinity on the seasonal evolution of near-surface mixed layer depth is highlighted. The relative importance of freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) and horizontal advection in accounting the observed seasonal variability of sea surface salinity is evaluated. The influence of massive river outflow in producing the observed sea surface salinity minima in the coastal northwestern Bay of Bengal during August-September is highlighted. The observed interannual variability of sea surface salinity along two major shipping lanes in the tropical Indian Ocean in relation to El Niño is examined. The annual average of sea surface salinity shows contrasting distributions in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal due to differences in hydrological forcing. The seasonal variability of sea surface salinity is most pronounced in the coastal region of the northern Bay of Bengal, northwestern Arabian Sea, and the southeastern Arabian Sea. The incorporation of salinity effect reduces the thickness of the near-surface mixed layer, and this reduction is most pronounced in the Bay of Bengal, where it builds up from June to July and becomes most prominent by February in the following year, when the freshening effects of hydrological forcing through local rainfall and river discharges are felt the most on the near-surface layers. The salt budget analysis of the mixed layer shows a broad agreement between the patterns of observed and diagnosed seasonal changes caused by freshwater flux and horizontal advection, despite limitations in the accuracy of these estimates. The freshwater input through rainfall and river discharges in the Bay of Bengal far exceeds evaporation, causing surplus freshwater for export. Horizontal advection of salinity is found to be important in the southeastern Arabian Sea during winter and in the western and eastern Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon season and in the Bay of Bengal throughout the year with the exception of premonsoon season. The pronounced dilution observed during the height of the summer monsoon season in the coastal northwestern Bay of Bengal is attributed to peak discharges from major rivers. Historic data along two major shipping lanes in the tropical Indian Ocean have clearly revealed the signature of El Niño in the interannual variability of sea surface salinity.

Rao, R. R.; Sivakumar, R.

2003-01-01

127

Proportion and pattern of dystrophin gene deletions in North Indian Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population-based variations in frequency and distribution of dystrophin gene deletions have been recognized in Duchenne\\/Becker\\u000a (DMD\\/BMD) muscular dystrophy patients. In the present study, DNA samples from 121 unrelated DMD\\/BMD patients from North India\\u000a were analyzed for deletional studies with multiplex PCR and Southern hybridization. A total of 88 (73%) patients showed intragenic\\u000a deletions in the dystrophin gene. The observed proportion

Vinita Singh; Shirish Sinha; Sudhish Mishra; Lakshmi Shankar Chaturvedi; Sunil Pradhan; Rama Devi Mittal; Balraj Mittal

1997-01-01

128

Variation in the rhizome essential oil and curcumin contents and oil quality in the land races of turmeric Curcuma longa of North Indian plains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-seven accessions of Curcuma longa were grown in the climatic conditions of North Indian plains at Lucknow. Rhizomes harvested from each accession were hydrodistilled for their essential oil. The oil content of rhizomes varied between 0.16% and 1.94% on a fresh weight basis. The essential oil of each accession was evaluated for its major terpenes: b-pinene, p-cymene, a-curcumene, b-curcumene, ar-turmerone,

S. N. Garg; R. P. Bansal; M. M. Gupta; Sushil Kumar

1999-01-01

129

Reconstructing Indian population history  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyse 25 diverse groups in India to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the `Ancestral North Indians' (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, whereas the other, the `Ancestral South Indians' (ASI), is as

David Reich; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Nick Patterson; Alkes L. Price; Lalji Singh

2009-01-01

130

Dimensional analysis of various rugae patterns in north Indian population subset  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Rugae patterns are significant markers for analyzing anteroposterior changes in adolescence, and forensic investigations. Aim: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the gender-wise predisposition of rugae patterns and to analyze anteroposterior alterations along with any developmental changes in palatal depth. Materials and Methods: One hundred pre-treatment study cast models were obtained from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, M.M. CDSR, Mullana. Parameters employed were: Division of medial palatal region into “a”: Distance between incisive papilla length and anterior limit of the anteriormost rugae; “b”: Distance between incisive papilla and most posterior rugae limits; measurement of Lateral rugae dimensions and palatal depth. Statistical analysis: Mean ± S.D. values were obtained and ‘P’ values calculated. Results: Comparison of “a” and “b” showed a significant difference in the P values between the age-groups 12-13 years and >14 years. Rugae patterns with separate origins showed a predisposition for female gender. Conclusion: A significant change in the anteroposterior medial rugae dimensions was seen in adolescent age groups alongside no variation in palate depth. Hence, it can be concluded that differential growth potential is present in the premaxilla and can cause shift in medial palatal dimensions without altering the rugae patterns and palatal depth.

Chatterjee, Shailja; Khanna, Mannu

2011-01-01

131

Hepatitis C virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal peoples of North America.  

PubMed

Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, are "broken spirit" diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV infection can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV-related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases. PMID:23342378

Rempel, Julia D; Uhanova, Julia

2012-12-01

132

Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America  

PubMed Central

Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases.

Rempel, Julia D.; Uhanova, Julia

2012-01-01

133

RETHINKING POWER AND CASTE IN RURAL INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caste as a system of social stratification remains an important aspect in the lives of many peoples throughout the world. Dimensions of caste are found in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and even North America. Yet, it is India that stands out among nations as the most notable in terms of caste stratification today. Although elements of the caste system, such

KIRK JOHNSON; MICHAEL KARLBERG

134

Tropical-North Pacific Teleconnections: a mechanistic link between the strength of the Indian monsoon strength and the Aleutian Low.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present day fluctuations in the intensity of the Indian monsoon, the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), El Niño/La Niña events, and the strength of the Aleutian Low (AL) pressure system, result in extreme weather events, large scale ecosystem shifts, and impact human life and livelihood. How these climate systems will interact as global climate changes occur is still unknown. Two new marine geochemical records of Holocene climate variability improve our understanding of past tropical - North Pacific teleconnections. The first, a Zr/Al record from the western Arabian Sea, demonstrates significant variability in soil moisture on the Horn of Africa. The second, a ?15N record from Effingham Inlet (Vancouver Island), indicates changes in the strength of the California Undercurrent and NE Pacific coastal upwelling and allows our understanding of climate change in the Pacific region to be expanded northward to include the Aleutian Low pressure system. Over the last 10 kyrs, decreased SW monsoon winds/southern ITCZ position are concurrent with an increase in El Niño events and a strengthening of the Aleutian Low. Climate models suggest that this relationship is modulated by changes in the sea surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific, which result in centennial-scale variability superimposed on the gradual Holocene decline in orbital forcing.

Ivanochko, T. S.; Ganeshram, R.; Calvert, S. E.; Bush, A. B.; Pedersen, T. F.

2008-12-01

135

Status of TIM-1 exon 4 haplotypes and CD4+T cell counts in HIV-1 seroprevalent North Indians.  

PubMed

The TIM (T cell/transmembrane, immunoglobulin and mucin) proteins are crucial regulators of Th1/Th2 immune responses and have been implicated in several diseases including HIV-1/AIDS. The TIM1 exon 4 that codes for mucin domain is highly diverse, with sequence variants associated with varying phenotypes. In this study, TIM1 exon 4 was sequenced among 227 HIV-1 seroprevalent and 288 healthy non infected individuals from North Indian population and haplotypes established. A novel but rare haplotype D1(?) was identified among the healthy and differed from D1 by a synonymous substitution G>T at Thr208Thr. The TIM1 haplotype diversity showed no association with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The seroprevalent individuals carrying D3A had relatively higher median CD4+T cell counts (368/?l) than those without (313/?l; p=0.02). A comparison of CD4+T counts between D3-A individuals on ART or ART naïve did not show any significant difference plausibly due to confounding nature of ART and other factors. PMID:23220501

Sharma, Gaurav; Ohtani, Hitoshi; Kaur, Gurvinder; Naruse, Taeko K; Sharma, S K; Vajpayee, Madhu; Kimura, Akinori; Mehra, Narinder

2012-12-05

136

Future changes in tropical cyclone activity in the North Indian Ocean projected by high-resolution MRI-AGCMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and previous versions of the high-resolution 20- and 60-km-mesh Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation models are used to investigate potential future changes in tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the North Indian Ocean (NIO). Fifteen ensemble experiments are performed under the International Panel on Climate Change A1B scenario. Most of the ensemble future (2075-2099) experiments do not project significant future changes in the basin-scale TC genesis number; however, they commonly show a substantial increase (by 46 %) in TC frequency over the Arabian Sea and a decrease (by 31 %) in the Bay of Bengal. Projected future changes in TC genesis frequency show a marked seasonal variation in the NIO: a significant and robust reduction during the pre-monsoon season, an increase during the peak-monsoon season, and a westward shift during the post-monsoon season. Several large-scale thermodynamic and dynamical parameters are analysed to elucidate the physical mechanism responsible for the future changes in TC activity; this analysis reveals a seasonal dependence of the relative contribution of these parameters to the projected future changes in TC genesis frequency.

Murakami, Hiroyuki; Sugi, Masato; Kitoh, Akio

2013-04-01

137

Role of hormonal genes and risk of prostate cancer: gene-gene interactions in a North Indian population.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer represents a heterogeneous disease with varying degrees of aggressiveness, patterns of metastasis, and response to therapy. It arises from a complex etiology that involves both exogenous (diet, environment, etc.) and endogenous (hormonal and genetic) factors. The present study was performed to explore the role of various genotypes involved in steroid metabolism and synthesis in the causation of prostate cancer. Genetic polymorphism of the ER, CYP17, SRD5A2 (TA repeats), and PSA genes were analyzed in 157 cases of prostate cancer and 340 controls [170 healthy males and 170 patients of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)]. Mutant genotypes of ER and CYP17 showed 2- and 3- and 3.5-fold increased risk of prostate cancer, respectively, as compared to BPH and healthy controls. Interaction of mutant (homozygous and heterozygous) alleles of CYP17 with TA (0/0) led to a twofold increased risk of prostate cancer. Risk was more than twofold with the combination of mutant alleles of ER and CYP17. The PSA gene polymorphism did not show any increased risk of prostate cancer. This indicates the role of mutant allele of ER and CYP17 in the development and progression of prostate cancer and rules out any increased risk with PSA polymorphism in the north Indian population. PMID:18722876

Sobti, R C; Gupta, L; Singh, S K; Seth, A; Kaur, P; Thakur, H

2008-09-01

138

Association of interleukin-18 gene promoter polymorphism on the risk of cervix carcinogenesis in north Indian population.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is one of the most common neoplastic diseases affecting women, with a combined worldwide incidence of almost half a million new cases. Considering the fact that IL-18 plays an important role in the interactions among T cells, NK cells, and macrophages and induces IFN-gamma production, efforts should be made to understand the clinical impact of IL-18 cytokine in patients with solid malignancies, as not much study has been conducted in cervix carcinoma. In this study, we have observed in GC genotype statistically significant marginal increased risk of developing of cervical cancer (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.17-2.76, p = 0.006). Similarly, when the GC with CC genotypes were combined results were once more statistically significant with borderline risk of developing cervix cancer (OR 1.6,95% CI 1.09-2.50, p = 0.01). Likewise, we found statistically significant increased risk between cases and controls in GC genotype and passive smokers with risk of cervical cancer (OR 4.3, 95%CI 2.13-8.99, p = 0.00001). Our investigation suggests that IL-18 gene -137 in different genotypes, as also in passive smokers, may increase risk of cervix carcinogenesis in north Indian women. PMID:18773860

Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Shekari, Mohammad; Tamandani, Dor Mohammad Kordi; Malekzadeh, Keyanoosh; Suri, Vanita

2008-01-01

139

IL-18 Gene Promoter Region 607C/A Polymorphism in HIV-1 Infected North Indian Population.  

PubMed

Several host genetic factors play an important role in susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and in its progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that regulates immune responses and plays a pathogenic role in HIV-1 infection by enhancing viral replication. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-18 gene promoter region may lead to altered transcriptional activity and IL-18 production, and may account for variation in the risk of HIV-1 infection. We have investigated the association between IL-18 promoter polymorphism -607C>A and HIV-1 infection through a case-control study of 500 patients with HIV-1/AIDS and an equal number of age and sex matched controls in a north Indian population. Genotyping using sequence specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) showed a statistically significant reduced risk of HIV-1 infection for the A>A genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.33-0.98, p = 0.040], but not for the C>A genotype (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.66-1.14, p = 0.321). We concluded that the -607A allele of the IL-18 gene promoter polymorphism may play a protective role against the progression of HIV-1 infection in this population. PMID:24052711

Sobti, Rc; Sharma, Vl; Abitew, Am; Berhane, N; Mahdi, Sa; Askari, M; Kuttiat, Vs; Wanchu, A

2011-12-01

140

IL-18 Gene Promoter Region 607C/A Polymorphism in HIV-1 Infected North Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Several host genetic factors play an important role in susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and in its progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that regulates immune responses and plays a pathogenic role in HIV-1 infection by enhancing viral replication. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-18 gene promoter region may lead to altered transcriptional activity and IL-18 production, and may account for variation in the risk of HIV-1 infection. We have investigated the association between IL-18 promoter polymorphism ?607C>A and HIV-1 infection through a case-control study of 500 patients with HIV-1/AIDS and an equal number of age and sex matched controls in a north Indian population. Genotyping using sequence specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) showed a statistically significant reduced risk of HIV-1 infection for the A>A genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.33–0.98, p = 0.040], but not for the C>A genotype (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.66–1.14, p = 0.321). We concluded that the ?607A allele of the IL-18 gene promoter polymorphism may play a protective role against the progression of HIV-1 infection in this population.

Sobti, RC; Sharma, VL; Abitew, AM; Berhane, N; Mahdi, SA; Askari, M; Kuttiat, VS; Wanchu, A

2011-01-01

141

An Investigation of Genome-Wide Studies Reported Susceptibility Loci for Ulcerative Colitis Shows Limited Replication in North Indians  

PubMed Central

Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) of both Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) have unearthed over 40 risk conferring variants. Recently, a meta-analysis on UC revealed several loci, most of which were either previously associated with UC or CD susceptibility in populations of European origin. In this study, we attempted to replicate these findings in an ethnically distinct north Indian UC cohort. 648 UC cases and 850 controls were genotyped using Infinium Human 660W-quad. Out of 59 meta-analysis index SNPs, six were not in the SNP array used in the study. Of the remaining 53 SNPs, four were found monomorphic. Association (p<0.05) at 25 SNPs was observed, of which 15 were CD specific. Only five SNPs namely rs2395185 (HLA-DRA), rs3024505 (IL10), rs6426833 (RNF186), rs3763313 (BTNL2) and rs2066843 (NOD2) retained significance after Bonferroni correction. These results (i) reveal limited replication of Caucasian based meta-analysis results; (ii) reiterate overlapping molecular mechanism(s) in UC and CD; (iii) indicate differences in genetic architecture between populations; and (iv) suggest that resources such as HapMap need to be extended to cover diverse ethnic populations. They also suggest a systematic GWAS in this terrain may be insightful for identifying population specific IBD risk conferring loci and thus enable cross-ethnicity fine mapping of disease loci.

Juyal, Garima; Prasad, Pushplata; Senapati, Sabyasachi; Midha, Vandana; Sood, Ajit; Amre, Devendra; Juyal, Ramesh C.; BK, Thelma

2011-01-01

142

Some Resources in Indian Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…

Marken, Jack W.

143

Improved tropical cyclone forecasts over north Indian Ocean with direct assimilation of AMSU-A radiances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model and its three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3D-Var) system are used to investigate the impact of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) radiances on the prediction of Indian Ocean tropical cyclones. Three tropical cyclones are selected for this study: cyclone Mala (April 2006; Bay of Bengal), cyclone Gonu (June 2007; Arabian Sea), and cyclone Sidr (November 2007; Bay of Bengal). For each case, observing system experiments are designed, by producing two sets of analyses from which forecasts are initialized. Both sets of analyses contain all conventional and satellite observations operationally used, including, but not limited to, Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) surface winds, Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) surface winds, Meteosat-derived atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs), and differ only in the exclusion (CNT) or inclusion (EXP) of AMSU-A radiances. Results show that the assimilation of AMSU-A radiances changes the large-scale thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere, and also produce a stronger warm core. These changes cause large forecast track improvements. In particular, without AMSU-A assimilation, most forecasts do not produce landfall. On the contrary, the forecasts initialized from improved EXP analyses in which AMSU-A data are included produce realistic landfall. In addition, intensity forecast is also improved. Even if the analyzed cyclone intensity is not affected by the assimilation of AMSU-A radiances, the predicted intensity improves substantially because of the development of warm cores which, through creation of stronger gradients, helps the model in producing intense low centre pressure.

Singh, Randhir; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.; Joshi, P. C.

2012-01-01

144

Evaluation of nutraceutical components and antioxidant potential of north Indian wild culinary-medicinal Termitophilous mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms have long been treated as a delicacy. Nowadays, however, many researchers consider them to be nutraceutical foods. The objective of this study was to determine the nutraceutical components in 7 edible species of Termitomyces (T. microcarpus, T. radicatus, T. badius, T. medius, T. heimii, T. striatus, and T. mammiformis) collected from different localities in North India during the monsoon season; their antioxidant properties also were determined by DPPH free radical scavenging ability and reducing power ability. The various nutraceutical components evaluated include phenolics (15.0-25.85 mg/g), flavonoids (1.38-2.02 mg/g), ascorbic acid (0.018-0.15 mg/g), ?-carotene (0.11-0.27 µg/g), and lycopene (0.03-0.19 µg/g). PMID:23557371

Kumari, Babita; Upadhyay, R C; Atri, N

2013-01-01

145

Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic can cause large and synchronous variations of oxygen minimum zones throughout the Northern Hemisphere of the Indian and Pacific oceans, consistent with the paleoclimate records. Cold periods in the North Atlantic are associated with reduced nutrient delivery to the upper Indo-Pacific oceans, thereby decreasing productivity. Reduced export production diminishes subsurface respiration of organic matter leading to higher oxygen concentrations and less denitrification. This effect of reduced oxygen consumption dominates at low latitudes. At high latitudes in the Southern Ocean and North Pacific, increased mixed layer depths and steepening of isopycnals improve ocean ventilation and oxygen supply to the subsurface. Atmospheric teleconnections through changes in wind-driven ocean circulation modify this basin-scale pattern regionally. These results suggest that changes in the Atlantic Ocean circulation, similar to those projected by climate models to possibly occur in the centuries to come because of anthropogenic climate warming, can have large effects on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles even in remote areas.

Schmittner, Andreas; Galbraith, Eric D.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Zhang, Rong

2007-09-01

146

Clinical profile of venomous snake bites in north Indian Military Hospital  

PubMed Central

Snakebite is an environmental hazard associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case series of venomous snakebites in a military operational area of north India. Of 33 cases of snake bites presenting to the military hospital, 21 patients were envenomated. The median age of patients was 24 years; all were men. All of the envenomations were neurotoxic in nature. Abdominal pain (91%), headache (86%), dysphagia (86%), ptosis (77%), diplopia (72%), blurred vision (72%), dyspnea (67%), and vomiting (62%) were the predominant clinical presentation. Polyvalent AntiSnakeVenom (ASV) [mean 180 ml; range 90-320 ml] was given to all patients with systemic manifestations, and repeated as needed. Eleven (52%) patients received neostigmine with glycopyrrolate to counter cholinergic effects. Two patients were given ventilatory support. The average time of recovery from envenomation was 16 hours after administration of ASV. All patients recovered without sequelae. Soldiers during military exercise are vulnerable to snakebites. Neurotoxic snakebites predominate in our study and usually present with autonomic features along with headache, abdominal pain, ptosis, diplopia and dysphasia. Preventive measures to minimize snake bites and planned treatment regimens should be emphasized among medical and military personnel deployed in the field operations.

