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1

Determinants of Fertility in Three North Indian States: Caste, Female Autonomy and Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the determinants of fertility in three fairly homogenous states in northern India. The results show that scheduled tribe status—though not the scheduled caste status—has a substantial negative effect on fertility. The results also provide strong support for the view that improving the position of women through more equitable social and economic development will have a

Prabir C. Bhattacharya

1998-01-01

2

Genetic Variation of Apolipoproteins in North Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation at three apolipoprotein loci (APOA4, APOH, and APOE) has been examined in nine endogamous populations of Punjab, North India. The overall pattern of allele frequency variation at different loci is compatible with that of European populations, but observed microvariation differentiates the populations according to their position in the Indian caste structure. The most common allele at the APOA4

Puneet Pal Singh; Monica Singh; S. Mastana

2011-01-01

3

Genetic variation of apolipoproteins in North Indians.  

PubMed

Genetic variation at three apolipoprotein loci (APOA4, APOH, and APOE) has been examined in nine endogamous populations of Punjab, North India. The overall pattern of allele frequency variation at different loci is compatible with that of European populations, but observed microvariation differentiates the populations according to their position in the Indian caste structure. The most common allele at the APOA4 locus was APOA4*1 with a narrow frequency range (89%-92%). APOH*2 allele frequency was highest in these populations (0.852-0.914). APOE*E4 allele frequency was relatively low (6%-10%) in the North Indian populations compared to its frequency in many European populations. The anthropological usage of these polymorphisms was evaluated using multivariate analyses. Genetic distance analysis and principal correspondence analysis showed that the North Indian populations are closest to Europeans, followed by Chinese and African populations. Overall, this study highlights the usefulness of apolipoproteins as genetic markers for clinical, population, and anthropological studies. PMID:12495081

Singh, Puneet Pal; Singh, Monica; Mastana, Sarabjit S

2002-10-01

4

Indians of North Carolina.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

5

Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. RESULTS: We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations

W. s. Watkins; R. Thara; B. j. Mowry; Y. Zhang; D. j. Witherspoon; W. Tolpinrud; M. j. Bamshad; S. Tiripati; R. Padmavati; H. Smith; D. Nancarrow; C. Filippich; L. b. Jorde

2008-01-01

6

The North American Indians. A Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of 52 original articles by outstanding authorities on American Indians is organized by culture areas to provide a general introduction to the study of the aboriginal populations of North America. An attempt has been made to include articles representative of the major theoretical points of view (historical, psychological,…

Owen, Roger C., Ed.; And Others

7

Learning Aids for North American Indian Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Native American Studies Department at the University of California - Davis has made available Learning Aids for North American Indian Languages, a resource offering "information on published and 'semi-published' teaching and general reference materials for North American Indian languages or groups of languages." It is a page of pointers to citations for dictionaries, descriptive grammars, pedagogic materials collections of bilingual narratives, and tapes, among others. This large resource is arranged alphabetically by language group, and also contains many cross references. Over 100 language groups are included, from Abenaki to Yukon languages. Citations contain bibliographic information and are thoroughly annotated. Learning Aids has been compiled from the "Society of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas Newsletter."

8

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

9

4. Pier detail, cast iron bollard, north side of pier, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Pier detail, cast iron bollard, north side of pier, view to northwest. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 11, Charlestown Waterfront at confluence of Little Mystic Channel & Mystic River at northernmost ent of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

10

66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. THE IRON RUNNER IS IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE BLOWERS CONTROL ROOM IS IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPHER. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

11

Guide to Reference Sources Dealing with North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an annotated bibliography of reference sources dealing with North American Indians and includes selected unpublished resources in the Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota. Among the resources presented are encyclopedias, biographical dictionaries, handbooks, general indexes, government publications, theses, and dissertations.…

Swindler, Luke

12

North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells.

Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W.; de Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

2014-05-01

13

North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.  

PubMed

The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells. PMID:24784218

Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

2014-05-01

14

Genetics of Castes and Tribes of India: Indian Population Milieu  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Indian; ethnic groups; regional groups; religious groups; occupational groups; linguistic groups ABSTRACT South Asia, constituting mainly the Indian sub-continent, is a panorama of social diversities, racial differences and rich cultural heritage. However many facets of history, race and culture of this area are still relatively unexplored. Debates and doubts centering around the autochthonous status of the early settlers continue

M. K. Bhasin

15

Genetic serum protein markers (PH, GC, PI) in two South Indian caste populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of HP, GC and PI typings on two caste populations (Relli-I: fruit vendors, Relli-II: scavengers) from Andhra Pradesh\\u000a (South India) are reported and compared with data obtained on other Indian population samples.

H. Walter; P. Veerraju; M. Ramesh; M. Harms

1992-01-01

16

The Political Economy of North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

Moore, John H., Ed.

17

First on the Land: The North Carolina Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for students at the secondary level, this book details the historical development (10,000 B.C. to the present) of the 3 American Indian linguistic groups located in the 4 geographical areas of North Carolina (the Algonquians on the coast, the Iroquoians, including the Tuscarora on the coastal plain and the Cherokee in the mountains, and…

Wetmore, Ruth Y.

18

North Indian Weddings: Speech Events Reflecting and Reinforcing Women's Roles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined traditional Hindi songs typically sung by women during north Indian weddings, using pragmatic and semantic analysis. Some historical and cultural background for the practice of women's singing at weddings is offered. It is suggested that gender roles are defined and regulated through the language of this speech event, and that…

Remlinger, Kathryn A.

19

Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

20

Food preferences of Cherokee Indian teenagers in Cherokee, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food preferences of 257 Cherokee Indian teenagers living on tribal lands in Cherokee, North Carolina, were assessed. Differences between the sexes and body fat classes were also examined. There was a high preference for high fat foods and fried foods and a low preference for desserts and sugared foods. Males preferred a greater variety of foods than females, particularly for

Mary Story; Mary Ann Bass; Lucille Wakefield

1986-01-01

21

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N

T. Kivisild; S. Rootsi; M. Metspalu; S. Mastana; K. Kaldma; J. Parik; E. Metspalu; M. Adojaan; H.-V. Tolk; V. Stepanov; M. Gölge; E. Usanga; S. S. Papiha; C. Cinnio?lu; R. King; L. Cavalli-Sforza; P. A. Underhill; R. Villems

2003-01-01

22

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

PubMed Central

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools.

Kivisild, T.; Rootsi, S.; Metspalu, M.; Mastana, S.; Kaldma, K.; Parik, J.; Metspalu, E.; Adojaan, M.; Tolk, H.-V.; Stepanov, V.; Golge, M.; Usanga, E.; Papiha, S. S.; Cinnioglu, C.; King, R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.; Underhill, P. A.; Villems, R.

2003-01-01

23

North Indian Muslims: enclaves of foreign DNA or Hindu converts?  

PubMed

The mtDNA composition of two Muslim sects from the northern Indian province of Uttar Pradesh, the Sunni and Shia, have been delineated using sequence information from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVI and HVII, respectively) as well as coding region polymorphisms. A comparison of this data to that from Middle Eastern, Central Asian, North East African, and other Indian groups reveals that, at the mtDNA haplogroup level, both of these Indo-Sunni and Indo-Shia populations are more similar to each other and other Indian groups than to those from the other regions. In addition, these two Muslim sects exhibit a conspicuous absence of West Asian mtDNA haplogroups suggesting that their maternal lineages are of Indian origin. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the maternal lineage data indicates differences between the Sunni and Shia collections of Uttar Pradesh with respect to the relative distributions of Indian-specific M sub-haplogroups (Indo Shia > Indo Sunni) and the R haplogroup (Indo Sunni > Indo Shia), a disparity that does not appear to be related to social status or geographic regions within India. Finally, the mtDNA data integrated with the Y-chromosome results from an earlier study, which indicated a major Indian genetic (Y-chromosomal) contribution as well, suggests a scenario of Hindu to Islamic conversion in these two populations. However, given the substantial level of the African/Middle Eastern YAP lineage in the Indo-Shia versus its absence in the Indo-Sunni, it is likely that this conversion was somewhat gender biased in favor of females in the Indo-Shia. PMID:17427927

Terreros, Maria C; Rowold, Diane; Luis, Javier R; Khan, Faisal; Agrawal, Suraksha; Herrera, Rene J

2007-07-01

24

Temporal variations in basicranium dimorphism of North Indians.  

PubMed

In recent years, several investigations have documented notable secular changes in human skull morphology. The present study is the next link in the series, addressing its possible effects in the cranial base in North Indian populations. The present study aims to examine the sexual dimorphism in cranial base of two temporally different samples of North Indian population to provide updated population specific osteometric standards. The contemporary and the subrecent samples are comprised of 158 (M 110; F 48) and 325 adult crania (M 206; F 119), respectively. Five variables of cranial base were measured, and data were subjected to discriminant function analysis using SPSS 16.0. The t-tests between the two temporally different samples showed significant sexual dimorphism and population variation. Contemporary females showed comparatively greater dimensions than subrecent. Contemporary population exhibited less sexual dimorphism than subrecent population. Factors associated with the changes in sexual dimorphism are likely to be a consequence of improved nutrition and population admixture in last 50 years. The accuracy of sex prediction ranged from 48.1 to 70.0 % in contemporary sample and 60.9 % to 77.2 % in subrecent sample. Overall, these findings support the conclusion that sexual dimorphism shows variation within few decades, so sex discriminating osteometric standards must be updated regularly. PMID:24374986

Saini, Vineeta; Srivastava, Rashmi; Shamal, Satya Narayan; Singh, Tej Bali; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Pramod; Tripathi, Sunil Kumar

2014-07-01

25

Palaeoceanographic conditions during the formation of a ferromanganese crust from the Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount, North Central Indian Ocean: geochemical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ferromanganese crust dredged from the summit of the Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount in the North Central Indian Ocean (NCIO) has recorded Neogene oceanographic events. The substrate of the crust is composed of fresh-water phreatic calcite cement, Terebratulinae casts, rounded and ferruginised basalt clasts and weathered coralline algal fragments suggesting subaerial exposure during the Oligocene (~30 Ma) global sealevel drop.The mineralogy, major,

V. K. Banakar; J. N. Pattan; A. V. Mudholkar

1997-01-01

26

On the relationship between Indian Ocean Dipole-Indian Summer Monsoon and Summer North Atlantic Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 60 years of observed and re-analysis data sets a link between positive Indian Ocean dipole (PIOD), Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and Summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO) is proposed. When positive IOD years occur independently without Elnino the presence of positive phase of SNAO is noticed. In such cases over the Atlantic region the centers of action associated with SNAO is shifted northward leading to the change in the mean position of Atlantic jet and storm tracks. Persistence of storm tracks at the new location amounts to a stationary waves, which have a barotropic structure in the vertical. Therefore, the temperature anomalies associated with the stationary wave influences the Tropospheric Temperature (TT), which is clearly seen in the average TT anomaly, showing warming over southern Eurasia and India. This affects the north-south TT gradient in the monsoon region and influences the ISM (Goswami et al., 2006). Concurrently the local Hadley cell associated with PIOD strengthens and enhances the anomalous subsidence over the Mediterranean/Sahara region which in turn strengthens the Azores high and the hence the SNAO itself. Thus the combined influence of PIOD and SNAO produces a positive feed back mechanism for ISM. On the other hand most of the PIOD years co-occurring with Elnino years are accompanied by the negative phase of SNAO. The analysis of the atmospheric circulation clearly indicates the Pacific North American (PNA) type pattern, which negatively influence the SNAO (Huang et al., 1998). This is consistent with the observation that ISM is not enhanced in all PIOD years. The analysis of 60 years historic sea surface temperature runs with the high resolution atmospheric model shows that the model is able to reproduce these teleconnections.

Sundaram, S.; Stenchikov, G. L.

2013-12-01

27

Modelling the influence of North Atlantic multidecadal warmth on the Indian summer rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensemble experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model reveal that a positive (warm) ocean phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) increases Indian summer rainfall. The intensification is driven by extratropical North Atlantic warmth, with some cancellation associated with monsoon weakening in response to tropical North Atlantic warmth. Mechanistically, warm extratropical North Atlantic SSTs increase local rainfall, inducing an arching

Shuanglin Li; Judith Perlwitz; Xiaowei Quan; Martin P. Hoerling

2008-01-01

28

Homicide and Suicide Among the Cherokee and Lubee Indians of North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cherokee and Lumbee, the two major Indian populations in North Carolina, have exhibited similarities in patterns of homicide and suicide. Both Indian populations have higher rates of homicidal than of suicidal death. Yet in 1972-73, the Lumbee homicide rates was considerably higher than that for the Cherokee, but the Cherokee's suicide rate exceeded that for the Lumbee. During 1974-1976,

John A. Humphrey; Harriet J. Kupferer

1982-01-01

29

North American Indian Alliance Mental Health Needs Assessment Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of 30 mental health service providers and 74 American Indian consumers of such services in Butte, Montana, examined mental health services offered for adults and children, service use by American Indians, referral practices, providers' and consumers' perceptions of the mental health needs of American Indians, and consumers' interest in…

Barron, Lloyd; Oge, Linda L.; Markovich, Joseph

1999-01-01

30

Effects of premolar extractions on Bolton overall ratios and tooth-size discrepancies in a north Indian population  

PubMed Central

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Bolton overall ratio in a north Indian population reporting for orthodontic treatment and to determine the effect of extractions on the Bolton ratios. Another aim of the study was to check the effects of different extraction patterns on the final Bolton ratio. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty pre-treatment dental casts (60 males and 60 females) of orthodontic patients were selected randomly. Mesio-distal dimensions of the mandibular and maxillary teeth were measured before treatment, and subjected to Bolton analysis. Hypothetical tooth extraction by the following combinations: All the first premolars, all the second premolars, upper first and lower second premolars and upper second and lower first premolars were performed for each patient. The measurement results were again subjected to Bolton analysis to see whether any tooth-size discrepancy had been created. Results and Conclusion: The tooth material ratio of the studied north Indian population shows a mild maxillary tooth material excess. Extraction of premolars in any combination causes the maxillary tooth material to further increase. There is no significant sex difference in the tooth material ratios with or without extractions. In patients requiring extraction; all first premolar extraction or maxillary first and mandibular second premolar extraction should be preferred. For deciding a treatment plan involving extraction of teeth, we need to consider that the maxillary tooth mass may increase after extraction. Furthermore, the normal or the clinically significant tooth size discrepancies may change following extraction of teeth.

Kumar, Piush; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Pragya; Sharma, Payal; Sharma, Rakesh

2013-01-01

31

A Review of Indian Education in North America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formal and, where possible, informal educational programs designed specifically for American Indians in the U.S. and Canada between 1965-71 were studied. Information on Indian education in the U.S. was included to provide useful background material for a study of the Canadian situation. The dates were chosen arbitrarily to limit the scope of the…

MacLean, Hope

32

Effect of multigrains on rheological, microstructural and quality characteristics of north Indian parotta – An Indian flat bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of replacement of whole-wheat flour with multigrain blend, MGB (chick pea split without husk, barley, soya bean and fenugreek seeds) at 10, 20, 30 and 40g\\/100g on rheological characteristics of whole-wheat flour and quality of north Indian parotta (NIP) making was studied. Use of increasing amount of MGB from 0 to 40g\\/100g increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability,

D. Indrani; P. Swetha; C. Soumya; Jyotsna Rajiv; G. Venkateswara Rao

2011-01-01

33

Genetic Affinity Between Two Ethnically Diverse Caste Groups of North India: A Study Based Upon 15 Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Genetic affinity; Jat and Kurmi; caste; average heterozygosity, geographical proximity ABSTRACT This study attempts to understand the genetic structure and affinity among two major ethnic caste groups viz., Jat and Kurmi of north India in order to examine the effect of geographical as well as occupational proximity among these groups and their genetic relationship with two other predominant populations

M. Tandon; T. S. Vasulu; R. Trivedi; V. K. Kashyap

34

Depression and guilt in Indian and north american patients: a comparative study.  

PubMed

One hundred and nineteen Indian and one hundred and fourteen North American depressed patients were compared to assess the differences in psychopathology. The study revealed two important findings: 1) Indian patients scored significantly higher than American patients on the HAMD items of poor appetite, hypochondriasis, diurnal variation, and psychomotor retardation; and lower on the items of anxiety and middle insomnia. 2) Guilt was expressed less often by Indian patients. Guilt was more common among those who felt that God was responsible for their depression and in those who believed in reincarnation. These differences may be related to cultural factors and not to religious beliefs. PMID:21776166

Ananth, J; Engelsman, F; Ghadirian, A M; Wohl, M; Shamasundara, P; Narayanan, H S

1993-01-01

35

CAST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

2012-02-03

36

CAST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

2012-02-06

37

A new atlas of temperature and salinity for the North Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most used temperature and salinity climatology for the world ocean, including the Indian Ocean, is the World Ocean Atlas (WOA) (Antonov et al 2006, 2010; Locarnini et al 2006, 2010) because of the vast amount of data used in its preparation. The WOA climatology does not, however, include all the available hydrographic data from the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), leading to the potential for improvement if the data from this region are included to prepare a new climatology. We use all the data that went into the preparation of the WOA ( Antonov et al 2010; Locarnini et al 2010), but add considerable data from Indian sources, to prepare new annual, seasonal, and monthly climatologies of temperature and salinity for the Indian Ocean. The addition of data improves the climatology considerably in the Indian EEZ, the differences between the new North Indian Ocean Atlas (NIOA) and WOA being most significant in the Bay of Bengal, where the patchiness seen in WOA, an artifact of the sparsity of data, was eliminated in NIOA. The significance of the new climatology is that it presents a more stable climatological value for the temperature and salinity fields in the Indian EEZ.

Chatterjee, A.; Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Reddy, G. V.; Michael, G. S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalkrishna, V. V.; Rama Rao, E. P.; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.; Sanjeevan, V. N.

2012-06-01

38

Morphological and immunological characteristics of nanobacteria from human renal stones of a north Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to detect, isolate and characterize the nanobacteria from human renal stones from a north Indian population, and to determine their role in biomineralization. Renal stones retrieved from the kidneys of 65 patients were processed and subjected to mammalian cell culture conditions. The isolated bacteria were examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Madhu Khullar; S. K. Sharma; S. K. Singh; Pratibha Bajwa; Farooq A. Sheikh; Vandana Relan; Meera Sharma

2004-01-01

39

Pharmacogenetic landscape of clopidogrel in north Indians suggest distinct interpopulation differences in allele frequencies.  

PubMed

Aim: Clopidogrel, a widely used antiplatelet drug, exhibits high interindividual variability; more than 80% of which could be explained by genetic polymorphisms. We built an allele frequency map of variants affecting clopidogrel response in north Indians. Materials & methods: We mined a cross-sectional population-scale genome-wide dataset of 2128 Indo-Europeans residing in north India for presence of variants associated with pharmacogenetics of clopidogrel. Results: Our analysis reveals significant differences in population-scale allele frequencies between Indians and the global population. Indians had a higher allele frequency for variants in the CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3 and P2RY1 genes whereas lower frequency for the ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2C19*2C, CYP3A5 and PON1 genes compared with the global population. Furthermore, from our study we proposed a model to explain the higher prevalence of clopidogrel metabolizers in north Indians. Conclusion: This is the largest population-scale genetic epidemiology study that provides a high-resolution map of variants associated with clopidogrel response that could be potentially valuable to clinicians to rationally plan appropriate dosage for therapy in resource poor conditions based on population level allele frequencies. Original submitted 29 August 2013; Revision submitted 2 December 2013. PMID:24798721

Giri, Anil K; Khan, Nazir M; Basu, Analabha; Tandon, Nikhil; Scaria, Vinod; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

2014-04-01

40

Probabilistic Assessment of Earthquake Hazards in the North-East Indian Peninsula and Hindukush Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Himalayan region is one of the most seismic prone areas of the world. The North-East (NE) Indian peninsula and the Hindukush regions mark the zone of collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. The probability of the occurrence of great earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7.0 during a specified interval of time has been estimated on the basis of four probabilistic models, namely, Weibull, Gamma, Lognormal and Exponential for the NE Indian peninsula and Hindukush regions. The model parameters have been estimated by the method of Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) and the Method of Moments (MOM). The cumulative probability is estimated for a period of 40 years from 1964 and is ranging between 0.881 to 0.995 by the year 1995, using all four models for the NE Indian peninsula. The conditional probability is also estimated and it is concluded that the NE Indian peninsula would expect a great earthquake at any time in the remaining years of the present century. For the Hindukush region, the cumulative probability has already crossed its highest value, but no earthquake of magnitude greater than 7.0 has occurred after 1974 in this area. It may attribute to the occurrence of frequent shocks of moderate size, as seventeen earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6.0, including four greater than 6.4, have been reported until 1994 from this region.

Parvez, I. A.; Ram, A.

1997-08-01

41

Glacial to Holocene ? 13 C variations in intermediate depth water masses of North Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thed18O andd13C compositions of glacial- to Holocene-aged benthic foraminifera in a core collected from the eastern Arabian sea (water depth 1230 m) were determined to investigate glacial—interglacial variations in the intermediate depth water chemistry of the North Indian Ocean. In addition, we determined thed13C composition of Holocene benthic foraminifera from seven cores for which thed18O andd13C of benthic foraminifera from

S. M. Ahmad; L. D. Labeyrie

1994-01-01

42

Prevalence of tooth size discrepancy among North Indian orthodontic patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the prevalence of tooth size discrepancy (TSD) in a representative orthodontics population, to explore how many millimeters of TSD is clinically significant and to determine the ability of simple visual inspection to detect such a discrepancy. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 150 pretreatment study casts with fully erupted and complete permanent dentitions from first molar to first molar, which were selected randomly from records of the orthodontic patients. The mesiodistal diameters of the teeth were measured at contact points using digital calipers and the Bolton's analysis was carried out on them. Simple visual estimation of Bolton discrepancy was also performed. Results: In the sample group, 24% of the patients had anterior tooth width ratios and 8% had total arch ratios greater than ±2 standard deviation (SD) from Bolton's means. For the anterior analysis, correction greater than ±2 mm was required for 24% of patients in the upper arch or 14% in the lower arch. For the total arch analysis, correction greater than ±2 mm was required for 36% of patients in the upper arch or 32% in the lower arch. Conclusion: Bolton's analysis should be routinely performed in all orthodontic patients and the findings should be included in orthodontic treatment planning. 2 mm of the required tooth size correction is an appropriate threshold for clinical significance. Visual estimation of TSD has low sensitivity and specificity. Careful measurement is more frequently required in clinical practice than visual estimation would suggest.

Sharma, Rekha; Kumar, Sushil; Singla, Anu

2011-01-01

43

Prediction of tropical cyclogenesis in North Indian Ocean using Oceansat-2 scatterometer (OSCAT) winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India's polar orbiting satellite Oceansat-2 was launched by Indian Space Research Organisation on 23 September 2009 for applications pertaining to ocean studies and meteorology. The wind scatterometer aboard the Oceansat-2 satellite (OSCAT) covers 90 % of the global ocean within a day. In the present study, the OSCAT-derived wind fields are used to predict the genesis of tropical cyclones over the North Indian Ocean using a new technique based on data mining. The technique is based on the premise that there is some degree of similarity in low-level wind circulation among developing systems, which can be utilized to distinguish them from non-developing systems. This similarity of wind patterns has been measured quantitatively by computing the "matching index" between the given wind pattern and the wind signatures of developing systems available from the past observations. The algorithm is used to predict the tropical cyclogenesis of cyclones formed during the period 2009-11 in the North Indian Ocean. All the tropical disturbances that developed into tropical storms during the above period (2009-11), viz. PHYAN, WARD, LAILA, BANDU, PHET, GIRI, JAL, KEILA, FOUR, FIVE and THANE were predicted using the proposed method. The mean prediction lead time of the technique was 63 h. Probability of detection of the technique was 100 %, while the false alarm ratio was 2 %.

Jaiswal, Neeru; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

2013-02-01

44

How the North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation may have influenced the Indian summer monsoon during the past two millennia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations have indicated that the North Atlantic SST variations have persistent effects on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall at multidecadal and longer timescales. The question of how such influences may have been achieved is addressed in this study using both instrumentation data of the 20th century and proxy records of the last 2000 years. Major results show that the North

Song Feng; Qi Hu

2008-01-01

45

Cholesterol ester transfer protein and apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms in hyperlipidemic Asian Indians in North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the distribution of the polymorphic variants of CETP\\u000a TaqIB and ApoE genes and their association with lipid and anthropometric parameters in hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic Asian Indians in\\u000a North India. CETP\\u000a TaqIB and ApoE polymorphism were assayed by PCR–RFLP in hyperlipidemic (n = 220) and normolipidemic (n = 367) subjects. Plasma lipids levels were estimated using commercially available kits from Randox (USA). The

Kiran Meena; Anoop Misra; Naval Vikram; Shakir Ali; R. M. Pandey; Kalpana Luthra

2011-01-01

46

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VII: The Indian Tribes of California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication, Part VII of a series, includes the charters, constitutions, articles of association or community organization, and by-laws of California Indians on 16 reservations and rancherias. Legal documents from the following groups are provided: Hoopa, Me-Wuk, and Paiute Indians; the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians; the Mission Creek…

Fay, George E., Comp.

47

Summertime ENSO-North African-Asian Jet teleconnection and implications for the Indian monsoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent findings indicate that ENSO may modulate the strength of the Indian monsoons by altering the meridional tropospheric temperature gradient between Asia and the equatorial Indian Ocean. Here we show that during northern hemisphere summertime El Niño events both colder upper tropospheric temperatures and increased vorticity anomalies are observed within the North African-Asian (NAA) jet. The temperature response within the NAA jet is the dominant ENSO-related change to the meridional tropospheric temperature gradient between Asia and the equatorial Indian Ocean. Forced solutions of the linearized barotropic vorticity equation indicate that these anomalies within the NAA jet are a response to northern hemisphere summertime El Niño-related convective activity over the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Additional experiments indicate that westward propagating anomalies in both the tropics and middle latitudes produce the anomaly response within the NAA jet. These findings suggest that the teleconnection linking ENSO and the monsoons is mediated by the response of the NAA jet to westward propagating Rossby waves.

Shaman, Jeffrey; Tziperman, Eli

2007-06-01

48

Establishment of reference interval for liver specific biochemical parameters in apparently healthy north Indian population.  

PubMed

Reference intervals (RI) are the most common decision support tool used for interpretation of numerical laboratory reports. The quality of the RI can play as large a role in result interpretation as the quality of the result itself. As such there is hardly any study examining RI for liver specific biochemical parameters in Indian population especially north Indians having drastically different food habits as compared to rest of the India. So there is a need to establish the RI for north Indian population. Present study was conducted on 2,021 apparently healthy individuals of north Indian origin ranging in age from 15-60 years, were selected randomly using defined criteria. Lipemic, hemolysed, icteric and stored samples were also excluded adopting preanalytical criteria for rejection of sample. Non parametric methodology for determination of RI was adopted as most of the biochemical parameters included revealed non Gaussian distribution. Data were analyzed for middle 95 percentile (2.5th-97.5th percentile), median and 95 % confidence interval using SPSS software package version 10.0. The upper and the lower limit of RI (reported Vs observed) for bilirubin (0-1.2 Vs 0.30-1.30 mg/dL), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transferase (SGOT) (0-41 Vs 13-52.80 IU/L), serum glutamate pyruvate transferase (SGPT) (0-50 Vs 10-68 IU/L) showed wide variation as compared to reported standard RI however Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) (0-50 Vs 5.00-50.60 IU/L) remained within the reported standard RI. Further gender wise evaluation revealed higher cutoff in males (AST 14-55, ALT 11-70.35, GGT 6.76-51.09 in IU/L, bilirubin (0.40-1.34 mg/dL) as compared to females (SGOT 13-50.43, SGPT 9-63.43, GGT 3.92-48.70 in IU/L, Bilirubin 0.30-1.20 mg/dL) for both enzymatic and non enzymatic biochemical parameters. The variations may be attributed to dietary pattern smoking and alcoholism. PMID:24381418

Yadav, Dharamveer; Mishra, Sandhya; Gupta, Monika; John, P J; Sharma, Praveen

2013-01-01

49

Overweight and obesity among North American Indian infants, children, and youth.  

PubMed

The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults' size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan. PMID:22378356

Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V

2012-01-01

50

Overweight and Obesity Among North American Indian Infants, Children, and Youth  

PubMed Central

The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults’ size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan.

SCHELL, LAWRENCE M.; GALLO, MIA V.

2012-01-01

51

Association study of Neuregulin-1 gene polymorphisms in a north Indian schizophrenia sample  

PubMed Central

Background Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene polymorphisms have been proposed as risk factors for several common disorders. Associations with cognitive variation have also been tested. With regard to Schizophrenia (SZ) risk, studies of Caucasian ancestry samples indicate associations more consistently than East Asian samples, suggesting heterogeneity. To exploit the differences in linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure across ethnic groups, we conducted a SZ case-control study (that included cognitive evaluations) in a sample from the north Indian population. Methods NRG1 variants (n= 35 SNPs, three microsatellite markers) were initially analyzed among cases (DSM IV criteria, n = 1007) and controls (n=1019, drawn from two groups) who were drawn from the same geographical region in North India. Nominally significant associations with SZ were next analyzed in relation to neurocognitive measures estimated with a computerized neurocognitive battery in a subset of the sample (n=116 cases, n=170 controls). Results Three variants and one microsatellite showed allelic association with SZ (rs35753505, rs4733263, rs6994992, and microsatellite 420 M9-1395, p ? 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons). A six marker haplotype 221121 (rs35753505-rs6994992-rs1354336-rs10093107-rs3924999-rs11780123) showed (p=0.0004) association after Bonferroni corrections. Regression analyses with the neurocognitive measures showed nominal (uncorrected) associations with emotion processing and attention at rs35753505 and rs6994992, respectively. Conclusions Suggestive associations with SZ and SZ-related neurocognitive measures were detected with two SNPs from the NRG1 promoter region in a north Indian cohort. The functional role of the alleles merits further investigation.

Kukshal, Prachi; Bhatia, Triptish; Bhagwat, A. M.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Deshpande, Smita N.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Thelma, B. K.

2013-01-01

52

Hydrothermal Plume Anomalies Along the Central Indian Ridge Immediately North of the Rodrigues Triple Junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water column turbidity, temperature and salinity were investigated along the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) from 25°19'S to 23°48'S during a December 2005 cruise on board Chinese R/V Dayang 1. Measurements were made using NOAA's MARP (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder) sensors during CTD casts, TV grabber operations, and tow-yo transects, yielding the following results on hydrothermal plume anomalies: (1) Strong hydrothermal plume anomalies were recorded over the previously discovered Kairei Vent (25°19.2'S, 70°02.4'E) and Edmond Vent (23°52.8'S, 69°34.2'E), with the plume anomalies concentrated at depths of 2,170-2,370 m and 2,600-3,200 m, respectively. Sulfide samples were recovered at these vent sites together with video recording of live hydrothermal vent colonies. (2) No visible turbidity anomalies were detected near the Knorr Seamount near 24°30'S during both tow-yo transects and in situ CTD and TV grabber deployments. (3) Significant turbidity anomaly was detected from 24° S to 23°56'S along a ridge segment. The maximum turbidity value was centered at about 24° S at a depth of 2,800 m. This location is close to a water column anomaly site reported by Pluger et al. (1990). (4) A few other new areas with noticeable turbidity anomalies were detected during the six tow-yo transects. The most noticeable anomaly area is near 24°10'S, 69°44'E, where both a tow-yo profile and an in-situ CTD cast showed significant turbidity anomalies within depth ranges of 2,600-3,000 m.

Zhu, J.; Lin, J.; Guo, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhou, B.; R/v Dayang 1, S.; Baker, E. T.

2006-12-01

53

Seasonal variability of sea surface salinity and salt budget of the mixed layer of the north Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subset of the recently published salinity database of the global oceans is utilized to characterize and explain the observed seasonal variability of sea surface salinity of the north Indian Ocean, in greater detail than has been possible previously. The influence of salinity on the seasonal evolution of near-surface mixed layer depth is highlighted. The relative importance of freshwater flux

R. R. Rao; R. Sivakumar

2003-01-01

54

Beliefs about diabetes and medication adherence among Lumbee Indians living in rural southeastern North Carolina.  

PubMed

This study assessed personal beliefs about the causes and meaning of having diabetes among the members of the Lumbee Indian tribe living in rural southeastern North Carolina. The sample included 20 males (50%) and 20 females (50%); the mean duration of having diabetes was 9.82 years. The average body mass index (BMI) for females was 34.76 (range, 24.21-55.44), whereas the average BMI for males was 35.10 (range, 22.71-59.71). Ninety percent reported a family history of diabetes. The majority of participants held beliefs that diabetes was a serious and chronic condition and that the disease was amenable to personal control. Participants perceived that diabetic medications were an essential and effective part of their treatment regimen, and they reported greater comfort in adhering to prescribed medication regimens than making long-term lifestyle changes. This study highlights the high prevalence of diabetes among Lumbee Indians and also the need for future studies in this area. PMID:24648433

Jacobs, Allison; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Taylor, Julie Smith; Hadsell, Christine

2014-04-01

55

Intergenerational relations and elder care preferences of Asian Indians in North Carolina.  

