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1

Independent origins of Indian caste and tribal paternal lineages.  

PubMed

The origins of the nearly one billion people inhabiting the Indian subcontinent and following the customs of the Hindu caste system are controversial: are they largely derived from Indian local populations (i.e. tribal groups) or from recent immigrants to India? Archaeological and linguistic evidence support the latter hypothesis, whereas recent genetic data seem to favor the former hypothesis. Here, we analyze the most extensive dataset of Indian caste and tribal Y chromosomes to date. We find that caste and tribal groups differ significantly in their haplogroup frequency distributions; caste groups are homogeneous for Y chromosome variation and more closely related to each other and to central Asian groups than to Indian tribal or any other Eurasian groups. We conclude that paternal lineages of Indian caste groups are primarily descended from Indo-European speakers who migrated from central Asia approximately 3,500 years ago. Conversely, paternal lineages of tribal groups are predominantly derived from the original Indian gene pool. We also provide evidence for bidirectional male gene flow between caste and tribal groups. In comparison, caste and tribal groups are homogeneous with respect to mitochondrial DNA variation, which may reflect the sociocultural characteristics of the Indian caste society. PMID:14761656

Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S M; Stoneking, Mark

2004-02-01

2

Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.  

PubMed

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups. PMID:19341319

Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

2008-10-01

3

Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations.  

PubMed

The origins and affinities of the approximately 1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in approximately 265 males from eight castes of different rank to approximately 750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%-30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (approximately 600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated that the upper castes have a higher affinity to Europeans than to Asians, and the upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are the lower castes. Collectively, all five datasets show a trend toward upper castes being more similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more similar to Asians. We conclude that Indian castes are most likely to be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities of castes to Asians and Europeans. PMID:11381027

Bamshad, M; Kivisild, T; Watkins, W S; Dixon, M E; Ricker, C E; Rao, B B; Naidu, J M; Prasad, B V; Reddy, P G; Rasanayagam, A; Papiha, S S; Villems, R; Redd, A J; Hammer, M F; Nguyen, S V; Carroll, M L; Batzer, M A; Jorde, L B

2001-06-01

4

Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic structure, affinities, and diversity of the 1 billion Indians hold important keys to numerous unanswered questions regarding the evolution of human populations and the forces shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Although there have been several recent studies of South Indian caste groups, North Indian caste groups, and South Indian Muslims using Y-chromosomal markers, overall, the Indian population has still not been well studied compared to other geographical populations. In particular, no genetic study has been conducted on Shias and Sunnis from North India. Aim This study aims to investigate genetic variation and the gene pool in North Indians. Subjects and methods A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped. Results Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only. Conclusion The results revealed that a substantial part of today’s North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history. PMID:19058044

Zhao, Zhongming; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha

2009-01-01

5

HLA-B27 allele diversity in Indians: impact of ethnic origin and the caste system.  

PubMed

HLA-B27 is a serological specificity which encompasses an increasing number of subtypes that show varied racial/ethnic prevalence in the world. Here, data from 5129 Indians (4500 population and caste; 629 tribal) is compiled from the literature. In addition, HLA-B27 subtyping of 58 positive individuals from Maharastra is presented. Analysis revealed an increased B27 antigen frequency among the north Indian groups (>5%) compared to the south Indian groups (<5%). HLA-B27 subtyping identified B*2704 (34.48%), B*2705 (36.2%), B*2707 (15.51%), B*2708 (10.34%) and B*2714 (3.44%) alleles in the population groups from Maharastra, but these differed in their distribution among the caste and tribal groups studied. The study showed that more extensive subtyping in other Indian caste groups will be necessary to resolve the evolutionary implications of HLA-B27 subtypes and their relationship to disease association in the Indian context. PMID:14725340

Shankarkumar, U

2003-01-01

6

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

E-print Network

. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (?600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated... subcontinent (Mountain et al. 1995; Kivisild et al. 1999) and to ?350 Africans, Asians, and Europeans (Jorde et al. 1995, 2000; Seielstad et al. 1999). RESULTS Analysis of mtDNA Suggests a Proto-Asian Origin of Indians MtDNA HVR1 genetic distances between caste...

Bamshad, Michael; Kivisild, Toomas; Watkins, W. Scott; Dixon, Mary E.; Ricker, Chris E.; Rao, Baskara B.; Naidu, J. Mastan; Prasad, B. V. Ravi; Reddy, P. Govinda; Rasanayagam, Arani; Papiha, Surinder S.; Villems, Richard; Redd, Alan J.; Hammer, Michael F.; Nguyen, Son V.; Carroll, Marion L.; Batzer, Mark A.; Jorde, Lynn B.

2001-11-01

7

126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

8

Indian Studies at the University of North Dakota  

E-print Network

Indian Studies at the University of North Dakota Gregory Gagnon Indian Studies at the University of North Dakota has similarities with many other Native American Programs. The Department began in the 1970s as a response to demands by students... of North Dakota become the primary vehicle for meeting the needs of American Indian students within the state. University planners decided to have an academic department rather than following the Indian Studies Program model that so many colleges chose...

Gagnon, Gregory

2002-03-01

9

Traditional occupations and nutritional adaptation among Central Indian caste populations.  

PubMed

The socioeconomic milieu has benefits and drawbacks for determining level of nutrition. The Indian population provides an excellent example of nutrition-driven adaptation. The present paper deals with the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and traditional occupation and process of adaptation among adult males of Central India. Anthropometric data collected by the Anthropological Survey of India on stature, sitting height and weight of 6663 adult males belonging to 22 castes were used for computation of BMI and Cormic index. The caste groups earning their living as labourers are found to be shortest (157.4+/-6.5 cm), and the caste group practising priesthood are tallest (168.6+/-6.6 cm). The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency is found to be highest (72%) among castes earning their living as daily wage labourers. The ANOVA on Cormic index and BMI suggests that people within the same occupational group are more homogeneous than those from different occupational groups. The t test also supports the homogeneity of the same occupational group. PMID:18088450

Gautam, Rajesh K

2008-09-01

10

Edward S. Curtis's The North American Indian  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over half a century since his death, Edward S. Curtis's photographs of Native Americans remain tremendously popular, and in some quarters, quite controversial. One of his most notable projects was his limited edition volume, "The North American Indian". Produced with the financial assistance of J.P. Morgan, this limited edition publication contained over 2000 photogravure plates and narrative descriptions. Curtis's intent was to document "the old time Indian, his dress, his ceremonies, his life and manners." The American Memory Project at the Library of Congress has done a tremendous job of digitizing this massive volume, and they have placed it online here for the general public. Visitors can search the volume by keyword, or browse its contents by subject, American Indian tribe, or geographic location. The site is rounded out by a special essay presentation titled "Edward S. Curtis in Context" which gives visitors a nice profile of Curtis, his legacy, and his contributions to ethnography.

11

Learning Aids for North American Indian Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Native American Studies Department at the University of California - Davis has made available Learning Aids for North American Indian Languages, a resource offering "information on published and 'semi-published' teaching and general reference materials for North American Indian languages or groups of languages." It is a page of pointers to citations for dictionaries, descriptive grammars, pedagogic materials collections of bilingual narratives, and tapes, among others. This large resource is arranged alphabetically by language group, and also contains many cross references. Over 100 language groups are included, from Abenaki to Yukon languages. Citations contain bibliographic information and are thoroughly annotated. Learning Aids has been compiled from the "Society of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas Newsletter."

12

Genetic variation in South Indian castes: evidence from Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal polymorphisms  

PubMed Central

Background Major population movements, social structure, and caste endogamy have influenced the genetic structure of Indian populations. An understanding of these influences is increasingly important as gene mapping and case-control studies are initiated in South Indian populations. Results We report new data on 155 individuals from four Tamil caste populations of South India and perform comparative analyses with caste populations from the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. Genetic differentiation among Tamil castes is low (RST = 0.96% for 45 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers), reflecting a largely common origin. Nonetheless, caste- and continent-specific patterns are evident. For 32 lineage-defining Y-chromosome SNPs, Tamil castes show higher affinity to Europeans than to eastern Asians, and genetic distance estimates to the Europeans are ordered by caste rank. For 32 lineage-defining mitochondrial SNPs and hypervariable sequence (HVS) 1, Tamil castes have higher affinity to eastern Asians than to Europeans. For 45 autosomal STRs, upper and middle rank castes show higher affinity to Europeans than do lower rank castes from either Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh. Local between-caste variation (Tamil Nadu RST = 0.96%, Andhra Pradesh RST = 0.77%) exceeds the estimate of variation between these geographically separated groups (RST = 0.12%). Low, but statistically significant, correlations between caste rank distance and genetic distance are demonstrated for Tamil castes using Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal data. Conclusion Genetic data from Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and autosomal STRs are in accord with historical accounts of northwest to southeast population movements in India. The influence of ancient and historical population movements and caste social structure can be detected and replicated in South Indian caste populations from two different geographic regions. PMID:19077280

Watkins, WS; Thara, R; Mowry, BJ; Zhang, Y; Witherspoon, DJ; Tolpinrud, W; Bamshad, MJ; Tirupati, S; Padmavati, R; Smith, H; Nancarrow, D; Filippich, C; Jorde, LB

2008-01-01

13

NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, WITH BLOWER HOUSE TO THE EAST AND CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE TO THE WEST, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

14

Intersocietal Relationships by Evolutionary Levels among North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extends use of evolutionary theory in understanding developmental processes within societies for examining patterns occuring between societies. Emphasizes North American Indian situations. Examines four degrees of intersocietal integration: first contact, low, medium and high. (MH)

Price, John A.

1983-01-01

15

HLA DRB1* and DQB1* allelic diversity among Nadars: a primitive south Indian Dravidian caste group.  

PubMed

South India is one of the oldest geophysical regions occupied mainly by Dravidian language-speaking people. In the present study, 84 unrelated healthy Nadar individuals from Tamil Nadu State were analyzed for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1* and DQB1* allele frequencies and their haplotype frequencies were analyzed by high resolution polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-typing of genomic DNA. Results revealed that Nadars possessed >0.1 allele frequencies of HLA DRB1*15011, 03, 04, 1404, 0701, 1001, and DQB1*0201, 03, 0501, and 0503. The highest frequencies of DRB1*0317 (0.048), DRB1*1317 (0.012), and DRB1*1404 (0.107) in the world were found among the Nadar caste. The most frequent two-locus haplotypes identified among the Nadars were DRB1*0701-DQB1*0201 and DRB1*1000-DQB1*0501, and DRB1*1404-DQB1*0503 and DRB1*15011-DQB1*0601. When compared with world populations, HLA DRB1*1322, DRB1*1434, and DQB1*0614 were identified exclusively among Nadars. The heterozygosity and Watterson's homozygosity tests indicated that balancing selection still operates among the South Indian caste groups. The hierarchical cluster analysis for DRB1 data from the Indian caste and population groups showed that the Nadars cluster with Kashmir Brahmins and North Indians. The present study shows that the Nadar caste has several unique alleles and haplotypes at high frequency that are rare or absent in other populations of India and the world. PMID:15336786

Shankarkumar, Umapathy; Sridharan, Balakrisnan

2004-08-01

16

The Political Economy of North American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

Moore, John H., Ed.

17

Food preferences of Cherokee Indian teenagers in Cherokee, North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food preferences of 257 Cherokee Indian teenagers living on tribal lands in Cherokee, North Carolina, were assessed. Differences between the sexes and body fat classes were also examined. There was a high preference for high fat foods and fried foods and a low preference for desserts and sugared foods. Males preferred a greater variety of foods than females, particularly for

Mary Story; Mary Ann Bass; Lucille Wakefield

1986-01-01

18

First on the Land: The North Carolina Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for students at the secondary level, this book details the historical development (10,000 B.C. to the present) of the 3 American Indian linguistic groups located in the 4 geographical areas of North Carolina (the Algonquians on the coast, the Iroquoians, including the Tuscarora on the coastal plain and the Cherokee in the mountains, and…

Wetmore, Ruth Y.

19

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

PubMed Central

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools. PMID:12536373

Kivisild, T.; Rootsi, S.; Metspalu, M.; Mastana, S.; Kaldma, K.; Parik, J.; Metspalu, E.; Adojaan, M.; Tolk, H.-V.; Stepanov, V.; Gölge, M.; Usanga, E.; Papiha, S. S.; Cinnio?lu, C.; King, R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.; Underhill, P. A.; Villems, R.

2003-01-01

20

The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N

T. Kivisild; S. Rootsi; M. Metspalu; S. Mastana; K. Kaldma; J. Parik; E. Metspalu; M. Adojaan; H.-V. Tolk; V. Stepanov; M. Gölge; E. Usanga; S. S. Papiha; C. Cinnio?lu; R. King; L. Cavalli-Sforza; P. A. Underhill; R. Villems

2003-01-01

21

Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System  

PubMed Central

Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4–6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India. PMID:23209694

Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R. Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G.; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

2012-01-01

22

Population differentiation of southern Indian male lineages correlates with agricultural expansions predating the caste system.  

PubMed

Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10-30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4-6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India. PMID:23209694

Arunkumar, Ganeshprasad; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Kavitha, Valampuri John; Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S; Royyuru, Ajay K; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

2012-01-01

23

C. Szwedzicki: The North American Indian Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Cincinnati Libraries has compiled a digitized collection of work by 20th Century American Indian artists that was originally published from the years 1929 to 1953 in Nice, France. The digitized collection is composed of 364 images and six texts. There are a few ways to search or browse the collection, including utilizing an introductory essay written by Janet Catherine Berlo, Professor of Art History and Visual and Cultural Studies at the University of Rochester, New York. In addition to providing an excellent introduction, the "essay includes links to images and can be used as a navigational tool to the collection." On the left hand side of the page two additional viewers visitors can use to browse the collection, the "Insight Browser" and the "Insight Java Client". The former is a basic viewer, and the latter is a more advanced viewer which requires a one-time download. Both have a "Click Here For Details and Help" link below their description, for those visitors who may need further assistance. Many of the images in the collection are of people and activities, depicted in bright colors, but there is also a set of images of ceramic jars and canteens that show the many patterns in which they were decorated. Important images and documentation of the Battle of the Little Big Horn can also be found within the collection, in the reproductions of the now lost ledger art of Amos Bad Heart Bull.

24

Determination of stature from cephalo-facial dimensions in a North Indian population.  

PubMed

A forensic medicine specialist, while a conducting medico-legal autopsy, is often asked to opine about the identity of the deceased in unknown fragmentary and dismembered remains. Determination of stature is an important aspect in establishing identity in such cases. Sometimes, cephalo-facial remains are brought for postmortem and forensic examination. The aim of the present study was to estimate the stature from cephalo-facial dimensions in a sample of 252 Koli male adolescents from North India. As a part of Indian caste system, Kolis are an endogamous group of North India. Along with stature, sixteen cephalo-facial measurements were taken on each subject. The findings suggest that all the cephalo-facial measurements are significantly correlated with stature (P<0.001, P<0.01); the measurements of the cephalic region have strong correlation with stature than those of the facial region. This was also supported by the regression analysis, which shows that the cephalic measurements give better prediction of stature. Reliability of the regression formulae was checked by comparing the estimated and actual stature within the same sample (genetically homogeneous population, n=252) and in another sample taken from a mixed population of North India (genetically heterogeneous population, n=90). PMID:17306595

Krishan, Kewal; Kumar, Raj

2007-05-01

25

Prevalence of taurodontism in the North Indian population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Taurodontism affects primarily molars and premolars in both the deciduous and permanent dentition. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of taurodontism in the North Indian population. Study Design: 4143 patients were studied by analyzing the panoramic radiographs for the presence of taurodontism which is defined as the presence of an apically displaced pulp chamber and the tooth lacks the usual constriction at the cementoenamel junction. The age of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. Results: Taurodontism was found in 17 patients with a prevalence of 0.4% of which 0.21% were males and 0.19% females. Taurodonts were significantly more common in the maxilla (65.6%) than in the mandible (34.4%) (p<0.05) and the maxillary second molar (34.4%) was the most commonly involved tooth. According to the morphology hypotaurodonts were most common (75%) but there was no significant difference in males and females (p>0.05). Conclusion: Taurodontism is relatively uncommon in the North Indian population. Further large scale studies need to be carried out to assess its prevalence in the general population. A family history of other anomalies should also be considered for affected patients. Key words:Taurodontism, prevalence, maxillary second molar. PMID:24455077

Doni, Bharati; Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan

2013-01-01

26

Response of tropical cyclone potential intensity over the north Indian Ocean to global warming  

E-print Network

Response of tropical cyclone potential intensity over the north Indian Ocean to global warming the background PI is already high and the potentially longer TC season in response to global warming due of tropical cyclone potential intensity over the north Indian Ocean to global warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36

Wang, Yuqing

27

Extended Prediction of North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones using the ECMWF Variable Ensemble Prediction System  

E-print Network

Extended Prediction of North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones using the ECMWF Variable Ensemble Ensemble Prediction System (VarEPS) for tropical cyclones (TCs) in the3 North Indian Ocean including: tropical cyclone genesis, pre-genesis and post-genesis track and4 intensity projections, and regional

Webster, Peter J.