Singh, Jasjit; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Gupta, Vineet; Goel, Ashish

2008-01-01

147

Evaluation of DOK5 as a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes and obesity in North Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder with obesity being a major contributing factor in its development. Susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes and obesity have been localized on different chromosomal regions by various genome-wide linkage scans. Of these chromosomal regions, 20q13 is one of the strongest linked regions for type 2 diabetes as well as obesity. On 20q13 lies DOK5 that seems to be a strong functional and positional candidate for type 2 diabetes and obesity because of its involvement in insulin signaling and immune responses. Hence, for the first time, we explored DOK5 as a potential type 2 diabetes and obesity susceptibility gene. Methods We sequenced 43 subjects for polymorphisms in functionally relevant regions of DOK5. A total of 10 SNPs that included 5 that were identified by sequencing and 5 additional SNPs from NCBI Variation Database were genotyped in 2,115 participants comprising of 1,073 patients with type 2 diabetes and 1,042 controls of Indo-European ethnicity from North India. Results We identified a novel variant in intron 7 referred to as DK176673. We found nominal association of three SNPs-rs6064099 (OR = 0.75, P = 0.019), rs873079 (OR = 0.76, P = 0.036) and DK176673 (OR = 1.55, P = 0.037) with type 2 diabetes among normal-weight subjects [BMI < 23 kg/m2]. The haplotype GGC harboring rs6068916, rs6064099 and rs873079 showed strong association with type 2 diabetes among normal-weight subjects (OR = 1.37, P/Pperm = 5.8 × 10-3/0.037). Association analysis with obesity revealed that rs6064099 is associated with reduced susceptibility for obesity (OR = 0.48, P = 6.8 × 10-3). Also, haplotype GGC conferred increased susceptibility for obesity (OR = 1.27, P/Pperm = 9.0 × 10-3/0.039). Also, rs6064099 was significantly associated with reduced BMI [median(IQR) = 24.0(20.7-27.1) vs 23.9(20.2-26.8) vs 21.8(19.2-24.7) for GG vs GC vs CC, P = 7.0 × 10-3]. Conclusions We identified DOK5 as a novel susceptibility gene for obesity and type 2 diabetes in North Indian subjects. Association of DOK5 variants both with obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that these variants might modulate type 2 diabetes susceptibility through obesity.

2010-01-01

148

CAN'T BUY ME LOVE? A FIELD EXPERIMENT EXPLORING THE TRADE?OFF BETWEEN INCOME AND CASTE?STATUS IN AN INDIAN MATRIMONIAL MARKET  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of literature depicts that status?based discrimination is pervasive, but is silent on how economic incentive interacts with such discrimination. This study addresses this question by designing a field experiment in a reputable arranged marriage market that is prone to strong caste?status?based discrimination. We place newspaper advertisements of potential grooms by systematically varying their caste and income and

SUBHASISH DUGAR; HAIMANTI BHATTACHARYA; DAVID REILEY

2012-01-01

149

Analysis of the impact of cyclones on Chlorophyll-a in North Indian Ocean; a remote sensing approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bay of Bengal (BOB) is considered to be less productive than the Arabian Sea (AS). Earlier studies attributed the reason to be strong stratified layer, which is not broken normally, for its less productivity. Monsoon winds with less wind speed are unable to break the stratified layer. Hypothetically, had there not been stratified layer in BOB, its productivity would have been comparable to that of AS. To meet the requirement of breaking stratified layer higher wind speeds are required, which are produced during cyclones. Thus the seasonal productivity comparisons has been done during cyclones, cyclones are quite common in different seasons in both BOB and AS. Four seasons of monsoon that North Indian Ocean (NIO) experience are; Spring intermonsoon (Apr - May), Southwest monsoon (June - Sep), Fall intermonsoon (Oct - Nov) and Northeast monsoon (Dec - Mar). Fourteen cyclones have been observed covering all the four seasons during for the years 1998 - 2006. During the southwest and fall seasons, cyclones occurred in either BOB or In AS and thus the comparison could not be done. Thus BOB and AS productivity during cyclones has been performed independently with out comparison between them. During the spring intermonsoon four cyclones, two in BOB (two in AS) have been observed. Four parameters of SST drop, MLD deepening, raise the percent of chlorophyll-a and increase in NPP have been derived. The parameters estimated in BOB (AS) during the cyclones are: SST drop of 5o C to 6.5o C (6.5o C to 8.5o C), MLD deepening of 30m to 90m (30m to 120m), raise in chlorophyll-a by 220 During northeast monsoon seven cyclones, four in BOB (three in AS) have been observed. In BOB, out of four cyclones, two were observed in north and two in south, where as in AS one in north and two in south were observed. Comparison was made based on latitude considering availability of sun light to be the same. The parameters estimated in northern BOB (AS) during the cyclones are: SST drop of 1.5o C to 3.75o C (7o C), MLD deepening of 20m to 50m (50m to 120m), raise in chlorophyll-a by 14 As already mentioned independent basin study has been done during Southwest monsoon over AS. The parameters observed during the only one cyclone are: SST drop of 7o C, MLD deepening of 40m to 85m, raise the chlorophyll-a by 192 During the fall intermonsoon over BOB, two cyclones (TC04B and TC05B) occurred consecutively in the same year. The parameters retrieved during TC04B (TC05B) are: SST drop of 5.7o C (4o C), MLD deepening of 20m to 70m (20m to 90m), raise in chlorophyll-a by 109 It has been observed that cyclone is breaking the stratified layer, bringing nutrients and increases productivity. Doubt will arise whether high wind speeds are sufficient to raise the productivity. If this were true, there should have been increase in chlorophyll-a throughout the cyclone wake. Satellite images reveal that the increase is not substantial and equal along the cyclone wake. The reason for this is the cyclone eye formation, its symmetricity, and the resonance effect that are contributing to raise in productivity due to more upwelling. Cyclones, increases productivity are helping reduce the green house gas (CO2) which is fixed into the ocean from the atmosphere. Thus atmospheric temperature falls down delaying early global warming. Earlier studies neglected the cyclone's effect while computing seasonal productivity changes. Now that cyclone plays a curtail role in the productivity enhancement, care has to be taken.

Rao Neerukattu, Srinivasa; H, Rao K.; v, Ramana I.; v, Rao M.; v, Murali Krishna I.; Anjanwyulu, A.

150

Caste in India, Past and Present  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traced is the sociocultural framework for the system in Indian culture which emphasized duty and obligations rather than individual freedom and rights. Also discussed are contemporary changes in the caste system. (DB)

Bishop, Donald H.

1971-01-01

151

Price and Volatility Spillovers across North American, European and Asian Stock Markets: With Special Focus on Indian Stock Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates interdependence of fifteen world indices including an Indian market index in terms of return and volatility spillover effect. Interdependence of Indian stock market with other fourteen world markets in terms of long run integration, short run dependence (return spillover) and volatility spillover are investigated. These markets are that of are Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong-Kong, Indonesia,

Priyanka Singh; Brajesh Kumar; Ajay Pandey

152

25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF...TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis...

2013-04-01

153

Contrasting impact of DNA repair gene XRCC1 polymorphisms Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp on the risk of lung cancer in the north-Indian population.  

PubMed

DNA repair forms the most effective defense system against DNA damage. The XRCC1 gene product is implicated in single-strand and base-excision repair mechanisms. Our main aim was to investigate the relationship between the XRCC1 gene with lung cancer on the north-Indian population. Blood samples from 225 North-Indian subjects including 103 newly diagnosed cases and 122 population-based healthy persons were collected. XRCC1 genotypes were detected using a PCR-RFLP technique. The data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. XRCC1 polymorphisms at codon 399 were found to be protective in the development of lung cancer (OR--0.6, 95% CI--0.46-0.80, p-0.0008). The codon 194 Trp/Trp genotype was associated with a slightly increased risk of lung cancer. When assessed in nonsmokers, only the Arg/Trp genotype of XRCC1 codon 194 was positively associated with lung cancer (OR--2.3, 95% CI--0.77-7.20). Smoking also seemed to significantly interact with the combined genotypes of XRCC1 codon 399 Arg/Gln/Gln/Gln. In conclusion, the results have suggested that the XRCC1 gene might be the risk genotype for lung cancer in this population. PMID:17417947

Pachouri, Suparna S; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Kaur, Pushpinder; Singh, Jagmohan

2007-03-01

154

Researching American Indian Revitalization Movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

American Indian revitalization movements evolved during the 18th and 19th centuries in North America in response to European cultures overwhelming and clashing with native lifestyles and cultures. Revitalization movements emerged due to many factors: the devastating effects of diseases brought in by the Europeans, the displacement of Indians from their traditional lands, warfare between Indians and Whites, the introduction of

Phillip M. White

2009-01-01

155

Directory of American Indian Tribes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This directory provides general information on American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and lands. The information was compiled from several resources including the "Federal Register," the Bureau of Indian Affairs, "The Native American Almanac" (A. Hirschfelder, M. K. de Montano), the "Atlas of North American Indian Tribes" (Carl Waldman), the…

Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff. Inst. for Human Development.

156

Directory of American Indian Tribes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory provides general information on American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and lands. The information was compiled from several resources including the "Federal Register," the Bureau of Indian Affairs, "The Native American Almanac" (A. Hirschfelder, M. K. de Montano), the "Atlas of North American Indian Tribes" (Carl Waldman), the…

Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff. Inst. for Human Development.

157

XRCC1 codon 399 and ERCC2 codon 751 polymorphism, smoking, and drinking and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a North Indian population.  

PubMed

XRCC1 (X-ray cross-complementing group 1) codon 399 and ERCC2 (excision repair cross-complementing group 2) codon 751 polymorphisms were studied in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESQCC) in a North Indian population. Peripheral blood samples of 120 cases and 160 age-and-gender matching controls were collected from North India and the two polymorphisms were studied by means of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The data were analyzed with a logistic regression model. The XRCC1 codon 399 Gln/Gln genotype was significantly associated with reduced risk of ESQCC (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12-0.78, P = 0.01). In smokers, the XRCC1 Arg/Gln genotype was marginally and statistically nonsignificantly (OR = 1.5) associated with increased risk of this cancer. In drinkers, the XRCC1 Gln/Gln genotype was significantly protective (OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.007-0.605, P = 0.03), whereas ERCC2 (Lys/Gln-Gln/Gln) was marginally associated with increased risk (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.46-9.44). Upon analysis of gene-gene interaction, a relationship was observed, although statistically nonsignificant, between combined genotypes of XRCC1 (Arg/Gln-Gln/Gln)-ERCC2 Gln/Gln (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.09-1.16) and XRCC1 (Gln/Gln)-ERCC2 (Lys/Gln) (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.11-1.17) and reduced risk of ESQCC in the North Indian population. These observations suggest that the Gln/Gln genotype of XRCC1 might play an important role in DNA repair in ESQCC. PMID:17556064

Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Singh, Jagmohan; Kaur, Pushpinder; Pachouri, Suparna S; Siddiqui, Ehtesham A; Bindra, Harnish Singh

2007-06-01

158

Electroslag Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains an examination of the most important characteristics of the physico-mechanical properties of electroslag cast metal in comparison with the properties of open hearth steel, subjected to deformation by forging or used in the cast form.

B. E. Paton B. I. Medovar G. A. Boiko

1975-01-01

159

Secular Trends in Obesity, Regional Adiposity and Metabolic Parameters among Asian Indian Adolescents in North India: A Comparative Data Analysis of Two Selective Samples 5 Years Apart (2003, 2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To assess and compare the secular trends in anthropometric and biochemical parameters over 5 years (2003–2008) amongst Asian Indian adolescents in north India. Methods: Adolescents matched for age, gender, socioeconomic strata and school grade were taken from two school-based studies (2003, n = 106, girls = 50 and boys = 56; 2008, n = 134, girls = 59 and

Neha Singhal; Anoop Misra; Priyali Shah; Kavita Rastogi; Naval K. Vikram

2010-01-01

160

High Prevalence of Abdominal, Intra-Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adiposity and Clustering of Risk Factors among Urban Asian Indians in North India  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prevalence of abdominal obesity including intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity along with other cardiometabolic risk factors in urban Asian Indians living in New Delhi. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with 459 subjects (217 males and 242 females), representing all socio-economic strata in New Delhi. The anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness], fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile were recorded. Percent body fat (%BF), total abdominal fat (TAF), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) were quantified using predictive equations for Asian Indians. Results The overall prevalence of obesity was high [by BMI (>25 kg/m2), 50.1%]. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (as assessed by WC) was 68.9%, while that assessed by TAF was 70.8%. Increased IAAT was significantly higher in females (80.6%) as compared to males (56.7%) (p?=?0.00) with overall prevalence being 69.3%. The overall prevalence of high SCAT was 67.8%, more in males (69.1%) vs. females (66.5%, p?=?0.5). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and hypertension was 8.5%, 45.3% and 29.2%, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and low levels of HDL-c were prevalent in 42.7%, 26.6% and 37% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in males (p?=?0.007); however, low levels of HDL-c were more prevalent in females as compared to males (p?=?0.00). Conclusion High prevalence of generalized obesity, abdominal obesity (by measurement of WC, TAF, IAAT and SCAT) and dysmetabolic state in urban Asian Indians in north India need immediate public health intervention.

Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop; Misra, Ranjita; Goel, Kashish; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Rastogi, Kavita; Vikram, Naval K.; Gulati, Seema

2011-01-01

161

In Praise of the Ordinary Man: Popular Media, Social Hierarchy and Identity in a North Indian Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article recounts a story found in a popular genre of religious literature known as vrat katha[ritual storytelling]. The narrative is of an “ordinary” low-caste man and his everyday struggles. It tells of the social and economic suffering experienced by the poor man upon encountering god (called Trilokinath\\/Vishnu) and receiving his blessing, mediated through a series of miraculous events. However,

Assa Doron

2009-01-01

162

Functional genetic variants of CTLA-4 and risk of tobacco-related oral carcinoma in high-risk North Indian population.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CTLA-4 gene have been implicated in susceptibility to different cancer in different ethnic populations. We assessed the association of five SNPs [-1722C/T, -1661A/G and -318C/T in the promoter region49A/G in exon 1 and CT60A/G in the 3'untranslated region (UTR)] with tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in North Indian subjects. We genotyped 130 OSCC patients and 180 normal subjects by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using BbvI, MseI, NcoI and BstEII restriction endonucleases. Among these SNPs, -1722CC, -1661AG and CT60AA genotypes were more prevalent in OSCC patients as compared to controls and in the logistic regression analysis with odd ratio (OR) 2.85, 95% CI (0.69-11.68); OR 2.48, 95% CI (1.29-4.78) and OR 3.0, 95% CI (1.43-6.28) respectively, these genotypes showed strong association with OSCC risk. With higher prevalence in controls 49GG genotype and G allele (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40-0.81) appeared to be protective. Moreover, TACAG, TACGA and TATAG appeared as susceptible while TACGG and CACGG appeared as protective haplotypes. These results suggest significant risk modifying effects of CTLA-4 -1722C/T, -1661A/G, -318T/C, CT60 A/G and 49A/G SNPs in tobacco-related OSCC in North Indian population. PMID:23246583

Bharti, Vijaya; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Das, Satya Narayan

2012-12-12

163

Polymorphisms in the HPC/ELAC-2 and alpha 1-antitrypsin genes that correlate with human diseases in a North Indian population.  

PubMed

Two genes HPC/ELAC-2 and AAT were studied in north Indian population. HPC/ELAC-2 was studied in prostate cancer cases and AAT was studied in COPD patients. HPC/ELAC-2 is considered as an important cancer-susceptibility gene in prostate cancer. There are two common polymorphisms of this gene, i.e., Ser217Leu and Ala541Thr. Alpha 1 antitrypsin is a highly polymorphic anti-elastase enzyme, especially active in the protection of alveoli and liver. In the present study, we observed the distribution of two deficient alleles PiZ and Pi S in COPD patients. We extracted the DNA from 157 prostate cancer cases, 200 COPD patients, 170 BPH and 370 healthy controls. The polymorphisms were studied by PCR-RFLP technique. The mutant genotype (Leu/Leu) of HPC/ELAC-2 was present in 9.6, 7.6 and 5.9% of BPH, cancer cases and healthy controls, respectively. Higher risk of Ser/Leu as well as Leu/Leu had shown when compared to healthy controls. That was about 1.5 and 1.7-fold (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 0.96-2.51; OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 0.74-3.92), respectively. Risk was found to be increased in smokers and those consuming non-vegetarian diet. Our results suggest that the HPC/ELAC-2 polymorphisms, especially in localized cases, could help to predict prostate cancer risk and confirm its high prevalence of the leu/leu allele in north Indian population. Considering heterozygous PiZ genotype, we obtained an OR of 3.82 (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis adjusted by age sex and drinking habit showed 4.15-fold increased risk for COPD in PiZ heterozygous individuals. No increased risk was observed in the individuals carrying PiS alleles. PMID:20119870

Sobti, Ranbir C; Thakur, Hitender; Gupta, Lipsy; Janmeja, Ashok K; Seth, Amlesh; Singh, Sharwan K

2010-02-02

164

Heterogeneity of HLA-DRB1?04 and its associated haplotypes in the north indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

HLA-DR4 has been implicated in several diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type I diabetes, the strength of associations being ethnically variable. Unusually high level of heterogeneity in DR4-DQB1 haplotypes has been reported in the Indian population. The present study is an attempt to determine the genetic diversity of the HLA-DR4 allelic family and its associated DQA1-DQB1 haplotypic combinations in

Ritika Jaini; Gurvinder Kaur; Narinder K Mehra

2002-01-01

165

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Closely Associated with Sub-Clinical Inflammation: A Case-Control Study on Asian Indians in North India  

PubMed Central

Objectives Association between sub-clinical inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been studied in Asian Indians. In this case-control study, we aimed to analyse association of NAFLD with the sub-clinical inflammation and metabolic profile in Asian Indians in north India. Methods Ultrasound diagnosed 120 cases of NAFLD were compared to 152 healthy controls without NAFLD. Anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC)], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), metabolic profile [fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile] and hepatic function tests [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] were recorded. Results Metabolic parameters [FBG, total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG),low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c)], hs-CRP and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome were higher in cases as compared to controls (p-value<0.05 for all). The median (range) of hs-CRP (mg/L) for cases [2.6(0.2–13.4)] were significantly higher than in controls [1.4(0.03–11.4), p?=?0.01]. Similarly, higher values of hs-CRP were obtained when subgroups of cases with obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome were compared to controls [2.75 (0.03–14.3) vs. 1.52 (0.04–14.3), p?=?0.0010; 2.8 (0.03–14.3) vs. 1.5 (0.06–14.3), p?=?0.0014 and 2.7 (0.5–14.3) vs. 1.6 (0.06–8.5), p?=?0.0013, respectively. On multivariate logistic regression analysis BMI (p?=?0.001), WC (p?=?0.001), FBG (p?=?0.002), TC (p?=?0.008), TG (p?=?0.002), blood pressure (p?=?0.005), metabolic syndrome (p?=?0.001) and hs-CRP (p?=?0.003) were significantly and independently associated with NAFLD. After adjusting for significant variables, the association between high hs-CRP and NAFLD remained large and statistically significant [adjusted OR?=?1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.05–1.29]. An increase in 1 mg/dl of hs-CRP level calculated to increase the risk of developing NAFLD by 1.7 times as compared to controls after adjusting for significant variables associated with NAFLD. Conclusions In this cohort of Asian Indians in North India, presence of NAFLD showed independent relationships with sub-clinical inflammation.

Nigam, Priyanka; Bhatt, Surya P.; Misra, Anoop; Vaidya, Meera; Dasgupta, Jharna; Chadha, Davinder Singh

2013-01-01

166

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at\\u000a birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed\\u000a male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh

Tatiana Zerjal; Arpita Pandya; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Edmund Y. S. Ling; Jennifer Kearley; Stefania Bertoneri; Silvia Paracchini; Lalji Singh; Chris Tyler-Smith

2007-01-01

167

MALLEABLE INSPECTION STATION WHERE WORKERS ELIMINATE MALFORMED CASTINGS AND SEPARATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MALLEABLE INSPECTION STATION WHERE WORKERS ELIMINATE MALFORMED CASTINGS AND SEPARATED GOOD CASTINGS PRIOR TO ANNEALING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

168

A therapy to live by: Public health, the self and nationalism in the practice of a North Indian yoga society  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I focus on the relationship between concepts of self and health in modern North India. Drawing on field research in a popular yoga society, I argue that yoga therapy, as practiced by the Bharatiya Yog Sansthan of Delhi, provides a reconceptualization of what can be meant by public health. Using studies that challenge both the essentialist and

Joseph S. Alter

1997-01-01

169

Die Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Mechanical properties of creep resistant zinc die casting alloys; Studies on a gravity die cast zinc base alloy; Parashot system for turbulence-free injection of metal; Zinc--the versatile metal; Prevention of metal dribble on hot chamber die ca...

1977-01-01

170

Investment casting  

SciTech Connect

Materials and manufacturing technologies for investment casting have made impressive gains over the past several years, resulting in higher productivity, shorter lead times, and superior castings. To improve efficiency, investment casters have applied total quality control methods, new management concepts, and computer controls. Management and production efficiency improvements have been critical factors in maintaining and expanding market share.