PubMed

The US older population is growing in ethnic diversity. Persistent ethnic disparities in service use among seniors are linked to structural barriers to access, and also to family processes such as cultural preferences and intergenerational relations. There is sparse information on the latter issue for immigrant ethnic minority seniors. Information on the Asian group (the fastest growing senior sub-population) is extremely scarce, due to this group's diversity in national, linguistic, and cultural origins. We conducted a qualitative study among community-dwelling Asian Indian families (including at least one member aged 60 years and older) in North Carolina to examine preferences of seniors and the midlife generation regarding elder care, and the role of intergenerational relations in desired care for elders, exploring the theoretical perspective of intergenerational relationship ambivalence. Our results suggest that cultural preferences, ambivalence in intergenerational relations, and regulations on health service eligibility among immigrant/transnational seniors and midlife adults influence preferences for elder care. PMID:24370947

Sudha, S

2014-03-01

56

Prevalence of intron 1 inversion of cases with hemophilia A in North Indian population.  

PubMed

Hemophilia A is an X-linked bleeding disorder resulting from heterogeneous mutations in the factor VIII (FVIII) gene. The disease is frequently caused by intron 22 inversion mutation in FVIII gene in approximately 50% cases and by intron 1 inversion (Inv1) in 2% to 5% cases with severe hemophilia A. Both inversion mutations occur due to intrachromosomal recombination between inverted repeats found in intronic sequences in upstream regions located telomeric to the FVIII gene and result in a severe phenotype. Frequency of Inv1 mutation varies in different populations. We have analyzed the frequency of the Inv1 in a group of 110 cases with Hemophilia A from North Indian Population and found 4 inversion-positive cases (3.6%). The Inv1 genotyping was further applied to analyze the hemophilia carrier status of the mother and proband's sister. Direct mutation detection strategy is more perfective in diagnosis of cases, carriers, and in prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia A. PMID:22371627

Faridi, Nuzhat Jahan; Kumar, Praveen; Husain, Nuzhat

2012-11-01

57

Body iron stores in middle-aged North Indian patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Evidence from various epidemiological and clinical studies suggests that iron overload is proinflammatory and proatherosclerotic. Excess body iron has been positively associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Aim of the Study: To study the relationship of body iron stores with type 2 diabetes and obesity in middle aged North Indian population. Materials and Methods: The participant population consisted of four groups of randomly selected participants (between 40 and 65 years of age and postmenopausal women); Group A: Normal individuals (controls), Group B: Obese nondiabetic individuals, Group C: Lean diabetic patients, Group D: Obese diabetic patients. Blood was examined for hematological, biochemical estimations, C-reactive protein, and serum ferritin (SF). Observation and Results: A total of 197 participants were enrolled. The mean SF levels (ng/ml) among males were: Group A (n = 18) 148.56 ± 119.90; Group B (n = 25) 129.11 ± 94.77; Group C (n = 27) 127.96 ± 109.65 and Group D (n = 22) 148.36 ± 104.94. The mean SF levels (ng/ml) among females were: Group A (n = 23) 67.44 ± 37.59; Group B (n = 25) 59.62 ± 43.56; Group C (n = 24) 77.97 ± 91.46 and Group D (n = 33) 66.46 ± 86.05. No statistical difference was found among the groups in both the sexes. Conclusions: Our observation is in sharp contrast to the earlier studies published from the West stressing that iron stores are increased in obesity and diabetes. We conclude that SF may not be a strong risk factor in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes in middle aged North Indians.

Gupta, Monica; Palta, Anshu; Singh, Ram; Lehl, Sarabmeet Singh

2014-01-01

58

Soft-tissue cephalometric norms in a north Indian ethnic population  

PubMed Central

Background: Soft tissues play the primary role of physical appearance and facial esthetics. This study aimed to establish soft-tissue cephalometric standards in North Indian adults, which can be used in diagnosis, treatment planning, and stability of orthodontic outcome and orthognathic patients. Materials and Methods: A group of 60 individuals (30 males and 30 females) with normal occlusion and proportional facial profile were chosen. For the entire chosen sample, lateral cephalograms were obtained. Standard values of 11 soft-tissue measurements were determined. Results: Soft-tissue measurements showed that men had greater soft-tissue facial angle (92.10°) than women (89.92°). Also, they had more nose prominence (18.10 mm) than women (16.44 mm). Skeletal profile convexity (A to N-pog) of men (0.40 mm) was less than women (1.76 mm). Basic upper lip thickness was higher in men (16.60 mm) compared to women (14.24 mm), while H-angle was higher in women (16.68°) as compared to men (14.30°). In the lower face area, inferior sulcus to the H line distance was more in men (7.30 mm) than women (4.80 mm). Men had greater soft-tissue chin thickness (14.10 mm) than women (12.84 mm). Conclusion: The differences in soft-tissue cephalometric norms between men and women of North Indian faces were established, so the orthodontist or surgeon must individualize treatment planning, using local norms as the reference.

Sachan, Avesh; Srivastav, Adit; Chaturvedi, T. P.

2012-01-01

59

Polymorphism of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes and breast cancer susceptibility in North Indian women.  

PubMed

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) are involved in the metabolism of estrogens. Genetic polymorphisms in these genes may lead to interindividual variation in breast cancer susceptibility. This study was undertaken to investigate the association of NQO1 exon 6 proline187serine (C609T) and CYP1A2 exon 2 phenylalanine21leucine (C63G) polymorphisms with breast cancer susceptibility in North Indian women. Polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the desired segment of NQO1 and CYP1A2 genes followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. NQO1 mRNA expression was analyzed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and its enzyme activity was estimated spectrofluorophotometrically. Odds ratios for NQO1 C609T heterozygous and homozygous variants were 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.39-1.13; p-value: 0.141) and 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-2.46; p-value: 0.976). All cases and controls were monomorphic for the CYP1A2 exon 2 phenylalanine21leucine (C63G) genotype. NQO1 mRNA expression and its catalytic activity among wild-type genotype, homozygous variant, and heterozygous variant were not significantly altered, except for catalytic activity of the NQO1 homozygous variant, which was observed extremely low. The results of the study suggest that NQO1 exon 6 proline187serine (C609T) and CYP1A2 exon 2 phenylalanine21leucine (C63G) polymorphisms do not play a significant role in breast cancer susceptibility in North Indian women. PMID:21329464

Singh, Virendra; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam; Rastogi, Neeraj; Singh, Kalpana; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

2011-05-01

60

Creation of North-East Indian face database for human face identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the various factors like illumination, expression, and pose variation etc., human face seem different in multiple occasions. To determine the efficiency of the different face recognition algorithms, it requires benchmark face images. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the available 2D face databases and also introduces the creation of a visual face database, North-East Indian (NEI) Face Database, which is under development in the Biometrics Laboratory of Tripura University, India. It contains high quality face images of 292 individuals of different tribe and non-tribe people of Mongolian origin collected from the North-Eastern states of India. The database contains four different types of illumination variations, eight different expressions, faces wearing glasses and each of these variations are being clicked concurrently from five different angles to provide pose variation using five CMOS sensor cameras, in a controlled indoor environment. Three different resolutions are being used for capturing the database images. Some baseline face recognition algorithms have also been tested using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier on the NEI face database, which may be used as the control algorithm performance score by other researchers.

Saha, Kankan; Saha, Priya; Bhowmik, Mrinal K.; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita

2013-02-01

61

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part IIa: The Northern Plains. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part IIa of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes in the Northern Plains (Montana and North Dakota). Documents are presented relative to the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation, the Blackfeet Tribe of the…

Fay, George E., Comp.

62

Validation of MODIS retrieval aerosol optical depth and an investigation of aerosol transport over Mohal in north western Indian Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the optical properties of aerosols during 2007 over Mohal (31.9º N, 77.12º E) in north western Indian Himalaya, investigated using ground-based measurements and multi-satellite data. The daily average (mean ± standard deviation) aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm, Ångström exponent and turbidity coefficient values were 0.2 ± 0.1, 1.1 ± 0.3 and 0.1 ± 0.1,

Raj Paul Guleria; Jagdish Chandra Kuniyal; Pan Singh Rawat; Harinder Kumar Thakur; Manum Sharma; Nand Lal Sharma; Pitamber Prasad Dhyani; Mahavir Singh

2012-01-01

63

Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the Western North Pacific-East Asian Monsoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of 50-yr NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data reveal remarkably different interannual variability between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) in their temporal-spatial structures, relationships to El Niño, and teleconnections with midlatitude circulations. Thus, two circulation indices are necessary, which measure the variability of the ISM and WNPSM, respectively. A weak WNPSM features suppressed convection along

Bin Wang; Renguang Wu; K.-M. Lau

2001-01-01

64

Awareness, knowledge, and practice: A survey of glaucoma in north Indian rural residents  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies done on the prevalence of glaucoma have reported a high proportion of undiagnosed patients. Late diagnosis is related to increased risk of glaucoma associated with visual disability. Lack of awareness and non-availability of appropriate screening procedures are among the major reasons for non-diagnosis or late diagnosis of glaucoma. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the level of awareness about glaucoma among the North Indian rural population. Materials and Methods: A group-administered, questionnaire-based survey, involving 5000 rural residents (aged 20 and above) was conducted through random sampling. The questionnaire was structured to evaluate the level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma and the effect of gender, education status, and glaucoma diagnosis was also studied. The source of awareness about glaucoma was also questioned. Results: Of the 5000 individuals enrolled for the survey, responses from 4927 (98.5%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 98.2 - 98.9) participants, including 3104 males (63%; 95% CI: 61.7 - 64.3) and 1823 females (37%; 95% CI: 35.7 - 38.3) were evaluated. A total of 409 (~8.3%; 95% CI: 7.6 - 9.14) respondents were aware about glaucoma and only 93 (1.89%; 95% CI: 1.55 - 2.31) were qualified as having knowledge about glaucoma as per the set questionnaire. Education was the only variable significantly correlated (P value < 0.001) with the awareness and knowledge of glaucoma out of the parameters included in this study. Close acquaintance with a glaucoma patient was the most common source of information. Conclusions: There is a lack of awareness about glaucoma among the rural residents of North India. The study findings stress the need to spread awareness about glaucoma for prevention of glaucoma-related blindness.

Rewri, Parveen; Kakkar, Mukesh

2014-01-01

65

One hundred years of instrumental phonetic fieldwork on North America Indian languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A resurgence of interest in phonetic fieldwork on generally morphologically complex North American Indian languages over the last 15 years is a continuation of a tradition started a century ago with the Earle Pliny Goddard, who collected kymographic and palatographic field-data between 1906-1927 on several Athabaskan languages: Coastal Athabaskan (Hupa and Kato), Apachean (Mescalero, Jicarilla, White Mountain, San Juan Carlos Apache), and several Athabaskan languages in Northern Canada (Cold Lake and Beaver); data that remains important for its record of segmental timing profiles and rare articulatory documentation in then largely monolingual communities. This data in combination with new work has resulted in the emergence of a body of knowledge of these typologically distinct families that often challenge notions of phonetic universality and typology. Using the Athabaskan languages as benchmark example and starting with Goddard's work, two types of emergent typological patterns will be discussed; the persistence of fine-grained timing and duration details across the widely dispersed family, and the broad variation in prosodic types that exists, both of which are unaccounted for by phonetic or phonological theories.

McDonough, Joyce

2005-04-01

66

Sociodemographic and clinical profile of homeless mentally ill inpatients in a north Indian medical university.  

PubMed

Homeless mentally ill (HMI) persons are a highly vulnerable and socially disadvantaged population, deprived of even the basic minimal human rights. Data on HMI in India is scarce. This retrospective chart review aimed to evaluate socio-demographic, socio-cultural and clinical profile of HMI patients, and to study reasons of homelessness and outcome related variables in these patients. One hundred and forty homeless persons were admitted to the department of psychiatry of a north Indian medical university from February 2005 to July 2011. Of these, one hundred and twenty-seven (90.7%) had psychiatric illness and six had only intellectual disabilities. The majority of HMI persons were illiterate/minimally literate, adult, male, and from low socioeconomic and rural backgrounds. Most of the patients (55.7%) had more than one psychiatric diagnosis. HMI had considerably high rates of co-morbid substance abuse (44.3%), intellectual disabilities (38.6%) and physical problems (75.4%). Most (84.3%) were mentally ill before leaving home and 54.3% left home themselves due to the illness. Most HMI responded to the treatment. After treatment of mental illness, it was possible to reintegrate about 70% of the patients into their families. Families were willing to accept and support them. Untreated/inadequately treated mental illness was the most common reason for homelessness. Easily accessible treatment and rehabilitation facilities at low cost can improve the plight of such patients. Further research in this area is required. PMID:24011688

Tripathi, A; Nischal, A; Dalal, P K; Agarwal, V; Agarwal, M; Trivedi, J K; Gupta, B; Arya, A

2013-10-01

67

Organochlorine pesticide levels and risk of Alzheimer's disease in north Indian population.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) could result from a multifactorial process involving both genetic predisposition and exposure to environmental factors like pesticides. A case control study of 70 patients of AD and 75 controls was done to examine the association between organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and risk of AD. OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (pp'-DDE), op'-DDE, pp'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (pp'-DDT), op'-DDT, pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (pp'-DDD) and op'-DDD) were extracted from blood and quantitatively estimated using gas chromatography. A Mann-Whitney U test revealed significant difference in ?-HCH levels (U = 1237.00, W = 4087.00, z = -6.296, p = 0.000, r = -0.71), dieldrin levels (U = 1449.00, W = 4299.00, z = -5.809, p = 0.000, r = -0.68) and pp'-DDE levels (U = 2062.00, W = 4912.00, z = -2.698, p = 0.007, r = -0.59) between AD patients and controls. In conclusion, this study supports epidemiological studies that associate exposure to pesticides with increased risk of AD, and we identified the specific pesticides ?-HCH, dieldrin and pp'-DDE that are associated with the risk of AD in the north Indian population. However, further research is needed to establish the potential role of these OCPs as an etiologic agent for AD case. PMID:22899726

Singh, Nk; Chhillar, N; Banerjee, Bd; Bala, K; Basu, M; Mustafa, Md

2013-01-01

68

Prevalence of impacted and supernumerary teeth in the North Indian population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Dental impaction is a very frequent problem. Supernumerary teeth, or hyperdontia, are the presence of additional teeth to the normal series in the either of the dentition. The presence of impacted and/or supernumerary teeth can cause various complications. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of impacted and supernumerary teeth in the North Indian population. Study Design: The panoramic radiographic records of 4750 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 were examined for this retrospective study. The ages of the patients ranged from 8 to 72 years, with a mean of 34.6 years. Results: A total of 798 (16.8%) patients presented with 1126 impacted teeth. Impacted canines were the most prevalent (9.7%), followed by impacted premolars (4.3%). Supernumerary teeth (1.6%) and impacted molars (1.2%) were less prevalent. Among the 842 impacted teeth, the most frequently affected teeth were the canines (56.7%), followed by premolars (27.8%), and supernumerary teeth (9.3%), while the prevalence of impacted molars was quite lower (6.2%). Conclusion: The most frequently impacted teeth were maxillary canines and the mesiodens were the most common supernumerary tooth. The early diagnosis of supernumerary and impacted teeth is essential to prevent malocclusion and malalignment of permanent teeth demonstrating the importance of panoramic radiographs in their detection. Key words:Impacted, supernumerary, prevalence, canines, mesiodens.

Maheshwari, Sneha

2014-01-01

69

Revised and synthetic apparent polar wander paths of the African, Eurasian, North American and Indian plates, and true polar wander since 200 Ma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed paleomagnetic data available for the Eurasian, African, North American and Indian plates over the last 200 Ma. Selection criteria are those generally accepted, with an emphasis on evidence for lack of remagnetization, accurate dating and proper structural analysis. This results in 23, 35, 51 and 2 poles for Eurasia, Africa, North America and India, respectively. We believe

Jean Besse; Vincent Courtillot

1991-01-01

70

Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic

Andreas Schmittner; Eric D. Galbraith; Steven W. Hostetler; Thomas F. Pedersen; Rong Zhang

2007-01-01

71

Pesticides-induced biochemical alterations in occupational North Indian suburban population.  

PubMed

Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from insects-pests. Most of the field workers of North Indian population are exposed to commonly used insecticides. In the present study, pesticides induced oxidative stress as well as alterations in the level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in a total of 70 male healthy agricultural sprayers, exposed to pesticides for about 5 years, were studied and the results were compared with 70 controls. The levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, CAT, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase), AChE, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) contents were determined in their blood erythrocytes (red blood cells (RBCs)). The results indicated significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes in pesticide-exposed individuals. The levels of GSH, RBC-AChE activity and plasma antioxidant potential were sharply decreased when compared with control subjects. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of pesticide in exposed as well as healthy controls. A significant positive correlation was observed between plasma FRAP value and the activity of AChE from RBCs in pesticides sprayers. Furthermore, these results were supported by enhanced messenger RNA expressions of cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (CYP2E1) and gutathione-S-transferase isoform pi (GST-pi) in the white blood cells of the randomly selected pesticide-exposed individuals. The decreased GSH level in human red blood cells accompanied by increase in the levels of the activities of antioxidative enzymes and over expressions of CYP2E1 and GST-pi is an indicative of oxidative stress in pesticides-exposed individuals. The reduced activity of AChE indicates possible occurrence of perturbations in blood as well as neurotoxicity in pesticide sprayers. PMID:23424210

Sharma, R K; Upadhyay, G; Siddiqi, N J; Sharma, B

2013-11-01

72

Assessment of Health-Promoting Behavior and Lifestyle of Adolescents of a North Indian City  

PubMed Central

Background: Several health-compromising behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol) as well as health-enhancing behaviors (e.g., physical exercise, nutrition) are adopted in adolescence and they often persist into adulthood. Thus, there is a definite need to investigate the health behavior of adolescents rather than focus on adults since it will be far more difficult for adults to change their unhealthy habits adopted in their youth. Therefore, the present study was conducted to ascertain health-promoting behavior and lifestyle of university graduates of Chandigarh. Methods: The present cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in Chandigarh during 2009 among university graduates of Chandigarh aged 17-20 years. A semi-structured, pretested questionnaire comprising of 28 items was used to get information from students regarding their involvement in diet, physical exercise, spirituality and philanthropy. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference of the respondents were measured using standardized equipments and procedures. Results: Mean score of health-promoting lifestyle profile of university graduates was found to be 67.5 ± 12.1 (maximum attainable score = 106). Fourteen students were found to be overweight. Frequent intake of fast food and less consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by the students. Majority of students exercised as part of their daily routine. Conclusions: The result of the study showed that North Indian students had reasonably good orientations toward health behaviors, with a mean score of 67.5. The topics related to diet, physical exercise, spiritual growth and philanthropy promotion should be incorporated within the curriculum of students for their all round personality development.

Raj, Sonika; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Singh, Amarjeet

2013-01-01

73

Changes in erosion and ocean circulation recorded in the Hf isotopic compositions of North Atlantic and Indian Ocean ferromanganese crusts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution Hf isotopic records are presented for hydrogenetic Fe–Mn crusts from the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans. BM1969 from the western North Atlantic has previously been shown to record systematically decreasing Nd isotopic compositions from about 60 to ?4 Ma, at which time both show a rapid decrease to unradiogenic Nd composition, thought to be related to the increasing influence of NADW or glaciation in the northern hemisphere. During the Oligocene, North Atlantic Hf became progressively less radiogenic until in the mid-Miocene (?15 Ma) it reached +1. It then shifted gradually back to an ?Hf value of +3 at 4 Ma, since when it has decreased rapidly to about ?1 at the present day. The observed shifts in the Hf isotopic composition were probably caused by variation in intensity of erosion as glaciation progressed in the northern hemisphere. Ferromanganese crusts SS663 and 109D are from about 5500 m depth in the Indian Ocean and are now separated by ?2300 km across the Mid-Indian Ridge. They display similar trends in Hf isotopic composition from 20 to 5 Ma, with the more northern crust having a composition that is consistently more radiogenic (by ?2 ?Hf units). Paradoxically, during the last 20 Ma the Hf isotopic compositions of the two crusts have converged despite increased separation and subsidence relative to the ridge. A correlatable negative excursion at ?5 Ma in the two records may reflect a short-term increase in erosion caused by the activation of the Himalayan main central thrust. Changes to unradiogenic Hf in the central Indian Ocean after 5 Ma may alternatively have been caused by the expanding influence of NADW into the Mid-Indian Basin via circum-Antarctic deep water or a reduction of Pacific flow through the Indonesian gateway. In either case, these results illustrate the utility of the Hf isotope system as a tracer of paleoceanographic changes, capable of responding to subtle changes in erosional regime not readily resolved using other isotope systems.

Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, John N.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.; Hein, James R.; Günther, Detlef

2000-01-01

74

MTHFR C677T Predisposes to POAG but Not to PACG in a North Indian Population: A Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by the C677T genetic variant in MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) has been implicated in neuronal cell death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), which is a characteristic feature of glaucoma. However, association of MTHFR C677T with glaucoma has been controversial because of inconsistent results across association studies. Association between MTHFR C677T and glaucoma has not been reported in Indian population. Therefore, with a focus on neurodegenerative death of RGC in glaucoma, the current study aimed to investigate association of MTHFR C677T with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) in a North Indian population. A total of 404 participants (231 patients and 173 controls) were included in this study. Genotyping was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. A few random samples were also tested by direct sequencing. Genotypic and allelic distributions of the POAG and PACG cohorts were compared to that of controls by chi-square test and odds ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals. Genotypic and allelic distributions between POAG cases and controls were significantly different (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01 respectively). Unlike POAG, we did not find significant difference in the genotypic and allelic distributions of C677T between PACG cases and controls (p>0.05). We also observed a higher proportion of TT associated POAG in females than that in males. However, this is a preliminary indication of gender specific risk of C677T that needs to be replicated in a larger cohort of males and females. The present investigation on MTHFR C677T and glaucoma reveals that the TT genotype and T allele of this polymorphism are significant risk factors for POAG but not for PACG in North Indian population. Ours is the first report demonstrating association of MTHFR C677T with POAG but not PACG in individuals from North India.

Gupta, Shashank; Bhaskar, Pradeep Kumar; Bhardwaj, Ritu; Chandra, Abhishek; Chaudhry, Vidya Nair; Chaudhry, Prashaant; Ali, Akhtar; Mukherjee, Ashim; Mutsuddi, Mousumi

2014-01-01

75

The assessment of developmental status using the Ages and Stages questionnaire-3 in nutritional research in north Indian young children  

PubMed Central

Objective and background For large epidemiological studies in low and middle-income countries, inexpensive and easily administered developmental assessment tools are called for. This report evaluates the feasibility of the assessment tool Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3.edition (ASQ-3) “home procedure” in a field trial in 422 North Indian young children. Methods ASQ-3 was translated and adjusted for a North Indian Hindi setting. Three examiners were trained by a clinical psychologist to perform the assessments. During the main study, ten % of the assessments were done by two examiners to estimate inter-observer agreement. During all sessions, the examiners recorded whether the scoring was based on observation of the skill during the session, or on caregiver’s report of the child’s skill. Intra class correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the agreement between the raters and between the raters and a gold standard. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and standardized alphas were calculated to measure internal consistency. Principal findings Inter-observer agreement was strong both during training exercises and during the main study. In the Motor subscales and the Problem Solving subscale most items could be observed during the session. The standardized alphas for the total ASQ-3 scale across all ages were strong, while the alpha values for the different subscales and age levels varied. The correlations between the total score and the subscale scores were consistently strong, while the correlations between subscale scores were moderate. Conclusions/significance We found that the translated and adjusted ASQ-3 “home procedure” was a feasible procedure for the collection of reliable data on the developmental status in infants and young children. Examiners were effectively trained over a short period of time, and the total ASQ scores showed adequate variability. However, further adjustments are needed to obtain satisfying alpha values in all subscales, and to ensure variability in all items when transferred to a North Indian cultural context.

2013-01-01

76

The Interactive Effect of SIRT1 Promoter Region Polymorphism on Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility in the North Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have implicated genes mainly involved in the activity of pancreatic ? cells in type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility in the North Indian population. Recent literature on the role of SIRT1 as a potential master switch modulating insulin secretion and regulating gene expression in pancreatic ? cells has warranted an evaluation of SIRT1 promoter region polymorphisms in the North Indian population, which is the main focus of the present study. 1542 samples (692 T2D patients and 850 controls) were sequenced for the 1.46 kb region upstream the translation start site of the SIRT1 gene. We performed a functional characterization of the SIRT1 promoter region polymorphisms using luciferase assay and observed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12778366, in association with SIRT1 expression. We propose that TT, the high-expressing genotype of SNP rs12778366 in the SIRT1 promoter region and present in >80% of the North Indian population, was favored under conditions of feast-famine cycles in evolution, which has turned out to be a cause of concern in the present sedentary lifestyle under ad libitum conditions. Case-control association analysis did not implicate rs12778366 in T2DM per se in the studied population. However, our earlier reported risk genotype combinations of mt-ND3, PGC1?, and UCP2-866, when compared with the protective genotype combinations, in the background of the high-expressing TT genotype of SIRT1 SNP rs12778366, showed a very high additive risk [corrected odd ratio (OR)?=?8.91; p?=?6.5×10?11]. The risk level was considerably low in the genotype backgrounds of TX (OR?=?6.68; p?=?2.71×10?12) and CX (OR?=?3.74; p?=?4.0×10?3). In addition, we screened other reported T2D-associated polymorphisms: PIK3R1 rs3730089, IRS1 rs1801278, and PPP1R3 rs1799999, which did not show any significant association in North Indian population. The present paper emphasizes the importance of gene interactions in the biological pathways of T2D, a complex lifestyle disease.

Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Swarkar; Kaul, Surabhi; Jain, Kamal; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, Amarjit S.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

2012-01-01

77

Tidal Charts of the Indian Ocean North of 15 deg S.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The writers have constructed new tidal charts of the northern Indian Ocean by empirical means from existing data and from recent deep pressure gage measurements. A brief comparison is made to Dietrich's (1944) charts and to some existing numerical models ...

C. McCammon C. Wunsch

1977-01-01

78

Structure of the Ninetyeast Ridge North of the Equator, Eastern Indian Ocean.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ninetyeast Ridge in the eastern Indian Ocean is an aseismic volcanic ridge that marks the Keruguelen hotspot trace between 35°S and 17°N, depicting significant changes in morphology and crust/lithosphere structure. Age progression, younger ages in the south to older ages, 90 Ma (anomaly 34) in the north of the ridge has been reported from linear magnetic anomalies adjoining the ridge and rocks drilled from it during the DSDP/ODP cruises. The bathymetric expression of it is visible up to Lat. 10°N but seismic reflection data indicate its buried anticlinal shape beneath the Bengal Fan, extending up to about Lat.17°N. Gravity anomalies are strongly positive over the exposed segment of the ridge but are subdued over the buried portion. A prominent break in the continuity of the Sunda-trench gravity low reflects that the ridge impinges upon the island arc and seismic reflection data indicate that the ridge approaches close to the trench. The crest of the ridge consists of numerous peaks and sediment filled basins. The sediments are likely to be volcnoclastic and/or shallow water carbonates depending upon submarine to sub- aerial conditions of the parts of the ridge overlain by hemi-pelagic to turbidites of varied thickness. Seismic sequences of the sediments are < 2 km, < 6 km and > 6 km over the ridge, along the eastern flank and on the western flank respectively. The velocity structure of the sedimentary sequences, from top to bottom, consists of 1.6 to 1.9, 2.4 to 2.7, 3.2 to 3.4, 4.5 to 4,6 and 5.2 to 5.7 km/s layers along the western flank, 1.7 to 2.0, 2.3 to 3.2 and 4.6 to 5.7 km/s of Quaternary, pre-Miocene and pre-Paleocene respectively over the crest of the ridge and 2.3, 2.9 and 4.8 km/s velocity along the eastern flank of the ridge underlain by 6.4 km/s velocity oceanic layer 2. Tight folds and closely spaced faults (normal and reverse), some of them extending to the basement and deforming the crust of the ridge, have been imaged seismically. The en- echelon block structure of the NER against the faults in the proximity of the convergent zone is a consequence of complex strike-slip and subduction related tectonic forces.

Gopala Rao, D.; Sreekrishna, K.; Levchenko, O.; W. Sager, W.; Paul, C.

2008-12-01

79

Association of polymorphisms in 9p21 region with CAD in North Indian population: replication of SNPs identified through GWAS.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide that is influenced by both environmental as well as genetic factors. Several recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported the association of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mainly in the 9p21 region with CAD. However, the association of these SNPs with CAD has not been rigorously tested in Indian population, which accounts for the largest incidences of CAD in the world. Herein, we genotyped six such SNPs (rs10116277, rs10757274, rs1333040, rs2383206, rs2383207 and rs1994016) identified through GWAS, in 754 individuals (311 angiography-confirmed CAD patients and 443 treadmill test controls) recruited mainly from North India to evaluate if these SNPs were associated with CAD. The minor allele frequency of these six SNPs was comparable to that reported in the respective GWAS. We found that three of these SNPs (rs10116277, rs1333040 and rs2383206) present at the locus 9p21 were significantly associated with CAD even after controlling for the confounding factors such as age, sex, body mass index, homocysteine, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, diet, etc. In conclusion, the locus 9p21 found to be significantly associated with cardiovascular diseases in the Caucasian populations seems to be also important in North Indian population. PMID:20718794

Kumar, J; Yumnam, S; Basu, T; Ghosh, A; Garg, G; Karthikeyan, G; Sengupta, S

2011-06-01

80

The North Indian Ocean circulation and its variability as seen in a numerical hindcast of the years 1993 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 12-year hindcast of the physical state of the North Indian Ocean has been carried out for the period 1993-2004, using a data-assimilative, primitive equation, multi-level circulation model that assimilated altimetric sea surface height anomalies and weekly MCSST, and was driven by 6-h ECMWF winds. This period encompasses the anomalous wind events in 1994 and 1997-1998 that led to anomalous oceanic state including anomalous sea surface heights and sea surface temperatures, especially in the equatorial regions. Since the in situ database in the Indian Ocean is rather sparse, the hindcast provides an alternative means of examining the state of the ocean, including its interior, during these anomalous years, as well as normal years during this period. By comparison with observations available during this period, it is shown that the model possesses reasonable skill to be useful in the description of various events in the North Indian Ocean. In this paper, we examine the circulation and its variability over the 12 years of the hindcast. We discuss equatorial events, as well as events in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, including the Somali Current system. The heat and mass fluxes are examined. Finally, the hindcast is repeated with QuikSCAT wind stress fields available from July 1999 onwards. Comparison of the 2000-2004 hindcasts forced by ECMWF winds and QS wind stresses shows that in the former, the currents and fluxes are underestimated by 20-30%, but the circulation patterns are roughly similar.

Kantha, Lakshmi; Rojsiraphisal, Thaned; Lopez, Joseph

2008-01-01

81

North Atlantic weather regimes response to Indian-western Pacific Ocean warming: A multi-model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extratropical large-scale atmospheric circulation is often described in terms of a few preferred and recurrent patterns referred to as weather regimes. Here, we investigate the influence of the observed Indian and western Pacific Ocean (IP) warming over the last decades, on the frequency of occurrence of North Atlantic weather regimes. A multi-model approach is adopted in which five different atmospheric general circulation models are forced with idealized sea surface temperature patterns mimicking the IP warming. Despite some discrepancies, three models suggest a stronger occurrence of the Zonal regime when IP is warm, compensated by less frequent Greenland Anticyclone regimes, consistently with the observed positive trend of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The other two models simulate instead an increase in the frequency of occurrence of the Atlantic Ridge regime. Variance decomposition into stationary and transient waves suggest two mechanisms at work in the individual models. The AR regime favoured occurrence is associated with a strong transient wave activity along the wave guide in the North Pacific and downstream in the North Atlantic. The Zonal favoured excitation is interpreted as an indirect response to changes in the Tropical Atlantic associated with a global alteration of the Walker cell.

SanchezGomez, E.; Cassou, C.; Hodson, D. L. R.; Keenlyside, N.; Okumura, Y.; Zhou, T.

2008-08-01

82

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part V: [The Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Alabama-Quassarte to the Osage)].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Part V of a series of publications of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, resolutions, constitutions, and by-laws of some of the Indian tribes in Oklahoma. Twenty such documents are presented, representing the following Indian groups: Alabama-Quassarte, Caddo, Cherokee Nation and United Keetoowah,…

Fay, George E., Comp.