28

Development of a regional model for the North Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a one-way nested Indian Ocean regional model. The model combines the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model (MOM4p1) at global climate model resolution (nominally one degree), and a regional Indian Ocean MOM4p1 configuration with 25 km horizontal resolution and 1 m vertical resolution near the surface. Inter-annual global simulations with Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II) surface forcing over years 1992-2005 provide surface boundary conditions. We show that relative to the global simulation, (i) biases in upper ocean temperature, salinity and mixed layer depth are reduced, (ii) sea surface height and upper ocean circulation are closer to observations, and (iii) improvements in model simulation can be attributed to refined resolution, more realistic topography and inclusion of seasonal river runoff. Notably, the surface salinity bias is reduced to less than 0.1 psu over the Bay of Bengal using relatively weak restoring to observations, and the model simulates the strong, shallow halocline often observed in the North Bay of Bengal. There is marked improvement in subsurface salinity and temperature, as well as mixed layer depth in the Bay of Bengal. Major seasonal signatures in observed sea surface height anomaly in the tropical Indian Ocean, including the coastal waveguide around the Indian peninsula, are simulated with great fidelity. The use of realistic topography and seasonal river runoff brings the three dimensional structure of the East India Coastal Current and West India Coastal Current much closer to observations. As a result, the incursion of low salinity Bay of Bengal water into the south-eastern Arabian Sea is more realistic.

Rahaman, Hasibur; Ravichandran, M.; Sengupta, Debasis; Harrison, Matthew J.; Griffies, Stephen M.

2014-03-01

29

The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system.  

PubMed

Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has contributed to the higher castes in India. Y-haplogroup R1a1* has a widespread distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup R1a1* in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group. Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins. However, it is important to discover novel Y-chromosomal binary marker(s) for a higher resolution of R1a1* and confirm the present conclusions. PMID:19158816

Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Prithviraj; Jena, Mamata; Singh, Shweta; Darvishi, Katayoon; Bhat, Audesh K; Bhanwer, A J S; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

2009-01-01

30

Palatal rugae in population differentiation between South and North Indians: A discriminant function analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim: The present study is aimed at delineation of different types of rugae in two different populations and developing a discriminant function for the same. Materials and Methods: A total of 940 subjects were included in the present study. The sample consisted of 466 subjects from South Indian population and 474 from North Indian population in the age group of 18-23 years. Neo colloid Easy flow(™) alginate impressions of maxillary arch were made and casts were immediately poured with Type IV dental stone. A sharp graphite pencil was used to delineate the rugae and patterns were recorded according to the classification given by Kapali et al. The association between different population and different sexes was analyzed with chi-square test and a stepwise discriminant function analysis was also performed to develop a discriminant formula. Results: Wavy, curved and straight rugae were the most common forms in both groups. Chi-square analysis for association between rugae shape and population groups showed significant differences among all the rugae patterns at the P < 5%. Chi-square analysis for assessing sex differences in the rugae shapes showed significant difference in straight, unification and circular type. Five rugae shapes – curved, wavy, nonspecific, unification and circular – were selected for discriminant function. Conclusion: The discriminant function equation obtained from the different rugae shapes in the present study was highly accurate enough to distinguish the Southern and Northern Indian population with the classification accuracy of 87.8%. Thus to identify a specific population, separate discriminant function formulae have to be developed. Hence, the study of palatal rugae is one of the simple and reliable tools for population identification in forensic science. PMID:23741146

Shanmugam, Shankar; Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Shaikh, Hidayathulla; Murali, Kruthika; Suresan, Vinay; Nisharudeen, Khaja; Brinda Devi, Sulur Pechimuthu; Rajasundaram, Prakash

2012-01-01

31

On the relationship between Indian Ocean Dipole-Indian Summer Monsoon and Summer North Atlantic Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using 60 years of observed and re-analysis data sets a link between positive Indian Ocean dipole (PIOD), Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and Summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO) is proposed. When positive IOD years occur independently without Elnino the presence of positive phase of SNAO is noticed. In such cases over the Atlantic region the centers of action associated with SNAO is shifted northward leading to the change in the mean position of Atlantic jet and storm tracks. Persistence of storm tracks at the new location amounts to a stationary waves, which have a barotropic structure in the vertical. Therefore, the temperature anomalies associated with the stationary wave influences the Tropospheric Temperature (TT), which is clearly seen in the average TT anomaly, showing warming over southern Eurasia and India. This affects the north-south TT gradient in the monsoon region and influences the ISM (Goswami et al., 2006). Concurrently the local Hadley cell associated with PIOD strengthens and enhances the anomalous subsidence over the Mediterranean/Sahara region which in turn strengthens the Azores high and the hence the SNAO itself. Thus the combined influence of PIOD and SNAO produces a positive feed back mechanism for ISM. On the other hand most of the PIOD years co-occurring with Elnino years are accompanied by the negative phase of SNAO. The analysis of the atmospheric circulation clearly indicates the Pacific North American (PNA) type pattern, which negatively influence the SNAO (Huang et al., 1998). This is consistent with the observation that ISM is not enhanced in all PIOD years. The analysis of 60 years historic sea surface temperature runs with the high resolution atmospheric model shows that the model is able to reproduce these teleconnections.

Sundaram, S.; Stenchikov, G. L.

2013-12-01

32

Role of south Indian Ocean swells in modulating the north Indian Ocean wave climate through modelling and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementation and validation of a third generation wave model, Wavewatch III was used to study the characteristics of the south Indian ocean swells and their propagation in the north Indian Ocean. The NCEP reanalysis wind data (2.5° x 2.5°) has been used to generate the wind waves for the entire Indian Ocean during 2006 - 2007. The modelled wave parameters have been compared with measured buoy data and with merged altimeter data. The model results show good agreement with the buoy and altimeter data. A case study is carried out to study the propagation of the swells generated at the roaring 40°S in the Indian Ocean during May 2007. The "southern swell" occurred during May 2007 has been successfully reproduced in the wave model, which confirmed by the comparison of modelled significant wave heights with the merged altimeter significant wave heights. These swells were generated in the Atlantic ocean near the southern tip of South Africa and propagated towards the north Indian Ocean. These waves touches the Madagascar region and further hits the La Reunion islands after three days thus creating numerous damages near the islands. The magnitude of the swell is around 15m near the generation area and it reduces to around 6m near the La Reunion islands while propagating towards the north Indian Ocean. Further the swell energy is spataially distributed in the northern and southern Indian Ocean. The study reveals that the swells generated in the roaring forties and propagating in the SW/SSW direction influences more to Bay of Bengal than Arabian Sea. This occurs during pre-monsoon season primarily because large scale winds are weak in the north Indian Ocean during this period and hence swells from south Indian Ocean dominates at this time. The case of "southern swell" also happened to be at the same season. Further wave parameters were extracted at few locations in the northern Indian Ocean to study the impact of May 2007 swells on the wave climate. An average of around 1m wave height was noted at these locations during the normal period (in the absence of swells) whereas during the swell propagation, an increment of 1 to 2m was observed in the wave height. A constant wave height of 2m was observed at a point extracted in mid Bay of Bengal during the swell propagation. After the swells are completely dissipated, the wave heights are reduced back to 1m. The results presented in this paper prove that the propagation of the swells in the Indian Ocean coming from oceans other than Indian Ocean can be very well studied using the wind wave model.

Samiksha, S. V.; Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V. M.; Rashmi, R.

2012-04-01

33

Modelling the influence of North Atlantic multidecadal warmth on the Indian summer rainfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensemble experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model reveal that a positive (warm) ocean phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) increases Indian summer rainfall. The intensification is driven by extratropical North Atlantic warmth, with some cancellation associated with monsoon weakening in response to tropical North Atlantic warmth. Mechanistically, warm extratropical North Atlantic SSTs increase local rainfall, inducing an arching

Shuanglin Li; Judith Perlwitz; Xiaowei Quan; Martin P. Hoerling

2008-01-01

34

Effects of premolar extractions on Bolton overall ratios and tooth-size discrepancies in a north Indian population  

PubMed Central

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Bolton overall ratio in a north Indian population reporting for orthodontic treatment and to determine the effect of extractions on the Bolton ratios. Another aim of the study was to check the effects of different extraction patterns on the final Bolton ratio. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty pre-treatment dental casts (60 males and 60 females) of orthodontic patients were selected randomly. Mesio-distal dimensions of the mandibular and maxillary teeth were measured before treatment, and subjected to Bolton analysis. Hypothetical tooth extraction by the following combinations: All the first premolars, all the second premolars, upper first and lower second premolars and upper second and lower first premolars were performed for each patient. The measurement results were again subjected to Bolton analysis to see whether any tooth-size discrepancy had been created. Results and Conclusion: The tooth material ratio of the studied north Indian population shows a mild maxillary tooth material excess. Extraction of premolars in any combination causes the maxillary tooth material to further increase. There is no significant sex difference in the tooth material ratios with or without extractions. In patients requiring extraction; all first premolar extraction or maxillary first and mandibular second premolar extraction should be preferred. For deciding a treatment plan involving extraction of teeth, we need to consider that the maxillary tooth mass may increase after extraction. Furthermore, the normal or the clinically significant tooth size discrepancies may change following extraction of teeth. PMID:24987639

Kumar, Piush; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Pragya; Sharma, Payal; Sharma, Rakesh

2013-01-01

35

CAST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

36

CAST  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) was formed in 1972 as a result of a meeting sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council. CAST's mission is to "assemble, interpret, and communicate credible science-based information regionally, nationally, and internationally to legislators, regulators, policymakers, the media, the private sector and the public." Visitors will find the Education tab near the top of the page to be particularly helpful for those who want to pursue agricultural careers or learn about agricultural education, such as 4-H or Future Farmers of America. The CAST Videos section has a number of PowerPoint presentations on current topics of importance in agriculture, such as "The Science and Regulation of Food from Genetically Engineered Animals," "Food Safety and Fresh Produce," and "Probiotics in Human Health." A number of the papers that accompany the PowerPoint presentations are available for free.

2012-02-03

37

Molecular Variability in North Indian Isolates of Cylindrocladium quinquieseptatum Causing Eucalyptus Leaf and Seedling Blight.  

PubMed

Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum has been considered as the most destructive pathogen of Eucalyptus nurseries and plantations in north India. Genetic resistance has not been determined against this disease in Eucalyptus and genetic diversity among the fungal population in northern India is not known. Seventy three isolates from infected leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus were collected from different northern Indian state and analyzed through RAPD-PCR for screening genetic diversity. The UPGMA cluster analysis score of 284 loci permitted identification of 11 population lines and an outlier. This molecular variability prevalent among the north Indian population of the pathogen can used in identifying Cylindrocladium leaf and seedling blight resistant Eucalyptus germplasm. PMID:23729872

Mohanty, Partha Sarathi; Pandey, Amit; Arya, Pooja; Harsh, N S K

2012-06-01

38

Extended Predictions of North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones James I. Belanger*, Peter J. Webster, and Judith A. Curry  

E-print Network

Extended Predictions of North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones James I. Belanger*, Peter J. WebsterEPS) for tropical cyclones (TCs) in the3 North Indian Ocean (NIO) including: tropical cyclone genesis, pre-genesis and post-genesis track4 and intensity projections, and regional outlooks of tropical cyclone activity

Webster, Peter J.

39

A Critical Bibliography on North American Indians, for K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography is a response to teachers' concerns about choosing culturally sensitive and historically accurate books about American Indians and Alaska Natives. It contains critical annotations and evaluations of approximately 1,000 books, most published 1960-93, and points out controversial titles and disagreements about specific…

Kaupp, P. Ann, Comp.; Burnett, Fiona, Comp.; Malloy, Maureen, Comp.; Wilson, Cheryl, Comp.

40

Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies Camilla Mathison a,  

E-print Network

Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies Camilla Mathison a, , Andrew Available online xxxx Keywords: Monsoon Climate Regional Models Ganges Brahmaputra Adaptation means that adaptation to a changing climate will be a necessity around the world in the next few decades

Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

41

Materials on Indians of North America. An Annotated List for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to present a variety of effective literary approaches and to facilitate an appreciation of the North Anerican Indian in the development of our civilization, this annotated list was compiled and arranged by broad cultural area classification. Some 86 citations of materials published between 1931 and 1970 are listed under the following…

Cooperative Children's Book Center, Madison, WI.

42

North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch–South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar

Hendrik M. van Aken; Herman Ridderinkhof; Wilhelmus P. M. de Ruijter

2004-01-01

43

North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch-South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar

Hendrik M. van Akena

44

The effects of migration on the establishment of networks: caste disintegration and reformation among the Indians of Fiji.  

PubMed

"This article focuses on how migration auspices affect the formation of migrant networks and ethnic communities. Using ethnographic data and migration histories to focus on caste ¿reformation' in the subcommunities of the Indians of Fiji, the ability to reestablish and maintain subcaste group ¿extensions' in Fiji is shown as directly related to the migration auspices that originally established the community. By determining the characteristics of migrants, the reason for migrating, and the magnitude and duration of migration streams, migration auspices define a migration type. This migration type affects the strength and density of social ties present in migration streams. It also affects the strength and density of network ties that members of a migrant community can establish in a receiving society." PMID:12293998

Grieco, E M

1998-01-01

45

Implications of the deep circulation and ventilation of the Indian Ocean on the renewal mechanism of North Atlantic Deep Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Indian Ocean sector of the ``great ocean conveyor'' scheme the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) replacement is realized by the transformation of the sinking Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the Southern Ocean to a prevailingly upward flow in the northern Indian Ocean. This water -mass transformation scenario has been studied by using hydrographic data including potential temperature, salinity,

Yuzhu You

2000-01-01

46

North Atlantic deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The circulation of deep water in the south-western Indian Ocean has been studied from hydrographic,observations and current measurements, obtained during the Dutch–South African Agulhas Current Sources Experiment programme, and from similar public data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. The three major water masses involved are the saline North Atlantic deep water (NADW), its derivative in the Antarctic circumpolar

Hendrik M. Van Aken; Herman Ridderinkhof; Wilhelmus P. m. De Ruijter

47

Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.  

PubMed

Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes. PMID:22633462

Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

2013-12-01

48

How the North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation may have influenced the Indian summer monsoon during the past two millennia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations have indicated that the North Atlantic SST variations have persistent effects on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall at multidecadal and longer timescales. The question of how such influences may have been achieved is addressed in this study using both instrumentation data of the 20th century and proxy records of the last 2000 years. Major results show that the North

Song Feng; Qi Hu

2008-01-01

49

Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians.  

PubMed Central

Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average (mean +/- SD) level of lead (expressed as the ratio of atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 +/- 4.4 x 10(-7)), which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 x 10(-7)) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 x 10(-7]. The adjusted average concentrations (microgram per gram dry weight) of biologic cadmium, silver, and zinc in the Pecos Indian bones were 0.032 +/- 0.013, 0.094 +/- 0.044, and 130 +/- 66, as compared to concentrations of 1.8, 0.01 to 0.44, and 75 to 170 in the bones of modern people, respectively. Therefore, cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations. PMID:1773793

Ericson, J E; Smith, D R; Flegal, A R

1991-01-01

50

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VII: The Indian Tribes of California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The publication, Part VII of a series, includes the charters, constitutions, articles of association or community organization, and by-laws of California Indians on 16 reservations and rancherias. Legal documents from the following groups are provided: Hoopa, Me-Wuk, and Paiute Indians; the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians; the Mission Creek…

Fay, George E., Comp.

51

Overweight and Obesity Among North American Indian Infants, Children, and Youth  

PubMed Central

The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults’ size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan. PMID:22378356

SCHELL, LAWRENCE M.; GALLO, MIA V.

2012-01-01

52

Extended Prediction of North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones James I. Belanger*, Peter J. Webster, Judith A. Curry, and Mark T. Jelinek  

E-print Network

Extended Prediction of North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones James I. Belanger*, Peter J. Webster Ensemble Prediction System (VarEPS) for tropical cyclones (TCs) in the3 North Indian Ocean (NIO) including: tropical cyclone genesis, pre-genesis and post-genesis track4 and intensity projections and regional

Webster, Peter J.