Bidwell, H.T. [Investment Casting Inst., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-04-01

171

FMR1 Haplotype Analysis among Indian Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyse fragile X mental retardation 1 haplotypes among non-fragile X males from different Indian caste-based communities in order to enable inter-community comparisons to be made and permit wider comparisons with other ethnic groups. Subjects and Methods: Males (n = 124) from four major Hindu castes (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras) and the Indian Muslim community were typed using

B. K. Thelma; D. Sharma

2002-01-01

172

A study on the association of autoantibodies, chemokine, and its receptor with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus in North Indian population.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic and complex autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against a spectrum of nuclear antigens. RANTES and its receptor CCR5 have been associated with the pathogenesis of SLE. The objective of this study is to analyze autoantibodies (DNA/RNA), allelic distribution of RANTES and the association of levels of RANTES and its receptor CCR5 in SLE patients in North Indian region. The RANTES-403 and RANTES-28 polymorphism in the promoter region of RANTES gene was studied in 80 patients and 80 healthy controls. The levels of chemokine RANTES, its receptor CCR5, anti-dsDNA, and anti-SSA antibodies levels were determined. Disease activity was assessed with the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score. All the parameters were studied for statistical analysis by using t test (graph pad prism) and correlation by SPSS data. PCR-RFLP performed showed 28C/C and the 403G/G genotypes in both patients and controls, but no other genotypes such as 28C/G, 28G/G and 403A/G, 403A/A were found. Patients had higher levels of RANTES (1840.48 ± 739.42 vs. 835.44 ± 70.48 pg/ml; P < 0.0001) and its receptor CCR5 expression (26.49 ± 0.16 vs. 24.72 ± 3.02 %; P < 0.05) compared to controls. The levels of autoantibodies anti-dsDNA and anti-SSA were also higher in patients than controls. The patients showing elevated anti-dsDNA had negative correlation with SLEDAI score (P < 0.05) while borderline patients were not found to be correlated. In case of anti-Ro/anti-SSA antibody levels, the borderline patients showed a moderately significant negative correlation as compared to controls than patients with elevated autoantibody (P < 0.01). The levels of RANTES and CCR5 were also higher in case of patients than controls. But there was no significant correlation of RANTES and CCR5 with disease activity. We were unable to find an association of RANTES polymorphism with SLE in North Indian population in our sample. No significant difference in allele distribution of RANTES-28 and RANTES-403 in the sample of 160 individuals was detected. Of the two autoantibodies studied, anti-Ro/anti-SSA levels in borderline lupus patients appeared as an important parameter for monitoring/diagnosis of lupus patients. PMID:23832290

Bidyalaxmi Devi, Leishangthem; Bhatnagar, Archana; Wanchu, Ajay; Sharma, Aman

2013-07-06

173

137Cs, 239 + 240 Pu and 240Pu \\/ 239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R\\/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The 137Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The 137Cs activities showed

Masatoshi Yamada; Jian Zheng; Zhong-Liang Wang

2006-01-01

174

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part XI: The Basin-Plateau Tribes. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XI of the series, deals with the Indian tribes of Nevada: The Moapa Band of Paiute Indians, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, the…

Fay, George E., Comp.

175

Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy - mutation analysis of SLC4A11 and genotype-phenotype correlation in a North Indian patient cohort  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the solute carrier family 4 (sodium borate cotransporter) member 11 (SLC4A11) mutation spectrum and to perform genotype-phenotype correlations in autosomal recessive Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy (CHED2) in North Indian patients. Methods Twenty-five patients from twenty families clinically diagnosed with autosomal recessive CHED2 were recruited for the study. Clinical parameters such as age at onset, presentation, and pre- and post-operative visual acuities were recorded. Corneal buttons of patients undergoing keratoplasty were analyzed for histopathologic and ultrastructural confirmation. All the affected individuals and 50 unrelated population matched normal controls were screened for underlying sequence changes. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and all the exons and the 5?-upstream region of the SLC4A11 gene were screened for mutations by direct DNA sequencing. Results A high degree of consanguinity (9 out of 20 families) was noted. Corneal haze was reported to be present since birth or shortly thereafter in all affected patients. Histology and electron microscopy studies revealed increased thickness of Descemet’s membrane, especially of the non-banded zone. Molecular studies revealed one novel homozygous in-frame deletion mutation in two affected siblings from one family and three other previously reported homozygous mutations in 12 patients from 9 families. Mutations were not identified in 11 patients from 11 families. High interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variability was seen among the cohort of patients. Conclusions This is the first report on the mutation spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlation in CHED2 patients from North India. The present study detected one novel and three reported changes, adding to the repertoire of mutations in SLC4A11, and recorded a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in CHED2.

Paliwal, Preeti; Tandon, Radhika; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S.; Sen, Seema; Nag, Tapas C.; Vajpayee, Rasik B.

2010-01-01

176

Genetic variants of FOXA2 : risk of type 2 diabetes and effect on metabolic traits in North Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we examined the association of genetic variants of FOXA2, an upstream activator of the ?-cell transcription factor network, with type 2 diabetes and related phenotypes in North India.\\u000a We genotyped three SNPs (rs1212275, rs1055080, rs6048205) and the (TCC)\\u000a n\\u000a repeat polymorphism in 1,656 participants comprising 1,031 patients with type 2 diabetes and 625 controls. SNPs rs1212275\\u000a and rs6048205 were

Rubina Tabassum; Sreenivas Chavali; Om Prakash Dwivedi; Nikhil Tandon; Dwaipayan Bharadwaj

2008-01-01

177

Association of CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 gene polymorphism with risk of oral submucous fibrosis in a section of North Indian population.  

PubMed

Genetic alterations in the genes expressing drug metabolizing enzymes can make an individual susceptible to various cancers. This study detects the polymorphisms at CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes in a section of North Indian population and determines the susceptibility to oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). In this case-control study one hundred and two OSF patients were genotyped to detect the GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1 polymorphism. Two hundred healthy controls were also included. Genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) approach. The frequency of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotype was higher in OSF patients, as compared to controls. A trend risk analysis showed 7.6 fold increase in risk, when both the genes were absent. The frequency of CYP1A1 (m1) and CYP1A1 (m2) genotypes was higher in controls. No polymorphic alleles were detected in the m4 site. CYP1A1 (m1) wild genotype in the absence of GSTM1 null genotype, falls under the highest risk group (OR 3.74). Our findings suggest that CYP1A1 (m1) genotype and (m2) genotype singly acts as a protective factor but in the absence of GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 gene significantly alters risk towards OSF. PMID:22752755

Ghosh, Tanima; Gupta, Shalini; Bajpai, Prachi; Agarwal, Deepti; Agarwal, Mohit; Gupta, O P; Agrawal, Deepa

2012-07-01

178

Association of sociodemographic and nutritional factors with risk of neural tube defects in the North Indian population: a case-control study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of sociodemographic and nutritional factors in the incidence of births affected by neural tube defects (NTD) in the North Indian population. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Government hospitals of Delhi, India. SUBJECTS: Subjects comprised 284 mothers of NTD children (cases) and 568 mothers of healthy children (controls). RESULTS: Significant differences were found between case and control mothers with respect to maternal age (P = 0·005), type of drinking water (P = 0·03) and consumption of milk (P = 0·01). Univariate and multivariate analysis suggested an association of unpasteurized milk use, low consumption of vegetables, low consumption of fruits and vegetarian dietary habits with NTD births. Further, variation in the risk factors for upper and lower NTD types was also observed, pointing towards phenotypic heterogeneity in the aetiology. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest an increased risk of NTD infants in mothers with low consumption of vegetables, fruits and milk and having vegetarian dietary habits. So, in order to reduce these devastating birth defects in future offspring, better nutritional care should be provided to mothers by suggesting dietary modifications and augmenting additional micronutrient supplementation during the periconceptional period. PMID:23340204

Deb, Roumi; Arora, Jyoti; Saraswathy, Kallur N; Kalla, Aloke K

2013-01-23

179

Localization of a Recessive Gene for North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis to Chromosome Region 16q22--and Identification of a Shared Haplotype  

PubMed Central

North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC, or CIRH1A) is an isolated nonsyndromic form of familial cholestasis reported in Ojibway-Cree children and young adults in northwestern Quebec. The pattern of transmission is consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. To map the NAIC locus, we performed a genomewide scan on three DNA pools of samples from 13 patients, 16 unaffected siblings, and 22 parents from five families. Analysis of 333 highly polymorphic markers revealed 3 markers with apparent excess allele sharing among affected individuals. Additional mapping identified a chromosome 16q segment shared by all affected individuals. When the program FASTLINK/LINKAGE was used and a completely penetrant autosomal recessive mode of inheritance was assumed, a maximum LOD score of 4.44 was observed for a recombination fraction of 0, with marker D16S3067. A five-marker haplotype (D16S3067, D16S752, D16S2624, D16S3025, and D16S3106) spanning 4.9 cM was shared by all patients. These results provide significant evidence of linkage for a candidate gene on chromosome 16q22.

Betard, Christine; Rasquin-Weber, Andree; Brewer, Carl; Drouin, Eric; Clark, Suzanne; Verner, Andrei; Darmond-Zwaig, Corinne; Fortin, Julie; Mercier, Jocelyne; Chagnon, Pierre; Fujiwara, T. Mary; Morgan, Kenneth; Richter, Andrea; Hudson, Thomas J.; Mitchell, Grant A.

2000-01-01

180

Polymorphisms of IL-6 174 G/C, IL-10 -592 C/A and risk of HIV/AIDS among North Indian population.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence suggests that host genetic factors play an important role both in susceptibility to HIV infection and progression to AIDS. The present study aimed at evaluating the role of IL-6 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms on the risk of HIV susceptibility and disease progression among North Indian patients. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques were applied to genotype IL-6 and IL-10. 300 seropositive and an equal number of age- and sex-matched seronegative control subjects were recruited for this study. There was statistically no significant variation in the frequencies of IL-6 and IL-10 genotypes among cases and controls. However, statistically non-significant association for risk of rapid disease progression was observed due to the combined effect of the IL-6 homozygous CC genotype and CC of IL-10, OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 0.38-6.91. Therefore, combined effects of the CC of IL-6 and CC of IL-10 might reduce the hosts ability to hinder viral replication after infection. PMID:19936625

Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Berhane, Nega; Mahedi, Salih Abdul; Kler, Rupinder; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Kuttiat, Vijish; Wanchu, Ajay

2010-04-01

181

Association and impact of XPG Asp 1104 His gene polymorphism in HIV 1 disease progression to AIDS among north Indian HIV seropositive individuals.  

PubMed

Various efforts made to stop the deadly epidemic of HIV since its discovery in 1983 remain unsuccessful and this virus still continues to claim the lives of millions of individuals every year. The viral effect in the cell is complicated and the overall disease outcome is the result of interaction between a few viral proteins and complex host immune response. Because it has been reported that XPG (Xeroderma pigementesum group G) gene does play a role in reducing UV induced apoptosis and participate in Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) process of DNA damage, it was hypothesized that polymorphism in this gene may have a role in HIV 1 disease progression to AIDS. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to find out the association between XPG gene polymorphism and its effect on the rate of HIV 1 disease progression to AIDS. 300 HIV seropositive cases and an equal number of age and sex matched controls were recruited for the study from north Indian population. The PCR-RFLP method was utilized to genotype 600 study subject for the XPG Asp (1104) His gene polymorphism. There was significant difference in the frequency of the His/His variant genotype (OR 1.95, 95% CI = 1.93-3.63, P = 0.04) between cases and controls indicating a probable role of this gene in host viral interactions. PMID:19693700

Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Berhane, Nega; Mehedi, Salih Abedule; Kler, Rupinder; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Kuttiat, Vijish; Wanchu, Ajay

2009-08-20

182

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

183

History and Acculturation of the Dakota Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relating the history of the Dakota Indians from their origins to the present time, this document also examines the effects of acculturation on these Sioux people. Beginning with the Paleo-Indians of North America, it details the structure of the Dakota culture and attempts to acculturate the Indians into white society. Historical and current…

Satterlee, James L.; Malan, Vernon D.

184

Development of a digital model of ground-water flow in deeply weathered crystalline rock, Indian Creek area, North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

The digital ground-water model of the regolith-bedrock aquifer system in the Indian Creek area is based on the US Geological Survey's modular finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW). Use of MODFLOW assumes porous media equivalence; however, special approaches have been used to account for non-uniform fracture distribution. The model is divided into a uniformly spaced grid having 196 rows, 140 columns, and a 500-foot spacing. Rows are oriented parallel to fractures (N 72 E) and columns are oriented parallel to foliation (N 18 W). The area represented by active model cells is 146 square miles and has about 17,400 cells. The model has 11 layers of different thickness; the top layer represents the regolith and the lower 10 layers represent bedrock. The regolith-bedrock contact is at a uniform depth of 50 feet. The base of the model is 850 feet below land surface. Hydraulic properties of regolith are based on diffusivity calculated from streamflow recession and are assumed to be areally constant. The steady-state model simulates recharge to, flow through, and discharge from the regolith-bedrock aquifer system. The mass balance between inflow and outflow differs by less than 1%. Along select sections, computed travel times from drainage divides to streams range from less than 4 years in the regolith to as much as 300 years for flow passing through the bottom layer of bedrock. The volume of ground water that flows through the bottom layer is only about 2% of the flow through the regolith.

Daniel, C.C. III; Eimers, J.L. (Geological Survey, Raleigh, NC (United States))

1994-03-01

185

Impact of the western North Pacific subtropical high on the East Asian monsoon precipitation and the Indian Ocean precipitation in the boreal summertime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) is a crucial component of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and significantly influences the precipitation in East Asia. In this study, distinguished role of WNPSH on the EASM and Indian Ocean monsoon (IOM) are investigated. Based on the boreal summer mean field of 850-hPa geopotential height and its interannual variability, the WNPSH index (WNPSHI) is defined by the areaaveraged geopotential height over the region [110°-150°E, 15°-30°N]. The WNPSHI is significantly related to the precipitation over the East Asian monsoon (EAM) region [105°-150°E, 30°-40°N] and IOM region [70°-105°E, 5°-15°N]. Rainfalls over these two regions have good correlation with WNPSH developments and the geopotential height fields at 850 hPa related to the EAM precipitation and IOM precipitation have remarkably different teleconnection patterns in boreal summer. These features exhibit that EAM and IOM precipitations have different type of development processes associated with different type of WNPSH each other. Focusing on the relationships among the EAM precipitation, IOM precipitation, and the WNPSH variabilities, we assume that WNPSH and EAM precipitation are usually fluctuated simultaneously through the sea surface temperature (SST)-subtropical ridge-monsoon rainfall feedback, whereas the IOM precipitation varies through the different process. To clarify the relationships among WNPSH, EAM, and IOM, two cases are selected. The first one is the case that all of WNPSH, EAM, and IOM are in phase (WE(+)I(+)), and the second one is the case that WNPSH and EAM are in phase and WNPSH/EAM and IOM is out of phase (WE(+)I(-)). These two cases are connected to the thermal forcing associated with SST anomalies over the eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean. This different thermal forcing induces the change in circulation fields, and then anomalous circulation fields influence the moisture convergence over Asian monsoon regions interactively. Therefore, the monsoon rainfall may be changed according to the thermal conditions over the tropics.

Lee, Sun-Seon; Seo, Ye-Won; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

2013-02-01

186

Special Casting Techniques (Chapter 9).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Special casting techniques are progressive production methods. These casting techniques include the following: metal mold casting (chill mold casting), shell-mold casting, investment casting, centrifugal casting, and others. Each of these methods of casti...

N. P. Dubinin

1965-01-01

187

Latin America's Racial Caste System: Salient Marketing Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American societies are structured in a fuzzy racial caste system. Whites are at the top. Next are individuals of mixed European and Indian or mixed European and African ancestry, the Mestizos and the Mulattos, respectively. At the bottom are the Indians and the blacks. Integral to this system is an overt preference for European appearance and, among many whites,

Rutilio Martinez

188

American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)|

Dennis, Matthew

2003-01-01

189

Effects of cyclin D1 (CCND1) polymorphism on susceptibility to lung cancer in a North Indian population.  

PubMed

Cyclin D1 is involved in normal regulation of the cell cycle and plays an important role in the transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle. The CCND1 gene has a G-->A polymorphism in exon 4 that increases the frequency of alternate splicing. We analyzed the potential role of CCND1 gene polymorphisms in lung cancer patients (n = 151) and in a matched control population (n = 151). DNA was isolated from blood samples, and exon 4 of CCND1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. After digestion with MspI, common CCND1 polymorphic alleles were analyzed by means of agarose gel electrophoresis. The data obtained were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status, the AG genotype was associated with an increased risk for overall lung cancer (odds ratio OR = 1.7, 95% confidence interval CI = 0.92-3.14). No association was found between AA genotype and risk of lung cancer. In smokers, the combined AG+AA genotypes of CCND1 were found to be significant (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.03-3.71, P = 0.03). No positive association was found between CCND1 genotypes in nonsmokers. The results suggest that the CCND1 A870G gene polymorphisms may increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers from north India. PMID:17011980

Sobti, R C; Kaur, Pushpinder; Kaur, Satinder; Singh, Jagmohan; Janmeja, A K; Jindal, S K; Kishan, J; Raimondi, Sara

2006-10-15

190

Participation in Mass Gatherings Can Benefit Well-Being: Longitudinal and Control Data from a North Indian Hindu Pilgrimage Event  

PubMed Central

How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events – a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being.

Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen

2012-01-01

191

Genetic variation in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes influence prostate and bladder cancer susceptibility in North Indian population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Inherited polymorphisms of XPD and XPC genes may contribute to subtle variations in NER DNA repair capacity and genetic susceptibility to development of urological cancer such as prostate and bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped four Single Nucleotide Polymorphs (SNPs) of the DNA repair gene XPD and XPC in 195 prostate cancer (PCa) and 212 bladder cancer (BC) patients and 250 healthy controls from the same area. XPD Exon 10 (G>A) by amplification refractory mutation system and Exon 23 (A>C), XPC Intron 9 (Ins/Del) and Exon 15 (A>C) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Variant genotype of XPC demonstrated association with PCa as well as in BC (P, 0.013; P, 0.003). Combined genotype (GA+AA) revealed association with PCa and in BC (P, 0.012, P, 0.002). Variant allele also demonstrated risk in both the cancer. Diplotype of XPD and XPC was associated with a significant increase in PCa and BC risk. Variant (+/+) genotype of XPC intron 9 shown increased risk with PCa and in BC (P, 0.012; P, 0.032). CC genotype of XPC exon 15 revealed increase risk (P, 0.047) with PCa not in BC. In clinopathological grade variant allele of XPC intron 9 and 15 demonstrated risk with high grade of tumor and bone metastasis of PCa. In BC variant allele of XPD exon 10 and 15 also shown association with tumor grade. XPC intron 9 influences the risk of BC in former tobacco users in BC. CONCLUSIONS: Our result support that SNPs in XPD and XPC gene may reduce NER repair capacity and play a major role for PCa and BC in North India.

Mittal, Rama D.; Mandal, Raju K.

2012-01-01

192

Variability of the Indian Ocean SST and its possible impact on summer western North Pacific anticyclone in the NCEP Climate Forecast System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) provides important source of information about the seasonal prediction of climate over the Indo-Pacific oceans. In this study, the authors provide a comprehensive assessment of the prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO). They also investigate the impact of tropical IO SST on the summer anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the western North Pacific (WNPAC), focusing on the relative contributions of local SST and remote forcing of tropical IO SST to WNPAC variations. The CFSv2 captures the two most dominant modes of summer tropical IO SST: the IO basin warming (IOBW) mode and the IO dipole (IOD) mode, as well as their relationship with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, it produces a cold SST bias in IO, which may be attributed to deeper-than-observed mixed layer and smaller-than-observed total downward heat flux in the tropical IO. It also overestimates the correlations of ENSO with IOBW and IOD, but underestimates the magnitude of IOD and summer IOBW. The CFSv2 captures the climate anomalies related to IOBW but not those related to IOD. It depicts the impact of summer IOBW on WNPAC via the equatorial Kelvin wave, which contributes to the maintenance of WNPAC in July and August. The WNPAC in June is mostly forced by local cold SST, which is better predicted by the CFSv2 compared to July and August. The mechanism for WNPAC maintenance may vary with lead time in the CFSv2.