83

Caucasian and Asian specific rheumatoid arthritis risk loci reveal limited replication and apparent allelic heterogeneity in north Indians.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis indicate that several genes/loci are consistently associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in European and Asian populations. To evaluate the transferability status of these findings to an ethnically diverse north Indian population, we performed a replication analysis. We investigated the association of 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 43 of these genes/loci with RA in a north Indian cohort comprising 983 RA cases and 1007 age and gender matched controls. Genotyping was done using Infinium human 660w-quad. Association analysis by chi-square test implemented in plink was carried out in two steps. Firstly, association of the index or surrogate SNP (r2>0.8, calculated from reference GIH Hap-Map population) was tested. In the second step, evidence for allelic/locus heterogeneity at aforementioned genes/loci was assessed for by testing additional flanking SNPs in linkage equilibrium with index/surrogate marker.Of the 44 European specific index SNPs, neither index nor surrogate SNPs were present for nine SNPs in the genotyping array. Of the remaining 35, associations were replicated at seven genes namely PTPN22 (rs1217407, p?=?3×10(-3)); IL2-21 (rs13119723, p?=?0.008); HLA-DRB1 (rs660895, p?=?2.56×10(-5); rs6457617, p?=?1.6×10(-09); rs13192471, p?=?6.7×10(-16)); TNFA1P3 (rs9321637, p?=?0.03); CCL21 (rs13293020, p?=?0.01); IL2RA (rs2104286, p?=?1.9×10(-4)) and ZEB1 (rs2793108, p?=?0.006). Of the three Asian specific loci tested, rs2977227 in PADI4 showed modest association (p<0.02). Further, of the 140 SNPs (in LE with index/surrogate variant) tested, association was observed at 11 additional genes: PTPRC, AFF3, CD28, CTLA4, PXK, ANKRD55, TAGAP, CCR6, BLK, CD40 and IL2RB. This study indicates limited replication of European and Asian index SNPs and apparent allelic heterogeneity in RA etiology among north Indians warranting independent GWAS in this population. However, replicated associations of HLA-DRB1, PTPN22 (which confer ?50% of the heritable risk to RA) and IL2RA suggest that cross-ethnicity fine mapping of such loci is apposite for identification of causal variants. PMID:22355377

Prasad, Pushplata; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, Rajiva; Juyal, Ramesh C; Thelma, B K

2012-01-01

84

Caucasian and Asian Specific Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk Loci Reveal Limited Replication and Apparent Allelic Heterogeneity in North Indians  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis indicate that several genes/loci are consistently associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in European and Asian populations. To evaluate the transferability status of these findings to an ethnically diverse north Indian population, we performed a replication analysis. We investigated the association of 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 43 of these genes/loci with RA in a north Indian cohort comprising 983 RA cases and 1007 age and gender matched controls. Genotyping was done using Infinium human 660w-quad. Association analysis by chi-square test implemented in plink was carried out in two steps. Firstly, association of the index or surrogate SNP (r2>0.8, calculated from reference GIH Hap-Map population) was tested. In the second step, evidence for allelic/locus heterogeneity at aforementioned genes/loci was assessed for by testing additional flanking SNPs in linkage equilibrium with index/surrogate marker. Of the 44 European specific index SNPs, neither index nor surrogate SNPs were present for nine SNPs in the genotyping array. Of the remaining 35, associations were replicated at seven genes namely PTPN22 (rs1217407, p?=?3×10?3); IL2–21 (rs13119723, p?=?0.008); HLA-DRB1 (rs660895, p?=?2.56×10?5; rs6457617, p?=?1.6×10?09; rs13192471, p?=?6.7×10?16); TNFA1P3 (rs9321637, p?=?0.03); CCL21 (rs13293020, p?=?0.01); IL2RA (rs2104286, p?=?1.9×10?4) and ZEB1 (rs2793108, p?=?0.006). Of the three Asian specific loci tested, rs2977227 in PADI4 showed modest association (p<0.02). Further, of the 140 SNPs (in LE with index/surrogate variant) tested, association was observed at 11 additional genes: PTPRC, AFF3, CD28, CTLA4, PXK, ANKRD55, TAGAP, CCR6, BLK, CD40 and IL2RB. This study indicates limited replication of European and Asian index SNPs and apparent allelic heterogeneity in RA etiology among north Indians warranting independent GWAS in this population. However, replicated associations of HLA-DRB1, PTPN22 (which confer ?50% of the heritable risk to RA) and IL2RA suggest that cross-ethnicity fine mapping of such loci is apposite for identification of causal variants.

Prasad, Pushplata; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, Rajiva; Juyal, Ramesh C.; B. K., Thelma

2012-01-01

85

A Study of the Contributing Factors Relating to Why American Indian Students Drop Out of Or Graduate from Educational Programs at the University of North Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate American Indians who enrolled at the University of North Dakota for academic years 1970-1979 were surveyed to determine factors contributing to attrition and retention. The final sample included 116 students, 71 dropouts and 45 graduates. A questionnaire and two information forms were designed to obtain information on biographical,…

Jeanotte, Leigh D.

86

Films on Indians and Inuit of North America 1965-1978 (Films sur les Indiens et les Inuit de l'Amerique du Nord 1965-1978).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bilingual annotated bibliography of French and English films about the Indians and Inuit of North America contains entries for more than 1200 films made between 1965 and 1978. Although most of the films are in English, about 100 French films are included. Their titles are listed alphabetically in an Index of "Films in French". There are 4…

Rothwell, Stephen J.

87

Association of DNA Polymorphism at the Apolipoprotein B100 Gene Locus with Plasma Lipid Concentration and Coronary Artery Disease among North Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between apolipoprotein B gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease and lipid levels in north Indians. Two hundred patients of angiographically proven atherosclerotic CAD and two hundred age and sex matched control subjects were included in the study. Serum lipids including cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL and ApoB were analyzed. PCR

Vivek Pratap Singh; V. Ramesh; Sonal Somvanshi; Satyendra Tewari; Faisal Khan

88

The north-northwest aftershock pattern of the June 28, 1992 Landers earthquake and the probability of large earthquakes in Indian Wells Valley  

SciTech Connect

Immediately following the June 28, 1992 Landers earthquake, a strong north-northwest pattern of aftershocks and triggered earthquakes developed. The most intense pattern developed between the north end of primary rupture on the Emerson fault and southern Owens Valley. The trend of seismicity cuts through the east-west trending Garlock fault at a high angle. The Garlock fault has no apparent affect on the trend or pattern. Within the aftershock zone, south of the Garlock fault, the Calico and Blackwater faults provide the most likely pathway for the Mojave shear zone into Indian Wells and Owens Valleys. In Indian Wells Valley the seismically active Little Lake fault aligns well with the Blackwater fault to the south and the southern Owens Valley fault zone to the north. Several recent research papers suggest that Optimum Coulomb failure stress changes caused by the Landers earthquake have enhanced the probability of earthquakes within the north-northwest trending aftershock zone. This increase has greater significance when the presumed Optimum Coulomb failure stress changes caused by the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake and its affects on Indian Wells Valley are considered. Indian Wells Valley and the Coso Volcanic field may have received two significant stress increases from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the last 120 years. If these two earthquakes increased the shear stress of aults in the Indian Wells/Coso areas, the most likely site for the next large earthquake within the Mojave shear zone may be there. The rate of seismicity within Indian Wells Valley had increased since 1980 including a magnitude 5.0 earthquake in 1982.

Roquemore, G.R. (Irvine Valley College, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Simila, G.A. (California State Univ., Northridge, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1993-04-01

89

Genetic relatedness of six North-Indian butterfly species (Lepidoptera :Pieridae) based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis.  

PubMed

The present work involves the assessment of level of genetic relatedness or divergence amongst the six North-Indian species of Lepidoptera belonging to family Pieridae and sub family Pierinae on the basis of sequence variation of 16S ribosomal RNA. The PCR amplified products of these species were directly sequenced using ABI Prism BigDye Terminator Sequencing Kits (Applied Biosystems). The multiple nucleotide sequence alignment analysis has revealed several differences across these species. Significantly high percentage of A + T base composition content ranging between 73.13% (Ixias pyrene ) and 79.20 % (Pieris brassica) was observed in studied species. The percentage divergence in the investigated species of Pieridae family varied from 5.5% to 21.7%. The two species of Catopsilia revealed minimum sequence divergence of only 5.5%, whereas the other two groups of Ixias and Pieris revealed 15.5% and 8.6% sequence divergence, respectively. Pieris canidia and Ixias pyrene are genetically most divergent (21.7%) amongst the studied lepidopteran species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence revealed grouping of six species of Lepidoptera in the form of two different clusters, each cluster being represented by two species from the same genera. The separate taxonomic grouping of these Indian species has been observed when compared with several species of Piernae and Coliadinae subfamilies from other country isolates. PMID:16951984

Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Kumari, Mamtesh; Gill, Tajinder Kaur; Singh, Jagmohan; Sodhi, Monika; Mukesh, Manishi; Bansal, Sugandha; Arya, Swati; Bisnoi, Savita

2007-01-01

90

Cerebrospinal fluid profile of amyloid ?42 (A?42), hTau and ubiquitin in North Indian Alzheimer's disease patients.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, and is characterized by the degeneration of neurons and their synapses, and a higher number of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) compared with that found in non-demented individuals. Amyloid-?-peptides (A?) are major components of amyloid plaques in AD brain whereas NFTs are composed of Tau and associated with ubiquitin. The aim of the present study was to analyze the levels of A?42, hTau (total Tau) and ubiquitin in CSF of North Indian population. CSF A?42, Tau and ubiquitin were measured in CSF of AD patients as well as controls using ELISA assays. Here we report low A?42 levels in AD patients (324.24±76.38pg/ml) as compared to those in non-AD (NAD) (668.34±43.13pg/ml), neurological controls (NCs) (727.28±46.49pg/ml) and healthy controls (HCs) (976.47±124.46pg/ml). In contrast, hTau and ubiquitin levels were significantly high (568.65±48.89pg/ml and 36.82±4.34ng/ml, respectively) in AD patients compared to those in NAD, NC and HC. The hTau levels were 267.37±36.64pg/ml, 167.34±44.27pg/ml and 107.62±24.27pg/ml in NAD, NC and HC, respectively. Similarly, ubiquitin levels were 23.57±2.32ng/ml, 19.76±3.64ng/ml and 13.24±4.56ng/ml in NAD, NC and HC, respectively. In conclusion, low A?42 and high Tau-ubiquitin levels were found in North Indian AD patients. PMID:20599474

Kandimalla, Ramesh Jl; S, Prabhakar; Bk, Binukumar; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Deep Raj; Grover, V K; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Jain, Kajal; Gill, Kiran Dip

2011-01-01

91

Casting Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

Wright, Michael D.; And Others

1992-01-01

92

Association of PTPN22+1858C/T polymorphism with Type 1 diabetes in the North Indian population.  

PubMed

A nonsynonymous SNP +1858C/T (rs2476601) in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 22(PTPN22) gene leading to Arg 620 Trp substitution is known to be associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) and several other autoimmune diseases. We studied this polymorphism in 145 T1D patients and 210 healthy controls from North India. The minor allele +1858T was observed to be significantly increased among patients as compared to healthy controls (2.76% vs 0.5%, P = 0.027, OR = 5.93; 95% CI = 1.4-24.8). The association was also observed at the level of heterozygous C/T genotype (5.5% vs 0.95%, P = 0.026, OR = 6.07; 95% CI = 1.43-25.6). The T allele and C/T genotype were predominantly found among patients who were positive for both glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and insulin antigen 2 (IA2) autoantibodies and showed significantly increased frequencies (10%, P = 0.034, OR = 11.67; 95% CI = 1.58-84.1 and 20%, P = 0.031, OR = 13.0; 95% CI = 1.66-97.5, respectively) as compared to patients negative for these autoantibodies (0.95% and 1.9%, respectively). The results suggest that the PTPN22+1858T allele is positively associated with T1D in the North Indian population. PMID:24913133

Kumar, N; Kaur, G; Kanga, U; Tandon, N; Caillat-Zucman, S; Mehra, N K

2014-08-01

93

Therapeutic Dosing of Acenocoumarol: Proposal of a Population Specific Pharmacogenetic Dosing Algorithm and Its Validation in North Indians  

PubMed Central

Objectives To develop a population specific pharmacogenetic acenocoumarol dosing algorithm for north Indian patients and show its efficiency in dosage prediction. Methods Multiple and linear stepwise regression analyses were used to include age, sex, height, weight, body surface area, smoking status, VKORC1 -1639 G>A, CYP4F2 1347 G>A, CYP2C9*2,*3 and GGCX 12970 C>G polymorphisms as variables to generate dosing algorithms. The new dosing models were compared with already reported algorithms and also with the clinical data for various performance measures. Odds ratios for association of genotypes with drug sensitive and resistant groups were calculated. Results The pharmacogenetic dosing algorithm generated by multiple regression analysis explains 41.4% (p-value <0.001) of dosage variation. Validation of the new algorithm showed its predictive ability to be better than the already established algorithms based on similar variables. Its validity in our population is reflected by increased sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and decreased rates of over- and under- estimation in comparison to clinical data. The VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism was found to be strongly associated with acenocoumarol sensitivity according to recessive model. Conclusions We have proposed an efficient north India specific pharmacogenetic acenocoumarol dosing algorithm which might become a baseline for personalised medicine approach for treatment of patients in future.

Rathore, Saurabh Singh; Agarwal, Surendra Kumar; Pande, Shantanu; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Mittal, Tulika; Mittal, Balraj

2012-01-01

94

Major gene segregation of actinic prurigo among North American Indians in Saskatchewan.  

PubMed

Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic, familial photodermatosis seen especially in American Indians. Segregation analysis was performed on 12 Saskatchewan pedigrees with American Indian ancestry, comprising a total of 1,148 individuals, ascertained via probands diagnosed with actinic prurigo. Although a high degree of familial aggregation has been noted in the past and dominant inheritance has been suggested, no formal segregation analysis has been attempted. Actinic prurigo has a variable age of onset and, therefore, age at the time of censoring must be taken into account in the analysis. However, as these ages of 57% of the unaffected individuals were missing, an algorithm was devised to impute the missing ages from known birth years in the family based on the age differences among relatives and spouses. Using these imputed ages, simple dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance and a single age of onset distribution was found. The method for imputing the ages at examination was evaluated, as was the correction for ascertainment, by using alternative methods and comparing the results. Regardless of the method used, a dominant mode of inheritance without any multifactorial component remained the best hypothesis. PMID:10817657

Schnell, A H; Elston, R C; Hull, P R; Lane, P R

2000-05-29

95

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VI: [The Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Ottawa-Wyandotte)].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Part VI of a series of publications of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, resolutions, constitutions, and by-laws of some of the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. Twenty-two such documents are included, representing the following tribes: Ottawa, Pawnee, Peoria, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole,…

Fay, George E., Comp.

96

Gender variation in morphological patterns of lip prints among some north Indian populations  

PubMed Central

Background: Personal identification is an integral part of forensic investigations. For the same, DNA profiling and fingerprints are the most commonly used tools. But these evidences are not ubiquitous and may not necessarily be obtained from the crime scene. In such a scenario, other physical and trace evidences play a pivotal role and subsequently the branches employed are forensic osteology, odontology, biometrics, etc. A relatively recent field in the branch of forensic odontology is cheiloscopy or the study of lip prints. A comparison of lip prints from the crime scene and those obtained from the suspects may be useful in the identification or narrowing down the investigation. Aim: The purpose of the present study is to determine the gender and population variability in the morphological patterns of lip prints among brahmins, Jats, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana, India. Settings and Design: Samples were collected from Jats, brahmins, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana. The total sample size consisted of 1399 individuals including 781 males and 618 females in the age group of 8–60 years. Care was taken not to collect samples from genetically related individuals. The technique was standardized by recording lip prints of 20 persons and analyzing them. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were collected by using a corporate's invisible tape and analyzed using a hand lens. The patterns were studied along the entire length and breadth of both the upper and the lower lip. The data were analyzed by SPSS statistical package version 17 to determine the frequencies and percentages of occurrence of the pattern types in each population group and a comparison between males and females among the groups was carried out by using the z test. Results and Conclusions: The z-test comparison between patterns of males and females shows significant differences with respect to pattern types I’, II, III, and IV among brahmins; I’, II, III, IV, and Y among Jats; and I, I’, II, III, and V among scheduled castes. Thus, it can be concluded that the variability of the lip print pattern can help sex differentiation among groups and that more studies on the lip print pattern should be carried out to bring new dimensions to forensic anthropology and to aid the law enforcement agencies.

Vats, Yogesh; Dhall, Jasmine Kaur; Kapoor, AK

2012-01-01

97

77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are located in the town of North Fork, Madera County, California, described as: Real...City of UNINCORPORATED AREA, County of Madera, State of California, described as follows...THE UNINCORPORATED AREA OF THE COUNTY OF MADERA, STATE OF CALIFORNIA, AS PER MAP...

2012-12-03

98

Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

this paper, we show that a linear, continuously stratified ocean model reproduces observed wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variability in the coastal waveguide of the Northern Indian Ocean (NIO). Sensitivity experiments with intraseasonal wind forcing selectively applied in the equatorial region, Bay of Bengal, and Arabian Sea show that a large part of the basin-scale sea level variations are driven by zonal wind fluctuations along the equator. Within the NIO coastal waveguide, the contribution of remote equatorial forcing decreases from ~80-90% in the Andaman Sea to ~50% northeast of Sri Lanka and then increases to ~60-70% along the west coast of India. During the southwest monsoon, intraseasonal wind variations become stronger over the NIO, resulting in a larger contribution of local wind forcing to sea level variability along the west (up to 60%) and east (up to 40%) coasts of India.

Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Durand, F.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

2013-11-01

99

Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the Western North Pacific-East Asian Monsoons(.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of 50-yr NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data reveal remarkably different interannual variability between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) in their temporal-spatial structures, relationships to El Niño, and teleconnections with midlatitude circulations. Thus, two circulation indices are necessary, which measure the variability of the ISM and WNPSM, respectively. A weak WNPSM features suppressed convection along 10°-20°N and enhanced rainfall along the mei-yu/baiu front. So the WNPSM index also provides a measure for the east Asian summer monsoon. An anomalous WNPSM exhibits a prominent meridional coupling among the Australian high, cross-equatorial flows, WNP monsoon trough, WNP subtropical high, east Asian subtropical front, and Okhotsk high. The WNP monsoon has leading spectral peaks at 50 and 16 months, whereas the Indian monsoon displays a primary peak around 30 months. The WNPSM is weak during the decay of an El Niño, whereas the ISM tends to abate when an El Niño develops. Since the late 1970s, the WNPSM has become more variable, but its relationship with El Niño remained steady; in contrast, the ISM has become less variable and its linkage with El Niño has dramatically declined. These contrasting features are in part attributed to the differing processes of monsoon-ocean interaction.Also found is a teleconnection between a suppressed WNPSM and deficient summer rainfall over the Great Plains of the United States. This boreal summer teleconnection is forced by the heat source fluctuation associated with the WNPSM and appears to be established through excitation of Rossby wave trains and perturbation of the jet stream that further excites downstream optimum unstable modes.

Wang, Bin; Wu, Renguang; Lau, K.-M.

2001-10-01

100

Origin of Late Palaeoproterozoic Great Vindhyan basin of North Indian shield: Geochemical evidence from mafic volcanic rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the western and southern margins of the sickle shaped Vindhyan basin of north Indian shield, there are basal Vindhyan mafic volcanic rocks referred to as Khairmalia volcanics and Jungel volcanics respectively. These volcanics vary in composition from low-Ti tholeiite to high-Ti alkali basalt showing close affinity with continental flood basalts (CFB) and ocean island basalts (OIB) respectively. The parental magmas of Khairmalia and Jungel alkali basalts were formed by different degrees of partial melting of a garnet lherzolite. The magma of Khairmalia tholeiites was generated by a relatively higher degrees of partial melting of a garnet + spinel lherzolite. The geochemical data coupled with available geological and geophysical data favour a rift type origin of this basin which evolved as a peripheral basin showing many similarities with Paleogene Himalayan foreland basin. The existing radiometric age data suggest that the origin of Vindhyan basin is linked with Aravalli-Satpura orogeny. At about 1800-1600 Ma collision occurred along the Aravalli-Delhi fold belt (ADFB) and Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) with west and south subduction respectively. During this process the subducting lithosphere suffered extensional deformation on its convex side and some pre-existing large faults in the already thin leading edge of subducted plate also reactivated and tapped magma generated by decompressional melting of the subcontinental mantle. The simultaneous processes such as flexural subsidence, reactivation of pre-existing faults, heating, thermal cooling and contraction during volcanism, resulted in the formation of curvilinear warp parallel to the emerging mountain front. The Lower Vindhyan volcano-sedimentary succession was deformed and exposed to erosion before the deposition of Upper Vindhyan rocks. The orogenic forces were active intermittently throughout the Vindhyan sedimentation.

Raza, M.; Khan, Abdullah; Shamim Khan, M.

2009-05-01

101

Vitamin d insufficiency is associated with abdominal obesity in urban asian indians without diabetes in north India.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: We evaluated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT), and intraabdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) depots in Asian Indians without diabetes residing in north India. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study (n=137; 74 males and 63 females; 18-60 years of age), anthropometric (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness at four sites) and biochemical (fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, and fasting insulin levels) assessments were done. Measurement of percentage body fat was done by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and areas of TAAT, SCAT and IAAT were measured at the L2-L3 intervertebral level by single-slice magnetic resonance imaging. Levels of 25(OH) D were measured by radioimmunoassay. Correlation analysis was used to assess relationships among clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles, areas of TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT, and 25(OH) D levels. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OH) D was 40.5±8.6?ng/mL. Overall, 6.6% had vitamin D deficiency (<10?ng/mL), 87.6% had insufficiency (<30?ng/mL), and 5.8% had a sufficient level (>30?ng/mL). Levels of 25(OH) D did not correlate with demographic, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles or with abdominal fat depots (TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT). In the correlation regression model, 25(OH) D was associated with TAAT in obese subjects. Conclusions: In obese urban Asian Indians without diabetes, higher values of total abdominal fat at the L2-L3 intervertebral level were associated with low 25(OH) D levels. PMID:24528222

Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Misra, Anoop; Sharma, Mukti; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Luthra, Kalpana; Vikram, Naval Kishore

2014-06-01

102

Heme oxygenase-1 gene variants and hyperbilirubinemia risk in North Indian newborns.  

PubMed

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in bilirubin metabolism, and its genetic variant may modulate hyperbilirubinemia risk in neonates. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between heme oxygenase-1 gene variants and hyperbilirubinemia risk in Indian newborns. In a prospective case-control study, we analyzed (GT)n repeats and g.-413A>T variant of HO-1 gene and UGT1A1 gene variants in 100 case newborns with total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels exceeding 95th percentile and 100 control newborns with TSB levels below 75th percentile on the hour-specific bilirubin nomogram of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Study population consisted of term (37-41 weeks) and late preterm (34-36 weeks) newborns during the first 2 weeks of age. In our analysis, the (GT)n allele was highly polymorphic, ranging in number from 15 to 40. The incidence of short (GT)n allele (? 20) was significantly higher in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia than in controls. Although g.-413A>T variant was widely prevalent in the study population, no difference was noted in its prevalence between cases and controls. Short (GT)n repeats of HO-1 gene, c.211G>A variant of UGT1A1 gene, and excessive weight loss were independent risk factors for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In the presence of two or more risk factors, the odds of developing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were high. Shorter (GT)n genotype in the promoter region of HO-1 gene is significantly associated with hyperbilirubinemia risk in Indian newborns. This genotype may interact with other genetic and clinical risk factors to further potentiate hyperbilirubinemia risk in newborns. PMID:23877636

Tiwari, Pankaj Kumar; Sethi, Amanpreet; Basu, Sriparna; Raman, Rajiva; Kumar, Ashok

2013-12-01

103

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

104

Assessment of Groundwater Quality Data for the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, Rolette County, North Dakota, 1970-2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation relies on groundwater supplies to meet the demands of community and economic needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, examined historical groundwater-level ...

K. C. Vining R. F. Lundgren

2013-01-01

105

A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetic origins and demographic history of Indian populations is important both for questions concerning the early settlement of Eurasia and more recent events, including the appearance of Indo-Aryan languages and settled agriculture in the subcontinent. Although there is general agreement that Indian caste and tribal populations share a common late Pleistocene maternal ancestry in India, some studies of the Y-chromosome markers have suggested a recent, substantial incursion from Central or West Eurasia. To investigate the origin of paternal lineages of Indian populations, 936 Y chromosomes, representing 32 tribal and 45 caste groups from all four major linguistic groups of India, were analyzed for 38 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers. Phylogeography of the major Y-chromosomal haplogroups in India, genetic distance, and admixture analyses all indicate that the recent external contribution to Dravidian- and Hindi-speaking caste groups has been low. The sharing of some Y-chromosomal haplogroups between Indian and Central Asian populations is most parsimoniously explained by a deep, common ancestry between the two regions, with diffusion of some Indian-specific lineages northward. The Y-chromosomal data consistently suggest a largely South Asian origin for Indian caste communities and therefore argue against any major influx, from regions north and west of India, of people associated either with the development of agriculture or the spread of the Indo-Aryan language family. The dyadic Y-chromosome composition of Tibeto-Burman speakers of India, however, can be attributed to a recent demographic process, which appears to have absorbed and overlain populations who previously spoke Austro-Asiatic languages.

Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Singh, Anamika; Himabindu, G.; Banerjee, Jheelam; Sitalaximi, T.; Gaikwad, Sonali; Trivedi, R.; Endicott, Phillip; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard; Kashyap, V. K.

2006-01-01

106

A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: evaluating demic diffusion scenarios.  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic origins and demographic history of Indian populations is important both for questions concerning the early settlement of Eurasia and more recent events, including the appearance of Indo-Aryan languages and settled agriculture in the subcontinent. Although there is general agreement that Indian caste and tribal populations share a common late Pleistocene maternal ancestry in India, some studies of the Y-chromosome markers have suggested a recent, substantial incursion from Central or West Eurasia. To investigate the origin of paternal lineages of Indian populations, 936 Y chromosomes, representing 32 tribal and 45 caste groups from all four major linguistic groups of India, were analyzed for 38 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers. Phylogeography of the major Y-chromosomal haplogroups in India, genetic distance, and admixture analyses all indicate that the recent external contribution to Dravidian- and Hindi-speaking caste groups has been low. The sharing of some Y-chromosomal haplogroups between Indian and Central Asian populations is most parsimoniously explained by a deep, common ancestry between the two regions, with diffusion of some Indian-specific lineages northward. The Y-chromosomal data consistently suggest a largely South Asian origin for Indian caste communities and therefore argue against any major influx, from regions north and west of India, of people associated either with the development of agriculture or the spread of the Indo-Aryan language family. The dyadic Y-chromosome composition of Tibeto-Burman speakers of India, however, can be attributed to a recent demographic process, which appears to have absorbed and overlain populations who previously spoke Austro-Asiatic languages. PMID:16415161

Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Singh, Anamika; Himabindu, G; Banerjee, Jheelam; Sitalaximi, T; Gaikwad, Sonali; Trivedi, R; Endicott, Phillip; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard; Kashyap, V K

2006-01-24

107

Q-structure beneath the north and central Indian Ocean from the inversion of observed Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by 57 earthquakes which occurred in the north and central Indian Ocean (extending to 40°S) and recorded at Indian seismograph and other WWSSN stations such as HOW, SHL, VIS, MDR, HYB, KOD, CHG, TRD, POO, BOM, GOA, NDI, NIL and QUE are analysed. Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients are estimated at periods of 15-100 s using the spectral amplitude of these waves for 98 different paths across the Bay of Bengal Fan, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. The large standard deviations observed in the surface wave attenuation coefficients may be a result of regional variation of the attenuative properties of the crust and upper mantle beneath these regions. Love wave attenuation coefficients are found to vary from 0.000 03 to 0.000 45 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 03 to 0.000 85 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.000 35 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Similarly, Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients vary from 0.000 03 to 0.0004 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 06 to 0.0007 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.0007 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Backus and Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q-1 models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. Inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data shows a high-attenuation zone centred at a depth of > 120 km ( Q? ? 125) for the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, a high-attenuation zone ( Q? ? 40-70) occurs at a depth of 60-160 km for the Arabian Fan at 100-160 km ( Q? ? 115) for the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge, and at 80-160 km ( Q? ? 80) for the Indian Ocean across the Ninetyeast Ridge. The Q?-1 models show a lithosphere thickness of 120 km beneath the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, lithosphere thickness of 70, 100 and 80 km is estimated beneath the Arabian Fan, and the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge and across Ninetyeast Ridge, respectively. The base of the lithosphere is identified as the depth at which there is a significant increase in the Q?-1 value, which attains its maximum value in the asthenosphere. The thinning of Indian lithosphere beneath the Arabian Fan suggests high temperature below Moho depth (60 km from surface) which has caused a high-attenuation zone at this shallow depth.

Singh, D. D.

108

Dimensional analysis of various rugae patterns in north Indian population subset  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Rugae patterns are significant markers for analyzing anteroposterior changes in adolescence, and forensic investigations. Aim: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the gender-wise predisposition of rugae patterns and to analyze anteroposterior alterations along with any developmental changes in palatal depth. Materials and Methods: One hundred pre-treatment study cast models were obtained from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, M.M. CDSR, Mullana. Parameters employed were: Division of medial palatal region into “a”: Distance between incisive papilla length and anterior limit of the anteriormost rugae; “b”: Distance between incisive papilla and most posterior rugae limits; measurement of Lateral rugae dimensions and palatal depth. Statistical analysis: Mean ± S.D. values were obtained and ‘P’ values calculated. Results: Comparison of “a” and “b” showed a significant difference in the P values between the age-groups 12-13 years and >14 years. Rugae patterns with separate origins showed a predisposition for female gender. Conclusion: A significant change in the anteroposterior medial rugae dimensions was seen in adolescent age groups alongside no variation in palate depth. Hence, it can be concluded that differential growth potential is present in the premaxilla and can cause shift in medial palatal dimensions without altering the rugae patterns and palatal depth.

Chatterjee, Shailja; Khanna, Mannu

2011-01-01

109

Sex determination potential of permanent maxillary molar widths and cusp diameters in a North Indian population  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess the sex discrimination potential of permanent maxillary molar crown widths and cusp diameters. Materials and Methods: Measurements were made on plaster casts of 200 individuals of known sex (100 males, 100 females, aged 12-21 years). Eight parameters were measured on the first and second maxillary molars with a digital caliper [buccolingual, mesiodistal, mesiobuccal-distolingual and distobuccal-mesiolingual crown widths and cusp diameters (hypocone, protocone, paracone, and metacone)]. The percentage of sexual dimorphism for each parameter was calculated. Discriminant function analysis was used to determine the accuracy of sex determination for each molar separately and both the molars taken together. Results: The highest sexual dimorphism was shown by protocone in the first molar and hypocone in the second molar. Furthermore, the sex determination accuracy was highest when the first molar was taken alone than when the second molar or the first and second molars were taken together. Conclusion: Based on this study, odontometric measurements of maxillary molars provide low to moderate sex determination accuracy.

Sharma, Payal; Singh, Tushita; Kumar, Piush; Chandra, Pavan Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh

2013-01-01

110

Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America  

PubMed Central

Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases.

Rempel, Julia D.; Uhanova, Julia

2012-01-01

111

An investigation of genome-wide studies reported susceptibility loci for ulcerative colitis shows limited replication in north Indians.  

PubMed

Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) of both Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) have unearthed over 40 risk conferring variants. Recently, a meta-analysis on UC revealed several loci, most of which were either previously associated with UC or CD susceptibility in populations of European origin. In this study, we attempted to replicate these findings in an ethnically distinct north Indian UC cohort. 648 UC cases and 850 controls were genotyped using Infinium Human 660W-quad. Out of 59 meta-analysis index SNPs, six were not in the SNP array used in the study. Of the remaining 53 SNPs, four were found monomorphic. Association (p<0.05) at 25 SNPs was observed, of which 15 were CD specific. Only five SNPs namely rs2395185 (HLA-DRA), rs3024505 (IL10), rs6426833 (RNF186), rs3763313 (BTNL2) and rs2066843 (NOD2) retained significance after Bonferroni correction. These results (i) reveal limited replication of Caucasian based meta-analysis results; (ii) reiterate overlapping molecular mechanism(s) in UC and CD; (iii) indicate differences in genetic architecture between populations; and (iv) suggest that resources such as HapMap need to be extended to cover diverse ethnic populations. They also suggest a systematic GWAS in this terrain may be insightful for identifying population specific IBD risk conferring loci and thus enable cross-ethnicity fine mapping of disease loci. PMID:21304977

Juyal, Garima; Prasad, Pushplata; Senapati, Sabyasachi; Midha, Vandana; Sood, Ajit; Amre, Devendra; Juyal, Ramesh C; BK, Thelma

2011-01-01

112

An Investigation of Genome-Wide Studies Reported Susceptibility Loci for Ulcerative Colitis Shows Limited Replication in North Indians  

PubMed Central

Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) of both Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) have unearthed over 40 risk conferring variants. Recently, a meta-analysis on UC revealed several loci, most of which were either previously associated with UC or CD susceptibility in populations of European origin. In this study, we attempted to replicate these findings in an ethnically distinct north Indian UC cohort. 648 UC cases and 850 controls were genotyped using Infinium Human 660W-quad. Out of 59 meta-analysis index SNPs, six were not in the SNP array used in the study. Of the remaining 53 SNPs, four were found monomorphic. Association (p<0.05) at 25 SNPs was observed, of which 15 were CD specific. Only five SNPs namely rs2395185 (HLA-DRA), rs3024505 (IL10), rs6426833 (RNF186), rs3763313 (BTNL2) and rs2066843 (NOD2) retained significance after Bonferroni correction. These results (i) reveal limited replication of Caucasian based meta-analysis results; (ii) reiterate overlapping molecular mechanism(s) in UC and CD; (iii) indicate differences in genetic architecture between populations; and (iv) suggest that resources such as HapMap need to be extended to cover diverse ethnic populations. They also suggest a systematic GWAS in this terrain may be insightful for identifying population specific IBD risk conferring loci and thus enable cross-ethnicity fine mapping of disease loci.