53

Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged 40…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

54

Divorce in a rural north Indian area: evidence from Himachali villages.  

PubMed

This study focuses on divorce patterns in 10 rural villages near Shimla town, the capital of Himachal Pradesh, India. Data were obtained from a survey conducted in 1988 among 338 ever married women. Most villagers are Hindus. Caste groups include Brahmins (13%), Rajputs (45%), and Sudras (42%). Indian divorce consists in a permanent separation without legal formalities or an informal process within the panchayat judicial system. Large national studies indicate low levels of divorce, while local anthropological studies indicate high levels in some areas. This study in 1988 indicates that over 17% of women (58 out of 338) in Himachal villages were divorced at least once. Evidence suggests that divorces by cohort were higher prior to 1960. About 30% of women who married during 1951-60, 13% of women who married during 1971-80, and 3% of women who married during 1981-88 were divorced at least once. The mean age of marriage for ever divorced women was much lower than for never divorced women. The mean age at divorce was also much lower than the mean age at marriage among never divorced women. The variables associated with divorce at the 0.05 level of significance were marriage age, level of female education, age difference of spouses, and level of education of spouse and caste. Women who married before the age of 13 years were three times more likely to divorce than women who married at ages 13-15 years. Women with at least 5 years of education were four times less likely to divorce than uneducated women. Brahmin women were less likely to divorce. Women with uneducated husbands had a 50% greater chance of being divorced than women with primary educated husbands. Women who were younger by 10 years than their spouse were six times more likely to divorce. PMID:12347820

Singh, M

1996-09-01

55

The relationship between the North Atlantic jet and tropical convection over the Indian and western Pacific Oceans  

E-print Network

of the CTP being opposite to that of the jet index suggest that relationships (1) and (3) may arise from coldThe relationship between the North Atlantic jet and tropical convection over the Indian and western, Beijing 100871, China E-mail: jiacan.yuan@gmail.com 1 #12;ABSTRACT Boreal winter jet variability over

Lee, Sukyoung

56

Native Agency and the Making of "The North American Indian": Alexander B. Upshaw and Edward S. Curtis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The twenty volumes of ethnographic text and pictorial photography and the twenty portfolios of large, finely printed photogravures that together comprise "The North American Indian" were the product of an extraordinary labor by Edward S. Curtis, an extensive and shifting team of co-workers, and the participation of hundreds of Native Americans. By…

Zamir, Shamoon

2007-01-01

57

Predicting wave heights in the north Indian Ocean using genetic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work reports the development of a nonlinear technique based on genetic algorithm (GA) for the prediction of wave heights in the north Indian Ocean. Time series observations of surface wind speed and significant wave height at three locations in the Arabian Sea (AS) and the Bay of Bengal (BOB) have been used for developing and testing the technique. The predictions have been compared with persistence forecasts and it has been found that the prediction by GA is always superior to persistence forecast and thus represents a net information gain. The predicted wave heights have been found to be consistent with the results obtained with autocorrelation analysis applied on the respective time series of wave heights.

Basu, Sujit; Sarkar, Abhijit; Satheesan, K.; Kishtawal, C. M.

2005-09-01

58

Assessment of groundwater quality data for the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, Rolette County, North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation relies on groundwater supplies to meet the demands of community and economic needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, examined historical groundwater-level and groundwater-quality data for the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Rolla, and Shell Valley aquifers. The two main sources of water-quality data for groundwater were the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database and the North Dakota State Water Commission database. Data included major ions, trace elements, nutrients, field properties, and physical properties. The Fox Hills and Hell Creek aquifers had few groundwater water-quality data. The lack of data limits any detailed assessments that can be made about these aquifers. Data for the Rolla aquifer exist from 1978 through 1980 only. The concentrations of some water-quality constituents exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. No samples were analyzed for pesticides and hydrocarbons. Numerous water-quality samples have been obtained from the Shell Valley aquifer. About one-half of the water samples from the Shell Valley aquifer had concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and dissolved solids that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. Overall, the data did not indicate obvious patterns in concentrations.

Lundgren, Robert F.; Vining, Kevin C.

2013-01-01

59

North Indian heavy rainfall event during June 2013: diagnostics and extended range prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian summer monsoon of 2013 covered the entire country by 16 June, one month earlier than its normal date. Around that period, heavy rainfall was experienced in the north Indian state of Uttarakhand, which is situated on the southern slope of Himalayan Ranges. The heavy rainfall and associated landslides caused serious damages and claimed many lives. This study investigates the scientific rationale behind the incidence of the extreme rainfall event in the backdrop of large scale monsoon environment. It is found that a monsoonal low pressure system that provided increased low level convergence and abundant moisture, and a midlatitude westerly trough that generated strong upper level divergence, interacted with each other and helped monsoon to cover the entire country and facilitated the occurrence of the heavy rainfall event in the orographic region. The study also examines the skill of an ensemble prediction system (EPS) in predicting the Uttarakhand event on extended range time scale. The EPS is implemented on both high (T382) and low (T126) resolution versions of the coupled general circulation model CFSv2. Although the models predicted the event 10-12 days in advance, they failed to predict the midlatitude influence on the event. Possible reasons for the same are also discussed. In both resolutions of the model, the event was triggered by the generation and northwestward movement of a low pressure system developed over the Bay of Bengal. The study advocates the usefulness of high resolution models in predicting extreme events.

Joseph, Susmitha; Sahai, A. K.; Sharmila, S.; Abhilash, S.; Borah, N.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Pillai, P. A.; Rajeevan, M.; Kumar, Arun

2014-08-01

60

Soft-tissue cephalometric norms in a north Indian ethnic population  

PubMed Central

Background: Soft tissues play the primary role of physical appearance and facial esthetics. This study aimed to establish soft-tissue cephalometric standards in North Indian adults, which can be used in diagnosis, treatment planning, and stability of orthodontic outcome and orthognathic patients. Materials and Methods: A group of 60 individuals (30 males and 30 females) with normal occlusion and proportional facial profile were chosen. For the entire chosen sample, lateral cephalograms were obtained. Standard values of 11 soft-tissue measurements were determined. Results: Soft-tissue measurements showed that men had greater soft-tissue facial angle (92.10°) than women (89.92°). Also, they had more nose prominence (18.10 mm) than women (16.44 mm). Skeletal profile convexity (A to N-pog) of men (0.40 mm) was less than women (1.76 mm). Basic upper lip thickness was higher in men (16.60 mm) compared to women (14.24 mm), while H-angle was higher in women (16.68°) as compared to men (14.30°). In the lower face area, inferior sulcus to the H line distance was more in men (7.30 mm) than women (4.80 mm). Men had greater soft-tissue chin thickness (14.10 mm) than women (12.84 mm). Conclusion: The differences in soft-tissue cephalometric norms between men and women of North Indian faces were established, so the orthodontist or surgeon must individualize treatment planning, using local norms as the reference. PMID:24987634

Sachan, Avesh; Srivastav, Adit; Chaturvedi, T. P.

2012-01-01

61

Agenesis and not ectopia is common in North Indian children with thyroid dysgenesis  

PubMed Central

Context: Ectopic Thyroid Gland (ETG) is known to be the most common form of thyroid dysgenesis in children with permanent congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Recent reports indicate that agenesis or hypoplasia of thyroid gland may be commoner as compared to ETG in thyroid dysgenesis (TD). There is limited information available on the proportion of different variants of TD in Indian children. Aim: To characterize the different TD variants in a cohort of North Indian children with TD. Settings and Design: Endocrinology Unit of a large Multispecialty Pediatrics Center located in North India. Retrospective review of clinical records of children with CH due to TD diagnosed between April 2004 and March 2014. Results: Diagnoses of TD in 94 children (48 boys and 46 girls) were based on combined scanning with high-resolution ultrasonography, and technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. Thyroid agenesis, ectopia and hypoplasia were diagnosed in 74 (78.7%), 14 (14.8%) and 6 (6.4%) patients respectively. The mean initial serum total T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations at diagnosis were 3.03 ± 2.88 ?g/dL (range 0.01–8.9) and 284.52 ± 300.67 mIU/L (range 10.03–1159.0) respectively. Patients with ETG were older at the time of diagnosis as compared to patients with hypoplasia or ectopia. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.7 ± 2.85 years (range 3 months–10 years). Conclusions: Thyroid agenesis was the most common form of TD in our children with permanent CH. Hypoplasia and ectopia were uncommon. Female preponderance, noted in many previous reports, was not seen in our patients with TD. PMID:25538886

Dayal, Devi; Sindhuja, L.; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Sachdeva, Naresh

2014-01-01

62

Evaluation of European coeliac disease risk variants in a north Indian population.  

PubMed

Studies in European populations have contributed to a better understanding of the genetics of complex diseases, for example, in coeliac disease (CeD), studies of over 23?000 European samples have reported association to the HLA locus and another 39 loci. However, these associations have not been evaluated in detail in other ethnicities. We sought to better understand how disease-associated loci that have been mapped in Europeans translate to a disease risk for a population with a different ethnic background. We therefore performed a validation of European risk loci for CeD in 497 cases and 736 controls of north Indian origin. Using a dense-genotyping platform (Immunochip), we confirmed the strong association to the HLA region (rs2854275, P=8.2 × 10(-49)). Three loci showed suggestive association (rs4948256, P=9.3 × 10(-7), rs4758538, P=8.6 × 10(-5) and rs17080877, P=2.7 × 10(-5)). We directly replicated five previously reported European variants (P<0.05; mapping to loci harbouring FASLG/TNFSF18, SCHIP1/IL12A, PFKFB3/PRKCQ, ZMIZ1 and ICOSLG). Using a transferability test, we further confirmed association at PFKFB3/PRKCQ (rs2387397, P=2.8 × 10(-4)) and PTPRK/THEMIS (rs55743914, P=3.4 × 10(-4)). The north Indian population has a higher degree of consanguinity than Europeans and we therefore explored the role of recessively acting variants, which replicated the HLA locus (rs9271850, P=3.7 × 10(-23)) and suggested a role of additional four loci. To our knowledge, this is the first replication study of CeD variants in a non-European population.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.137. PMID:25052311

Senapati, Sabyasachi; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Sood, Ajit; Midha, Vandana; Szperl, Agata; Romanos, Jihane; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Franke, Lude; Alonso, Santos; Thelma, B K; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia

2014-07-23

63

Body iron stores in middle-aged North Indian patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Evidence from various epidemiological and clinical studies suggests that iron overload is proinflammatory and proatherosclerotic. Excess body iron has been positively associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Aim of the Study: To study the relationship of body iron stores with type 2 diabetes and obesity in middle aged North Indian population. Materials and Methods: The participant population consisted of four groups of randomly selected participants (between 40 and 65 years of age and postmenopausal women); Group A: Normal individuals (controls), Group B: Obese nondiabetic individuals, Group C: Lean diabetic patients, Group D: Obese diabetic patients. Blood was examined for hematological, biochemical estimations, C-reactive protein, and serum ferritin (SF). Observation and Results: A total of 197 participants were enrolled. The mean SF levels (ng/ml) among males were: Group A (n = 18) 148.56 ± 119.90; Group B (n = 25) 129.11 ± 94.77; Group C (n = 27) 127.96 ± 109.65 and Group D (n = 22) 148.36 ± 104.94. The mean SF levels (ng/ml) among females were: Group A (n = 23) 67.44 ± 37.59; Group B (n = 25) 59.62 ± 43.56; Group C (n = 24) 77.97 ± 91.46 and Group D (n = 33) 66.46 ± 86.05. No statistical difference was found among the groups in both the sexes. Conclusions: Our observation is in sharp contrast to the earlier studies published from the West stressing that iron stores are increased in obesity and diabetes. We conclude that SF may not be a strong risk factor in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes in middle aged North Indians. PMID:24970985

Gupta, Monica; Palta, Anshu; Singh, Ram; Lehl, Sarabmeet Singh

2014-01-01

64

Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 162, 2005, pp. 135146. Printed in Great Britain. Subsidence history of the north Indian continental margin, ZanskarLadakh  

E-print Network

. 135 Subsidence history of the north Indian continental margin, Zanskar­Ladakh Himalaya, NW India R. I of these techniques, however, to highly deformed margins in the rock record. In the Zanskar­Ladakh Himalaya, NW India

Watts, A. B. "Tony"

65

Nucleolar localization of cirhin, the protein mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

Cirhin (NP{sub 1}16219), the product of the CIRH1A gene is mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC/CIRH1A, OMIM 604901), a severe autosomal recessive intrahepatic cholestasis. It is a 686-amino-acid WD40-repeat containing protein of unknown function that is predicted to contain multiple targeting signals, including an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal, a C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a bipartite nuclear localization signal (BNLS). We performed the direct determination of subcellular localization of cirhin as a crucial first step in unraveling its biological function. Using EGFP and His-tagged cirhin fusion proteins expressed in HeLa and HepG2, cells we show that cirhin is a nucleolar protein and that the R565W mutation, for which all NAIC patients are homozygous, has no effect on subcellular localization. Cirhin has an active C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a unique nucleolar localization signal (NrLS) between residues 315 and 432. The nucleolus is not known to be important specifically for intrahepatic cholestasis. These observations provide a new dimension in the study of hereditary cholestasis.

Yu, Bin [Service de Genetique medicale, Centre de recherche, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, 3175 Cote Sainte-Catherine, Quebec, H3T1C5 (Canada); Mitchell, Grant A. [Service de Genetique medicale, Centre de recherche, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, 3175 Cote Sainte-Catherine, Quebec, H3T1C5 (Canada); Richter, Andrea [Service de Genetique medicale, Centre de recherche, Hopital Sainte-Justine, Universite de Montreal, 3175 Cote Sainte-Catherine, Quebec, H3T1C5 (Canada)]. E-mail: andrea.richter@umontreal.ca

2005-12-10

66

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of proterozoic mafic dykes in north Kerala, southwestern Indian Shield - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mafic dyke intrusions occur in three distinct orientations ( NNW-SSE and NW-SE and NE-SW) in north Kerala regions, the southwestern part of the Indian Shield. Dating of two NNW-SSE trending dykes by K-Ar method has yielded Middle Proterozoic ages (ca. 1660 Ma and ca. 1420 Ma respectively). Our initial geochemical results on these dyke rocks (0.65-0.15 wt pct K2O, 0.37-0.38 wt pct P2O5, 3.30-1.00 wt pct TiO2, 11-1 p.p.m. Rb, 250-90 p.p.m. Sr, 230-40 p.p.m. Ba, 160-40 p.p.m. Zr, and 30-10 x chondrite rare earth elemental abundances) indicate a transitional character between abyssal and plateau tholeiites. Petrogenetic modelling suggests that the dyke compositions have been derived by different degrees of partial melting of a heterogenous source mantle. The mantle sources with accessory amphibole and/or garnet, variably enriched in LREE and LIL elements, are compatible with the observed geochemical data.

Radhakrishna, T.; Gopakumar, K.; Murali, A. V.; Mitchell, J. G.

