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Sample records for north indian caste

  1. Comparative Approach to the Study of a White-Indian-Negro Caste System in Robeson County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Dennis Michael

    Attempting to find empirical evidence to support an hypothesis on the social stratification system in Robeson County, North Carolina, the study theorized that there exists a caste system in which the Lumbee Indians have a status between the dominant whites and subordinate Negro groups. The Lumbees and their relationship to these other groups were…

  2. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the Cherokee Indians from the mid-sixteenth century to modern day depicts an industrious tribe adversely affected by the settlement movement only to make exceptional economic advancements with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Civic pride and self-leadership among the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina has…

  3. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

  4. Current North American Indian Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Carol Van Antwerp Holliday; And Others

    Approximately 150 newsletters, newspapers, and other periodicals are cited in this bibliography of current sources of information about or directed toward North American Indians. One-sentence descriptions of content, ordering information, and frequency of publication are provided. The majority of the periodicals cited emphasize current events of…

  5. Genetics Home Reference: North American Indian childhood cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions North American Indian childhood cirrhosis North American Indian childhood cirrhosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description North American Indian childhood cirrhosis is a rare liver disorder that ...

  6. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India. PMID:26611129

  7. 126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. The North American Indian and the Eskimo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of the North American Indian, the Eskimo, and in the fields of ethnology and anthropology. The…

  9. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 4. Pier detail, cast iron bollard, north side of pier, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Pier detail, cast iron bollard, north side of pier, view to northwest. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 11, Charlestown Waterfront at confluence of Little Mystic Channel & Mystic River at northernmost ent of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. Sex assessment by molar odontometrics in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Ramandeep Singh; Manchanda, Adesh S.; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Human identification is based on scientific principles, mainly involving dental records, fingerprints, estimation of age, postmortem reports, differentiation by blood groups, and DNA comparisons. Sex assessment is one of the prime factors employed to assist with the identification of an individual. Aims and Objective: To investigate univariate sex differences in the dimensions of permanent first molars and to assess sex, based on buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) dimensions of permanent first molars in a population of north India. In addition, the study intended to evaluate the reliability of dimensional variation of these teeth in assessment of sex among the population. Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 410 adult individuals (200 males and 210 females), from a north Indian population. The BL and MD diameters of the permanent first molars were measured using digital vernier callipers. Results: It was observed statistically significant difference between males and females with P < 0.05, in maxillary casts in both BL and MD dimensions; but only in the MD dimension in mandibular casts. A high level of sexual dimorphism of 7.7% was found in the BL dimension of the maxillary right first molar. The accuracy of sex assessment by each dimension was deliberated by univariate analyses with an overall accuracy ranging from 67.5 to 88% for various dimensions. Conclusion: Sexual dimorphism of teeth is population specific and among north Indian population, BL and MD dimensions in maxillary first molar and MD dimension in mandibular first molar can be used for sex assessment. PMID:25709321

  12. NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, WITH BLOWER HOUSE TO THE EAST AND CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE TO THE WEST, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  13. Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, WS; Thara, R; Mowry, BJ; Zhang, Y; Witherspoon, DJ; Tolpinrud, W; Bamshad, MJ; Tirupati, S; Padmavati, R; Smith, H; Nancarrow, D; Filippich, C; Jorde, LB

    2008-01-01

    Background Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. Results We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations from the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. Genetic differentiation among Tamil castes is low (RST = 0.96% for 45 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers), reflecting a largely common origin. Nonetheless, caste- and continent-specific patterns are evident. For 32 lineage-defining Y-chromosome SNPs, Tamil castes show higher affinity to Europeans than to eastern Asians, and genetic distance estimates to the Europeans are ordered by caste rank. For 32 lineage-defining mitochondrial SNPs and hypervariable sequence (HVS) 1, Tamil castes have higher affinity to eastern Asians than to Europeans. For 45 autosomal STRs, upper and middle rank castes show higher affinity to Europeans than do lower rank castes from either Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh. Local between-caste variation (Tamil Nadu RST = 0.96%, Andhra Pradesh RST = 0.77%) exceeds the estimate of variation between these geographically separated groups (RST = 0.12%). Low, but statistically significant, correlations between caste rank distance and genetic distance are demonstrated for Tamil castes using Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal data. Conclusion Genetic data from Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal STRs are in accord with historical accounts of northwest to southeast population movements in India. The influence of ancient and historical population movements and caste social structure can be detected and replicated in South Indian caste populations from two different geographic regions. PMID:19077280

  14. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  15. Penile anthropometry in North Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Amilal; Upadhyay, Ravi; Bhat, Mahakshit; Sabharwal, Karamveer; Singla, Manish; Kumar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physicians frequently encounter questions by parents regarding the normal size of a child's penis. We evaluated normal variations of penile dimensions, correlation of penile length with height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of boys and analyzed the differences in penile dimensions from those reported from other countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at our institution during October 2012-December 2012. A total of 250 subjects (birth to 10 years) were evaluated and divided into 10 groups with 1-year interval taking 25 children in each. Penile dimensions measured twice by a single observer with Vernier calipers included the length of flaccid penis fully stretched and diameters at mid-shaft and corona. Diameters were multiplied by pi (π = 3.14) to calculate circumferences. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated. Height, weight, and BMI were noted and statistically correlated with the penile length using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were compared with similar studies reported on other populations in the past and individually evaluated with every study using Student's t-test. Results: The mean values for the penile length, mid-shaft circumference, and coronal circumference were 3.34, 3.05, 3.29 cm during infancy, 4.28, 3.86, 4.11 cm during 4-5 years, and 5.25, 4.78, 5.05 cm during 9-10 years, respectively. The penile length increased with advancing age in successive age groups, but it did not have a direct correlation with either height, weight, or BMI. Penile dimensions in North Indian children were found to be statistically smaller in comparison with most studies from other countries. Conclusion: We provide the normal range and variations of penile dimensions in North Indian children. PMID:25878409

  16. Plains Indians of North America. Grade Level: Fourth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Beth

    This is a fourth-grade teaching unit on the Plains Indians of North America. It is composed of a content outline, statement of unit goals, unit behavioral objectives, initiating activities, developmental activities, closing activities, unit evaluation plan, and a bibliography. The content outline shows that the unit covers the Plains Indian's…

  17. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells. PMID:24784218

  18. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  19. Motivations of North American Indians in Athletic Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the motives of North American Indians in holding their athletic games. Data were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology" published between 1881 and 1933. Anthropologists, artifact collectors, artist-writers, and historians provided primary evidential sources for athletic game motivation. Included…

  20. Folklore of the North American Indians. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullom, Judith C., Comp.

    Intended for compilers or retellers of folktales, for storytellers or librarians serving children, or for children themselves, the annotated bibliography contains references to 152 sources of North American Indian folktales. Sources in the non-comprehensive bibliography were selected on the basis of (1) a statement of sources and faithfulness to…

  1. First on the Land: The North Carolina Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetmore, Ruth Y.

    Written for students at the secondary level, this book details the historical development (10,000 B.C. to the present) of the 3 American Indian linguistic groups located in the 4 geographical areas of North Carolina (the Algonquians on the coast, the Iroquoians, including the Tuscarora on the coastal plain and the Cherokee in the mountains, and…

  2. Nutrition, Growth and Development of North American Indian Children. Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William M., Ed.; And Others

    Recognizing the special health needs of disadvantaged minority groups, in May 1969 the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development cosponsored a conference on these needs for North American Indian children. The monograph, based on this conference, summarizes previous knowledge, provides new information, and emphasizes the role of…

  3. Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

    Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

  4. North American Indians: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This teacher's resource guide produced by the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) is a collection of materials about North American Indians covering 3 categories, including an introduction, selected bibliographies, and a listing photographs and portraits. Additionally, there is a collecting of answers to questions that…

  5. The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kivisild, T.; Rootsi, S.; Metspalu, M.; Mastana, S.; Kaldma, K.; Parik, J.; Metspalu, E.; Adojaan, M.; Tolk, H.-V.; Stepanov, V.; Gölge, M.; Usanga, E.; Papiha, S. S.; Cinnioğlu, C.; King, R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.; Underhill, P. A.; Villems, R.

    2003-01-01

    Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools. PMID:12536373

  6. Deglacial Indian monsoon failure and North Atlantic stadials linked by Indian Ocean surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Demenocal, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Indian monsoon, the largest monsoon system on Earth, responds to remote climatic forcings, including temperature changes in the North Atlantic. The monsoon was weak during two cool periods that punctuated the last deglaciation--Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas. It has been suggested that sea surface cooling in the Indian Ocean was the critical link between these North Atlantic stadials and monsoon failure; however, based on existing proxy records it is unclear whether surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea dropped during these intervals. Here we compile new and existing temperature proxy data from the Arabian Sea, and find that surface temperatures cooled whereas subsurface temperatures warmed during both Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Younger Dryas. Our analysis of model simulations shows that surface cooling weakens the monsoon winds and leads to destratification of the water column and substantial subsurface warming. We thus conclude that sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean are indeed the link between North Atlantic climate and the strength of the Indian monsoon.

  7. The impact of North Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures on the Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Richard; Turner, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Indian Ocean and Indian monsoon rainfall is investigated in both observational/re-analyses and climate model simulations. We focus on the partially land-enclosed Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, where SSTs are found to have significant correlations with All Indian Rainfall (AIR). This part of the Indian Ocean is therefore important for monsoon predictions, while this area tends to provide significant problems in coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations. The observational variability of the SST-rainfall relationship is investigated on seasonal to decadal time-scales. This highlights a predominantly negative correlation over the monsoon trough area in North East India and a positive correlation over the rest of India, while these relationships are found to be weakened by the ENSO-monsoon teleconnection. Mechanisms are further investigated by performing a series of atmosphere-only model simulations using the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM). In these experiments we determine the response of the atmosphere to forced cold SST anomalies over isolated areas, which we also extend out into the equatorial Indian Ocean. The cold SSTs in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal lead to a dramatic reduction in Indian rainfall, while cold biases in the equatorial Indian Ocean have the opposite effect, highlighting the competition between oceanic and continental Tropical Convergence Zones (TCZ). However, the impacts for the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal experiments are found to change between the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon onset periods.The impact on monsoon rainfall for cold SST biases in these regions is found to be the result of a balance between changes in regional low-level temperature gradients and the availability of moisture over the oceans, which determine the pathway of the monsoon jet and the moisture transport towards India. These experiments suggest that the intra-seasonal variability of the relationship

  8. Evaluation of facial divine proportion in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naseem Ahmad; Nagar, Amit; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gulshan Kumar; Singh, Alka

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the facial divine proportion and its relationship with facial attractiveness in North Indian population. Materials and Methods: For evaluation of various facial proportions, standardized frontal facial photographs of total 300 subjects between 18 and 30 years of age were obtained. Black and white copies of these photographs were presented in front of an evaluation jury for assigning scores of facial attractiveness and finally 130 attractive subjects were selected. These subjects were divided into two groups, Group I (attractive females n = 65) and Group II (attractive males n = 65) and they were further analyzed for various parameters of facial proportions. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to compare both groups. Results: Group I showed that five of seven vertical facial proportions were close to divine proportion (1.618) whereas only two vertical proportions in Group II were close to it. Transverse facial proportions in both groups deviated more from divine proportion (1.618) and were closer to silver proportion (1.414). Conclusions: Most of the facial proportions of attractive females in the North-Indian population were close to the divine proportion. Thus, facial divine proportion could be an important factor in the perception of facial attractiveness of North-Indian attractive females.

  9. Seasonal forecasting of tropical cyclogenesis over the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Mohapatra, M.

    2016-03-01

    Over the North Indian Ocean (NIO) and particularly over the Bay of Bengal (BoB), the post-monsoon season from October to December (OND) are known to produce tropical cyclones, which cause damage to life and property over India and many neighbouring countries. The variability of frequency of cyclonic disturbances (CDs) during OND season is found to be associated with variability of previous large-scale features during monsoon season from June to September, which is used to develop seasonal forecast model of CDs frequency over the BoB and NIO based on principal component regression (PCR). Six dynamical/thermodynamical parameters during previous June-August, viz., (i) sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial central Pacific, (ii) sea level pressure (SLP) over the southeastern equatorial Indian Ocean, (iii) meridional wind over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean at 850 hPa, (iv) strength of upper level easterly, (v) strength of monsoon westerly over North Indian Ocean at 850 hPa, and (vi) SST over the northwest Pacific having significant and stable relationship with CDs over BoB in subsequent OND season are used in PCR model for a training period of 40 years (1971-2010) and the latest four years (2011-2014) are used for validation. The PCR model indicates highly significant correlation coefficient of 0.77 (0.76) between forecast and observed frequency of CD over the BoB (NIO) for the whole period of 44 years and is associated with the root mean square error and mean absolute error ≤ 1 CD. With respect to the category forecast of CD frequency over BoB and NIO, the Hit score is found to be about 63% and the Relative Operating Curves (ROC) for above and below normal forecast is found to be having much better forecast skill than the climatology. The PCR model performs very well, particularly for the above and below normal CD year over the BoB and the NIO, during the test period from 2011 to 2014.

  10. Chemical oceanography of the Indian Ocean, north of the equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. Sen; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    Chemical oceanographic studies in the North Indian Ocean have revealed several interesting and unique features. These are caused by the diverse conditions prevailing in the area which include immense river runoff in the northeast (Bay of Bengal) and a large excess of evaporation over precipitation and runoff in the northwest (Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf and Red Sea), resulting in the formation of several low- and high-salinity water masses. The occurrence of coastal upwelling seasonally makes the region highly fertile, and the existence of Asian landmass, forming the northern boundary, prevents quick renewal of subsurface layers. Consequently, dissolved oxygen gets severely depleted below the thermocline and reducing conditions prevail at intermediate depths (ca. 150-1200m) resulting in the reduction of nitrate (denitrification). The North Indian Ocean may contribute up to 10% of the global marine denitrification. The "denitrified" nitrogen, when combined with the rate of photosynthetic production reaching below the euphotic zone, gives the average residence time of water between 75 and 1200m as 43-51 years. The inorganic nutrient concentrations in the subsurface layers are very high in close proximity of the euphotic zone. The two-layered circulation leads to an active recycling of nutrients. The presence of organic fractions of nitrogen and phosphorus in significant concentrations in the deep water suggest that oxidation of organic matter is incomplete even great depths. The relationships between the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and nutrients and the stoichiometric composition of organic matter, deduced from the oxidative ratios and by analysis of plankton, are not very different from other oceanic areas. Higher nutrients and lower oxygen concentrations occur in the bottom layer as compared to the overlying water column in deep waters of the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, suggesting that considerable quantities of organic matter reach the deep-sea floor

  11. Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Tracks in the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, A.; Paliwal, M.; Mohapatra, M.

    2011-12-01

    Cyclones are regarded as one of the most dangerous meteorological phenomena of the tropical region. The probability of landfall of a tropical cyclone depends on its movement (trajectory). Analysis of trajectories of tropical cyclones could be useful for identifying potentially predictable characteristics. There is long history of analysis of tropical cyclones tracks. A common approach is using different clustering techniques to group the cyclone tracks on the basis of certain characteristics. Various clustering method have been used to study the tropical cyclones in different ocean basins like western North Pacific ocean (Elsner and Liu, 2003; Camargo et al., 2007), North Atlantic Ocean (Elsner, 2003; Gaffney et al. 2007; Nakamura et al., 2009). In this study, tropical cyclone tracks in the North Indian Ocean basin, for the period 1961-2010 have been analyzed and grouped into clusters based on their spatial characteristics. A tropical cyclone trajectory is approximated as an open curve and described by its first two moments. The resulting clusters have different centroid locations and also differently shaped variance ellipses. These track characteristics are then used in the standard clustering algorithms which allow the whole track shape, length, and location to be incorporated into the clustering methodology. The resulting clusters have different genesis locations and trajectory shapes. We have also examined characteristics such as life span, maximum sustained wind speed, landfall, seasonality, many of which are significantly different across the identified clusters. The clustering approach groups cyclones with higher maximum wind speed and longest life span in to one cluster. Another cluster includes short duration cyclonic events that are mostly deep depressions and significant for rainfall over Eastern and Central India. The clustering approach is likely to prove useful for analysis of events of significance with regard to impacts.

  12. An Evaluation of Education for Indians. Robeson County, North Carolina 1975-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynor, Waltz

    Results of the academic achievement of American Indian students in the Robeson County, North Carolina School Administrative Unit are presented in this document. As part of an evaluation of an educational program funded under the Indian Elementary and Secondary School Assistance Act, this document reflects program impact upon the county, its Lumbee…

  13. Community Background Reports: Robeson County, North Carolina, Lumbee Indians, National Study of American Indian Education, Series I, No. 1, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, John Gregory

    As part of the Final Report of the National Study of American Indian Education, this paper explores and compares the background of the rural Lumbee Indian with the urban Lumbee living in Pembroke, North Carolina. An interpretation for defining the American Indian in the tri-ethnic community is included, as well as a discussion of the economics of…

  14. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt. PMID:25754516

  15. Integrated healthy workplace model: An experience from North Indian industry

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Bains, Puneet; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Wadhwa, Sanjay; Moirangthem, Prabha; Kumar, Rajesh; Wadwalker, Sanjay; Sharma, Yashpal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Keeping in view of rapid industrialization and growing Indian economy, there has been a substantial increase in the workforce in India. Currently there is no organized workplace model for promoting health of industrial workers in India. Objective: To develop and implement a healthy workplace model in three industrial settings of North India. Materials and Methods: An operations research was conducted for 12 months in purposively selected three industries of Chandigarh. In phase I, a multi-stakeholder workshop was conducted to finalize the components and tools for the healthy workplace model. NCD risk factors were assessed in 947 employees in these three industries. In phase II, the healthy workplace model was implemented on pilot basis for a period of 12 months in these three industries to finalize the model. Findings: Healthy workplace committee with involvement of representatives of management, labor union and research organization was formed in three industries. Various tools like comprehensive and rapid healthy workplace assessment forms, NCD work-lite format for risk factors surveillance and monitoring and evaluation format were developed. The prevalence of tobacco use, ever alcoholics was found to be 17.8% and 47%, respectively. Around one-third (28%) of employees complained of back pain in the past 12 months. Healthy workplace model with focus on three key components (physical environment, psychosocial work environment, and promoting healthy habits) was developed, implemented on pilot basis, and finalized based on experience in participating industries. A stepwise approach for model with a core, expanded, and optional components were also suggested. An accreditation system is also required for promoting healthy workplace program. Conclusion: Integrated healthy workplace model is feasible, could be implemented in industrial setting in northern India and needs to be pilot tested in other parts of the country. PMID:23776318

  16. North Equatorial Indian Ocean Convection and Indian Summer Monsoon June Progression: a Case Study of 2013 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Bhupendra Bahadur

    2016-06-01

    The consecutive summer monsoons of 2013 and 2014 over the Indian subcontinent saw very contrasting onsets and progressions during the initial month. While the 2013 monsoon saw the timely onset and one of the fastest progressions during the recent decades, 2014 had a delayed onset and a slower progression phase. The monthly rainfall of June 2013 was +34 %, whereas in 2014 it was -43 % of its long-period average. The progress/onset of monsoon in June is influenced by large-scale circulation and local feedback processes. But, in 2013 (2014), one of the main reasons for the timely onset and fastest progression (delayed onset and slower progression) was the persistent strong (weak) convection over the north equatorial Indian Ocean during May. This resulted in a strong (weak) Hadley circulation with strong (weak) ascent and descent over the north equatorial Indian Ocean and the South Indian Ocean, respectively. The strong (weak) descent over the south Indian Ocean intensified (weakened) the Mascarene High, which in turn strengthened (weakened) the cross-equatorial flow and hence the monsoonal circulation.

  17. Depression and guilt in Indian and north american patients: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ananth, J; Engelsman, F; Ghadirian, A M; Wohl, M; Shamasundara, P; Narayanan, H S

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and nineteen Indian and one hundred and fourteen North American depressed patients were compared to assess the differences in psychopathology. The study revealed two important findings: 1) Indian patients scored significantly higher than American patients on the HAMD items of poor appetite, hypochondriasis, diurnal variation, and psychomotor retardation; and lower on the items of anxiety and middle insomnia. 2) Guilt was expressed less often by Indian patients. Guilt was more common among those who felt that God was responsible for their depression and in those who believed in reincarnation. These differences may be related to cultural factors and not to religious beliefs. PMID:21776166

  18. Dynamics of solitary waves observed over the North Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szantai, André; Drobinski, Philippe; DéSalmand, FrançOise

    2011-03-01

    During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) experiment (January-March 1999), mesoscale solitary waves have been observed and tracked over the North Indian Ocean on a series of Meteosat-5 satellite images. These solitary waves have a horizontal wavelength of 10-15 km and propagate westward at low level at a speed of 10-18 m/s. Unlike similar wave phenomena observed mainly over land, they have a long lifetime, which can exceed 48 h. A key element explaining the existence and longevity of the solitary waves is the presence of an inversion layer, acting as a waveguide and separating the boundary layer into two sublayers: a lower layer over the ocean (marine boundary layer) and an upper layer originating from the Indian subcontinent (land plume layer). Profiles from radiosondes launched from the Ron Brown and from dropsondes from the Hercules C-130 airplane helped to determine this waveguide structure. A suggested mechanism leading to the generation of solitary waves is a collision between the sea breeze in the vicinity of the West Indian coast and the easterly/northeasterly winter monsoon winds, with a possible contribution of convection reinforced by topography (Western Ghats range), during the local afternoon. Another phenomenon related to sea breeze and local convection in this coastal area, the injection of "bubbles" of moisture into the drier upper boundary layer, has also been identified on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses. These bubbles form daily during the afternoon and drift westward over the North Indian Ocean at latitudes around 12°N and progressively subside and dissipate or become integrated into larger air masses.