Juyal, Garima; Prasad, Pushplata; Senapati, Sabyasachi; Midha, Vandana; Sood, Ajit; Amre, Devendra; Juyal, Ramesh C.; BK, Thelma

2011-01-01

113

Future changes in tropical cyclone activity in the North Indian Ocean projected by high-resolution MRI-AGCMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and previous versions of the high-resolution 20- and 60-km-mesh Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation models are used to investigate potential future changes in tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the North Indian Ocean (NIO). Fifteen ensemble experiments are performed under the International Panel on Climate Change A1B scenario. Most of the ensemble future (2075-2099) experiments do not project significant future changes in the basin-scale TC genesis number; however, they commonly show a substantial increase (by 46 %) in TC frequency over the Arabian Sea and a decrease (by 31 %) in the Bay of Bengal. Projected future changes in TC genesis frequency show a marked seasonal variation in the NIO: a significant and robust reduction during the pre-monsoon season, an increase during the peak-monsoon season, and a westward shift during the post-monsoon season. Several large-scale thermodynamic and dynamical parameters are analysed to elucidate the physical mechanism responsible for the future changes in TC activity; this analysis reveals a seasonal dependence of the relative contribution of these parameters to the projected future changes in TC genesis frequency.

Murakami, Hiroyuki; Sugi, Masato; Kitoh, Akio

2013-04-01

114

Microorganisms and Their Sensitivity Pattern in Septic Arthritis of North Indian Children: A Prospective Study from Tertiary Care Level Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background. Septic arthritis is a true orthopaedic emergency. Important factors determining outcome are rapid diagnosis and timely intervention. Changing trends in microbiological spectrum and emerging drug resistance poses big challenge. Present study evaluates bacterial strains and their sensitivity pattern in septic arthritis of North Indian children. Methods. Fifty children with septic arthritis of any joint were evaluated. Joint was aspirated and 2?cc of aspirated fluid was sent for gram stain and culture. Blood cultures were also sent for bacteriological evaluation. Results. Fifty percent cases had definite radiological evidence of septic arthritis whereas ultrasound revealed fluid in 98% cases. Aspirated fluid showed isolates in 72% cases. The most common organism was Staphylococcus aureus (62%) followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Gr. B Streptococcus. Blood culture could grow the organism in 34% cases only. The bacterial strain showed significant resistance to common antibiotic cocktail in routine practice. Resistance to cloxacillin and ceftriaxone was 62% and 14% respectively. No organisms were resistant to vancomycin and linezolid. Conclusion. S. aureus is still the most common organism in septic arthritis. Though a significant resistance to common antibiotic cocktail is noticed, the strain is susceptible to higher antibiotics. We recommend using these antibiotics as an empirical therapy till culture and sensitivity report is available.

Yadav, Sanjay; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh; Aggrawal, Sameer; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

2013-01-01

115

Improved tropical cyclone forecasts over north Indian Ocean with direct assimilation of AMSU-A radiances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model and its three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3D-Var) system are used to investigate the impact of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) radiances on the prediction of Indian Ocean tropical cyclones. Three tropical cyclones are selected for this study: cyclone Mala (April 2006; Bay of Bengal), cyclone Gonu (June 2007; Arabian Sea), and cyclone Sidr (November 2007; Bay of Bengal). For each case, observing system experiments are designed, by producing two sets of analyses from which forecasts are initialized. Both sets of analyses contain all conventional and satellite observations operationally used, including, but not limited to, Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) surface winds, Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) surface winds, Meteosat-derived atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs), and differ only in the exclusion (CNT) or inclusion (EXP) of AMSU-A radiances. Results show that the assimilation of AMSU-A radiances changes the large-scale thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere, and also produce a stronger warm core. These changes cause large forecast track improvements. In particular, without AMSU-A assimilation, most forecasts do not produce landfall. On the contrary, the forecasts initialized from improved EXP analyses in which AMSU-A data are included produce realistic landfall. In addition, intensity forecast is also improved. Even if the analyzed cyclone intensity is not affected by the assimilation of AMSU-A radiances, the predicted intensity improves substantially because of the development of warm cores which, through creation of stronger gradients, helps the model in producing intense low centre pressure.

Singh, Randhir; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.; Joshi, P. C.

2012-01-01

116

Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic can cause large and synchronous variations of oxygen minimum zones, throughout the Northern Hemisphere of the Indian and Pacific oceans, consistent with the paleoclimate records. Cold periods in the North Atlantic are associated with reduced nutrient delivery to the upper Indo-Pacific oceans, thereby decreasing productivity. Reduced export production diminishes subsurface respiration of organic matter leading to higher oxygen concentrations and less denitrification. This effect of reduced oxygen consumption dominates at low latitudes. At high latitudes in the Southern Ocean and North Pacific, increased mixed layer depths and steepening of isopycnals improve ocean ventilation and oxygen supply to the subsurface. Atmospheric teleconnections through changes in wind-driven ocean circulation modify this basin-scale pattern regionally. These results suggest that changes in the Atlantic Ocean circulation, similar to those projected by climate models to possibly occur in the centuries to come because of anthropogenic climate warming, can have large effects on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles even in remote areas. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

Schmittner, A.; Galbraith, E. D.; Hostetler, S. W.; Pedersen, T. F.; Zhang, R.

2007-01-01

117

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) gene polymorphisms related with susceptibility to rheumatic heart disease in north Indian population.  

PubMed

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most serious complication of heart that comprises inflammatory reactions in heart valves. Cytokines play a critical role in triggering inflammatory reactions and they activate the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. Altered signals of STATs play important roles in the balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the association of polymorphisms related with STAT genes, i.e. STAT3 (rs4796793 C/G) and STAT5b (rs6503691 C/T) with the pathogenesis of RHD. This case-control association study involved 300 healthy controls and 400 RHD patients from North Indian Population. We categorized RHD patients into two subgroups based on involvement of heart valves, mitral valve lesion alone (MVL), and combined valve lesions including mitral valve (CVL). Genotyping was done by RFLP/Taqman probes. We observed that STAT3 CG and GG genotypes were significantly associated with RHD (p=0.030 and p=0.014 respectively), STAT5b CT and TT genotypes were also significantly associated with RHD (p?0.001). Haplotype analysis revealed that minor alleles of both the variants (Grs4796793Trs6503691) were significantly associated (p<0.0001) with increased risk of the disease susceptibility irrespective of gender or age of onset of the disease. However, the polymorphisms were not involved in severity of RHD as both MVL and CVL patients were equally affected. STAT Grs4796793Trs6503691 carriers may have reduced production of STAT3 leading to damage of heart valves. Thus, STAT genes polymorphisms may be useful markers for the identification of individuals with high risk of RHD in the susceptible population. PMID:24797343

Gupta, Usha; Mir, Snober S; Srivastava, Apurva; Garg, Naveen; Agarwal, Surendra K; Pande, Shantanu; Mittal, Balraj

2014-09-01

118

CYP4F2 1347 G > A & GGCX 12970 C > G polymorphisms: frequency in north Indians & their effect on dosing of acenocoumarol oral anticoagulant.  

PubMed

Background & objectives: CYP4F2 and ?-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) have small but significant roles in the maintenance dose of coumarinic oral anticoagulants (COAs). CYP4F2 1347 G > A and GGCX 12970 C > G polymorphisms have been used in the pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms of warfarin for Caucasians and Chinese populations. India has a large population with multiple ethnic groups but there are no reports about the frequencies of these polymorphisms in north Indians. In the present study, we aimed to find out the allelic frequencies of CYP4F2 1347 G > A and GGCX 12970 C > G polymorphisms in a north Indian population and relate these to daily maintenance drug dose requirements of COA. Methods: CYP4F2 1347 G > A and GGCX 12970 C > G polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) protocols and Taqman SNP discrimination assays in healthy volunteers (n=102) and patients (n=225) receiving acenocoumarol, an oral anticoagulant, after cardiac valve replacement surgery. Results: In healthy volunteers, the allele frequencies for CYP4F2 1347 G > A and GGCX 12970 C > G were 43.14 and 1.43 per cent, respectively. No significant differences in mean weight normalized doses of acenocoumarol were found for these CYP4F2 and GGCX genotypes. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association of any of the genotypes or alleles with the dosing phenotypes for both the SNPs. Interpretation & conclusions: We report distinct frequencies of CYP4F2 1347 G > A and GGCX 12970 C > G polymorphisms in north Indians but these polymorphisms did not have significant bearing on maintenance dose of acenocoumarol oral anticoagulant in cardiac valve replacement patients. PMID:24927344

Rathore, Saurabh Singh; Agarwal, Surendra Kumar; Pande, Shantanu; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Mittal, Tulika; Mittal, Balraj

2014-04-01

119

CYP4F2 1347 G>A & GGCX 12970 C>G polymorphisms: frequency in north Indians & their effect on dosing of acenocoumarol oral anticoagulant  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: CYP4F2 and ?-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) have small but significant roles in the maintenance dose of coumarinic oral anticoagulants (COAs). CYP4F2 1347 G>A and GGCX 12970 C>G polymorphisms have been used in the pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms of warfarin for Caucasians and Chinese populations. India has a large population with multiple ethnic groups but there are no reports about the frequencies of these polymorphisms in north Indians. In the present study, we aimed to find out the allelic frequencies of CYP4F2 1347 G>A and GGCX 12970 C>G polymorphisms in a north Indian population and relate these to daily maintenance drug dose requirements of COA. Methods: CYP4F2 1347 G>A and GGCX 12970 C>G polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) protocols and Taqman SNP discrimination assays in healthy volunteers (n=102) and patients (n=225) receiving acenocoumarol, an oral anticoagulant, after cardiac valve replacement surgery. Results: In healthy volunteers, the allele frequencies for CYP4F2 1347 G>A and GGCX 12970 C>G were 43.14 and 1.43 per cent, respectively. No significant differences in mean weight normalized doses of acenocoumarol were found for these CYP4F2 and GGCX genotypes. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association of any of the genotypes or alleles with the dosing phenotypes for both the SNPs. Interpretation & conclusions: We report distinct frequencies of CYP4F2 1347 G>A and GGCX 12970 C>G polymorphisms in north Indians but these polymorphisms did not have significant bearing on maintenance dose of acenocoumarol oral anticoagulant in cardiac valve replacement patients.

Rathore, Saurabh Singh; Agarwal, Surendra Kumar; Pande, Shantanu; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Mittal, Tulika; Mittal, Balraj

2014-01-01

120

Association of IL-12, IL-18 variants and serum IL-18 with bladder cancer susceptibility in North Indian population.  

PubMed

IL-12 and IL-18 are immunomodulatory cytokines that play important roles in host immune response against cancers. Variation in DNA sequence in gene promoter may lead to altered IL-18 production and/or activity, and hence can modulate an individual's susceptibility to BC. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship of IL-18 gene promoter -137 G/C and -607C/A polymorphisms and IL12 (-16974) A/C with the risk of BC in North Indian population. Polymorphisms in IL-18 and IL-12 genes were analyzed in 200 BC patients and 200 age, ethnicity and sex-matched controls, using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) and amplification refractory mutation specific-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS) method. The concentrations of IL-18 in serum were determined by ELISA. Significant association was observed with IL18 (-137) G/C heterozygous genotype (GC) with 1.96 folds risk of BC as well at C allele carrier and variant C allele having 2 fold and 1.6 fold risk for BC respectively. IL18 (-607) C/A, heterozygous CA genotype also showed a high risk (OR=1.59) for BC. While IL12 (-16974) A/C heterozygote genotype and C allele carrier demonstrated reduced risk of BC. Hetero genotype of IL18 (-137) G/C was associated with risk of recurrence (HR=2.35) in superficial BC patients receiving BCG treatment thus showing least survival. The distributions of IL-18 gene haplotypes were not significantly different between patients and controls. Serum IL-18 levels were significantly higher in BC patients than in the healthy subjects (p=0.025). Serum IL-18 levels was also significantly associated with IL18 (-137) G/C in heterozygous genotype (GC) (p=0.048). Our results suggest that IL-18 gene polymorphism contributes to bladder cancer risk whereas IL-12 is protective. A relation between IL18 (-137) G/C in heterozygous genotype with elevated IL-18 serum level and bladder cancer risk has been registered in the present study. PMID:23403235

Jaiswal, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Vibha; Srivastava, Priyanka; Mittal, Rama Devi

2013-04-25

121

Indian psychoanalysis, patriarchy and hinduism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian intellectuals have been concerned about the complex links between religion, caste and gender, especially in the formation of social science ideas and practices. The mental and behavioural sciences, however, have only been at the fringes of this interest. As a case?study, and as an initial and tentative attempt in this area, this paper foregrounds the caste and gender basis

Bhargavi V. Davar

1999-01-01

122

Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world

Revathi Rajkumar; VK Kashyap

2004-01-01

123

Relationship between polymorphisms in beta -2 adrenergic receptor gene and ischemic stroke in North Indian Population: a hospital based case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is a multi-factorial disease and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of the present case control study was to check the relationship between beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in North Indian Population. Methods In a hospital based case control study, patients with ischemic stroke and control subjects from outpatient department and neurology ward of All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi. Genotyping was performed by using Polymerase chain reaction–Restriction fragment length polymorphism. Frequency distributions of genotypes and alleles were compared between cases and controls using multivariate logistic regression. Results In this study, 224 patients and 224 age-and sex-matched control subjects were recruited. Mean age of cases and controls were 53.9?±?13.4 and 53.6?±?12.9 years respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent association between Gln27Glu polymorphism and large vessel stroke (LVD) under a recessive model of inheritance (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3 to 11). An age-stratified analysis, suggested independent association between Gln27Glu polymorphism and ischemic stroke, large vessel disease and small vessel disease stroke who had onset of disease at an older age. Conclusions The findings of the present study suggest that Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene may confer higher risk of large vessel disease stroke in a North Indian population. Prospective studies with larger sample size are required for independent validation.

2014-01-01

124

Magnetic mineral deposition and deep circulation in South Indian Ocean during MIS3: correlation with NADW change in the North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that cores taken in the South Indian Ocean, eastwards of the Kerguelen plateau, exhibit variable accumulation rate over the last climatic cycle, with higher values during cold stages (Bareille et al., 1994; Dezileau et al., 2000). Here we focus on short-termed variations of low field susceptibility (X and other bulk magnetic parameters (ARM, IRM) of cores taken in this area, during MIS3. A coherent signature is observed, with limited changes in magnetic mineralogy. Thus, following the approach of Kissel et al. (1999) for the North Atlantic, we interpret these signals in terms of variations in the amount of magnetic minerals transported by deep currents and deposited at the sites. Then, we consider the geomagnetic assisted stratigraphy already used to place SST signals of core MD94-103 on the GISP2 age model around the Laschamp geomagnetic event (Mazaud et al., 2002) to examine the link between these millennial variations and those of the NADW in the North Atlantic. Magnetic parameters indicate a progressive increase in the intensity of deep circulation in the South Indian Ocean globally opposed to the decreasing trend obtained for the NADW before Heinrich event H4. However, the oscillations associated to the successive Dansgaard-Oeschger events in the NADW are damped out. A rapid decrease is then seen during interstadial n° 8, an event which occurred after H4 at northern latitudes and corresponds to a NADW restart. We suggest that a similar scenario may have played around H5, although in this case the magnetic stratigraphy is only tentative. Bulk magnetic parameters also suggest a progressive increase in the activity of South Indian Ocean circulation after interstadial 7. Globally, results obtained around H4 and H5 indicate a deep circulation inversely connected to the NADW, with a smoothing of the fastest variations.

Mazaud, A.; Kissel, C.; Laj, C.; Sicre, M. A.; Ezat, U.; Duprat, J.; Michel, E.; Turon, J. L.

2003-04-01

125

Secular Trends in Obesity, Regional Adiposity and Metabolic Parameters among Asian Indian Adolescents in North India: A Comparative Data Analysis of Two Selective Samples 5 Years Apart (2003, 2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To assess and compare the secular trends in anthropometric and biochemical parameters over 5 years (2003–2008) amongst Asian Indian adolescents in north India. Methods: Adolescents matched for age, gender, socioeconomic strata and school grade were taken from two school-based studies (2003, n = 106, girls = 50 and boys = 56; 2008, n = 134, girls = 59 and

Neha Singhal; Anoop Misra; Priyali Shah; Kavita Rastogi; Naval K. Vikram

2010-01-01

126

A Survey of the Current Study and Teaching of North American Indian Languages in the United States and Canada. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey attempts to bring together as much information as possible on the current study and teaching of North American Indian languages in the United States and Canada. The primary source of data for this survey was a questionnaire distributed in the spring of 1973 to 61 universities and colleges in the U.S. and Canada. Other sources were…

Martin, Jeanette

127

In Praise of the Ordinary Man: Popular Media, Social Hierarchy and Identity in a North Indian Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article recounts a story found in a popular genre of religious literature known as vrat katha[ritual storytelling]. The narrative is of an “ordinary” low-caste man and his everyday struggles. It tells of the social and economic suffering experienced by the poor man upon encountering god (called Trilokinath\\/Vishnu) and receiving his blessing, mediated through a series of miraculous events. However,

Assa Doron

2009-01-01

128

Ground-water data for the Warm Springs Indian Reservation and contiguous areas north-central Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents well data that were collected and compiled during 1985-86 by the U.S. Geological Survey and used to determine the amount of ground water discharging to the Deschutes River on and near the Warm Springs Indian Reservation. The report contains well-construction data from 171 wells, information from drillers' logs for 66 wells, water-level data for 29 wells, and a map showing well locations.

Anderson, Donald B.

1996-01-01

129

Standardization of B19 IgG ELISA to study the seroepidemiology of parvovirus B19 in North Indian voluntary blood donors  

PubMed Central

Backgound and Objectives: Parvovirus B19 (B19) being a non-enveloped DNA virus is hence thermo-stable to the current methods of viral inactivation. Therefore transfusion of blood or its component from a viremic donor to non-immune recipients may result in transfusion-transmitted B19 infection with occasional sinister complications. The serologically naïve blood donor population in our country has not been studied. Hence a study was designed to find the sero-status of B19 virus in normal voluntary blood donor population (relatives of recipients) as an indirect measure of the susceptibility to B19 in north Indians together with seroepidemiology of B19. Methods: An in-house anti-B19 IgG ELISA was standardized using cloned, baculovirus expressed, and purified VP1/VP2 capsid proteins as antigen. Anti-B19 IgG antibodies in sera (diluted 1:400) of 1000 healthy voluntary blood donors (18-60 years; mean 30.5 years) were analyzed and their epidemiologic data were documented. Results: A total of 399 (39.9%) donors were seropositive for B19 virus. Seroprevalence was higher in males than females (44% vs 27%) and it increased with increasing age (P<0.01). Socioeconomically, B19 IgG antibody positivities were 61.8%, 61.1%, and 44.4% in low, medium, and high income groups respectively with unskilled laborers having higher seroprevalence in low (48.5%) and middle (58.7%) income group (P<0.05). Housing conditions revealed B19 seroprevalence as 42.6% in donors living in small houses compared to 20.4% in larger houses (P<0.01) but no difference with religion. Conclusions: Seroprevalence to B19 in normal voluntary blood donors was low leaving a large proportion of north Indians susceptible to B19 infection.

Kishore, Janak; Srivastava, Manisha; Choudhary, Nabjyoti

2010-01-01

130

Polymorphisms in the HPC/ELAC-2 and alpha 1-antitrypsin genes that correlate with human diseases in a North Indian population.  

PubMed

Two genes HPC/ELAC-2 and AAT were studied in north Indian population. HPC/ELAC-2 was studied in prostate cancer cases and AAT was studied in COPD patients. HPC/ELAC-2 is considered as an important cancer-susceptibility gene in prostate cancer. There are two common polymorphisms of this gene, i.e., Ser217Leu and Ala541Thr. Alpha 1 antitrypsin is a highly polymorphic anti-elastase enzyme, especially active in the protection of alveoli and liver. In the present study, we observed the distribution of two deficient alleles PiZ and Pi S in COPD patients. We extracted the DNA from 157 prostate cancer cases, 200 COPD patients, 170 BPH and 370 healthy controls. The polymorphisms were studied by PCR-RFLP technique. The mutant genotype (Leu/Leu) of HPC/ELAC-2 was present in 9.6, 7.6 and 5.9% of BPH, cancer cases and healthy controls, respectively. Higher risk of Ser/Leu as well as Leu/Leu had shown when compared to healthy controls. That was about 1.5 and 1.7-fold (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 0.96-2.51; OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 0.74-3.92), respectively. Risk was found to be increased in smokers and those consuming non-vegetarian diet. Our results suggest that the HPC/ELAC-2 polymorphisms, especially in localized cases, could help to predict prostate cancer risk and confirm its high prevalence of the leu/leu allele in north Indian population. Considering heterozygous PiZ genotype, we obtained an OR of 3.82 (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis adjusted by age sex and drinking habit showed 4.15-fold increased risk for COPD in PiZ heterozygous individuals. No increased risk was observed in the individuals carrying PiS alleles. PMID:20119870

Sobti, Ranbir C; Thakur, Hitender; Gupta, Lipsy; Janmeja, Ashok K; Seth, Amlesh; Singh, Sharwan K

2011-06-01

131

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Closely Associated with Sub-Clinical Inflammation: A Case-Control Study on Asian Indians in North India  

PubMed Central

Objectives Association between sub-clinical inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been studied in Asian Indians. In this case-control study, we aimed to analyse association of NAFLD with the sub-clinical inflammation and metabolic profile in Asian Indians in north India. Methods Ultrasound diagnosed 120 cases of NAFLD were compared to 152 healthy controls without NAFLD. Anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC)], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), metabolic profile [fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile] and hepatic function tests [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] were recorded. Results Metabolic parameters [FBG, total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG),low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c)], hs-CRP and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome were higher in cases as compared to controls (p-value<0.05 for all). The median (range) of hs-CRP (mg/L) for cases [2.6(0.2–13.4)] were significantly higher than in controls [1.4(0.03–11.4), p?=?0.01]. Similarly, higher values of hs-CRP were obtained when subgroups of cases with obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome were compared to controls [2.75 (0.03–14.3) vs. 1.52 (0.04–14.3), p?=?0.0010; 2.8 (0.03–14.3) vs. 1.5 (0.06–14.3), p?=?0.0014 and 2.7 (0.5–14.3) vs. 1.6 (0.06–8.5), p?=?0.0013, respectively. On multivariate logistic regression analysis BMI (p?=?0.001), WC (p?=?0.001), FBG (p?=?0.002), TC (p?=?0.008), TG (p?=?0.002), blood pressure (p?=?0.005), metabolic syndrome (p?=?0.001) and hs-CRP (p?=?0.003) were significantly and independently associated with NAFLD. After adjusting for significant variables, the association between high hs-CRP and NAFLD remained large and statistically significant [adjusted OR?=?1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.05–1.29]. An increase in 1 mg/dl of hs-CRP level calculated to increase the risk of developing NAFLD by 1.7 times as compared to controls after adjusting for significant variables associated with NAFLD. Conclusions In this cohort of Asian Indians in North India, presence of NAFLD showed independent relationships with sub-clinical inflammation.

Nigam, Priyanka; Bhatt, Surya P.; Misra, Anoop; Vaidya, Meera; Dasgupta, Jharna; Chadha, Davinder Singh

2013-01-01

132

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at\\u000a birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed\\u000a male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh

Tatiana Zerjal; Arpita Pandya; Kumarasamy Thangaraj; Edmund Y. S. Ling; Jennifer Kearley; Stefania Bertoneri; Silvia Paracchini; Lalji Singh; Chris Tyler-Smith

2007-01-01

133

Role of natural external forcing factors in modulating the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation and their relationship on inter-decadal timescale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use reconstructed data and multi-centennial integrations performed with the Bergen Climate Model Version 2 to investigate the impact of natural external forcing factors on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the potential relationship between the ISM rainfall and the winter NAO on decadal to inter-decadal timescales. The model simulations include a 600-yr control integration (CTL600) and a 600-yr integration with time-varied natural external forcing factors from 1400 to 1999 (EXT600). Both reconstructed data and the simulation showed increased ISM rainfall 2-3 years after strong volcanic eruptions. Strong volcanic eruptions decrease the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST), which increases the strength of the southwesterly winds over the Arabian Sea. With negative externally-forced radiative anomaly, the lower stratospheric pole-to-equator winter temperature gradient is enhanced, leading to a positive winter NAO anomaly with a time lag of one year. There is no significant correlation between the winter NAO and ISM rainfall in CTL600. However, the ISM rainfall is significantly positively correlated with the winter NAO in EXT600, with the NAO leading by 2-4 years, which is consistent with the NAO-ISM rainfall relationship in the reconstructed data. We suggest that natural external forcing factors regulate the inter-decadal variability of both the winter NAO and the ISM rainfall and thus likely lead to an increased statistical but not causal relationship between them on the inter-decadal timescale over the past centuries.

Cui, Xuedong; Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Guo, Dong; Li, Shuanglin; Johannessen, Ola M.

2014-05-01

134

Role of natural external forcing factors in modulating the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation and their relationship on inter-decadal timescale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use reconstructed data and multi-centennial integrations performed with the Bergen Climate Model Version 2 to investigate the impact of natural external forcing factors on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the potential relationship between the ISM rainfall and the winter NAO on decadal to inter-decadal timescales. The model simulations include a 600-year control integration (CTL600) and a 600-year integration with time-varied natural external forcing factors from 1400 to 1999 (EXT600). Both reconstructed data and the simulation showed increased ISM rainfall 2-3 years after strong volcanic eruptions. Strong volcanic eruptions decrease the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST), which increases the strength of the southwesterly winds over the Arabian Sea. With negative externally-forced radiative anomaly, the lower stratospheric pole-to-equator winter temperature gradient is enhanced, leading to a positive winter NAO anomaly with a time lag of 1 year. There is no significant correlation between the winter NAO and ISM rainfall in CTL600. However, the ISM rainfall is significantly positively correlated with the winter NAO in EXT600, with the NAO leading by 2-4 years, which is consistent with the NAO-ISM rainfall relationship in the reconstructed data. We suggest that natural external forcing factors regulate the inter-decadal variability of both the winter NAO and the ISM rainfall and thus likely lead to an increased statistical but not causal relationship between them on the inter-decadal timescale over the past centuries.

Cui, Xuedong; Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Guo, Dong; Li, Shuanglin; Johannessen, Ola M.

2014-01-01

135

A study on the association of autoantibodies, chemokine, and its receptor with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus in North Indian population.  

PubMed

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic and complex autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against a spectrum of nuclear antigens. RANTES and its receptor CCR5 have been associated with the pathogenesis of SLE. The objective of this study is to analyze autoantibodies (DNA/RNA), allelic distribution of RANTES and the association of levels of RANTES and its receptor CCR5 in SLE patients in North Indian region. The RANTES-403 and RANTES-28 polymorphism in the promoter region of RANTES gene was studied in 80 patients and 80 healthy controls. The levels of chemokine RANTES, its receptor CCR5, anti-dsDNA, and anti-SSA antibodies levels were determined. Disease activity was assessed with the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score. All the parameters were studied for statistical analysis by using t test (graph pad prism) and correlation by SPSS data. PCR-RFLP performed showed 28C/C and the 403G/G genotypes in both patients and controls, but no other genotypes such as 28C/G, 28G/G and 403A/G, 403A/A were found. Patients had higher levels of RANTES (1840.48 ± 739.42 vs. 835.44 ± 70.48 pg/ml; P < 0.0001) and its receptor CCR5 expression (26.49 ± 0.16 vs. 24.72 ± 3.02 %; P < 0.05) compared to controls. The levels of autoantibodies anti-dsDNA and anti-SSA were also higher in patients than controls. The patients showing elevated anti-dsDNA had negative correlation with SLEDAI score (P < 0.05) while borderline patients were not found to be correlated. In case of anti-Ro/anti-SSA antibody levels, the borderline patients showed a moderately significant negative correlation as compared to controls than patients with elevated autoantibody (P < 0.01). The levels of RANTES and CCR5 were also higher in case of patients than controls. But there was no significant correlation of RANTES and CCR5 with disease activity. We were unable to find an association of RANTES polymorphism with SLE in North Indian population in our sample. No significant difference in allele distribution of RANTES-28 and RANTES-403 in the sample of 160 individuals was detected. Of the two autoantibodies studied, anti-Ro/anti-SSA levels in borderline lupus patients appeared as an important parameter for monitoring/diagnosis of lupus patients. PMID:23832290

Bidyalaxmi Devi, Leishangthem; Bhatnagar, Archana; Wanchu, Ajay; Sharma, Aman

2013-11-01

136

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part XI: The Basin-Plateau Tribes. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XI of the series, deals with the Indian tribes of Nevada: The Moapa Band of Paiute Indians, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, the…

Fay, George E., Comp.

137

Highly Protective Association of MMP-2-1306C/T Promoter Polymorphism With Asthma in a North Indian Population: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Asthma is the most prevalent disease in India according to the national survey conducted by NFHS 2 in 1998-1999. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a collagenase encoded by the MMP-2 gene, degrades the type IV collagen and is responsible for inflammatory responses. This is a pilot study evaluating the role of MMP-2 -1306C/T promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in asthma pathogenesis. Methods A case-control study was performed with a total of 824 adult subjects, including 410 adult asthmatics and 414 healthy controls from regions of North India. The MMP-2 -1306C/T polymorphism was genotyped by the Tetra-Primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System Polymerase Chain Reaction (Tetra-Primer ARMS PCR). Results Statistical analysis of the results for the MMP-2 -1306C/T polymorphism revealed an extremely protective role of the mutant T allele in asthma pathogenesis with OR=0.45, 95% CI (0.35-0.58) and P=0.000. The heterozygous CT genotype also conferred protection from asthma with OR=0.37, 95% CI (0.27-0.51) and P=0.000. The homozygous TT genotype was also significantly associated with asthma with OR=0.35, 95% CI (0.16-0.72) and P=0.002. Moreover, the polymorphism was significantly associated with all the phenotypic traits of the disease. Conclusion The MMP-2 -1306C/T promoter polymorphism confers significant protection from asthma in the studied North Indian population

Birbian, Niti; Jindal, Surinder Kumar

2014-01-01

138

Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy - mutation analysis of SLC4A11 and genotype-phenotype correlation in a North Indian patient cohort  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the solute carrier family 4 (sodium borate cotransporter) member 11 (SLC4A11) mutation spectrum and to perform genotype-phenotype correlations in autosomal recessive Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy (CHED2) in North Indian patients. Methods Twenty-five patients from twenty families clinically diagnosed with autosomal recessive CHED2 were recruited for the study. Clinical parameters such as age at onset, presentation, and pre- and post-operative visual acuities were recorded. Corneal buttons of patients undergoing keratoplasty were analyzed for histopathologic and ultrastructural confirmation. All the affected individuals and 50 unrelated population matched normal controls were screened for underlying sequence changes. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and all the exons and the 5?-upstream region of the SLC4A11 gene were screened for mutations by direct DNA sequencing. Results A high degree of consanguinity (9 out of 20 families) was noted. Corneal haze was reported to be present since birth or shortly thereafter in all affected patients. Histology and electron microscopy studies revealed increased thickness of Descemet’s membrane, especially of the non-banded zone. Molecular studies revealed one novel homozygous in-frame deletion mutation in two affected siblings from one family and three other previously reported homozygous mutations in 12 patients from 9 families. Mutations were not identified in 11 patients from 11 families. High interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variability was seen among the cohort of patients. Conclusions This is the first report on the mutation spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlation in CHED2 patients from North India. The present study detected one novel and three reported changes, adding to the repertoire of mutations in SLC4A11, and recorded a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in CHED2.

Paliwal, Preeti; Tandon, Radhika; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S.; Sen, Seema; Nag, Tapas C.; Vajpayee, Rasik B.