1991-01-01

67

Prevalence of impacted and supernumerary teeth in the North Indian population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Dental impaction is a very frequent problem. Supernumerary teeth, or hyperdontia, are the presence of additional teeth to the normal series in the either of the dentition. The presence of impacted and/or supernumerary teeth can cause various complications. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of impacted and supernumerary teeth in the North Indian population. Study Design: The panoramic radiographic records of 4750 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 were examined for this retrospective study. The ages of the patients ranged from 8 to 72 years, with a mean of 34.6 years. Results: A total of 798 (16.8%) patients presented with 1126 impacted teeth. Impacted canines were the most prevalent (9.7%), followed by impacted premolars (4.3%). Supernumerary teeth (1.6%) and impacted molars (1.2%) were less prevalent. Among the 842 impacted teeth, the most frequently affected teeth were the canines (56.7%), followed by premolars (27.8%), and supernumerary teeth (9.3%), while the prevalence of impacted molars was quite lower (6.2%). Conclusion: The most frequently impacted teeth were maxillary canines and the mesiodens were the most common supernumerary tooth. The early diagnosis of supernumerary and impacted teeth is essential to prevent malocclusion and malalignment of permanent teeth demonstrating the importance of panoramic radiographs in their detection. Key words:Impacted, supernumerary, prevalence, canines, mesiodens. PMID:24790709

Maheshwari, Sneha

2014-01-01

68

Oscillatory Climate Modes in the Indian Monsoon, North Atlantic and Tropical Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we concentrate on potential teleconnections among the Indian monsoon, Tropical Pacific Ocean, and the North Atlantic. Most teleconnection studies so far were based on correlations between climatic time series from the regions of interest; often the correlations found in this way were no larger in absolute magnitude than 0.6, and they did not clarify in which frequency band the teleconnection under investigation was most active. To explore in greater depth the commonalities between the well-documented records of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and the Indian monsoon rain records we adopt here the viewpoint of synchronization between chaotic oscillators. Our synchronization analysis is based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and it is partly described in (Feliks 2010). It differs from that of previous studies that relied on SSA and on multichannel SSA (M-SSA) inasmuch as we rely upon the recently proposed varimax rotation of M-SSA eigenvectors (Groth & Ghil 2011) in order to improve the separation of oscillations and the identification of synchronized oscillators. With no need for any a priori phase definition for each of the subsystems, M-SSA is able to automatically identify multiple oscillatory modes and detect whether these modes are shared by phase- and frequency-locked oscillators; even if the oscillatory behavior is getting swamped by the observational noise. Given the presence of high stochasticity in the system's dynamics, we raise in particular the question of a reasonable spectral resolution as well as the robustness and reliability of M-SSA results with respect to parameter changes. In this study we show that interannual oscillatory modes exist in all the climatic records at hand, with statistically significant oscillatory modes having periods of 2.2-2.7 yr, 3.2-3.6 yr, 5 yr and 6-8 yr. Such a clustering of periodicities raises the possibility of teleconnection between these regions. A key result is that the 7-8-yr and 2.7-yr oscillatory modes in all three regions are strongly synchronized, and the energy ratio analysis suggests that the NAO induces these modes in the other two regions. Both these modes in the NAO appear to be connected to intrinsic modes of variability of the Gulf Stream front. In agreement with some recent studies, it was found here that the South Asian monsoon is not slaved to forcing from the equatorial Pacific, although it does interact strongly with it. The energy-ratio analysis pinpointed this to be the case in particular for the quasi-biennial oscillatory modes. Feliks, Ghil, and Robertson (2010), Oscillatory climate modes in the Eastern Mediterranean and their synchronization with the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 23 (15), 4060-4079. Groth and Ghil (2011), Multivariate singular spectrum analysis and the road to phase synchronization. Phys. Rev. E, 84, 036206

Groth, Andreas; Ghil, Michael; Feliks, Yizhak; Robertson, Andrew

2013-04-01

69

Relative Contributions of the Indian Ocean and Local SST Anomalies to the Maintenance of the Western North Pacific Anomalous Anticyclone during the El Niño Decaying Summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relative role of the cold SST anomaly (SSTA) in the western North Pacific (WNP) or Indian Ocean basin mode (IOBM) in maintaining an anomalous anticyclone over the western North Pacific (WNPAC) during El Niño decaying summer, a suite of numerical experiments are performed using an atmospheric general circulation model, ECHAM4. In sensitive experiments, the El Niño composite

Bo Wu; Tim Li; Tianjun Zhou

2010-01-01

70

Revised and synthetic apparent polar wander paths of the African, Eurasian, North American and Indian plates, and true polar wander since 200 Ma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed paleomagnetic data available for the Eurasian, African, North American and Indian plates over the last 200 Ma. Selection criteria are those generally accepted, with an emphasis on evidence for lack of remagnetization, accurate dating and proper structural analysis. This results in 23, 35, 51 and 2 poles for Eurasia, Africa, North America and India, respectively. We believe

Jean Besse; Vincent Courtillot

1991-01-01

71

Three Dimensional Aerosol Climatology over India and the North Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical models are indispensable tools to study aerosol effects on climate, including both aerosol direct and indirect radiative effects and their role in precipitation. But, agreement among the models has not been achieved, and thus it is not possible to accurately and confidently attain estimates of aerosol effects on climate. The lack of reliable knowledge on global three-dimensional (3D) aerosol climatology has prevented us from assessing the degree to which the disagreement in their aerosol climatic effects may come from differences of aerosol vertical structures in their simulations. To that end, we created a six year, global 3D extinction coefficient dataset for each aerosol species identifiable by the Level 2, Version 3, 5 km Aerosol Profile product from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) as a tool to improve 3D model representations. Here we describe the 3D structure of aerosol in the Middle East, India, and the Northern Indian Ocean and some of the interesting dynamical features responsible for the vertical structure and external mixing of aerosol species. One interesting feature in the 3D structure during boreal summer is a well-defined EC core located 0 - 10°N, 40°E - 90°E (Somalia across the Indian subcontinent), centered at 3 km. This is controlled by a shallow meridional circulation about the core. Additionally, the Somali Low-Level Jet exists at this location, but is usually located below the core (~850 mb). Another interesting feature is a strong EC core located 0 - 15°N, 60°E - 90°E below 0.5 km. Polluted dust (external mixture of dust and smoke) and marine aerosol are collocated in this area with maximum AODs of ~0.5 and ~0.2 respectively. Due to the wind stress over ocean, collocation of aerosol species, altitude, and lack of transport pathway for polluted dust, it is possible that this is an example of aerosol misclassification by the CALIPSO algorithm, probably misclassifying marine aerosol as polluted dust. The origin of much of the polluted dust, the most prominent aerosol species in the region, is the mixing of dust and smoke from Africa. Low-level southerly winds south of 10°N transport smoke northward while northerly winds north of 10°N transport dust southward and upward due to orographic lifting. At their area of convergence, zonal wind transports the now elevated polluted dust eastward toward the Indian subcontinent. Subsidence and monsoon circulation reversal during boreal winter and fall limit vertical and horizontal aerosol transport from the India, particularly in the highly populated and always polluted Indo¬-Gangetic Plain. Polluted dust, polluted continental (non-elevated smoke), and smoke aerosols are confined near the surface and located over high population density areas and known biomass burning locations. Himalayan topography is an obvious barrier for the northward extent of aerosol. However, it also acts to create a meridional circulation limiting the southward extent of aerosol. Although transport pathways and the spatial structure of aerosol are well documented in the 2D sense, understanding the mechanisms controlling the vertical structure in concert with observation of the structure will be a valuable tool in reducing the uncertainty of aerosol effects in model simulations.

Adams, A.; Zhang, C.

2013-12-01

72

NESTROFT - A Valuable, Cost Effective Screening Test for Beta Thalassemia Trait in North Indian Punjabi Population  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Beta-thalassemia continues to be a cause of significant burden to the society, particularly in the poorer developing countries. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the validity of “NESTROFT” (Naked Eye Single Tube Red Cell Osmotic Fragility Test) as a useful screening tool in the diagnosis of beta thalassemia trait. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 150 subjects in the department of haematology in a tertiary health care center in north Indian state of Punjab. In group I, 111 cases diagnosed as microcytic hypochromic anaemia were selected. In group II, 39 individuals (the family members of known cases of beta thalassemia major) were selected. Complete haemogram, NESTROFT and HbA2 levels by electrophoresis were done and the results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Of the 111 cases in group I, 20 (18%) gave positive results with NESTROFT while 91 cases (82%) tested negative. In group II, out of 39 cases, 30 (76.92%) tested positive with NESTROFT while 9 gave a negative result. In group I, out of 20 NESTROFT positive cases, only 3 had HbA2 levels more than 3.5%. In group II, all the 30 NESTROFT positive cases had HbA2 levels more than 3.5%. The test showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 85.47%, a positive predictive value of 66% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: Thus, NESTROFT is a valuable, cost-effective screening test for beta thalassemia trait and appears to be a valid test in rural setting with financial constraints. PMID:24551637

Piplani, Sanjay; Manan, Rahul; Lalit, Monika; Manjari, Mridu; Bhasin, Tajinder; Bawa, Jasmine

2013-01-01

73

Screening of the LTBP2 gene in a north Indian population with primary congenital glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), a severe form of glaucoma that presents early in life, is an autosomal recessive eye disorder that results from defects in anterior eye segment. Null mutations in LTBP2 were reported in patients with PCG in Pakistani and Iranian families. This study was aimed to identify the mutation profile of the LTBP2 gene in north Indian patients with PCG. Methods After ethical clearance, 54 unrelated patients with PCG who were either negative or heterozygous for MYOC, CYP1B1, and FOXC1 mutations and 50 ethnically matched non-glaucomatous controls were recruited for the study. PCG diagnosis was established by the presence of buphthalmos in at least one affected eye and associated high intraocular pressure before the age of 3 years. LTBP2 was screened in genomic blood DNA for mutations, with PCR and direct sequencing of PCR amplified fragments. Results We observed one intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (rs3742793) between exons 6 and 7 in the LTBP2 gene in 18 patients with PCG. This nucleotide change resulted in cytosine (C) being replaced by guanosine (G) at position g.75070493. No pathogenic variants were identified in the LTBP2 gene in our cohort of patients. Conclusions LTBP2 gene mutations are not involved in the pathogenesis of primary congenital glaucoma in our patients. Thus, it is important to screen other glaucoma-associated loci and genes for involvement in congenital glaucoma in cases that are either negative or heterozygous for MYOC, CYP1B1, and FOXC1 mutations to have better insight into the disease pathogenesis. PMID:23378721

Mohanty, Kuldeep; Tanwar, Mukesh; Dada, Rima

2013-01-01

74

Association of Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism with BMD and Homocysteine in Premenopausal North Indian Women  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Osteoporosis (OP) is a common nutrigenomic disease associated with various genetic components. Observational studies have indicated that mildly elevated homocysteine was a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Yet there is no clear biologic mechanism for an effect of homocysteine on bone.The aim of this study was to investigate the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms, and to verify the association of these polymorphisms with bone mineral density and homocysteine in premenopausal women of northern India. Material and Methods: We included 402 north Indian patients with altered BMD, both Osteopenic (OPN) and Osteoporosis, and normal controls. Genotype identification for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method, correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Homocysteine (Hcy), Folate and Vitamin B12. Results: The study groups did not differ in terms of age, weight and body mass indices. Prevalence of Genotype frequencies (GFs) for MTHFRC677T OP were (n: 402): CC 361 (89.8%), CT 25 (6.22%), TT 16 (3.98%) and that for MTHFR A1298C were (n: 402) AA 353(87.81%), AC 29(7.21%), CC 20(4.98%). Folate was significantly lower in the OP group than those in both the other groups, while there was no significant difference in Hcy in the OP group relative to OPN, as compared to controls. Conclusion: The GFs for MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were not different between both groups. In conclusion, polymorphism of the MTHFR 677T is associated with small differences in BMD with folate levels. Further, more investigations should be done in larger studies for other epigenetic pathways, that may increase the risk of Osteoporosis. PMID:24551672

Pandey, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Ankur; Polipalli, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Sangeeta; Kapoor, Seema

2013-01-01

75

North American Indians in the Canadian Labour Market: A Decomposition of Wage Differentials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirically determines the components of the gross wage differential between employed Canadian Indians and non-Indians that can be a result of human capital attributes and that which is a result of unexplained factors and labor market discrimination. It is found that much of the wage gap is unexplained by human capital and other observable…

Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Sakellariou, Chris N.

1992-01-01

76

MTHFR C677T Predisposes to POAG but Not to PACG in a North Indian Population: A Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by the C677T genetic variant in MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) has been implicated in neuronal cell death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), which is a characteristic feature of glaucoma. However, association of MTHFR C677T with glaucoma has been controversial because of inconsistent results across association studies. Association between MTHFR C677T and glaucoma has not been reported in Indian population. Therefore, with a focus on neurodegenerative death of RGC in glaucoma, the current study aimed to investigate association of MTHFR C677T with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) in a North Indian population. A total of 404 participants (231 patients and 173 controls) were included in this study. Genotyping was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. A few random samples were also tested by direct sequencing. Genotypic and allelic distributions of the POAG and PACG cohorts were compared to that of controls by chi-square test and odds ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals. Genotypic and allelic distributions between POAG cases and controls were significantly different (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01 respectively). Unlike POAG, we did not find significant difference in the genotypic and allelic distributions of C677T between PACG cases and controls (p>0.05). We also observed a higher proportion of TT associated POAG in females than that in males. However, this is a preliminary indication of gender specific risk of C677T that needs to be replicated in a larger cohort of males and females. The present investigation on MTHFR C677T and glaucoma reveals that the TT genotype and T allele of this polymorphism are significant risk factors for POAG but not for PACG in North Indian population. Ours is the first report demonstrating association of MTHFR C677T with POAG but not PACG in individuals from North India. PMID:25054348

Gupta, Shashank; Bhaskar, Pradeep Kumar; Bhardwaj, Ritu; Chandra, Abhishek; Chaudhry, Vidya Nair; Chaudhry, Prashaant; Ali, Akhtar; Mukherjee, Ashim; Mutsuddi, Mousumi

2014-01-01

77

The Interactive Effect of SIRT1 Promoter Region Polymorphism on Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility in the North Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have implicated genes mainly involved in the activity of pancreatic ? cells in type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility in the North Indian population. Recent literature on the role of SIRT1 as a potential master switch modulating insulin secretion and regulating gene expression in pancreatic ? cells has warranted an evaluation of SIRT1 promoter region polymorphisms in the North Indian population, which is the main focus of the present study. 1542 samples (692 T2D patients and 850 controls) were sequenced for the 1.46 kb region upstream the translation start site of the SIRT1 gene. We performed a functional characterization of the SIRT1 promoter region polymorphisms using luciferase assay and observed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12778366, in association with SIRT1 expression. We propose that TT, the high-expressing genotype of SNP rs12778366 in the SIRT1 promoter region and present in >80% of the North Indian population, was favored under conditions of feast-famine cycles in evolution, which has turned out to be a cause of concern in the present sedentary lifestyle under ad libitum conditions. Case-control association analysis did not implicate rs12778366 in T2DM per se in the studied population. However, our earlier reported risk genotype combinations of mt-ND3, PGC1?, and UCP2-866, when compared with the protective genotype combinations, in the background of the high-expressing TT genotype of SIRT1 SNP rs12778366, showed a very high additive risk [corrected odd ratio (OR)?=?8.91; p?=?6.5×10?11]. The risk level was considerably low in the genotype backgrounds of TX (OR?=?6.68; p?=?2.71×10?12) and CX (OR?=?3.74; p?=?4.0×10?3). In addition, we screened other reported T2D-associated polymorphisms: PIK3R1 rs3730089, IRS1 rs1801278, and PPP1R3 rs1799999, which did not show any significant association in North Indian population. The present paper emphasizes the importance of gene interactions in the biological pathways of T2D, a complex lifestyle disease. PMID:23133645

Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Swarkar; Kaul, Surabhi; Jain, Kamal; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, Amarjit S.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

2012-01-01

78

The interactive effect of SIRT1 promoter region polymorphism on type 2 diabetes susceptibility in the North Indian population.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have implicated genes mainly involved in the activity of pancreatic ? cells in type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility in the North Indian population. Recent literature on the role of SIRT1 as a potential master switch modulating insulin secretion and regulating gene expression in pancreatic ? cells has warranted an evaluation of SIRT1 promoter region polymorphisms in the North Indian population, which is the main focus of the present study. 1542 samples (692 T2D patients and 850 controls) were sequenced for the 1.46 kb region upstream the translation start site of the SIRT1 gene. We performed a functional characterization of the SIRT1 promoter region polymorphisms using luciferase assay and observed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12778366, in association with SIRT1 expression. We propose that TT, the high-expressing genotype of SNP rs12778366 in the SIRT1 promoter region and present in >80% of the North Indian population, was favored under conditions of feast-famine cycles in evolution, which has turned out to be a cause of concern in the present sedentary lifestyle under ad libitum conditions. Case-control association analysis did not implicate rs12778366 in T2DM per se in the studied population. However, our earlier reported risk genotype combinations of mt-ND3, PGC1?, and UCP2-866, when compared with the protective genotype combinations, in the background of the high-expressing TT genotype of SIRT1 SNP rs12778366, showed a very high additive risk [corrected odd ratio (OR)?=?8.91; p?=?6.5×10(-11)]. The risk level was considerably low in the genotype backgrounds of TX (OR?=?6.68; p?=?2.71×10(-12)) and CX (OR?=?3.74; p?=?4.0×10(-3)). In addition, we screened other reported T2D-associated polymorphisms: PIK3R1 rs3730089, IRS1 rs1801278, and PPP1R3 rs1799999, which did not show any significant association in North Indian population. The present paper emphasizes the importance of gene interactions in the biological pathways of T2D, a complex lifestyle disease. PMID:23133645

Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Swarkar; Kaul, Surabhi; Jain, Kamal; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, Amarjit S; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

2012-01-01

79

Clinical experience with exenatide in obese North Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objective: To share our clinical experience with exenatide in obese North Indian subjects with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: We share our experience with use of exenatide in 74 patients treated at Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India Subjects included obese / overweight subjects (mean weight and BMI; 97.67 ± 5.6 kg and 34.56 kg/m2) with known history of type 2 DM (Mean: 9 ± 5.6 years) and maintaining suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c >7%) on oral antidiabetic agents, with or without basal insulin. Metformin and sulphonylureas were continued (with dose adjustment if indicated), as was basal insulin (glargine / detemir). TZDs and DPP4 inhibitors were discontinued. The dose of exenatide was increased to 10 mcg twice a day after 4-12 weeks. 56 patients completed minimum 3 month therapy. 42 patients completed 6 months, 32, 9 months and 25 completed 12 months. Data of patients who had completed at-least 3 months of therapy was included for analysis. Results and Discussion: 69.77, 67.44, and 13.95% of the patients were receiving metformin, secretagogues or thiazolidinediones alone or in combination; 17.76% of the patients were on basal insulin. The change in fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels were significant at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months with p-value <0.05. The mean weight loss at one, three, and six months and one year was 1.7 ± 1.3, 3.8 ± 2.5, 6.3 ± 3.4, and 8.3 ± 4.3 kg, respectively (P <0.05). The mean HbA1c (baseline: 8.8 ± 1.3%) at 3, 6 months and at one year was 7.8 ± 0.9, 7.7 ± 0.8 and 7.2 ± 0.8 (P <0.05). Thirty-five percent of the patients had a ‘good’ A1c value (< 7%) at the end of 12 months. 13 patients discontinued exenatide (three due to lack of response, six due to cost of therapy and four due to severe nausea). Nausea was the most common side effect, occurring in 95% patients within 1 month, although the incidence declined with passage of time. Conclusions: Clinical use of Exenatide is associated with significant improvement in glycemic control and major weight loss (8.3±4.3 kg at 1 year) in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Nausea is the most common side effect. In conclusion, exenatide is a effective and useful option for treatment of type 2 diabetes in obese Indian subjects. PMID:23776858

Bawa, Tarunika; Dhingra, Vibha; Malhotra, Nidhi; Wasir, Jasjeet S.; Mithal, Ambrish

2013-01-01

80

Urinary casts  

MedlinePLUS

... casts; Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood cell casts ... dehydration, exercise, or (water pills) diuretic medicines. Red blood cell casts are a sign of bleeding into ...