  19. A Critical Bibliography on North American Indians, for K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupp, P. Ann, Comp.; Burnett, Fiona, Comp.; Malloy, Maureen, Comp.; Wilson, Cheryl, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography is a response to teachers' concerns about choosing culturally sensitive and historically accurate books about American Indians and Alaska Natives. It contains critical annotations and evaluations of approximately 1,000 books, most published 1960-93, and points out controversial titles and disagreements about specific…

  20. Lip morphometry in 600 North Indian adults: a data base study for sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Goel, Archana; Patnaik, Vvg; Puri, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    The study comprised lip morphometry of 600 North Indian adults (300 males and 300 females). The aim of the study was to create base data of various linear and vertical measurements of the upper and lower lips and width of the mouth. This standard may serve as a guideline for sexual dimorphism as well as for restoration or enhancement of esthetic and plastic surgery for the lips in the north Indian population, which will enable the surgeon to offer a better cosmetic result. Prior informed written consent from all the subjects was obtained. The exclusion and inclusion criteria for the subjects were predefined. The analysis shows the sexual dimorphism in most parameters of lips being greater in males. The results were compared with the available data for north white Americans, Malays, Malaysian Indians, Italians, western Indians and Caucasians. In the population under study, the measurements differ in all dimensions with Malays, Italians and Caucasians and show resemblance to the Malaysian Indians. Knowledge of the proportion between the upper and lower lips helps in surgical correction of the region. This study highlights the applied significance of observations of the present study to forensic, namely racial and sex dimorphic, criteria of identification. PMID:24644225

  1. Enactments of Discursive Empowerment in Narratives of Medium of Education by North Indian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Priti

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine how women in a north Indian city narratively construct their identities in relation to medium of education (MoE)--English only (EME), Hindi only (HME), and a combination of both. I specifically analyze how the participants discursively articulate empowerment or disempowerment while narrating stories connected to their MoEs.…

  2. Materials on Indians of North America. An Annotated List for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Children's Book Center, Madison, WI.

    In an attempt to present a variety of effective literary approaches and to facilitate an appreciation of the North Anerican Indian in the development of our civilization, this annotated list was compiled and arranged by broad cultural area classification. Some 86 citations of materials published between 1931 and 1970 are listed under the following…

  3. The Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina, and Their Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, E. Dale

    Since 1835 when a state constitutional convention denied them the right to attend school, the Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina have established a strong educational system. Although another constitutional convention in 1868 mandated public school terms for all children, the county had few schools until 1885 and no schools…

  4. Prediction equations for diffusing capacity (transfer factor) of lung for North Indians

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Rajeev; Gupta, Uday A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prediction equations for diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar volume (VA), and DLCO/VA using the current standardization guidelines are not available for Indian population. The present study was carried out to develop equations for these parameters for North Indian adults and examine the ethnic diversity in predictions. Materials and Methods: DLCO was measured by single-breath technique and VA by single-breath helium dilution using standardized methodology in 357 (258 males, 99 females) normal nonsmoker adult North Indians and DLCO/VA was computed. The subjects were randomized into training and test datasets for development of prediction equations by multiple linear regressions and for validation, respectively. Results: For males, the following equations were developed: DLCO, −7.813 + 0.318 × ht −0.624 × age + 0.00552 × age2; VA, −8.152 + 0.087 × ht −0.019 × wt; DLCO/VA, 7.315 − 0.037 × age. For females, the equations were: DLCO, −44.15 + 0.449 × ht −0.099 × age; VA, −6.893 + 0.068 × ht. A statistically acceptable prediction equation was not obtained for DLCO/VA in females. It was therefore computed from predicted DLCO and predicted VA. All equations were internally valid. Predictions of DLCO by Indian equations were lower than most Caucasian predictions in both males and females and greater than the Chinese predictions for males. Conclusion: This study has developed validated prediction equations for DLCO, VA, and DLCO/VA in North Indians. Substantial ethnic diversity exists in predictions for DLCO and VA with Caucasian equations generally yielding higher values than the Indian or Chinese equations. However, DLCO/VA predicted by the Indian equations is slightly higher than that by other equations. PMID:27625439

  5. North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aken, Hendrik M.; Ridderinkhof, Herman; de Ruijter, Wilhelmus P. M.

    2004-06-01

    The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch-South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar current, lower circumpolar deep water (LCDW), and the aged variety of deep water, North Indian deep water (NIDW). Although bound by the shallow topography near Madagascar, about 2×10 6 m 3/s from the upper half of the NADW core appears to flow across the sill in the Mozambique Channel into the Somali Basin, while the remaining NADW flows east at about 45°S and is transformed to LCDW by lateral and diapycnal mixing. East of Madagascar the deep circulation is dominated by the southward flow of NIDW. Northward inflow of LCDW into the Indian Ocean therefore can take place only in the eastern half of the Indian Ocean, along the Southeast Indian Ridge and the Ninetyeast Ridge.

  6. A new proposed regression equation for mixed dentition analysis using the sum of permanent mandibular four incisors and first molar as a predictor of width of unerupted canine and premolars in a sample of North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Sachan, Kiran; Agarwal, Akhil; Srivastava, Kamna; Yadav, Pravesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to establish a new regression equation for North Indian and to compare and correlate the predicted width of unerupted canine and premolars obtained from the proposed regression equation of the present study in the North Indian population sample, Moyer's prediction table and also from Melgaco regression equation with the actual width; in order to check the applicability of various methods of mixed dentition analysis for the North Indian population. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 200 dental casts obtained from the North Indian patients and students which consists of 100 males and 100 females with the average age of 20.12 ± 4.70 years for males and 19.54 ± 3.16 years for females. Mesiodistal tooth widths of mandibular arch from permanent right first molar to left first molar were measured with an electronic digital caliper. Student t-test was used for comparison and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to correlate the actual sum and the predicted width of the permanent mandibular canines and premolars obtained from various methods. Results: The difference between the actual and predicted width was statistically insignificant using the regression equation obtained for the North Indian sample population (correlation r = 0.78) in contrast to the significant difference with predicted width obtained from Melgaco equation (r = 0.61) and Moyer's prediction table (r = 0.42). Conclusions: A new proposed regression equation for the North Indian population was established. Amongst the three regression equations devised, the proposed regression equation formulated in the present study; gave the most accurate results confirming racial variation in tooth size. This method is considered as an easy and practical way to predict the size of unerupted canines and premolars. PMID:24987654

  7. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

    2013-12-01

    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes. PMID

  8. Evaluation of mixed dentition analyses in north Indian population: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Vijay P.; Tandon, Pradeep; Nagar, Amit; Singh, Gyan P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mixed dentition regression equations analyses (Moyers, Tanaka-Johnston) are based on European population, reliability of these methods is questionable over other population. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on total 260 study models. This study was done in two phases. In the first phase, linear regression equations were made. In the second phase, comparison of actual values of sum of mesiodistal width of canine, first and second premolars with the predicted values proposed by Moyers, Tanaka-Johnston, and the new proposed mixed dentition analysis for North Indian population were made. Results: Set of four linear regression equations for predicting sum of mesiodistal width of permanent canine, first premolar and second premolar in North Indian population from sum of mesiodistal width of mandibular incisors and mandibular first molars, were proposed as; (a) for males, maxillary arch, Y = 2.9 + 0.40X, (b) mandibular arch Y = 3.91 + 0.37X (c) for females, maxillary arch Y = 0.56 + 0.45X (d) mandibular arch Y = 1.14 + 0.42X. Moyers and Tanaka-Johnston, mixed dentition analysis, is found to be overestimating the mesiodistal width of unerupted canine and premolars in North Indian population. PMID:25395762

  9. [North American Indians: A Collection of Bibliographies, Resource Lists, Questions and Answers, and Other Leaflets Prepared by the National Museum of Natural History].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This extensive collection of information and resource materials about North American Indians includes: (1) "A General Introduction to North American Indian Art"; (2) "Selected References on Native American Silverwork"; (3) "Selected References on Southwestern Native American Pottery"; (4) "Selected References on Southwestern Indian Textiles and…

  10. Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, J.E. ); Smith, D.R.; Flegal, A.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average level of lead (expressed as the ratio fo atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 {plus minus} 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}, which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}). Cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations.

  11. Development of a triply nested eddy resolving north Indian Ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, H.; Harrison, M.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution triply nested eddy resolving regional Indian Ocean model has been developed using recent version of Modular Ocean Model (MOM4p1). A multi-model approach is adopted using MOM4p1 and INCOIS-GODAS. In this setup, regional model (IOM-1/4) in the Indian Ocean region with 1/4° (~ 25 km) horizontal resolution (eddy permitting) and less than 1 meter vertical resolution in the near the surface, takes initial and lateral boundary condition from INCOIS-GODAS. IOM-1/4 solutions are then used to give lateral boundary condition to an eddy resolving (1/12° horizontal resolution) north Indian Ocean Model (IOM-1/12). The physics in eddy permitting and eddy resolving model is same. The forcing is same in all three model simulations. The analysis of model solutions during January 2010 to June 2013 shows significant improvement in upper ocean variability in IOM-12 as compared to INCOIS-GODAS and IOM-1/4. The costal currents along the Indian coast are more realistic in eddy resolving MOM-1/12 as compared to MOM-1/4 and INCOIS-GODAS.

  12. Homicide and suicide among the Cherokee and Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J A; Kupferer, H J

    1982-01-01

    The Cherokee and Lumbee, the two major Indian populations in North Carolina, have exhibited similarities in patterns of homicide and suicide. Both Indian populations have higher rates of homicidal than of suicidal death. Yet in 1972-73, the Lumbee homicide rates was considerably higher than that for the Cherokee, but the Cherokee's suicide rate exceeded that for the Lumbee. During 1974-1976, the Cherokee manifested excessively high rates of violent death, with suicide increasing faster than homicide. The Lumbee homicide rate declined during this period, while the suicide rate increased. Lumbee violence patterns indicate a slight dissipation of cultural traits that predispose them to aggressive behaviour and the concomitant emergence of a trend toward self-destructive behaviour. The rise in Cherokee suicide rate may be consistent with the harmony Ethic of some tribe members, but the sharp increase in homicide may reflect the erosion of the traditional non-violent ethic among the band as a whole. PMID:6980862

  13. Smokeless tobacco use among American Indian women--southeastern North Carolina, 1991.

    PubMed

    1995-02-17

    Rates of smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults are highest for young males, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, persons residing in the South or rural areas of the country, and those of low socioeconomic status (1). In addition, the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use has been reported to be high in tobacco-producing regions, including rural North Carolina and Kentucky (2,3). In southeastern North Carolina, reports from physicians and dentists suggested a high prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in the local American Indian population, the Lumbee--particularly among women and children. In response to these reports, the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University analyzed data from a National Cancer Institute-sponsored cervical cancer prevention program to estimate the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use during 1991 among Lumbee women aged > or = 18 years residing in Robeson County, North Carolina (1990 population: 105,179).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7845346

  14. Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, J E; Smith, D R; Flegal, A R

    1991-01-01

    Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average (mean +/- SD) level of lead (expressed as the ratio of atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 +/- 4.4 x 10(-7)), which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 x 10(-7)) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 x 10(-7]. The adjusted average concentrations (microgram per gram dry weight) of biologic cadmium, silver, and zinc in the Pecos Indian bones were 0.032 +/- 0.013, 0.094 +/- 0.044, and 130 +/- 66, as compared to concentrations of 1.8, 0.01 to 0.44, and 75 to 170 in the bones of modern people, respectively. Therefore, cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations. PMID:1773793

  15. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VII: The Indian Tribes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The publication, Part VII of a series, includes the charters, constitutions, articles of association or community organization, and by-laws of California Indians on 16 reservations and rancherias. Legal documents from the following groups are provided: Hoopa, Me-Wuk, and Paiute Indians; the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians; the Mission Creek…

  16. Martin–Gruber Anastomosis- A Cadaveric Study in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Rajan Kumar; Kullar, Jagdev Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Communications between peripheral nerves are important in the light of the fact that these are responsible for a myriad of clinical symptoms. Communication between the median nerve and ulnar nerve (Martin-Gruber anastomosis) is a frequent finding observed anatomically in 10%-30.6% subjects and physiologically in 5-40%. It may lead to exacerbated or attenuated clinical symptoms. Aims & Objectives To find out the incidence of Martin-Gruber anastomosis in North Indian population by cadaveric dissection. Materials and Methods The material comprised of 60 upper limbs belonging to 30 cadavers (M:F::28:2) which were dissected to find out incidence of Martin-Gruber anastomosis. Results Martin-Gruber anastomosis was encountered in 7(11.6%) limbs of the present study. It was seen more frequently unilaterally (16.6%) than bilaterally (3.3%) and only in males. Classification of limbs into various patterns and types was done. Further its ontogeny, phylogeny, genetic inheritance and clinical implications are discussed in detail. Conclusion To conclude, in North Indian population, the Martin-Gruber anastomosis is encountered in 11.6% limbs. PMID:27042438

  17. Overweight and obesity among North American Indian infants, children, and youth.

    PubMed

    Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults' size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan. PMID:22378356

  18. Overweight and Obesity Among North American Indian Infants, Children, and Youth

    PubMed Central

    SCHELL, LAWRENCE M.; GALLO, MIA V.

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults’ size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan. PMID:22378356

  19. Review of Bicipital Groove Morphology and Its Analysis in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Rajani, Singh; Man, Singh

    2013-01-01

    The variant morphometry of bicipital groove is reported to be associated with pathologies of biceps tendon and is useful in surgical procedures in this region. The pathologies of biceps tendon are frequent causes of shoulder pain. Therefore, under the condition of paucity of data pertaining to north Indians, not only morphometric analysis of bicipital groove and a new definition of narrow/shallow groove to provide logical explanation for dependence of pathologies of biceps tendon on groove morphology is done but also a review of the literature has been carried out. Various dimensions such as lengths of medial and lateral walls, width, depth, medial wall, and opening angles including incidence of supratubercular ridge of bicipital groove from 101 humerii are 23 ± 5, 32 ± 5, 8 ± 2, 6 ± 1, 48.91 ± 10.31, 82.20 ± 22.62, and 37%, respectively. The average height along with average width of biceps tendon and average width along with average depth of bicipital groove from two cadavers are 1.8, 10.5, 11.3, and 5.5 mm, respectively. The knowledge of bicipital groove will be of paramount importance to anatomists for new data, for orthopaedic surgeons in carrying out surgical procedures in this region, and for physicians in the management of anterior shoulder pain in north Indian population. PMID:25938095

  20. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway in a healthy North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Dipti; Tandon, Pradeep; Nagar, Amit; Singh, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to obtain normative data for cephalometric measurements of the upper airway in the North Indian population. Design: Observational study. Setting: University department and teaching hospital out-patient clinic. Subjects and Methods: A total of 180 healthy patients were included out of which 90 were males (age range, 8-16 years), and 90 were females (age range, 8-16 years), with normal skeletal facial profile, no history of snoring, sleep apnea, upper airway disease, tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, obesity, or pathology in the pharynx. Twenty cephalometric airway measurements, including size of the tongue, soft palate, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and relative position of the hyoid bone and valleculae were obtained. Landmarks on cephalometric radiographs were digitized and measurements were made using a specially designed computer program. Error analysis of measurements was performed and comparison of measurements according to sex was made. Results: Significant sex dimorphism was seen for the majority of measurements, with the exception of minimal depth of the airway, oropharyngeal depth of the airway, and the soft palate angle with the hard palate. Conclusion: A minimum sagittal dimension of the upper airway was evident despite differences in measurements between sexes. Findings from this study should be a useful reference for the assessment of sleep apnea in the North Indian population. PMID:26097352

  1. Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged 40…

  2. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  3. Native Agency and the Making of "The North American Indian": Alexander B. Upshaw and Edward S. Curtis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamir, Shamoon

    2007-01-01

    The twenty volumes of ethnographic text and pictorial photography and the twenty portfolios of large, finely printed photogravures that together comprise "The North American Indian" were the product of an extraordinary labor by Edward S. Curtis, an extensive and shifting team of co-workers, and the participation of hundreds of Native Americans. By…

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality data for the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, Rolette County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Vining, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation relies on groundwater supplies to meet the demands of community and economic needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, examined historical groundwater-level and groundwater-quality data for the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Rolla, and Shell Valley aquifers. The two main sources of water-quality data for groundwater were the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database and the North Dakota State Water Commission database. Data included major ions, trace elements, nutrients, field properties, and physical properties. The Fox Hills and Hell Creek aquifers had few groundwater water-quality data. The lack of data limits any detailed assessments that can be made about these aquifers. Data for the Rolla aquifer exist from 1978 through 1980 only. The concentrations of some water-quality constituents exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. No samples were analyzed for pesticides and hydrocarbons. Numerous water-quality samples have been obtained from the Shell Valley aquifer. About one-half of the water samples from the Shell Valley aquifer had concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and dissolved solids that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. Overall, the data did not indicate obvious patterns in concentrations.

  5. Beliefs about diabetes and medication adherence among Lumbee Indians living in rural southeastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Allison; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Taylor, Julie Smith; Hadsell, Christine

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed personal beliefs about the causes and meaning of having diabetes among the members of the Lumbee Indian tribe living in rural southeastern North Carolina. The sample included 20 males (50%) and 20 females (50%); the mean duration of having diabetes was 9.82 years. The average body mass index (BMI) for females was 34.76 (range, 24.21-55.44), whereas the average BMI for males was 35.10 (range, 22.71-59.71). Ninety percent reported a family history of diabetes. The majority of participants held beliefs that diabetes was a serious and chronic condition and that the disease was amenable to personal control. Participants perceived that diabetic medications were an essential and effective part of their treatment regimen, and they reported greater comfort in adhering to prescribed medication regimens than making long-term lifestyle changes. This study highlights the high prevalence of diabetes among Lumbee Indians and also the need for future studies in this area. PMID:24648433

  6. Relation between tropical cyclone heat potential and cyclone intensity in the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangir, B.; Swain, D.; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.

    2016-05-01

    Ocean Heat Content (OHC) plays a significant role in modulating the intensity of Tropical Cyclones (TC) in terms of the oceanic energy available to TCs. TC Heat Potential (TCHP), an estimate of OHC, is thus known to be a useful indicator of TC genesis and intensification. In the present study, we analyze the role of TCHP in intensification of TCs in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) through statistical comparisons between TCHP and Cyclone Intensities (CI). A total of 27 TCs (20 in the Bay of Bengal, and 7 in the Arabian Sea) during the period 2005-2012 have been analyzed using TCHP data from Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) model of Indian National Center for Ocean Information Services and cyclone best track data from India Meteorological Department. Out of the 27 cyclones analyzed, 58% (86%) in the Bay (Arabian Sea) have negative correlation and 42% (14%) cyclones have positive correlation between CI and TCHP. On the whole, more than 60% cyclones in the NIO show negative correlations between CI and TCHP. The negative percentage further increases for TCHP leading CI by 24 and 48 hours. Similar trend is also seen with satellite derived TCHP data obtained from National Remote Sensing Center and TC best track data from Joint Typhoon Warming Centre. Hence, it is postulated that TCHP alone need not be the only significant oceanographic parameter, apart from sea surface temperature, responsible for intensification and propagation of TCs in the NIO.

  7. Evaluation of European coeliac disease risk variants in a north Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Sabyasachi; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Sood, Ajit; Midha, Vandana; Szperl, Agata; Romanos, Jihane; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Franke, Lude; Alonso, Santos; Thelma, B K; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia

    2015-01-01

    Studies in European populations have contributed to a better understanding of the genetics of complex diseases, for example, in coeliac disease (CeD), studies of over 23 000 European samples have reported association to the HLA locus and another 39 loci. However, these associations have not been evaluated in detail in other ethnicities. We sought to better understand how disease-associated loci that have been mapped in Europeans translate to a disease risk for a population with a different ethnic background. We therefore performed a validation of European risk loci for CeD in 497 cases and 736 controls of north Indian origin. Using a dense-genotyping platform (Immunochip), we confirmed the strong association to the HLA region (rs2854275, P=8.2 × 10−49). Three loci showed suggestive association (rs4948256, P=9.3 × 10−7, rs4758538, P=8.6 × 10−5 and rs17080877, P=2.7 × 10−5). We directly replicated five previously reported European variants (P<0.05; mapping to loci harbouring FASLG/TNFSF18, SCHIP1/IL12A, PFKFB3/PRKCQ, ZMIZ1 and ICOSLG). Using a transferability test, we further confirmed association at PFKFB3/PRKCQ (rs2387397, P=2.8 × 10−4) and PTPRK/THEMIS (rs55743914, P=3.4 × 10−4). The north Indian population has a higher degree of consanguinity than Europeans and we therefore explored the role of recessively acting variants, which replicated the HLA locus (rs9271850, P=3.7 × 10−23) and suggested a role of additional four loci. To our knowledge, this is the first replication study of CeD variants in a non-European population. PMID:25052311

  8. Atmospheric input of N, P, Fe and trace metals to north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarin, Manmohan; Srinivas, Bikkina

    2016-04-01

    The air-sea deposition of chemical constituents to the north Indian Ocean is influenced by seasonal continental outflow during the late NE-monsoon (December-April). Our recent studies have focused on deposition of mineral dust, nutrients (N, P and Fe) and toxic trace metals to the Arabian Sea (ARS) and Bay of Bengal (BoB), two important limbs of the north Indian Ocean. The chemical composition of PM2.5 in the continental outflow to the marine atmospheric boundary layer reveals dominance of nss-SO42‑ (as high as 25 μg m‑3) and abundance of dust varies from 3 to 20 μg m‑3. A striking similarity in the temporal variability of total inorganic acidity (TIA = NO3‑ + nss-SO42‑) and fractional solubility of aerosol-Fe (FeTot: 60 - 1145 ng m‑3) provides evidence for chemical processing of mineral dust during atmospheric transport. The enhanced solubility of Fe has implications to further increase in the deposition of this micro-nutrient to ocean surface. The mass ratio of nutrients (NInorg/NTot, Norg/NTot and PInorg/nss-Ca2+) also suggests further increase in their air-sea deposition to the surface BoB. The dry-deposition flux of PInorgto BoB varies by one order of magnitude (0.5 - 5.0 μmol-P m‑2 d‑1; Av: 0.02 Tg P yr‑1). Based on atmospheric deposition of P and Fe, C-fixation in BoB (˜1 Pg yr‑1) is dominated by anthropogenic sources and that in ARS (0.3 Pg yr‑1) is limited by P and Fe. This is attributed to poor fractional solubility (˜1%) of mineral dust over the Arabian Sea. However, N-fixation by diazotrophs in the two oceanic regions is somewhat similar (0.03 Pg yr‑1). Our estimate of N-deposition (0.2 Tg yr‑1) to the northern Indian Ocean is significantly lower than the model results (˜800 - 1200 mg-N m‑2 yr‑1 ≈ 5.7 - 8.6 Tg yr‑1 by Duce et al. (2008); ˜4.1 Tg yr‑1 by Okin et al. (2011); and ˜0.8 Tg yr‑1 by Kanakidou et al. (2012). The increase in aerosol toxicity is also evident from high enrichment factors of

  9. Prevalence and predictors of tobacco use among Lumbee Indian women in Robeson County, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Spangler, J G; Bell, R A; Dignan, M B; Michielutte, R

    1997-04-01

    Tobacco use among some Native American tribes is high compared to the overall US population. Little is known, however, about tobacco use among Native Americans in North Carolina, a state with strong economic ties to tobacco. To assess the epidemiology of tobacco use in this population, data from the North Carolina Native American Cervical Cancer Project was reviewed. Nine hundred eighty-two Lumbee Indian women in Robeson County provided general demographic information as well as information on cancer risk knowledge, attitudes and behaviors during the 5-year study. Women were selected from the community using a random sample of 5200 persons from the tribal roll of approximately 40,000 persons. 20.6% of women were current smokeless tobacco users, while 23.7% were current smokers. Demographic and social support predictors were unique for the different types of tobacco use. Cigarette smoking was associated with younger age, higher education, excellent or good self-reported health, having a recent physical exam, separated or divorced marital status, low church participation, and alcohol consumption. Conversely, use of smokeless tobacco was associated with older age, lower education level, fair or poor self-reported health, widowed marital status, and having a high number of friends. These data show a high prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among women in this population, and a contrast in the predictors of tobacco use by source. Intervention programs for tobacco use cessation should be sensitive to these differences. PMID:9149953

  10. Creation of North-East Indian face database for human face identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kankan; Saha, Priya; Bhowmik, Mrinal K.; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita

    2013-02-01

    Due to the various factors like illumination, expression, and pose variation etc., human face seem different in multiple occasions. To determine the efficiency of the different face recognition algorithms, it requires benchmark face images. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the available 2D face databases and also introduces the creation of a visual face database, North-East Indian (NEI) Face Database, which is under development in the Biometrics Laboratory of Tripura University, India. It contains high quality face images of 292 individuals of different tribe and non-tribe people of Mongolian origin collected from the North-Eastern states of India. The database contains four different types of illumination variations, eight different expressions, faces wearing glasses and each of these variations are being clicked concurrently from five different angles to provide pose variation using five CMOS sensor cameras, in a controlled indoor environment. Three different resolutions are being used for capturing the database images. Some baseline face recognition algorithms have also been tested using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier on the NEI face database, which may be used as the control algorithm performance score by other researchers.