Jiang, Xingwen; Yang, Song; Li, Jianping; Li, Yueqing; Hu, Haoran; Lian, Yi

2013-10-01

193

Evaluation of near-surface air temperature and specific humidity from hybrid global products and their impact on latent heat flux in the North Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily near-surface air temperature (Ta) and specific humidity (Qa) from three hybrid flux products, namely, Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments version II (CORE-II), Objectively Analyzed Air-Sea Fluxes (OAFlux), and Air-Sea Fluxes for the Global Tropical Oceans (TropFlux), are evaluated using in situ data over the North Indian Ocean. The analysis shows that the root-mean-square error (RMSE) value of Ta is ~0.5°C for all products. TropFlux captures the daily variability of Ta very well, but it has a systematic deviation in Ta. The large drop in Ta observed during intense rainfall events is very well captured by TropFlux. All products overestimate Qa by 0.3-1.5 g/kg; OAFlux has the smallest systematic deviation, whereas TropFlux has the highest correlation with buoy data. The overestimation of Qa by the products is mainly caused by high values of Qa, in the range of 18-22 g/kg. The RMSE of Qa ranges from 0.92 to 1.79 g/kg, with OAFlux having the lowest values. Latent heat flux (LHF) computed from a bulk algorithm is underestimated by all products, which can be primarily attributed to the positive bias in Qa. In the southern Bay of Bengal, LHF decreases with increasing Qa during winter and summer monsoons. In this region, a change in 1 g/kg Qa can cause about 11-15 W/m2 errors in LHF. The air-sea humidity difference is linearly related to sea surface temperature for values greater than 28°C, similar to findings for the western Pacific Ocean.

Rahaman, H.; Ravichandran, M.

2013-02-01

194

NOL11, Implicated in the Pathogenesis of North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis, Is Required for Pre-rRNA Transcription and Processing  

PubMed Central

The fundamental process of ribosome biogenesis requires hundreds of factors and takes place in the nucleolus. This process has been most thoroughly characterized in baker's yeast and is generally well conserved from yeast to humans. However, some of the required proteins in yeast are not found in humans, raising the possibility that they have been replaced by functional analogs. Our objective was to identify non-conserved interaction partners for the human ribosome biogenesis factor, hUTP4/Cirhin, since the R565W mutation in the C-terminus of hUTP4/Cirhin was reported to cause North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC). By screening a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library derived from human liver, and through affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we identified an uncharacterized nucleolar protein, NOL11, as an interaction partner for hUTP4/Cirhin. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that NOL11 is conserved throughout metazoans and their immediate ancestors but is not found in any other phylogenetic groups. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that NOL11 is a component of the human ribosomal small subunit (SSU) processome. siRNA knockdown of NOL11 revealed that it is involved in the cleavage steps required to generate the mature 18S rRNA and is required for optimal rDNA transcription. Furthermore, abnormal nucleolar morphology results from the absence of NOL11. Finally, yeast two-hybrid analysis shows that NOL11 interacts with the C-terminus of hUTP4/Cirhin and that the R565W mutation partially disrupts this interaction. We have therefore identified NOL11 as a novel protein required for the early stages of ribosome biogenesis in humans. Our results further implicate a role for NOL11 in the pathogenesis of NAIC.

Freed, Emily F.; Prieto, Jose-Luis; McCann, Kathleen L.; McStay, Brian; Baserga, Susan J.

2012-01-01

195

Impact of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) codon (677) and methionine synthase (MS) codon (2756) on risk of cervical carcinogenesis in North Indian population.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer continues to be the most common cause of death among women in developing countries. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MS) are critical enzymes of folate metabolic pathways. In this work, we have conducted a case-control study to assess the role of these two polymorphisms in cervical cancer development. We obtained blood samples from 200 women with cervical cancer and from equal matched controls and analysed using PCR-RFLP method. We found that the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variant CT and CT+TT genotypes decreased cervix cancer risk, statistically significant (OR:0.30, 95% CI: 0.18-0.51, P<0.001 for CT and OR:0.29, 95% CI: 0.18-0.49, P=0.0000006 for CT+TT). Similarly in those patients who used oral contraceptive with variant CT genotype, there was statistically highly significant reduced risk of cervix cancer (OR:0.25, 95% CI: -0.12-0.49, P<0.001) of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene. For the methionine synthase, 2756 variant AG and AG+GG genotypes were similarly associated with highly significant reduced risk of cervix cancer (OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.07-0.26, P<0.001 for AG, and OR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.08-0.27, P<0.001 for AG+GG) genotypes. In conclusion, our study suggested that methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms might have protective effect on the risk of cervical cancer in the North Indian women. PMID:18351371

Shekari, Mohammad; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Kordi Tamandani, Dor Mohammad; Suri, Vanita

2008-03-20

196

Religion Among American Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional worldview of North American Indians is outlined as a basis for explicating the central tribal ceremonials and for comprehending the tribal response to prolonged missionization from Christian denominations. The missionaries operated in a context of authoritarian superiority, and most conceived of themselves as bearing civilization, rather than a plain scriptural message; hence, there was little concern to modify

Murray L. Wax; Rosalie H. Wax

1978-01-01

197

CASTING FURNACES  

DOEpatents

A device is described for casting uranium which comprises a crucible, a rotatable table holding a plurality of molds, and a shell around both the crucible and the table. The bottom of the crucible has an eccentrically arranged pouring hole aligned with one of the molds at a time. The shell can be connected with a vacuum.

Ruppel, R.H.; Winters, C.E.

1961-01-01

198

Project CAST.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

199

9. Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, reconstructed isometric detail of bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, reconstructed isometric detail of bridge framing by Willie Graham and Mark R. Wenger, 3/4', 1991 - North River Canal System, Indian Gap Run Aqueduct, West side of Buena Vista, Buena Vista, Roanoke City, VA

200

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER SALT RIVER IN BACKGROUND. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

201

Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.  

PubMed

The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society. PMID:10081237

Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

1999-01-01

202

p53-Mediated Biliary Defects Caused by Knockdown of cirh1a, the Zebrafish Homolog of the Gene Responsible for North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis.  

PubMed

North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NAIC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, progressive cholestatic disease of infancy affecting the Cree-Ojibway first Nations of Quebec. All NAIC patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (R565W) in CIRH1A, the human homolog of the yeast nucleolar protein Utp4. Utp4 is part of the t-Utp subcomplex of the small subunit (SSU) processome, a ribonucleoprotein complex required for ribosomal RNA processing and small subunit assembly. NAIC has thus been proposed to be a primary ribosomal disorder (ribosomopathy); however, investigation of the pathophysiologic mechanism of this disease has been hindered by lack of an animal model. Here, using a morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-based loss-of-function strategy, we have generated a model of NAIC in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish Cirhin shows substantial homology to the human homolog, and cirh1a mRNA is expressed in developing hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. Injection of two independent MOs directed against cirh1a at the one-cell stage causes defects in canalicular and biliary morphology in 5 dpf larvae. In addition, 5 dpf Cirhin-deficient larvae have dose-dependent defects in hepatobiliary function, as assayed by the metabolism of an ingested fluorescent lipid reporter. Previous yeast and in vitro studies have shown that defects in ribosome biogenesis cause stabilization and nuclear accumulation of p53, which in turn causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Thus, the nucleolus appears to function as a cellular stress sensor in some cell types. In accordance with this hypothesis, transcriptional targets of p53 are upregulated in Cirhin-deficient zebrafish embryos, and defects in biliary function seen in Cirhin-deficient larvae are completely abrogated by mutation of tp53. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence of a role for Cirhin in biliary development, and support the hypothesis that congenital defects affecting ribosome biogenesis can activate a cellular stress response mediated by p53. PMID:24147052

Wilkins, Benjamin J; Lorent, Kristin; Matthews, Randolph P; Pack, Michael

2013-10-11

203

CYP17, SRD5A2, CYP1B1, and CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk in North Indian population.  

PubMed

To investigate the involvement of the CYP17, SRD5A2, CYP1B1, and CYP2D6 variants with prostate cancer, a case-control study of 100 patients and an equal number of age-matched control men was conducted. There appears to be a nonsignificant increase with risk of prostate cancer for individuals carrying one copy of the CYP17 A2 allele (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.99-3.29, P=0.05). The risk was increased in individuals having two A2 alleles (OR; 2.81, 95% CI, 1.06-7.40, P=0.03). Compared with men having the VV genotype of SRD5A2 gene, there was no significant association between the VL genotype and the risk of prostate cancer (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.29-1.03, P=0.06). There was no difference in the occurrence of the genotype LL between controls and prostate cancer patients (OR; 0.90, 95% CI; 0.43-1.89, P=0.79). There was a nonsignificant increased risk of prostate cancer for individuals carrying the CYP1B1Leu/Val genotype (OR, 1.70, 95% CI, 0.91-3.17, P =0.09), which was increased in those having the Val/Val allele (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.13-10.07, P=0.02). Relative to men homozygous for the wild-type allele in CYP2D6 gene, those heterozygous for the B allele had an odds ratio of 1.78 (95% CI, 0.76-4.17, P=0.18) for patients, and for homozygous individuals, it was 1.95 (0.55-6.93, P=0.30). These observations have suggested that the CYP17 A2/A2, CYP1B1 Val/Val, and CYP2D6 genotypes may be associated with an altered risk of prostate cancer, while the CYP2D6 and SRD5A2 V89L polymorphism have no association with its risk in the North Indian population. PMID:16716118

Sobti, R C; Onsory, Khadijeh; Al-Badran, Adnan Issa; Kaur, Pushpinder; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Krishan, A; Mohan, Harsh

2006-05-01

204

p53-Mediated Biliary Defects Caused by Knockdown of cirh1a, the Zebrafish Homolog of the Gene Responsible for North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NAIC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, progressive cholestatic disease of infancy affecting the Cree-Ojibway first Nations of Quebec. All NAIC patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (R565W) in CIRH1A, the human homolog of the yeast nucleolar protein Utp4. Utp4 is part of the t-Utp subcomplex of the small subunit (SSU) processome, a ribonucleoprotein complex required for ribosomal RNA processing and small subunit assembly. NAIC has thus been proposed to be a primary ribosomal disorder (ribosomopathy); however, investigation of the pathophysiologic mechanism of this disease has been hindered by lack of an animal model. Here, using a morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-based loss-of-function strategy, we have generated a model of NAIC in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish Cirhin shows substantial homology to the human homolog, and cirh1a mRNA is expressed in developing hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. Injection of two independent MOs directed against cirh1a at the one-cell stage causes defects in canalicular and biliary morphology in 5 dpf larvae. In addition, 5 dpf Cirhin-deficient larvae have dose-dependent defects in hepatobiliary function, as assayed by the metabolism of an ingested fluorescent lipid reporter. Previous yeast and in vitro studies have shown that defects in ribosome biogenesis cause stabilization and nuclear accumulation of p53, which in turn causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Thus, the nucleolus appears to function as a cellular stress sensor in some cell types. In accordance with this hypothesis, transcriptional targets of p53 are upregulated in Cirhin-deficient zebrafish embryos, and defects in biliary function seen in Cirhin-deficient larvae are completely abrogated by mutation of tp53. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence of a role for Cirhin in biliary development, and support the hypothesis that congenital defects affecting ribosome biogenesis can activate a cellular stress response mediated by p53.

Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Lorent, Kristin; Matthews, Randolph P.; Pack, Michael

2013-01-01

205

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India.  

PubMed

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 86 from the rest of India. We typed 131 Y-chromosomal binary markers and 16 microsatellites. We find striking evidence for male substructure: in particular, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (but not other castes) from Jaunpur each show low diversity and the predominance of a single distinct cluster of haplotypes. These findings confirm the genetic isolation and drift within the Jaunpur upper castes, which are likely to result from founder effects and social factors. In the other castes, there may be either larger effective population sizes, or less strict isolation, or both. PMID:17075717

Zerjal, Tatiana; Pandya, Arpita; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Ling, Edmund Y S; Kearley, Jennifer; Bertoneri, Stefania; Paracchini, Silvia; Singh, Lalji; Tyler-Smith, Chris

2006-10-31

206

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India  

PubMed Central

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 86 from the rest of India. We typed 131 Y-chromosomal binary markers and 16 microsatellites. We find striking evidence for male substructure: in particular, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (but not other castes) from Jaunpur each show low diversity and the predominance of a single distinct cluster of haplotypes. These findings confirm the genetic isolation and drift within the Jaunpur upper castes, which are likely to result from founder effects and social factors. In the other castes, there may be either larger effective population sizes, or less strict isolation, or both.

Zerjal, Tatiana; Pandya, Arpita; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Ling, Edmund Y. S.; Kearley, Jennifer; Bertoneri, Stefania; Paracchini, Silvia; Singh, Lalji; Tyler-Smith, Chris

2008-01-01

207

Cast Aluminum Structures Technology, Phase III (Cast).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of CAST is to establish the necessary structural and manufacturing technologies and to demonstrate the validate the integrity, producibility, and viability of cast aluminum primary airframe structures. The baseline design is the AMST prototy...

D. Goehler

1978-01-01

208

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

Fay, George E., Comp.

209

Maize Genetics Outreach to American Indians  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is an excellent vehicle for plant genomics outreach to those American Indian tribes who use and appreciate it nutritionally, culturally, and spiritually. During the summer 2006 season we mentored six Native American Indian students for eight weeks. All six worked at the USDA-ARS North Centra...

210

General Historical Survey of Federal Indian Policies. Chapter II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes the history of North America, especially of the United States, from the earliest explorations and settlements through the present. Emphasis is placed on the Europeans' effect on American Indian life and the inadequate development of Indian education. Comparisons are made between the various colonizers' Indian policies before…

Stockman, W. H.

211

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint

Tom L. Macy; Gary A. James

2003-01-01

212

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods,

Tom L. Macy; Gary A. James

2003-01-01

213

AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS THEY MOVE IN BINS ALONG TRACKS IN THE OVEN BOTTOM IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS BRITTLE WHITE IRON CASTINGS INTO SOFTER, STRONGER MALLEABLE IRON. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

214

BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

215

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds Bethlehem Steel Corporation, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

216

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

217

4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING AND FOUNDRY FLASKS TO RIGHT. - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, Workshop, 800 Twenty-eighth Street North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

218

The Sky Clears; Poetry of the American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|More than 200 authentic poems and lyrics of North American Indians are compiled in this anthology. The poetry was translated from tribal languages into English over the past 100 years by students of Indian language, lore, and life. The poems, taken from about 40 North American tribes, include songs of Eskimos of the Arctic coasts, totem-pole…

Day, A. Grove

219

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH OVERHEAD CRANE USED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH OVERHEAD CRANE USED TO TRANSFER LARGE LADLES OF IRON FROM ONE LOCATION TO ANOTHER. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

220

Nursing...A Tradition of Caring. Quentin N. Burdick Indians into Nursing Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Indians are underrepresented in the nursing profession. In fall 1990, the University of North Dakota (UND) College of Nursing received funding to increase the number of nurses providing health care to Indian people. In 1992, Recruitment/Retention of American Indians into Nursing (RAIN) became one of three Quentin N. Burdick Indian Health…

North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. Coll. of Nursing.

221

Hydrogeology and Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Thick Regolith-Fractured Crystalline Rock Aquifer System of Indian Creek Basin, North Carolina. Chapter C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to describe the hydrogeologic framework and results of ground-water flow simulations in part of the southwestern Piedmont of North Carolina. Hydrogeologic information on the region is presented, including a conceptual model o...

C. C. Daniel D. G. Smith J. L. Eimers

1997-01-01

222

Indian Calendars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian calendars are interesting, but very complicated. Indians use both solar and lunisolar calendars. The solar calendars follow the sidereal year. The lunisolar calendars are of two types; some have months that run from new Moon to new Moon, while some have months that run from full Moon to full Moon. Leap months are a common feature of these

223

Indian Legends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

224

Keeping up with the Vaishyas? Caste and relative standing in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

People care about relative, and not only absolute, income. This paper investigates the importance of relative income within and between castes in the Indian caste system, using a choice experimental approach. The results indicate that slightly more than half of the marginal utility of income comes from some kind of relative income effects, on average. This is comparable to the

Fredrik Carlsson; Gautam Gupta; Olof Johansson-Stenman

2009-01-01

225

137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.  

PubMed

Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios could be attributed to close-in fallout Pu delivered from the Enewetak and Bikini Atolls by ocean currents of branches of the North Equatorial Current to the Southeast Asian seas. PMID:16165190

Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

2005-09-13

226

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PRODUCTION AND QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

227

Indian Sports Nicknames/Logos: Affective Difference between American Indian and Non-Indian College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed the…

LaRocque, Angela R.; McDonald, J. Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Ferraro, F. Richard

2011-01-01

228

Experience of Native Americans at a Black College: Indian Students at Hampton Institute, 1878-1923.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a historical overview of Indian programs at Hampton Institute. Relates the experiences of Indian students there and specifically those of a group of 60 students who were members of the Eastern Band of Cherokees of North Carolina. (MW)|

Makofsky, Abraham

1989-01-01

229

Titanium Castings Today.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Titanium castings weighing from a few grams to over half a ton are being produced. Three foundries produce castings in rammed graphite molds chiefly for applications where high resistance to corrosion is important. Three other foundries use investment mol...

J. G. Kura

1973-01-01

230

Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-01-01

231

LLNL casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

1994-01-01

232

LLNL casting technology  

SciTech Connect

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III [eds.

1994-01-01

233

Egyptian Caste System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understand the culture, character, and societal characteristics of different classes in the ancient Egyptian caste system Understand the culture, character, and societal characteristics of different classes in the ancient Egyptian caste system Go to these sites to learn about the Egyptian Caste System ...

Issen, Ms.

2009-09-17

234

9. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF RETARDING CONVEYOR, SHOWING CAST IRON BUTTONS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF RETARDING CONVEYOR, SHOWING CAST IRON BUTTONS AND STEEL ROPE IN UPPER TROUGH IN CONVEYOR HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; NOTE STEEL PLATES LINING WOODEN TROUGH - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

235

Advances in aluminum casting technology  

SciTech Connect

This symposium focuses on the improvements of aluminum casting quality and reliability through a better understanding of processes and process variables, and explores the latest innovations in casting-process design that allow increasing use of the castings to replace complex assemblies and heavy steel and cast-iron components in aerospace and automotive applications. Presented are 35 papers by international experts in the various aspects of the subject. The contents include: Semisolid casting; Computer-aided designing of molds and castings; Casting-process modeling; Aluminum-matrix composite castings; HIPing of castings; Progress in the US car project; Die casting and die design; and Solidification and properties.

Tiryakioglu, M.; Campbell, J. (eds.)

1998-01-01

236

Lithologic Logs of Observation Wells and Test Holes Drilled in 1987 in Valley Fill along the North Flank of the Little Rocky Mountains, Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, North-Central Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observation wells and test holes were drilled in 1987 in valley fill along the north flank of the Little Rocky Mountains as part of a water-resources investigation to determine, in part, the geometry (thickness and lateral distribution) of various valley-...

D. W. Briar P. K. Christensen

1993-01-01

237

5. Photocopy of photograph, date and photographer unknown VIEW NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Photocopy of photograph, date and photographer unknown VIEW NORTH SHOWING SOUTH ELEVATION - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Dormitory, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

238

4. Photocopy of photograph, circa 1930 VIEW NORTH SHOWING SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Photocopy of photograph, circa 1930 VIEW NORTH SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Administration Building, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

239

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000.  

SciTech Connect

The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.

Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

2003-03-01

240

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.  

SciTech Connect

The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

2003-03-01

241

Social Affiliation and the Demand for Health Services: Caste and Child Health in South India *  

PubMed Central

This paper assesses the role of social affiliation, measured by caste, in shaping investments in child health. The special setting that we have chosen for the analysis – tea estates in the South Indian High Range – allows us to control nonparametrically for differences in income, access to health services, and patterns of morbidity across low caste and high caste households. In this controlled setting, low caste households spend more on their children's health than high caste households, reversing the pattern we would expect to find elsewhere in India. Moreover, health expenditures do not vary by gender within either caste group, in contrast once again with the male preference documented throughout the country. A simple explanation, based on differences in the returns to human capital across castes in the tea estates is proposed to explain these striking results.

Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan

2007-01-01

242

Tape Casting Method and Tape Cast Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A precursor tape casting method is one in which chemical precursors are converted into a final chemical phase from green tapes to products. Because chemical precursors are employed rather than the final powder materials, sintering is not required to form ...