81

Relook at lipoprotein (A): Independent risk factor of coronary artery disease in North Indian population  

PubMed Central

Aims Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels have shown wide ethnic variations. Sparse data on mean Lp(a) levels, its link with clinical variables and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in North Indian population needed further studies. Methods 150 patients, each of single vessel disease (SVD), double vessel disease (DVD) and triple vessel disease (TVD) with 150 healthy controls were drawn for the study. Serum Lp(a) estimation was performed by immunoturbidimetric method. Results Lp(a) had a skewed distribution. Median Lp(a) level was significantly raised in cases as compared to controls (median 30.30 vs. 20 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Cases with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, 55.8%) had significantly higher median Lp(a) levels as compared to those with chronic stable angina (35.4 mg/dl vs. 23 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Significant difference in median Lp(a) levels were observed in patients with DVD or TVD versus control (30, 39.05 vs 20 mg/dl, p < 0.008). Lp(a) level was found to be an independent risk factor for CAD (AOR{adjusted odds ratio} 1.018, 95% CI 1.010–1.027; p < 0.001). Analysis using Lp(a) as categorical variable showed that progressive increase in Lp(a) concentration was associated with increased risk of CAD [AOR from lowest to highest quartile (1, 1.04, 1.43 and 2.65, p value for trend = 0.00026)]. Multivariably AOR of CAD for subjects with Lp(a) in the highest quartile (above 40 mg/dl) compared to those with Lp(a) ?40 mg/dl was 2.308 (95% CI 1.465–3.636, p < 0.001). Conclusion Lp(a) above 40 mg/dl (corresponding to 75th percentile)assessed by an isoform insensitive assay is an independent risk factor for CAD. Raised Lp(a) level is also associated with increased risk of ACS and multivessel CAD. PMID:24973831

Yusuf, Jamal; Yadav, Neeraj; Mukhopadhyay, Saibal; Goyal, Abhishek; Mehta, Vimal; Trehan, Vijay; Tyagi, Sanjay

2014-01-01

82

Aerosol size distributions in the north and south Indian ocean during the northeast monsoon season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of aerosol size distributions (3- to 1000-nm diameter) were made over the Indian Ocean (15°N, 75°E to 70°S, 11°E) during the onward (December 12, 1996 to January 6, 1997) and return (March 9 to April 5, 1997) cruises of the XVI Indian Scientific Expedition to the Antarctic. Observations show that during the January to April period, the environment over

C. G. Deshpande; A. K. Kamra

2002-01-01

83

The North Indian Ocean circulation and its variability as seen in a numerical hindcast of the years 1993 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 12-year hindcast of the physical state of the North Indian Ocean has been carried out for the period 1993-2004, using a data-assimilative, primitive equation, multi-level circulation model that assimilated altimetric sea surface height anomalies and weekly MCSST, and was driven by 6-h ECMWF winds. This period encompasses the anomalous wind events in 1994 and 1997-1998 that led to anomalous oceanic state including anomalous sea surface heights and sea surface temperatures, especially in the equatorial regions. Since the in situ database in the Indian Ocean is rather sparse, the hindcast provides an alternative means of examining the state of the ocean, including its interior, during these anomalous years, as well as normal years during this period. By comparison with observations available during this period, it is shown that the model possesses reasonable skill to be useful in the description of various events in the North Indian Ocean. In this paper, we examine the circulation and its variability over the 12 years of the hindcast. We discuss equatorial events, as well as events in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, including the Somali Current system. The heat and mass fluxes are examined. Finally, the hindcast is repeated with QuikSCAT wind stress fields available from July 1999 onwards. Comparison of the 2000-2004 hindcasts forced by ECMWF winds and QS wind stresses shows that in the former, the currents and fluxes are underestimated by 20-30%, but the circulation patterns are roughly similar.

Kantha, Lakshmi; Rojsiraphisal, Thaned; Lopez, Joseph

2008-01-01

84

Human Papillomavirus-mediated cervical cancer awareness and Gardasil vaccination: a pilot survey among North Indian women.  

PubMed

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide, including Indian women. Cervical cancer control and prevention strategies are being adopted in developing nations to reduce the increasing burden of HPV infection in the vaccine era. The present study, therefore, aimed to evaluate cervical cancer awareness and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination in North Indian women. A pilot survey was conducted among 103 women of North Indian ethnicity residing in Lucknow/adjoining areas in state of Uttar Pradesh, during routine screening/clinic visits from June 2012 to December 2012. The study subjects were interviewed in either Hindi or English; subsequently the awareness of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination was assessed in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response". The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was taken from the participants. Overall, the response of participants (n = 103) in our single-centre survey-based pilot study was well-defined. The response regarding HPV-mediated cervical cancer awareness in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response" among the study subjects was 43.7, 44.7 and 11.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, in response to knowledge of HPV vaccine Gardasil, out of 103 subjects, 28.1 % answered "yes" while 37.9 and 34.0 % stated "no" and "no response", respectively. Our pilot survey may help in assessing knowledge of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and Gardasil vaccination awareness in women, and accordingly develop cost-effective cervical cancer control and prevention/public health counseling sessions in a clinical setting. PMID:23653161

Pandey, Saumya; Chandravati

2013-10-01

85

Structure of the marine boundary layer over north western Indian Ocean during 1983 summer monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of the structure of the lower troposphere over the northwestern Indian Ocean for the period 12th July to 2nd September, 1983 has been studied using upper air data collected during the first scientific cruise of ORV ‘Sagar Kanya’. An analysis of thermodynamic structure and kinematics of the marine boundary layer for different zonal and meridional sections revealed the following features: (a) Temperature and humidity inversions were generally absent over the study area except over a few locations in the western region; (b) Large-scale subsidence was found over the central equatorial Indian Ocean; (c) The convective activity over the western Indian Ocean was found to be moderately suppressed as compared to the eastern region; (d) The zonal and meridional components of winds along the equator and 10° N zonal section exhibited a mirror-image-like distribution.

Ramesh Kumar, M. R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Michael, G. S.; Gangadhara Rao, L. V.

1990-07-01

86

The Indian Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

Strong, Augusta

1969-01-01

87

Bibliography of Health Issues Affecting North American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts: 1950-1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography of 2,414 journal articles provides health professionals and others with quick references on health and related issues of American Indians and Alaska Natives. The citations cover articles published in U.S. and Canadian medical and health-related journals between 1950 and 1988. Five sections deal with major health categories and…

Owens, Mitchell V., Comp.; And Others

88

Further support of genetic conservation in Indian isolates of Rice tungro bacilliform virus by sequence analysis of an isolate from North-Western India.  

PubMed

The genomic sequence of an isolate of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), collected from the state of Punjab (Pb), a non-endemic tungro region from North-Western India was determined. In silico comparison of the 7931-bp sequence with isolates from Southeast Asia and the three previously characterized Indian isolates, revealed not only similar genome size to other Indian isolates but also high degree of homology both at nucleotide (>93 %) and amino acid (>96 %) levels among them. On the other hand, like the other Indian isolates, RTBV-Pb showed much lower nucleotide (<87 %) and amino acid (<90 % in most of the open reading frames) identities with the Southeast Asian isolates owing to several nucleotide substitutions and indels. In-depth annotation comparisons reinforce the hypothesis that Indian isolates of RTBV have diverged sufficiently from the Southeast Asian ones to form a separate group. PMID:23197138

Mathur, Saloni; Dasgupta, Indranil

2013-04-01

89

Forecasting of scatterometer-derived wind fields in the north Indian Ocean with a data-adaptive approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis has been employed to forecast satellite scatterometer-observed surface winds in the north Indian Ocean. The EOFs are used to compress the major part of the spatial variability into a few eigenmodes. The temporal variability is contained in the corresponding principal components (PC) which have been subjected to singular spectrum analysis for filtering out the random part. Forecast of the deterministic part has been carried out using GA with lead times varying from 1 to 4 days. The entire analysis has been done separately for the zonal and meridional winds. Finally, predicted wind fields have been generated as linear combinations of the spatial eigenmodes weighted by the predicted PCs. Forecast quality has been evaluated by comparing with an independent validation data set as well as with buoy data. The performance of the algorithm has been found to be quite encouraging.

Basu, Sujit; Sharma, Rashmi; Agarwal, Neeraj; Kumar, Raj; Sarkar, Abhijit

2009-09-01

90

Influence of protein tyrosine phosphatase gene (PTPN22) polymorphisms on rheumatic heart disease susceptibility in North Indian population.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to assess the association of Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor22 (PTPN22) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) susceptibility in 400 RHD patients and 300 controls. The PTPN22 polymorphisms (rs2476601, rs1217406 and rs3789609) were genotyped using Taqman probes (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Statistical analysis was performed by spss and haplotype analysis by snpstat. The frequencies of variant alleles were not different between controls and cases (rs2476601: 2.00% & 1.05%; rs1217406: 36.33% & 34.75%; and rs3789609: 38.17% & 40.00%, respectively]. However, G rs2476601 A rs1217406 T rs3789609 haplotype turned out to be a low risk factor for RHD (P?=?0.0042) predisposition in females and adult patients. This study suggests PTPN22 haplotype may modulate the risk to RHD in North Indians. PMID:25273327

Gupta, U; Mir, S S; Chauhan, T; Garg, N; Agarwal, S K; Pande, S; Mittal, B

2014-11-01

91

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

92

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VI: [The Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Ottawa-Wyandotte)].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As Part VI of a series of publications of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, resolutions, constitutions, and by-laws of some of the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. Twenty-two such documents are included, representing the following tribes: Ottawa, Pawnee, Peoria, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole,…

Fay, George E., Comp.

93

77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...are located in the town of North Fork, Madera County, California, described as: Real...City of UNINCORPORATED AREA, County of Madera, State of California, described as follows...THE UNINCORPORATED AREA OF THE COUNTY OF MADERA, STATE OF CALIFORNIA, AS PER MAP...

2012-12-03

94

Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

this paper, we show that a linear, continuously stratified ocean model reproduces observed wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variability in the coastal waveguide of the Northern Indian Ocean (NIO). Sensitivity experiments with intraseasonal wind forcing selectively applied in the equatorial region, Bay of Bengal, and Arabian Sea show that a large part of the basin-scale sea level variations are driven by zonal wind fluctuations along the equator. Within the NIO coastal waveguide, the contribution of remote equatorial forcing decreases from ~80-90% in the Andaman Sea to ~50% northeast of Sri Lanka and then increases to ~60-70% along the west coast of India. During the southwest monsoon, intraseasonal wind variations become stronger over the NIO, resulting in a larger contribution of local wind forcing to sea level variability along the west (up to 60%) and east (up to 40%) coasts of India.

Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Durand, F.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

2013-11-01

95

Supplementary Role of Health Metrics for Reducing Total Fertility Rate in a North-Indian State  

PubMed Central

Reducing Total Fertility Rate (TFR) amongst rural Indian couples from the current level is a significant challenge to the population control policies relying solely on the Government efforts. REACH strategy, based on health metrics, succeeded in lowering the TFR below replacement levels in a rural population of more than 300,000 in Rajasthan. The REACH strategy was first developed and demonstrated success in decreasing TFR in a pilot project by SHARE India in Medchal region of Andhra Pradesh utilizing designated workers, and was replicated in Rajgarh District of Rajasthan in cooperation with Bhoruka Charitable Trust (supervisor of ICDS and NRHM health workers in Rajgarh) using Government health workers. The success of the REACH strategy in both Rajasthan and previously in Andhra Pradesh holds promise as a tool to reduce TFR in other areas of rural India.

Ganguly, Enakshi

2014-01-01

96

Q-structure beneath the north and central Indian Ocean from the inversion of observed Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by 57 earthquakes which occurred in the north and central Indian Ocean (extending to 40°S) and recorded at Indian seismograph and other WWSSN stations such as HOW, SHL, VIS, MDR, HYB, KOD, CHG, TRD, POO, BOM, GOA, NDI, NIL and QUE are analysed. Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients are estimated at periods of 15-100 s using the spectral amplitude of these waves for 98 different paths across the Bay of Bengal Fan, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. The large standard deviations observed in the surface wave attenuation coefficients may be a result of regional variation of the attenuative properties of the crust and upper mantle beneath these regions. Love wave attenuation coefficients are found to vary from 0.000 03 to 0.000 45 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 03 to 0.000 85 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.000 35 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Similarly, Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients vary from 0.000 03 to 0.0004 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 06 to 0.0007 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.0007 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Backus and Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q-1 models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. Inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data shows a high-attenuation zone centred at a depth of > 120 km ( Q? ? 125) for the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, a high-attenuation zone ( Q? ? 40-70) occurs at a depth of 60-160 km for the Arabian Fan at 100-160 km ( Q? ? 115) for the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge, and at 80-160 km ( Q? ? 80) for the Indian Ocean across the Ninetyeast Ridge. The Q?-1 models show a lithosphere thickness of 120 km beneath the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, lithosphere thickness of 70, 100 and 80 km is estimated beneath the Arabian Fan, and the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge and across Ninetyeast Ridge, respectively. The base of the lithosphere is identified as the depth at which there is a significant increase in the Q?-1 value, which attains its maximum value in the asthenosphere. The thinning of Indian lithosphere beneath the Arabian Fan suggests high temperature below Moho depth (60 km from surface) which has caused a high-attenuation zone at this shallow depth.

Singh, D. D.