  11. HLA haplotypes associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus in North Indian children.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Uma; Vaidyanathan, Balu; Jaini, Ritika; Menon, Puthezath S N; Mehra, Narinder K

    2004-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) encoded susceptibility to develop type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been investigated in children from North India. The results revealed significantly increased prevalence of HLA-A26, -B8, and -B50 among patients and strong positive association of the disease with DRB1*0301 (82.1% vs 13.9%, chi2=71.3, odds ratio [OR]=28.3) and a negative association with DRB1*02 (chi2=12.2, PF=38.5). HLA-DQB1*0201 occurred in 96.4% of the patients, whereas the heterodimer DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 was present in 82.1% of patients (60.7% in single dose and 21.4% in double dose) and revealed significant deviation from the healthy controls (chi2=74.1, pc=6.0E-10). In addition to DRB1*03, positive association was also observed with DRB1*09 (14.3% vs 1.3%, chi2=13.4) and DRB1*04 (39.3% vs 15.6%, chi2=8.39). No HLA association was observed in relation to residual pancreatic beta-cell function or associated thyroid autoimmunity. Family analysis revealed involvement of multiple DR3+ve haplotypes with T1DM in North Indian children with A26-B8-DRB1*03 (25% vs 3.5%, chi2=16.9, p=3.96E-05) and Ax-B50-DRB1*03 (25% vs 0.7%, chi2=44.7, p=9.88E-11) being the most frequent haplotypes encountered among patients. The classical Caucasian haplotype A1-B8-DRB1*03 was infrequent (7.2%) among the diabetic children. The study highlights the race specificity of HLA association and disease associated HLA haplotypes in T1DM among North Indian children. PMID:14700595

  12. Interannual variation of tropical cyclone energy metrics over North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, M.; Vijay Kumar, V.

    2016-05-01

    There is decreasing trend in the tropical cyclone (TC) number over the North Indian Ocean (NIO) in recent years, though there is increasing trend in the sea surface temperature (SST) which is one of the main environmental parameters for the development and intensification of TCs. Hence, a study has been performed to understand whether any trend exists in other TC parameters such as velocity flux (VF), accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) and power dissipation index (PDI). The interseasonal and interannual variations of VF, ACE and PDI for the NIO as a whole and Bay of Bengal (BOB) and Arabian Sea (AS) are analysed based on the data of 1990-2013 (24 years). Role of large scale features like El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) have also been analyzed. The mean ACE per year for TCs [maximum sustained wind of 34 knots (kt) or more] over the NIO is about 13.1 × 104 kt2 including 9.5 × 104 kt2 over the BOB and 3.6 × 104 kt2 over the AS. The mean PDI per year for TCs over the NIO is about 10 × 106 kt3 including 3 × 106 kt3 over the AS and 7 × 106 kt3 over the BOB. The VF, ACE and PDI of TCs are significantly less over BOB during post-monsoon season (Oct.-Dec.) of El Nino years than in La Nina and normal years. The VF for TCs over the BOB during post-monsoon season is significantly less (higher) during positive (negative) IOD years. There is significant decreasing trend at 95 % level of confidence in ACE and PDI of TCs over AS during post-monsoon season and PDI over the BOB and NIO during pre-monsoon season mainly due to similar trend in average intensity of TCs and not due to trends in SST over Nino regions or IOD index.

  13. Dopaminergic gene polymorphisms and cognitive function in a north Indian schizophrenia cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kukshal, Prachi; Chowdari, Kodavali Venkat; Srivastava, Vibhuti; Wood, Joel; McClain, Lora; Bhatia, Triptish; Bhagwat, A. M.; Deshpande, Smita Neelkanth; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit Laxmikant; Thelma, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations of polymorphisms from dopaminergic neurotransmitter pathway genes have been reported in Caucasian ancestry schizophrenia (SZ) samples. As studies investigating single SNPs with SZ have been inconsistent, more detailed analyses utilizing multiple SNPs with the diagnostic phenotype as well as cognitive function may be more informative. The analyses were conducted in a north Indian sample. Methods Indian SZ case-parent trios (n = 601 families); unscreened controls (n= 468) and an independent set of 118 trio families were analyzed. Representative SNPs in the Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3), dopamine transporter (SLC6A3), vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (SLC18A2), catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) were genotyped using SNaPshot/SNPlex assays (n=59 SNPs). The Trail Making Test (TMT) was administered to a subset of the sample (n=260 cases and_n=302 parents). Results Eight SNPs were nominally associated with SZ in either case-control or family based analyses (p<0.05, rs7631540 and rs2046496 in DRD3; rs363399 and rs10082463 in SLC18A2; rs4680, rs4646315 and rs9332377 in COMT). rs6271 at DBH was associated in both analyses. Haplotypes of DRD3 SNPs incorporating rs7631540-rs2134655-rs3773678-rs324030-rs6280-rs905568 showed suggestive associations in both case-parent and trio samples. At SLC18A2, rs10082463 was nominally associated with psychomotor performance and rs363285 with executive functions using the TMT but did not withstand multiple corrections. Conclusions Though suggestive associations with dopaminergic genes were detected in this study, but convincing links between dopaminergic polymorphisms and SZ or cognitive function were not observed. PMID:23932573

  14. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part IIa: The Northern Plains. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part IIa of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes in the Northern Plains (Montana and North Dakota). Documents are presented relative to the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation, the Blackfeet Tribe of the…

  15. Nucleolar localization of cirhin, the protein mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bin; Mitchell, Grant A.; Richter, Andrea . E-mail: andrea.richter@umontreal.ca

    2005-12-10

    Cirhin (NP{sub 1}16219), the product of the CIRH1A gene is mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC/CIRH1A, OMIM 604901), a severe autosomal recessive intrahepatic cholestasis. It is a 686-amino-acid WD40-repeat containing protein of unknown function that is predicted to contain multiple targeting signals, including an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal, a C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a bipartite nuclear localization signal (BNLS). We performed the direct determination of subcellular localization of cirhin as a crucial first step in unraveling its biological function. Using EGFP and His-tagged cirhin fusion proteins expressed in HeLa and HepG2, cells we show that cirhin is a nucleolar protein and that the R565W mutation, for which all NAIC patients are homozygous, has no effect on subcellular localization. Cirhin has an active C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a unique nucleolar localization signal (NrLS) between residues 315 and 432. The nucleolus is not known to be important specifically for intrahepatic cholestasis. These observations provide a new dimension in the study of hereditary cholestasis.

  16. Diarrhea, Stimulation and Growth Predict Neurodevelopment in Young North Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Hysing, Mari; Kumar, Tivendra; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Infants and young children in low to middle-income countries are at risk for adverse neurodevelopment due to multiple risk factors. In this study, we sought to identify stimulation and learning opportunities, growth, and burden of respiratory infections and diarrhea as predictors for neurodevelopment. Methods We visited 422 North Indian children 6 to 30 months old weekly for six months. Childhood illnesses were assessed biweekly. At end study, we assessed neurodevelopment using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. (ASQ-3) and gathered information on stimulation and learning opportunities. We identified predictors for ASQ-3 scores in multiple linear and logistic regression models. Results We were able to explain 30.5% of the variation in the total ASQ-3 score by the identified predictors. When adjusting for child characteristics and annual family income, stimulation and learning opportunities explained most of the variation by 25.1%. Height for age (standardized beta: 0.12, p<.05) and weight for height z-scores (std. beta: 0.09, p<.05) were positively associated with the total ASQ-3 score, while number of days with diarrhea was negatively associated with these scores (std. beta: -0.13, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results support the importance of early child stimulation and general nutrition for child development. Our study also suggests that diarrhea is an additional risk factor for adverse neurodevelopment in vulnerable children. PMID:25826376

  17. Association between CFH Y402H Polymorphism and Age Related Macular Degeneration in North Indian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amod; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Singh, Ramandeep; Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine serum complement factor H (CFH) levels in patients of age related macular degeneration (AMD) and examine its association with CFH Y402H polymorphism. 115 AMD patients and 61 normal controls were recruited in this study. The single nucleotide polymorphism was assayed by real time PCR and serum CFH levels were measured by ELISA and standardized to total serum protein. Chi-square test was applied to polymorphism analysis while Mann Whitney U-statistic for CFH-levels. Mendelian randomization approach was used for determining causal relationship. The genotype frequency differed between the AMD patients (TT- 18.3%, TC-41.3% and CC-40.4%) and controls (TT-76.3%, TC-13.6%, and CC-10.1%) (p = 0001). The frequency of alleles was also significantly different when AMD (T-39% and C-61%) was compared to controls (T-83% and C-17%) (p = 0.0001). Level of serum CFH was significantly lower in AMD patients as compared to normal controls (p = 0.001). Our data showed that the CFH Y402H polymorphism is a risk factor for AMD in the North Indian population. Mendelian randomization approach revealed that CFH Y402H polymorphism affects AMD risk through the modification of CFH serum levels. PMID:23922956

  18. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of proterozoic mafic dykes in north Kerala, southwestern Indian Shield - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishna, T.; Gopakumar, K.; Murali, A. V.; Mitchell, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    Mafic dyke intrusions occur in three distinct orientations ( NNW-SSE and NW-SE and NE-SW) in north Kerala regions, the southwestern part of the Indian Shield. Dating of two NNW-SSE trending dykes by K-Ar method has yielded Middle Proterozoic ages (ca. 1660 Ma and ca. 1420 Ma respectively). Our initial geochemical results on these dyke rocks (0.65-0.15 wt pct K2O, 0.37-0.38 wt pct P2O5, 3.30-1.00 wt pct TiO2, 11-1 p.p.m. Rb, 250-90 p.p.m. Sr, 230-40 p.p.m. Ba, 160-40 p.p.m. Zr, and 30-10 x chondrite rare earth elemental abundances) indicate a transitional character between abyssal and plateau tholeiites. Petrogenetic modelling suggests that the dyke compositions have been derived by different degrees of partial melting of a heterogenous source mantle. The mantle sources with accessory amphibole and/or garnet, variably enriched in LREE and LIL elements, are compatible with the observed geochemical data.

  19. Variation in Tendinous Intersections of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in North Indian Population with Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mahboobul; Gupta, Amrita; Nasar, Areeba

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study Incisions through the abdominal wall are based on anatomical principles and Rectus abdominis muscle provides an excellent myocutaneous flap. The present work was proposed to identify variations in numbers and location of tendinous intersections of the Rectus Abdominis muscle in the cadavers as a guide to the surgical procedures. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 54 cadavers of North Indian origin allotted to undergraduate medical student for Anatomy dissection classes. Manual dissection was done to identify tendinous intersections of the Rectus Abdominis muscle with reference to number and location. Results In the present study one cadaver had five tendinous intersections (1.85%), one cadaver had four tendinous intersections (1.85%) and 52 cadavers had three tendinous intersections (96.29%). Conclusion The present study is an effort to provide data about the anatomical variation in numbers and location of tendinous intersections of the Rectus Abdomini muscles. Rectus abdominis muscle provides an excellent myocutaneous flap because the muscle belly is separated from surrounding tissue within the rectus sheath. This study is representative of a small study of the human population and only serves to illustrate the variations in the anatomy of the tendinous intersections. More extensive studies are required to establish a definitive pattern among local populations to serve as a guide for surgical procedures. PMID:26266107

  20. Relationship of maximal aerobic capacity with predictors of cardiovascular diseases in North Indian cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Shweta; Wagle, Surbhi Suresh; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Singh, H P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), as determined by the Bruce protocol, and selected risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an North Indian population. Design Cross-sectional design. Setting The study was carried out at Fortis Escorts Hospital, Amritsar, Punjab, India. Patients 105 CVD patients. Interventions All patients were subjected to a symptom-limited treadmill test and their fasting blood lipid parameters were measured. Main outcome measures (a) Body composition; (b) blood lipid parameters; (c) haemodynamic measurement (heart rate at rest and during exercise); (d) physical activity questionnaire (perceived functional ability, physical activity score and physical activity readiness). Results VO2max was found to be negatively associated with age (r=0.192), body mass index (r=0.163), waist circumference (r=0.197), hip circumference (r=0.208) and percentage of body fat (r=0.238); positively correlated with perceived functional ability (r=0.580), physical activity readiness (r=0.534), physical activity score (r=0.784), maximum heart rate (r=0.236) and metabolic equivalents (r=0.938); and showed no association with total cholesterol (r=0.102), triglycerides (r=0.079) and high-density lipoproteins (r=0.153). Conclusion VO2max was associated with body composition parameters but did not show any relation with blood lipid parameters. The most significant association was found between VO2max and the physical activity questionnaire. PMID:27326033

  1. One hundred years of instrumental phonetic fieldwork on North America Indian languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, Joyce

    2005-04-01

    A resurgence of interest in phonetic fieldwork on generally morphologically complex North American Indian languages over the last 15 years is a continuation of a tradition started a century ago with the Earle Pliny Goddard, who collected kymographic and palatographic field-data between 1906-1927 on several Athabaskan languages: Coastal Athabaskan (Hupa and Kato), Apachean (Mescalero, Jicarilla, White Mountain, San Juan Carlos Apache), and several Athabaskan languages in Northern Canada (Cold Lake and Beaver); data that remains important for its record of segmental timing profiles and rare articulatory documentation in then largely monolingual communities. This data in combination with new work has resulted in the emergence of a body of knowledge of these typologically distinct families that often challenge notions of phonetic universality and typology. Using the Athabaskan languages as benchmark example and starting with Goddard's work, two types of emergent typological patterns will be discussed; the persistence of fine-grained timing and duration details across the widely dispersed family, and the broad variation in prosodic types that exists, both of which are unaccounted for by phonetic or phonological theories.

  2. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature. PMID:26934782

  3. Urinary casts

    MedlinePlus

    ... people with advanced kidney disease and chronic kidney failure . White blood cell (WBC) casts are more common ... Hyaline casts; Granular casts; Renal tubular epithelial casts; Waxy casts; Casts in the ...

  4. Urinary casts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood cell casts ... The absence of cellular casts or presence of a few hyaline casts is normal. The examples above are common measurements for results of ...

  5. Three Dimensional Aerosol Climatology over India and the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, A.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    the CALIPSO algorithm, probably misclassifying marine aerosol as polluted dust. The origin of much of the polluted dust, the most prominent aerosol species in the region, is the mixing of dust and smoke from Africa. Low-level southerly winds south of 10°N transport smoke northward while northerly winds north of 10°N transport dust southward and upward due to orographic lifting. At their area of convergence, zonal wind transports the now elevated polluted dust eastward toward the Indian subcontinent. Subsidence and monsoon circulation reversal during boreal winter and fall limit vertical and horizontal aerosol transport from the India, particularly in the highly populated and always polluted Indo¬-Gangetic Plain. Polluted dust, polluted continental (non-elevated smoke), and smoke aerosols are confined near the surface and located over high population density areas and known biomass burning locations. Himalayan topography is an obvious barrier for the northward extent of aerosol. However, it also acts to create a meridional circulation limiting the southward extent of aerosol. Although transport pathways and the spatial structure of aerosol are well documented in the 2D sense, understanding the mechanisms controlling the vertical structure in concert with observation of the structure will be a valuable tool in reducing the uncertainty of aerosol effects in model simulations.

  6. Association of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism with BMD and Homocysteine in Premenopausal North Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Ankur; Polipalli, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Sangeeta; Kapoor, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Osteoporosis (OP) is a common nutrigenomic disease associated with various genetic components. Observational studies have indicated that mildly elevated homocysteine was a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Yet there is no clear biologic mechanism for an effect of homocysteine on bone.The aim of this study was to investigate the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, and to verify the association of these polymorphisms with bone mineral density and homocysteine in premenopausal women of northern India. Material and Methods: We included 402 north Indian patients with altered BMD, both Osteopenic (OPN) and Osteoporosis, and normal controls. Genotype identification for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method, correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Homocysteine (Hcy), Folate and Vitamin B12. Results: The study groups did not differ in terms of age, weight and body mass indices. Prevalence of Genotype frequencies (GFs) for MTHFRC677T OP were (n: 402): CC 361 (89.8%), CT 25 (6.22%), TT 16 (3.98%) and that for MTHFR A1298C were (n: 402) AA 353(87.81%), AC 29(7.21%), CC 20(4.98%). Folate was significantly lower in the OP group than those in both the other groups, while there was no significant difference in Hcy in the OP group relative to OPN, as compared to controls. Conclusion: The GFs for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were not different between both groups. In conclusion, polymorphism of the MTHFR 677T is associated with small differences in BMD with folate levels. Further, more investigations should be done in larger studies for other epigenetic pathways, that may increase the risk of Osteoporosis. PMID:24551672

  7. Prevalence of Gingival Biotypes among Young Dentate North Indian Population: A Biometric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Polsani L; Bhoria, Mohaneesh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of various gingival biotypes and to corroborate gingival thickness and gingival biotypes across tooth type, site, and gender. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted across systemically healthy subjects. A systematic clinical evaluation for gingival biotypes and gingival thicknesses was recorded by modified Iwanson’s gauge, to the nearest 0.1 mm, probing the gingival sulcus at the midfacial aspect of maxillary and mandibular central incisors and first molars. All measurements were made across a total of 920 sites in 115 subjects (69 female and 46 male) based on gingival transparency and were statistically analyzed. Results: A significant agreement on the reproducibility of the measurements was noted. The median overall gingival thickness was recorded at 0.75 mm with interquantile difference of 0.39 mm. The thin biotype variant showed across the ranges of 0.3 to 0.6 mm of gingival thicknesses and thick biotype variant across the ranges of 1.0 to 1.2 mm, with more prevalence in anterior and posterior site respectively. Moreover, for gingi-val thickness of 0.7 mm, the probe visibility showed tendency toward both thin/thick biotype variant in both anterior and posterior segments. The disposition of male participants toward thick biotype and female participants toward the thin biotype variant has been noted. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, our data support the traditional hypothesis of two main gingival biotypes as distinguishable by gingival transparency. In addition, we provide evidence of existence of intermediate biotypes with respect to gingival thickness. These findings can be utilized as objective guidelines for determination of biotype and can be implicated in many dental operative procedures. How to cite this article: Rathee M, Rao PL, Bhoria M. Prevalence of Gingival Biotypes among Young Dentate North Indian Population: A Biometric Approach. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016

  8. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a North Indian District

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ashutosh N.; Gupta, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sethi, Sunil; Thakur, Jarnail S.; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Meera; Behera, Digambar; Jindal, Surinder K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent population prevalence estimates of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are not available for several areas in India. We conducted a field-based population survey at a north Indian district to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB. Methods A stratified cluster sampling design was used to conduct the survey in both urban and rural areas within the district. All adults aged more than 15 years, in 18 rural and 12 urban clusters of 3000 subjects each, were interviewed using a symptom card. Two sputum samples were collected from all persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB, or history of antitubercular treatment, for smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and mycobacterial culture. Those having at least one sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were categorized as having PTB. Prevalence was estimated after adjusting for cluster sampling and incomplete data (through individual level analysis with robust standard error). Results Of 91,030 eligible adult participants (47,714 men and 43,316 women), 85,770 (94.2%) completed the symptom cards. Of them, 2,898 persons were considered eligible for sputum examination and 2,839 (98.0%) provided at least one sample. Overall, 21 persons had bacteriologically positive PTB, and cluster level prevalence was estimated at 24.5 per 100,000 population (95% CI 12.8–36.2). Individual level analysis with robust standard error yielded a prevalence estimate of 24.1 per 100,000 populations (95% CI 12.8–35.4). Conclusion The observed prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB in this district is lower than empiric national estimates, probably as a result of successful implementation of tuberculosis control measures in the area. PMID:25695761

  9. Assessment of Health-Promoting Behavior and Lifestyle of Adolescents of a North Indian City

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sonika; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Singh, Amarjeet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several health-compromising behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol) as well as health-enhancing behaviors (e.g., physical exercise, nutrition) are adopted in adolescence and they often persist into adulthood. Thus, there is a definite need to investigate the health behavior of adolescents rather than focus on adults since it will be far more difficult for adults to change their unhealthy habits adopted in their youth. Therefore, the present study was conducted to ascertain health-promoting behavior and lifestyle of university graduates of Chandigarh. Methods: The present cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in Chandigarh during 2009 among university graduates of Chandigarh aged 17-20 years. A semi-structured, pretested questionnaire comprising of 28 items was used to get information from students regarding their involvement in diet, physical exercise, spirituality and philanthropy. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference of the respondents were measured using standardized equipments and procedures. Results: Mean score of health-promoting lifestyle profile of university graduates was found to be 67.5 ± 12.1 (maximum attainable score = 106). Fourteen students were found to be overweight. Frequent intake of fast food and less consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported by the students. Majority of students exercised as part of their daily routine. Conclusions: The result of the study showed that North Indian students had reasonably good orientations toward health behaviors, with a mean score of 67.5. The topics related to diet, physical exercise, spiritual growth and philanthropy promotion should be incorporated within the curriculum of students for their all round personality development. PMID:24319559