D. Xiao M. Wu S. Hui Y. Zhang

2005-01-01

243

Indian Summer  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

244

Statistically significant association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13181 (ERCC2) with predisposition to Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck (SCCHN) and Breast cancer in the north Indian population  

PubMed Central

Background Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within vital DNA repair genes may cause reduction of activity leaving the genome unrepaired resulting in genomic instability and cancer. Materials and methods The present endeavour involved study on the association of the SNP rs13181 (Lys751Gln/A18911C) in the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) pathway gene ERCC2 (excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 2) with the risks of Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck (SCCHN) and Breast cancer using a case-control based association study among 685 (400 controls and 285 SCCHN-affected cases) and 395 (227 normal healthy female controls and 168 breast cancer cases) ethnically-matched samples, respectively from north India using Polymerase Chain Reaction followed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results Results showed significant association of rs13181 homozygous mutant (CC) [Odds Ratio (OR) 4.412, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.413 to 8.068], heterozygous (AC) (OR 2.086, 95% CI 1.246 to 3.492) and combined mutant (AC + CC) (OR 2.672, 95% CI 1.647 to 4.334) genotypes with predisposition to Breast cancer. Statistically significant increase in SCCHN risk was also associated with the mutant genotypes of rs13181 (ERCC2), viz. homozygous mutant (CC) (OR 1.680, 95% CI 1.014 to 2.784), heterozygous (AC) (OR 1.531, 95% CI 1.092 to 2.149) and combined mutant (AC + CC) (OR 1.560, 95% CI 1.128 to 2.158) genotypes. Conclusion The results of this case-control study indicate that the polymorphism rs13181 might be a risk factor for predisposition towards SCCHN and breast cancer among north Indian subpopulations.

Mitra, Amit Kumar; Singh, Neetu; Garg, Vivek Kumar; Chaturvedi, Rashmi; Sharma, Mandira; Rath, Srikanta Kumar

2009-01-01

245

Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

Roop, Peter

246

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH MOLTEN METAL BEING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH MOLTEN METAL BEING POURED OUT OF THE CUPOLA INTO THE POURING LADLE. FROM THE POURING LADLE, THE IRON IS LATER POURED INTO A TRANSFER LADLE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE CASTING MACHINES. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

247

Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Cysts in North Indian Patients: Identification of G1, G3, G5 and G6 Genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the Echinococcus granulosus, is a major public health problem worldwide, including India. The different genotypes of E. granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis have been reported from endemic areas throughout the world. However, the genetic characterization of E. granulosus infecting the human population in India is lacking. The aim of study was to ascertain the genotype(s) of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in North India. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the transmission patterns of E. granulosus, genotypic analysis was performed on hydatid cysts obtained from 32 cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients residing in 7 different states of North India. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (cox1) sequencing was done for molecular identification of the isolates. Most of the CE patients (30/32) were found to be infected with hydatid cyst of either G3 (53.1%) or G1 (40.62%) genotype and one each of G5 (cattle strain) and G6 (camel strain) genotype. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate the zoonotic potential of G1 (sheep strain) and G3 (buffalo strain) genotypes of E. granulosus as these emerged as predominant genotypes infecting the humans in India. In addition to this, the present study reports the first human CE case infected with G5 genotype (cattle strain) in an Asian country and presence of G6 genotype (camel strain) in India. The results may have important implications in the planning of control strategies for human hydatidosis.

Sharma, Monika; Sehgal, Rakesh; Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Malhotra, Anil; Malla, Nancy

2013-01-01

248

Casting Design Knowledge Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has a global competitive advantage in medium-volume engineering-intensive metal products, such as automobile castings. To maintain and enhance this advantage, foundries need to adopt a systematic approach to preserve and reuse their in-house knowledge accumulated through years of experience. In this paper, we present a casting knowledge management system that facilitates: (1) capturing and updating casting knowledge in the

B. Ravi

249

Cast aluminized explosives (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status and future trends of aluminized explosives. The major focus is on cast compositions,\\u000a which encompass both the melt-cast trinitrotoluene (TNT) based and the slurry cast polymer-based compositions. Widely reported\\u000a RDX and HMX based aluminized compositions with TNT used as a binder are discussed in detail. Various researchers have suggested\\u000a a 15–20% Al content as

P. P. Vadhe; R. B. Pawar; R. K. Sinha; S. N. Asthana; A. Subhananda Rao

2008-01-01

250

Genetic affinities among the lower castes and tribal groups of India: inference from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: India is a country with enormous social and cultural diversity due to its positioning on the crossroads of many historic and pre-historic human migrations. The hierarchical caste system in the Hindu society dominates the social structure of the Indian populations. The origin of the caste system in India is a matter of debate with many linguists and anthropologists suggesting

Ismail Thanseem; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Gyaneshwer Chaubey; Vijay Kumar Singh; Lakkakula VKS Bhaskar; B Mohan Reddy; Alla G Reddy; Lalji Singh

2006-01-01

251

Some Economic Implications of Caste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares outcomes across two types of villages in a poor region of rural India. The two types of villages systematically vary by which caste is dominant, i.e., the caste group which owns the majority of land. The dominant caste is either from an upper caste or a lower backward caste. The key finding is that income is substantially

Siwan Anderson

252

Evolution of halictine castes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

Knerer, Gerd

1980-03-01

253

Cast Aluminum Structures Technology (CAST) Manufacturing Methods--Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of CAST is to establish the necessary structural and manufacturing technologies and to demonstrate and validate the integrity, producibility, and viability of cast aluminum primary airframe structures. The necessary casting foundry practices...

D. D. Goehler R. G. Christner

1978-01-01

254

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

255

INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 24' PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 24' PIPE AND OPERATOR JOHNNY NIXON. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

256

Indian - American contributions to psychiatric research  

PubMed Central

The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian – American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years.

Pandurangi, Anand K.

2010-01-01

257

Indian Orphanages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

258

Changes in the Food Habits of Asian Indians in the United States: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study focused on acculturation in the food habits of first generation Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that: 1) food habits of Asian Indians are changing toward the American pattern; and 2) these changes are directly related to the subject's sex, caste, age, marital status, and duration of exposure…

Gupta, Santosh P.

1975-01-01

259

LLNL casting technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from ...

A. B. Shapiro W. J. Comfort

1994-01-01

260

Expendable Pattern Casting Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expendable pattern casting (EPC) process is a potential casting process breakthrough which could dramatically improve the competitiveness of the U.S. foundry industry. Cooperatively supported by U.S. Industry and the Department of Energy and managed by the American Foundrymen's Society, a project was started in May 1989 to develop and optimize expendable pattern casting technology. Four major tasks were conducted in the first phase of the project. Those tasks involved: (1) reviewing published literature to determine the major problems in the EPC process; (2) evaluating factors influencing sand flow and compaction; (3) evaluating and comparing casting precision obtained in the EPC process with that obtained in other processes; and (4) identifying critical parameters that control dimensional precision and defect formation in EP castings.

1990-07-01

261

The Federal Government and the Creek Indians, 1775-1813.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the immediate problems facing the United States in 1775 was that of relations with the Indian tribes of North America. Study of the transactions between the federal government and the Creek Indians from 1775 to 1813 offers many insights into the de...

F. H. Akers

1976-01-01

262

Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

263

Immunogenetic analysis of Takayasu arteritis in Indian patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of HLA-A, B, C and DR antigens was determined in a cohort of 104 unrelated Indian patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA) belonging to the North Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. The data was compared with healthy controls belonging to the same ethnic group. In addition, polymorphism in the MHC class I chain related A

N. K. Mehra; R. Jaini; A. Balamurugan; U. Kanga; D. Prabhakaran; S. Jain; K. K. Talwar; B. K. Sharma

1998-01-01

264

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

265

Is there an inter-relationship between prostate specific antigen, kallikrein-2 and androgen receptor gene polymorphisms with risk of prostate cancer in north Indian population?  

PubMed

Androgen receptor (AR) and kallikrein (KLK-2) regulates the PSA (prostate specific antigen) transcription and activation, respectively. We investigated the individual and combined risk of KLK-2, PSA and AR gene polymorphism in histologically confirmed CaP patients and healthy controls from north India. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes pellet of 277 subjects. AR repeats analysis was done by PCR-Genscan method. PSA and KLK-2 were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression was applied for mean comparison and risk determination. A significant association for CaP risk was observed with short AR-CAG repeats (OR=3.36, p<0.001) and CC genotype of KLK-2 (OR=2.78, p=0.031), however, no association was found with PSA and AR-GGN repeat polymorphism. PSA/GG genotype was significantly associated with higher Gleason score (> or =7) of tumor (OR=6.23, p<0.01). No association was observed with other confounding variables such as PSA and age with any of these polymorphisms. Thus, we hypothesize that these polymorphisms may influence the etiology of CaP and may have the probability to become appropriate marker either independently or in combination. The combined information on serum PSA level, PSA (G/A), KLK-2 (C/T) genotypes and AR (CAG; GGN repeat) may assist in the deterrence of unnecessary biopsies. PMID:17257635

Mittal, Rama D; Mishra, Dhruva K; Thangaraj, K; Singh, Rajender; Mandhani, Anil

2006-12-19

266

Casting in Sport  

PubMed Central

Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the “least hard” of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.

DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

1994-01-01

267

Clean Metal Casting  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

268

The lost-wax casting of icons, utensils, bells, and other items in South India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian artisans and craftsmen have long been masters at extracting and shaping metals and alloys, as proven by archaeological finds from the 2nd—3rd millennia B.C. For example, two well-known artifacts, castings of the dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro and the Mother Goddess of Adichanallur, Tamilnadu, depict a high degree of metallurgical knowledge. Those castings were formed by the lost wax process, which later was modified and became known as investment casting. In various parts of India, this age-old casting process is still being practiced, without any major modifications. This paper discusses details of the process used by the Indian artisans of Swamimalai, Tamilnadu, and Mannar, Kerala, South India in shaping copper-base alloys into icons and utensils, bells, and lamps.

Pillai, R. M.; Pilhii, S. G. K.; Damodaran, A. D.

2002-10-01

269

CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE  

DOEpatents

A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

Shuck, A.B.

1958-04-01

270

Women psychiatrists--Indian impetus.  

PubMed

Incredible India is a multicultural, multilingual, multifaceted, country of contradictions, where the women mental health professionals are participating in substantially increasing numbers. Evolving social, cultural and economical factors have facilitated the empowerment of women which is reflected in the health services. The contemporary Indian Woman Medical Professional is liberated, articulate and free. Remunerative employment has decreased economic vulnerability and dependence on men. Her decisions though, from choosing medicine as a vocation, opting for psychiatry, to specializing in a particular field are all coloured by class, caste, sex, region and religion. Cultural expectations and influences set norms for all in a society, dictating the behaviour and attitude of colleagues, superiors, patients, family and that of the psychiatrist herself. Egalitarianism, while on the rise, the long tradition of social hierarchies replicates themselves in professional arenas. An ever increasing number, women are still less than 10% of all Indian psychiatrists. Women psychiatrists continue to be underrepresented as policy makers in most psychiatric organizations and institutes. This article will discuss some of the experiences of the young Indian woman psychiatrist influencing her life architecture. PMID:18833903

Ruksheda, Syeda N

2008-01-01

271

PALEONTOLOGY: Team Rejects Claim of Early Indian Fossils.  

PubMed

A team of Indian paleontologists has failed to find evidence to support a 1998 paper that cast doubt on the earliest claimed dates for the origin of animals. The discovery, if true, would also have made the Vindhyan Mountains, where the fossils were found, much younger than previously thought. PMID:17772987

Bagla, P

2000-08-25

272

Gene diversity in some Muslim populations of North India.  

PubMed

North Indian Muslim populations have historical, linguistic, and socioreligious significance to the Indian subcontinent. Although sociocultural and political dimensions of their demography are well documented, no detailed genetic structure of the populations is available. We have undertaken a survey of the gene frequencies of the ABO, Rh, PTC taste ability, sickling, and G6PD systems for different endogamous groups: Sheikh, Syed, Pathan, Ansari, Saifi, and Hindu Bania. All the groups at most loci showed statistically nonsignificant differences, except for ABO and PTC traits, for which interpopulational differences were seen. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.048 to 0.617 among the Sheikh, 0.149 to 0.599 among the Pathan, 0.105 to 0.585 among the Ansari, 0.25 to 0.869 among the Syed, 0.107 to 0.565 among the Saifi, and 0.100 to 0.492 among the Hindu Bania. The average D(ST) and G(ST) values for the five marker loci were 0.0625 +/- 0.098 and 0.1072 +/- 0.041, respectively. A dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA clustering method. Our results revealed that the Pathan and the Sheikh form one cluster, the Syed and the Hindu Bania form another cluster, and the two clusters join together (the so-called higher caste); also, the Saifi and the Ansari form a separate cluster (lower caste). The results of the genetic distance analysis are useful for understanding the pattern of genetic relationships between different endogamous groups of Muslims. PMID:16392636

Aarzoo, S Shabana; Afzal, Mohammad

2005-06-01

273

New approaches in microcasting: permanent mold casting and composite casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, microcasting was based on investment casting. New approaches are now the permanent mold casting and composite\\u000a casting of micro parts. Casting was performed with aluminum bronze of the type CuAl10Ni5Fe4. Permanent mold casting was commenced with steel mold inserts in a lost mold. The development of a band heater enabled the\\u000a heating of permanent molds inside the

G. Baumeister; D. Buqezi-Ahmeti; J. Glaser; H.-J. Ritzhaupt-Kleissl

2011-01-01

274

Quantified smoking status and non-small cell lung cancer stage at presentation: analysis of a North Indian cohort and a systematic review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background: There are variable observations in published literature regarding smoking status and stage of lung cancer (LC) with positive, negative and no associations being reported. In particular, data regarding the association of quantified smoking status (QSS) with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage at the time of diagnosis is limited. In India, bidi - the hand rolled form of tobacco wrapped in the dried tendu leaf - is the most common smoking product. The current study was conducted to assess stage differences, if any, based upon QSS, among newly diagnosed LC patients. Methods A systematic review of English literature was performed for previous publications that had assessed NSCLC stage differences in relation to QSS. Collected data on demographic and disease characteristics of 654 LC patients presenting to the authors’ institute was also analyzed. Smoking index (SI) was used for QSS and was defined as number of bidis and cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by years smoked. Patients were categorized as never-smokers [Group I, n=151]; light/moderate smokers (SI=1-300) [Group II, n=202] and heavy smokers (SI ?301) [Group III, n=301]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis (LRA) was performed to derive adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Among the 520 NSCLC patients, mean [standard deviation (SD)] age in groups I, II and III was 54.5 (12.5), 58.6 (9.9) and 61.2 (9.4) years respectively (P<0.001). Percentage of males in the three groups was 48.1%, 88.0%, and 97.9% (P<0.001). Age and gender differences between groups I, II and III were also significant among 134 small cell lung cancer patients with mean (SD) ages of 44.0 (10.6), 55.7 (10.3) and 58.9 (9.3) years (P<0.001) and percentage of males being 50.0%, 90.4% and 95.5% respectively (P<0.001). Among NSCLC patients, distribution in groups I, II and III respectively of squamous (28.1%, 50.0% and 57.9%) and non-squamous histologies (59.3%, 37.3% and 27.2%) differed significantly (P<0.001). Stage distribution observed for NSCLC patients in groups I, II and III respectively was as follows: stages I-IIIA (8.1%, 19.3 and 18.7%), stage IIIB (24.4%, 34.7% and 42.1%) and stage IV (67.4%, 46.0% and 39.1%). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Differences remained significant (P<0.001) for presence of extrathoracic disease [ETD] (41.5%, 28.0% and 16.6%). On multivariate LRA, SI ?301 was the only variable that was independently associated with both advanced stage (IIIB-IV) [OR=0.25 (95% CI=0.11-0.61)] and ETD [OR=0.29 (95% CI=0.16-0.53)] at presentation. Conclusions Among newly diagnosed NSCLC patients in North India, significant differences exist, based upon SI, for disease stage. Heavy smoking was independently associated with lower odds of having advanced stage as well as with lower odds of having ETD at the time of diagnosis. This observation of the current study however requires confirmation by larger prospective studies.

Aggarwal, Ashutosh N.; Gupta, Dheeraj; Behera, Digambar; Jindal, Surinder K.

2012-01-01

275

International Indian Treaty Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is "an organization of indigenous peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the sovereignty and self determination of indigenous peoples." To achieve their broad goals, the IITC works to support networks of indigenous peoples around the world through their policy work in areas that include global trade, women's rights, reproductive health, and the environment. On their homepage, visitors can browse through thematic headings on the left-hand side of the page, such as "Treaty Conferences", "Cultural Rights", "Health/Toxics", and about a dozen additional listings. Visitors should also click on the "Web Content" tab to read flyers, United Nations resolutions, and draft declarations. Also, visitors can sign up to subscribe to the IITC's electronic news updates here.

276

MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM  

DOEpatents

A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

1962-02-27

277

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

Poco, J.F.

1993-09-07

278

Aluminum Fluidity in Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding and control of fluidity is, and has been, a major aspect of foundry technology development. This paper reviews the progress made in this area over the years as it applies to aluminum castings. As a result of this development, thin-wall, high-integrity aluminum castings which were previously not thought possible have been produced. Further work in this area is expected to allow metal-matrix composites to fulfill their technical and economic promise.

Mollard, Francois R.; Flemings, Merton C.; Niyama, Eisuke F.

1987-11-01

279

Casting critical components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investment casting is an essential processing route for critical rotating and static aero gas turbine components and for a wide spectrum of high integrity parts. These must perform reliably under arduous operating conditions involving high stresses and, frequently, extremely hostile environments. The advanced technology, in-process controls, rigorous specifications, and stringent testing and inspection procedures required for high integrity investment castings are considered along with some examples of the technological 'spin-off' into diverse industry sectors.

McCallum, R.

1982-06-01

280

Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

281

American Indians: Hands-On Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes some of the teaching methods she uses to teach how different American Indian groups lived in different regions of the North American continent. Her lessons include a number of projects: (1) Practicing symbolic writing; (2) Creating a personal timeline; (3) Studying winter counts and creating a personalized…

Rethlefsen, Ann Lyle

2006-01-01

282

Indian Education Project, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A product of Michigan's Indian Education Project, this report includes two proposals designed to help meet the educational needs of Michigan American Indian students at various levels. The first of the two feasibility studies includes: a perspective on Michigan's American Indians; problems of Indian education (priorities, roots of the problem,…

Martin, Larry; Morris, Joann

283

American Indians Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

Snipp, C. Matthew

284

The New Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen short vignettes depicting recent incidents involving various forms of aggressiveness and nationalism on the part of Indians are employed by the author to suggest a modern American Indian renaissance, led primarily by articulate, and at times militant, Indian youth who are dissatisfied with the manner in which the American Indian is still…

Steiner, Stan

285

Indians of Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Goldfinch" examines the history of American Indians in Iowa. This volume's featured articles include: "Encounter"; "Iowa Earthworks"; "The Long Way Home"; "How One Learns, a Mesquakie Woman's Life Story"; "Indians of Iowa"; "Little Brother Snares the Sun"; "Being Indian in an Urban World"; and "Indian Wars Myth." (DB)

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1992-01-01

286

Indians of Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of "The Goldfinch" examines the history of American Indians in Iowa. This volume's featured articles include: "Encounter"; "Iowa Earthworks"; "The Long Way Home"; "How One Learns, a Mesquakie Woman's Life Story"; "Indians of Iowa"; "Little Brother Snares the Sun"; "Being Indian in an Urban World"; and "Indian Wars Myth." (DB)|

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1992-01-01

287

Spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that A, B and O allele frequency surfaces on the Indian subcontinent are highly fractured.  

PubMed

Spatial autocorrelation analysis performed on published data pertaining to caste and tribal populations of the Indian subcontinent has revealed that the surfaces of A, B and O allele frequencies are highly fractured. The only significant spatial autocorrelation was observed in respect of the A allele frequency among caste populations. PMID:9270330

Mukherjee, B N; Majumder, P P

1995-12-01

288

True North, Magnetic North  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand why compass angles need to be corrected for regional magnetic variation. The magnetic compass, perfected slowly over years of experimentation, trial, and scientific endeavor, became the sailor's most common and most reliable direction-indicating aid, but is influenced by magnetic variabilities and the location of magnetic north. Terms introduced include compass, magnetic variation, true north, and magnetic north.