97

Dimensional analysis of various rugae patterns in north Indian population subset  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Rugae patterns are significant markers for analyzing anteroposterior changes in adolescence, and forensic investigations. Aim: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the gender-wise predisposition of rugae patterns and to analyze anteroposterior alterations along with any developmental changes in palatal depth. Materials and Methods: One hundred pre-treatment study cast models were obtained from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, M.M. CDSR, Mullana. Parameters employed were: Division of medial palatal region into “a”: Distance between incisive papilla length and anterior limit of the anteriormost rugae; “b”: Distance between incisive papilla and most posterior rugae limits; measurement of Lateral rugae dimensions and palatal depth. Statistical analysis: Mean ± S.D. values were obtained and ‘P’ values calculated. Results: Comparison of “a” and “b” showed a significant difference in the P values between the age-groups 12-13 years and >14 years. Rugae patterns with separate origins showed a predisposition for female gender. Conclusion: A significant change in the anteroposterior medial rugae dimensions was seen in adolescent age groups alongside no variation in palate depth. Hence, it can be concluded that differential growth potential is present in the premaxilla and can cause shift in medial palatal dimensions without altering the rugae patterns and palatal depth. PMID:22408327

Chatterjee, Shailja; Khanna, Mannu

2011-01-01

98

Hepatitis C Virus in American Indian/Alaskan Native and Aboriginal Peoples of North America  

PubMed Central

Liver diseases, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are “broken spirit” diseases. The prevalence of HCV infection for American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States and Canadian Aboriginals varies; nonetheless, incidence rates of newly diagnosed HCV infection are typically higher relative to non-indigenous people. For AI/AN and Aboriginal peoples risk factors for the diagnosis of HCV can reflect that of the general population: predominately male, a history of injection drug use, in midlife years, with a connection with urban centers. However, the face of the indigenous HCV infected individual is becoming increasingly female and younger compared to non-indigenous counterparts. Epidemiology studies indicate that more effective clearance of acute HCV infection can occur for select Aboriginal populations, a phenomenon which may be linked to unique immune characteristics. For individuals progressing to chronic HCV infection treatment outcomes are comparable to other racial cohorts. Disease progression, however, is propelled by elevated rates of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and alcohol use, along with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection relative to non-indigenous patients. Historical and personal trauma has a major role in the participation of high risk behaviors and associated diseases. Although emerging treatments provide hope, combating HCV related morbidity and mortality will require interventions that address the etiology of broken spirit diseases. PMID:23342378

Rempel, Julia D.; Uhanova, Julia

2012-01-01

99

Callionymus omanensis, a new species of dragonet from Oman, north-western Indian Ocean (Teleostei: Callionymidae).  

PubMed

A new species of deep-living dragonet Callionymus omanensis from Oman is described on the basis of a single male specimen collected in a trawl from 500 m depth off the coast of Oman. The new species is characterized within the subgenus Bathycallionymus by having a small branchial opening; head short (3·9 in proportion to standard length); eye large (2·4 in proportion to head length); preopercular spine with a long, upcurved main tip, with a small antrorse barb and a larger antrorse spine, and with a strong antrorse spine laterally at the preopercular-spine base, ventral margin smooth; first dorsal fin slightly higher than second dorsal fin (male); second dorsal fin distally straight; 17 pectoral fin rays; distal end of caudal fin slightly pointed, with two median unbranched rays bearing short filaments; first dorsal fin with basal black spot reaching from first to fourth membranes, third membrane with an ocellated distal black blotch; second dorsal fin with vertical dark grey bars; distal three-fourths of anal fin black; upper half of caudal fin with oblique dark grey bars; pelvic fin dark grey, second ray basally with a black blotch. The new species is compared with similar species. Revised keys to callionymid species of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, as well as species of the subgenus Bathycallionymus, are presented. PMID:25098471

Fricke, R; Jawad, L A; Al-Mamry, J M

2014-11-01

100

Some Resources in Indian Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the resources in the literature by and about the American Indian and lists numerous anthologies and bibliographies in this area. More than 40 publications are listed, including "Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian,""American Indian Almanac,""Ethnographic Bibliography of North America,""American Indian Prose…

Marken, Jack W.

101

Risk factors for acquisition of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in North-Indian hospitals  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistance and production of extended spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) by enteric gram negative rods in hospitals and community continue to be a matter of scientific concern. This retrospective study was executed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at two North Indian hospitals and to determine the risk factors associated with the acquisition of these organisms. A total of 346 bacterial isolates were obtained. Of these, 48.27% (n = 167) were confirmed to be ESBL producers while 51.73% (n = 179) were non ESBL-producers. Among the ESBL producers, 55.69% (n = 93) were E. coli and 44.31% (n = 74) were K. pneumoniae. ESBL producing isolates showed co-resistance to multitude of antibiotics tested. Length of hospital stay (>3 days) and previous exposure to antibiotics were found as significant risk factors (p = 0.01 and 0.02) associated with the acquisition of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Imipenem and meropenem can be suggested as drugs of choice in our study.

Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Fatima, Jamale; Shakil, Shazi; Rizvi, Syed Mohd. Danish; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad

2014-01-01

102

Future changes in tropical cyclone activity in the North Indian Ocean projected by high-resolution MRI-AGCMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and previous versions of the high-resolution 20- and 60-km-mesh Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation models are used to investigate potential future changes in tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the North Indian Ocean (NIO). Fifteen ensemble experiments are performed under the International Panel on Climate Change A1B scenario. Most of the ensemble future (2075-2099) experiments do not project significant future changes in the basin-scale TC genesis number; however, they commonly show a substantial increase (by 46 %) in TC frequency over the Arabian Sea and a decrease (by 31 %) in the Bay of Bengal. Projected future changes in TC genesis frequency show a marked seasonal variation in the NIO: a significant and robust reduction during the pre-monsoon season, an increase during the peak-monsoon season, and a westward shift during the post-monsoon season. Several large-scale thermodynamic and dynamical parameters are analysed to elucidate the physical mechanism responsible for the future changes in TC activity; this analysis reveals a seasonal dependence of the relative contribution of these parameters to the projected future changes in TC genesis frequency.

Murakami, Hiroyuki; Sugi, Masato; Kitoh, Akio

2013-04-01

103

Risk factors for acquisition of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in North-Indian hospitals.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance and production of extended spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) by enteric gram negative rods in hospitals and community continue to be a matter of scientific concern. This retrospective study was executed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at two North Indian hospitals and to determine the risk factors associated with the acquisition of these organisms. A total of 346 bacterial isolates were obtained. Of these, 48.27% (n = 167) were confirmed to be ESBL producers while 51.73% (n = 179) were non ESBL-producers. Among the ESBL producers, 55.69% (n = 93) were E. coli and 44.31% (n = 74) were K. pneumoniae. ESBL producing isolates showed co-resistance to multitude of antibiotics tested. Length of hospital stay (>3 days) and previous exposure to antibiotics were found as significant risk factors (p = 0.01 and 0.02) associated with the acquisition of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Imipenem and meropenem can be suggested as drugs of choice in our study. PMID:25561881

Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Fatima, Jamale; Shakil, Shazi; Rizvi, Syed Mohd Danish; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad

2015-01-01

104

Higher incidence of C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene in North Indian patients with vascular disease.  

PubMed

Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid, which is derived from dietary methionine. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been implicated in vascular disease for over a decade now, and can be treated with B vitamins. Among its causes is polymorphism of the MTHFR gene, the most common being the cytidine to thymidine at position 677 (MTHFR C677T), which gives rise to three genotypes - normal homozygous CC, heterozygous CT and homozygous variant TT. An attempt was made to ascertain the prevalence of this MTHFR C677T in our population so that preventive measures may accordingly be instituted. Blood samples from 70 patients with vascular disease and 70 healthy controls were analyzed for plasma homocysteine levels (chemiluminescent immunoassay) and for the presence of MTHFR C677T (polymerase chain reaction analysis). Homocysteine was higher in the homozygous subjects (TT genotype) than in the heterozygous (CT genotype). In patients, the frequency of the C allele was significantly lower, and that of the T allele was significantly higher than the corresponding frequencies in controls. In conclusion, the North Indian urban population has higher homocysteine levels associated with the TT genotype. Hence, instituting measures towards reduction of homocysteine levels in the population would probably reduce the incidence and morbidity of vascular disease in our population. PMID:22375042

Bhargava, S; Ali, A; Parakh, R; Saxena, R; Srivastava, L M

2012-04-01

105

[Prevalence of hypertension in an Indian community in the North of Argentina].  

PubMed

The prevalence of hypertension among adults of both sexes was assessed as part of a primary medical attention program in an Indian Wichi-Chorote community in Santa Victoria Este, province of Salta, Argentina. Arterial blood pressure was measured after a five minutes rest in a sitting position in adults (over 18 years old) of both sexes with a calibrated sphygmomanometer. A total of 522 adults (318 women and 204 men) were evaluated with median age of 43.5 +/- 16.3. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 125.2 +/- 22.7 mm Hg, and the mean dyastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 76.3 +/- 12.8 mm Hg. Thirty five percent of the people evaluated had normal pressure values (SBP<80 and DBP<120), 37% prehypertensive (SBP 120-139 or DBP 80-89) and 28% hypertensive (SBP > or = 140 or DBP > or = 90). Thirty one percent of the men (mean age: 43.93 +/- 17.11, mean SBP: 126.81 +/- 22.61 and mean DBP: 77.80 +/- 13.33) and 27% of the women studied (mean age: 42.93 +/- 16.3, mean SBP: 124.92 +/- 24.02 and mean DBP: 75.28 +/- 12.57) were hypertense. Fifty nine percent of the people over 65 years of age (n:58) (mean age: 73.15 +/- 6.36, mean SBP: 144.81 +/- 28.72 and mean DBP: 79.68 +/- 13.17) had blood pressure values in the hypertense range. The prevalence of hypertension in the evaluated rural population, suffering extreme demographic and sanitary conditions, is similar to that reported for urbanized societies in the USA but lower than the one reported for other rural areas of our country. PMID:16075802

Coghlan, Eduardo; Quero, Luciana Bella; Schwab, Marcos; Pellegrini, Débora; Trimarchi, Hernán

2005-01-01

106

Mutation Profiling of the Hepatitis B Virus Strains Circulating in North Indian Population  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic mutations in the circulating Hepatitis B virus strains causing infection in the Indian population. Further, we wanted to analyze the biological significance of these mutations in HBV mediated disease. Methods 222 HBsAg positive patients were enrolled in the study. The genotype and mutation profile was determined for the infecting HBV isolate by sequencing overlapping fragments. These sequences were analyzed by using different tools and compared with previously available HBV sequence information. Mutation Frequency Index (MFI) for the Genes and Diagnosis group was also calculated. Results HBV Genotype D was found in 55% (n?=?121) of the patient group and genotype A was found in 30% (n?=?66) of samples. The majority (52%) of the HBV-infected individuals in the present study were HBeAg-negative in all the age groups studied. Spontaneous drug associated mutations implicated in resistance to antiviral therapy were also identified in about quarter of our patients, which is of therapeutic concern. The MFI approach used in the study indicated that Core peptide was the most conserved region in both genotypes and Surface peptide had highest mutation frequency. Few mutations in X gene (T36A and G50R) showed high frequency of association with HCC. A rare recombinant strain of HBV genotype A and D was also identified in the patient group. Conclusions HBV genotype D was found out to be most prevalent. More than half of the patients studied had HBeAg negative disease. Core region was found to be most conserved. Drug Associated mutations were detected in 22% of the patient group and T36A and G50R mutations in X gene were found to be associated with HCC. PMID:24637457

Tuteja, Amit; Siddiqui, Abu Baker; Madan, Kaushal; Goyal, Rohit; Shalimar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Kaur, Navkiran; Panda, Subrat K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Subodh, Swati; Acharya, Subrat K.

2014-01-01

107

TGFBI mutation screening and genotype-phenotype correlation in north Indian patients with corneal dystrophies  

PubMed Central

Purpose To screen a cohort of corneal dystrophy patients from North India for mutations in the transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI) gene, to correlate genotypes to phenotypes, to describe structural implications of various mutations on protein function, and to discuss the implications for diagnosis. Methods Eighty affected individuals from 61 unrelated families, who were diagnosed with autosomal dominant granular and/or lattice corneal dystrophy, were recruited for the study. Detailed clinical evaluation was undertaken for these patients to establish their corneal phenotypes. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and all exons of TGFBI were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct DNA sequencing. Protein molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for the mutations detected to assess the changes in protein structure. Results The most common mutations seen were Arg555Trp and Arg124Cys. Two novel mutations, Ser516Arg (c.DNA1548C>G), with a phenotype similar to granular corneal dystrophy I (GCDI), and Leu559Val (c.DNA1675T>G), with an atypical phenotype closely resembling epithelial basement membrane dystrophy/map dot fingerprint dystrophy, were identified. Protein modeling studies involving wild type and mutant protein indicated that the Leu559Val is a destabilizing mutation and that Ser516Arg could adversely affect the specific binding of Fas1 domain 4 with other proteins. In addition, two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs4669 and rs11331170, were also identified. Mutations were not identified in 8 affected individuals, 6 of whom were diagnosed with bowman layer dystrophy and 2 with lattice corneal dystrophy. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive report of TGFBI mutations covering a large part of North India. Identification of novel mutations, the presence of phenotypic variability, and the genetic heterogeneity seen in our cases stress the need for mandatory screening of TGFBI for precise diagnosis and classification of corneal dystrophies. PMID:20680100

Paliwal, Preeti; Tandon, Radhika; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S.; Sen, Seema; Kaur, Punit; Dube, Divya; Vajpayee, Rasik B.

2010-01-01

108

Polymorphism of FABP2 and PPARG2 genes in risk prediction of cataract among North Indian population?  

PubMed Central

Background Cataract is the leading cause of bilateral blindness in India. It has been reported that cataract is responsible for 50–80% of the bilaterally blind in the country. Cataract formation is a natural part of the ageing process. At present, adequate data are not available regarding the FABP2 and PPARG2 gene polymorphisms and their susceptibility with cataract cases in the North Indian population. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the association of FABP2 and PPARG2 gene polymorphisms with cataract cases and controls. Materials and methods This study includes 130 cataract cases and 118 controls. FABP2 and PPARG2 gene polymorphisms in cases and controls were evaluated by PCR-RFLP. Results Frequencies of Ala54Ala, Ala54Thr and Thr54Thr genotypes in FABP2 gene in cataract cases and controls were 50.76%, 39.23%, 10% and 25.42%, 61.86%, 12.71% respectively. The PPARG2 gene CC, CG, GG genotype frequencies were 11.53%, 87.69% and 0.76% in cases and 21.18%, 39.83% and 38.98% in healthy controls respectively. Significant differences were observed in the frequencies of FABP2 Ala54Ala, Ala54Thr genotype (p < 0.05) and PPARG2 CC, CG, GG genotype (p < 0.05) between cases and controls. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that FABP2 and PPARG2 gene polymorphisms can be an informative marker for early identification of population at risk of cataract. The potential role of FABP2 and PPARG2 gene polymorphisms as a marker of susceptibility to cataract needs further studies in a larger number of patients.

Abbas, Shania; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Chandra, Anu; Singh, Luxmi; Rizvi, Saliha; eba, Ale; Ahmed, Faisal; Mahdi, Farzana

2014-01-01

109

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) gene polymorphisms related with susceptibility to rheumatic heart disease in north Indian population.  

PubMed

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most serious complication of heart that comprises inflammatory reactions in heart valves. Cytokines play a critical role in triggering inflammatory reactions and they activate the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. Altered signals of STATs play important roles in the balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate for the association of polymorphisms related with STAT genes, i.e. STAT3 (rs4796793 C/G) and STAT5b (rs6503691 C/T) with the pathogenesis of RHD. This case-control association study involved 300 healthy controls and 400 RHD patients from North Indian Population. We categorized RHD patients into two subgroups based on involvement of heart valves, mitral valve lesion alone (MVL), and combined valve lesions including mitral valve (CVL). Genotyping was done by RFLP/Taqman probes. We observed that STAT3 CG and GG genotypes were significantly associated with RHD (p=0.030 and p=0.014 respectively), STAT5b CT and TT genotypes were also significantly associated with RHD (p?0.001). Haplotype analysis revealed that minor alleles of both the variants (Grs4796793Trs6503691) were significantly associated (p<0.0001) with increased risk of the disease susceptibility irrespective of gender or age of onset of the disease. However, the polymorphisms were not involved in severity of RHD as both MVL and CVL patients were equally affected. STAT Grs4796793Trs6503691 carriers may have reduced production of STAT3 leading to damage of heart valves. Thus, STAT genes polymorphisms may be useful markers for the identification of individuals with high risk of RHD in the susceptible population. PMID:24797343

Gupta, Usha; Mir, Snober S; Srivastava, Apurva; Garg, Naveen; Agarwal, Surendra K; Pande, Shantanu; Mittal, Balraj

2014-09-01

110

Fur Production as a Specialized Activity in a World System: Indians in the North American Fur Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the fur trade as critical fulcrum in Indian-White contact, focusing on craft specialization as the Native response to the international market system. Describes effects on Indian dependence on European trade goods, Native territorial boundaries and population distribution, social and family structures, and animal populations. Contains 73…

Kardulias, P. Nick

1990-01-01

111

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part IX: The Northwest, and Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes in the northwestern United States. Documents are included relative to the Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, the…

Fay, George E., Comp.