  10. Pulse and entrainment to non-isochronous auditory stimuli: the case of north Indian alap.

    PubMed

    Will, Udo; Clayton, Martin; Wertheim, Ira; Leante, Laura; Berg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pulse is often understood as a feature of a (quasi-) isochronous event sequence that is picked up by an entrained subject. However, entrainment does not only occur between quasi-periodic rhythms. This paper demonstrates the expression of pulse by subjects listening to non-periodic musical stimuli and investigates the processes behind this behaviour. The stimuli are extracts from the introductory sections of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music performances (alap, jor and jhala). The first of three experiments demonstrates regular motor responses to both irregular alap and more regular jor sections: responses to alap appear related to individual spontaneous tempi, while for jor they relate to the stimulus event rate. A second experiment investigated whether subjects respond to average periodicities of the alap section, and whether their responses show phase alignment to the musical events. In the third experiment we investigated responses to a broader sample of performances, testing their relationship to spontaneous tempo, and the effect of prior experience with this music. Our results suggest an entrainment model in which pulse is understood as the experience of one's internal periodicity: it is not necessarily linked to temporally regular, structured sensory input streams; it can arise spontaneously through the performance of repetitive motor actions, or on exposure to event sequences with rather irregular temporal structures. Greater regularity in the external event sequence leads to entrainment between motor responses and stimulus sequence, modifying subjects' internal periodicities in such a way that they are either identical or harmonically related to each other. This can be considered as the basis for shared (rhythmic) experience and may be an important process supporting 'social' effects of temporally regular music. PMID:25849357

  11. Pulse and Entrainment to Non-Isochronous Auditory Stimuli: The Case of North Indian Alap

    PubMed Central

    Will, Udo; Clayton, Martin; Wertheim, Ira; Leante, Laura; Berg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pulse is often understood as a feature of a (quasi-) isochronous event sequence that is picked up by an entrained subject. However, entrainment does not only occur between quasi-periodic rhythms. This paper demonstrates the expression of pulse by subjects listening to non-periodic musical stimuli and investigates the processes behind this behaviour. The stimuli are extracts from the introductory sections of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music performances (alap, jor and jhala). The first of three experiments demonstrates regular motor responses to both irregular alap and more regular jor sections: responses to alap appear related to individual spontaneous tempi, while for jor they relate to the stimulus event rate. A second experiment investigated whether subjects respond to average periodicities of the alap section, and whether their responses show phase alignment to the musical events. In the third experiment we investigated responses to a broader sample of performances, testing their relationship to spontaneous tempo, and the effect of prior experience with this music. Our results suggest an entrainment model in which pulse is understood as the experience of one’s internal periodicity: it is not necessarily linked to temporally regular, structured sensory input streams; it can arise spontaneously through the performance of repetitive motor actions, or on exposure to event sequences with rather irregular temporal structures. Greater regularity in the external event sequence leads to entrainment between motor responses and stimulus sequence, modifying subjects’ internal periodicities in such a way that they are either identical or harmonically related to each other. This can be considered as the basis for shared (rhythmic) experience and may be an important process supporting ‘social’ effects of temporally regular music. PMID:25849357

  12. Seasonal prediction of tropical cyclone activity over the north Indian Ocean using three artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Sankar; Kotal, S. D.; Kundu, P. K.

    2016-03-01

    Three artificial neural network (ANN) methods, namely, multilayer perceptron (MLP), radial basis function (RBF) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) are utilized to predict the seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the north Indian Ocean (NIO) during the post-monsoon season (October, November, December). The frequency of TC and large-scale climate variables derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset of resolution 2.5° × 2.5° were analyzed for the period 1971-2013. Data for the years 1971-2002 were used for the development of the models, which were tested with independent sample data for the year 2003-2013. Using the correlation analysis, the five large-scale climate variables, namely, geopotential height at 500 hPa, relative humidity at 500 hPa, sea-level pressure, zonal wind at 700 hPa and 200 hPa for the preceding month September, are selected as potential predictors of the post-monsoon season TC activity. The result reveals that all the three different ANN methods are able to provide satisfactory forecast in terms of the various metrics, such as root mean-square error (RMSE), standard deviation (SD), correlation coefficient (r), and bias and index of agreement (d). Additionally, leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) method is also performed and the forecast skill is evaluated. The results show that the MLP model is found to be superior to the other two models (RBF, GRNN). The (MLP) is expected to be very useful to operational forecasters for prediction of TC activity.

  13. Centennial-scale teleconnection between North Atlantic sea surface temperatures and the Indian summer monsoon during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Jin, Liya; Jia, Wanna

    2016-05-01

    Proxy records have shown that abrupt changes in the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) are closely linked to cold events in the North Atlantic at centennial timescales during the Holocene. However, mechanisms for these co-occurring phenomena are not fully understood. This study uses simulation results from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice general circulation model forced by astronomical variations to investigate how summer (June, July, August and September) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) may have influenced the ISM at centennial timescales during the Holocene (9.5-0 ka BP). Our analyses identified an intimate relationship between the North Atlantic tripole SST (NATS) mode and the ISM. The NATS mode can affect the ISM in several ways. First, air-sea interactions over the tropical Atlantic can induce negative tropospheric temperature (TT) anomalies over the Indian Ocean, resulting in a strengthened meridional TT gradient favorable to a prolonged monsoonal rainy season. Second, a positive NATS mode tends to induce closed zonal vertical circulation over the tropical Atlantic, North Africa and the tropical Indian Ocean, creating anomalous convergence over India, and hence an enhanced ISM. Third, westerly surface wind anomalies, related to the NATS mode and coursing over the Arabian Sea, can increase moisture delivery to the monsoon region, causing enhanced rainfall in India. This mechanism resembles a decadal-scale mechanism that operates in the present-day climate. We also compared the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), an alternative North Atlantic SST mode, with the NATS mode to determine their relationships to the ISM. A Holocene transient simulation indicates that the AMO's trend has diverged from that of the ISM since 5.5 ka BP, due to inverse SST trends over the tropical and extratropical North Atlantic. This latter trend leads to a much weaker relationship between the AMO and the ISM, relative to that observed between the NATS mode and the ISM

  14. Changes in erosion and ocean circulation recorded in the Hf isotopic compositions of North Atlantic and Indian Ocean ferromanganese crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, John N.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.; Hein, James R.; Günther, Detlef

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution Hf isotopic records are presented for hydrogenetic Fe–Mn crusts from the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans. BM1969 from the western North Atlantic has previously been shown to record systematically decreasing Nd isotopic compositions from about 60 to ∼4 Ma, at which time both show a rapid decrease to unradiogenic Nd composition, thought to be related to the increasing influence of NADW or glaciation in the northern hemisphere. During the Oligocene, North Atlantic Hf became progressively less radiogenic until in the mid-Miocene (∼15 Ma) it reached +1. It then shifted gradually back to an ϵHf value of +3 at 4 Ma, since when it has decreased rapidly to about −1 at the present day. The observed shifts in the Hf isotopic composition were probably caused by variation in intensity of erosion as glaciation progressed in the northern hemisphere. Ferromanganese crusts SS663 and 109D are from about 5500 m depth in the Indian Ocean and are now separated by ∼2300 km across the Mid-Indian Ridge. They display similar trends in Hf isotopic composition from 20 to 5 Ma, with the more northern crust having a composition that is consistently more radiogenic (by ∼2 ϵHf units). Paradoxically, during the last 20 Ma the Hf isotopic compositions of the two crusts have converged despite increased separation and subsidence relative to the ridge. A correlatable negative excursion at ∼5 Ma in the two records may reflect a short-term increase in erosion caused by the activation of the Himalayan main central thrust. Changes to unradiogenic Hf in the central Indian Ocean after 5 Ma may alternatively have been caused by the expanding influence of NADW into the Mid-Indian Basin via circum-Antarctic deep water or a reduction of Pacific flow through the Indonesian gateway. In either case, these results illustrate the utility of the Hf isotope system as a tracer of paleoceanographic changes, capable of responding to subtle changes in erosional regime not readily resolved

  15. The assessment of developmental status using the Ages and Stages questionnaire-3 in nutritional research in north Indian young children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective and background For large epidemiological studies in low and middle-income countries, inexpensive and easily administered developmental assessment tools are called for. This report evaluates the feasibility of the assessment tool Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3.edition (ASQ-3) “home procedure” in a field trial in 422 North Indian young children. Methods ASQ-3 was translated and adjusted for a North Indian Hindi setting. Three examiners were trained by a clinical psychologist to perform the assessments. During the main study, ten % of the assessments were done by two examiners to estimate inter-observer agreement. During all sessions, the examiners recorded whether the scoring was based on observation of the skill during the session, or on caregiver’s report of the child’s skill. Intra class correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the agreement between the raters and between the raters and a gold standard. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and standardized alphas were calculated to measure internal consistency. Principal findings Inter-observer agreement was strong both during training exercises and during the main study. In the Motor subscales and the Problem Solving subscale most items could be observed during the session. The standardized alphas for the total ASQ-3 scale across all ages were strong, while the alpha values for the different subscales and age levels varied. The correlations between the total score and the subscale scores were consistently strong, while the correlations between subscale scores were moderate. Conclusions/significance We found that the translated and adjusted ASQ-3 “home procedure” was a feasible procedure for the collection of reliable data on the developmental status in infants and young children. Examiners were effectively trained over a short period of time, and the total ASQ scores showed adequate variability. However, further adjustments are needed to obtain satisfying alpha values in

  16. Casting Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  17. Structure of the Ninetyeast Ridge North of the Equator, Eastern Indian Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopala Rao, D.; Sreekrishna, K.; Levchenko, O.; W. Sager, W.; Paul, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Ninetyeast Ridge in the eastern Indian Ocean is an aseismic volcanic ridge that marks the Keruguelen hotspot trace between 35°S and 17°N, depicting significant changes in morphology and crust/lithosphere structure. Age progression, younger ages in the south to older ages, 90 Ma (anomaly 34) in the north of the ridge has been reported from linear magnetic anomalies adjoining the ridge and rocks drilled from it during the DSDP/ODP cruises. The bathymetric expression of it is visible up to Lat. 10°N but seismic reflection data indicate its buried anticlinal shape beneath the Bengal Fan, extending up to about Lat.17°N. Gravity anomalies are strongly positive over the exposed segment of the ridge but are subdued over the buried portion. A prominent break in the continuity of the Sunda-trench gravity low reflects that the ridge impinges upon the island arc and seismic reflection data indicate that the ridge approaches close to the trench. The crest of the ridge consists of numerous peaks and sediment filled basins. The sediments are likely to be volcnoclastic and/or shallow water carbonates depending upon submarine to sub- aerial conditions of the parts of the ridge overlain by hemi-pelagic to turbidites of varied thickness. Seismic sequences of the sediments are < 2 km, < 6 km and > 6 km over the ridge, along the eastern flank and on the western flank respectively. The velocity structure of the sedimentary sequences, from top to bottom, consists of 1.6 to 1.9, 2.4 to 2.7, 3.2 to 3.4, 4.5 to 4,6 and 5.2 to 5.7 km/s layers along the western flank, 1.7 to 2.0, 2.3 to 3.2 and 4.6 to 5.7 km/s of Quaternary, pre-Miocene and pre-Paleocene respectively over the crest of the ridge and 2.3, 2.9 and 4.8 km/s velocity along the eastern flank of the ridge underlain by 6.4 km/s velocity oceanic layer 2. Tight folds and closely spaced faults (normal and reverse), some of them extending to the basement and deforming the crust of the ridge, have been imaged seismically. The en

  18. Influence of North Atlantic Oscillation on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall in Relation to Quasi-Binneal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatla, R.; Singh, A. K.; Mandal, B.; Ghosh, S.; Pandey, S. N.; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to find out the possible linkage between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a major ocean-atmosphere coupled phenomena believed to be responsible for the variability of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) and its relation with Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) using 60 years (1953-2012) period. Spring North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) has been found to be inversely correlated with the ISMR, which has been highly enhanced during the east years when the NAOI data have been stratified according to the phases of QBO. The effect of NAOI on the ISMR is shown to be strengthening significant in the later years of the study as compared to that of the initial years of the study. This interesting result provides an input to use it as a predictor of the ISMR.

  19. Influence of North Atlantic Oscillation on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall in Relation to Quasi-Binneal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatla, R.; Singh, A. K.; Mandal, B.; Ghosh, S.; Pandey, S. N.; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to find out the possible linkage between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a major ocean-atmosphere coupled phenomena believed to be responsible for the variability of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) and its relation with Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) using 60 years (1953-2012) period. Spring North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) has been found to be inversely correlated with the ISMR, which has been highly enhanced during the east years when the NAOI data have been stratified according to the phases of QBO. The effect of NAOI on the ISMR is shown to be strengthening significant in the later years of the study as compared to that of the initial years of the study. This interesting result provides an input to use it as a predictor of the ISMR.

  20. Association of Circulating Orexin-A Level With Metabolic Risk Factors in North Indian Pre Menopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vani; Mishra, Sameeksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Mishra, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the association between circulating Orexin-A level with metabolic risk factors in North Indian adult women. 342 women were enrolled for the case-control study, 172 women were with metabolic syndrome (mets) and 170 healthy control women were without metabolic syndrome, (womets) according to (NCEP ATP III criteria). Circulating Orexin-A level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Observations indicated low levels of orexin-A (26.06 ± 6.09 ng/ml) in women with mets and other metabolic risk factors compared to women without metabolic syndrome (36.50 ± 10.42 ng/ml). Further, in women with metabolic syndrome, circulating Orexin A was significantly associated with waist circumference, triglyceride (negative correlation) and hyperdensity lipoprotein (positive correlation). Our study shows that circulating Orexin A was found to be significantly associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and obesity-related disorders in North Indian premenopausal women. PMID:27530010

  1. Human Papillomavirus-mediated cervical cancer awareness and Gardasil vaccination: a pilot survey among North Indian women.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saumya; Chandravati

    2013-10-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide, including Indian women. Cervical cancer control and prevention strategies are being adopted in developing nations to reduce the increasing burden of HPV infection in the vaccine era. The present study, therefore, aimed to evaluate cervical cancer awareness and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination in North Indian women. A pilot survey was conducted among 103 women of North Indian ethnicity residing in Lucknow/adjoining areas in state of Uttar Pradesh, during routine screening/clinic visits from June 2012 to December 2012. The study subjects were interviewed in either Hindi or English; subsequently the awareness of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination was assessed in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response". The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was taken from the participants. Overall, the response of participants (n = 103) in our single-centre survey-based pilot study was well-defined. The response regarding HPV-mediated cervical cancer awareness in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response" among the study subjects was 43.7, 44.7 and 11.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, in response to knowledge of HPV vaccine Gardasil, out of 103 subjects, 28.1 % answered "yes" while 37.9 and 34.0 % stated "no" and "no response", respectively. Our pilot survey may help in assessing knowledge of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and Gardasil vaccination awareness in women, and accordingly develop cost-effective cervical cancer control and prevention/public health counseling sessions in a clinical setting. PMID:23653161

  2. A study on atmospheric and oceanic processes in the north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felton, Clifford S.

    Studies on oceanic and atmospheric processes in the Indian Ocean are an active and important area of scientific research. Understanding how intraseasonal and interannual variations impact both the ocean and atmosphere will aid in delineating potential feedback mechanisms and global teleconnections. Thanks to recent efforts focused on expanding observational capabilities and developing models for this region, researchers have been able to begin investigating atmospheric and oceanic processes in the Indian Ocean. This study focuses on the impact of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on tropical cyclone activity over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and on developing a method for estimating the barrier layer thickness (BLT) in the Indian Ocean from satellite observations. National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP-2) and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis data are used to investigate the alterations in atmospheric and oceanic conditions that impact tropical cyclones during ENSO events over a 33-year time frame (1979-2011). Atmospheric conditions are shown to be more favorable for tropical cyclone development during La Nina over the BoB due to the favorable alteration of large-scale wind, moisture, and vorticity distributions. By combining multiple satellite observations, including the recently launched Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius SAC-D salinity missions, BLT estimates for the Indian Ocean are generated with the use of a multilinear regression model (MRM). The performance of the MRM is evaluated for the Southeast Arabian Sea (SEAS), Bay of Bengal (BoB), and Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean (EEIO) where barrier layer formation is most rigorous. Results from the MRM suggest that salinity measurements obtained from Aquarius and SMOS can be useful for tracking and predicting the BLT in the Indian Ocean.

  3. Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy for complete rectal prolapse: A retrospective study evaluating outcomes in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Abhijit; Kumar, Saket; Maurya, Ajeet Pratap; Gupta, Vishal; Gupta, Vivek; Rahul

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the outcomes of laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy in the management of complete rectal prolapse (CRP) in North Indian patients with inherent bulky and redundant colon. METHODS: The study was conducted at a tertiary health care center of North India. Between January 2010 and October 2014, 15 patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral mesh repair for CRP, were evaluated in the present study. Perioperative outcomes, improvement in bowel dysfunction or appearance of new complications were documented from the hospital records maintained prospectively. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (9 female) with a median age of 50 years (range, 15-68) were included in the study. The median operative time was 200 min (range, 180-350 min) and the median post-operative stay was 4 d (range, 3-21 d). No operative mortality occurred. One patient with inadvertent small bowel injury required laparotomy on post-operative day 2. At a median follow-up of 22 mo (range, 4-54 mo), no prolapse recurrence was reported. No mesh-related complication was encountered. Wexner constipation score improved significantly from the preoperative value of 17 (range, 5-24) to 6 (range, 0-23) (P < 0.001) and the fecal incontinence severity index score from 24 (range, 0-53) to 2 (range, 0-53) (P = 0.007). No de novo constipation or fecal incontinence was recorded during the follow-up. On personal conversation, all patients expressed satisfaction with the outcome of their treatment. CONCLUSION: Our experience indicates that laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy is an effective surgical option for CRP in North Indian patients having a bulky redundant colon. PMID:27152139

  4. CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Bibliography of Health Issues Affecting North American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts: 1950-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Mitchell V., Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography of 2,414 journal articles provides health professionals and others with quick references on health and related issues of American Indians and Alaska Natives. The citations cover articles published in U.S. and Canadian medical and health-related journals between 1950 and 1988. Five sections deal with major health categories and…

  6. A Bibliography of Representative Materials on the Lumbee Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feehan, Paul G., Comp.

    This bibliography lists citations for 33 books and monographs; 57 pamphlets and periodical articles; and 16 dissertations, theses, and other unpublished sources on the Lumbee Indians. Entries are arranged under the above headings alphabetically by personal and/or corporate author, followed by title, imprint, and date of publication. (JPF)

  7. Indian Ledger Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an innovative way to teach mid-nineteenth century North American Indian history by having students create their own Indian Ledger art. Purposes of the project are: to understand the role played by American Indians, to reveal American Indian stereotypes, and to identify relationships between cultures and environments. Background and…

  8. Indians of the Dakotas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief history of Indian tribes in the States of North and South Dakota is presented. Discussion centers around individual Indian tribes, such as Chippewas and Sioux, which are representative of early and modern Indian life in these States. A section devoted to Indians in these states today offers an indication of the present condition of the…

  9. "I Don't Know Yet"-West Indian Students in North York Schools: A Study of Adaptive Behaviours. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Isabel; And Others

    A study was conducted among black West Indian students in North York, Ontario (Canada) junior high schools. The purpose of the study was to determine what factors were present in those students who appeared to cope easily with the transition to Canadian schools and those who appeared to have difficulty. Data were collected from students by means…

  10. Ego strengths, racial/ethnic identity, and well-being among North American Indian/First Nations adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gfellner, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated associations between ego strengths (psychosocial development), racial/ethnic identity using Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (exploration, commitment) and Multidimensional Measure of Racial Identity (centrality, private regard, public regard) dimensions, and personal adjustment/well-being among 178 North American Indian/First Nations adolescents who resided and attended school on reserves. As predicted, ego strengths related directly with centrality, private regard, and the adjustment measures; the moderation of ego strengths for exploration, commitment, and private regard reflected adverse functioning for those with less than advanced ego strengths. As well, ego strengths mediated associations between centrality and private regard with several measures of personal well-being. Practical and theoretical implications are considered. PMID:27383088

  11. Forecasting of scatterometer-derived wind fields in the north Indian Ocean with a data-adaptive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sujit; Sharma, Rashmi; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kumar, Raj; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2009-09-01

    A combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis has been employed to forecast satellite scatterometer-observed surface winds in the north Indian Ocean. The EOFs are used to compress the major part of the spatial variability into a few eigenmodes. The temporal variability is contained in the corresponding principal components (PC) which have been subjected to singular spectrum analysis for filtering out the random part. Forecast of the deterministic part has been carried out using GA with lead times varying from 1 to 4 days. The entire analysis has been done separately for the zonal and meridional winds. Finally, predicted wind fields have been generated as linear combinations of the spatial eigenmodes weighted by the predicted PCs. Forecast quality has been evaluated by comparing with an independent validation data set as well as with buoy data. The performance of the algorithm has been found to be quite encouraging.

  12. The north-northwest aftershock pattern of the June 28, 1992 Landers earthquake and the probability of large earthquakes in Indian Wells Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Roquemore, G.R. . Dept. of Geosciences); Simila, G.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Immediately following the June 28, 1992 Landers earthquake, a strong north-northwest pattern of aftershocks and triggered earthquakes developed. The most intense pattern developed between the north end of primary rupture on the Emerson fault and southern Owens Valley. The trend of seismicity cuts through the east-west trending Garlock fault at a high angle. The Garlock fault has no apparent affect on the trend or pattern. Within the aftershock zone, south of the Garlock fault, the Calico and Blackwater faults provide the most likely pathway for the Mojave shear zone into Indian Wells and Owens Valleys. In Indian Wells Valley the seismically active Little Lake fault aligns well with the Blackwater fault to the south and the southern Owens Valley fault zone to the north. Several recent research papers suggest that Optimum Coulomb failure stress changes caused by the Landers earthquake have enhanced the probability of earthquakes within the north-northwest trending aftershock zone. This increase has greater significance when the presumed Optimum Coulomb failure stress changes caused by the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake and its affects on Indian Wells Valley are considered. Indian Wells Valley and the Coso Volcanic field may have received two significant stress increases from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the last 120 years. If these two earthquakes increased the shear stress of aults in the Indian Wells/Coso areas, the most likely site for the next large earthquake within the Mojave shear zone may be there. The rate of seismicity within Indian Wells Valley had increased since 1980 including a magnitude 5.0 earthquake in 1982.