2010-01-01

139

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

140

Major histocompatibility complex class I chain related gene-A microsatellite polymorphism shows secondary association with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease in North Indians.  

PubMed

Microsatellite polymorphism in exon 5 of major histocompatibility complex class I chain related gene-A (MIC-A) has been implicated in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD). In this study on North Indian population, the MIC-A5.1 allele, carrying a premature termination codon in transmembrane region, was observed with increased frequency in T1D (29.6%, odds ratio OR?=?2.1, P?=?0.00017) and CD patients (40.3%, OR?=?3.37, P?=?1.67E-05) than in controls (16.7%). When the MIC-A5.1 association was adjusted for linkage with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3, the statistical significance of the association was abolished. This implies that the observed association of MIC-A5.1 is due to its linkage disequilibrium (D'?=?0.94) with HLA-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype and is secondary to the overall association with DR3 positive MHC haplotypes. PMID:22835336

Kumar, N; Sharma, G; Kaur, G; Tandon, N; Bhatnagar, S; Mehra, N

2012-10-01

141

Association of CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 gene polymorphism with risk of oral submucous fibrosis in a section of North Indian population.  

PubMed

Genetic alterations in the genes expressing drug metabolizing enzymes can make an individual susceptible to various cancers. This study detects the polymorphisms at CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes in a section of North Indian population and determines the susceptibility to oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). In this case-control study one hundred and two OSF patients were genotyped to detect the GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1 polymorphism. Two hundred healthy controls were also included. Genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) approach. The frequency of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotype was higher in OSF patients, as compared to controls. A trend risk analysis showed 7.6 fold increase in risk, when both the genes were absent. The frequency of CYP1A1 (m1) and CYP1A1 (m2) genotypes was higher in controls. No polymorphic alleles were detected in the m4 site. CYP1A1 (m1) wild genotype in the absence of GSTM1 null genotype, falls under the highest risk group (OR 3.74). Our findings suggest that CYP1A1 (m1) genotype and (m2) genotype singly acts as a protective factor but in the absence of GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 gene significantly alters risk towards OSF. PMID:22752755

Ghosh, Tanima; Gupta, Shalini; Bajpai, Prachi; Agarwal, Deepti; Agarwal, Mohit; Gupta, O P; Agrawal, Deepa

2012-10-01

142

The possible role of 10398A and 16189C mtDNA variants in providing susceptibility to T2DM in two North Indian populations: a replicative study.  

PubMed

The role of mitochondria in causing diseases is becoming evident as more and more studies are focusing on this organelle of the cell. This is largely attributed to its reactive oxygen species (ROS) production property. In the context of diabetes, ROS is suggested to trigger different forms of insulin resistance involving different mechanisms. The suggestive role of a mtDNA variant G10398A in increasing ROS production and the impaired response to oxidative stress due to T16189C variant is worth addressing as genetic susceptibility factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A case control study on 312 T2DM cases and ethnically matched 466 controls involving two North Indian populations, referred as cohort 1 and cohort 2 (in a replicative study), was undertaken to test such a genetic association. A statistically significant association was observed for 10398A allele in both the cohorts [cohort1 (OR = 2.67 95% CI 1.77-4.00); cohort2 (OR = 1.76 95%CI 1.12-2.77)]. The analysis of G10398A/T16189C haplotypic combinations revealed that 10398A/16189C haplotype provides a risk in both the cohorts. To sum up the study suggests that 10398A and 16189C alleles provide susceptiblity to T2DM independently as well as together. PMID:17066297

Bhat, Audesh; Koul, Anil; Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Bukhari, S I A; Dhar, M K; Bamezai, R N K

2007-02-01

143

Frequency of CFTR, SPINK1, and Cathepsin B Gene Mutation in North Indian Population: Connections between Genetics and Clinical Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Genetic mutations and polymorphisms have been correlated with chronic pancreatitis (CP). This study aims to investigate the association of genetic variants of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK-1) genes and Cathepsin B gene polymorphisms with CP and to associate genetic backgrounds with clinical phenotypes. Methods. 150 CP patients and 150 normal controls were enrolled consecutively. We analyzed SPINK-1 N34S and IVS3+2T>C gene mutations by PCR-restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The identification of DF508, G551D, G542X, R117H, and W1282X mutations was carried out by ARMS-PCR. S549N mutation, IVS8 polyTn polymorphism, and Cathepsin B Lec26Val were analysed by PCR-RFLP, nested PCR, and PCR-RFLP plus sequencing, respectively. Results. We found a significant association of SPINK1 (N34S) gene polymorphism. IVS1?37T>C polymorphism shows linkage with 101A>G. 300 chromosomes belonging to the CFTR subgroup exhibited minor allele frequency of 0.04, 0.03, 0.03, 0.013, 0.006, and 0.02 for DF508, G452X, G551D, S549N, R117H, and IVS8 T5, respectively. Except for R117H and IVS8 T5 polymorphisms, all other mutations showed significant variation. Conclusion. Analysis of potential susceptibility variants is needed to support nature of the genes and environment in pancreatitis. This data may help establish genetic screening and prenatal setup for Indian population.

Singh, Shweta; Choudhuri, Gourdas; Agarwal, Sarita

2014-01-01

144

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part II: The Indian Tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part II of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Documents are included relative to the Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, and the Red Cliff bands of Lake Superior Chippewa…

Fay, George E., Comp.

145

Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0.49). Evidence for validity was comparatively lower for Dun & Bradstreet, online Yellow Pages, and the NC Department of Agriculture. Conclusions Secondary data sources both over- and under-represented the food environment; they were particularly problematic for identifying convenience stores and specialty markets. More attention is needed to improve the validity of existing data sources, especially for rural local food environments.

2012-01-01

146

Association of -2549 Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor with Breast Cancer in North Indian Patients  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ?2549 insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in susceptibility to sporadic breast cancer. Methods: DNA samples of 94 breast cancer patients and 94 unrelated healthy control individuals with matched age and gender from the same geographical region of Punjab, North West India were screened for the ?2549 I/D polymorphism. Serum VEGF-C (sVEGF-C) levels of breast cancer patients and healthy controls were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The frequency of the II, ID, and DD genotype was 23.40 versus 10.64%, 48.94 versus 52.13%, and 27.66 versus 37.23%, in patients and controls, respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed for genotype distribution among the patients and controls (?2=6.039, p=0.049). There was a significant increase in the I allele frequency in the patients as compared with controls (47.86 versus 36.70%, p=0.028). The sVEGF-C levels were also considerably higher in patients as compared to healthy controls (p<0.01). Conclusions: The VEGF ?2549 I/D polymorphism has a role in the susceptibility to breast cancer in the Amritsar region of Punjab, India.

Kapahi, Ruhi; Manjari, Mridu; Uppal, Manjit Singh; Singh, Neeti Rajan; Sambyal, Vasudha

2013-01-01

147

Association of genetic variants of cancer stem cell gene CD44 haplotypes with gallbladder cancer susceptibility in North Indian population.  

PubMed

CD44 is an important marker for cancer stem cells. Germline variants in CD44 gene have been associated with susceptibility to breast and nasopharyngeal carcinomas but no study in gallbladder cancer (GBC) has been done yet. The present study included 405 GBC patients and 200 healthy controls from North India. Tagger SNPs for CD44 were selected from the GIH population data. Genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP and Taqman probes. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS. Bonferroni correction was applied in subgroup analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed no individual association of CD44 polymorphisms with GBC risk. However, [CCAT] haplotype was associated with overall reduced risk of GBC [P?=?0.04, odds ratios (OR)?=?0.47]. Gender stratification revealed that [CCAT] and [TAGT] haplotypes were significantly associated with decreased risk in female GBC patients [P?=?0.022, OR?=?0.38; P?=?0.011, OR?=?0.17, respectively]. The CAAT haplotype was marginally associated with low GBC risk in patients with co-existing gallstones [P?=?0.026, OR?=?0.53]. The cancer risk was not further modified with tobacco usage or age of onset. In silico analysis showed change in transcriptional regulation of selected SNPs. This study reports an important role of CD44 haplotypes with reduced risk of GBC. PMID:24186075

Sharma, Kiran Lata; Yadav, Anu; Gupta, Annapurna; Tulsayan, Sonam; Kumar, Vijay; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Balraj

2014-03-01

148

Special Casting Techniques (Chapter 9).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Special casting techniques are progressive production methods. These casting techniques include the following: metal mold casting (chill mold casting), shell-mold casting, investment casting, centrifugal casting, and others. Each of these methods of casti...

N. P. Dubinin

1965-01-01

149

Genetic association of adiponectin gene polymorphisms (+45T/G and +10211T/G) with type 2 diabetes in North Indians.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (ADIPOQ) is an abundant protein hormone which belongs to a family of so-called adipokines. It is expressed mostly by adipocytes and is an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism. It was shown that decreased serum adiponectin concentration indicated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with the risk of cardiovascular complications. The fact that adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone with anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, we proposed to study the association of ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms in subjects with T2DM. DNA was isolated from venous blood samples, quantified and subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using suitable primers and restriction endonucleases. Adiponectin levels were measured in serum using ELISA. The genotypic, allelic and carriage rate frequencies distribution in patients and controls were analyzed by PSAW software (ver. 17.0). Odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined to describe the strength of association by logistic regression model. Out of the two polymorphisms studied, +10211T/G showed significant association (P=0.042), the 'G' allele association being highly significant (P=0.022). Further analysis showed that individuals with 'GG' haplotype were at increased risk of T2DM up to 15.5 times [P=0.015, OR (95% CI); 15.558 (1.690-143.174)]. The present study showed that the 'G' allele of ADIPOQ gene (+10211T/G) plays a prominent role with respect to T2DM susceptibility in North-Indian population. PMID:23153972

Saxena, Madhukar; Srivastava, Neena; Banerjee, Monisha

2012-01-01

150

Methylation of the APAF-1 and DAPK-1 promoter region correlates with progression of renal cell carcinoma in North Indian population.  

PubMed

Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of cancer associated genes occur frequently during carcinogenesis and may serve as a cancer biomarker. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and relevance of promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor DAPK-1, APAF-1 () and SPARC in relation to different pathological stages and histological grades of tumor progression that might act as possible independent prognostic factor in the susceptibility towards renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in North Indian population. Three tumor suppressor gene promoters namely APAF-1, DAPK-1 and SPARC were assessed by methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) in 196 primarily resected renal cell tumors paired with the corresponding normal tissue samples. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation levels were determined and correlated with standard clinicopathological parameters, pathological stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade of RCC. Significant differences in methylation frequency among the four subtypes of renal tumors were found for APAF-1 (p < 0.001), DAPK-1 (p < 0.001) and SPARC (p = 0.182), when compared with the corresponding normal tissue. Male subjects showed stronger association of methylation frequency of all the three genes with RCC than the female subjects. Additionally, higher frequency of APAF-1, DAPK-1 and SPARC promoter methylation were directly correlated with higher tumor stage (p (trend) < 0.001). Higher frequency of promoter methylation of APAF-1 and SPARC were also associated with higher nuclear grade (p < 0.001 and p = 0.036, respectively). This gene panel might contribute to a more optimal diagnostic coverage and information, improving preoperative assessment and therapeutic decision-making in patients harboring suspicious renal masses. PMID:21922274

Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Arjumand, Wani; Seth, Amlesh; Saini, Ashish Kumar; Sultana, Sarwat

2012-04-01

151

Variability of the Indian Ocean SST and its possible impact on summer western North Pacific anticyclone in the NCEP Climate Forecast System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) provides important source of information about the seasonal prediction of climate over the Indo-Pacific oceans. In this study, the authors provide a comprehensive assessment of the prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Indian Ocean (IO). They also investigate the impact of tropical IO SST on the summer anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the western North Pacific (WNPAC), focusing on the relative contributions of local SST and remote forcing of tropical IO SST to WNPAC variations. The CFSv2 captures the two most dominant modes of summer tropical IO SST: the IO basin warming (IOBW) mode and the IO dipole (IOD) mode, as well as their relationship with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, it produces a cold SST bias in IO, which may be attributed to deeper-than-observed mixed layer and smaller-than-observed total downward heat flux in the tropical IO. It also overestimates the correlations of ENSO with IOBW and IOD, but underestimates the magnitude of IOD and summer IOBW. The CFSv2 captures the climate anomalies related to IOBW but not those related to IOD. It depicts the impact of summer IOBW on WNPAC via the equatorial Kelvin wave, which contributes to the maintenance of WNPAC in July and August. The WNPAC in June is mostly forced by local cold SST, which is better predicted by the CFSv2 compared to July and August. The mechanism for WNPAC maintenance may vary with lead time in the CFSv2.

Jiang, Xingwen; Yang, Song; Li, Jianping; Li, Yueqing; Hu, Haoran; Lian, Yi

2013-10-01

152

NOL11, Implicated in the Pathogenesis of North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis, Is Required for Pre-rRNA Transcription and Processing  

PubMed Central

The fundamental process of ribosome biogenesis requires hundreds of factors and takes place in the nucleolus. This process has been most thoroughly characterized in baker's yeast and is generally well conserved from yeast to humans. However, some of the required proteins in yeast are not found in humans, raising the possibility that they have been replaced by functional analogs. Our objective was to identify non-conserved interaction partners for the human ribosome biogenesis factor, hUTP4/Cirhin, since the R565W mutation in the C-terminus of hUTP4/Cirhin was reported to cause North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC). By screening a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library derived from human liver, and through affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we identified an uncharacterized nucleolar protein, NOL11, as an interaction partner for hUTP4/Cirhin. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that NOL11 is conserved throughout metazoans and their immediate ancestors but is not found in any other phylogenetic groups. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that NOL11 is a component of the human ribosomal small subunit (SSU) processome. siRNA knockdown of NOL11 revealed that it is involved in the cleavage steps required to generate the mature 18S rRNA and is required for optimal rDNA transcription. Furthermore, abnormal nucleolar morphology results from the absence of NOL11. Finally, yeast two-hybrid analysis shows that NOL11 interacts with the C-terminus of hUTP4/Cirhin and that the R565W mutation partially disrupts this interaction. We have therefore identified NOL11 as a novel protein required for the early stages of ribosome biogenesis in humans. Our results further implicate a role for NOL11 in the pathogenesis of NAIC.

Freed, Emily F.; Prieto, Jose-Luis; McCann, Kathleen L.; McStay, Brian; Baserga, Susan J.

2012-01-01

153

Identification and characterization of a distinct banana bunchy top virus isolate of Pacific-Indian Oceans group from North-East India.  

PubMed

Banana bunch top virus (BBTV) is considered to be a serious threat to banana production. A new isolate of the virus (BBTV-Umiam) was identified and characterized from local banana mats growing in mid-hills of Meghalaya in North-East India. The complete nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of six full-length ssDNA components (DNA R, DNA U3, DNA S, DNA M, DNA C and DNA N) sharing major common region (CR-M) and a stem-loop common region (CR-SL). BBTV-Umiam showed a unique deletion of 20 nucleotides in the intergenic region of DNA R, the absence of predicted open reading frame (ORF) in DNA U3 and probability for a small ORF in DNA U3 expecting functional evidence at transcriptional level. Phylogenetic analysis based on 88 complete nucleotide sequence of BBTV DNA R available in GenBank generated two broad clusters of Pacific-Indian Oceans (PIO) and South-East Asian (SEA) groups including BBTV-Umiam within PIO cluster. However, BBTV-Umiam was identified as the most distinct member of the PIO group with 100% bootstrap support. This was further supported by the phylogenetic grouping of each genomic component of BBTV-Umiam at the distant end of PIO group during clustering of 21 complete BBTV sequences. BBTV-Umiam shared relatively less nucleotide identity with PIO group for each genomic component (85.0-95.4%) and corresponding ORF (93.8-97.5%) than that of earlier PIO isolates (91.5-99.6% and 96.0-99.3%, respectively). Recombination analysis revealed two intra-component and five inter-component recombination events in BBTV-Umiam, but none of them was unique. Moreover, the isolate was identified as major parental sequence for intra-component recombination event spanning the replication-associated protein encoding region in Tongan BBTV DNA R. The current study indicated differential evolution of BBTV in North-East India (Meghalaya). The natural occurrence of hybrids of Musa balbisiana and M. acuminata in this geographically isolated region could be the contributing factor in accumulating genetic distinctiveness in BBTV-Umiam which need further characterization. PMID:24468493

Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Behere, Ganesh T; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Ngachan, S V

2014-04-01

154

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part IV: The Southwest (Navajo--Zuni). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part IV of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, articles of association, and by-laws of Indian tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. Documents are included relative to the Navajo Tribe of Arizona and New Mexico; the Eastern Navajo Council--New Mexico; the…

Fay, George E., Comp.

155

Paper Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project, based on the work of artist Chew Teng Beng, in the molding of wet paper on a plaster cast to create embossed paper designs. The values of such a project are outlined, including a note that its tactile approach makes it suitable to visually handicapped students. (SJL)

Arrasjid, Dorine A.

1980-01-01

156

Geology and ground-water resources of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, North Dakota, with a section on the chemical quality of the ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation occupies about 1,000 square miles in west- central North Dakota. The Missouri and Little Missouri Rivers flow through the area and form part of its boundaries. Garrison Dam, which is under construction on the Missouri River 30 miles downstream from the east boundary of the reservation, will impound water in Garrison Reservoir and flood the valleys of both rivers throughout the area. The reservoir will divide the reservation into five parts, herein referred to as the eastern, northeastern, northern, western, and southern segments. Rock formations ranging in age from Paleocene to Recent are exposed. The Fort Union formation of Paleocene age underlies the entire reservation, and it crops out along the Missouri and Little Missouri Rivers. Relatively thin glacial till and outwash deposits of late Pleistocene age mantle much of the upland in all of the segments. The glacial de. posits commonly are less than 10 feet thick; in many places they consist only of scattered boulders on the bedrock surface. The major valleys have terrace deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age and alluvium of Recent age. The principal mineral resources of the reservation are lignite, sand, and gravel. The lignite beds range in thickness from a few inches to about 30 feet. At least four separate beds, which range in thickness from 4 feet to more than 7 feet, are mined locally. Although many mines will be flooded after Garrison Dam is completed, many suitable mine sites will remain above the proposed reservoir level. Sand and gravel deposits are found in glacial outwash and in stream-terrace deposits. On upland areas of the reservation ground water is available principally from the lignite and the associated fine- to medium-grained sandstone beds of the Fort Union formation. Few wells on the reservation are known to produce water from glacial material, although the recessional moraines are possible sources of shallow-water supplies. Small quantities of ground water are available from thin alluvial deposits in some places on the upland. Most wells in the valleys produce water from the alluvium or the terrace deposits. However, several wells penetrate the underlying Fort Union formation. A few flowing wells in the Missouri River valley near Elbowoods produce water from either the lower part of the Fort Union formation or from the Cannonball formation, also of Paleocene age. The chemical character of water from the Fort Union formation and the outwash and river gravels was determined from analyses of 39 samples from wells and springs. Water from bedrock may be either hard or soft, and it is moderately to highly mineralized. Water from the surficial deposits is uniformly hard, but it is less mineralized. Shallow wells in the eastern and northeastern segments produce water of good quality. Wells in these segments, and several springs in the western segment, could be used satisfactorily as domestic supplies. Spring water from lignite deposits on the reservation generally is colored and contains objectionable amounts of iron. Treatment of the water would improve its quality for domestic use. The filling of Garrison Reservoir will cause a rise of the water levels in wells that tap aquifers now discharging below the operating level of the reservoir. All the permeable strata below this level will become saturated, and ground-water bodies that are now separated will become hydraulically united. In addition to providing subsurface information, the drilling program of the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs provided wells for domestic and stock-water supplies. All test holes that tapped an adequate supply of potable water were reamed to a larger diameter, equipped with casing and well screen, and gravel-packed. The test-drilling program was completed in 1951; however, the drilling of domestic wells was continued under the supervision of the U. S. Geological Survey.

Dingman, Robert James; Gordon, Ellis D.; Swenson, H. A.

1954-01-01

157

Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.  

PubMed

The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society. PMID:10081237

Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

1999-01-01

158

Casting methods  

DOEpatents

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

159

Wisconsin Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

160

Casting materials  

SciTech Connect

A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

2011-06-14

161

Soft sediment deformation associated with the passage of North Atlantic Deep water through the deep Ariel Graben, Mozambique Ridge southwest Indian Ocean.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between bottom water currents and seafloor sediments are well known. Bottom current generated bedforms are varied both morphologicaly and sedimentologicaly. Sediment transport and deposition, associated with bottom water circulation, plays a significant role is sculpting seafloor morphology in all ocean basins. Indeed, bedforms have been used to great effect to define the presence, direction and strength of bottom water circulation globally. Here we present new multibeam swath bathymetry and high frequency seismic data from the Natal Valley and Mozambique Ridge, southwest Indian Ocean. These data show a deep (-3200 m) channel-like feature (Ariel Graben, situated at 28° 30"S on the Mozambique Ridge) connecting the northern Natal Valley to the Mozambique Basin. A distinct W - E change in seafloor morphology and seismic character is noted moving from the Natal Valley through the Ariel Graben. The northern flank of the graben exhibits smooth plastered drifts which give way to undulating seafloor in the east. The plastered drifts are characterised by distinct bottom echoes, with several discontinuous sub-bottom reflections. In contrast, the undulating seafloor is characterised by distinct hyperbolic echoes, with occasional indistinct sub-bottom reflectors. The W - E orientated undulations are straight crested, parallel / sub-parallel to the local isobaths. Wavelength is variable, ranging from 600 m to 1200 m. Cross-sectional symmetry of these features varies from symmetrical to asymmetrical, with board crests and narrow troughs. When asymmetrical, the lower (south-facing) limb is the longer (511.76 m average) than the upper (north-facing) limb (323.53 m average). The lower limbs are also steeper than the upper limbs; calculated averages being 3.80° and 1.55°, respectively. Overall, the slope on which the undulations are found, is south-facing with a gradient of 1.54°, however, the area affected by undulations is slightly steeper (average slope of 1.75°). Beyond -3000 m, the lower limit of the undulations, the gradient increases to 4.71°. The total slope average in this eastern region is 0.54° steeper than in the west area. The channel floor, no longer flat, is ca. 440 m wide at -3160 m depth. The Ariel Graben represents a deep saddle across the Mozambique Ridge at 28°30"S. This saddle provides a northern-most passage for the transport of NADW from the northern Natal Valley to the Mozambique Ridge. Evidence of this transport is manifest as crudely developed plastered drifts in the west and a soft sediment deformation field in the east of the study area. Here, current flow stripping, due to increased curvature of the saddle axis, results in deposition of suspended load in accordance with reduced current velocity. The steepened northern graben flank in this area provides limited accommodation space which promotes high sedimentation. Deposited sediments overcome the necessary shear stresses, resulting in soft sediment deformation in the form of down-slope growth faulting and generation of undulating sea-floor morphology.

Wiles, Errol; Green, Andrew; Watkeys, Mike; Jokat, Wilfried; Krocker, Ralph

2014-05-01

162

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

Fay, George E., Comp.

163

Report on Legislation on Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of legislation, federal and provincial, affecting Indian education in Canada. Throughout the paper the following developments are noted: under the British North America (BNA) Act, education was put under the jurisdictional control of the provinces while Indians were the responsibility of the…

Charles, Roger

164

Acculturation, Alcoholism and Indian Style Alcoholics Anonymous  

Microsoft Academic Search

end of the 18th century, they did not want to expose the Indians to alcohol and offered them only tea and coffee to drink, using muskets, ammunition, blankets, iron and copper for barter. But once it became known that a lucrative fur trade was awaiting adventurers along the western coast of North America, exploitation of the Indians by whisky traders

Louise Jilek-Aall

165

General Historical Survey of Federal Indian Policies. Chapter II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes the history of North America, especially of the United States, from the earliest explorations and settlements through the present. Emphasis is placed on the Europeans' effect on American Indian life and the inadequate development of Indian education. Comparisons are made between the various colonizers' Indian policies before…

Stockman, W. H.

166

Indian Education in the American Colonies, 1607-1783.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indian schooling in colonial America was continuously immersed in the exchange between cultures that involved religion, land ownership, disease, alcohol, and warfare, and was molded by trade in furs and hides, and Indian slaves. In the past two decades American scholars have begun to reinterpret colonial North American Indian history and the…

Szasz, Margaret Connell

167

Thin Wall Iron Castings  

SciTech Connect

Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

2001-10-31

168

Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.

169

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part XII: The Basin-Plateau Tribes (cont'd.). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XII, is a continuation of the publication on Basin-Plateau Indian groups: the Ely Indian Colony and Reno-Sparks Indian Colony of…

Fay, George E., Comp.

170

QUENCHING TUMBLING MILL TUMBLES CASTINGS OVER EACH OTHER TO REMOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

QUENCHING TUMBLING MILL TUMBLES CASTINGS OVER EACH OTHER TO REMOVE RUNNERS AND SPRUES WHILE QUICKLY COOLING THEM WITH WATER IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS ENSURES CASTINGS FORM WHITE IRON PRIOR TO BEING ASSEMBLED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

171

AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS THEY MOVE IN BINS ALONG TRACKS IN THE OVEN BOTTOM IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS BRITTLE WHITE IRON CASTINGS INTO SOFTER, STRONGER MALLEABLE IRON. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

172

How to Identify and Control Cyclaneusma Needle Cast of Pines,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyclaneusma needle cast is caused by Cyclaneusma minus (=Naemacyclus minor) (Ascomycetes:Rhytisma-taceaae). In North America, this disease occurs from Virginia to Missouri northward through New England and southern Canada western Nebraska and Manitoba, pl...

W. Merrill K. Robbins

1987-01-01

173

137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.  

PubMed

Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios could be attributed to close-in fallout Pu delivered from the Enewetak and Bikini Atolls by ocean currents of branches of the North Equatorial Current to the Southeast Asian seas. PMID:16165190

Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

2006-07-31

174

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PRODUCTION AND QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

175

Wintertime aerosol characteristics at a north Indian site Kharagpur in the Indo-Gangetic plains located at the outflow region into Bay of Bengal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keeping the importance of aerosol characterization in the out flow regions from the Indian subcontinent in view, a campaign mode observation on aerosol physical properties was made at Indian Institute of Technology campus, Kharagpur located under the vent region in the Indo-Gangetic plains during the winter month of December 2004. The aerosol spectral optical depths and near-surface mass concentrations were high with a mean aerosol optical depth of 0.7 at 500 nm and a percent share of fine mode particle concentration as high as 90. However, the share of the BC aerosol to fine mode aerosol was consistently 10%, which is typical of an urban location. The vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter intensity derived using a micropulse lidar show that the boundary layer height variation accounts for the day-to-day variability in the surface mass concentrations. The negative correlation between aerosol backscatter intensity at two representative altitudes above and below the boundary layer implicates only vertical redistribution of aerosols. The lidar data also suggest that no aerosol transport has taken place over the location to account for the day-to-day variability. The forward trajectories at three representative altitudes with source point at the observing site indicate a possible aerosol transport from the outflow regions into Bay of Bengal, southern peninsular India and Arabian Sea. The results were discussed in light of the earlier mobile campaign observations on the spatial variability of aerosol physical properties over the peninsular India.

Niranjan, K.; Sreekanth, V.; Madhavan, B. L.; Krishna Moorthy, K.

2006-12-01

176

A 550 ka record of aeolian activity near North West Cape, Australia: inferences from grain-size distributions and bulk chemistry of SE Indian Ocean deep-sea sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrigenous fraction of sediments from a deep-sea sediment core recovered from the northwestern Western Australian continental slope offshore North West Cape, SE Indian Ocean, reveals a history of Western Australian climate throughout the last 550 ka. End-member modelling of a data set of grain-size distributions (n=438) of the terrigenous sediment fraction allows to interpret the record in terms of aeolian and fluvial sediment deposition, both related to palaeo-environmental conditions in the North West Cape area. The data set can be best described by two aeolian end members and one fluvial one. Changes in the ratio of the two aeolian end members over the fluvial one are interpreted as aridity variations in northwestern Western Australia. These grain-size data are compared with bulk geochemical data obtained by XRF scans of the core. Log-ratios of the elements Zr/Fe and Ti/Ca, which indicate a terrigenous origin, corroborate the grain-size data. We postulate that the mid- to late Quaternary near North West Cape climate was relatively arid during the glacial and relatively humid during the interglacial stages, owing to meridional shifts in the atmospheric circulation system. Opposite to published palaeo-environmental records from the same latitude (20°S) offshore Chile and offshore Namibia, the Australian aridity record does not show the typical southern hemisphere climate variability of humid glacials and dry interglacials, which we interpret to be the result of the relatively large land mass of the Australian continent, which emphasises a strong monsoonal climatic system.

Stuut, Jan-Berend; Temmesfeld, Felix; De Deckker, Patrick

2014-05-01

177

High Performance Castings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report delineates the factors influencing the characteristics, design, and properties of high-performance castings and the outstanding problems that must be resolved to enhance the reliability and use of these castings. It suggests a number of program...

1972-01-01

178

LLNL casting technology  

SciTech Connect

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III [eds.

1994-01-01

179

LLNL casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

1994-01-01

180

Indian Summer  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

181

The "flatback" cast.  

PubMed

A properly applied above-elbow cast in a child presents difficulties not seen in adults. Because of the differences in anatomy, physiology, and compliance, children can benefit from modification of the standard above-elbow cast. We report on a method of application of the "flatback" cast to address these concerns. PMID:8421630

Black, G B; Klippenstein, N L

1993-01-01

182

Casting and Molding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore the process used to cast and mold molten metal, glass, and plastics. Using gelatin, the learner will work with a variety of molds to create castings. When the shapes are unmolded, the learner can tactually explore the casts.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-06-26

183

Advanced Cast Aluminum Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent advancement in cast aluminum alloys has demonstrated that complex shapes can be cast from a microalloyed Al-Cu alloy in dry sand molds with chills and that these castings can be heat treated to produce mechanical and physical properties nearly co...

A. P. Druschitz J. Griffin

2009-01-01

184

Dynamic Structure and Precipitation of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone in the West Pacific and North Indian Ocean during boreal summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the West Pacific and Indian Ocean during boreal summer can be divided into three parts -- the Trade Wind Trough, the Oceanic Monsoon Trough and the Continental Monsoon Trough. Accurate representation of these structures in global climate models (GCM) is important for the prediction of natural variability and human-induced climate changes in the Asian monsoon, flooding and tropical cyclone frequency. The wind field and precipitation patterns from NCAR CCM3 (Kiehl et al. 1998) and GISS SI2000a GCM (Hansen et al. 1997) during boreal summer of 1989 to 1993 in the West Pacific and the Indian Ocean (60 deg E-200 deg E, 40 deg S-40 deg N) are analyzed through compositing, time averaging and Hovmoeller diagrams. An ensemble of 6 CCM3 runs with a T31 (about 3.75 deg lat x 3.75 deg lon) horizontal resolution and 18 hybrid vertical levels with were made at Penn State (Dutton 2000). An ensemble of 5 GISS 2000a runs was provided by NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies; these model runs have a horizontal resolution of 4 deg lat x 5 deg lon and 12 vertical sigma levels. All these model runs were forced by AMIP-prescribed SST. The wind field and precipitation analysis will be compared with ECMWF reanalysis and the CMAP monthly precipitation analysis. The time averages and composites will be used to compare the average flow structure of that region; the skill of dynamic representation of the ITCZ and the area around it then can be evaluated objectively. Hovmoeller diagrams can be used to evaluate the skill of these models to represent the intraseasonal variability of the region and the progression of the Asian monsoon.

Chan, S. C.; Evans, J.

2001-05-01

185

Indian Summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the

Galindo

1997-01-01

186

Indian Orphanages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

187

Social Affiliation and the Demand for Health Services: Caste and Child Health in South India *  

PubMed Central

This paper assesses the role of social affiliation, measured by caste, in shaping investments in child health. The special setting that we have chosen for the analysis – tea estates in the South Indian High Range – allows us to control nonparametrically for differences in income, access to health services, and patterns of morbidity across low caste and high caste households. In this controlled setting, low caste households spend more on their children's health than high caste households, reversing the pattern we would expect to find elsewhere in India. Moreover, health expenditures do not vary by gender within either caste group, in contrast once again with the male preference documented throughout the country. A simple explanation, based on differences in the returns to human capital across castes in the tea estates is proposed to explain these striking results.

Luke, Nancy; Munshi, Kaivan

2007-01-01

188

Prevalence of IncI1-I? and IncFIA-FIB type plasmids in extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from the NICU of a North Indian hospital.  