112

Caste in India, Past and Present  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traced is the sociocultural framework for the system in Indian culture which emphasized duty and obligations rather than individual freedom and rights. Also discussed are contemporary changes in the caste system. (DB)

Bishop, Donald H.

1971-01-01

113

Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world

Revathi Rajkumar; VK Kashyap

2004-01-01

114

Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

Schaap, Bryan D.

2004-01-01

115

Relationship between polymorphisms in beta -2 adrenergic receptor gene and ischemic stroke in North Indian Population: a hospital based case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is a multi-factorial disease and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of the present case control study was to check the relationship between beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in North Indian Population. Methods In a hospital based case control study, patients with ischemic stroke and control subjects from outpatient department and neurology ward of All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi. Genotyping was performed by using Polymerase chain reaction–Restriction fragment length polymorphism. Frequency distributions of genotypes and alleles were compared between cases and controls using multivariate logistic regression. Results In this study, 224 patients and 224 age-and sex-matched control subjects were recruited. Mean age of cases and controls were 53.9?±?13.4 and 53.6?±?12.9 years respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent association between Gln27Glu polymorphism and large vessel stroke (LVD) under a recessive model of inheritance (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3 to 11). An age-stratified analysis, suggested independent association between Gln27Glu polymorphism and ischemic stroke, large vessel disease and small vessel disease stroke who had onset of disease at an older age. Conclusions The findings of the present study suggest that Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene may confer higher risk of large vessel disease stroke in a North Indian population. Prospective studies with larger sample size are required for independent validation. PMID:24966013

2014-01-01

116

XRCC-1 Gene Polymorphism (Arg399Gln) and Susceptibility to Development of Lung Cancer in Cohort of North Indian Population: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking has been considered to be the major cause of lung cancer. However, only a fraction of cigarette smokers develop this disease. This suggests the importance of genetic constitution in predicting the individual’s susceptibility towards lung cancer. This genetic susceptibility may result from inherited polymorphisms in genes controlling carcinogen metabolism and repair of damaged deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). These repair systems are fundamental to the maintenance of genomic integrity. X-ray repair cross complimenting group I (XRCC1), a major DNA repair gene in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. It is involved in repair by interacting with components of DNA at the site of damage. Inconsistent results have been reported regarding the associations between the Arg399Gln polymorphism of XRCC1. This study demonstrates the importance of recognition of this relationship of lung carcinoma and genetic constitution of the person which will help guide clinicians on the optimal screening of this disease. Aim: To assess the role of XRCC1 gene polymorphism (Arg399Gln) directly on the variation in susceptibility to development of lung cancer in North Indian subjects. Materials and Methods: One hundred males with diagnosed cases of lung cancer were recruited from Delhi State Cancer Institute (DSCI). Hundred healthy volunteers were taken as controls. DNA isolation was done and Polymerase chain reaction–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) procedure undertaken to amplify the region containing Arg/Gln substitution at codon 399 (in exon 10). Results: XRCC1 gene polymorphism is associated with increased risk of lung cancer when the Arg/Arg genotype was used as the reference group. The Arg/Gln and Gln/Gln was associated with statistically increased risk for cancer. Conclusion: Arg399Gln polymorphism in XRCC1 gene polymorphism is associated with lung cancer in North Indian subjects and screening for this polymorphism will help in targeting predisposed individuals and its prevention. PMID:25584213

Mehndiratta, Mohit; Mohapatra, Debabratta; Grover, Rajesh K; Puri, Dinesh

2014-01-01

117

40 CFR 147.1752 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1752 EPA-administered...on Indian lands in the State of North Dakota is administered by EPA...UIC program for Indian lands in North Dakota is November 25, 1988....

2013-07-01

118

Role of natural external forcing factors in modulating the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation and their relationship on inter-decadal timescale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use reconstructed data and multi-centennial integrations performed with the Bergen Climate Model Version 2 to investigate the impact of natural external forcing factors on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the potential relationship between the ISM rainfall and the winter NAO on decadal to inter-decadal timescales. The model simulations include a 600-yr control integration (CTL600) and a 600-yr integration with time-varied natural external forcing factors from 1400 to 1999 (EXT600). Both reconstructed data and the simulation showed increased ISM rainfall 2-3 years after strong volcanic eruptions. Strong volcanic eruptions decrease the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST), which increases the strength of the southwesterly winds over the Arabian Sea. With negative externally-forced radiative anomaly, the lower stratospheric pole-to-equator winter temperature gradient is enhanced, leading to a positive winter NAO anomaly with a time lag of one year. There is no significant correlation between the winter NAO and ISM rainfall in CTL600. However, the ISM rainfall is significantly positively correlated with the winter NAO in EXT600, with the NAO leading by 2-4 years, which is consistent with the NAO-ISM rainfall relationship in the reconstructed data. We suggest that natural external forcing factors regulate the inter-decadal variability of both the winter NAO and the ISM rainfall and thus likely lead to an increased statistical but not causal relationship between them on the inter-decadal timescale over the past centuries.

Cui, Xuedong; Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Guo, Dong; Li, Shuanglin; Johannessen, Ola M.

2014-05-01

119

Marry for What? Caste and Mate Selection in Modern India  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes how preferences for a noneconomic characteristic (e.g., caste) can affect equilibrium patterns of matching, and empirically evaluates this in the context of middle-class Indian arranged marriages. We ...

Banerjee, Abhijit

120

Complement receptor 1 (A3650G RsaI and intron 27 HindIII) polymorphisms and risk of gallbladder cancer in north Indian population.  

PubMed

Decreased expression due to genetic variations in complement receptor 1 (CR1) on erythrocytes might result in reduced clearance of immune complexes, conferring interindividual variation for gallbladder cancer (GBC) susceptibility. We studied role of CR1 (A(3650)G RsaI and Intron 27 HindIII) polymorphisms in gallstone disease and GBC in north Indian population. Study included 185 GBC patients, 185 gallstone patients and 200 controls. Genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP. Result showed GG genotype and G allele of CR1 A(3650)G RsaI were conferring significant risk for GBC [(P = 0.022; OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.1-3.4) and (P = 0.035; OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.0-3.8) respectively]. Also, comparison of GBC patients with gallstone patients showed increased risk for GBC in presence of GG genotype and G allele GBC (P = 0.048; OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.0-3.0) and (P = 0.027; OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8) respectively. No association of CR1 A(3650)G RsaI polymorphism was observed when gallstone patients were compared with controls. CR1 Intron 27 HindIII polymorphism was not associated with GBC and gallstone susceptibility. Haplotype analysis showed increased risk of GBC in presence of G,L haplotype (P = 0.046; OR = 1.35: 95% CI = 1.0-1.8). Subgroup stratifications on basis of gender and gallstone status showed GG genotype of CR1 A(3650)G RsaI polymorphism imparted high risk for GBC in females (P = 0.043; OR = 1.99: 95% CI = 1.4-3.9). Also there was increased risk for GBC in presence as well as absence of gallstones (OR = 1.85 and 1.76 respectively), but it was not statistically significant. We conclude that CR1 A(3650)G RsaI polymorphism plays an important role in conferring genetic susceptibility to gallbladder cancer GBC in north Indian population. PMID:19906204

Srivastava, A; Mittal, B

2009-12-01

121

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part XI: The Basin-Plateau Tribes. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XI of the series, deals with the Indian tribes of Nevada: The Moapa Band of Paiute Indians, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, the…

Fay, George E., Comp.

122

Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy - mutation analysis of SLC4A11 and genotype-phenotype correlation in a North Indian patient cohort  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the solute carrier family 4 (sodium borate cotransporter) member 11 (SLC4A11) mutation spectrum and to perform genotype-phenotype correlations in autosomal recessive Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy (CHED2) in North Indian patients. Methods Twenty-five patients from twenty families clinically diagnosed with autosomal recessive CHED2 were recruited for the study. Clinical parameters such as age at onset, presentation, and pre- and post-operative visual acuities were recorded. Corneal buttons of patients undergoing keratoplasty were analyzed for histopathologic and ultrastructural confirmation. All the affected individuals and 50 unrelated population matched normal controls were screened for underlying sequence changes. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and all the exons and the 5?-upstream region of the SLC4A11 gene were screened for mutations by direct DNA sequencing. Results A high degree of consanguinity (9 out of 20 families) was noted. Corneal haze was reported to be present since birth or shortly thereafter in all affected patients. Histology and electron microscopy studies revealed increased thickness of Descemet’s membrane, especially of the non-banded zone. Molecular studies revealed one novel homozygous in-frame deletion mutation in two affected siblings from one family and three other previously reported homozygous mutations in 12 patients from 9 families. Mutations were not identified in 11 patients from 11 families. High interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variability was seen among the cohort of patients. Conclusions This is the first report on the mutation spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlation in CHED2 patients from North India. The present study detected one novel and three reported changes, adding to the repertoire of mutations in SLC4A11, and recorded a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in CHED2. PMID:21203343

Paliwal, Preeti; Tandon, Radhika; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S.; Sen, Seema; Nag, Tapas C.; Vajpayee, Rasik B.

2010-01-01

123

The Indian Heritage of America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book nominated for the National Book Award, the author presents the past, present, and future of the Indians of North, Central, and South America with current archaeological findings which add to the knowledge about Indians. As noted, the volume contains information from the works of a large number of people who, since the time of…

Josephy, Alvin M., Jr.

124

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

125

A normative study to evaluate inclination and angulation of teeth in North Indian population and comparision of expression of torque in preadjusted appliances  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate angulation and inclination of teeth from the study models of individuals with normal occlusion and evaluation of actual expression of torque expressed by three different bracket systems. Materials and Methods: In this study, the inclination and angulation were measured on 30 study models of North Indian individuals. A self-developed instrument (torque angle gauge) was used for the measurement. Fifteen study models were duplicated for the evaluation of torque expression in the bracket of three different manufacturers with different shape and size of bases. Results: The results give the mean, minimum and maximum, standard deviation of the normative data individually for each tooth. A significant correlation was noted in the angulation of maxillary canine and first premolar, and between premolars; and between mandibular central incisor with lateral incisor and canine, and between premolars. Conclusions: There was a highly significant correlation of teeth angulation and inclination in the maxillary and mandibular arch. Though the error in expression of torque was not significant, but it showed a large range, indicating the need to vary the position of brackets in different bracket systems for achieving optimum torque. PMID:25143932

Verma, Sanjeev; Singh, SP; Utreja, Ashok

2014-01-01

126

History and Acculturation of the Dakota Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relating the history of the Dakota Indians from their origins to the present time, this document also examines the effects of acculturation on these Sioux people. Beginning with the Paleo-Indians of North America, it details the structure of the Dakota culture and attempts to acculturate the Indians into white society. Historical and current…

Satterlee, James L.; Malan, Vernon D.

127

Frequency of CFTR, SPINK1, and Cathepsin B Gene Mutation in North Indian Population: Connections between Genetics and Clinical Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Genetic mutations and polymorphisms have been correlated with chronic pancreatitis (CP). This study aims to investigate the association of genetic variants of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK-1) genes and Cathepsin B gene polymorphisms with CP and to associate genetic backgrounds with clinical phenotypes. Methods. 150 CP patients and 150 normal controls were enrolled consecutively. We analyzed SPINK-1 N34S and IVS3+2T>C gene mutations by PCR-restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The identification of DF508, G551D, G542X, R117H, and W1282X mutations was carried out by ARMS-PCR. S549N mutation, IVS8 polyTn polymorphism, and Cathepsin B Lec26Val were analysed by PCR-RFLP, nested PCR, and PCR-RFLP plus sequencing, respectively. Results. We found a significant association of SPINK1 (N34S) gene polymorphism. IVS1?37T>C polymorphism shows linkage with 101A>G. 300 chromosomes belonging to the CFTR subgroup exhibited minor allele frequency of 0.04, 0.03, 0.03, 0.013, 0.006, and 0.02 for DF508, G452X, G551D, S549N, R117H, and IVS8 T5, respectively. Except for R117H and IVS8 T5 polymorphisms, all other mutations showed significant variation. Conclusion. Analysis of potential susceptibility variants is needed to support nature of the genes and environment in pancreatitis. This data may help establish genetic screening and prenatal setup for Indian population. PMID:24616641

Singh, Shweta; Choudhuri, Gourdas; Agarwal, Sarita

2014-01-01

128

Economic Analysis of Delivering Primary Health Care Services through Community Health Workers in 3 North Indian States  

PubMed Central

Background We assessed overall annual and unit cost of delivering package of services and specific services at sub-centre level by CHWs and cost effectiveness of Government of India’s policy of introducing a second auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM) at the sub-centre compared to scenario of single ANM sub-centre. Methods We undertook an economic costing of health services delivered by CHWs, from a health system perspective. Bottom-up costing method was used to collect data on resources spent in 50 randomly selected sub-centres selected from 4 districts. Mean unit cost along with its 95% confidence intervals were estimated using bootstrap method. Multiple linear regression model was used to standardize cost and assess its determinants. Results Annually it costs INR 1.03 million (USD 19,381), or INR 187 (USD 3.5) per capita per year, to provide a package of preventive, curative and promotive services through community health workers. Unit costs for antenatal care, postnatal care, DOTS treatment and immunization were INR 525 (USD 10) per full ANC care, INR 767 (USD 14) per PNC case registered, INR 974 (USD 18) per DOTS treatment completed and INR 97 (USD 1.8) per child immunized in routine immunization respectively. A 10% increase in human resource costs results in 6% rise in per capita cost. Similarly, 10% increment in the ANC case registered per provider through-put results in a decline in unit cost ranging from 2% in the event of current capacity utilization to 3% reduction in case of full capacity utilization. Incremental cost of introducing 2nd ANM at sub-centre level per unit percent increase ANC coverage was INR 23,058 (USD 432). Conclusion Our estimates would be useful in undertaking full economic evaluations or equity analysis of CHW programs. Government of India’s policy of hiring 2nd ANM at sub-centre level is very cost effective from Indian health system perspective. PMID:24626285

Prinja, Shankar; Jeet, Gursimer; Verma, Ramesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

2014-01-01

129

Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part II: The Indian Tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part II of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Documents are included relative to the Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, and the Red Cliff bands of Lake Superior Chippewa…

Fay, George E., Comp.

130

Squeeze casting of magnesium alloys and their composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squeeze casting, also known as liquid metal forging, extrusion casting and pressure crystallization, is a process in which molten metal soldifies in a die under an applied high pressure. The concept of squeeze casting was invented in Russia over 100 years ago. Later the process was exploited in North America, Japan and Europe to produce various automotive components. With the

H. Hu

1998-01-01

131

Tasks Ahead for Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews past accomplishments and remaining tasks in Indian education with particular emphasis on the production of technical and professional personnel to match the nation's labor needs and the spread of education to three previously disadvantaged groups: rural populations, women, and the scheduled castes and tribes. (SJL)

Yadav, R. K.

1980-01-01

132

Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0.49). Evidence for validity was comparatively lower for Dun & Bradstreet, online Yellow Pages, and the NC Department of Agriculture. Conclusions Secondary data sources both over- and under-represented the food environment; they were particularly problematic for identifying convenience stores and specialty markets. More attention is needed to improve the validity of existing data sources, especially for rural local food environments. PMID:23173781

2012-01-01

133

Impact of the western North Pacific subtropical high on the East Asian monsoon precipitation and the Indian Ocean precipitation in the boreal summertime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) is a crucial component of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and significantly influences the precipitation in East Asia. In this study, distinguished role of WNPSH on the EASM and Indian Ocean monsoon (IOM) are investigated. Based on the boreal summer mean field of 850-hPa geopotential height and its interannual variability, the WNPSH index (WNPSHI) is defined by the areaaveraged geopotential height over the region [110°-150°E, 15°-30°N]. The WNPSHI is significantly related to the precipitation over the East Asian monsoon (EAM) region [105°-150°E, 30°-40°N] and IOM region [70°-105°E, 5°-15°N]. Rainfalls over these two regions have good correlation with WNPSH developments and the geopotential height fields at 850 hPa related to the EAM precipitation and IOM precipitation have remarkably different teleconnection patterns in boreal summer. These features exhibit that EAM and IOM precipitations have different type of development processes associated with different type of WNPSH each other. Focusing on the relationships among the EAM precipitation, IOM precipitation, and the WNPSH variabilities, we assume that WNPSH and EAM precipitation are usually fluctuated simultaneously through the sea surface temperature (SST)-subtropical ridge-monsoon rainfall feedback, whereas the IOM precipitation varies through the different process. To clarify the relationships among WNPSH, EAM, and IOM, two cases are selected. The first one is the case that all of WNPSH, EAM, and IOM are in phase (WE(+)I(+)), and the second one is the case that WNPSH and EAM are in phase and WNPSH/EAM and IOM is out of phase (WE(+)I(-)). These two cases are connected to the thermal forcing associated with SST anomalies over the eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean. This different thermal forcing induces the change in circulation fields, and then anomalous circulation fields influence the moisture convergence over Asian monsoon regions interactively. Therefore, the monsoon rainfall may be changed according to the thermal conditions over the tropics.