  13. Estimation of mean sea surfaces in the north Atlantic, the Pacific and the Indian Ocean using GEOS-3 altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Martin, T. V.; Mccarthy, J. J.; Chovitz, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    The mean surfaces of several regions of the world's oceans were estimated using GEOS-3 altimeter data. The northwest Atlantic, the northeast Pacific off the coast of California, the Indian Ocean, the southwest Pacific, and the Phillipine Sea are included. These surfaces have been oriented with respect to a common earth center-of-mass system by constraining the separate solutions to conform to precisely determined laser reference control orbits. The same reference orbits were used for all regions assuring continuity of the separate solutions. Radial accuracies of the control orbits were in the order of one meter. The altimeter measured sea surface height crossover differences were minimized by the adjustment of tilt and bias parameters for each pass with the exception of laser reference control passes. The tilt and bias adjustments removed long wavelength errors which were primarily due to orbit error. Ocean tides were evaluated. The resolution of the estimated sea surfaces varied from 0.25 degrees off the east coast of the United States to about 2 degrees in part of the Indian Ocean near Australia. The rms crossover discrepancy after adjustment varied from 30 cm to 70 cm depending upon geographic location. Comparisons of the altimeter derived mean sea surface in the North Atlantic with the 5 feet x 5 feet GEM-8 detailed gravimetric geoid indicated a relative consistency of better than a meter.

  14. Coagulation factor VIII, IX and XI levels in north Indian patients with venous thromboembolism: first study from India.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Rajpal, Sweta; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Bose, Sunil Kumar; Masih, Joseph; Das, Reena; Kumar, Narender; Malhotra, Pankaj; Suri, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown elevated levels of certain coagulation factors as risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this study, we investigated the levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), FIX and FXI in north Indian patients with VTE. A total of 123 patients with VTE were screened prospectively for FVIII, FIX and FXI levels and the conventional risk factors - deficiencies of protein C, S and antithrombin, positivity for antiphospholipid antibodies and the factor V Leiden mutation. Age-matched and sex-matched controls were included. VTE was secondary to known circumstantial and thrombophilic risk factors in 66 (53.7%) patients. In 46.3% (idiopathic VTE) patients, no cause was identified. The mean FVIII levels in idiopathic (187 IU/dl) and secondary VTE patients (185.4 IU/dl) were significantly higher compared with controls (129.6 IU/dl; P < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the levels of FIX and FXI between patients and controls (P = 0.214 and 0.198, respectively). Patients with elevated FVIII levels had increased risk of VTE compared with controls (odds ratio: 9.4, 95% confidence interval: 4.7-18.79). On logistic regression analysis after adjusting for surgery and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, this risk remained unchanged (odds ratio: 9.54, 95% confidence interval: 4.68-19.44). A dose-response relationship was observed with progressive increase in FVIII levels. Elevated FVIII levels constitute an independent risk factor for VTE in the north Indian population. Elevated levels of FIX and FXI were not associated with increased risk of VTE. PMID:26340461

  15. Association of FTO rs9939609 SNP with Obesity and Obesity- Associated Phenotypes in a North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jai; Mittal, Balraj; Srivastava, Apurva; Awasthi, Shally; Srivastava, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is a common disorder that has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Twin and adoption studies support the genetic influence on variation of obesity, and the estimates of the heritability of body mass index (BMI) is significantly high (30 to 70%). Variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene have been associated with obesity and obesity-related phenotypes in different populations. The aim of this study was to examine the association of FTO rs9939609 with obesity and related phenotypes in North Indian subjects.   Methods Gene variants were investigated for association with obesity in 309 obese and 333 non-obese patients. Genotyping of the FTO rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was analyzed using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of PCR-Amplified Fragments. We also measured participants fasting glucose and insulin levels, lipid profile, percentage body fat, fat mass and fat free mass.   Results Waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, percentage body fat, fat mass, insulin concentration, and homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-Index) showed a significant difference between the study groups. Significant associations were found for FTO rs9939609 SNP with obesity and obesity-related phenotypes. The significant associations were observed between the rs9939609 SNP and blood pressure, fat mass, insulin, and HOMA-index under a different model.   Conclusion This study presents significant association between FTO rs9939609 and obesity defined by BMI and also established the strong association with several measures of obesity in North Indian population. PMID:27168919

  16. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  17. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF.... § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and any analysis provided for in §§...

  18. Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India

    PubMed Central

    Chinniah, Rathika; Vijayan, Murali; Thirunavukkarasu, Manikandan; Mani, Dhivakar; Raju, Kamaraj; Ravi, Padma Malini; Sivanadham, Ramgopal; C, Kandeepan; N, Mahalakshmi; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Seven human-specific Alu markers were studied in 574 unrelated individuals from 10 endogamous groups and 2 hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR-SSP, and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, and genotypes were assigned for various Alu loci. Average heterozygosity among caste populations was in the range of 0.292–0.468. Among tribes, the average heterozygosity was higher for Paliyan (0.3759) than for Kani (0.2915). Frequency differences were prominent in all loci studied except Alu CD4. For Alu CD4, the frequency was 0.0363 in Yadavas, a traditional pastoral and herd maintaining population, and 0.2439 in Narikuravars, a nomadic gypsy population. The overall genetic difference (Gst) of 12 populations (castes and tribes) studied was 3.6%, which corresponds to the Gst values of 3.6% recorded earlier for Western Asian populations. Thus, our study confirms the genetic similarities between West Asian populations and South Indian castes and tribes and supported the large scale coastal migrations from Africa into India through West Asia. However, the average genetic difference (Gst) of Kani and Paliyan tribes with other South Indian tribes studied earlier was 8.3%. The average Gst of combined South and North Indian Tribes (CSNIT) was 9.5%. Neighbor joining tree constructed showed close proximity of Kani and Paliyan tribal groups to the other two South Indian tribes, Toda and Irula of Nilgiri hills studied earlier. Further, the analysis revealed the affinities among populations and confirmed the presence of North and South India specific lineages. Our findings have documented the highly diverse (micro differentiated) nature of South Indian tribes, predominantly due to isolation, than the endogamous population groups of South India. Thus, our study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India

  19. Harmonizing: a North American Indian approach to management of middle ear disease with transcultural nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Wuest, J

    1991-01-01

    In a grounded theory study of Canadian Indian family management of persistent middle ear disease, harmonizing was identified as the major strategy employed in the process of learning to manage. This finding resulted in a recasting of the substantive theory of management identified in an earlier study of Caucasian families. Although families from both cultures advance and retreat on the continuum of learning to manage in response to the relationship with the health care system, the effects of the disease on the child, and the amount of disruption in family life, culture was found to influence the ways in which these families learned to manage. In general, native families harmonized by integrating the experience into their reality in contrast with their Caucasian counterparts who attempted to direct or take charge of the experience. Factors that influenced native Indian management included autonomy of the child, perceptions of health and illness, expectations of the health care system, orientation to present and past time, and listening skills. These findings significantly contributed to the development of transcultural nursing knowledge. PMID:1747211

  20. 77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Tribe's current government headquarters, which are located in the town of North Fork, Madera County, California, described as: Real property in the City of UNINCORPORATED AREA, County of Madera, State of..., AND 8 of PARCEL MAP 3426 IN THE UNINCORPORATED AREA OF THE COUNTY OF MADERA, STATE OF CALIFORNIA,...

  1. Comparison of a simple logarithmic and equivalent neutral wind approaches for converting buoy-measured wind speed to the standard height: special emphasis to North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prem; Parekh, Anant; Attada, Raju

    2013-02-01

    The difference between the transferred wind speed to 10-m height based on the equivalent neutral wind approach ( U n) and the logarithmic approach ( U log) is studied using in situ observations from the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans, with special emphasis given to the North Indian Ocean. The study included U n - U log variations with pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, air temperature, and sea surface temperature (SST). U n - U log variation with respect to air temperature ( T a) reveals that U n - U log is out of phase with air temperature. Further analysis found that U n - U log is in phase with SST ( T s) - T a and varies between -1.0 and 1.0 m/s over the North Indian Ocean, while for the rest of the Oceans, it is between -0.3 and 0.8 m/s. This higher magnitude of U n - U log over the North Indian Ocean is due to the higher range of T s - T a (-4 to 6 °C) in the North Indian Ocean. Associated physical processes suggested that the roughness length and friction velocity dependence on the air-sea temperature difference contributes to the U n - U log difference. The study is further extended to evaluate the behavior of U n - U log under cyclonic conditions (winds between 15 and 30 m/s), and it was found that the magnitude of Un - U log varies 0.5-1.5 m/s under the cyclonic wind conditions. The increasing difference with the wind speed is due to the increase in the momentum transfer coefficient with wind speed, which modifies the friction velocity significantly, resulting in U n higher than U log. Thus, under higher wind conditions, U n - U log can contribute up to half the retrieval error (5 % of the wind speed magnitude) to the satellite validation exercise.

  2. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VI: [The Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Ottawa-Wyandotte)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    As Part VI of a series of publications of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, resolutions, constitutions, and by-laws of some of the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. Twenty-two such documents are included, representing the following tribes: Ottawa, Pawnee, Peoria, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole,…

  3. Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Durand, F.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    this paper, we show that a linear, continuously stratified ocean model reproduces observed wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variability in the coastal waveguide of the Northern Indian Ocean (NIO). Sensitivity experiments with intraseasonal wind forcing selectively applied in the equatorial region, Bay of Bengal, and Arabian Sea show that a large part of the basin-scale sea level variations are driven by zonal wind fluctuations along the equator. Within the NIO coastal waveguide, the contribution of remote equatorial forcing decreases from ~80-90% in the Andaman Sea to ~50% northeast of Sri Lanka and then increases to ~60-70% along the west coast of India. During the southwest monsoon, intraseasonal wind variations become stronger over the NIO, resulting in a larger contribution of local wind forcing to sea level variability along the west (up to 60%) and east (up to 40%) coasts of India.

  4. Effect of sociocultural cleavage on genetic differentiation: a study from North India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal; Pandey, Atul Kumar; Borkar, Meenal; Tripathi, Manorma; Talwar, Sudha; Bisen, P S; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2008-06-01

    Indian populations possess an exclusive genetic profile primarily due to the many migratory events, which caused an extensive range of genetic diversity, and also due to stringent and austere sociocultural barriers that structure these populations into different endogamous groups. In the present study we attempt to explore the genetic relationships between various endogamous North Indian populations and to determine the effect of stringent social regulations on their gene pool. Twenty STR markers were genotyped in 1,800 random North Indians from 9 endogamous populations belonging to upper-caste and middle-caste Hindus and Muslims. All nine populations had high allelic diversity (176 alleles) and average observed heterozygosity (0.742 +/- 0.06), suggesting strong intrapopulation diversity. The average F(ST) value over all loci was as low as 0.0084. However, within-group F(ST) and genetic distance analysis showed that populations of the same group were genetically closer to each other. The genetic distance of Muslims from middle castes (F(ST) = 0.0090; DA = 0.0266) was significantly higher than that of Muslims from upper castes (F(ST) = 0.0050; DA = 0.0148). Phylogenetic trees (neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood) show the basal cluster pattern of three clusters corresponding to Muslims, upper-caste, and middle-caste populations, with Muslims clustered with upper-caste populations. Based on the results, we conclude that the extensive gene flow through a series of migrations and invasions has created an enormous amount of genetic diversity. The interpopulation differences are minimal but have a definite pattern, in which populations of different socioreligious groups have more genetic similarity within the same group and are genetically more distant from populations of other groups. Finally, North Indian Muslims show a differential genetic relationship with upper- and middle-caste populations. PMID:19130797

  5. Vitamin D Insufficiency Is Associated with Abdominal Obesity in Urban Asian Indians Without Diabetes in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Sharma, Mukti; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Luthra, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We evaluated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT), and intraabdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) depots in Asian Indians without diabetes residing in north India. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study (n=137; 74 males and 63 females; 18–60 years of age), anthropometric (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness at four sites) and biochemical (fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, and fasting insulin levels) assessments were done. Measurement of percentage body fat was done by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and areas of TAAT, SCAT and IAAT were measured at the L2–L3 intervertebral level by single-slice magnetic resonance imaging. Levels of 25(OH) D were measured by radioimmunoassay. Correlation analysis was used to assess relationships among clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles, areas of TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT, and 25(OH) D levels. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OH) D was 40.5±8.6 ng/mL. Overall, 6.6% had vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), 87.6% had insufficiency (<30 ng/mL), and 5.8% had a sufficient level (>30 ng/mL). Levels of 25(OH) D did not correlate with demographic, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles or with abdominal fat depots (TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT). In the correlation regression model, 25(OH) D was associated with TAAT in obese subjects. Conclusions: In obese urban Asian Indians without diabetes, higher values of total abdominal fat at the L2–L3 intervertebral level were associated with low 25(OH) D levels. PMID:24528222

  6. Interannual Variability of the Asian Summer Monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the Western North Pacific-East Asian Monsoons(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Wu, Renguang; Lau, K.-M.

    2001-10-01

    Analyses of 50-yr NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data reveal remarkably different interannual variability between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM) in their temporal-spatial structures, relationships to El Niño, and teleconnections with midlatitude circulations. Thus, two circulation indices are necessary, which measure the variability of the ISM and WNPSM, respectively. A weak WNPSM features suppressed convection along 10°-20°N and enhanced rainfall along the mei-yu/baiu front. So the WNPSM index also provides a measure for the east Asian summer monsoon. An anomalous WNPSM exhibits a prominent meridional coupling among the Australian high, cross-equatorial flows, WNP monsoon trough, WNP subtropical high, east Asian subtropical front, and Okhotsk high. The WNP monsoon has leading spectral peaks at 50 and 16 months, whereas the Indian monsoon displays a primary peak around 30 months. The WNPSM is weak during the decay of an El Niño, whereas the ISM tends to abate when an El Niño develops. Since the late 1970s, the WNPSM has become more variable, but its relationship with El Niño remained steady; in contrast, the ISM has become less variable and its linkage with El Niño has dramatically declined. These contrasting features are in part attributed to the differing processes of monsoon-ocean interaction.Also found is a teleconnection between a suppressed WNPSM and deficient summer rainfall over the Great Plains of the United States. This boreal summer teleconnection is forced by the heat source fluctuation associated with the WNPSM and appears to be established through excitation of Rossby wave trains and perturbation of the jet stream that further excites downstream optimum unstable modes.

  7. Callionymus omanensis, a new species of dragonet from Oman, north-western Indian Ocean (Teleostei: Callionymidae).

    PubMed

    Fricke, R; Jawad, L A; Al-Mamry, J M

    2014-11-01

    A new species of deep-living dragonet Callionymus omanensis from Oman is described on the basis of a single male specimen collected in a trawl from 500 m depth off the coast of Oman. The new species is characterized within the subgenus Bathycallionymus by having a small branchial opening; head short (3·9 in proportion to standard length); eye large (2·4 in proportion to head length); preopercular spine with a long, upcurved main tip, with a small antrorse barb and a larger antrorse spine, and with a strong antrorse spine laterally at the preopercular-spine base, ventral margin smooth; first dorsal fin slightly higher than second dorsal fin (male); second dorsal fin distally straight; 17 pectoral fin rays; distal end of caudal fin slightly pointed, with two median unbranched rays bearing short filaments; first dorsal fin with basal black spot reaching from first to fourth membranes, third membrane with an ocellated distal black blotch; second dorsal fin with vertical dark grey bars; distal three-fourths of anal fin black; upper half of caudal fin with oblique dark grey bars; pelvic fin dark grey, second ray basally with a black blotch. The new species is compared with similar species. Revised keys to callionymid species of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, as well as species of the subgenus Bathycallionymus, are presented. PMID:25098471

  8. Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Julia D.; Uhanova, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases. PMID:23342378

  9. Genetic variation in microRNA genes and prostate cancer risk in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    George, Ginu P; Gangwar, Ruchika; Mandal, Raju K; Sankhwar, Satya N; Mittal, Rama D

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence indicates the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs), in cell growth control, differentiation, and apoptosis, thus playing a role in tumorigenesis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located at miRNA-binding sites (miRNA-binding SNPs) are likely to affect the expression of the miRNA target and may contribute to the susceptibility of humans to common diseases. We genotyped SNPs hsa-mir196a2 (rs11614913), hsa-mir146a (rs2910164), and hsa-mir499 (rs3746444) in a case-control study including 159 prostate cancer patients and 230 matched controls. Patients with heterozygous genotype in hsa-mir196a2 and hsa-mir499, showed significant risk for developing prostate cancer (P = 0.01; OR = 1.70 and P ≤ 0.001; OR = 2.27, respectively). Similarly, the variant allele carrier was also associated with prostate cancer, (P = 0.01; OR = 1.66 and P ≤ 0.001; OR = 1.97, respectively) whereas, hsa-mir146a revealed no association in prostate cancer. None of the miRNA polymorphisms were associated with Gleason grade and bone metastasis. This is the first study on Indian population substantially presenting that individual as well as combined genotypes of miRNA-related variants may be used to predict the risk of prostate cancer and may be useful for identifying patients at high risk. PMID:20842445

  10. Q-structure beneath the north and central Indian Ocean from the inversion of observed Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D. D.

    The fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by 57 earthquakes which occurred in the north and central Indian Ocean (extending to 40°S) and recorded at Indian seismograph and other WWSSN stations such as HOW, SHL, VIS, MDR, HYB, KOD, CHG, TRD, POO, BOM, GOA, NDI, NIL and QUE are analysed. Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients are estimated at periods of 15-100 s using the spectral amplitude of these waves for 98 different paths across the Bay of Bengal Fan, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. The large standard deviations observed in the surface wave attenuation coefficients may be a result of regional variation of the attenuative properties of the crust and upper mantle beneath these regions. Love wave attenuation coefficients are found to vary from 0.000 03 to 0.000 45 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 03 to 0.000 85 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.000 35 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Similarly, Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients vary from 0.000 03 to 0.0004 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 06 to 0.0007 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.0007 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Backus and Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q-1 models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. Inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data shows a high-attenuation zone centred at a depth of > 120 km ( Qβ ≈ 125) for the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, a high-attenuation zone ( Qβ ≈ 40-70) occurs at a depth of 60-160 km for the Arabian Fan at 100-160 km ( Qβ ≈ 115) for the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge, and at 80-160 km ( Qβ ≈ 80) for the Indian Ocean across the Ninetyeast Ridge. The Qβ-1 models show a lithosphere thickness of 120 km beneath the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, lithosphere thickness of 70, 100 and

  11. Genetic polymorphisms, Biochemical Factors, and Conventional Risk Factors in Young and Elderly North Indian Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rupinder; Das, Reena; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Kumar, Rohit Manoj; Talwar, K K

    2016-03-01

    This study compared genetic polymorphisms (factor V Leiden [FVL] 1691G/A, factor VII [FVII] 10976G/A, FVII HVR4, platelet membrane glycoproteins GP1BA 1018C/T, GP1BA VNTR, integrin ITGB3 1565T/C, ITGA2 807C/T and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR] 677C/T), biochemical (fibrinogen and homocysteine), and conventional risk factors in 184 young and 166 elderly north Indian patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Univariate analysis revealed higher prevalence of hypertension and obesity in elderly patients while smoking, alcohol intake, and low socioeconomic status in young patients (P < .001). Although mean fibrinogen predominated (P = .01) in elderly patients, mean homocysteine was higher (P < .001) among young patients. Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was greater in young than in elderly patients (odds ratio: 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.8-4.4, P < .001); however, genetic polymorphisms were equally prevalent in young and elderly patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed smoking (P < .001), alcohol intake (P = .046), and hyperhomocysteinemia (P = .001) to be associated with AMI in the young patients while hypertension (P = .006) in elderly patients. To conclude, smoking, alcohol intake, and elevated homocysteine are the risk factors for AMI among young while hypertension among elderly patients. PMID:25155498

  12. Terpenoid compositions and antioxidant activities of two Indian valerian oils from the Khasi Hills of north-east India.