PubMed

We studied the molecular mechanism of resistance in extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of one of the hospitals in North India. A total of 3000 clinical samples were collected from a NICU (January 2009 to February 2011), of which 523 strains were K. pneumoniae positive and 262 of them were ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains. All of the ESBL-producing clinical isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. However, the majority of the clinical isolates (30-96?%) were resistant to a wide range of antibiotics including antibiotic/inhibitor combinations. The MIC values confirmed that these isolates were highly resistant to cephalosporins and aztreonam. In the 262 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, 15 different enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR-typed phylogenetic groups were identified and reconfirmed by PFGE. Characterization of plasmids from each representative member of these phylogenetic groups revealed the presence of three plasmids of different sizes. Conjugation experiments confirmed the presence of different resistance markers only on the 154 kb plasmid. PCR amplification and sequence analysis revealed that blaCTX-M-3, blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaOXA-1 and armA were the predominant resistance markers. Plasmid-replicon typing showed that IncI1-I? and IncFIA-FIB types are the most prevalent. This study shows the co-existence of multiple ESBL-encoding genes and their polyclonal dissemination among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates in the NICU of a North Indian hospital. PMID:24687949

Ali, Saeedut Zafar; Ali, Syed Manazir; Khan, Asad U

2014-06-01

189

Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Cysts in North Indian Patients: Identification of G1, G3, G5 and G6 Genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the Echinococcus granulosus, is a major public health problem worldwide, including India. The different genotypes of E. granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis have been reported from endemic areas throughout the world. However, the genetic characterization of E. granulosus infecting the human population in India is lacking. The aim of study was to ascertain the genotype(s) of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in North India. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the transmission patterns of E. granulosus, genotypic analysis was performed on hydatid cysts obtained from 32 cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients residing in 7 different states of North India. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (cox1) sequencing was done for molecular identification of the isolates. Most of the CE patients (30/32) were found to be infected with hydatid cyst of either G3 (53.1%) or G1 (40.62%) genotype and one each of G5 (cattle strain) and G6 (camel strain) genotype. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate the zoonotic potential of G1 (sheep strain) and G3 (buffalo strain) genotypes of E. granulosus as these emerged as predominant genotypes infecting the humans in India. In addition to this, the present study reports the first human CE case infected with G5 genotype (cattle strain) in an Asian country and presence of G6 genotype (camel strain) in India. The results may have important implications in the planning of control strategies for human hydatidosis.

Sharma, Monika; Sehgal, Rakesh; Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Malhotra, Anil; Malla, Nancy

2013-01-01

190

Variations in land use and nonpoint-source contamination on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, west-central North Dakota, 1990-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of land-use activities on the water quality of five streams on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation were evaluated. The five basinsevaluated were East Fork Shell Creek, Deepwater Creek, Bear Den Creek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek. East Fork Shell Creek and DeepwaterCreek Basins are located east of Lake Sakakawea and Bear Den Creek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek Basins are located west of the lake. Land-use data for the five selected basins on and adjacent to the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation were obtained for 1990-92. Discharge measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected at stations and sites on each of the five streams during October 1991 through September 1993. Analysis of land-use data indicated that prairie was the largest land-use category in the study area. More prairie acreage was found in the basins located west of Lake Sakakawea than in the basins located east of the lake. Wheat was the predominant crop in the study area. More wheat acreage was found in the basins located east of Lake Sakakawea than in the basins located west of the lake. Discharge data for the five selected streams indicated that all of thestreams were ephemeral and had many days of no flow during the study period. High flows were usually the result of spring runoff or intense storms over the basins. East Fork Shell Creek and Deepwater Creek with larger basins and flatter stream slopes had high flows characterized by rapidly rising flows and gradually receding flows. In contrast, Bear DenCreek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek with smaller basins and steeper stream slopes had high flows characterized by rapidly rising flows and receding flows of shorter duration. Analysis of water-quality samples indicated concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and total organic carbon varied throughout the study area. Nitrogen concentrations were larger in the streams located east of LakeSakakawea than in the streams located west of the lake. The largest nitrogen concentrations in all of the streams occurred during the nongrowing periods.Phosphorus (orthophosphate and total phosphorus)concentrations were larger in the streams located east of Lake Sakakawea than in the streams located west of the lake. The larger orthophosphateconcentrations in the eastern streams may be indicative of insecticide application in the eastern streams' basins. Total organic carbon concentrations were fairly consistent in all five streams. Water- quality samples were analyzed for the pesticides atrazine, carbofuran, cyanazine, and 2,4-D by using immunoassay testing. Pesticide concentrations above the minimum reporting levels were more prevalent insamples from streams located east of Lake Sakakawea than in the streams located west of the lake. The eastern streams drain areas where herbicides were applied to crops. Fecal-bacteria concentrations were larger in the streams located west of Lake Sakakawea, where prairie is more dominant, than in the streams located east of the lake. The larger concentrations and loads were associated with intense storm events and the presence of livestock.

Macek-Rowland, Kathleen; Lent, R. M.

1996-01-01

191

Abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref) in north Indian patients with bronchial asthma: an evaluation using Rasch analysis.  

PubMed

Background:There is no disease-specific instrument to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Indian patients with asthma. However, an abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), a generic Hindi HRQoL measure, has been developed and validated in India.Aims:To evaluate the WHOQOL-Bref in adult patients with asthma and to test possible modifications to the instrument to improve its psychometric adequacy.Methods:Sixty-seven patients with asthma completed the WHOQOL-Bref. Rasch analysis was used to explore the psychometric performance of the four domains (physical, psychological, social relationships and environment) of the scale. Overall fit of data to model expectations, appropriate category ordering, presence of differential item functioning, individual item fit and targeting of item difficulty to patient ability were explored for each domain. Item deletion and rescoring were applied to misfitting items to improve overall performance.Results:The overall fit of the WHOQOL-Bref data was adequate. Item 3 (pain prevents doing work) displayed a large positive fit residual value (indicating violation of unidimensionality), resulting in poor construct validity for the physical domain. No item exhibited differential item functioning. Ten items had disordered thresholds. The WHOQOL-Bref was modified by dropping item 3 and rescoring category structures of 16 items. The modified scale had good construct validity for all domains, ordered thresholds for all items and good targeting of items to persons.Conclusions:The WHOQOL-Bref performed inadequately in describing HRQoL in the asthma patients studied. However, when modified by Rasch analysis, the scale proved better than the original scale. PMID:24921608

Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Agarwal, Ritesh; Gupta, Dheeraj

2014-01-01

192

Improving Metal Casting Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

1998-01-01

193

Is there a pattern of gene differentiation in the Indian populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian populations divided into a number of endogamous groups consisting of different castes, languages, religions, and tribes provide unique opportunities for examining the extent and nature of genetic differentiation at a microevolutionary stage. The genetic relationships between some of these Indian population groups have been examined using electrophoretic data from several biochemical loci in a gene diversity analysis. Does this

Ranajit Chakraborty; Arun K. Roychoudhury

1978-01-01

194

Changes in the Food Habits of Asian Indians in the United States: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study focused on acculturation in the food habits of first generation Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that: 1) food habits of Asian Indians are changing toward the American pattern; and 2) these changes are directly related to the subject's sex, caste, age, marital status, and duration of exposure…

Gupta, Santosh P.

1975-01-01

195

Navajo Indians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's learn about Utah History! Let's learn about the Navajo Indians. Learning Objective After reading and researching information about the Navajo tribe, students will be able understand the culture and traditions of this tribe and make comparisons to their own culture, by researching, writing about and creating Navajo jewelry and completing a cultural comparison worksheet. Grades 3 4th Grade Content Area(s) Social Studies Content Targets History, culture ...

Chamberlain, Keshia

2009-11-28

196

Reauthorization of the Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act of 1978. Hearing on S. 2167 To Reauthorize the Tribally Controlled College Assistance Act of 1978 and the Navajo Community College Act [and on] S. 2213 To Increase the Federal Contribution to the Tribally Controlled Community College Endowment Program, before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session (Bismarck, North Dakota, April 9, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimony on two bills dealing with federal funding for American Indian tribally controlled colleges is reported. Introduced by Senator John McCain (Arizona), S. 2167 seeks to reauthorize the Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act of 1978 and the Navajo Community College Act. Introduced by Senator Kent Conrad (North Dakota), S. 2213…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

197

Rehabilitation of Gypsum-Mined Lands in the Indian Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic importance of mining in the Indian Desert is second only to agriculture. Land disturbed by mining, however, has only recently been the focus of rehabilitation efforts. This research assesses the success of rehabilitation plans used to revegetate gypsum mine spoils within the environmental constraints of the north west Indian hot-desert ecosystem. The rehabilitation plan first examined both mined

K. D. Sharma; Suresh Kumar; Larry P. Gough

2001-01-01

198

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

199

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

200

About Indians: A Listing of Books, 4th Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compiled to provide information for teachers, librarians and other persons interested in books written about American Indians, this annotated bibliography cites 1,452 books about the Native peoples of North and South America. Those books having Canadian authorship or specific Canadian interest, are indicated by a maple leaf. Canadian Indian

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

201

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH MOLTEN METAL BEING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH MOLTEN METAL BEING POURED OUT OF THE CUPOLA INTO THE POURING LADLE. FROM THE POURING LADLE, THE IRON IS LATER POURED INTO A TRANSFER LADLE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE CASTING MACHINES. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

202

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general purpose of the first six months' work was to identify techniques which will produce sound castings in reusable chill molds - techniques which are compatible with an automated machine casting process. To do this, castings made in permanent chil...

M. F. X. Gigliotti

1973-01-01

203

Clinical Characteristics of Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in North Indian Population of HIV/AIDS Patients Receiving HAART  

PubMed Central

Background & Objective. IRIS is an important complication that occurs during management of HIV-TB coinfection and it poses difficulty in diagnosis. Previous studies have reported variable incidence of IRIS. The present study was undertaken to describe the pattern of TB-associated IRIS using recently proposed consensus case-definitions for TB-IRIS for its use in resource-limited settings. Methods. A prospective analysis of ART-naïve adults started on HAART from November, 2008 to May, 2010 was done in a tertiary care hospital in north India. A total 224 patients divided into two groups, one with HIV-TB and the other with HIV alone, were followedup for a minimum period of 3 months. The diagnosis of TB was categorised as ‘‘definitive” and ‘‘probable”. Results. Out of a total of 224 patients, 203 completed followup. Paradoxical TB-IRIS occurred in 5 of 123 (4%) HIV-TB patients while 6 of 80 (7.5%) HIV patients developed ART-associated TB. A reduction in plasma viral load was significantly (P = .016) associated with paradoxical TB-IRIS. No identifiable risk factors were associated with the development of ART-associated TB. Conclusion. The consensus case-definitions are useful tools in the diagnosis of TB-associated IRIS. High index of clinical suspicion is required for an early diagnosis.

Karmakar, Suman; Sharma, Surendra K.; Vashishtha, Richa; Sharma, Abhishek; Ranjan, Sanjay; Gupta, Deepak; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sinha, Sanjeev; Biswas, Ashutosh; Gulati, Vinay

2011-01-01

204

29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN BEND POND LABELLED 'SETTLING BASIN,' STEAM/DIESEL PLANT AND OTHER FEATURES. 1951 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

205

Forest Diplomats: The Role of Interpreters in Indian-White Relations on the Early American Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, while interpreters of American Indian languages in French territories served merely as translators of language, interpreters in British North America were often field representatives of the colonies, serving as messengers and diplomatic agents to Indian tribes. Includes many anecdotes about Indian and White interpreters. Contains 35…

Kawashima, Yasuhide

1989-01-01

206

Casting Footprints for Eternity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

1999-01-01

207

Computer cast blast modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than

S. Chung; M. McGill; D. S. Preece

1994-01-01

208

Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

1997-01-01

209

Omaha Indian Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The oral traditions of many North American Indian groups are generally well known, though access to existing sound recordings and the like can often be limited to on-site listening booths at major museums and archives. This nice collection of traditional music from the Omaha tribe is a fine way to begin learning about these traditions. The online exhibit was created by the American Memory project at the Library of Congress and includes traditional Omaha music both from the 1890s and the 1980s. The selections from the 1890s include 44 wax cylinder recordings made by Francis La Flesche and Alice Cunningham Fletcher. Equally compelling are the 323 songs from the 1983 Omaha harvest celebration powwow that are also available here. The collection also includes a brief introductory essay, fieldnotes from the 1983 powwow, and an original program from the 1983 celebration.

210

International Indian Treaty Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is "an organization of indigenous peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the sovereignty and self determination of indigenous peoples." To achieve their broad goals, the IITC works to support networks of indigenous peoples around the world through their policy work in areas that include global trade, women's rights, reproductive health, and the environment. On their homepage, visitors can browse through thematic headings on the left-hand side of the page, such as "Treaty Conferences", "Cultural Rights", "Health/Toxics", and about a dozen additional listings. Visitors should also click on the "Web Content" tab to read flyers, United Nations resolutions, and draft declarations. Also, visitors can sign up to subscribe to the IITC's electronic news updates here.

211

Socioeconomic Differences in Heights of Adult Indian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides additional insights into the nature of variations in heights of adult Indian women based on the demographic and health survey data for the year 2005–06. Though contiguous regions show similar mean heights, the gap between geographic regions reduce once socio-economic differences are accounted for. While teenage child birth, wealth differences and caste affiliations are some of the

Brinda Viswanathan; Viney Sharma

2009-01-01

212

Clean Metal Casting  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

213

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE OPERATOR SPRAYING A POWDER TO HELP SOLIDIFY THE PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

214

Optimum cast plan for steelmaking-continuous casting production scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A planning method of cast for steelmaking continuous casting production scheduling in CIMS is studied. The cast plan model is established. An adaptive operator genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the optimum cast plan problem. The computation with practical data shows that the model and the solving method are very effective.

Yuncan Xue; Qiwen Yang; Huihe Shao

2004-01-01

215

Quantified smoking status and non-small cell lung cancer stage at presentation: analysis of a North Indian cohort and a systematic review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background: There are variable observations in published literature regarding smoking status and stage of lung cancer (LC) with positive, negative and no associations being reported. In particular, data regarding the association of quantified smoking status (QSS) with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage at the time of diagnosis is limited. In India, bidi - the hand rolled form of tobacco wrapped in the dried tendu leaf - is the most common smoking product. The current study was conducted to assess stage differences, if any, based upon QSS, among newly diagnosed LC patients. Methods A systematic review of English literature was performed for previous publications that had assessed NSCLC stage differences in relation to QSS. Collected data on demographic and disease characteristics of 654 LC patients presenting to the authors’ institute was also analyzed. Smoking index (SI) was used for QSS and was defined as number of bidis and cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by years smoked. Patients were categorized as never-smokers [Group I, n=151]; light/moderate smokers (SI=1-300) [Group II, n=202] and heavy smokers (SI ?301) [Group III, n=301]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis (LRA) was performed to derive adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Among the 520 NSCLC patients, mean [standard deviation (SD)] age in groups I, II and III was 54.5 (12.5), 58.6 (9.9) and 61.2 (9.4) years respectively (P<0.001). Percentage of males in the three groups was 48.1%, 88.0%, and 97.9% (P<0.001). Age and gender differences between groups I, II and III were also significant among 134 small cell lung cancer patients with mean (SD) ages of 44.0 (10.6), 55.7 (10.3) and 58.9 (9.3) years (P<0.001) and percentage of males being 50.0%, 90.4% and 95.5% respectively (P<0.001). Among NSCLC patients, distribution in groups I, II and III respectively of squamous (28.1%, 50.0% and 57.9%) and non-squamous histologies (59.3%, 37.3% and 27.2%) differed significantly (P<0.001). Stage distribution observed for NSCLC patients in groups I, II and III respectively was as follows: stages I-IIIA (8.1%, 19.3 and 18.7%), stage IIIB (24.4%, 34.7% and 42.1%) and stage IV (67.4%, 46.0% and 39.1%). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Differences remained significant (P<0.001) for presence of extrathoracic disease [ETD] (41.5%, 28.0% and 16.6%). On multivariate LRA, SI ?301 was the only variable that was independently associated with both advanced stage (IIIB-IV) [OR=0.25 (95% CI=0.11-0.61)] and ETD [OR=0.29 (95% CI=0.16-0.53)] at presentation. Conclusions Among newly diagnosed NSCLC patients in North India, significant differences exist, based upon SI, for disease stage. Heavy smoking was independently associated with lower odds of having advanced stage as well as with lower odds of having ETD at the time of diagnosis. This observation of the current study however requires confirmation by larger prospective studies.

Aggarwal, Ashutosh N.; Gupta, Dheeraj; Behera, Digambar; Jindal, Surinder K.

2012-01-01

216

American Indians Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

Snipp, C. Matthew

217

Indian Education Project, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A product of Michigan's Indian Education Project, this report includes two proposals designed to help meet the educational needs of Michigan American Indian students at various levels. The first of the two feasibility studies includes: a perspective on Michigan's American Indians; problems of Indian education (priorities, roots of the problem,…

Martin, Larry; Morris, Joann

218

Indians of Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Goldfinch" examines the history of American Indians in Iowa. This volume's featured articles include: "Encounter"; "Iowa Earthworks"; "The Long Way Home"; "How One Learns, a Mesquakie Woman's Life Story"; "Indians of Iowa"; "Little Brother Snares the Sun"; "Being Indian in an Urban World"; and "Indian Wars Myth." (DB)

Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

1992-01-01

219

A Resolution on "The Indian Question"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses episodes from the history of the Sioux Indians in North and South Dakota and suggests ways in which this information can be incorporated into social studies classroom activities. Information is taken from primary source material in the Educational Division of the National Archives. (Author/DB)

Byers, CeCe; Alexander, Mary

1978-01-01

220

The Sacred Pipe in American Indian Religions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A bibliographic essay covers all significant literature on the Sacred Pipe among the North American tribes. Organizes over 130 references dating from 1843 to 1980 under topics such as American Indian attitudes toward the pipe, sacramental and ceremonial uses of the pipe, and the pipe as symbolic man. (JHZ)

Steinmetz, Paul B.

1984-01-01

221

75 FR 47621 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the North Fork Rancheria's Proposed 305-Acre Trust...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...with the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians (Tribe), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Madera Irrigation District, City of Madera, National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

2010-08-06

222

Concrete Casting Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The machine is for casting, on a production line basis, articulated concrete revetment mats employed to protect riverbanks and flood control levees from hydraulic erosion. The apparatus includes a moving conveyor system which carries flat pallets to a cas...

J. I. Boswell T. Burks G. F. Dixon G. S. Lee

1964-01-01

223

Cast changes: synthetic versus plaster.  

PubMed

A review of the changes in casting since the introduction of improved synthetic casting materials in the 1970s is presented. There is very little in the literature on nursing implications regarding the newer casting materials. Improvements in synthetic materials used in the casting of children include a fiberglass-free, latex-free casting polymer, with child-friendly prints now available. Though the use of synthetic casting predominates the market, plaster of Paris is still the mainstay for serial casting and casting requiring superior moldability and conformability. The advantages and disadvantages of synthetic and plaster of Paris casting, as well as nursing care of the child in each type of cast are summarized. PMID:9282058

Adkins, L M

1997-01-01

224

Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys  

SciTech Connect

The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

225

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

Poco, J.F.

1993-09-07

226

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01

227

Bence Jones Cast Nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with Bence Jones cast nephropathy usually present with acute renal failure (less commonly with chronic renal failure)\\u000a and Bence Jones proteinuria. It has been known for many years that intravenous radiocontrast media, dehydration, infections,\\u000a and the use of nonsteroidal antiin- fl ammatory drugs may induce the precipitation of renal tubular light chain casts and\\u000a result in acute renal failure,

Arthur H. Cohen

228

A Winning Cast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

2001-01-01

229

Gene diversity in some Muslim populations of North India.  

PubMed

North Indian Muslim populations have historical, linguistic, and socioreligious significance to the Indian subcontinent. Although sociocultural and political dimensions of their demography are well documented, no detailed genetic structure of the populations is available. We have undertaken a survey of the gene frequencies of the ABO, Rh, PTC taste ability, sickling, and G6PD systems for different endogamous groups: Sheikh, Syed, Pathan, Ansari, Saifi, and Hindu Bania. All the groups at most loci showed statistically nonsignificant differences, except for ABO and PTC traits, for which interpopulational differences were seen. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.048 to 0.617 among the Sheikh, 0.149 to 0.599 among the Pathan, 0.105 to 0.585 among the Ansari, 0.25 to 0.869 among the Syed, 0.107 to 0.565 among the Saifi, and 0.100 to 0.492 among the Hindu Bania. The average D(ST) and G(ST) values for the five marker loci were 0.0625 +/- 0.098 and 0.1072 +/- 0.041, respectively. A dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA clustering method. Our results revealed that the Pathan and the Sheikh form one cluster, the Syed and the Hindu Bania form another cluster, and the two clusters join together (the so-called higher caste); also, the Saifi and the Ansari form a separate cluster (lower caste). The results of the genetic distance analysis are useful for understanding the pattern of genetic relationships between different endogamous groups of Muslims. PMID:16392636

Aarzoo, S Shabana; Afzal, Mohammad

2005-06-01

230

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

231

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

232

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

233

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

234

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-09-28

235

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

236

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

237

Indian Education Project: An Abridgment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthesizing two priority proposals identified by the Indian Education Project of Michigan, this report outlines a proposal for establishing an Indian Education Center (staffed by American Indians and advised by a University Advisory Committee made up of Indian parents and the Indian community) to meet the needs of Indian students and…

Stevenson, Sharon

238

Quartz ceramic nozzles for casting steel on continuous casting plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions A technology was developed for making steel casting nozzles for the continuous casting of steel with different versions of lateral input of metal into the crystallizer. In laboratory conditions we made nozzles 600–650 mm long.

R. S. Churakova; E. P. Fedorova; Yu. A. Polonskii; E. I. Ermolaeva; A. M. Pozhivanov; N. D. Karpov

1972-01-01

239

Unlocking Indian Maritime Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Indian navy has undergone several periods of expansion in its short history which have signaled significant change in the Indian Ocean region. It is currently undergoing another. This thesis examines the current expansion, and interprets it in light o...

D. Rahn

2006-01-01

240

American Indian Population in South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

Hess, Donna

241

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the mold in the center-right of the photo are present immediately after the pour has been completed - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

242

Slip casting under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of a pressure during slip casting increases the rate of material deposition and enables larger pieces to be fabricated. In this study, this process has been further developed using monolithic Al2O3 and Al2O3-SiC composites. Slip casting formulations based on both dispersed and coagulated slurries have been analyzed. Excellent results are achieved using coagulated slurries, with no cracking present after drying. The effect of pressure is to increase the green density with a consequent increase in the fired density. In addition, homogeneous microstructures are achieved in the composite system, despite the large difference in particle size used.

Grazzini, H. H.; Wilkinson, D. S.

1992-08-01

243

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the

Michael Bamshad; Toomas Kivisild; W. Scott Watkins; Mary E. Dixon; Chris E. Ricker; Baskara B. Rao; J. Mastan Naidu; B. V. Ravi Prasad; P. Govinda Reddy; Arani Rasanayagam; Surinder S. Papiha; Richard Villems; Alan J. Redd; Michael F. Hammer; Son V. Nguyen; Marion L. Carroll; Mark A. Batzer; Lynn B. Jorde

2001-01-01

244

True North, Magnetic North  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand why compass angles need to be corrected for regional magnetic variation. The magnetic compass, perfected slowly over years of experimentation, trial, and scientific endeavor, became the sailor's most common and most reliable direction-indicating aid, but is influenced by magnetic variabilities and the location of magnetic north. Terms introduced include compass, magnetic variation, true north, and magnetic north.

245

Nevada Indians Speak.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anthology presents Indian works which reflect the attitudes of the native Indian people of the State of Nevada, commencing with the possible first White-Indian contact in the 1820's when Anglo American fur trappers and Mexican traders entered the Great Basin. The writer points out in the Preface that no effort has been made to exclude native…

Forbes, Jack D., Ed.

246

National Indian Education Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

Harvey, Karen Kay

2006-01-01

247

American Indian Language Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for the National Center for Bilingual Research, the document provides information on the "state of the art" in American Indian language education and presents a full picture of the situation exploring concepts (e.g., self-determination, Indian language diversity) and concerns (e.g., tribal reluctance to see Indian language instruction…

Leap, William

248

Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

Wilson, James

249

Pressure Casting in Investment Molds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of methods for pressure casting nonferrous alloys into investment molds. The experimental methods were compared with standard suction casting practices. The best method studied was the direct pressure diaphragm method. By this method, met...

S. Lipson F. Ripkin

1964-01-01

250

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in temperature which take place during pouring of a melt and flow into the mould vary greatly, and also depend on\\u000a the casting technique used. Understanding these changes is important for optimum casting practice.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1986-01-01

251

Sealing micropores in thin castings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microscopic pores in thin-walled aluminum castings are sealed by impregnation pretreatment. Technique was developed for investment castings used in hermetically sealed chassic for electronic circuitry. Excessively high leakage rates were previously measured in some chassis.

Mersereau, G. A.; Nitzschke, G. O.; Ochs, H. L.; Sutch, F. S.

1981-01-01

252

Rapid casting solutions: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state-of-the-art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of concepts, techniques, approaches and suitability of various commercialised rapid casting (RC) solutions with traditional casting methods is presented. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The tooling required for producing metal casting such as fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds with

Munish Chhabra; Rupinder Singh

2011-01-01

253

Casting Of Multilayer Ceramic Tapes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedure for casting thin, multilayer ceramic membranes, commonly called tapes, involves centrifugal casting at accelerations of 1,800 to 2,000 times normal gravitational acceleration. Layers of tape cast one at a time on top of any previous layer or layers. Each layer cast from slurry of ground ceramic suspended in mixture of solvents, binders, and other components. Used in capacitors, fuel cells, and electrolytic separation of oxygen from air.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.

1991-01-01

254

BIMETALLIC CASTING. Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium and Zr were bonded by melting the two metals in contact with one ; another in a bimetallic casting process. Tensile tests of specimens containing ; the original zone of interface between the two metals showed that all failures ; were at locations other than the interface. The coefficients obtained for ; diffusion between molten U and molten Zr

T. Poole; D. Krashes

1962-01-01

255

ShakeCast Manual  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users? facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

Lin, Kuo-Wan; Wald, David J.

2008-01-01

256

Casting and Angling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

Smith, Julian W.

257

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of iron, nickel, and cobalt base alloys were permanent mold cast under varying conditions to evaluate techniques for improving the integrity of die casting. By appropriate control of heat flow it is possible to achieve permanent mold casting with...

M. F. X. Gigliotti

1974-01-01

258

Flow impact on cast ingots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium alloys are a standard cast metal used in a number of automotive and transportation applications, allowing manufacturers to reduce vehicle weight, increase the strength of components and improve emission controls. One of the most challenging problems associated with aluminium casting is the influence of convection during all stages of solidification. The strength of fluid flow changes the as-cast internal

Lorenz Ratke; Yves Fautrelle; Jacques Lacaze; Georg Müller; Andras Roosz; Gerhard Zimmermann; Phillippe Jarry; Rene Kieft; Zsolt Csepeli; Józef Sándor; Gerd-Ulrich Grün; Nándor Sillinger; Ralf Gerke-Cantow

2005-01-01

259

Mix/Cast Contamination Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

Wallentine, M.

2005-01-01

260

Bureau of Indian Affairs Safety of Dams Program. 1996 Intermediate SEED Examination Report for La Jara Dam, Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

La Jara Dam is located on the Jucarilla Apache Indian reservation in north-central New Mexico about 20 miles south of the town of Dulce, New Mexico. The dam is operated by the Jicarilla Indian Tribe and is under the jurisdiction of the BIA. The dam was or...

W. Y. Young

1997-01-01

261

AMCC casting development, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

1995-01-01

262

Volume MLS ray casting.  

PubMed

The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

2008-01-01

263

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.  

PubMed

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

264

USGS ShakeCast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Automating, Simplifying, and Improving the Use of ShakeMap for Post-Earthquake Decisionmaking and Response. ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

Wald, David; Lin, Kuo-Wan

2007-01-01

265

Optimizing cast blasting efficiency using ANFO with liners  

SciTech Connect

As part of a five research project funded by the National Science Foundation, Peabody Energy studied three experimental cast blasts conducted at the North Antelope Rochelle mine site on July 24,28 and 31 2005. The initial purpose of this research project was to determine the influence that blast initiation sequence have on: NOx production; Face Displacement; Highwall damage; Explosive performance; Vibration emissions; Displacement; Surface swell; and Cast benefit. Two new discoveries on velocity of detonation (VoD) and pressure of detonation (PoD) were made as a result of this research project. Furthermore, a relationship between surface swell velocity and face velocity was also noted. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Madsen, A.

2007-01-15

266

Thermal fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the weekly measurements made by the advanced very high resolution radiometers of NOAA satellites were used to investigate the structure and space-time variability of large-scale fronts in the Southern Indian Ocean (30-60S and 20-150E) during the period of 1997-1999. Monthly SST gradient gave an overall view of five basic fronts: the North and South

A. G. Kostianoy; A. I. Ginzburg; M. Frankignoulle; B. Delille

2003-01-01

267

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

268

48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

2013-10-01

269

76 FR 80347 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian Children  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Awards; Indian Education--Demonstration Grants for Indian Children AGENCY: Office...Information: Indian Education--Demonstration Grants for Indian Children Notice inviting...under the Indian Education--Demonstration Grants for Indian Children program, CFDA...

2011-12-23

270

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

271

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

272

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

273

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

274

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

275

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

276

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

277

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

278

75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

2010-02-23

279

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

280

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

281

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

282

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

283

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

284

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

285

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

286

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

287

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

288

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

289

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

290

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

291

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

292

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

293

The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

Bunge, Robert P.

1978-01-01

294

Who Should Control Indian Education? A History, Three Case Studies, Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted in 1967 by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development at the request of the National Indian Youth Council, this 1-year study was made on American Indians at the following sites; Loneman, South Dakota; Ponca City, Oklahoma; Crow Agency, Montana; Fort Berthold, North Dakota; Nondalton, Alaska; South Nek Nek, Alaska;…

McKinley, Francis; And Others

295

Communication and Conflict Resolution in Managing Tribal Governance Issues among American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In traditional North American Indian societies, decisions are made by consensus rather than by authorities. Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO), an organization concerned with the issue of tribal governance, considers poor communication and disagreements about issues of power, resources, and recognition to be among the causes for conflict…

Broome, Benjamin J.

296

Isotopic variation in Indian Monsoon precipitation: Records from Bombay and New Delhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable isotope composition and the tritium content of precipitation analysed within the framework of the IAEA\\/WMO Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) have been evaluated for the Indian stations Bombay and New Delhi representing two different regions of the Indian Monsoon. The rainfall at New Delhi is controlled by north-west moving depressions with diverse routes and variable transit

S. K. Bhattacharya; K. Froehlich; P. K. Aggarwal; K. M. Kulkarni

2003-01-01

297

Measured size distributions of aerosols over the Indian Ocean during INDOEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submicron aerosol number size distributions are measured over the Indian Ocean (15°N, 77°E to 20°S, 58°E) during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) in winter monsoon seasons of 1998 and 1999. Large concentrations of 4 × 102 and 104 cm?3 are observed with comparatively much higher values toward north than south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The nucleation mode

A. K. Kamra; P. Murugavel; S. D. Pawar

2003-01-01

298

2. GENERAL VIEW OF BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW OF BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; BOILER HOUSE ON LEFT; BLAST FURNACE, OVENS AND CASTING HOUSE BEYOND. - U.S. Steel Corporation, Clairton Works, Blast Furnace Blowing Engine Building, 400 State Street, Clairton, Allegheny County, PA

299

9. ARCH AS SEEN FROM THE NORTH, AREA OF LACLEDE'S ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. ARCH AS SEEN FROM THE NORTH, AREA OF LACLEDE'S LANDING (Note cast iron front building on right) - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

300

ARCH AS SEEN FROM THE NORTH AREA OF LACLEDE'S LANDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

ARCH AS SEEN FROM THE NORTH AREA OF LACLEDE'S LANDING (NOTE CAST IRON BUILDING ON RIGHT) - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

301

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200‡C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

302

Steel casting by diffusion solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process for casting and welding carbon steels is described in which carbon diffuses isothermally or adiabatically within\\u000a an intimate mixture of solid low carbon steel and high carbon liquid iron to effect solidification and subsequent homogenization\\u000a with respect to carbon. Advantages over conventional casting processes and products result from 1) 150 to 200°C lower casting\\u000a temperature; 2) reduced

George Langford; Robert E. Cunningham

1978-01-01

303

Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator  

DOEpatents

A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA) [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

2009-11-10

304

Location, Characterization and Quantification of Hydroacoustic Signals in the Indian Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from three Indian Ocean hydroacoustic stations (Diego Garcia North, Diego Garcia South, and Cape Leeuwin) have been characterized and quantified for the calendar year 2002. These results were delivered in the form of a 2002 catalogue, and are briefly...