289

Redeeming Indian \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of dalit Christians in colonial North India suggests that women who converted to Christianity in the region often experienced a contraction of the range of their activities. Bauman analyzes this counterintuitive result of missionary work and then draws on the work of Saba Mahmood and others to interrogate the predilection of feminist historians for agents, rabble-rousers, and gender

Chad M. Bauman

2008-01-01

290

A Quantitative Analysis of Chalk Pore Geometry Using Resin Casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of a wider study of the hydraulic properties of Upper Cretaceous chalk from East Yorkshire and the North Sea, a method of pore space casting is being employed. Thus, with the aid of the Scanning Electron Microscope it is possible to obtain by direct visual observation information about the shape and size of pores and grains, the

M. G. Patsoules; J. C. Cripps

1983-01-01

291

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Similar view as previous photo, showing casting of ingot molds; each pour is done with a three-man crew - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

292

Slip casting under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of a pressure during slip casting increases the rate of material deposition and enables larger pieces to be fabricated. In this study, this process has been further developed using monolithic Al2O3 and Al2O3-SiC composites. Slip casting formulations based on both dispersed and coagulated slurries have been analyzed. Excellent results are achieved using coagulated slurries, with no cracking present after drying. The effect of pressure is to increase the green density with a consequent increase in the fired density. In addition, homogeneous microstructures are achieved in the composite system, despite the large difference in particle size used.

Grazzini, H. H.; Wilkinson, D. S.

1992-08-01

293

Bhakti Rhetoric in the Hagiography of ‘Untouchable’ Saints: Discerning Bhakti ’s Ambivalence on Caste and Brahminhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bhakti has often been praised as a form of religion based on loving devotion that transcends social class, caste, and gender. Since at least the early twentieth century, the history of bhakti has generally been told in terms of “the bhakti movement,” a single coherent “wave” of devotional sentiment and egalitarian social reform that spread across the entire Indian subcontinent.

Patton Burchett

2009-01-01

294

Aluminum Castings for Anodic Oxidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The significance of the manufacture of decorative anodically oxidized aluminum castings is demonstrated by means of examples, and alloys suitable for this are enumerated. Then dealt with are errors of casting and melting technique which become apparent wi...

A. A. Bloch

1966-01-01

295

Investment Casting of Columbium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The state of the art of columbium alloy investment castings has been advanced. In addition to demonstration of castability of four different alloys, the cast material itself has been characterized with respect to microstructure, alloy segregation, weldabi...

J. R. Humphrey A. I. Niravath

1975-01-01

296

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in temperature which take place during pouring of a melt and flow into the mould vary greatly, and also depend on\\u000a the casting technique used. Understanding these changes is important for optimum casting practice.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1986-01-01

297

American Indian Population in South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

Hess, Donna

298

The fractography of casting alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several types of casting alloys were fractured using various loading modes (uniaxial tension, bending, impact, and torsion, and cyclic stressing), and the corresponding mechanical properties were determined. The unetched and etched fracture surfaces and the microstructures were examined using conventional techniques. The types of casting alloys that were the subjects f these investigations include gray iron, ductile iron, cast steel,

G POWELL

1994-01-01

299

Casting and Angling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

Smith, Julian W.

300

Nickel based casting alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nickel base casting alloy containing 10 to 25 percent chromium, 3 to 8 percent manganese, 3 to 10 percent niobium, 0 to 3.5 percent aluminum, 0.5 to 2.0 percent beryllium which exhibits lower melting characteristics allowing enhanced compatibility to gypsum bonded investments.

A. P. Burnett; W. C. Bollinger

1985-01-01

301

Casting the Untrained Actor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the arduous task of casting and directing untrained middle and secondary school actors in terms of auditioning, getting started, planning for the first meeting, focusing on the obvious, rehearsing, learning the lines, becoming the character, running work-through rehearsals, and doing run-throughs and performances. Notes not to forget to…

Bogar, Thomas A.

2000-01-01

302

ShakeCast Manual  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users? facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

Lin, Kuo-Wan; Wald, David J.

2008-01-01

303

Clad Cast Steel Strip.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for producing continuous cast hot band crystalline metal strips comprising feeding thin gauge metal strips and molten metal into a gap formed between opposed quenching surfaces. The film of molten metal is cooled while in contact with the quench...

R. L. Sheneman

1983-01-01

304

Computer cast blast modelling  

SciTech Connect

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

Chung, S. [ICI Explosives Canada, North York, ON (Canada); McGill, M. [ICI Explosives USA, Dallas, TX (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01

305

Indian Caste Origins: Genomic Insights and Future Outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Kshatriya), Brahmin being of a socially higher rank than Kshatriya. The third rank was made up of Vis, that is, all the subjects. To this society, a fourth rank was added: Shudra, who had no rights to Aryan ritual. In southern India, the me- nial workers, the so-called \\

Partha P. Majumder

2001-01-01

306

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the

Michael Bamshad; Toomas Kivisild; W. Scott Watkins; Mary E. Dixon; Chris E. Ricker; Baskara B. Rao; J. Mastan Naidu; B. V. Ravi Prasad; P. Govinda Reddy; Arani Rasanayagam; Surinder S. Papiha; Richard Villems; Alan J. Redd; Michael F. Hammer; Son V. Nguyen; Marion L. Carroll; Mark A. Batzer; Lynn B. Jorde

2001-01-01

307

American Indian Health Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A progress report is presented on the Student American Medical Association's (SAMA) American Indian Health Project, designed to assist in the development of Indian health resources through identification of alternative methods of dealing with health needs...

1973-01-01

308

The American Indian Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides a basic source of historical and contemporary Indian information from an American Indian perspective and includes study questions at the end of each section. The primary function of this guide is to be a quick-study reference handbook. Basic questions essential to understanding current problems and issues of American Indians

Russell, George

309

Indian Education Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The major problem in the administration and funding of Indian education is that it has been and continues to be the responsibility of diverse federal, state, and private agencies. Currently there are four school systems involved in Indian education: public schools, Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools, contract schools, and mission and other…

Indian Education Training, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

310

Indian Health Care. Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Undertaken at the request of House and Senate committees with responsibility for Indian affairs and government health programs, this study examines the health status of Indians and the services and technologies that are provided to them through Federal Indian health programs. The first half of the report contains background information and the…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

311

American Indian Population Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population statistics from the 1990 Census. In 1990 there were about 2 million persons who identified themselves as American Indians in the United States, a 38 percent increase over the 1980 census. More than half of the Indian population lived in six states, with Oklahoma having…

Thomason, Timothy C., Ed.

312

National Indian Education Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

Harvey, Karen Kay

2006-01-01

313

Continuous Casting for Aluminum Sheet: a Product Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous casting processes have been used successfully for more than 50 years to reduce the cost of manufacturing a variety of aluminum rolled products. Approximately 25% of North American flat-rolled sheet and foil is sourced from twin-roll cast or slab cast processes. Twin roll-casters provide a cost-effective solution for producing foil and light-gauge sheet from relatively low-alloyed aluminum (1xxx and 8xxx alloys). Slab casters, particularly Hazelett twin-belt machines, are well utilized in the production of 3xxx or 5xxx painted building products which require moderate strength and good corrosion resistance. Both foil and painted sheet are cost-sensitive commodity products with well-known metallurgical and quality requirements. There have been extensive trials and modest successes with continuous cast can stock and automotive sheet. However, they have not been widely adopted commercially due to generally lower levels of surface quality and formability compared with sheet produced from scalped direct chill (DC) cast ingot. The metallurgical requirements for can and auto sheet are considered in more detail with emphasis on the microstructural features which limit their application, e.g., particle distribution, grain size, and texture. Looking forward, slab casting offers the most viable opportunity for producing strong (i.e., higher alloy content), formable structural auto sheet with acceptable surface quality.

Sanders, Robert E.

2012-02-01

314

Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy  

SciTech Connect

The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

1998-11-01

315

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

316

St. Lucie Estuary and Indian River Lagoon conceptual ecological model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The St. Lucie Estuary is one of the largest brackish water bodies on the east coast of Florida, USA and a major tributary\\u000a to southern Indian River Lagoon. The Indian River Lagoon is a biogeographic transition zone, rich in habitats and species,\\u000a with the greatest species diversity of any estuary in North America. Habitats and species diversity in the lagoon

Patti Sime

2005-01-01

317

DETAIL VIEW OF NORTH ABUTMENT SPANS WITH END PAIR OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF NORTH ABUTMENT SPANS WITH END PAIR OF LIGHT STANDARDS. NOTE THE DECORATIVE PANELS CAST INTO THE SPANDREL COLUMN - Ash Avenue Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Foot of Ash Avenue, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

318

Volume MLS ray casting.  

PubMed

The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

319

USGS CoreCast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just about everyone seems to be creating a podcast these days, and a number of government agencies have entered the fray as of late. The United States Geological Survey recently decided to hang out their own podcast shingle, and the results of their labors can be explored here. The site states that their "CoreCast" is "natural science from the inside out", which seems like an appropriate label. The podcasts range in length from two to fifteen minutes, and they cover topics such as polar bear research, sex-changing fish, and climate change. One podcast that shouldn't be overlooked is "This Episode of CoreCast is Highly Questionable". In a mere three minutes, host Scott Horvath responds to a number of questions in an engaging fashion. After listening to an episode or two, visitors will probably want to sign up to receive email updates about new episodes.

320

USGS ShakeCast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Automating, Simplifying, and Improving the Use of ShakeMap for Post-Earthquake Decisionmaking and Response. ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

Wald, David; Lin, Kuo-Wan

2007-01-01

321

Cast Tenzaloy aluminum optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early sixties, cast aluminum optics has held out a promise of low cost, durability, lightweight, ease of manufacture, the possibility of welding together sections to form large optics and a good match of some astronomical programs such as photometry. Needless to say, this rosy future has been fraught with difficulties. Poor short-term stability, sensitivity to temperature, porosity, bimetallic warping, soft optical surface, poor specularity, nickel adhesion problems, poor image quality, and the inability to generate aspherics, have all contributed to the bad name cast aluminum optics has acquired over the years. With the advent of improved aluminum alloys, long-term dimensional stability data, advances in adaptive optics and the need for very large monolithic mirrors with a relatively low handling risk, aluminum optics deserve another look. This paper is a collection of some of the early attempts to build cast aluminum mirrors using the stable alloy, Tenzaloy. The results of those efforts are discussed together with recommendations for future aluminum metal mirror work.

Forbes, Fred F.

1993-10-01

322

Directional migration in the Hindu castes: inferences from mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosomal data.  

PubMed

Genetic, ethnographic, and historical evidence suggests that the Hindu castes have been highly endogamous for several thousand years and that, when movement between castes does occur, it typically consists of females joining castes of higher social status. However, little is known about migration rates in these populations or the extent to which migration occurs between caste groups of low, middle, and high social status. To investigate these aspects of migration, we analyzed the largest collection of genetic markers collected to date in Hindu caste populations. These data included 45 newly typed autosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs), 411 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence, and 43 Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were assayed in more than 200 individuals of known caste status sampled in Andrah Pradesh, in South India. Application of recently developed likelihood-based analyses to this dataset enabled us to obtain genetically derived estimates of intercaste migration rates. STRPs indicated migration rates of 1-2% per generation between high-, middle-, and low-status caste groups. We also found support for the hypothesis that rates of gene flow differ between maternally and paternally inherited genes. Migration rates were substantially higher in maternally than in paternally inherited markers. In addition, while prevailing patterns of migration involved movement between castes of similar rank, paternally inherited markers in the low-status castes were most likely to move into high-status castes. Our findings support earlier evidence that the caste system has been a significant, long-term source of population structuring in South Indian Hindu populations, and that patterns of migration differ between males and females. PMID:15232732

Wooding, Stephen; Ostler, Christopher; Prasad, B V Ravi; Watkins, W Scott; Sung, Sandy; Bamshad, Mike; Jorde, Lynn B

2004-07-01

323

Dual Tobacco Use among Native American Adults in Southeastern North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. While patterns of smokeless tobacco (ST) use and cigarette smoking are well documented, the epidemiology of simultaneous use of both tobacco products is less well studied, particularly among Native American populations. This study examines correlates of dual tobacco use among Lumbee Indian adults in southeastern North Carolina.Methods. A telephone survey among 400 adult Lumbee Indians in Pembroke, North Carolina,

John G. Spangler; Robert Michielutte; Ronny A. Bell; Stanley Knick; Mark B. Dignan; John H. Summerson

2001-01-01

324

Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the

V. K. Sikka; D. Wilkening; J. Liebetrau; B. Mackey

1998-01-01

325

Surface ozone in the Indian region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone (O3) is a dangerous air pollutant in terms of damage to crop plants and human health. It is phytotoxic to vegetation and a toxic agent for human health. Tropospheric ozone (O3) in the Indian sub-continent from Afghanistan in the west (60?E) to parts of Southeast Asian countries in the east (105?E) and parts of China in the north (45?N)

Moti L. Mittal; Peter G. Hess; S. L. Jain; B. C. Arya; C. Sharma

2007-01-01

326

Modeling of alloy casting solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alloy casting solidification processes involve many physical phenomena such as chemistry variation, phase transformation, heat transfer, fluid flow, microstructure evolution, and mechanical stress.1 Simulation technologies are applied extensively in casting industries to understand the effects of these phenomena on the formation of defects and on the final mechanical properties of the castings. As of today, defect prediction is still one of the main purposes for casting solidification simulation. In this paper, we will first present the commonly used microstructure simulation methods, then discuss the predictions of the major defects of a casting, such as porosity, hot tearing, and macrosegregation. The modeling of casting solidification can be chained with later stages of heat treatment such that the resultant microstructure, defects, and mechanical state will be used as the initial conditions of the subsequent processes, ensuring the tracking of the component history and maintaining a high level of accuracy across metallurgical stages.

Guo, Jianzheng; Samonds, Mark

2011-07-01

327

LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS  

SciTech Connect

The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval

2007-01-01

328

North Pole Environmental Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) is a collection of the University of Washington's year-round un-manned scientific platforms in the Central Basin of the Arctic Ocean. Researchers will find images, data, and other information about the three types of measurement systems: Drifting Buoys, Oceanographic Mooring, and Aerial Surveys of Hydrographic Casts. Viewers can find links to the weather and other atmospheric conditions at the observatory. The site also provides links to news coverage pertaining to NPEO. Students can study the circulation patterns of the Freshwater Switchyard of the Arctic Ocean. Everyone can learn about the international research team's yearly expeditions to the observatory.

329

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200‡C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

330

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200°C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

331

The Indian Child Welfare Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

Steward, Katy Jo

332

The Caste-Class Association in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically analyzes the association between caste and class in India. I find a tentative congruence between castes and classes at the extremes of the caste system and a slight weakening in this association over time. Although Scheduled Castes have low upward mobility, higher castes are not entirely protected from downward mobility.

Divya Vaid

2012-01-01

333

STME T\\/C casting technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The T\\/C casting technology developed by the National Launch System for the Space Transportation Main Engine is described. Special attention is given to the selection of JBK-75 as the combustion chamber casting alloy, some unique casting issues, and the development castings which were produced. Current plans call for producing a 650K full cast jacket mockup in the 4500 pound furnace.

J. R. Lobitz; P. C. Ackerman; S. L. Weber

1992-01-01

334

Biodiversity of Saline and Brakish Marshes of the Indian River Lagoon: Historic and Current Patterns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Indian River Lagoon (IRL) crosses a zone of climatic transition. Historically, marshes dominated saline and brackish environments in the north of the lagoon, while mangroves became important to the south. Distribution of marsh communities was influenc...

P. A. Schmalzer

1995-01-01

335

Factors and Events Leading to the Passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the historical background, contemporary factors, issues, and activities that led to the enactment of the Indian Child Welfare Act. Discusses actions of the Devils Lake Sioux of North Dakota in 1968 and involvement of the Association on American Indian Affairs, which led to Senate hearings in 1974 and passage of the act in 1978. (TM)|

Mannes, Marc

1995-01-01

336

Teaching the American Indian in the American School: An Adventure in Cultural Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to teach students about American Indian culture, it is suggested that a chronological approach be taken in terms of where it all began, what it all means, and what of the entire Indian story is pertinent to geographic education for the student of any age. Archeology dates man's arrival in North America further and further back. This…

Jacobson, Daniel

337

Regional differences in albuminuria among American Indians: An epidemic of renal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional differences in albuminuria among American Indians: An epidemic of renal disease. Albuminuria is a risk factor for renal and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a cross sectional survey of 4549 older American Indians in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota of (micro)albuminuria. A range of 20.1 to 48.3% of all participants had either micro- (? 30 to < 300

David C Robbins; William C Knowler; Elisa T Lee; Jeunliang Yeh; Oscar T Go; Thomas Welty; Richard Fabsitz; Barbara V Howard

1996-01-01

338

Accuracy of Lipoprotein Lipids and Apoproteins in Predicting Coronary Heart Disease in Diabetic American Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of lipoprotein lipids and apoproteins in predicting coronary heart disease (CHD) in diabetic American Indians.METHODS: This study included 2099 diabetic participants of the Strong Heart Study, which is a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in American Indians in Arizona, Oklahoma, and South and North Dakota. Diabetic participants with incident CHD

Dongsheng Hu; Kathleen A Jablonski; Yvonne H Sparling; David C Robbins; Elisa T Lee; Thomas K Welty; Barbara V Howard

2002-01-01

339

Teaching the American Indian in the American School: An Adventure in Cultural Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to teach students about American Indian culture, it is suggested that a chronological approach be taken in terms of where it all began, what it all means, and what of the entire Indian story is pertinent to geographic education for the student of any age. Archeology dates man's arrival in North America further and further back. This…

Jacobson, Daniel

340

The Only Land I Know: A History of the Lumbee Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is basically a narrative of the major personalities, experiences, and fears of the Lumbee Indians of southeastern North Carolina. A pioneering effort to record the history of the Lumbees, the book is necessarily based on "logical supposition and oral history". It attempts to answer 2 questions: (1) Who are the Lumbee Indians; and (2)…

Dial, Adolph L.; Eliades, David K.

341

33 CFR 334.1270 - Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1270 Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval...a) The area. The waters of Port Townsend Bay bounded by a line commencing on the north shore of...

2009-07-01

342

33 CFR 334.1270 - Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1270 Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval...a) The area. The waters of Port Townsend Bay bounded by a line commencing on the north shore of...

2010-07-01

343

33 CFR 334.1270 - Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval...AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1270 Port Townsend, Indian Island, Walan Point; naval...a) The area. The waters of Port Townsend Bay bounded by a line commencing on the north shore of...

2013-07-01

344

40 CFR 147.1752 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1752 EPA-administered programâIndian...

2013-07-01

345

40 CFR 147.1703 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Carolina § 147.1703 EPA-administered programâIndian...

2013-07-01

346

Who Should Control Indian Education? A History, Three Case Studies, Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted in 1967 by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development at the request of the National Indian Youth Council, this 1-year study was made on American Indians at the following sites; Loneman, South Dakota; Ponca City, Oklahoma; Crow Agency, Montana; Fort Berthold, North Dakota; Nondalton, Alaska; South Nek Nek, Alaska;…

McKinley, Francis; And Others

347

40 CFR 147.1703 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Carolina § 147.1703 EPA-administered programâIndian...

2012-07-01

348

40 CFR 147.1752 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1752 EPA-administered programâIndian...

2012-07-01

349

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts  

PubMed Central

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

350

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.  

PubMed

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

351

COMPARISON OF FATIGUE BEHAVIOR FOR CENTRIFUGALLY CAST AND KEEL BLOCK CAST STEEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to determine if location through the wall thickness of centrifugal castings affects fatigue properties and to compare fatigue and monotonic tensile properties of centrifugal castings to statically cast keel block castings. Specimens were machined from centrifugal and keel block AISI 8630 steel castings. Centrifugal casting specimens were taken from three different locations (outer, middle

J. J. Gradman; R. I. Stephens; R. A. Hardin; C. Beckermann

352

High Strength Aluminum Casting Technology: Squeeze Casting of 7075 Alloy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this investigation was to develop wrought 7075-T6 mechanical properties in a cast aluminum alloy component of net or near-net shape. A squeeze casting process was selected as the manufacturing process. Following a limited heat treatment o...

J. R. Thompson

1977-01-01

353

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

354

Pima Indians: Pathfinders for Health.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The Pima Indians: Pathfinders for Health; The Pima Indians and Genetic Research; Breaking the Vicious Cycle; A Pima Mother and Her Daughters; Advanced Technology Used to Measure Energy Expenditure; Kidney Disease of Diabetes in the Pima Indians;...

J. Demouy J. Chamberlain M. Harris L. H. Marchand

1995-01-01

355

Investment Casting of Magnesium-Lithium Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method was developed for investment casting magnesium-lithium alloys into inhibited gypsum-bonded molds. Both prototype castings and separately cast test bars (0.252 inch) were produced. Visual and metallographic examination showed no evidence of metal-...