    PubMed

    Das, Jayashankar; Mao, Ashiho A; Handique, Pratap J

    2011-01-01

    The volatile constituents of Valeriana jatamansi Jones and V. hardwickii Wall. (Valerianaceae) collected from the Khasi Hills of north-east India were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-seven and twenty-one compounds were characterized and identified from V. jatamansi and V. hardwickii samples, representing 90.6% and 82.7% of the total oil, respectively. Sesquiterpenes were shown to be the main constituents in both the oil samples. Maaliol (26.1%), patchouli alcohol (9.3%) and a-gurjunene (8.7%) were the major components of V. jatamansi oil, whereas valeracetate (21.3%), methyl linoleate (14.1%), bornyl acetate (13.8%) and cuparene (7.1%) were the main constituents of V. hardwickii oil. Both Indian valerian essential oils were studied for their antioxidant activities using the free radical-scavanging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. V. hardwickii oil exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than V. jatamansi in both assays. For both the valerian oil samples, there was a concentration-dependent increase in free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing capacity. Both valerian oils and their ingredients are potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:21366063

  13. Mutation Profiling of the Hepatitis B Virus Strains Circulating in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Tuteja, Amit; Siddiqui, Abu Baker; Madan, Kaushal; Goyal, Rohit; Shalimar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Kaur, Navkiran; Panda, Subrat K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Subodh, Swati; Acharya, Subrat K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic mutations in the circulating Hepatitis B virus strains causing infection in the Indian population. Further, we wanted to analyze the biological significance of these mutations in HBV mediated disease. Methods 222 HBsAg positive patients were enrolled in the study. The genotype and mutation profile was determined for the infecting HBV isolate by sequencing overlapping fragments. These sequences were analyzed by using different tools and compared with previously available HBV sequence information. Mutation Frequency Index (MFI) for the Genes and Diagnosis group was also calculated. Results HBV Genotype D was found in 55% (n = 121) of the patient group and genotype A was found in 30% (n = 66) of samples. The majority (52%) of the HBV-infected individuals in the present study were HBeAg-negative in all the age groups studied. Spontaneous drug associated mutations implicated in resistance to antiviral therapy were also identified in about quarter of our patients, which is of therapeutic concern. The MFI approach used in the study indicated that Core peptide was the most conserved region in both genotypes and Surface peptide had highest mutation frequency. Few mutations in X gene (T36A and G50R) showed high frequency of association with HCC. A rare recombinant strain of HBV genotype A and D was also identified in the patient group. Conclusions HBV genotype D was found out to be most prevalent. More than half of the patients studied had HBeAg negative disease. Core region was found to be most conserved. Drug Associated mutations were detected in 22% of the patient group and T36A and G50R mutations in X gene were found to be associated with HCC. PMID:24637457

  14. Association of Resistin with Insulin Resistance and Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in North Indians.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arun Kumar; Tiwari, Sunita; Gupta, Abhishek; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Chhabra, Kumar Gaurav; Pandey, Achileshwar; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of interrelated common clinical disorders. The role of resistin in insulin sensitivity and MetS is controversial till date. So, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of plasma resistin levels with markers of the MetS in Indian subjects. In a case control study, total 528 subjects were selected for the study. 265 (194 male and 71 female) were cases (with MetS) and 263 (164 male and 99 female) were controls (without MetS). Required anthropometric measurements and calculations were carried out accordingly. All the Biochemical estimations were carried out according to standard protocol. Resistin level was measured by the standard protocol (By ELISA i.e. enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) as illustrated in the kit. Insulin level was also measured by the standard protocol as illustrated in the kit and insulin resistance was calculated by the standard procedures. Plasma resistin levels were significantly higher in cases compared with controls (male = 13.05 ± 4.31 vs. 7.04 ± 2.09 ng/ml; p ≤ 0.001 and female = 13.53 ± 4.14 vs. 7.42 ± 2.30 ng/ml; p ≤ 0.001). Plasma resistin levels were well correlated with waist circumference, glucose, triglycerides, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, serum low density lipoprotein, serum very low density lipoprotein, insulin and insulin resistance. Plasma resistin levels were elevated in presence of the MetS and were associated with increased metabolic risk factors. PMID:26089609

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Amoebiasis: A Cross-Sectional Study among North East Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Joyobrato; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Singha, Baby; Paul, Jaishree

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies carried out using culture or microscopy in most of the amoebiasis endemic developing countries, yielded confusing results since none of these could differentiate the pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica from the non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. The Northeastern part of India is a hot spot of infection since the climatic conditions are most conducive for the infection and so far no systemic study has been carried out in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Following a cross-sectional study designed during the period 2011–2014, a total of 1260 fecal samples collected from the Northeast Indian population were subjected to microscopy, fecal culture and a sensitive and specific DNA dot blot screening assay developed in our laboratory targeting the Entamoeba spp. Further species discrimination using PCR assay performed in microscopy, culture and DNA dot blot screening positive samples showed E. histolytica an overall prevalence rate of 11.1%, 8.0% and 13.7% respectively. In addition, infection rates of nonpathogenic E. dispar and E. moshkovskii were 11.8% (95% CI = 10.2, 13.8) and 7.8% (95% CI = 6.4, 9.4) respectively. The spatial distributions of infection were 18.2% (107/588) of Assam, 11.7% (23/197) of Manipur, 10.2% (21/207) of Meghalaya, and 8.2% (22/268) of Tripura states. Association study of the disease with demographic features suggested poor living condition (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.83, 5.63), previous history of infection in family member (OR = 3.18; 95% CI = 2.09, 4.82) and unhygienic toilet facility (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.49) as significant risk factors for amoebiasis. Children in age group <15 yr, participants having lower levels of education, and daily laborers exhibited a higher infection rate. Conclusions/Significance Despite the importance of molecular diagnosis of amoebiasis, molecular epidemiological data based on a large sample size from endemic countries are rarely reported in the

  16. Growth faulting and syntectonic casting of the Dawson Creek Graben Complex: A North American craton-marginal trough; Carboniferous-Permian Peace River Embayment, western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, J.E.; Utting, J. ); Krause, F.F.; Campbell, R.I. )

    1991-06-01

    The Dawson Creek Graben Complex was a 150 {times} 300 km, craton-perpendicular trough near the western North American craton margin. Sedimentary infill spanned 100 million years, and this tectonically controlled basin provides a comparison with other craton-marginal troughs or aulacogens, such as the Big Snowy, Uinta, Delaware, and Southern Oklahoma. The authors suspect that the graben complex was controlled by outboard, Antler-like orogeny and perhaps some strike-slip control. This syntectonic graben infill model provides a basis for developing new structural-stratigraphic plays in this mature basin. This extensional trough rests on a former basement arch and is centered in the broadly downwarped Peace River embayment. Sediment infill records several graben casting stages beginning with westernmost down-dropping, which then extended eastward and was accompanied by an increase in growth-type block faulting. Subsidence and faulting decay was followed by a retreat to western areas and tectonic stabilization. The complex was an arcuate half-graben, steep to the north, that widened asymmetrically and increased in depth to the west through time. The complex contained a principal half-graben with neighboring satellite grabens; throughout the complex are numerous kilometer-scale horst and graben blocks. The horsts subsided slower than neighboring grabens. This differential subsidence along block-bounding syn- and postdepositional growth-type normal faults controlled formation and bed thickness, as did inter- and intraformational unconformities.

  17. Prescription of "ineffective neuroprotective" drugs to stroke patients: a cross sectional study in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Kapil Kumar; Prasad, Kameshwar; Bhatia, Rohit; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Mamta Bhusan

    2016-08-01

    In a developing country, where patient access to tertiary care is limited and most patients have to pay out of pocket, it is imperative for the physicians to practice evidence-based medicine. Reports on prescription details and surveys are not available. The aim of this study is to describe the prescribing patterns for various medications used in the treatment of stroke among the first contact physicians in North India; to estimate the proportion of patients being prescribed the non-recommended drugs and to determine any relationship between the economic status of the patient and the prescription pattern. Details of economic status, education level, type of stroke, type of hospital, qualification of treating physician and the number and nature of medications were noted from the prescriptions and patients. Two hundred and sixteen patients with ischemic stroke (71.3% males, average age 51.5 years) were included. Among poor patients, N = (36.8%) received any of the neuroprotective drugs including citicoline 19 (27.5%), piracetam 11(15.9%) and edaravone 2(2.9%). Both specialist and private hospitals are associated with higher prescription of "ineffective neuroprotective" drugs in both poor and rich patients. Reasons for overprescribing neuroprotective medications need to be studied and remedial measures need to be taken to practice evidence-based medicine. PMID:26287434

  18. Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmittner, A.; Galbraith, E.D.; Hostetler, S.W.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Zhang, R.

    2007-01-01

    Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic can cause large and synchronous variations of oxygen minimum zones, throughout the Northern Hemisphere of the Indian and Pacific oceans, consistent with the paleoclimate records. Cold periods in the North Atlantic are associated with reduced nutrient delivery to the upper Indo-Pacific oceans, thereby decreasing productivity. Reduced export production diminishes subsurface respiration of organic matter leading to higher oxygen concentrations and less denitrification. This effect of reduced oxygen consumption dominates at low latitudes. At high latitudes in the Southern Ocean and North Pacific, increased mixed layer depths and steepening of isopycnals improve ocean ventilation and oxygen supply to the subsurface. Atmospheric teleconnections through changes in wind-driven ocean circulation modify this basin-scale pattern regionally. These results suggest that changes in the Atlantic Ocean circulation, similar to those projected by climate models to possibly occur in the centuries to come because of anthropogenic climate warming, can have large effects on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles even in remote areas. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Health education to increase screening for cervical cancer among Lumbee Indian women in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Dignan, M B; Michielutte, R; Wells, H B; Sharp, P; Blinson, K; Case, L D; Bell, R; Konen, J; Davis, S; McQuellon, R P

    1998-12-01

    Although age-adjusted mortality rates from cancer among Native-Americans are generally lower than for the US population as a whole, cervical cancer mortality rates are higher. This report presents results from a National Cancer Institute-funded health education program conducted among the Lumbee tribe in North Carolina that was designed to increase the proportion of women, age 18 and older, who receive Pap smears to screen for cervical cancer. The Solomon Four Group research design was used for this project. Participants were selected at random from the enrollment records of the Lumbee tribe and data collection was carried out during face-to-face interviews. The health education program was provided one-on-one in women's homes by a trained lay health educator and included verbal, print and videotape information. A total of 979 women were enrolled in the study, and 125 were lost to follow-up between the pre-test and post-test. Women who received the education program were found to be more likely to have knowledge of the Pap smear and to report a Pap smear in the past year at the post-test than those in the control group, regardless of whether they received the pre-test interview, P < 0.05. Women most likely to respond to the education program were also likely to have reported that they receive an annual physical examination. Women with better knowledge of the Pap smear tended to have more education, higher income and greater identification with Native-American culture than those with less knowledge. We conclude that the health education program was associated with greater knowledge about cervical cancer prevention and higher proportions of Lumbee women obtaining Pap smears in the past year. PMID:10345905

  20. Effect of tropical cyclones on the stratosphere-troposphere exchange observed using satellite observations over the north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkat Ratnam, M.; Babu, S. Ravindra; Das, S. S.; Basha, G.; Krishnamurthy, B. V.; Venkateswararao, B.

    2016-07-01

    Tropical cyclones play an important role in modifying the tropopause structure and dynamics as well as stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. In the present study, the impact of cyclones that occurred over the north Indian Ocean during 2007-2013 on the STE processes is quantified using satellite observations. Tropopause characteristics during cyclones are obtained from the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) measurements, and ozone and water vapour concentrations in the UTLS region are obtained from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) satellite observations. The effect of cyclones on the tropopause parameters is observed to be more prominent within 500 km of the centre of the tropical cyclone. In our earlier study, we observed a decrease (increase) in the tropopause altitude (temperature) up to 0.6 km (3 K), and the convective outflow level increased up to 2 km. This change leads to a total increase in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) thickness of 3 km within 500 km of the centre of cyclone. Interestingly, an enhancement in the ozone mixing ratio in the upper troposphere is clearly noticed within 500 km from the cyclone centre, whereas the enhancement in the water vapour in the lower stratosphere is more significant on the south-east side, extending from 500 to 1000 km away from the cyclone centre. The cross-tropopause mass flux for different intensities of cyclones is estimated and it is found that the mean flux from the stratosphere to the troposphere for cyclonic storms is 0.05 ± 0.29 × 10-3 kg m-2, and for very severe cyclonic storms it is 0.5 ± 1.07 × 10-3 kg m-2. More downward flux is noticed on the north-west and south-west side of the cyclone centre. These results indicate that the cyclones have significant impact in effecting the tropopause structure, ozone and water vapour budget, and consequentially the STE in the UTLS region.

  1. Polymorphism of Alcohol Metabolizing Gene ADH3 Predisposes to Development of Alcoholic Pancreatitis in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Divya; Negi, Tajwar S.; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam; Choudhuri, Gourdas

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Genetic factors regulating alcohol metabolism could predispose in developing alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP). Studies revealed that alcohol could be metabolized by both ways, oxidative and non-oxidative. The main oxidative pathway includes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and cytochrome P450 enzyme. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in these enzymes with the alcoholic pancreatitis in the north Indian population. Method: Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP; n = 72), tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP; n = 75), alcoholic controls (AC; n = 40), and healthy controls (HC; n = 100) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in EDTA coated vials. DNA was extracted and genotyping for ADH3, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 was done by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction—restriction fragment length polymorphism). The products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Result: The frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1 genotype was significantly higher in ACP group (59.7%) compared with TCP (38.7%), HC (42%), and AC (37.5%) and was found to be associated with increased risk of alcoholic pancreatitis. There was no statistically significant difference between the frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1, ADH3*1/*2, and ADH3*2/*2 genotypes between TCP and HC or healthy alcoholics. ALDH2 gene was monomorphic in our population, and the frequencies for CYP2E1 intron 6 Dra I polymorphism were comparable in all the four groups. Conclusion: This study shows that carriers of ADH3*1/*1 individuals consuming alcohol are at higher risk for alcoholic pancreatitis than those with other genotypes such as ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2. PMID:26734614

  2. Fur Production as a Specialized Activity in a World System: Indians in the North American Fur Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardulias, P. Nick

    1990-01-01

    Examines the fur trade as critical fulcrum in Indian-White contact, focusing on craft specialization as the Native response to the international market system. Describes effects on Indian dependence on European trade goods, Native territorial boundaries and population distribution, social and family structures, and animal populations. Contains 73…

  3. Analysis of the impact of cyclones on Chlorophyll-a in North Indian Ocean; a remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao Neerukattu, Srinivasa; H, Rao K.; v, Ramana I.; v, Rao M.; v, Murali Krishna I.; Anjanwyulu, A.

    Bay of Bengal (BOB) is considered to be less productive than the Arabian Sea (AS). Earlier studies attributed the reason to be strong stratified layer, which is not broken normally, for its less productivity. Monsoon winds with less wind speed are unable to break the stratified layer. Hypothetically, had there not been stratified layer in BOB, its productivity would have been comparable to that of AS. To meet the requirement of breaking stratified layer higher wind speeds are required, which are produced during cyclones. Thus the seasonal productivity comparisons has been done during cyclones, cyclones are quite common in different seasons in both BOB and AS. Four seasons of monsoon that North Indian Ocean (NIO) experience are; Spring intermonsoon (Apr - May), Southwest monsoon (June - Sep), Fall intermonsoon (Oct - Nov) and Northeast monsoon (Dec - Mar). Fourteen cyclones have been observed covering all the four seasons during for the years 1998 - 2006. During the southwest and fall seasons, cyclones occurred in either BOB or In AS and thus the comparison could not be done. Thus BOB and AS productivity during cyclones has been performed independently with out comparison between them. During the spring intermonsoon four cyclones, two in BOB (two in AS) have been observed. Four parameters of SST drop, MLD deepening, raise the percent of chlorophyll-a and increase in NPP have been derived. The parameters estimated in BOB (AS) during the cyclones are: SST drop of 5o C to 6.5o C (6.5o C to 8.5o C), MLD deepening of 30m to 90m (30m to 120m), raise in chlorophyll-a by 220 During northeast monsoon seven cyclones, four in BOB (three in AS) have been observed. In BOB, out of four cyclones, two were observed in north and two in south, where as in AS one in north and two in south were observed. Comparison was made based on latitude considering availability of sun light to be the same. The parameters estimated in northern BOB (AS) during the cyclones are: SST drop of 1.5o C to

  4. Early Eocene (c. 50 Ma) collision of the Indian and Asian continents: Constraints from the North Himalayan metamorphic rocks, southeastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Huixia; Zhang, Zeming; Dong, Xin; Tian, Zuolin; Xiang, Hua; Mu, Hongchen; Gou, Zhengbin; Shui, Xinfang; Li, Wangchao; Mao, Lingjuan

    2016-02-01

    Despite several decades of investigations, the nature and timing of the India-Asia collision remain debated. In the western Himalaya, the leading edge of the Indian continent was deeply subducted to mantle depths and experienced ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the Eocene at c. 50 Ma. In this paper, however, we demonstrate that the North Himalayan metamorphic rocks in the eastern Himalaya underwent Early Eocene (48-45 Ma) medium-pressure (MP) metamorphism due to shallow subduction of the Indian continent beneath southeastern Tibet. The studied garnet-kyanite-staurolite schists occur in the core of the Yardoi gneiss dome, the easternmost North Himalayan Gneiss Dome, and represent the upper structural level of the Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC). Petrology and phase equilibria modeling show that these rocks have mineral assemblages of Grt + Pl + Bt + Qz ± Ky ± St ± Ms that were formed under conditions of 7-8 kbar and 630-660 °C. Zircon U-Pb chronology shows that these rocks have peak-metamorphic ages of 48-45 Ma and protracted zircon growth, indicating that the collision between Indian and Asian continents must have occurred at c. 50 Ma in southeastern Tibet. Combining with available data, we suggest that the HHC represents a crustal section of the subducted and subsequently exhumed Indian continent. Due to shallow subduction of the continent during the Eocene, the middle to lower crust of the continent was subducted into depths of 40-60 km and underwent high-pressure (HP) and high-temperature (HT) granulite-facies metamorphism and intense anatexis, whereas the upper crust was buried to shallower depths of 20-30 km and witnessed MP metamorphism and intrusion of leucogranites derived from the lower structural level of the HHC.

  5. Hind-casting the quantity and composition of discards by mixed demersal fisheries in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Cook, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term. PMID:25774938

  6. Hind-Casting the Quantity and Composition of Discards by Mixed Demersal Fisheries in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R.; Cook, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term. PMID:25774938

  7. Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

  8. Evaluation of the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in North Indians using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study groups (IADPSG) criteria

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, V; Singh, R; Pradeep, Y; Kapoor, D; Rani, AK; Pradhan, S; Bhatia, E; Yadav, SB

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Currently, there is controversy regarding the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as per the newer International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. We studied the prevalence and associations of GDM in North Indians, diagnosed by the IADPSG criteria. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 332 pregnant women, predominantly belonging to lower and middle socioeconomic strata. The women were screened for GDM between 24 weeks and 28 weeks of gestation by 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and GDM diagnosed by the IADPSG criteria. Results: The prevalence of GDM was 41.9% [95% Confidence interval (CI) 36.6-47.2%]. Amongst the women diagnosed to have GDM, 91.4% had abnormal fasting plasma glucose (FPG), while 1-h and 2-h post-glucose (PG) levels were abnormal in 18.7% and 17.3% of women, respectively. No maternal factors were significantly associated with GDM. Birth weight of the neonates was similar in women with GDM as compared to those with normal glucose tolerance. In the entire group, fasting glucose levels were associated with the weight of the patient while 1-h PG levels were associated with weight, height, socioeconomic score, and parity. Conclusions: There is a very high prevalence rate of GDM using the IADPSG criteria in North Indian women of low and middle socioeconomic strata. Further studies are needed to assess the utility of applying these criteria in settings with limited resources. PMID:26119433

  9. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF METHYLATION STATUS OF TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES IN PAIRED BIOPSY AND SERUM SAMPLES FROM CERVICAL CANCER PATIENTS AMONG NORTH INDIAN POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Jha, A K; Sharma, V; Nikbakht, M; Jain, V; Sehgal, A; Capalash, N; Kaur, J

    2016-02-01

    Tumor-specific genetic or epigenetic alterations have been detected in serum DNA in case of various types of cancers. In breast cancer, the detection of tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation has been reported in several body fluids. Promoter hypermethylation of some genes like MYOD1, CALCA, hTERT etc. has also been detected in serum samples from cervical cancer. The present study is the first report on the comparison of promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes likep14, p15, p16, p21, p27, p57, p53, p73, RARβ2, FHIT, DAPK, STAT1 and-RB1 genes in paired biopsy and serum samples from cervical cancer patients among north Indian population. This is also the first report on the hypermethylation of these genes in serum samples from cervical cancer patients among north Indian population. According to the results of the present study, promoter hypermethylation of these genes can also be detected in serum samples of cervical cancer patients. The sensitivity of detection of promoter hypermethylation in serum samples of cervical cancer patients as compared to paired biopsy samples was found to be around 83.3%. It was observed that promoter hypermethylation was mainly observed in the serum samples in the higher stages and very rarely in the lower stages. The present study clearly showed that serum of patients with cervical cancer can also be used to study methylated genes as biomarkers. PMID:27215041

  10. Association of variants in genes involved in pancreatic β-cell development and function with type 2 diabetes in North Indians.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Sreenivas; Mahajan, Anubha; Tabassum, Rubina; Dwivedi, Om Prakash; Chauhan, Ganesh; Ghosh, Saurabh; Tandon, Nikhil; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2011-10-01

    Variants in genes involved in pancreatic β-cell development and function are known to cause monogenic forms of type 2 diabetes and are also associated with complex form. In this study, we studied the genetic association of polymorphisms in such important genes with type 2 diabetes in the high-risk Indians. We genotyped 91 polymorphisms in 19 genes (ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, INSM1, ISL1, KCNJ11, MAFA, MNX1, NEUROD1, NEUROG3, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, PAX4, PAX6, PDX1, USF1 and WFS1) in 2025 unrelated North Indians of Indo-European ethnicity comprising of 1019 diabetic and 1006 non-diabetic subjects. HNF4A promoter P2 polymorphisms rs1884613 and rs2144908, which are in high linkage disequilibrium, showed significant association with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio (OR)=1.37 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.57), P=9.4 × 10(-6) for rs1884613 and OR=1.37 (95%CI 1.20-1.57), P=6.0 × 10(-6) for rs2144908), as previously shown in other populations. We observed body mass index-dependent association of these variants with type 2 diabetes in normal-weight/lean subjects. Variants in USF1, ABCC8, ISL1 and KCNJ11 showed nominal association, while haplotypes in these genes were significantly associated. rs3812704 upstream of NEUROG3 significantly increased risk for type 2 diabetes in normal-weight/lean subjects (OR=1.68 (95%CI 1.25-2.24), P=4.9 × 10(-4)). Thus, pancreatic β-cell development and function genes contribute to susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in North Indians. PMID:21814221

  11. Gender Based Differences in Risk Factor Profile and Coronary Angiography of Patients Presenting with Acute Myocardial Infarction in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vijay; Grover, Sumit; Mahajan, Amit; Mahajan, Nipun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) among women presents atypically with atypical chest pain, neck pain, nausea, fatigue and dyspnoea. Co-existing co-morbidities such as Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and hypertension along with difference in risk factor prevalence makes it necessary to have a gender specific approach. Aim To study gender specific differences in diagnosing and treating Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) in North Indian population. Materials and Methods Fifty consecutive men and women presenting with AMI were studied. A detailed history including symptoms, history of DM, hypertension, smoking and dyslipidaemia was obtained. ECG, evaluation of cardiac enzymes (CPK-MB, Troponin I), RBS, lipid profile, two dimensional transthoracic echocardiography and coronary angiography were performed. The data was statistically analysed. Results Among 100 patients (50 males and females each), we found a later age at presentation (62 y vs 56.5 y) and higher prevalence of diabetes (52% vs 24%, p=0.004) and hypertension (46% vs 28%) among females but more dyslipidaemia (34% vs 26%), smoking (44% vs 0%, p=0.0) and higher BMI (25.58 vs 23.74, p=0.019) among males. More females presented with atypical symptoms (16% vs 6%) and were detected to have insignificant CAD (14% vs 2%) than males. Conclusion North Indian women with presentation at a later age, with atypical symptoms, more incidences of risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension along with lesser dyslipidaemia and BMI than males need a higher index of suspicion while evaluating them for CAD. Misdiagnosis is more likely because of atypical presentation. A milder disease on angiography and a lower incidence of multiple vessel disease is a common finding. We recommend more and larger Indian studies to acquire more data so that this growing prevalence of CAD in women can be curbed. PMID:27437262

  12. MALLEABLE INSPECTION STATION WHERE WORKERS ELIMINATE MALFORMED CASTINGS AND SEPARATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MALLEABLE INSPECTION STATION WHERE WORKERS ELIMINATE MALFORMED CASTINGS AND SEPARATED GOOD CASTINGS PRIOR TO ANNEALING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Clinical and Angiographic Profile in Patients With Naive Acute Coronary Syndrome in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Goel, Amit; Madaan, Amit; Thakur, Ramesh; Krishna, Vinay; Singh, Karandeep; Sachan, Mohit; Pandey, Umeshwar; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Background Data of isolated metabolic syndrome as risk factor in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) especially in context to Indian subcontinent are sparse. Therefore, we studied the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and its clinical and angiographic profile in naive ACS patients in North Indian population. Methods A single-center, prospective, observational study of 324 patients was conducted at LPS Institute of Cardiology, G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur, India with newly diagnosed ACS patients with MetS, as per modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. They were divided into two groups with and without MetS, and their clinical and angiographic profiles were studied. Results Prevalence of MetS in our study was 37.65%. Patients with MetS were significantly older than without MetS (60.3 ± 8.4 vs. 57.6 ± 7.9), and had females preponderance (35.24% vs. 24.25%), less tobacco abuse (30.32% vs. 42.57%), more non-ST-segment elevation ACS (58.19% vs. 36.14%), less ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (41.80% vs. 63.86%), more cardiogenic shock (27.04% vs. 17.32%), recurrent ischemia (14.75% vs. 7.42%) and on angiogram, lesser single vessel disease (21.13% vs. 53.96%), more double vessel disease (39.34 vs. 24.26%), triple vessel disease (19.67% vs. 10.39%), left main (13.11% vs. 4.45%) and complex coronary lesions (tubular 40.98% vs. 31.68%; diffuse 26.23% vs. 18.32%). However, there was a trend of lower but insignificant mortality with MetS (5.44% vs. 6.55%). Conclusion There was high prevalence of MetS among patients with ACS in North Indian population with more advanced coronary artery disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study from North India documenting clinical and angiographic profile of patients with MetS and ACS. PMID:27540441

  14. Directory of American Indian Tribes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff. Inst. for Human Development.