M. Tolstoy, D. Bohnenstiehl

2004-01-01

305

Gene Diversity in Some Muslim Populations of North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Indian Muslim populations have historical, linguistic, and socioreligious significance to the Indian subcontinent. Although sociocultural and political dimensions of their demography are well documented, no detailed genetic structure of the populations is available. We have undertaken a survey of the gene frequencies of the ABO, Rh, PTC taste ability, sickling, and G6PD systems for different endogamous groups: Sheikh, Syed,

S. Shabana Aarzoo; Mohammad Afzal

2005-01-01

306

Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian has a beautiful online exhibit, Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian which is meant to accompany the in situ exhibition in Washington D.C. and New York. Scholder's work is the subject of much debate in the world of Native Art, as his work has no obvious Native American imagery in it and he oftentimes denied he was Native American. By clicking on "Biography" near the top of the page, a list of links, "The Early Years", "The IAIA Years", and "The 70s and After" will appear. Below these links a clickable timeline also appears which advances when rolled over with the mouse. Another way to get an introduction to Scholder's life and the exhibit is to click on the "Podcasts" link near the top of the page. The first podcast listed is "Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian". Visitors should also not miss looking at his bold and sometimes disturbing paintings and sculptures, under the "Works" tab near the top of the page. They can be viewed by either D.C. or New York displays, as well as by "Curator's Choice", which is the default view. Each piece of work is also accompanied by commentary offered by the curators. Just click on the artwork, and under the bottom right hand corner of the image is a speaker to click on, complete with the name of the curator doing the commentary.

2008-01-01

307

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

308

Indian Ocean Geopolitics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strong deterrent and stability in the Indian Ocean is the obscure island of Diego Garcia in the middle of the Indian Ocean. It sits astride all of the oil lanes to and from the Persian Gulf, the major source of oil. Diego Gracia is now a small naval com...

J. H. Hayes

1975-01-01

309

The Tarascan Indian House.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan introduces K-grade three students to Mexican Indian architecture. Students will become familiar with the cultural context of the Indian treasure house; discuss the use of wood as the sole building material; compare the treasure house with present day structures; and create miniature treasure houses using wood materials. (GEA)

Quinn, Joyce

1989-01-01

310

Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

Mihalow, Paula

1980-01-01

311

Biotransformation and ToxCast?  

EPA Science Inventory

A major focus in toxicology research is the development of in vitro methods to predict in vivo chemical toxicity. Within the EPA ToxCast program, a broad range of in vitro biochemical and cellular assays have been deployed to profile the biological activity of 320 ToxCast Phase I...

312

Casting Freedom, 1860-1862  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting

Social Education, 2005

2005-01-01

313

Friction drilling of cast metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the friction drilling process, a nontraditional hole-making technique, for cast metals. In friction drilling, a rotating conical tool is applied to penetrate work-material and create a bushing in a single step without generating chip. The cast aluminum and magnesium alloys, two materials studied, are brittle compared to the ductile metal workpiece material used in previous friction drilling

Scott F. Miller; Jia Tao; Albert J. Shih

2006-01-01

314

Clogging in Continuous Casting Nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nozzle clogging is a serious productivity and qua lity problem in continuous casting. This work reviews the causes, effects, and solutions to cloggi ng in continuous casting nozzles. The results of a one-dimensional, steady state analysis of the heat loss from the molten steel stream through the nozzle wall are discussed. The analyses show that steel may freeze within the

K. G. Rackers; B. G. Thomas

315

An evaluation of fiberglass cast application techniques.  

PubMed

Cylindrical casts constructed from 2, 3, 4, and 5 inch widths of fiberglass casting material were evaluated for strength in bending using an unstable fracture model. Five-inch casting material produced the strongest casts. The effect of longitudinal splinting with 2-inch fiberglass tape was evaluated in cylindrical casts constructed from 4-inch tape. Casts with splints on the compression side or with splints on both the tension and compression sides were stronger in bending than casts with a single splint on the tension side or casts without splints. PMID:7778250

Wilson, D G; Vanderby, R

1995-01-01

316

The American Indian Development Bank?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

Pottinger, Richard

1992-01-01

317

Storytelling the American Indian Way.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the storytelling program at the Department of American Indian Studies, San Diego State University, which has involved Indian elders and storytellers, students, and both Indian and non-Indian children and adults from the local community. Includes a Wyandot tale that warns against jealousy, bitterness, and revenge. (SV)

Trafzer, Clifford E.

1989-01-01

318

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

319

Diabetes among the three affiliated tribes: correlation with degree of Indian inheritance.  

PubMed Central

The health records of all members of the Three Affiliated Indian Tribes of Fort Berthold, North Dakota were reviewed in order to define the extent of diabetes in this population. Full-inheritance Indians age 35 years and older have a known prevalence rate of diabetes of 22.3 per cent; persons between half- and full-inheritance Indian have a rate of 14.9 per cent; persons less than one-half Indian inheritance have a rate of 4.1 per cent, the same as whites living on this reservation. Below age 35, diabetes is rare among all racial subgroups.

Brosseau, J D; Eelkema, R C; Crawford, A C; Abe, T A

1979-01-01

320

Multi-layer Clouds Over the South Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on April 23, 2003. These clouds occur at multiple altitudes and exhibit a noticeable cyclonic circulation over the Southern Indian Ocean, to the north of Enderbyland, East Antarctica.

The image at left was created by overlying a natural-color view from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) camera with a color-coded stereo height field. MISR retrieves heights by a pattern recognition algorithm that utilizes multiple view angles to derive cloud height and motion. The opacity of the height field was then reduced until the field appears as a translucent wash over the natural-color image. The resulting purple, cyan and green hues of this aesthetic display indicate low, medium or high altitudes, respectively, with heights ranging from less than 2 kilometers (purple) to about 8 kilometers (green). In the lower right corner, the edge of the Antarctic coastline and some sea ice can be seen through some thin, high cirrus clouds.

The right-hand panel is a natural-color image from MISR's 70-degree backward viewing camera. This camera looks backwards along the path of Terra's flight, and in the southern hemisphere the Sun is in front of this camera. This perspective causes the cloud-tops to be brightly outlined by the sun behind them, and enhances the shadows cast by clouds with significant vertical structure. An oblique observation angle also enhances the reflection of light by atmospheric particles, and accentuates the appearance of polar clouds. The dark ocean and sea ice that were apparent through the cirrus clouds at the bottom right corner of the nadir image are overwhelmed by the brightness of these clouds at the oblique view.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 17794. The panels cover an area of 335 kilometers x 605 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 142 to 145 within World Reference System-2 path 155.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

321

Abyssal Sediment Waves in the Amirante Passage, Western Indian Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The deep western boundary current (DWBC) of the Indian Ocean flows northward along the western margin of the Mascarene Basin, and is funneled through a narrow passage (near 09 degrees S, 52 degrees E) prior to entering the Somali Basin to the north. Recen...

D. A. Johnson E. T. Bunce

1977-01-01

322

Indian Heritage: A Selected Book List for All Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book list, a sampling of resources from the Denver Public Library, pertains to the Indians of North America, especially those west of the Mississippi River. The annotated list is divided into two main parts: "Adult and Young Adult Books, Films, and Records" and "Children's Books, Films, and Records." The bulk of the list is adult and young…

Denver Public Library, CO.

323

Recycling and Reincarnation: the Journeys of Indian Saris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the consumption of recycled sari clothing by Western tourists in India. Second-hand saris are traded across north India, and re-made into new styles of clothing for the Western market by local tailors. The saris are cut up, destroying both the Indian form of the garment and the structure of patterns across its surface. These are then transformed

Lucy Norris

2008-01-01

324

Indian concepts on sexuality  

PubMed Central

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

325

[Indian workers in Oman].  

PubMed

Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable savings. Working and living conditions are difficult: the hours are long, the weather is hot, housing conditions are primitive and provide no relief from the heat, the food supply is the minimum required, and almost no diversions are available. There are no unions even among Omani workers, and troublemakers are quickly repatriated. The Indian embassy occasionally intercedes for workers, brief work stoppages may occur if pay is delayed, and some conflicts are settled individually. Resistence among Indian workers may take less visible forms, especially absenteeism and requests for leave. PMID:12280376

Longuenesse, E

1985-01-01

326

Indian craniometric variability and affinities.  

PubMed

Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with "Caucasoid" populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians. PMID:24455409

Raghavan, Pathmanathan; Bulbeck, David; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Rathee, Suresh Kanta

2013-01-01

327

Cast to Cast Variations in Type 316 Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The microscopic examination of creep specimens from eight casts of AISI Type 316 stainless steel which ruptured with variable ductility is reported. The specimen microstructures are discussed and attempts are made to identify factors responsible for high ...

A. J. Hooper C. J. Bolton J. Lai J. E. Cordwell P. Marshall

1977-01-01

328

A Quantitative Approach to Casting Solidification: Freezing of Cast Iron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The separate processes involved in casting solidification, such as eutectic nucleation and growth, have been previously studied separately in controlled experiments. The interaction of the separate processes has now been treated, using the freezing of cas...

W. Oldfield

1966-01-01

329

Instant Casting Movie Theater: The Future Cast System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a visual entertainment system called “Future Cast” which enables anyone to easily participate in a pre-recorded or pre-created film as an instant CG movie star. This system provides audiences with the amazing opportunity to join the cast of a movie in real-time. The Future Cast System can automatically perform all the processes required to make this possible, from capturing participants' facial characteristics to rendering them into the movie. Our system can also be applied to any movie created using the same production process. We conducted our first experimental trial demonstration of the Future Cast System at the Mitsui-Toshiba pavilion at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi Japan.

Maejima, Akinobu; Wemler, Shuhei; Machida, Tamotsu; Takebayashi, Masao; Morishima, Shigeo

330

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

DOEpatents

A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

1997-07-29

331

Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll  

DOEpatents

A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O'Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

1997-01-01

332

Control of Cast Grain Size of Steel Castings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques for the quantative evaluation of refinement of a high strength cast steel have been evolved and used to test the effectiveness of various inoculants in achieving microstructural and macrostructural refinement. Of the various materials tested on...

P. Wieser N. Church J. F. Wallace

1964-01-01

333

Impacts of increasing ozone on Indian plants.  

PubMed

Increasing anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of precursor compounds have led to high tropospheric ozone concentrations in India particularly in Indo-Gangetic Plains, which is the most fertile and cultivated area of this rapidly developing country. Current ozone risk models, based on European and North American data, provide inaccurate estimations for crop losses in India. During the past decade, several ozone experiments have been conducted with the most important Indian crop species (e.g. wheat, rice, mustard, mung bean). Experimental work started in natural field conditions around Varanasi area in early 2000's, and the use of open top chambers and EDU (ethylene diurea) applications has now facilitated more advanced studies e.g. for intra-species sensitivity screening and mechanisms of tolerance. In this review, we identify and discuss the most important gaps of knowledge and future needs of action, e.g. more systematic nationwide monitoring for precursor and ozone formation over Indian region. PMID:23466168

Oksanen, E; Pandey, V; Pandey, A K; Keski-Saari, S; Kontunen-Soppela, S; Sharma, C

2013-06-01

334

Strip casting apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

Williams, Robert S. (Plum, PA); Baker, Donald F. (Hempfield, PA)

1988-01-01

335

Strip casting apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

1988-09-20

336

Rapid Manufacturing Via Metal Casting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The metal casting industry in undergoing significant changes and it is necessary for manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering and design students to recognize these changes. Rapid manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the metal casting industry by greatly reducing the tooling requirements necessary to produce components. The lead times to produce complex components are being reduced from months to days. A large reduction in the traditional labor requirements for molders, coremakers, patternmakers, and toolmakers will occur. The numerous advantages of the process are discussed and the major limitations are also presented. The "Third Wave" has arrived in the metal casting industry.

Creese, Robert

2009-07-14

337

Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

2013-06-01

338

American Indians by Reservations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data from the 1970 Census on the American Indian population living on reservations. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, relationship to head of household, families by...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

339

Depression in Indian history.  

PubMed

This write up on some aspects of Indian history of depression touches briefly on references to some aspects of depression in Ayurveda, in philosophical texts and in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. PMID:11002619

Rao, A V

2000-05-01

340

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

341

Tourism and Indian Exploitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

French, Lawrence

1977-01-01

342

Indian allotment water rights  

SciTech Connect

Allotted tribal lands create troublesome questions for western water lawyers. The author reviews the history of basic Indian reservation water rights created by the Supreme Court's landmark decision in Winters v. United States. He then explains the disposition of those rights when reservation lands are allotted. Finally, he discusses the difficult issues that arise when allotted lands pass from the federal trust, become subject to state law, and are transferred to non-Indians.

Collins, R.B.

1985-01-01

343

Indian River Lagoon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.

344

Investment casting design of experiment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Specific steps in the investment casting process were analyzed in a designed experiment. The casting`s sensitivity to changes in these process steps was experimentally determined Dimensional and radiographic inspection were used to judge the sensitivity of the casting. Thirty-six castings of different pedigrees were poured and measured. Some of the dimensional inspection was conducted during the processing. It was confirmed that wax fixturing, number of gates, gate location, pour and mold temperature, pour speed, and cooling profile all affected the radiographic quality of the casting. Gate and runner assembly techniques, number of gates, and mold temperature affect the dimensional quality of the casting.

Owens, R.

1997-10-01

345

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Emphasis of the work at the University of Illinois is on processes and casting systems which employ a partially solid alloy as charge material. The program at the University of Illinois is especially designed to establish the processing conditions necessa...

R. Mehrabian D. G. Backman G. J. Abbaschian Y. V. Murty S. D. E. Ramati

1977-01-01

346

A New 'Shell Casting' Technic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new shell investment was formulated that hardened rapidly enough so that consecutive layers could be applied to a wax pattern without requiring intermediate drying cycles between each layer. This new 'shell casting investment' is a two component system....

E. R. Dootz R. G. Craig F. A. Peyton

1966-01-01

347

Care of Casts and Splints  

MedlinePLUS

... support. Casts can be made of plaster or fiberglass — a plastic that can be shaped. Splints or ... to put on, take off, and adjust. Materials Fiberglass or plaster materials form the hard supportive layer ...

348

Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael

1993-01-01

349

A Tale of Two Inlets: Tidal Currents at Two Adjacent Inlets in the Indian River Lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tidal currents and hydrography at two adjacent inlets of the Indian River Lagoon estuary (Florida) were recently measured using a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system. Although the two inlets—Sebastian Inlet and Port Canaveral Inlet—are separated by only 60 km, their characteristics and dynamics are quite unique. While Sebastian Inlet is a shallow (~4 m), curved inlet with a free connection to the estuary, Port Canaveral Inlet is dominated by a deep (~13 m), straight ship channel and has limited connectivity to the Banana River through a sector gate lock. Underway measurements of tidal currents were obtained using a bottom tracking acoustic Doppler current profiler; vertical casts of hydrography were obtained with a conductivity-temperature-depth profiling instrument; and continuous underway measurements of surface water hydrography were made using a Portable SeaKeeper system. Survey transects were performed to elucidate the along-channel variability of tidal flows, which appears to be significant in the presence of channel curvature. Ebb and flood tidal currents in Sebastian Inlet routinely exceeded 2.5 m/s from the surface to the bed, and an appreciable phase lag exists between tidal stage and current magnitude. The tidal currents at Port Canaveral Inlet were much smaller (~0.2 m/s) and appeared to be sensitive to meteorological forcing during the study period. Although the lagoon has free connections to the ocean 145 km to the north and 45 km to the south, Sebastian Inlet likely drains much of the lagoon to its north, an area of ~550 sq. km.

Webb, B. M.; Weaver, R. J.

2012-12-01

350

Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.  

PubMed Central

The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI.

Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

1996-01-01

351

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porosity is one of the important causes for the rejection of jewellery items cast by the lost wax process. If it is of the\\u000a shrinkage type, then there is a considerable reservoir of knowledge, arising from experience in the casting of dental gold\\u000a and other gold alloys, which can be drawn upon to overcome the problem. If it is gas

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub; William S. Rapson

1985-01-01

352

EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREESTORY BRICK BUILDING WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREE-STORY BRICK BUILDING WITH DEEPLY-BRACKETED AND OVERHANGING EAVES INCLUDES MULTIPLE BAYS CONSTRUCTED BEGINNING IN 1913 TO SERVE AS A 'CIVIC CENTER' FOR ACIPCO EMPLOYEES AND THEIR FAMILIES. THE BUILDING CURRENTLY INCLUDES THE TIME OFFICE, CAFETERIA, AND AUDITORIUM. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Service Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

353

20. Detail of low crib dam and apron, looking north. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Detail of low crib dam and apron, looking north. Building across river is part of Muckleshoot Indian fish hatchery, constructed in 1989. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

354

Indian Ocean experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and

V. Ramanathan; P. J. Crutzen; J. Lelieveld; A. P. Mitra; D. Althausen; J. Anderson; M. O. Andreae; W. Cantrell; G. R. Cass; C. E. Chung; A. D. Clarke; J. A. Coakley; W. D. Collins; W. C. Conant; F. Dulac; J. Heintzenberg; A. J. Heymsfield; B. Holben; S. Howell; J. Hudson; A. Jayaraman; J. T. Kiehl; T. N. Krishnamurti; D. Lubin; G. McFarquhar; T. Novakov; J. A. Ogren; K. Priestley; J. M. Prospero; P. K. Quinn; K. Rajeev; P. Rasch; S. Rupert; R. Sadourny; S. K. Satheesh; G. E. Shaw; P. Sheridan; F. P. J. Valero

2001-01-01

355

Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

2005-01-01

356

Titan Casts Revealing Shadow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in diameter, which corresponds to the size of a dime as viewed from about two and a half miles. Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Unlike almost all of Chandra's images which are made by focusing X-ray emission from cosmic sources, Titan's X-ray shadow image was produced in a manner similar to a medical X-ray. That is, an X-ray source (the Crab Nebula) is used to make a shadow image (Titan and its atmosphere) that is recorded on film (Chandra's ACIS detector). Titan's atmosphere, which is about 95% nitrogen and 5% methane, has a pressure near the surface that is one and a half times the Earth's sea level pressure. Voyager I spacecraft measured the structure of Titan's atmosphere at heights below about 300 miles (500 kilometers), and above 600 miles (1000 kilometers). Until the Chandra observations, however, no measurements existed at heights in the range between 300 and 600 miles. Understanding the extent of Titan's atmosphere is important for the planners of the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will reach Saturn in July of this year to begin a four-year tour of Saturn, its rings and its moons. The tour will include close flybys of Titan that will take Cassini as close as 600 miles, and the launching of the Huygens probe that will land on Titan's surface. Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan "If Titan's atmosphere has really expanded, the trajectory may have to be changed." said Tsunemi. The paper on these results has been accepted and is expected to appear in a June 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other members of the research team were Haroyoski Katayama (Osaka University), David Burrows and Gordon Garmine (Penn State University), and Albert Metzger (JPL). Chandra observed Titan from 9:04 to 18:46 UT on January 5, 2003, using its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters,

2004-05-01

357

Development of a 3-D thermal model of the low-pressure die-cast (LPDC) process of A356 aluminum alloy wheels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of the low-pressure die casting process for the production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels has been developed to predict the evolution of temperature within the wheel and die under the auspices of a collaborative research agreement between researchers at the University of British Columbia and a North American wheel casting facility. The heat transfer model represents a

B. Zhang; D. M. Maijer; S. L. Cockcroft

2007-01-01

358

Pneumococcal Pneumonia among Navajo Indians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Indian Health Service (IHS)-University of New Mexico (UNM) collaborative studies have been in progress at the Gallup Indian Medical Center (GIMC) since July 1971 to determine the feasibility of an antipneumococcal vaccine field trial in the Gallup service...

B. Tempest

1973-01-01

359

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment allows for multi- player games on video lottery terminals (VLTs). Dated: November 1, 2010. Larry Echo Hawk, Assistant Secretary--Indian...

2010-11-09

360

Melvil Dewey and the Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This poem discusses Melvil Dewey's system for organizing information, focusing on information related to American Indians. Suggests instead of grouping all materials on Indians in one place they could be distributed throughout the Dewey system. (LRW)

Roberts, Michael

2002-01-01

361

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

362

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

363

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

364

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

365

American Indian Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Arizona State University, the American Indian Policy Institute collaborates with tribal governments and American Indian communities on issues that affect them and also works to nurture innovation for American Indian sustainability. The site offers a wealth of reports, news articles, publications, conference programs, and other items that will be of interest to scholars. The Reports & Publications area contains thoughtful missives such as "Tribes and Energy within Arizona" and "Land Use Challenges and Choices for the 21st Century." The Award-Winning First Innovations area offers up a host of best practices designed to introduce sustainability entrepreneurship in Native American communities. Additionally, the Projects & Initiatives area offers detailed program information about tribal planning summits and financial management seminars.

366

QUESTIONS REGARDING AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FOR THE PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT, AMERICAN INDIAN MEANS A SOCIAL-LEGAL GROUP. THE STATISTICS WERE OBTAINED FROM FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SOURCES. IN 1960, THERE WERE OVER 70,000 INDIAN ARRESTS OUT OF FOUR MILLION ARRESTS REPORTED TO THE F.B.I. THE PER CAPITA AMERICAN INDIAN CRIMINALITY IS NEARLY SEVEN TIMES THE NATIONAL AVERAGE, NEARLY…

STEWART, OMER C.

367

The American Indian: A Microcourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

Glick, Norman; And Others

368

Facts about American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

369

Title IV: Improving Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Education Act of 1972, Title IV, has improved Native American education by emphasizing Native American control; it comes after 400 years of Euro-American involvement in Indian education during which assimilation was the primary goal. In 1568 Jesuit priests began "civilizing" and Christianizing the "savage" Indians; in 1794 the first…

Barker, Kipp A.

370

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2012-12-28

371

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

372

Seasonal circulation in the south Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two World Ocean Circulation Experiment hydrographic cruises in March and June 1995, along with Topex-Poseidon altimeter data and National Meteorological Center wind data are used to estimate seasonal changes in the South Indian Ocean subtropical gyre. Mean annual curves derived from the altimeter and wind data reveal strengthening of the anticyclonic gyre in March and September, and weakening in June and December. The seasonal changes correspond to variations in the wind field south of 30°S at the equinoxes and solstices. In addition, the wind-driven gyre is further north in July, and further south in March. These variations in strength and location of the South Indian Ocean gyre may influence inter-ocean transports south of Africa. Despite the inferred mean annual seasonal variations in the South Indian Ocean gyre, volume transports estimated in 1995 from the hydrographic data are close to mean values. Apparently, a mesoscale eddy in March disrupts the stronger fall gyre, whereas in June the weaker winter gyre is delayed by 1 month.

Ffield, Amy; Toole, John; Wilson, Doug

1997-11-01

373

STME T/C casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The T/C casting technology developed by the National Launch System for the Space Transportation Main Engine is described. Special attention is given to the selection of JBK-75 as the combustion chamber casting alloy, some unique casting issues, and the development castings which were produced. Current plans call for producing a 650K full cast jacket mockup in the 4500 pound furnace. Once a 650K mockup casting has been successfully produced, a design of experiments (DOE) will be conducted to establish the best gating system. This will be followed by the design of permanent wax pattern tooling, gating tooling, and process fixtures, and, finally, by a process DOE.

Lobitz, J. R.; Ackerman, P. C.; Weber, S. L.

1992-07-01

374

A quantitative analysis of chalk pore geometry using resin casts  

SciTech Connect

As a part of a wider study of the hydraulic properties of Upper Cretaceous chalk from East Yorkshire and the North Sea, a method of pore space casting is being employed. Thus, with the aid of the Scanning Electron Microscope it is possible to obtain by direct visual observation information about the shape and size of pores and grains, the connectiveness and roughness of pore channels, the presence of clay and silicate minerals, and other factors that together control fluid flow in porous rocks. A more detailed understanding of the nature of hydrocarbon or water-bearing rock is becoming increasingly important in pursuance of studies of oil exploration, oil exploitation, and geotechnics. In this paper a method of impregnation and casting the pore space in chalk is described, together with some preliminary observations of chalk pore geometry.

Patsoules, M.G.; Cripps, J.C.

1983-01-01

375

Morphological castes in a vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Morphological specialization for a specific role has, until now, been assumed to be restricted to social invertebrates. Herein we show that complete physical dimorphism has evolved between reproductives and helpers in the eusocial naked mole-rat. Dimorphism is a consequence of the lumbar vertebrae lengthening after the onset of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct from continuous size variation between breeders and helpers in other species of cooperatively breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew. Similarities in the selective environment between naked mole-rats and eusocial insect species highlight the selective conditions under which queen/worker castes are predicted to evolve in animal societies.

O'Riain, M. J.; Jarvis, J. U. M.; Alexander, R.; Buffenstein, R.; Peeters, C.

2000-01-01

376

Casting propellant in rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for casting a solid propellant in the casing of a rocket engine having a continuous wall with a single opening which is formed by leaves of a material which melt at a temperature of the propellant and with curved edges concentric to the curvature of the spherical casing. The leaves are inserted into the spherical casing through the opening forming a core having a greater width than the width of the single opening and with curved peripheral edges. The cast propellant forms a solid mass and then heated to melt the leaves and provide a central opening with radial projecting flutes.

Roach, J. E.; Froehling, S. C. (inventors)

1976-01-01

377

Cementite Solidification in Cast Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hypereutectic cast irons (5.01 pct Cr and 5.19 pct V) were cast and the polished surfaces of test pieces were deep-etched and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The results show that graphite lamellae intersect the cementite and a thin austenite film nucleates and grows on the cementite plates. For both compositions, graphite and cementite can coexist as equilibrium phases, with the former always nucleating and growing first. The eutectic carbides grow from the austenite dendrites in a direction perpendicular to the primary plates.

Coronado, J. J.; Sinatora, A.; Albertin, E.

2014-06-01

378

Cementite Solidification in Cast Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two hypereutectic cast irons (5.01 pct Cr and 5.19 pct V) were cast and the polished surfaces of test pieces were deep-etched and analyzed via scanning electron microscopy. The results show that graphite lamellae intersect the cementite and a thin austenite film nucleates and grows on the cementite plates. For both compositions, graphite and cementite can coexist as equilibrium phases, with the former always nucleating and growing first. The eutectic carbides grow from the austenite dendrites in a direction perpendicular to the primary plates.

Coronado, J. J.; Sinatora, A.; Albertin, E.

2014-04-01

379

A Mechanism Relating the Indian Ocean SSTs, ENSO, and the Nile Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is associated with ElNino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Fluctuations of the Indian Ocean Sea Surface temperature (SST) are also associated with the Nile flow. Here, we investigate the intermediate role of Indian Ocean SSTs in the teleconnection between Nile flow and ENSO. Using the partial coherency analysis, we show that connection between the North and Middle of Indian Ocean SSTs and Nile flow is driven by ENSO. However, the South of Indian Ocean SSTs have an independent role from ENSO in shaping variability of Nile flow. This independence allows for indices of SSTs over the South of Indian Ocean and ENSO to explain about 60% of the variability of the Nile flow when they are used together. During ElNino events, the SSTs over the Indian Ocean increase following the warming of the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which forces a Matsuno-Gill circulation with enhanced westerlies winds over Indian Ocean that decreases the convergence of boundary layer air over the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin. On the other hand, the increased SSTs over South of Indian Ocean generate a cyclonic motion, which has a similar effect on the convergence of boundary layer air over the UBN. The proposed mechanism has an important implication in understanding the potential climate change impacts on the Nile flow induced by warming of over Indian Ocean and provide new indices for Nile flow forecast models.

Siam, M.; Eltahir, E. A.

2012-12-01

380

Cast-a-Box: Casting Conditions and Macroporosity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An illustration of three-dimensional finite difference simulation of heat conduction with phase change and complex boundary conditions, this requires students to adjust boundary conditions to make the top surface of a regular hexahedral "casting" to freeze last, eliminating macroporosity.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-08-24

381

Casting behavior of titanium alloys in a centrifugal casting machine.  

PubMed

Since dental casting requires replication of complex shapes with great accuracy, this study examined how well some commercial titanium alloys and experimental titanium-copper alloys filled a mold cavity. The metals examined were three types of commercial dental titanium [commercially pure titanium (hereinafter noted as CP-Ti), Ti-6Al-4V (T64) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (T67)], and experimental titanium-copper alloys [3%, 5% and 10% Cu (mass %)]. The volume percentage filling the cavity was evaluated in castings prepared in a very thin perforated sheet pattern and cast in a centrifugal casting machine. The flow behavior of the molten metal was also examined using a so-called "tracer element technique." The amounts of CP-Ti and all the Ti-Cu alloys filling the cavity were similar; less T64 and T67 filled the cavity. However, the Ti-Cu alloys failed to reach the end of the cavities due to a lower fluidity compared to the other metals. A mold prepared with specially designed perforated sheets was effective at differentiating the flow behavior of the metals tested. The present technique also revealed that the more viscous Ti-Cu alloys with a wide freezing range failed to sequentially flow to the end of the cavity. PMID:12593955

Watanabe, K; Miyakawa, O; Takada, Y; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

2003-05-01

382

Minnesota Indian Resources Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Training Center for Community Programs was established at the University of Minnesota to increase understanding of, and to provide opportunity for, the economically disadvantaged. The Center published this directory of services and organizations to provide American Indians with sources of assistance in adjusting to community life in the urban…

Stickney, Avis L., Comp.

383

Indians of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Pima, Papago, Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Cocopah, Havasupai, Hualapai, Yavapai, and Paiute Indian tribes of Arizona are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, housing, employment, and economic development taking place on the…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

384

Indians of New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

385

Indians of the Northwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

386

Problems of Indian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

Linton, Marigold

387

Indian Wisdom Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rather than simply recreating a real or imagined event or experience for entertainment purposes, the wisdom stories of the American Indians were sophisticated teaching devices that kept alive the history and traditions of the tribe at the same time that they instructed the young tribe members in the areas of history, geography, nature study, and…

Blanche, Jerry D.

388

Indian genetic disease database  

PubMed Central

Indians, representing about one-sixth of the world population, consist of several thousands of endogamous groups with strong potential for excess of recessive diseases. However, no database is available on Indian population with comprehensive information on the diseases common in the country. To address this issue, we present Indian Genetic Disease Database (IGDD) release 1.0 (http://www.igdd.iicb.res.in)—an integrated and curated repository of growing number of mutation data on common genetic diseases afflicting the Indian populations. Currently the database covers 52 diseases with information on 5760 individuals carrying the mutant alleles of causal genes. Information on locus heterogeneity, type of mutation, clinical and biochemical data, geographical location and common mutations are furnished based on published literature. The database is currently designed to work best with Internet Explorer 8 (optimal resolution 1440?×?900) and it can be searched based on disease of interest, causal gene, type of mutation and geographical location of the patients or carriers. Provisions have been made for deposition of new data and logistics for regular updation of the database. The IGDD web portal, planned to be made freely available, contains user-friendly interfaces and is expected to be highly useful to the geneticists, clinicians, biologists and patient support groups of various genetic diseases.

Pradhan, Sanchari; Sengupta, Mainak; Dutta, Anirban; Bhattacharyya, Kausik; Bag, Sumit K.; Dutta, Chitra; Ray, Kunal

2011-01-01

389

Great Indian Chiefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief biographies and pen and ink portraits of over 40 chiefs and other distinguised American Indians comprise this book. Each page contains a full page portrait and a biography that notes tribal affiliation, important dates, geographical location, major accomplishments, and dealings with other tribes, white settlers, and the United States or…

Pastron, Allen

390

Indian Reserved Water Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

Bond, Frank M.

1986-01-01

391

Eastern American Indian Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

Thomas, Robert K.

392

Indian Education in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pictorial publication briefly discusses Indian education in Canada. Discussed are: nursery schools and kindergartens; elementary and secondary schools; teaching staff--preschool instructors, teacher aides, classroom assistants, teachers, and principals; guidance staff--guidance and social counsellors, and home and school coordinators; support…

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

393

Indian School Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age from 4 to…

Johnston, Basil H.

394

Potential global climatic impacts of the North Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climatic impacts of the North Pacific Ocean are studied using both observations and a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. It is found that the coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction over the western North Pacific may modulate global climate in the tropical Indian Ocean, the western subtropical south Pacific, and the tropical and North Atlantic through potential atmospheric teleconnections of the Asian winter monsoon and the Arctic Oscillation/North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO). The study suggests that the North Pacific Ocean may be an important regulator of global decadal climate variability.

Wu, Lixin; Liu, Zhengyu; Liu, Yun; Liu, Qingyu; Liu, Xiaodong

2005-12-01

395

New Lubricant for Pressure Die Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three lubricant formulations for the pressure die casting of large and complex castings were developed. The lubricants include mineral oils, synthetic acids, finely dispersed graphite preparations, etc. The new lubricants are not inferior in their propert...

B. P. Khrenov L. A. Tabanov L. Y. Kisilenko V. V. Romanov

1972-01-01

396

Welding of Castings in the Mining Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews the types of steel castings available to, and used in, the mining industry. The welding properties of carbon manganese, low alloy, and austenitic manganese steel castings are considered, and reference is made to the selection of welding ...

L. J. Lalor

1977-01-01

397

Metal Casting: Industry of the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies Metal Casting Industry of The Future; a partnership between the Department of Energy and the metal casting industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.

2001-01-01

398

The Role of Water in Slip Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. ...