A. Saia R. E. Edelman

1966-01-01

356

14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in...

2013-01-01

357

14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of this section apply to structural castings except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in...

2013-01-01

358

Improved Foundry Castings Utilizing CAD/CAM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CAD/Cam Casting process is being developed as an aid to casting engineers in designing better steel castings in a fraction of the time presently required. The computer routines incorporate drafting routines and computer assisted computations relative ...

T. Wassel J. Chevalier R. Nariman W. S. Hwang S. Miller

1981-01-01

359

Electroslag-Casting Process and Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electroslag-casting process is an extension of the electroslag-remelting process. The castings produced by this technique have the advantages of smooth defect-free finish, freedom from conventional casting defects, more reproducible mechanical propert...

V. K. Sikka

1986-01-01

360

25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

2013-04-01

361

25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

2011-04-01

362

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials ( STEREOLITHOGRAPHY'') continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming more feasible as we continue to successfully yield experimental castings by the SHELL'' processing method. This supplemental (to 11/90 publication) report briefly reviews the original project objectives, activities related to these objectives since November 1990, and progress made through December 1991. We discuss several new case studies involving new resin materials (and other materials) tested along with investment casting processing results. The most recent success, the processing of the highly complex C'' HOUSING design by the shell'' mold process in both aluminum and steel, will be discussed. This is considered a major breakthrough toward establishing this new technology as a viable approach to the rapid development of prototype investment castings, employing the most common aerospace (precision) cast process. Our future planning calls for expanding the study to help the investment casting industry in refining related processing techniques and to continue our evaluation of new resins suitable for the casting process. Present project planning calls for the completion of this study by the third quarter FY93 or sooner. We believe that with the continued excellent cooperation of our casting supplier study team and an accelerated effort by resin materials producers to further refine related materials, we can achieve all objectives during the planned time frame.

Cromwell, W.E.

1992-03-01

363

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials (``STEREOLITHOGRAPHY``) continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming more feasible as we continue to successfully yield experimental castings by the ``SHELL`` processing method. This supplemental (to 11/90 publication) report briefly reviews the original project objectives, activities related to these objectives since November 1990, and progress made through December 1991. We discuss several new case studies involving new resin materials (and other materials) tested along with investment casting processing results. The most recent success, the processing of the highly complex ``C`` HOUSING design by the ``shell`` mold process in both aluminum and steel, will be discussed. This is considered a major breakthrough toward establishing this new technology as a viable approach to the rapid development of prototype investment castings, employing the most common aerospace (precision) cast process. Our future planning calls for expanding the study to help the investment casting industry in refining related processing techniques and to continue our evaluation of new resins suitable for the casting process. Present project planning calls for the completion of this study by the third quarter FY93 or sooner. We believe that with the continued excellent cooperation of our casting supplier study team and an accelerated effort by resin materials producers to further refine related materials, we can achieve all objectives during the planned time frame.

Cromwell, W.E.

1992-03-01

364

Education and Caste in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

2008-01-01

365

Education and caste in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that affirmative

Chandra Pal Singh Chauhan

2008-01-01

366

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emphasis of the work is on development of a process or processes involving casting of semi-solid alloys. During the six month period of research covered by the report, emphasis was on developing casting systems which combine (1) a method of producing a se...

J. R. Melcher M. C. Flemings N. Matsumoto R. Mehrabian R. G. Riek

1974-01-01

367

Surface carburization of steel castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shaping methods based on sand-resin mixtures have undoubted benefits and accordingly are increas? ingly used in the manufacture of highperformance iron, steel, and nonferrousalloy castings. However, they cannot be unconditionally recommended for lowcarbon steel castings. This is because heat from the molten metal destroys the organic components present in such molds. At low temperatures (150 °C), these mixtures mainly emit

E. B. Ten; O. A. Kol’; I. B. Badmazhapova; M. P. Klyuev

2011-01-01

368

Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)|

Mihalow, Paula

1980-01-01

369

Electroslag component casting. [Nickel aluminide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is directed toward the development of electroslag-casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is also to develop a sufficient data base to permit electroslag casting to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. A

Sikka

1986-01-01

370

Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

Mihalow, Paula

1980-01-01

371

Casting Freedom, 1860-1862  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting

Social Education, 2005

2005-01-01

372

Electroslag component casting. [Nickel aluminide  

SciTech Connect

This project is directed toward the development of electroslag-casting (ESC) technology for use in coal conversion components such as valve bodies, pump housings, and pipe fittings. The aim is also to develop a sufficient data base to permit electroslag casting to become an ASME Code-accepted process. It is also intended to transfer the ESC process technology to private industry. A total of 32 electroslag castings of 2.25Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, type 316, and nickel aluminide were procured from four facilities for evaluation (Table 1). The most complex castings procured during this program were the valve bodies shown in Figure 2. The castings were subjected to various heat treatments (Table 2), checked for chemical composition uniformity from top to bottom, and subjected to macrostructural evaluation and mechanical properties testing. Results are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Sikka, V.K.

1986-01-01

373

On the influence of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas upon the bottom waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bottom waters of the North Pacific and North Indian Oceans have temperature and salinity distributions that suggest origins from the extreme waters of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas. We attempt to trace these waters from their sources to the abyssal Pacific and Indian oceans by examining distributions of temperature and salinity along a stratum defined by density parameters. We

JOSEPH L. REID; RONALD J. LYNN

1971-01-01

374

An evaluation of fiberglass cast application techniques.  

PubMed

Cylindrical casts constructed from 2, 3, 4, and 5 inch widths of fiberglass casting material were evaluated for strength in bending using an unstable fracture model. Five-inch casting material produced the strongest casts. The effect of longitudinal splinting with 2-inch fiberglass tape was evaluated in cylindrical casts constructed from 4-inch tape. Casts with splints on the compression side or with splints on both the tension and compression sides were stronger in bending than casts with a single splint on the tension side or casts without splints. PMID:7778250

Wilson, D G; Vanderby, R

375

Working women, re-working space: Representations of women's workplaces in contemporary Indian writing in English  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project examines representations of the sites of Indian women's labor in the writings of Shashi Deshpande, Githa Hariharan, Anita Nair and Brinda Charry, in order to demonstrate the complex interplay of gender, class, and caste tensions within these spaces. I argue that the systemic physical and psychical violence encountered by working women at the hands of employers, co-workers and

Karen Renee Remedios

2007-01-01

376

Religion Among American Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primitive religious ideas of the American Indians. their ritual istic forms, their social function, and their chief practitioners are described in this article. The persistence of these ideas and the manner in which they affect the Indian's acceptance of the white man's ways are illustrated. Special attention is paid to the rise of the Peyote Cult and its development

Ruth Underhill

1957-01-01

377

Indian Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports descriptive characteristics of Indian child welfare programs organized to deal with new tribal responsibilities following passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Most programs consist of one to five staff with an administrator whose responsibilities also include casework. Program continuity is uncertain since funding comes from competitive grants. Although more than one-third of respondents report

Dale M. Wares; Kenneth R. Wedel; James A. Rosenthal; Antonia Dobrec

1994-01-01

378

Protecting American Indian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act has caused concern and misunderstanding among social workers. The Act is seen as a victory for tribal sovereignty but must be viewed within the context of American Indian culture and child rearing practices. (Author/JAC)|

Fischler, Ronald S.; And Others

1980-01-01

379

Urban Indian Adjustment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The degree of economic, social, and psychological adjustment of urban American Indians residing in Seattle, Washington was investigated. The assumption that the 3 types of adjustment are highly correlated was assessed and hypotheses relating length of urban residence and "Indianness" (observable actions and physical characteristics) to urban…

Stauss, Joseph H.; Chadwick, Bruce A.

380

Indian Americans in Chicago.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The location, funding, organization, goals, and activities of the St. Augustine's Center for American Indians are described in an attempt to focus attention on the problems of urban Indians. Services provided by the Center in the areas of social and psychiatric casework, medical and legal aid, and subsistence requirements are discussed.…

Woods, Richard G.; Harkins, Arthur M.

381

Indian aerosols: present status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the

A. P Mitra; C Sharma

2002-01-01

382

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

383

Suicide in American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book reviews present knowledge about suicidal behavior in American Indians, prevention efforts in Native communities, and recommendations for understanding suicidal behavior and developing suicide prevention efforts. Data from Canadian aboriginal groups is also included. Chapter 1 explains why suicide in American Indians is of concern to…

Lester, David

384

Contemporary American Indian Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his keynote address to the Fifth Annual American Indian Studies Consortium in 2005 David Wilkins began by commenting on earlier attempts to formally organize such a gathering in ways that might help establish and accredit Indian studies programs. He said he had the sense that the thrust of earlier meetings "was really an opportunity for Native…

Larson, Sidner

2009-01-01

385

Indians in Careers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Every student in high school is faced with the question of what to do after graduation. American Indian students, whether on or off reservations, need ideas as to what is available to them. This compilation of interviews with 10 individuals who are maintaining their "Indian identity" and making contributions in the working world provides role…

Hollow, Kitty, Ed.; Heuving, Jeanne, Ed.

386

mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p < 0.002). The effects of social structure on mtDNA variation are much greater than those on variation measured by traditional markers. Explanations for this discordance include (1) the higher resolving power of mtDNA, (2) sex-dependent gene flow, (3) differences in male and female effective population sizes, and (4) elements of the kinship structure. Thirty distinct haplotypes are found in Africans, 17 in Asians, and 13 in Europeans. Mean nucleotide diversity is 0.019, 0.014, 0.009, and 0.007 for Africans, Indians, Asians, and Europeans, respectively. These populations are highly structured geographically (GST = 0.15; p < 0.001). The caste populations of Andhra Pradesh cluster more often with Africans than with Asians or Europeans. This is suggestive of admixture with African populations. PMID:8907753

Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B

1996-02-01

387

AMERICAN INDIANS, MISSIONS, AND THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST  

Microsoft Academic Search

FROM EARLY COLONIAL WRITINGS we know that many white Christian settlers were concerned about the native peoples they found living in North America. Although the violence done to indigenous peoples can never be redressed, it is important to recognize that the churches did not always accept the popular insensitive attitudes about American Indians. Indeed, stories of important Christian mission work

Serge F. Hummon

388

19th Century Plains Indian Robe Painting: Wearable Art Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Indians of the Great Plains of North America once wore some of the most magnificent works of art in the form of bison robes that were painted in a variety of modes. These forms of expression have become obsolete and their function has been replaced by new materials. (Availability: CHEA National Office, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P…

McMaster, Gerald R.

1983-01-01

389

47. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, MAIN CORRIDOR, ROOM 1023, INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOP, NORTH WALL, BUFFALO HUNT MURAL (LEFT) AND BREAKING CAMP AT WARTIME MURAL (RIGHT) (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

390

Recycling and Reincarnation: the Journeys of Indian Saris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the consumption of recycled sari clothing by Western tourists in India. Second-hand saris are traded across north India, and re-made into new styles of clothing for the Western market by local tailors. The saris are cut up, destroying both the Indian form of the garment and the structure of patterns across its surface. These are then transformed

Lucy Norris

2008-01-01

391

Hydrogeology of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fort Peck Indian Reservation, which encompasses about 3,300 square miles in northeastern Montana, is characterized by three major types of terrain: Missouri River bottom lands, badlands, and topographically higher benchlands. The reservation lies on the western flank of the Williston Basin, a large, petroleum-rich structural depression in Montana, North and South Dakota, and Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Structurally, the

J. N. Thamke; S. D. Craigg

1993-01-01

392

Knowledge management practices in Indian information technology companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper lays the foundations for the best practices in knowledge management and investigates the degree of awareness and implementation of KM principles and practices in Indian information technology (IT) companies. A purposive sample of 10 IT companies in North India was chosen for study and a survey was conducted with the objective of investigating the degree of awareness

Abhilasha Singh; Ebrahim Soltani

2010-01-01

393

Instant Casting Movie Theater: The Future Cast System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a visual entertainment system called “Future Cast” which enables anyone to easily participate in a pre-recorded or pre-created film as an instant CG movie star. This system provides audiences with the amazing opportunity to join the cast of a movie in real-time. The Future Cast System can automatically perform all the processes required to make this possible, from capturing participants' facial characteristics to rendering them into the movie. Our system can also be applied to any movie created using the same production process. We conducted our first experimental trial demonstration of the Future Cast System at the Mitsui-Toshiba pavilion at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi Japan.

Maejima, Akinobu; Wemler, Shuhei; Machida, Tamotsu; Takebayashi, Masao; Morishima, Shigeo

394

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

DOEpatents

A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O' Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

1997-01-01

395

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

DOEpatents

A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

1997-07-29

396

Strip casting apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

1988-09-20

397

The niche for steel castings  

SciTech Connect

In the early days of the steel casting industry, little was known about shrinkage cavities, inclusions, sulfur content, cooling rates, quenching, and all the other factors that influence casting quality. Since then, steel founders have learned how to control and reduce porosity and shrinkage, and have discovered how inclusions form and how they can be eliminated. Other advances in foundry technology include new refining techniques and molding processes, computer-aided design, new quenchants, and improved machining methods. Today's foundries can produce high-quality, sound casting in shapes and sizes that the forging process cannot emulate and that would be too costly to fabricate by welding.

Blair, M. (Steel Founders' Society of America, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

1994-08-01

398

Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

2013-06-01

399

Indian Music for the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian Music for the Classroom presents the different styles of Indian music and their cultural contexts, with chapters on Indian culture and sound, Indian classical vocal and instrumental music, folk music, film music, and traditional popular musics. From Hindi-Pop to bhangra to the Urdu ghazal, the book covers them all, as well as national songs, children's songs, and the devotional

Natalie Rose Sarrrazin

2009-01-01

400

Modeling of casting microstructures and defects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Casting is an ancient art that has been a trial-and-error process for more than 4000 years. To predict the size, shape, and quality of a cast product, casting manufacturers typically cast full-size prototypes. If one part of the process is done incorrectl...

A. B. Shapiro L. T. Summers D. J. Eckels V. Sahai

1997-01-01

401

Clinical experience with a new casting tape.  

PubMed

Between October 1977 and 1978, 93 CutterCast casts were applied at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. The composition and application of this new casting system are described, and the performance of the 93 casts is evaluated in relation to ease of application, roentgenographic clarity, skin condition, patient comfort, and ease of removal. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:7375970

Fleming, L L; Miller, K; Sinback, M

1980-05-01

402

Use of high-strength alloyed cast iron for heat-resistant castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Casting Problems has developed technology for cupola melting of aluminum-containing heat-resistant cast irons. The favorable effect of aluminum in increasing the scale resistance of materials is increased further in spheroidal graphite cast irons. Two variants of master alloys were made to obtain these conditions. Tests and experimental casting of inoculated cast iron was carried out. Scale resistance

G. N. Shtyka; A. V. Borodin; V. N. Oleinik; S. N. Primerov

1983-01-01

403

Investment casting design of experiment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Specific steps in the investment casting process were analyzed in a designed experiment. The casting`s sensitivity to changes in these process steps was experimentally determined Dimensional and radiographic inspection were used to judge the sensitivity of the casting. Thirty-six castings of different pedigrees were poured and measured. Some of the dimensional inspection was conducted during the processing. It was confirmed that wax fixturing, number of gates, gate location, pour and mold temperature, pour speed, and cooling profile all affected the radiographic quality of the casting. Gate and runner assembly techniques, number of gates, and mold temperature affect the dimensional quality of the casting.

Owens, R.

1997-10-01

404

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new product development technology is emerging which could have a major impact on the investment casting industry. It's identified by several names, the most common of which is ''STEREOLITHOGRAPHY.'' This technology involves a three-dimensional printing...

W. E. Cromwell

1990-01-01

405

Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials (''STEREOLITHOGRAPHY'') continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming mo...

W. E. Cromwell

1992-01-01

406

Ingot Casting by Electroslag Remelting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conditions influencing the development of the cast structure of ingots produced by electroslag remelting are discussed. Reference is made to a two-dimensional analogue model and to experimental melts within transparent moulds which allow the behavior of m...

J. D. W. Rawson D. I. Dawson

1972-01-01

407

Indian Monsoon, Indian Ocean Dipoles and ENSO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have been widely documented for over 100 years. Indeed, the Southern Oscillation (SO) itself was first documented by Walker (1923) in his search for ISM rainfall predictors. Since this pioneering work, the links between ISM and ENSO have been documented in many observational and modeling studies

P. TERRAY; F. CHAUVIN; S. DOMINIAK; H. DOUVILLE

408

25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section...FOR INDIANS § 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian...their presence will not exclude Indian pupils eligible under § 31.1....

2009-04-01

409

25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section...FOR INDIANS § 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian...their presence will not exclude Indian pupils eligible under § 31.1....

2010-04-01

410

Teaching English to American Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The education provided to American Indians by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) over the last two centuries has received considerable justified criticism by both Indians and non-Indians. How-ever, it is important to realize that the BIA has also attempted to im-prove the quality of Indian education throughout its history. This pa-per details efforts within the BIA to

Jon Reyhner

411

AGARD handbook on advanced casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to improve aircraft performance and, simultaneously, to reduce costs has led to a re-examination of the use of casting processes in aircraft manufacture. The Structures and Materials Panel of AGARD has provided practical information about design, mechanical values, applications, quality assurance and damage tolerance. By providing the data in this form it is hoped that the designer will be encouraged to exploit the many recent advances in casting to optimum effect.

Mietrach, Dietmar

1991-03-01

412

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porosity is one of the important causes for the rejection of jewellery items cast by the lost wax process. If it is of the\\u000a shrinkage type, then there is a considerable reservoir of knowledge, arising from experience in the casting of dental gold\\u000a and other gold alloys, which can be drawn upon to overcome the problem. If it is gas

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub; William S. Rapson

1985-01-01

413

Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema\\u000aThe production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an instantaneous transformation, but occurs in temperature interval. In the casting process the latent heat is moved

J. Zuidema

2005-01-01

414

Moldless casting by laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of laser cladding involves the use of high power carbon-dioxide lasers and powder deposition technology to provide wear and corrosion resistant surface coatings to engineering components. By injecting metal powder into a laser generated melt pool on a moving substrate a solidified metal track can be produced. Deposition of successive tracks produces a multi-layer build. Laser direct casting (LDC) utilizes a coaxial nozzle enabling consistent omnidirectional deposition to produce 3D components from a selection of metal powders. The influence of the principal process parameters over the process features namely, powder catchment efficiency, beam shape and build rates are presented with several successfully generated 3D components. Nickel, stainless steel and satellite powders were deposited at laser powders of 0.4 to 1.4 kW and speeds of 500 to 1000 mm/min achieving build rates of 3 to 9 mm3/s. Fully dense metallurgical structures have been produced with no cracking or porosity and powder catchment efficiencies up to 85% have been achieved.

McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

1997-09-01

415

Development of a 3-D thermal model of the low-pressure die-cast (LPDC) process of A356 aluminum alloy wheels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of the low-pressure die casting process for the production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels has been developed to predict the evolution of temperature within the wheel and die under the auspices of a collaborative research agreement between researchers at the University of British Columbia and a North American wheel casting facility. The heat transfer model represents a

B. Zhang; D. M. Maijer; S. L. Cockcroft

2007-01-01

416

Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.  

PubMed Central

The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI.

Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

1996-01-01

417

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)|

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

418

American Indians by Reservations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data from the 1970 Census on the American Indian population living on reservations. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, relationship to head of household, families by...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

419

Distribution and Ecology of Living Planktonic Foraminifera in Surface Waters of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans(6).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distributional patterns and relative abundance of twenty seven species of living planktonic Foraminifera are described, based on 703 surface plankton tows in the North and South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The species are grouped into five faunal zone...

A. W. H. Be D. S. Tolderlund

1968-01-01

420

Indian remote sensing programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and development of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS?1A and the successful operation of the space and ground segments of IRS?1A over the past three years form a major milestone in the Indian Remote Sensing Programme. Significant growth in Remote Sensing application\\/activities in almost all the sectors of natural resources survey and management, supply of various remote sensing data products

M. G. Chandrasekhar; K. Radhakrishnan; V. Jayaraman; B. Manikiam

1991-01-01

421

Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.