    This directory provides general information on American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and lands. The information was compiled from several resources including the "Federal Register," the Bureau of Indian Affairs, "The Native American Almanac" (A. Hirschfelder, M. K. de Montano), the "Atlas of North American Indian Tribes" (Carl Waldman), the…

  15. 78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe and the State of North Dakota; the Amended Gaming...

  16. Numerical simulation and observations of very severe cyclone generated surface wave fields in the north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirisha, P.; Remya, P. G.; Balakrishnan Nair, T. M.; Rao, B. Venkateswara

    2015-12-01

    Accurate wave forecast is most needed during tropical cyclones as it has adverse effects on the entire marine activities. The present work evaluates the performance of a wave forecasting system under very severe cyclonic conditions for the Indian Ocean. The wave model results are validated separately for the deep water and shallow water using in-situ observations. Satellite altimeter observations are also utilized for validation purpose. The results show that the model performance is accurate (SI < 26% and correlation > 0.9) and consistent during very severe cyclones (categories 4 and 5). The power of the cyclone waves which hit in the eastern Indian coastal region is also analysed and it reveals that the coastal region which lies on the right side of the cyclone track receives high amount wave energy throughout the cyclone period. The study also says that the abnormal waves mostly present on the right side of the track.

  17. High Prevalence of Abdominal, Intra-Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adiposity and Clustering of Risk Factors among Urban Asian Indians in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop; Misra, Ranjita; Goel, Kashish; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Rastogi, Kavita; Vikram, Naval K.; Gulati, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of abdominal obesity including intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity along with other cardiometabolic risk factors in urban Asian Indians living in New Delhi. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with 459 subjects (217 males and 242 females), representing all socio-economic strata in New Delhi. The anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness], fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile were recorded. Percent body fat (%BF), total abdominal fat (TAF), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) were quantified using predictive equations for Asian Indians. Results The overall prevalence of obesity was high [by BMI (>25 kg/m2), 50.1%]. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (as assessed by WC) was 68.9%, while that assessed by TAF was 70.8%. Increased IAAT was significantly higher in females (80.6%) as compared to males (56.7%) (p = 0.00) with overall prevalence being 69.3%. The overall prevalence of high SCAT was 67.8%, more in males (69.1%) vs. females (66.5%, p = 0.5). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and hypertension was 8.5%, 45.3% and 29.2%, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and low levels of HDL-c were prevalent in 42.7%, 26.6% and 37% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in males (p = 0.007); however, low levels of HDL-c were more prevalent in females as compared to males (p = 0.00). Conclusion High prevalence of generalized obesity, abdominal obesity (by measurement of WC, TAF, IAAT and SCAT) and dysmetabolic state in urban Asian Indians in north India need immediate public health intervention. PMID:21949711

  18. English 367: American Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert W.; DeFlyer, Joseph E.

    A study guide to American Indian Literature (English 367), a 3-credit hour correspondence course available through the University of North Dakota, contains eight lessons to be used with the following six textbooks: "Black Elk Speaks,""Carriers of the Dream Wheel,""Ceremony,""The Portable North American Indian Reader,""Winter in Blood,""In the…

  19. Pigmented casts.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented casts have been reported with variable frequency in scalp biopsies from alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia and postoperative (pressure induced) alopecia. Their presence and morphology in other scalp disorders has not been described. The authors assessed for the presence and morphology of pigmented casts in 308 transversely bisected scalp biopsies from nonscarring and scarring alopecia, referred to the Department of Dermatology, University of Miami within a year. The pigmented casts were present in 21 of 29 cases of alopecia areata (72%), 7 of 7 cases of trichotillomania (100%), 1 case of friction alopecia, 4 of 28 cases of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (14%), and 4 of 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis (100%). They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and "button"-like pigment aggregation. The linear arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis. PMID:23823025

  20. Body Fat Patterning, Hepatic Fat and Pancreatic Volume of Non-Obese Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes in North India: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Anoop, Shajith; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate body fat patterning and phenotype including hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non-obese (BMI: < 25 kg/m2) Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes residing in North India. Methods Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 93) and non-obese, normo-glycemic subjects (n = 40) were recruited. BMI, waist & hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at 8 sites, body fat, lean mass and detailed abdominal fat evaluation [total abdominal fat, total subcutaneous fat (superficial, deep, anterior, and posterior), total intra-abdominal fat (intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal)], liver span, grades of fatty liver and pancreatic volume were compared. Results Waist circumference, subscapular skinfolds and total truncal fat (on DEXA) were higher whereas calf, total peripheral skinfolds and total leg fat (on DEXA) lower in patients. Specifically, the following volumes were higher in cases as compared to controls; total abdominal fat (19.4%), total intra-abdominal fat (49.7%), intra-peritoneal fat (47.7%), retroperitoneal fat (70.7%), pancreatic volume (26.6%), pancreatic volume index (21.3%) and liver span (10.8%). In cases, significant positive correlations were observed for pancreatic volume with BMI, waist and hip circumferences, W-HR, subscapular, abdominal and total truncal skinfolds, truncal, total subcutaneous, total intra-abdominal, intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal fat depots, liver span and fatty liver. Conclusions In non-obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal obesity, including fatty liver, and pancreatic volume were higher and peripheral subcutaneous adiposity was lower than BMI matched non-diabetic subjects. Importantly, increased pancreatic volume in patients was highly correlated with multiple measures of abdominal obesity and liver fat. PMID:26474415

  1. Polymorphisms in the HPC/ELAC-2 and alpha 1-antitrypsin genes that correlate with human diseases in a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sobti, Ranbir C; Thakur, Hitender; Gupta, Lipsy; Janmeja, Ashok K; Seth, Amlesh; Singh, Sharwan K

    2011-06-01

    Two genes HPC/ELAC-2 and AAT were studied in north Indian population. HPC/ELAC-2 was studied in prostate cancer cases and AAT was studied in COPD patients. HPC/ELAC-2 is considered as an important cancer-susceptibility gene in prostate cancer. There are two common polymorphisms of this gene, i.e., Ser217Leu and Ala541Thr. Alpha 1 antitrypsin is a highly polymorphic anti-elastase enzyme, especially active in the protection of alveoli and liver. In the present study, we observed the distribution of two deficient alleles PiZ and Pi S in COPD patients. We extracted the DNA from 157 prostate cancer cases, 200 COPD patients, 170 BPH and 370 healthy controls. The polymorphisms were studied by PCR-RFLP technique. The mutant genotype (Leu/Leu) of HPC/ELAC-2 was present in 9.6, 7.6 and 5.9% of BPH, cancer cases and healthy controls, respectively. Higher risk of Ser/Leu as well as Leu/Leu had shown when compared to healthy controls. That was about 1.5 and 1.7-fold (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 0.96-2.51; OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 0.74-3.92), respectively. Risk was found to be increased in smokers and those consuming non-vegetarian diet. Our results suggest that the HPC/ELAC-2 polymorphisms, especially in localized cases, could help to predict prostate cancer risk and confirm its high prevalence of the leu/leu allele in north Indian population. Considering heterozygous PiZ genotype, we obtained an OR of 3.82 (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis adjusted by age sex and drinking habit showed 4.15-fold increased risk for COPD in PiZ heterozygous individuals. No increased risk was observed in the individuals carrying PiS alleles. PMID:20119870

  2. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  3. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part XI: The Basin-Plateau Tribes. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XI of the series, deals with the Indian tribes of Nevada: The Moapa Band of Paiute Indians, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, the…

  4. Evaluation of the Serum Levels of Nitric Oxide among Diabetic Patients and its Correlation with Lipid Profile as well as Oxidative Stress in North Indian Setting

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Arvind; Verma, Neetu; Panwar, Ajay; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a disease with a rapidly increasing prevalence, needs continue research for novel methods to both prevent and treat this disorder. Obesity and decreased physical activity are the major risk factor for the development of diabetes. Recently the emphasis is focused on oxidative stress in pathogenesis of this disease. Aim To assess the serum levels of Nitric Oxide (NO) among diabetic patients and its correlation with lipid profile as well as oxidative stress in north Indian setting. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes for more than 1 year and age between 30 to 50 years with hyperuricaemia were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups: Group I- Type 2 diabetics with dyslipidemia and hyperuricaemia, Group II- Type 2 diabetics with dyslipidemia and normouricaemia and Group III- Type 2 diabetics with normolipidemia and normouricaemia. Results The nitric oxide level was significantly lower in Group I and Group II than Group III. The oxidative stress parameters had poor correlation with NO level in all the groups. Conclusion Our data suggests that there is definite role of Nitric Oxide (NO) in pathogenesis of type -2 diabetes mellitus with dyslipidemia and hyperuricaemia. PMID:27437271

  5. Development of a digital model of ground-water flow in deeply weathered crystalline rock, Indian Creek area, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, C.C. III; Eimers, J.L. )

    1994-03-01

    The digital ground-water model of the regolith-bedrock aquifer system in the Indian Creek area is based on the US Geological Survey's modular finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW). Use of MODFLOW assumes porous media equivalence; however, special approaches have been used to account for non-uniform fracture distribution. The model is divided into a uniformly spaced grid having 196 rows, 140 columns, and a 500-foot spacing. Rows are oriented parallel to fractures (N 72 E) and columns are oriented parallel to foliation (N 18 W). The area represented by active model cells is 146 square miles and has about 17,400 cells. The model has 11 layers of different thickness; the top layer represents the regolith and the lower 10 layers represent bedrock. The regolith-bedrock contact is at a uniform depth of 50 feet. The base of the model is 850 feet below land surface. Hydraulic properties of regolith are based on diffusivity calculated from streamflow recession and are assumed to be areally constant. The steady-state model simulates recharge to, flow through, and discharge from the regolith-bedrock aquifer system. The mass balance between inflow and outflow differs by less than 1%. Along select sections, computed travel times from drainage divides to streams range from less than 4 years in the regolith to as much as 300 years for flow passing through the bottom layer of bedrock. The volume of ground water that flows through the bottom layer is only about 2% of the flow through the regolith.

  6. Frequency of CFTR, SPINK1, and Cathepsin B Gene Mutation in North Indian Population: Connections between Genetics and Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shweta; Choudhuri, Gourdas; Agarwal, Sarita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Genetic mutations and polymorphisms have been correlated with chronic pancreatitis (CP). This study aims to investigate the association of genetic variants of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK-1) genes and Cathepsin B gene polymorphisms with CP and to associate genetic backgrounds with clinical phenotypes. Methods. 150 CP patients and 150 normal controls were enrolled consecutively. We analyzed SPINK-1 N34S and IVS3+2T>C gene mutations by PCR-restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The identification of DF508, G551D, G542X, R117H, and W1282X mutations was carried out by ARMS-PCR. S549N mutation, IVS8 polyTn polymorphism, and Cathepsin B Lec26Val were analysed by PCR-RFLP, nested PCR, and PCR-RFLP plus sequencing, respectively. Results. We found a significant association of SPINK1 (N34S) gene polymorphism. IVS1−37T>C polymorphism shows linkage with 101A>G. 300 chromosomes belonging to the CFTR subgroup exhibited minor allele frequency of 0.04, 0.03, 0.03, 0.013, 0.006, and 0.02 for DF508, G452X, G551D, S549N, R117H, and IVS8 T5, respectively. Except for R117H and IVS8 T5 polymorphisms, all other mutations showed significant variation. Conclusion. Analysis of potential susceptibility variants is needed to support nature of the genes and environment in pancreatitis. This data may help establish genetic screening and prenatal setup for Indian population. PMID:24616641

  7. Association of alpha subunit of GABAA receptor subtype gene polymorphisms with epilepsy susceptibility and drug resistance in north Indian population.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Ritu; Lakhan, Ram; Kalita, J; Misra, U K; Mittal, Balraj

    2010-05-01

    GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid) receptors have always been an inviting target in the etiology and treatment of epilepsy because of its role as a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aim of our study was to find out the possible role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in GABRA1 IVS11+15 A>G (rs2279020) and GABRG2 588C>T (rs211037) genes in seizure susceptibility and pharmaco-resistance in northern Indian patients with epilepsy. A total of 395 epilepsy patients and 199 control subjects were enrolled for present study. The genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP methods. The GABRA1 IVS11+15 A>G polymorphism conferred high risk for epilepsy susceptibility at genotype 'AG' (P=0.004, OR=1.77, 95% CI=1.20-2.63), 'GG' (P=0.01, OR=1.80, 95% CI=1.15-2.80) and G allele level (P=0.001, OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.16-1.92). Moreover this polymorphism was also associated with multiple drug resistance in patients with epilepsy for homozygous variant 'GG' genotype (P=0.031, OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.05-3.23) and G allele (P=0.020, OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.05-1.95). However GABRG2 588C>T polymorphism was not found to be associated either with epilepsy susceptibility or with drug resistance. Overall results indicate differential role of different subunits of GABA(A) receptor subtypes in epilepsy susceptibility and pharmacotherapy. PMID:20356767

  8. Economic Analysis of Delivering Primary Health Care Services through Community Health Workers in 3 North Indian States

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Background We assessed overall annual and unit cost of delivering package of services and specific services at sub-centre level by CHWs and cost effectiveness of Government of India’s policy of introducing a second auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM) at the sub-centre compared to scenario of single ANM sub-centre. Methods We undertook an economic costing of health services delivered by CHWs, from a health system perspective. Bottom-up costing method was used to collect data on resources spent in 50 randomly selected sub-centres selected from 4 districts. Mean unit cost along with its 95% confidence intervals were estimated using bootstrap method. Multiple linear regression model was used to standardize cost and assess its determinants. Results Annually it costs INR 1.03 million (USD 19,381), or INR 187 (USD 3.5) per capita per year, to provide a package of preventive, curative and promotive services through community health workers. Unit costs for antenatal care, postnatal care, DOTS treatment and immunization were INR 525 (USD 10) per full ANC care, INR 767 (USD 14) per PNC case registered, INR 974 (USD 18) per DOTS treatment completed and INR 97 (USD 1.8) per child immunized in routine immunization respectively. A 10% increase in human resource costs results in 6% rise in per capita cost. Similarly, 10% increment in the ANC case registered per provider through-put results in a decline in unit cost ranging from 2% in the event of current capacity utilization to 3% reduction in case of full capacity utilization. Incremental cost of introducing 2nd ANM at sub-centre level per unit percent increase ANC coverage was INR 23,058 (USD 432). Conclusion Our estimates would be useful in undertaking full economic evaluations or equity analysis of CHW programs. Government of India’s policy of hiring 2nd ANM at sub-centre level is very cost effective from Indian health system perspective. PMID:24626285

  9. Purification and Characterization of Nk-3FTx: A Three Finger Toxin from the Venom of North East Indian Monocled Cobra.

    PubMed

    Das, Diganta; Sharma, Maitreyee; Kumar Das, Hemanga; Pratim Sahu, Partha; Doley, Robin

    2016-02-01

    Snake venom three finger toxins (3FTxs) are a non-enzymatic family of venom proteins abundantly found in elapids. We have purified a 7579.5 ± 0.591 Da 3FTx named as Nk-3FTx from the venom of Naja kaouthia of North East India origin. The primary structure was determined by a combination of N-terminal sequencing and electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Biochemical and biological characterization reveal that it is nontoxic to human cell lines and exhibit mild anticoagulant activity when tested on citrated human plasma. Nk-3FTx was found to affect the compound action potential (CAP) and nerve conduction velocity of isolated toad sciatic nerve. This is the first report of a non-conventional 3FTx from Naja kaouthia venom that reduces CAP for its neurotoxic effect. Further studies can be carried out to understand the mechanism of action and to explore its potential therapeutic application. PMID:26293154

  10. A therapy to live by: public health, the self and nationalism in the practice of a north Indian yoga society.

    PubMed

    Alter, J S

    1997-06-01

    In this article I focus on the relationship between concepts of self and health in modern North India. Drawing on field research in a popular yoga society, I argue that yoga therapy, as practiced by the Bharatiya Yog Sansthan of Delhi, provides a reconceptualization of what can be meant by public health. Using studies that challenge both the essentialist and epistemological facticity of the self, I show how the discourse and practice of yoga is implicated in, and derived from, a complex search for self definition in terms of health; health which is conceived of as a public regimen that seeks to reconnect that which modernity has broken apart: mind and body. PMID:9241991

  11. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  12. CASTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  13. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part II: The Indian Tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part II of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Documents are included relative to the Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, and the Red Cliff bands of Lake Superior Chippewa…

  14. Indians as Resources: The Changing Relationship between Indians and Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Michael M.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional academic or curatorial associations with North American Indians--treating them as informants, subjects, students, or specimens--is no longer sufficient because these associations imply unequal relations with anthropologists and curators in the superior position. Indians now want, expect, and demand equality; and new relationships are…

  15. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0

  16. Participation in mass gatherings can benefit well-being: longitudinal and control data from a North Indian Hindu pilgrimage event.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events - a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155

  17. Participation in Mass Gatherings Can Benefit Well-Being: Longitudinal and Control Data from a North Indian Hindu Pilgrimage Event

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events – a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155

  18. Hemoglobin patterns in American Indians.

    PubMed

    POLLITZER, W S; CHERNOFF, A I; HORTON, L L; FROEHLICH, M

    1959-01-23

    Two populations of North Carolina have been analyzed for hemoglobin patterns by paper electrophoresis. Of 534 Cherokee Indians, both mixed and full bloods, all showed normal hemoglobin. Lumbee Indians of less certain ethnic status had 1.7 percent of hemoglobin S, an equal amount of hemoglobin C, and one possible hemoglobin D trait among 1332 bloods studied. PMID:13624709

  19. Cast aluminum denture base.

    PubMed

    Barco, M T; Dembert, M L

    1987-08-01

    The laboratory procedures for a cast aluminum base denture have been presented. If an induction casting machine is not available, the "two-oven technique" works well, provided the casting arm is kept spinning manually for 4 minutes after casting. If laboratory procedures are executed precisely and with care, the aluminum base denture can be cast with good results. PMID:3305884

  20. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  1. Genetic association of adiponectin gene polymorphisms (+45T/G and +10211T/G) with type 2 diabetes in North Indians.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Madhukar; Srivastava, Neena; Banerjee, Monisha

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin (ADIPOQ) is an abundant protein hormone which belongs to a family of so-called adipokines. It is expressed mostly by adipocytes and is an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism. It was shown that decreased serum adiponectin concentration indicated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with the risk of cardiovascular complications. The fact that adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone with anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, we proposed to study the association of ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms in subjects with T2DM. DNA was isolated from venous blood samples, quantified and subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using suitable primers and restriction endonucleases. Adiponectin levels were measured in serum using ELISA. The genotypic, allelic and carriage rate frequencies distribution in patients and controls were analyzed by PSAW software (ver. 17.0). Odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined to describe the strength of association by logistic regression model. Out of the two polymorphisms studied, +10211T/G showed significant association (P=0.042), the 'G' allele association being highly significant (P=0.022). Further analysis showed that individuals with 'GG' haplotype were at increased risk of T2DM up to 15.5 times [P=0.015, OR (95% CI); 15.558 (1.690-143.174)]. The present study showed that the 'G' allele of ADIPOQ gene (+10211T/G) plays a prominent role with respect to T2DM susceptibility in North-Indian population. PMID:23153972

  2. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikka, V. K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-10-01

    Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several value body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni (Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and where applicable, with data on sand castings.

  3. Steel castings by the electroslag casting technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Mitchell, A.

    1984-10-01

    Electroslag casting facilities in Canada and the United States were reviewed. Several valve body castings of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, and 18% Cr-8% Ni(Mo) steels were made at the University of British Columbia facility. These castings were examined for surface finish, chemical segregation, and macrostructure in the as-cast condition and after various heat treatments. Castings were subjected to tensile, Charpy impact, and creep testing. Results of these tests were compared with similar data on wrought material and, where applicable, with data on sand castings. 22 figures.