R. A. Mccauley G. W. Phelps

1984-01-01

399

Electrochemical Etching of Titanium-Alloy Castings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to determine whether a potentiostatic electrochemical method could be used to etch selectively either the dendrites or the interdendritic material from Ti cast structures and thereby reveal their microstructures. Cast binary titan...

J. C. Griess S. A. David R. J. Gray C. W. Houck

1983-01-01

400

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST, AS OPERATOR WATCHES TO ENSURE QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

401

Indian aerosols: present status.  

PubMed

This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions. PMID:12492171

Mitra, A P; Sharma, C

2002-12-01

402

New fibreglass casting system in orthopaedic practice.  

PubMed

The composition, manufacture and application of a new fibreglass casting system for use in orthopaedic practice are described. The performance of the first 51 fibreglass casts used in routine fracture work is reviewed. The advantages (the cast is waterprof, extremely light and strong) and the disadvantages (an ultraviolet light source is required to cure the cast and the fiberglass tape is rather expensive) are evaluated. PMID:979766

Davis, B; Dooley, B

1976-06-26

403

Effect of ferrite on cast stainless steels  

SciTech Connect

Premature failure of stainless steel castings in bleach washing service is attributed to poor casting quality high porosity and to a high ferrite content, which makes the castings susceptible to corrosion by hot acid chloride solutions. A survey of the chemical compositions and ferrite contents of corrosion-resistant castings in bleach plants at three pulp mills found high [delta]-ferrite levels in the austenitic matrix due to the improper balance between austenite and ferrite stabilizers.

Nadezhdin, A.; Cooper, K. (Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada)); Timbers, G. (James Maclaren Inc., Quebec (Canada). Kraft Pulp Division)

1994-09-01

404

Porosity formation in axi-symmetric castings produced by counter-pressure casting method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method for simultaneous treatment of heat and mass transfer processes and porosity formation of castings produced by Counter Pressure Casting (CPC) method. The method enables us to account for the influence of the CPC parameters on the mechanical properties of the casting. Numerical results and comparison with experimental data are given for an axis-symmetric casting (hemisphere with

I. H. Katzarov; Y. B. Arsov; P. Stoyanov; T. Zeuner; A. Buehrig-Polaczek; P. R. Sahm

2001-01-01

405

Caribbean biogeography: molecular evidence for dispersal in West Indian terrestrial vertebrates.  

PubMed Central

The geological association of the Greater Antilles with North and South America in the late Cretaceous led to the hypothesis that the present Antillean biota reflects those ancient land connections. Molecular data from diverse West Indian amphibians and reptiles and their mainland relatives support a more recent derivation of the Antillean vertebrate fauna by overwater dispersal. The catastrophic bolide impact in the Caribbean region at the close of the Cretaceous provides a proximate cause for the absence of an ancient West Indian biota.

Hedges, S B; Hass, C A; Maxson, L R

1992-01-01

406

Chinese stalagmites: proxies for the Indian Summer Monsoon response to an archetypal abrupt climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stalagmites from Indian and Chinese caves have been widely used to infer past strength of the Indian and East Asian summer monsoon, as their oxygen isotopic composition (?18O) is primarily controlled by the ?18O of precipitation. Here we show that a sudden increase in North Atlantic sea ice extent during the last glacial period cools the Northern Hemisphere, reduces precipitation over the Indian basin and weakens the Indian monsoon. In turn, the annual weighted ?18O of precipitation (?18Op) is increased over India and isotopically heavier vapor is exported to China - directly by circulation and indirectly through continental recycling. The model reproduces the observed changes in climate associated with an archetypal Heinrich event and the ?18Op changes seen in stalagmites across China, which are proxies of Indian monsoon and not the East Asian monsoon as previously thought. Our results also provide insight on Dansgaard-Oeschger events and precessional cycle variations seen in these records.

Pausata, F.; Battisti, D. S.; Nisancioglu, K. H.

2010-12-01

407

Pressure Rig for Repetitive Casting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metals. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal i...

P. Vasquez W. R. Hutto A. R. Philips

1987-01-01

408

Benchmarking aluminium die casting operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing demand in world automotive markets for aluminium die cast components is creating significant opportunities and challenges for the Australian industry, which is positioning itself as a global player. To meet these challenges, the industry is continuously seeking to improve its overall resource efficiency that can result in the reduction of cost and impact on green house gas (GHG) emissions.

A. Tharumarajah

2008-01-01

409

Homogenization heat treating cast microstructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cast microstructures have variations in composition on the length scale of dendrites and homogenization heat treatments are performed to smooth out these variations. This problem is an integral analysis of the 1D diffusion mass transfer in this problem. The results using two different assumed profiles are compared.

Krane, Matthew J.

2008-10-25

410

Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

2000-11-30

411

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first semi-annual report describing research conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign as part of a joint university-industry research program on machine casting of ferrous alloys. During the six months covered by this report...

D. G. Backman R. Mehrabian R. J. Lauf S. D. E. Ramati Y. V. Murty

1976-01-01

412

Molding A Cast Metals Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cast metals program, a two-year associate degree program, at Muskegon Community College, Musegon, Michigan operates in close cooperation with the local foundry industry to provide a background for entry-level technical jobs and for continued studies toward a four-year degree. (EA)

Trumble, Dale E.

1975-01-01

413

Overview of ToxCast?  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2007, EPA launched ToxCast? in order to develop a cost-effective approach for prioritizing the toxicity testing of large numbers of chemicals in a short period of time. Using data from state-of-the-art high throughput screening (HTS) bioassays developed in the pharmaceutical i...

414

Tape casting of magnesium oxide.  

SciTech Connect

A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

2008-02-01

415

Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Due to the lack of economic permanent die materials for use in Hipocasting ferrous alloys, three innovative approaches for creating a mold cavity for use in machine casting of ferrous alloys were explored. They were: use of liquid metal cooling of a thin ...

G. D. Chandley G. Scholl

1975-01-01

416

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

417

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements made by a very simple method have shown that many of the factors which affect the quality of castings are sensitive\\u000a to surface and interfacial energies during the pouring of the melt. The results of a number of measurements of these parameters\\u000a are presented and discussed.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1985-01-01

418

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency with which the moulds are filled is one of the most important aspects in the lost wax procedure for casting\\u000a jewellery. The factors which affect it are briefly discussed and the results of a number of experiments aimed at increasing\\u000a knowledge of the complex interrelationships between them are presented.

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1986-01-01

419

Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.

1998-09-01

420

Indian sports nicknames/logos: affective difference between American Indian and non-Indian college students.  

PubMed

The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised (MAACL-R) before viewing two slide presentations of Fighting Sioux-related images: one neutral (i.e., non-controversial) and one controversial. Participants completed the MAACL-R after each presentation. They also completed the Nickname and Logo Distress Scale, and AI participants completed the Northern Plains Biculturalism Inventory to assess their degree of cultural orientation. Results showed that AIs experienced higher negative affect following both slide presentations than did MC participants. MC participants' affect was only changed following the controversial slide presentation. The findings suggest AI students may experience significantly higher levels of psychological distress when viewing even neutral images of AI nicknames/logos. PMID:22302279

LaRocque, Angela R; McDonald, J Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Ferraro, F Richard

2011-01-01

421

Diabetic Neuropathy: What is a Total Contact Cast?  

MedlinePLUS

... Web version Diabetic Neuropathy | What is a Total Contact Cast? What is a total contact cast? A total contact cast is a cast used to treat ulcers ( ... foot--that's why it is called a total contact cast. The cast helps to protect the skin ...

422

Effect of Sociocultural Cleavage on Genetic Differentiation: A Study from North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian populations possess an exclusive genetic profile primarily due to the many migratory events, which caused an extensive range of genetic diversity, and also due to stringent and austere sociocultural barriers that structure these populations into different endogamous groups. In the present study we attempt to explore the genetic relationships between various endogamous North Indian populations and to determine the

Faisal Khan; Atul Kumar Pandey; Meenal Borkar; Manorma Tripathi; Sudha Talwar; P. S. Bisen; Suraksha Agrawal

2008-01-01

423

Effect of Sociocultural Cleavage on Genetic Differentiation: A Study from North India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian populations possess an exclusive genetic profile primarily due to the many migratory events, which caused an extensive range of genetic diversity, and also due to stringent and austere sociocultural barrier that structure these populations into different endogamous groups. In the present study we attempt to explore the genetic relationships between various endogamous North Indian populations and to determine the

Faisal Khan; Atul Kumar Pandey; Meenal Borkar; Manorma Tripathi; Sudha Talwar; P. S. Bisen; Suraksha Agrawal

2008-01-01

424

78 FR 9729 - Eastern States: Filing of Plat of Survey, North Carolina  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...representing the dependent resurvey of a portion of the Qualla Indian Boundary, lands held in trust for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, Swain County, in the State of North Carolina. This was accepted December 19, 2012. The official filing of...

2013-02-11

425

The Educational Dilemma Facing Urban Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents objectives and programs of a model Indian education project designed to work through local Indian centers to aid urban universities with substantial Indian student populations in the provision of better educational opportunities for urban Indians and improved education of the public concerning the Indians' plight. (SB)

French, Laurence

1979-01-01

426

Recent Admixture in an Indian Population of African Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Identification and study of genetic variation in recently admixed populations not only provides insight into historical population events but also is a powerful approach for mapping disease loci. We studied a population (OG-W-IP) that is of African-Indian origin and has resided in the western part of India for 500 years; members of this population are believed to be descendants of the Bantu-speaking population of Africa. We have carried out this study by using a set of 18,534 autosomal markers common between Indian, CEPH-HGDP, and HapMap populations. Principal-components analysis clearly revealed that the African-Indian population derives its ancestry from Bantu-speaking west-African as well as Indo-European-speaking north and northwest Indian population(s). STRUCTURE and ADMIXTURE analyses show that, overall, the OG-W-IPs derive 58.7% of their genomic ancestry from their African past and have very little inter-individual ancestry variation (8.4%). The extent of linkage disequilibrium also reveals that the admixture event has been recent. Functional annotation of genes encompassing the ancestry-informative markers that are closer in allele frequency to the Indian ancestral population revealed significant enrichment of biological processes, such as ion-channel activity, and cadherins. We briefly examine the implications of determining the genetic diversity of this population, which could provide opportunities for studies involving admixture mapping.

Narang, Ankita; Jha, Pankaj; Rawat, Vimal; Mukhopadhayay, Arijit; Dash, Debasis; Basu, Analabha; Mukerji, Mitali

2011-01-01

427

Physical Activity and Incident Diabetes in American Indians  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the association between total physical activity (leisure-time plus occupational) and incident diabetes among 1,651 American Indians who participated in the Strong Heart Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among 13 American Indian communities in 4 states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Arizona). Discrete Cox models were used to examine the association between physical activity level (in tertiles), compared with no physical activity, and incident diabetes, after adjustment for potential confounders. During 10 years of follow-up (f1989–1999), 454 incident cases of diabetes were identified. Compared with participants who reported no physical activity, those who reported any physical activity had a lower risk of diabetes: Odds ratios were 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.99), 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.99), and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.99) for increasing tertile of physical activity, after adjustment for age, sex, study site, education, smoking, alcohol use, and family history of diabetes. Further adjustment for body mass index and other potential mediators attenuated the risk estimates. These data suggest that physical activity is associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes in American Indians. This study identifies physical activity as an important determinant of diabetes among American Indians and suggests the need for physical activity outreach programs that target inactive American Indians.

Howard, Barbara V.; Kriska, Andrea M.; Smith, Nicolas L.; Lumley, Thomas; Lee, Elisa T.; Russell, Marie; Siscovick, David

2009-01-01

428

Land-based turbine casting initiative  

SciTech Connect

To meet goals for the ATS program, technical advances developed for aircraft gas turbine engines need to be applied to land-based gas turbines. These advances include directionally solidified and single crystal castings, alloys tailored to exploit these microstructures, complex internal cooling schemes, and coatings. The proposed program to scale aircraft gas turbine casting technology up to land based gas turbine size components is based on low sulfur alloys, casting process development, post-cast process development, and establishing casting defect tolerance levels. The inspection side is also discussed.

Mueller, B.A.; Spicer, R.A. [Howmet Corp., Whitehall, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

429

Tectonic Fabric of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and Continental Drift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The floor of the Indian Ocean is dominated by (1) the scismically active Mid-Oceanic Ridge, (2) scattered linear micro-continents (mostly meridional), and (3) fracture zones (some displace the axis of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge and others parallel the micro-continents). The pattern suggests that movement along the Diamantina Fracture Zone has displaced Australia to the cast relative to Broken Ridge. In the

B. C. Heezen; Marie Tharp

1965-01-01

430

A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

1985-01-01

431

INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

Pearson, Robert, C.; Speltz, Charles, N.

1984-01-01

432

Indian fusion test reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion reactor as a volumetric neutron source can serve many applications needed for realizing fusion power reactor. For the Indian energy scenario, such a device can also produce fissile fuel for accelerating the nuclear power production. The Indian Fusion Test Reactor (FTR) is a low fusion gain (Q = 3-5) device to be used as component test facility for qualifying future reactor materials as well as for demonstrating the production of fissile fuel. FTR will be a medium sized tokamak device with a neutron wall load of 0.2 MW/m2. The presently available structural materials can be used for this device and such a device can be realized in ten years time from now. This device should produce about 25-50 kg of fissile fuel in one full-power-year and also produce the tritium needed for its operation. This device will greatly help the nuclear fission power program by producing fissile fuel.

Srinivasan, R.; FTR Team

2012-06-01

433

West Indian Orchidaceae Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York Botanical Garden has recently placed online this searchable database of West Indian Orchids. Containing approximately 5,200 specimen records for the family Orchidacese (from the New York Botanical Garden's collection), the database may be searched by Family, Collector, Country, Taxon, State/Province, and other select fields. Typical returns provide information on Specimen name (scientific name), Location, Collector, Description, and Habitat.

434

Thunderstorms, Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This large tropical cumulonimbus thunderstorm was photographed in the Indian Ocean south of the Maldive Islands (12.0S, 73.0E). Cumulonimbus clouds are the familiar towering thunderheads that can rise up to as much as 75,000 ft. producing thunderstorms and sometimes tornadoes as well. This particular storm system displays a variety of meteorological phenommena such as towers, overshooting tops, squall lines and areas of high speed downdrafts.

1990-01-01

435

Viscosity of casting fluxes used during continuous casting of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten flux viscosity of eighteen commercially available casting fluxes has been measured as a function of temperature in\\u000a the range of 1223 to 1723 K. Results show that, at a constant temperature, the flux viscosity is primarily dependent on the\\u000a mole fractions of SiO2 and A12O3. The calculated activation energy for viscous flow at 1573 K varies from 59 to

Michael D. Lanyi; Casimir J. Rosa

1981-01-01

436

Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K. [National Institute of Rock Mechanics, KGF (India)

2005-07-01

437

Changes in suspended sediments associated with 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sumatra tsunami on 26 December, 2004 in the Indian Ocean was generated by one of the largest earthquakes of the past 100 years. The present study investigated spatial and temporal changes of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in North-East Indian Ocean (NEIO) after the Sumatra tsunami used satellite remote sensing data. The nLw551 products of MODIS-aqua data (using as indexing SSC) were analyzed for 5 years (2002 2006). Result shows SSC notably increased (55.6 200%) in large river estuaries along coast of the Bay of Bengal (BOB) in a short time (4 weeks) after the tsunami, especially the northwest coast of Indonesia, southeast coast of Myanmar, as well as the north offshore of BOB. Those increases were mainly caused by the re-suspension function induced by the initial surge of the tsunami. Monthly analysis indicates increases (4.26%) of SSC of the entire North-East Indian Ocean area in 2005; especially in November 2005 when increase of SSC increased by about 6.19% compared with other years; those may mainly be caused by the destruction of coastal vegetation and modifying of estuaries or wetlands by the 2004 tsunami. The increases of SSC have different mechanism in different region and period after the tsunami.

Yan, Zhongzheng; Tang, Danling

2009-01-01

438

National Indian Law Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Law Library (NILL) has worked for over three decades to bring together key resources for Native Americans and their advocates in the field of legal scholarship and service. Today it remains the only entity that offers a comprehensive vision of past and present tribal governmental documents from across the United States. The NILL is based in Boulder, Colorado and its website provides selected documents, information on ongoing activities and the very useful Indian Law News Bulletins. These bulletins are published almost every week and offer succinct and timely information about new developments in Indian Law. Visitors can search through the archives of these bulletins back to 1998, or look through the bulletins for links to germane legal briefs. This same area contains links to digests that cover activities in state courts, federal trial courts, and law review journal articles. Users shouldn't miss the Research By Topic area, which contains links that deal with 20 different themes, including tribal education, health & human services, sacred sites, prisoners' issues, and child welfare.

439

Indian Converts Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First published in 1727, the remarkable book "Indian Converts, or Some account of the lives and dying speeches of a considerable number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard" is now available in full online. Written by Experience Mayhew, the book provides remarkable insights into the lives and culture of four generations of Native Americans in colonial America. This digitized version was created at Reed College, and visitors can look through all four sections of the work, which include "Indian Ministers" and "Pious Children." Throughout the work, Mayhew details the books that different age groups were reading, provides insights into early New England pedagogy and childrearing practices, and also describes each individual in terms of their own genealogy and personal history. The truly fantastic thing about the site is that it also contains an archive with over 600 images and documents that further contextualize the work. Also, the site contains study guides designed for classroom use that cover artifact analysis, genealogy, and reading gravestones.

440

American Indian and Alaska Natives Suicide  

MedlinePLUS

... in the two reservations studied. 9 Opportunities for Suicide Prevention Protective Factors The 1990 National American Indian Adolescent ... Indian Health Service, American Indian and Alaska Native Suicide Prevention Website http://www.ihs.gov/nonmedicalprograms/nspn/ National ...

441

77 FR 43111 - Indian Gaming; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Correction...notice that the Tribal-- State Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-23

442

76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action...On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of...

2011-10-12

443

Indian Ocean ODP Campaign discussed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiff, U.K., in July to draw together individual results of the nine-leg Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) campaign in the Indian Ocean (1987-1988) into ocean-wide syntheses. The convener of the meeting was Robert Duncan of Oregon State University.Keynote addresses were designed to reacquaint conferees with the goals and achievements of the nine-leg Indian Ocean program. Roland Schlish reported on results of the ODP Indian Ocean drilling program; Jean-Yves Royer on paleogeographic reconstructions of the Indian Ocean; Warren Prell on development of the Arabian monsoons; Robert Duncan on life cycle of Indian Ocean hotspots; Sherwood Wise on Antarctic to sub-Antarctic paleoceanography; Ulrich Von Rad and Felix Gradstein on ocean evolution from Tethys to the Indian Ocean; Jeffrey Weissel on intraplate deformation in the central Indian Ocean; Henry Dick on oceanic lithosphere layer 3, Indian Ocean Site 735; and Robert Kidd on progress of the PALIOS project: DSDP to ODP synthesis. A poster session illuminating the results of about 20 research efforts by some conferees on Indian Ocean ODP topics was also held.

Rea, David K.

444

Indian Ocean analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality control of data as research bodies are replaced by operational bodies in the Global Ocean Observing System.

Meyers, Gary

1992-01-01

445

Nutritional concerns in American Indian and Alaska Native children: transitions and future directions.  

PubMed

The nutritional health of American Indian and Alaska Native children has changed dramatically over the past 30 years. The prevention and treatment of malnutrition (primarily undernutrition) was a major health issue until the mid to late 1970s. Now, a generation later, obesity in American Indian and Alaska Native children is a major health threat. In 1969, the National Institutes of Health sponsored a conference to review the nutritional status of North American Indian children and to set a national agenda to improve the nutritional health of Indian children. Subsequently, increased food availability; food assistance programs; and improved sanitation, transportation, and health care have eliminated undernutrition as a major health issue. However, the substantial reduction in undernutrition has been accompanied by a rapid increase in childhood obesity. The current epidemic of child and adult obesity and associated obesity-related morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases, has implications for the immediate and long-term health of young American Indians. This article reviews the current nutritional health of American Indian and Alaska Native children, the changes that have occurred the past 30 years, and the nutrition transition to increasing obesity and subsequent diabetes that is being seen in American Indians. Future directions to improve the health of American Indian and Alaska Native children are discussed, as is the urgent need for obesity prevention programs that are culturally oriented, family centered, and community- and school-based and that target healthful eating and physical activity beginning in childhood. PMID:12515418

Story, M; Strauss, K F; Zephier, E; Broussard, B A

1998-02-01

446

Focused rigidity casts: an overview.  

PubMed

Focused rigidity casts (FRCs) are a novel treatment made from polymer semi-flexible cast material, used in the management of plantar foot ulceration to offload the site of ulceration. Current anecdotal evidence suggests that use of FRCs helps achieve quicker healing time. While FRCs were first used in the treatment of fractures, previous reports suggest that the FRC may be effective in the treatment of plantar foot ulceration. Although there is a paucity of evidence to support the use of FRCs in the treatment of foot ulceration, current evidence demonstrates a decrease in both wound healing time and plantar pressure. The aim of the paper is to examine the importance of offloading plantar ulcerations and introduce FRCs. PMID:23665658

Dagg, A R; Chockalingam, N; Branthwaite, H

2013-02-01

447

Deep meridional overturning circulation in the Indian Ocean during Indian Ocean dipole Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deep meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is one of the characteristic features in the Indian Ocean, playing important role in conveying water mass between the Southern Ocean and the Indian Ocean. In addition to seasonal variations, the deep MOC also experiences significant interannual variations for which the deep MOC is investigated during IOD events. Based on several extreme IOD events, composite analysis reveals that an anomalous clockwise deep meridional overturning cell dominates from September to December accompanying with anomalous tropical easterlies anomaly and positive wind curl anomaly in the region north of 20°S to equator during IOD events. The induced Ekman dynamics give rise to water mass convergence centered on 10°S and pump water mass down to the deeper layer in Sep-Oct. The intensified clockwise deep cell extend to 34°S and therefore export deep and bottom water to the Southern Ocean in Nov-Dec. In this study, intimate relations are revealed between Ekman dynamics and deep MOC in the Southern Indian Ocean, which suggests a strong direct dynamical link connecting deep ocean and upper ocean-atmosphere coupled system over the Indo-Pacific region.

Wang, Weiqiang; Zhu, Xiuhua

2013-04-01

448

Pathways: a school-based program for the primary prevention of obesity in american indian children 1 1 This paper was delivered at the October 23–25, 1997, conference “The Determination, Treatment, and Prevention of Obesity,” which was sponsored by the Institute of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; and School of Medicine, East Carolina University, in cooperation with the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, the National Institutes of Health, the American Cancer Society, and Eli Lilly & Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the proposed intervention and outcome measurement procedures for the Pathways study. Pathways is a multicenter school-based study aimed at reducing the alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity in American Indian children. It is designed as a randomized clinical trial, involving approximately 2,000 third grade children in 40 schools in seven different American Indian communities. During a

Benjamin Caballero; Sally Davis; Clarence E. Davis; Becky Ethelbah; Marguerite Evans; Timothy Lohman; Larry Stephenson; Mary Story; Jean White

1998-01-01

449

Casting Alloys: Side-Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Side-effects from dental materials are a minor problem, but should be recognized. In recent questionnaire surveys about side-effects, the incidence was estimated to be 1:300 in periodontics and 1:2600 in pedodontics. None of these reactions was related to dental casting alloys. In prosthodontics, the incidence was calculated to be about 1:400, and about 27% were related to base-metal alloys forremovable

Arne Hensten-Pettersen

1992-01-01

450

Investment casting of gold jewellery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lost wax or investment casting process used extensively in gold jewellery fabrication is subject to the effects of a large\\u000a number of process variables. One consequence of this is that where problems arise or exist in its application, they can be\\u000a difficult to understand and solve. In order to promote optimization of the process the authors have studied the

Dieter Ott; Christoph J. Raub

1985-01-01

451

42 CFR 136.360 - Leases with Indian tribes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Health Care Improvement Act Programs Subdivision J-7-Leases with Indian Tribes § 136.360 Leases with Indian...

2012-10-01

452

Tape casting of lanthanum chromite  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are currently being developed for a variety of applications such as stationary on-site power plants and cogeneration. The effects of process additives, ball milling, and solids loading were evaluated for tape casting suspensions of glycine-nitrate-synthesized La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.31}CrO{sub 3} powder. An optimized formulation was obtained based on rheological characterization, electrokinetic sonic amplitude measurements, qualitative examination of green tapes, and the sintered microstructure. The tape casting formulation incorporated 66:34 methyl ethyl ketone/ethyl alcohol solvent, an aliphatic phosphate ester dispersant, and 80 wt% (35 vol%) solids. The best binder/plasticizer system was 12 wt% (15 vol%) poly(isobutyl methacrylate) and 5 wt% (6.3 vol%) benzyl butyl phthalate plasticizer (binder:plasticizer = 2.3). Cast tapes were sintered at 1300 C for 2 h, producing a bulk density of 96.2% theoretical, with linear shrinkage of 22% and an approximate grain size of 1.3 {micro}m.

Murphy, M.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Smith, P.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-01-01

453

Alloalbuminemia in North India.  

PubMed Central

Electrophoretic screening of sera from 550 individuals from Punjab, North India, revealed four cases of alloalbuminemia. Two albumin variants migrated slower and two migrated faster than the common albumin A. These variants were further analyzed by electrophoresis of their cyanogen bromide fragments to localize their molecular differences. One of the slow variants appears similar to, if not identical with, albumin B, with an altered cyanogen bromide fragment CNBr VII. The other slow variant appears to be a new variant (proposed name albumin Punjab) differing from albumin A in an altered fragment CNBr VI (which also occurs in albumins Kashmir and Adana) and in an altered fragment CNBr I. Among the fast variants, one has the same altered fragment CNBr V as albumin Naskapi, while the other appears to be a new variant (proposed name albumin Patiala) having an altered fragment CNBr VI. The presence of albumin Naskapi in Punjabis, North American Indians, and Eti Turks (previously reported) is consistent with the existence of a common ancestral population in which the mutation to Naskapi occurred before the migrations eastward and westward. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Kaur, H; Franklin, S G; Shrivastava, P K; Blumberg, B S

1982-01-01

454

Effects of Aerosols over the Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerosols that contain black carbon both absorb and reflect incoming sunlight. Even as these atmospheric particles reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the surface, they increase the amount of solar energy absorbed in the atmosphere, thus making it possible to both cool the surface and warm the atmosphere. The images above show satellite measurements of the region studied during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX)a vast region spanning the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal (west to east), and from the foot of the Himalayan Mountains, across the Indian subcontinent to the southern Indian Ocean (north to south). The Aerosol images show aerosol pollution (brownish pixels) in the lower atmosphere over the INDOEX study area, as measured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Terra. These were composited from March 14-21, 2001. The Albedo images show the total solar energy reflected back to space, as measured by Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) aboard Terra. White pixels show high values, greens are intermediate values, and blues are low. Note how the aerosols, particularly over the ocean, increase the amount of energy reflected back to space. The Atmospheric Warming images show the absorption of the black carbon aerosols in the atmosphere. Where the aerosols are most dense, the absorption is highest. Red pixels indicate the highest levels of absorption, blues are low. The Surface Cooling images show that the aerosol particles reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the surface. Dark pixels show where the aerosols exert their cooling influence on the surface (or a high magnitude of negative radiative forcing). The bright pixels show where there is much less aerosol pollution and the incoming sunlight is relatively unaffected.

2002-01-01

455

DEVELOPING CURRICULUM FOR INDIAN CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS WORKSHOP REPORT WAS PREPARED AS A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF INDIAN CHILDREN IN THE FOUR CORNERS AREA OF ARIZONA, COLORADO, NEW MEXICO, AND UTAH. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION IS GIVEN OF THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT, UP TO THEIR PRESENT STATUS, OF UTE MOUNTAIN UTES, SOUTHERN UTES, JICARILLA APACHES, PUEBLO INDIANS OF NEW MEXICO, AND NAVAJOS. THE STATED…

POTTS, ALFRED M., 2D; SIZEMORE, MAMIE

456

California Indian Food and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

2001

457

American Indians of the Southwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for both the specialist and nonspecialist, the book provides a synthesis of Southwestern Indian culture based on long familiarity with the people. Chapter 1 describes the physical aspects of American Indians, land and Aboriginal inhabitants, and development of socio-religious patterns. Chapter II is about Pueblo Peoples (Tanoans,…

Dutton, Bertha P.

458

Special Diabetes Program for Indians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Congress established the Special Diabetes Program for Indians to provide prevention and treatment services to address the growing problem of diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Since the Special Di...

2005-01-01

459

American Indian Youth Suicide Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the prevalence of suicide and suicidal ideation among American Indian adolescents. Unique risk and protective factors, and historical trauma and associated symptoms, are explored in the context of American Indian adolescent suicide. The need for culturally-sensitive interventions are necessary, and an example of a…

LaFromboise, Teresa

2006-01-01

460

Money, Semantics, and Indian Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses cultural differences between Indian and white people in their perceptions of money and the meanings of certain English words such as greed and jealousy. Identifies possible sticking points in Indian-white communication and political/economic relationships. Relates intratribal disputes and factionalism to impose financial situations and…

Lurie, Nancy O.

1986-01-01

461

78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Wiyot Tribe and...

2013-09-06

462

Institutional Change and Its Impact on the Poor and Excluded: The Indian Decentralisation Experience. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 242  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the impact of democratic decentralisation on the chances of socially excluded groups to participate in newly created local governance institutions--Panchayati Raj Institutions--in three Indian states. This institutional reform included a quota for the disadvantaged--women and lower castes--to ensure their effective…

Narayana, D.

2005-01-01

463

Aging degradation of cast stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450°C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term

O. K. Chopra; H. M. Chung

1985-01-01

464

A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress  

SciTech Connect

Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

2012-01-01

465

Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-011D13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was to determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

2004-01-01

466

Directional Solidification of Nodular Cast Iron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cerium enhances formation of graphite nodules. Preliminary experiments in directional solidification of cast iron shows quantitative correlation of graphite microstructure with growth rate and thermal gradient, with sufficient spheroidizing element to form spheroidal graphite under proper thermal conditions. Experimental approach enables use of directional solidification to study solidification of spheriodal-graphite cast iron in low gravity. Possible to form new structural materials from nodular cast iron.

Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

1987-01-01

467

Report on Indian Education--Task Force Five: Indian Education--Final Report to the American Indian Policy Review Commission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report of the Task Force on Indian Education to the American Indian Policy Review Commission delineates the interweaving of past policies and practices with present needs and concerns of Indian education. Reviewing 400 years of Indian education, the report was compiled from federal, state, local, and private records, public hearings,…

Scheirbeck, Helen Maynor; And Others

468

Heat fluxes of the Indian Ocean from a global eddy-resolving model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The output of the global eddy-resolving ¼° ocean model of Semtner/Chervin (run by the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California) has been used to study the oceanic temperature and heat flux in the Indian Ocean. The meridional heat flux in the northern Indian Ocean is at the low end of the observed values. A vertical overturning cell in the upper 500 m is the main contributor to the annual mean meridional heat flux across 5°S, whereas the horizontal gyre circulation, confined to the upper 500 m, dominates north of the equator. The change of monsoon winds is manifested in a reversal of the meridional circulation throughout the whole water column. The most notable result is a strong linear relationship of the meridional temperature flux and the zonal wind stress component north of 20°S. The model's Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow across the section at 120°E accounts for -8.8±5.1 Sv (1 Sv?106 m3 s-1). A strong interannual variability during the model run of 3 years shows a maximum range of 12 Sv in January/February and a minimum during March through June. The inflow from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean results in a total annual mean temperature flux of -0.9 PW (1 PW?1015 W). In the model the temperature flux from the Pacific through the Indian Ocean to the south dominates in comparison with the input of solar heat from the northern Indian Ocean.

Garternicht, U.; Schott, F.

1997-09-01

469

High-Density-Tape Casting System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Centrifuge packs solids from slurry into uniform, dense layer. New system produces tapes of nearly theoretical packing density. Centrifugal system used to cast thin tapes for capacitors, fuel cells, and filters. Cylindrical rotary casting chamber mounted on high-speed bearings and connected to motor. Liquid for vapor-pressure control and casting slurry introduced from syringes through rotary seal. During drying step, liquid and vapor vented through feed tubes or other openings. Laminated tapes produced by adding more syringes to cast additional layers of different materials.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.

1987-01-01

470

Cutting efficiency of air-turbine burs on cast titanium and dental casting alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cutting efficiency of air-turbine burs on cast free-machining titanium alloy (DT2F) and to compare the results with those for cast commercially pure (CP) Ti, Ti–6Al–4V alloy, and dental casting alloys.Methods: The cast metal (DT2F, CP Ti, Ti–6Al–4V, Type IV gold alloy and Co–Cr alloy) specimens were cut with air-turbine burs

I Watanabe; C Ohkubo; J. P Ford; M Atsuta; T Okabe