422

Role of Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures in modulating northwest Indian winter precipitation variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interannual variability of North-West India Winter Precipitation (NWIWP) has been examined in association with the variability of sea surface temperature (SST), surface air temperature (SAT) and upper tropospheric (200 hPa) wind patterns over India and the surrounding regions. We have considered data for a period of 54 years (1950-2003). During the years of excess NWIWP, the SST was above normal over the equatorial Indian Ocean, SAT was below normal over east Mediterranean Sea and over the Himalayan region and upper tropospheric westerlies strengthen and shift southwards. Upper tropospheric westerlies over north and central India was found to be related with the SST anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean. The decrease of SAT over north India and surroundings may largely be a manifestation of cooling brought about by excessive precipitation and sweep of cold air advection in rear of the storms. The intensifying of upper troposphere westerlies embedded with a jet increases the upper level divergence over north India due to increased horizontal shear resulting in intense anticyclone at upper troposphere.

Yadav, R. K.; Rupa Kumar, K.; Rajeevan, M.

2007-01-01

423

Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings  

SciTech Connect

The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

2002-07-30

424

USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components: Fundamental research summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components (MPCC) Project is an effort, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), to demonstrate the readiness of magnesium for use in powertrain applications by testing a set the magnesium-intensive engines which were designed, cast, and assembled. A second MPCC goal is to promote new and strengthen existing magnesium scientific research in North America. The project investigated several of the newly developed high-temperature (creep-resistant) magnesium alloys, which will potentially experience service conditions in the temperature range of 150-200°C and about 50-110 MPa in stresses (typical powertrain). However, the mechanical and physical behaviors of these new alloys are not fully understood. This article outlines MPCC-supported fundamental scientific research into the workings of these new alloys. The areas of research are: phase equilibrium and computational thermodynamics, creep deformation mechanisms, corrosion, hot tearing, and alloy recycling.

Beals, Randy S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Wayne Jones, J.; Mallick, P. K.; Emadi, Daryoush; Schwam, David; Powell, Bob R.

2007-08-01

425

Flow impact on cast ingots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium alloys are a standard cast metal used in a number of automotive and transportation applications, allowing manufacturers to reduce vehicle weight, increase the strength of components and improve emission controls. One of the most challenging problems associated with aluminium casting is the influence of convection during all stages of solidification. The strength of fluid flow changes the as-cast internal structure (microstructure) such that the yield, fracture and fatigue strengths of the cast ingot can vary considerably. Although the importance of fluid flow has been recognised for decades, not even a simple model has been developed to predict the effect on microstructure. The MICAST project aims to identify and control experimentally the fluid-flow patterns that affect microstructure evolution during casting processes, and to develop analytical and advanced numerical models. The microgravity environment of the International Space Station and sounding rockets is of special importance to this project because only there are all gravity-induced convections eliminated and well-defined conditions for solidification prevail that can be disturbed by fluid flow controlled by experimenters.

Ratke, Lorenz; Fautrelle, Yves; Lacaze, Jacques; Müller, Georg; Roosz, Andras; Zimmermann, Gerhard; Jarry, Phillippe; Kieft, Rene; Csepeli, Zsolt; Sándor, Józef; Grün, Gerd-Ulrich; Sillinger, Nándor; Gerke-Cantow, Ralf

2005-10-01

426

Growth of Young Douglas-Fir Plantations Across a Gradient in Swiss Needle Cast Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, Swiss needle cast (SNC) damage has intensified in many Douglas-fir plantations in the Coast Range of Oregon, particularly along the immediate north coast. In plantations with severe symptoms, growth losses and reduced tree vigor are evident, but the magnitude of growth losses associated with varying intensities of damage is not known. A growth impact study was

Douglas A. Maguire; Alan Kanaskie; William Voelker; Randy Johnson; Greg Johnson

427

A study on aluminum–steel composite metal foam processed by casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite metal foam (CMF), a new material belonging to the class of advanced cellular and porous materials, has been processed using gravity casting technique for the first time at North Carolina State University. This material comprises of steel hollow spheres and a solid aluminum alloy matrix. The energy absorption behavior of the material under static compression has been studied extensively.

Lakshmi J. Vendra; Afsaneh Rabiei

2007-01-01

428

Casting Castings: A Classroom Hands-on Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity will provide a useful technique for students to learn casting concepts. The class will be allowed a hands-on experience with casting. Students will make their own fishing sinkers. The lesson plan document includes step by step instructions for the lesson along with photographs.This activity would be appropriate for high school and college level students. The lesson should take about one hour of class time. This document will serve as a framework for instructors and may be downloaded in PDF format.

Johnson, Craig

2012-11-08

429

STME T/C casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The T/C casting technology developed by the National Launch System for the Space Transportation Main Engine is described. Special attention is given to the selection of JBK-75 as the combustion chamber casting alloy, some unique casting issues, and the development castings which were produced. Current plans call for producing a 650K full cast jacket mockup in the 4500 pound furnace. Once a 650K mockup casting has been successfully produced, a design of experiments (DOE) will be conducted to establish the best gating system. This will be followed by the design of permanent wax pattern tooling, gating tooling, and process fixtures, and, finally, by a process DOE.

Lobitz, J. R.; Ackerman, P. C.; Weber, S. L.

1992-07-01

430

Genetic diversity and admixture patterns in Indian populations.  

PubMed

India is a diverse land whose population holds the history of waves of human dispersal. Recent studies suggest two major ancestral contributions to most of the Indian sub-populations. However, present day Indians are thought to contain huge genetic diversity derived consequent to multiple cultural, linguistic and geographical variations. Genome-wide survey of individuals from current North (N-In) and South (S-In) India along with populations from HapMap Phase III and Indian sub-populations from HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium is performed. Multivariate analysis (MDS and PCA) was carried out after merging data from the current study and other consortia. Indian sub-populations clustered separately from populations of major global geographical regions in MDS and PCA in a loose agglomeration except for two Indian subpopulations clustering near far eastern populations. F(st) values indicated diversity among Indian sub-populations which was substantiated by STRUCTURE analysis suggesting the possibility of additional admixture events. PMID:22892377

Chakrabarti, Biswaroop; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Randeep; Dimitrova, Nevenka

2012-08-08

431

34 CFR 303.19 - Indian; Indian tribe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... means any Federal or State Indian tribe, band...services or funding to a State Indian Tribe that is...receive services from the United States, published...

2013-07-01

432

Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations  

SciTech Connect

Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

2004-03-15

433

Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian folk story; "How the Animals…

Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

434

Potential and realized reproduction by different worker castes in queen-less and queen-right colonies of Pogonomyrmex badius  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Workers of the Florida harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex badius), the only North American Pogonomyrmex with a polymorphic worker caste, produce males when colonies are orphaned. In this study,we assessed the reproductive potential\\u000a of workers of each caste group, minors and majors, in the presence and absence of the queen, and tested whether males produced\\u000a in natural queen-right colonies are derived from

C. R. Smith; C. Schoenick; K. E. Anderson; J. Gadau; A. V. Suarez

2007-01-01

435

The caste system of India on the skids: Totaled by democracy and a dynamic economy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anand Chakravarti. Contradiction and Change: Emerging Patterns of Authority in a Rajasthan Village. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. xii + 234 pp. Tables, diagrams, maps, appendixes, references, and index. $9.00.D. B. Miller. From Hierarchy to Stratification: Changing Patterns of Social Inequality in a North Indian Village. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. xviii + 229 pp. Diagrams, illustrations, tables,

Pauline Kolenda

1976-01-01

436

American Indian Education Opportunities Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities of the American Indian Education Opportunities Program (AIEOP) at Hampton University for this reporting period included the establishment of a student chapter of the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES), a move to new office ...

P. F. Molin

1997-01-01

437

Indian Pottery of San Ildefonso.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maria Martinez, a noted indian pottery maker, demonstrates the traditional Indian ways beginning with the spreading of sacred corn before the clay is gathered. Also shows mixing of clay, construction of pottery, hand decorating, and building of the firing...

1994-01-01

438

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

439

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

440

Cast-a-Box: Casting Conditions and Macroporosity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An illustration of three-dimensional finite difference simulation of heat conduction with phase change and complex boundary conditions, this requires students to adjust boundary conditions to make the top surface of a regular hexahedral "casting" to freeze last, eliminating macroporosity.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-08-24

441

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING EXTRACTED FROM CASTING MACHINE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

442

INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING WEIGHED ON SCALES AT CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

443

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE PRIOR TO EXTRACTION FROM CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

444

Dimensional variability of production steel castings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work is ongoing to characterize the dimensional variability of steel casting features. Data are being collected from castings produced at representative Steel Founders' Society of America foundries. Initial results based on more than 12,500 production cas...

F. E. Peters J. W. Risteu W. G. Vaupel E. C. DeMeter R. C. Voigt

1994-01-01

445

Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength w...

M. G. Hebsur

2002-01-01

446

Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ''step ...

R. L. Hecht R. B. Dinwiddie W. D. Porter H. Wang

1996-01-01

447

Investment casting design of experiment. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specific steps in the investment casting process were analyzed in a designed experiment. The casting's sensitivity to changes in these process steps was experimentally determined Dimensional and radiographic inspection were used to judge the sensitivity o...

R. Owens

1997-01-01

448

Investment Castings: A National Security Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A national security/industrial capabilities assessment of the domestic investment casting industry. The report includes a detailed review of the investment casting industry and its performance, production capabilities, surge and mobilization capabilities,...

1987-01-01

449

Mundrabilla: A Microgravity Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The name "Mundrabilla" is applied to two nickel-iron meteorite masses (combined mass over 22,700 kg), which apparently were a single mass before atmospheric entry [1]. A medium octahedrite, Mundrabilla exhibits the microstructural features common to other nickel-iron meteorites such as Widmanstatten structure and troilite; however, its macrostructure is anything but common. Described by Buchwald as "anomalous" [1], Mundrabilla's macrostructural morphology is characterized by strikingly prominent, rounded Widmanstatten areas separated by regions of sulfur segregation (Fig. 1). While microstructural development of a metal can reflect both solidification and solid state reactions, macrostructural features are determined during solidification. Thus, a typical metallurgist, unfamiliar with microgravity solidification, might describe Mundrabilla's macrostructure as an "anomalous" casting. Those familiar with microgravity solidification might characterize Mundrabilla's macrostructural features as due to solidification of two immiscible liquids [2]--one rich in nickel-iron, the other rich in sulfur. Combining these observations, Mundrabilla's macrostructural features are consistent with that of a liquid mass solidified under microgravity conditions [3,4]. Since nickel-iron meteorite cooling rates often serve as the foundation for assumptions about the formation of solar system bodies, information on the solidification time for the Mundrabilla mass may give additional insights. How long did it take for Mundrabilla, with a minimum "as received" mass of approximately 22,700 kg to solidify? Because Mundrabilla's mass before atmospheric entry is unknown, we take as an upper boundary a mass of 4.1 x 10^15kg. These masses, assumed spherical, range in diameter between 1.8 meters and 10 kilometers, respectively. Mundrabilla can be idealized as a pure iron liquid mass cooling from the melting point of pure iron (1535C) by radiation into space at absolute zero. The latent heat of transformation for iron is used to calculate "excess temperature," i.e., the amount the mass temperature can be raised due to recalescence. Solidification is considered complete when the center of the mass is solid. Fig. 2, is a plot of the solidification times for an iron mass in the range 1.8 meters to 10 kilometers in diameter. At the lower bound, solidification time is about 1.6 hours; at the upper bound, solidification time is on the order of 3,400 years. References: [1] Buchwald V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, University of California, Berkeley. [2] Carlberg T. and Fredriksson H. (1980) Metallurgical Transactions A, 11A, 1665-1676. [3] Budka P. Z. (1988) Metallurgical Transactions A, 19A, 1919-1923. [4] Budka P. Z. (1988) J. Metals, 40, 9, 6-9. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows Mundrabilla--a scale in inches. Figure 2, which appears here in the hard copy, shows solidification time vs. diameter.

Budka, P. Z.; Viertl, J. R. M.

1993-07-01

450

Late Jurassic rifting along the Australian North West Shelf: margin geometry and spreading ridge configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argo and Gascoyne Abyssal plains in the easternmost Indian Ocean document the last stages of eastern Tethys evolution before the breakup of eastern Gondwana. Thus they provide crucial information not only for modelling the evolution of the eastern Tethys and Proto-Indian Ocean, but also to understand the complex geodynamic history of the North West Shelf. We have revisited the

Heine C

2005-01-01

451

Effect of ferrite on cast stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Premature failure of stainless steel castings in bleach washing service is attributed to poor casting quality high porosity and to a high ferrite content, which makes the castings susceptible to corrosion by hot acid chloride solutions. A survey of the chemical compositions and ferrite contents of corrosion-resistant castings in bleach plants at three pulp mills found high [delta]-ferrite levels in the austenitic matrix due to the improper balance between austenite and ferrite stabilizers.

Nadezhdin, A.; Cooper, K. (Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada)); Timbers, G. (James Maclaren Inc., Quebec (Canada). Kraft Pulp Division)

1994-09-01

452

Titanium investiment casting defects: A metallographic overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although titanium castings have been used in aerospace structures for decades, those uses have largely been in secondary applications. Expanding the use of titanium castings in critical applications would be encouraged by a better understanding of investment casting defects in titanium alloy systems. This paper describes several types of casting-related defects that are identified as potentially affecting the design life of a structure: inclusions, voids, and weld repair defects.

Cotton, J. D.; Clark, L. P.; Phelps, H. R.

2006-06-01

453

New fibreglass casting system in orthopaedic practice.  

PubMed

The composition, manufacture and application of a new fibreglass casting system for use in orthopaedic practice are described. The performance of the first 51 fibreglass casts used in routine fracture work is reviewed. The advantages (the cast is waterprof, extremely light and strong) and the disadvantages (an ultraviolet light source is required to cure the cast and the fiberglass tape is rather expensive) are evaluated. PMID:979766

Davis, B; Dooley, B

1976-06-26

454

Alcohol and American Indian Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

Boyce, George A.

455

Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

456

Indian Youth Leadership Development Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Youth Leadership Program and the Indian Youth Leadership Camp (IYLC) were created in 1981 in response to the need to develop specific skills in Indian youth who will assume leadership positions in the future at the family, school, community, tribal, and national level. Patterned after the National Youth Leadership Camp, the IYLC emerged…

Hall, McClellan

457

White Control of Indian "Education."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper is about White control of Indian education; how Euro-Canadian missionaries and government agents worked hand-in-hand in their relentless attempts to transform Indian people into their own image. The shrill and persistent theme of Euro-Canadians was how best to civilize and Christianize the Indians. Controlled situations in school and in…

LaRocque, Emma D.

458

Indian Child Welfare in Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

459

Indian Education in New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The percentage of Indian children in New Mexico public schools is increasing, but dropout rates remain high and a low level of academic achievement by Indian children persists. An effort should be made to increase Johnson-O'Malley funds for Indian students, and more detailed accounting procedures should be required to ensure that these funds are…

Smith, Anne M.

460

A History of Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of assimilating American Indians into an alien culture seemed inevitable as superior weaponry and foreign diseases conquered the Indians. Only in the 20th century has serious consideration been given to allowing Indians to choose their own destiny. Using many excerpts from historical accounts, this book describes educational efforts by…

Reyhner, Jon; Eder, Jeanne

461

Facts about American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

462

Cast data matrix symbols performance characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data matrix symbols are used as a robust means of unique part identification in many industries. Research of cast data matrix symbols has been limited and expected symbol performance unknown. To develop knowledge of cast data matrix symbol performance, the investigation initially focused on feasibility of casting data matrix symbol. Results of a feasibility experiment led to further investigation of

Greg Carl Saveraid

2010-01-01

463

CONTROLLED DIFFUSION SOLIDIFICATION: APPLICATION TO METAL CASTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wrought aluminum-based alloys exhibit superior physical and mechanical properties compared to conventional cast alloys. However, wrought alloys cannot be cast because they develop hot tears and hot cracks during solidification. For this reason, these alloys are typically cast into ingots and are subsequently brought to final shape by mechanical processes such as rolling, extrusion, drawing and forging. Controlled Diffusion Solidification

K. Symeonidis; D. Apelian; M. M. Makhlouf

464

A Microbiological Study of Earthworm Casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Microbiological, physical and chemical changes were followed in worm casts ageing in the field. Filamentous fungi and yeasts increased in number rapidly after the cast was produced, but not bacteria or actinomycetes which were initially numerous. Measurements of hyphal length confirmed the increased growth of fungi. Ageing casts showed a declining respiratory activity, possibly because the bacteria formed resting

J. N. Parle

1963-01-01

465

The Ins and Outs of Relief Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a unit on clay casting that introduces students to relief sculpture. The unit takes three 45 to 50 minute class periods three weeks apart. Discusses each class session in detail: (1) creating the casting; (2) turning out and rinsing the casting; and (3) enriching the surface with color. (CMK)

Greene, Yvonne

2000-01-01

466

Coping with type casts in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of type casts is pervasive in C. Although casts provide great flexibility in writing programs, their use obscures the meaning of programs, and can present obstacles during maintenance. Casts involving pointers to structures (C structs) are particularly problematic, because by using them, a programmer can interpret any memory region to be of any desired type, thereby compromising C's

Michael Siffr; Satish Chandra; Thomas Ball; Krishna Kunchithapadam; Thomas W. Reps

1999-01-01

467

Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.

1998-09-01

468

Conversion of RP models to investment castings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tooling and Casting subgroup of the European Action on Rapid Prototyping (EARP) has undertaken a project to investigate the problems associated with using rapid prototype models as sacrificial patterns for investment casting. The accuracy and surface finish of the models and the castings were also assessed so that a comparison could be made. Models from each process were manufactured

P. M. Dickens; R. Stangroom; M. Greul; B. Holmer; K. K. B. Hon; R. Hovtun; R. Neumann; S. Noeken; D. Wimpenny

1995-01-01

469

Tape casting of nanocrystalline ceria gadolinia powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ceramic ceria gadolinia solid solution membrane for solid oxide fuel cells was fabricated by tape casting using a nanopowder of 37nm average particle size. A novel combination of solvent and dispersant was used to disperse the nanoparticles. The polymer was added in a dilute stage to guarantee a homogeneous distribution. After casting a remarkable densification of the cast tape

Lorenz P. Meier; Lukas Urech; Ludwig J. Gauckler

2004-01-01

470

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

471

The fractography of casting alloys  

SciTech Connect

Several types of casting alloys were fractured using various loading modes (uniaxial tension, bending, impact, and torsion, and cyclic stressing), and the corresponding mechanical properties were determined. The unetched and etched fracture surfaces and the microstructures were examined using conventional techniques. The types of casting alloys that were the subjects f these investigations include gray iron, ductile iron, cast steel, and aluminum-base alloys (A380, A356, and 319). The fractographic studies have yielded these generalizations regarding the topography of the fracture surfaces. In the case of low-ductility alloys such as gray iron and the aluminum-base alloys, the tensile edge of a fracture surface produced by a stress system with a strong bending-moment component has a highly irregular contour, whereas the compressive edge of the fracture surface is quite straight and parallel to the bend axis. On the other hand, the periphery of a fracture surface produced by uniaxial tension has a completely irregular contour. The fracture surface produced by cyclic loading of a gray iron does not display any macroscopic evidence (such as a thumb nail) of the loading mode. However, the fracture surface of each of the other casting alloys displays clear, macroscopic evidence of failure induced by fatigue. The aluminum-base alloys fracture completely within the interdendritic region of the microstructure when subjected to monotonic loading by uniaxial tension or bending, whereas a fatigue crack propagates predominantly through the primary crystals of the microstructure.

Powell, G.W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

1994-10-01

472

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the research for the period of the eighteenth to the thirthieth month of a four-year program. During this period the 'Continuous Rheocaster' has been greatly improved and a machine casting system using semi-solid alloys 'Thixocasting' h...

M. C. Flemings R. Mehrabian J. R. Melcher R. G. Riek K. P. Young

1975-01-01

473

Tape casting of magnesium oxide.  

SciTech Connect

A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

2008-02-01

474

Molding A Cast Metals Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cast metals program, a two-year associate degree program, at Muskegon Community College, Musegon, Michigan operates in close cooperation with the local foundry industry to provide a background for entry-level technical jobs and for continued studies toward a four-year degree. (EA)

Trumble, Dale E.

1975-01-01

475

Homogenization heat treating cast microstructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cast microstructures have variations in composition on the length scale of dendrites and homogenization heat treatments are performed to smooth out these variations. This problem is an integral analysis of the 1D diffusion mass transfer in this problem. The results using two different assumed profiles are compared.

Krane, Matthew J.

2008-10-25

476

Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

2000-11-30

477

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements made by a very simple method have shown that many of the factors which affect the quality of castings are sensitive\\u000a to surface and interfacial energies during the pouring of the melt. The results of a number of measurements of these parameters\\u000a are presented and discussed.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1985-01-01