  4. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of Indian Tribes of North America. Part I: The Sioux Tribes of South Dakota. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    To facilitate the study and understanding of present-day Indian tribal organization and governmental procedures, the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of…

  5. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part IV: The Southwest (Navajo--Zuni). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part IV of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, articles of association, and by-laws of Indian tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. Documents are included relative to the Navajo Tribe of Arizona and New Mexico; the Eastern Navajo Council--New Mexico; the…

  6. United Native Instruction To Youth. An Indian Studies Curriculum for Grades K-5 and 8-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeson County Compensatory Indian Education Project, Lumberton, NC.

    Focusing on the heritage of the 14 predominantly Indian communities in Robeson County, North Carolina, the curriculum guide covers: Indian families (kindergarten); how the Indians lived (first grade); Indian customs, traditions, superstitions (second grade); North Carolina's Indian heritage (third grade); community and government (fourth and fifth…

  7. Robeson County Indian Education Needs Assessment, FY-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth Dial; And Others

    Robeson County, North Carolina, has the largest Indian population in the state. There are 25,684 Lumbee Indians in the county; Indian students comprise 61 percent of the school population. In compliance with Title IV-A regulations, a 1978-79 needs assessment was conducted to allow the Indian community participation in the development of cultural…

  8. Geology and ground-water resources of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, North Dakota, with a section on the chemical quality of the ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingman, Robert James; Gordon, Ellis D.; Swenson, H.A.

    1954-01-01

    The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation occupies about 1,000 square miles in west- central North Dakota. The Missouri and Little Missouri Rivers flow through the area and form part of its boundaries. Garrison Dam, which is under construction on the Missouri River 30 miles downstream from the east boundary of the reservation, will impound water in Garrison Reservoir and flood the valleys of both rivers throughout the area. The reservoir will divide the reservation into five parts, herein referred to as the eastern, northeastern, northern, western, and southern segments. Rock formations ranging in age from Paleocene to Recent are exposed. The Fort Union formation of Paleocene age underlies the entire reservation, and it crops out along the Missouri and Little Missouri Rivers. Relatively thin glacial till and outwash deposits of late Pleistocene age mantle much of the upland in all of the segments. The glacial de. posits commonly are less than 10 feet thick; in many places they consist only of scattered boulders on the bedrock surface. The major valleys have terrace deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age and alluvium of Recent age. The principal mineral resources of the reservation are lignite, sand, and gravel. The lignite beds range in thickness from a few inches to about 30 feet. At least four separate beds, which range in thickness from 4 feet to more than 7 feet, are mined locally. Although many mines will be flooded after Garrison Dam is completed, many suitable mine sites will remain above the proposed reservoir level. Sand and gravel deposits are found in glacial outwash and in stream-terrace deposits. On upland areas of the reservation ground water is available principally from the lignite and the associated fine- to medium-grained sandstone beds of the Fort Union formation. Few wells on the reservation are known to produce water from glacial material, although the recessional moraines are possible sources of shallow-water supplies. Small quantities of ground

  9. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.

    PubMed

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

    1999-01-01

    The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society. PMID:10081237

  10. PARK2 and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine gene interactions contribute to the susceptibility to leprosy: a case–control study of North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cytokines and related molecules in immune-response pathways seem important in deciding the outcome of the host–pathogen interactions towards different polar forms in leprosy. We studied the role of significant and functionally important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes, published independently from our research group, through combined interaction with an additional analysis of the in silico network outcome, to understand how these impact the susceptibility towards the disease, leprosy. Design The study was designed to assess an overall combined contribution of significantly associated individual SNPs to reflect on epistatic interactions and their outcome in the form of the disease, leprosy. Furthermore, in silico approach was adopted to carry out protein–protein interaction study between PARK2 and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines. Setting Population-based case–control study involved the data of North India. Protein–protein interaction networks were constructed using cytoscape. Participants Study included the data available from 2305 Northern Indians samples (829 patients with leprosy; 1476 healthy controls), generated by our research group. Primary and secondary outcome measures For genotype interaction analysis, all possible genotype combinations between selected SNPs were used as an independent variable, using binary logistic regression with the forward likelihood ratio method, keeping the gender as a covariate. Results Interaction analysis between PARK2 and significant SNPs of anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory cytokine genes, including BAT1 to BTNL2-DR spanning the HLA (6p21.3) region in a case–control comparison, showed that the combined analysis of: (1) PARK2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), BTNL2-DR, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6 and TGFBR2 increased the risk towards leprosy (OR=2.54); (2) PARK2, BAT1, NFKBIL1, LTA, TNF-LTB, IL12B and IL10RB provided increased protection (OR=0.26) in comparison with their

  11. p53-Mediated Biliary Defects Caused by Knockdown of cirh1a, the Zebrafish Homolog of the Gene Responsible for North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Lorent, Kristin; Matthews, Randolph P.; Pack, Michael

    2013-01-01

    North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NAIC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, progressive cholestatic disease of infancy affecting the Cree-Ojibway first Nations of Quebec. All NAIC patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (R565W) in CIRH1A, the human homolog of the yeast nucleolar protein Utp4. Utp4 is part of the t-Utp subcomplex of the small subunit (SSU) processome, a ribonucleoprotein complex required for ribosomal RNA processing and small subunit assembly. NAIC has thus been proposed to be a primary ribosomal disorder (ribosomopathy); however, investigation of the pathophysiologic mechanism of this disease has been hindered by lack of an animal model. Here, using a morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-based loss-of-function strategy, we have generated a model of NAIC in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish Cirhin shows substantial homology to the human homolog, and cirh1a mRNA is expressed in developing hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. Injection of two independent MOs directed against cirh1a at the one-cell stage causes defects in canalicular and biliary morphology in 5 dpf larvae. In addition, 5 dpf Cirhin-deficient larvae have dose-dependent defects in hepatobiliary function, as assayed by the metabolism of an ingested fluorescent lipid reporter. Previous yeast and in vitro studies have shown that defects in ribosome biogenesis cause stabilization and nuclear accumulation of p53, which in turn causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Thus, the nucleolus appears to function as a cellular stress sensor in some cell types. In accordance with this hypothesis, transcriptional targets of p53 are upregulated in Cirhin-deficient zebrafish embryos, and defects in biliary function seen in Cirhin-deficient larvae are completely abrogated by mutation of tp53. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence of a role for Cirhin in biliary development, and support the hypothesis that congenital defects affecting ribosome biogenesis can activate

  12. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  13. American Indian Music for the Classroom: An Indian Education Curriculum Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Esther

    This teaching guide, produced in cooperation with Indian parents, students and teachers, offers classroom material on the complex culture and history of American Indians. The guide suggests youngsters be taught that, contrary to stereotypes, there was a wide variation of Indian tribal groups and cultures in North America. A list of 14 "Stereotypes…

  14. A study on the association of cytochrome-P450 1A1 polymorphism and breast cancer risk in north Indian women.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra; Rastogi, Neeraj; Sinha, Ashima; Kumar, Abhai; Mathur, Neeraj; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is involved in the 2-hydroxylation of estrogens and mammary carcinogens into 2-hydroxy catechol metabolites. Many commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are reported in CYP1A1 in various populations that include, isoleucine to valine substitution at 462 codon in heme binding region in exon 7 (A to G transition at position 2455; M2), threonine to asparagine substitution at codon 461 (C to A transversion at position 2453; M4), T to C transition at 3801 position (M1) and T to C transition at position 3205 (M3) in 3' non-coding region. Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent patterns between CYP1A1 polymorphism and breast cancer risk among various populations. Most of the studies have shown significant association between CYP1A1 genotype polymorphism and breast cancer risk. The present investigation was therefore undertaken to investigate the association of M1, M2, M3 and M4 polymorphisms and their subsequent contribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with breast cancer risk in north Indian women. Genomic DNA was isolated from case controls and breast cancer patients, specific segments of genomic DNA were amplified and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed. CYP1A1 expression and catalytic activity were also assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal case controls and patients. Polymorphism at M1, M2 and M4 alleles was detected and odds ratio for W/M1 and M1/M1 was calculated as 1.07 (95% CI, 0.59-1.87) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.28-1.96) respectively. Odds ratio for W/M1 and M1/M1 alleles in premenopausal and postmenopausal women was 1.09 (95% CI, 0.45-2.49)/0.62 (95% CI, 0.10-2.66) and 1.60 (95% CI, 0.60-4.22)/1.06 (95% CI, 0.22-7.33) respectively. Odds ratio for W/M4 and M4/M4 allele was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.65-2.24)/4.55 (95% CI, 0.44-226.2) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.36-2.64)/4.51 (95% CI, 0.23-273.0) respectively in total and premenopausal women. In postmenopausal women odds ratio was

  15. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  16. AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS THEY MOVE IN BINS ALONG TRACKS IN THE OVEN BOTTOM IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS BRITTLE WHITE IRON CASTINGS INTO SOFTER, STRONGER MALLEABLE IRON. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted wooded post at top, located at north end of bridge. VIEW NORTHEAST - Chelsea Street Bridge & Draw Tender's House, Spanning Chelsea River, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING AND FOUNDRY FLASKS TO RIGHT. - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, Workshop, 800 Twenty-eighth Street North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 7. Underside of Roadbed (Interior beams cast horizontal, imprints of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Underside of Roadbed (Interior beams cast horizontal, imprints of timbers used as formwork visible on abutment walls and beams) - North Bridge, Spanning Quarton Lake branch of River Rouge, Birmingham, Oakland County, MI

  1. Detail of parapet, frieze, and castings at windows. South elevation; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of parapet, frieze, and castings at windows. South elevation; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Soft sediment deformation associated with the passage of North Atlantic Deep water through the deep Ariel Graben, Mozambique Ridge southwest Indian Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Errol; Green, Andrew; Watkeys, Mike; Jokat, Wilfried; Krocker, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between bottom water currents and seafloor sediments are well known. Bottom current generated bedforms are varied both morphologicaly and sedimentologicaly. Sediment transport and deposition, associated with bottom water circulation, plays a significant role is sculpting seafloor morphology in all ocean basins. Indeed, bedforms have been used to great effect to define the presence, direction and strength of bottom water circulation globally. Here we present new multibeam swath bathymetry and high frequency seismic data from the Natal Valley and Mozambique Ridge, southwest Indian Ocean. These data show a deep (-3200 m) channel-like feature (Ariel Graben, situated at 28° 30"S on the Mozambique Ridge) connecting the northern Natal Valley to the Mozambique Basin. A distinct W - E change in seafloor morphology and seismic character is noted moving from the Natal Valley through the Ariel Graben. The northern flank of the graben exhibits smooth plastered drifts which give way to undulating seafloor in the east. The plastered drifts are characterised by distinct bottom echoes, with several discontinuous sub-bottom reflections. In contrast, the undulating seafloor is characterised by distinct hyperbolic echoes, with occasional indistinct sub-bottom reflectors. The W - E orientated undulations are straight crested, parallel / sub-parallel to the local isobaths. Wavelength is variable, ranging from 600 m to 1200 m. Cross-sectional symmetry of these features varies from symmetrical to asymmetrical, with board crests and narrow troughs. When asymmetrical, the lower (south-facing) limb is the longer (511.76 m average) than the upper (north-facing) limb (323.53 m average). The lower limbs are also steeper than the upper limbs; calculated averages being 3.80° and 1.55°, respectively. Overall, the slope on which the undulations are found, is south-facing with a gradient of 1.54°, however, the area affected by undulations is slightly steeper (average slope of 1.75

  3. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  4. Cool Cast Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... outer layer is usually made of plaster or fiberglass. Fiberglass casts are made of fiberglass, which is a plastic that can be shaped. Fiberglass casts come in many different colors — if you' ...

  5. Tishomingo folio, Indian Territory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taff, Joseph A.

    1903-01-01

    The Tishomingo quadrangle is bounded by meridians 96° 30' and 97° and parallels 34° and 34° 30', and occupies one-quarter of a square degree of the earth's surface.  It is 34.5 miles long north and south and 28.58 miles wide, and contains about 986 square miles.  It lies in the southeastern part of the Chickasaw Nation, Indian Territory, the eastern edge being nearly 3 miles west of the Choctaw-Chickasaw boudary line, and the southern side about 3 miles north of the nearest approach of Red River.

  6. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  7. LLNL casting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  8. First description of the worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Himender

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The hitherto unknown worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Forel, 1894) is described for the first time. Sexuals are redescribed and photomontage images of all castes are provided. A key is presented to separate the six Indian species of Nylanderia. Previously described Nylanderia assimilis (Jerdon, 1851) is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:25197237

  9. Evaluation of electroslag castings

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Sikka, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of evaluations of electroslag castings of ferritic (2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo and 9 Cr-1 Mo) and austenitic (CF8M or type 316) steels are presented. The castings have been characterized for surface finish, cracking, solidification structure, chemical composition, hardness, ferrite distribution, tensile properties, Charpy impact properties, and creep properties. Pertinent data are compared with equivalent data for sand castings and wrought products of the same materials. Based on the results of these studies, the properties of electroslag castings compare favorably with those of sand castings and wrought materials.

  10. Indian Health Service Oversight and Reauthorization of Indian Health Care Improvement Act. Hearing before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    The transcript of the March 28, 1980, Senate hearing on the Indian Health Service (IHS) and reauthorization of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act (Public Law 94-437) held in Billings, Montana, is presented with testimony from the Three Affiliated Tribes of North Dakota, Montana United Indian Association, Montana Indian Health Board, Fort Peck…

  11. Advances in aluminum casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tiryakioglu, M.; Campbell, J.

    1998-01-01

    This symposium focuses on the improvements of aluminum casting quality and reliability through a better understanding of processes and process variables, and explores the latest innovations in casting-process design that allow increasing use of the castings to replace complex assemblies and heavy steel and cast-iron components in aerospace and automotive applications. Presented are 35 papers by international experts in the various aspects of the subject. The contents include: Semisolid casting; Computer-aided designing of molds and castings; Casting-process modeling; Aluminum-matrix composite castings; HIPing of castings; Progress in the US car project; Die casting and die design; and Solidification and properties.

  12. American Indian Studies. Library Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University doing library research in topics related to American Indian Studies begins by noting that information on North American Indians can be found in a variety of subject disciplines including history, anthropology, education, sociology, health care, law, business, and politics. The…

  13. Maize Genetics Outreach to American Indians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is an excellent vehicle for plant genomics outreach to those American Indian tribes who use and appreciate it nutritionally, culturally, and spiritually. During the summer 2006 season we mentored six Native American Indian students for eight weeks. All six worked at the USDA-ARS North Centra...

  14. Report on Legislation on Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Roger

    The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of legislation, federal and provincial, affecting Indian education in Canada. Throughout the paper the following developments are noted: under the British North America (BNA) Act, education was put under the jurisdictional control of the provinces while Indians were the responsibility of the…

  15. Christian Indian Missions and the American Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Robert

    1979-01-01

    This article is the first in a series on the history of U.S. Church/State cooperation in dealing with Indians, evaluating the role of Protestant Indian missions in the westward expansion of European settlers across North America. (RTS)

  16. Indian Reservations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weewish Tree, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Answers to questions asked by junior high school students about American Indian reservations are given. The areas covered include nearly every facet of reservation life from the first Federal issuance of particles of land to the American Indians to present conditions on the reservations. (AH)

  17. Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  18. Indian Education in the American Colonies, 1607-1783.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    Indian schooling in colonial America was continuously immersed in the exchange between cultures that involved religion, land ownership, disease, alcohol, and warfare, and was molded by trade in furs and hides, and Indian slaves. In the past two decades American scholars have begun to reinterpret colonial North American Indian history and the…

  19. General Historical Survey of Federal Indian Policies. Chapter II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockman, W. H.

    This paper summarizes the history of North America, especially of the United States, from the earliest explorations and settlements through the present. Emphasis is placed on the Europeans' effect on American Indian life and the inadequate development of Indian education. Comparisons are made between the various colonizers' Indian policies before…

  20. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu

  1. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part XII: The Basin-Plateau Tribes (cont'd.). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XII, is a continuation of the publication on Basin-Plateau Indian groups: the Ely Indian Colony and Reno-Sparks Indian Colony of…

  2. The Sky Clears; Poetry of the American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, A. Grove

    More than 200 authentic poems and lyrics of North American Indians are compiled in this anthology. The poetry was translated from tribal languages into English over the past 100 years by students of Indian language, lore, and life. The poems, taken from about 40 North American tribes, include songs of Eskimos of the Arctic coasts, totem-pole…

  3. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  4. Indian Sports Nicknames/Logos: Affective Difference between American Indian and Non-Indian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocque, Angela R.; McDonald, J. Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2011-01-01

    The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed the…

  5. 76 FR 11494 - List of Recipients of Indian Health Scholarships Under the Indian Health Scholarship Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Health Sciences Center, Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma Battese, Anthony Steven, Northeastern State University... Oklahoma Beck, Dustin Ryan, Oklahoma State University, Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma Begay, Lisa, Arizona... Band of Chippewa Indians of North Dakota Bighorse, Amanda Nicole, Oklahoma State University,...

  6. Casting Footprints for Eternity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

  7. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.

  8. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  9. Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

  10. Secular Trends in Menarcheal Age in India-Evidence from the Indian Human Development Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Tripathi, Niharika; Subramanian, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified. Methods We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15–49 years) in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey. Results The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77) in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85) among women born prior to 1955–1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67) among women born during late 1985–1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955–1964 (95% CI: 14.89–15.11) to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63–12.56) during 1985–1989. Conclusion The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women. PMID:25369507

  11. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH MOLTEN METAL BEING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH MOLTEN METAL BEING POURED OUT OF THE CUPOLA INTO THE POURING LADLE. FROM THE POURING LADLE, THE IRON IS LATER POURED INTO A TRANSFER LADLE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE CASTING MACHINES. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Mutualistic interactions between granivorous heteromyid rodents and a preferred food resource, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Granivorous heteromyid rodent species and Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) are both widely distributed throughout North American deserts. The vast majority (~95%) of Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment occurs from seed clusters cached in shallowly-buried scatterhoards by heteromyids, espe...

  13. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  14. INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE OPERATOR SPRAYING A POWDER TO HELP SOLIDIFY THE PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  16. Casting in Sport

    PubMed Central

    DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the “least hard” of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558257

  17. Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Cysts in North Indian Patients: Identification of G1, G3, G5 and G6 Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Monika; Sehgal, Rakesh; Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Malhotra, Anil; Malla, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the Echinococcus granulosus, is a major public health problem worldwide, including India. The different genotypes of E. granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis have been reported from endemic areas throughout the world. However, the genetic characterization of E. granulosus infecting the human population in India is lacking. The aim of study was to ascertain the genotype(s) of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in North India. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the transmission patterns of E. granulosus, genotypic analysis was performed on hydatid cysts obtained from 32 cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients residing in 7 different states of North India. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (cox1) sequencing was done for molecular identification of the isolates. Most of the CE patients (30/32) were found to be infected with hydatid cyst of either G3 (53.1%) or G1 (40.62%) genotype and one each of G5 (cattle strain) and G6 (camel strain) genotype. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate the zoonotic potential of G1 (sheep strain) and G3 (buffalo strain) genotypes of E. granulosus as these emerged as predominant genotypes infecting the humans in India. In addition to this, the present study reports the first human CE case infected with G5 genotype (cattle strain) in an Asian country and presence of G6 genotype (camel strain) in India. The results may have important implications in the planning of control strategies for human hydatidosis. PMID:23785531

  18. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  19. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  20. Comparison of transradial and transfemoral artery approach for percutaneous coronary angiography and angioplasty: A retrospective seven-year experience from a north Indian center

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Satyendra; Sharma, Naveen; Kapoor, Aditya; Syal, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Sudeep; Garg, Naveen; Goel, Pravin K.

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary artery procedures have become even more important. Our study has compared transradial to transfemoral artery approach for coronary procedures in Indian population. Aims and objective Comparison of transradial and transfemoral artery approach for percutaneous coronary procedures. Material & methods 26,238 patients, who underwent percutaneous coronary artery procedures, were divided into two groups depending upon transradial and transfemoral artery approach and compared for the various demographic and clinical characteristics, risk factors profile, vascular access and procedural details. Results 26,238 patients underwent percutaneous coronary procedures at our center. 81% were male and 19% were female. 55.65% and 44.35% procedures were done through transfemoral and transradial approach, respectively. 17,417 (66.38%) coronary angiographies were done, out of which 53.92% were transradial and 46.08% were transfemoral procedures. 8821 (33.62%) Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) were done, out of which 25.46% and 74.54% were done through transradial and transfemoral approach, respectively. Mean fluoroscopy time was 4.40 ± 3.55 min for transradial and 3.30 ± 3.66 min for transfemoral CAG (p < 0.001). For PTCA mean fluoroscopy time was 13.53 ± 2.53 min for transradial and 12.61 ± 9.524 min for transfemoral PTCA (p < 0.001). Minor and major procedure related complications and total duration of hospital stay were lower in transradial as compared to transfemoral group. Conclusion The number of percutaneous transradial procedures have increased significantly with reduced complication rates and comparable success rate to transfemoral approach, along with the additional benefits to patient in terms of patient comfort, preference and reduced cost of health delivery. PMID:23992998

  1. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  2. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  3. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  4. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  5. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves. PMID:27079921

  6. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  7. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, J V; Behera, Swadhin K; Ratna, Satyaban B; Rajeevan, M; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves. PMID:27079921

  8. (Continuous casting 1985)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, R.A.

    1985-06-12

    The report covers the Continuous Casting '85 Conference including informal discussions with conference attendees. In general, the papers presented at the conference concerned an overview of continuous steel casting worldwide, state-of-the-art aspects of steel continuous casting technology including caster startup problems, modifications, control system strategies, energy use profiles, quality control aspects, steel chemistry control, refractories, operational aspects of continuous casters, etc. No papers were presented in the development of thin section or thin strip casting of steel. Informal discussions were held with several conference attendees including (1) Bernard Trentini, Executive Director of the Association Technique De La Siderurgie Francaise in Paris, France (similar to the American Iron and Steel Institute); (2) Dr. Wolfgang Reichelt and Dr. Peter Voss-Spilker both of Mannesmann Demag Huttentechnik -a continuous casting and other steel making machine builder in-lieu of meeting at their plant in Duisburg, FRG on May 31; (3) Ewan C. Hewitt of Devote McKee Corp., Sheffield, England; (4) Wilfried Heinemann, head of R D Dept. at Concast Standard AG in Zurich, Switzerland; and (5) Hideo Ueno, engineer of melting section, Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. Co. Ltd, Tokyo Japan. A visit was made to the Teesside Laboratories of British Steel Corp. for discussions of their thin section casting research program in particular and R D program in general.

  9. A Winning Cast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

  10. Indian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…