Lee, Sun-Seon; Seo, Ye-Won; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

2013-02-01

134

American Indian Studies Certificate  

E-print Network

understanding of the Native American tribal nations in North America. All of the United States at one time was American Indian land; however, most of it was transferred gradually to the United States of America. Treaties and other legal agreements with the United States, at various times in our history, have given

Saldin, Dilano

135

Cast Away  

Microsoft Academic Search

To strand actor Tom hanks on a deserted island, Cast Away begins with a visceral plane crash sequence incorporating CG water & waves, live action & miniature photography and numerous subtle digital effects. Once on the island, Hanks surveys the landscape revealing his isolation. Combining live action photography filmed in a parking lot in Malibu with a completely CG created

2001-01-01

136

Vitamin D receptor FokI and BsmI gene polymorphism and its association with grade and stage of renal cell carcinoma in North Indian population.  

PubMed

Vitamin D exerts its activity through binding to the high-affinity nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), and majority of genetic studies have primarily focused on variation within this gene. Therefore, analysis of genetic variation in VDR genes may provide insight into the role of vitamin D in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) etiology in our study population. This study investigated whether VDR gene polymorphisms were associated with increased risk and prognosis of RCC in the North Indian population. Genotyping of two polymorphic sites (FokI and BsmI) in the VDR gene of 196 RCC cases and 250 healthy controls was performed via PCR-RFLP. The frequency of homozygous genotype FF was 31.6%, heterozygous Ff was 48.0%, and homozygous ff was 20.4% in cases, whereas in controls it was 45.6%, 39.2%, and 15.2%, respectively; thus, there was a significant difference between the two groups (p (Trend) = 0.011) in the univariate model. The frequencies of the BB, Bb, and bb genotypes were 25.5%, 44.9% and 29.6% in cases, respectively, while in controls it was 33.2%, 52.0% and 14.8%, respectively; thus, there was a significant difference between the two groups (p (Trend) = 0.001) in the univariate model. The two high-risk genotype ff of FokI and bb of BsmI of VDR showed a cumulative 1.87-fold increase in risk to RCC. Moreover, the FF genotype was associated with lower pathological stage and histological grade. Our results suggest that the FokI and BsmI genotypes of VDR gene may be implicated in the pathogenesis of RCC. PMID:21931993

Arjumand, Wani; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Seth, Amlesh; Saini, Ashish Kumar; Sultana, Sarwat

2012-02-01

137

Evaluation of near-surface air temperature and specific humidity from hybrid global products and their impact on latent heat flux in the North Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily near-surface air temperature (Ta) and specific humidity (Qa) from three hybrid flux products, namely, Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments version II (CORE-II), Objectively Analyzed Air-Sea Fluxes (OAFlux), and Air-Sea Fluxes for the Global Tropical Oceans (TropFlux), are evaluated using in situ data over the North Indian Ocean. The analysis shows that the root-mean-square error (RMSE) value of Ta is ~0.5°C for all products. TropFlux captures the daily variability of Ta very well, but it has a systematic deviation in Ta. The large drop in Ta observed during intense rainfall events is very well captured by TropFlux. All products overestimate Qa by 0.3-1.5 g/kg; OAFlux has the smallest systematic deviation, whereas TropFlux has the highest correlation with buoy data. The overestimation of Qa by the products is mainly caused by high values of Qa, in the range of 18-22 g/kg. The RMSE of Qa ranges from 0.92 to 1.79 g/kg, with OAFlux having the lowest values. Latent heat flux (LHF) computed from a bulk algorithm is underestimated by all products, which can be primarily attributed to the positive bias in Qa. In the southern Bay of Bengal, LHF decreases with increasing Qa during winter and summer monsoons. In this region, a change in 1 g/kg Qa can cause about 11-15 W/m2 errors in LHF. The air-sea humidity difference is linearly related to sea surface temperature for values greater than 28°C, similar to findings for the western Pacific Ocean.

Rahaman, H.; Ravichandran, M.

2013-02-01

138

http://www.sil.si.edu/SILpublications/AfricanAmericanIndiansBibliography.pdf1 AFRICAN AMERICAN INDIANS  

E-print Network

. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. New York: Atheneum, 1986. Katz, William Loren and Paula A. Franklin INDIANS SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. Blacks in the Westward Movement. Washington. Confounding the Color Line: The Indian-Black Experience in North America. Lincoln: University of Nebraska

Mathis, Wayne N.

139

Invertebrate Casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE communication in NATURE, vol. xxvii. p. 46, induces me to state the following fact. Engaged this summer in an economic survey of the North Transcontinental Survey for the North Pacific Railroad in the camp just opposite Umatilla, near the Columbia River, Washington Territory, I observed, on June 26, the nympha of a new species of Ophiogomphus, then very common,

H. A. Hagen

1882-01-01

140

Casting methods  

DOEpatents

A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

2012-12-18

141

Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.  

PubMed

The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society. PMID:10081237

Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

1999-01-01

142

Interaction between the UCP2 –866G\\/A, mtDNA 10398G\\/A and PGC1? p.Thr394Thr and p.Gly482Ser polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes susceptibility in North Indian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, we have observed a possible role of 10398A and 16189C mtDNA and PGC1? p.Thr394Thr (rs2970847) and p.Gly482Ser (rs8192673) variant genotypes providing susceptibility\\/protection against type 2\\u000a diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in two North Indian population groups. These initial observations encouraged us to look at the candidate\\u000a genes in combination with –866G\\/A (rs659366) polymorphism in uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2)

E. Rai; S. Sharma; A. Koul; A. K. Bhat; A. J. S. Bhanwer; R. N. K. Bamezai

2007-01-01

143

Geology and ground-water resources of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, North Dakota, with a section on the chemical quality of the ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation occupies about 1,000 square miles in west- central North Dakota. The Missouri and Little Missouri Rivers flow through the area and form part of its boundaries. Garrison Dam, which is under construction on the Missouri River 30 miles downstream from the east boundary of the reservation, will impound water in Garrison Reservoir and flood the valleys of both rivers throughout the area. The reservoir will divide the reservation into five parts, herein referred to as the eastern, northeastern, northern, western, and southern segments. Rock formations ranging in age from Paleocene to Recent are exposed. The Fort Union formation of Paleocene age underlies the entire reservation, and it crops out along the Missouri and Little Missouri Rivers. Relatively thin glacial till and outwash deposits of late Pleistocene age mantle much of the upland in all of the segments. The glacial de. posits commonly are less than 10 feet thick; in many places they consist only of scattered boulders on the bedrock surface. The major valleys have terrace deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age and alluvium of Recent age. The principal mineral resources of the reservation are lignite, sand, and gravel. The lignite beds range in thickness from a few inches to about 30 feet. At least four separate beds, which range in thickness from 4 feet to more than 7 feet, are mined locally. Although many mines will be flooded after Garrison Dam is completed, many suitable mine sites will remain above the proposed reservoir level. Sand and gravel deposits are found in glacial outwash and in stream-terrace deposits. On upland areas of the reservation ground water is available principally from the lignite and the associated fine- to medium-grained sandstone beds of the Fort Union formation. Few wells on the reservation are known to produce water from glacial material, although the recessional moraines are possible sources of shallow-water supplies. Small quantities of ground water are available from thin alluvial deposits in some places on the upland. Most wells in the valleys produce water from the alluvium or the terrace deposits. However, several wells penetrate the underlying Fort Union formation. A few flowing wells in the Missouri River valley near Elbowoods produce water from either the lower part of the Fort Union formation or from the Cannonball formation, also of Paleocene age. The chemical character of water from the Fort Union formation and the outwash and river gravels was determined from analyses of 39 samples from wells and springs. Water from bedrock may be either hard or soft, and it is moderately to highly mineralized. Water from the surficial deposits is uniformly hard, but it is less mineralized. Shallow wells in the eastern and northeastern segments produce water of good quality. Wells in these segments, and several springs in the western segment, could be used satisfactorily as domestic supplies. Spring water from lignite deposits on the reservation generally is colored and contains objectionable amounts of iron. Treatment of the water would improve its quality for domestic use. The filling of Garrison Reservoir will cause a rise of the water levels in wells that tap aquifers now discharging below the operating level of the reservoir. All the permeable strata below this level will become saturated, and ground-water bodies that are now separated will become hydraulically united. In addition to providing subsurface information, the drilling program of the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs provided wells for domestic and stock-water supplies. All test holes that tapped an adequate supply of potable water were reamed to a larger diameter, equipped with casing and well screen, and gravel-packed. The test-drilling program was completed in 1951; however, the drilling of domestic wells was continued under the supervision of the U. S. Geological Survey.

Dingman, Robert James; Gordon, Ellis D.; Swenson, H.A.

1954-01-01

144

Clamshell Casting! Stefanie Wuhrer  

E-print Network

Clamshell Casting! By Stefanie Wuhrer A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research acceptance of the thesis, Clamshell Casting! submitted by Stefanie Wuhrer Douglas Howe (Director is casting, where liquid is poured into a cast and the cast is removed once the liquid has hardened. We

Wuhrer, Stefanie

145

Casting materials  

SciTech Connect

A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

2011-06-14

146

Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India.  

PubMed

The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 86 from the rest of India. We typed 131 Y-chromosomal binary markers and 16 microsatellites. We find striking evidence for male substructure: in particular, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (but not other castes) from Jaunpur each show low diversity and the predominance of a single distinct cluster of haplotypes. These findings confirm the genetic isolation and drift within the Jaunpur upper castes, which are likely to result from founder effects and social factors. In the other castes, there may be either larger effective population sizes, or less strict isolation, or both. PMID:17075717

Zerjal, Tatiana; Pandya, Arpita; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Ling, Edmund Y S; Kearley, Jennifer; Bertoneri, Stefania; Paracchini, Silvia; Singh, Lalji; Tyler-Smith, Chris

2007-03-01

147

HLA diversity among Nadars, a primitive Dravidian caste of South India.  

PubMed

South India is one of the oldest geophysical regions mainly occupied by Dravidian language-speaking people. Here a random panel of 61 unrelated Nadar healthy individual from Tamil Nadu State were analyzed and compared with other populations of India and the world. HLA-A, B and C alleles frequencies and their haplotype frequencies were determined by high-resolution typing of genomic DNA. The analysis revealed that the Nadar caste of South India have several characters shared with East Asian populations consistent with the demographic history of South India, as well as specific features including several unique alleles such as A*03011, A*31011, B*15011, B*3501, B*51011, Cw*02022. In addition, haplotypes such as A*31011-Cw*02022-B*3501, A*03011-Cw*04011-B*4406 and A*2402101-Cw*04011-B*51011 are of high frequency in both these populations but are rare or absent in other populations of India and the world. The study suggests that a comparatively lesser degree of genetic admixture occurred between the South Indian and North Indian racial groups than that between South Indian and East Asian groups. PMID:14617038

Shankarkumar, U; Sridharan, B; Pitchappan, R M

2003-12-01

148

Soft sediment deformation associated with the passage of North Atlantic Deep water through the deep Ariel Graben, Mozambique Ridge southwest Indian Ocean.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between bottom water currents and seafloor sediments are well known. Bottom current generated bedforms are varied both morphologicaly and sedimentologicaly. Sediment transport and deposition, associated with bottom water circulation, plays a significant role is sculpting seafloor morphology in all ocean basins. Indeed, bedforms have been used to great effect to define the presence, direction and strength of bottom water circulation globally. Here we present new multibeam swath bathymetry and high frequency seismic data from the Natal Valley and Mozambique Ridge, southwest Indian Ocean. These data show a deep (-3200 m) channel-like feature (Ariel Graben, situated at 28° 30"S on the Mozambique Ridge) connecting the northern Natal Valley to the Mozambique Basin. A distinct W - E change in seafloor morphology and seismic character is noted moving from the Natal Valley through the Ariel Graben. The northern flank of the graben exhibits smooth plastered drifts which give way to undulating seafloor in the east. The plastered drifts are characterised by distinct bottom echoes, with several discontinuous sub-bottom reflections. In contrast, the undulating seafloor is characterised by distinct hyperbolic echoes, with occasional indistinct sub-bottom reflectors. The W - E orientated undulations are straight crested, parallel / sub-parallel to the local isobaths. Wavelength is variable, ranging from 600 m to 1200 m. Cross-sectional symmetry of these features varies from symmetrical to asymmetrical, with board crests and narrow troughs. When asymmetrical, the lower (south-facing) limb is the longer (511.76 m average) than the upper (north-facing) limb (323.53 m average). The lower limbs are also steeper than the upper limbs; calculated averages being 3.80° and 1.55°, respectively. Overall, the slope on which the undulations are found, is south-facing with a gradient of 1.54°, however, the area affected by undulations is slightly steeper (average slope of 1.75°). Beyond -3000 m, the lower limit of the undulations, the gradient increases to 4.71°. The total slope average in this eastern region is 0.54° steeper than in the west area. The channel floor, no longer flat, is ca. 440 m wide at -3160 m depth. The Ariel Graben represents a deep saddle across the Mozambique Ridge at 28°30"S. This saddle provides a northern-most passage for the transport of NADW from the northern Natal Valley to the Mozambique Ridge. Evidence of this transport is manifest as crudely developed plastered drifts in the west and a soft sediment deformation field in the east of the study area. Here, current flow stripping, due to increased curvature of the saddle axis, results in deposition of suspended load in accordance with reduced current velocity. The steepened northern graben flank in this area provides limited accommodation space which promotes high sedimentation. Deposited sediments overcome the necessary shear stresses, resulting in soft sediment deformation in the form of down-slope growth faulting and generation of undulating sea-floor morphology.

Wiles, Errol; Green, Andrew; Watkeys, Mike; Jokat, Wilfried; Krocker, Ralph

2014-05-01

149

Maize Genetics Outreach to American Indians  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is an excellent vehicle for plant genomics outreach to those American Indian tribes who use and appreciate it nutritionally, culturally, and spiritually. During the summer 2006 season we mentored six Native American Indian students for eight weeks. All six worked at the USDA-ARS North Centra...

150

Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.

151

QUENCHING TUMBLING MILL TUMBLES CASTINGS OVER EACH OTHER TO REMOVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

QUENCHING TUMBLING MILL TUMBLES CASTINGS OVER EACH OTHER TO REMOVE RUNNERS AND SPRUES WHILE QUICKLY COOLING THEM WITH WATER IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS ENSURES CASTINGS FORM WHITE IRON PRIOR TO BEING ASSEMBLED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

152

AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS THEY MOVE IN BINS ALONG TRACKS IN THE OVEN BOTTOM IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS BRITTLE WHITE IRON CASTINGS INTO SOFTER, STRONGER MALLEABLE IRON. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

153

Coupled ocean-atmosphere response to Indian Ocean warmth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupled ocean-atmosphere response to Indian Ocean warmth is studied. It is shown with atmospheric models that Indian Ocean warmth forces a positive polarity phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), confirming results of previous studies. Coupled model experiments show that this NAO response forces a local air-sea feedback over the North Atlantic Ocean, which intensifies the NAO response. This

Shuanglin Li; Martin P. Hoerling; Shiling Peng

2006-01-01

154

The Sky Clears; Poetry of the American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 200 authentic poems and lyrics of North American Indians are compiled in this anthology. The poetry was translated from tribal languages into English over the past 100 years by students of Indian language, lore, and life. The poems, taken from about 40 North American tribes, include songs of Eskimos of the Arctic coasts, totem-pole…

Day, A. Grove

155

Indian Legends.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

156

Latitudinal trends in morphological characteristics of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg) along a north-south transect in the south-western Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 25 surficial sediment samples (Peterson grab, gravity and piston cores), collected during the Pilot Expedition to Southern Ocean (PESO) 2004 cruises 199C and 200 onboard the ORV Sagar Kanya along a N-S transect between 9.69 °N and 55.01 °S, and 80 and 40 °E in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean (SW Indian Ocean), have been investigated for various morphological features—test size, mean proloculus size and coiling direction (dextral/sinistral forms)—of the planktic indicator species Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg). The results show that the coiling directions co-vary with temperature and salinity, the abundances of sinistrally coiled forms increasing towards higher latitudes (south of 40 °S), whereas dextrally coiled forms show a reverse trend. Similarly, overall test and proloculus sizes depend largely on the physicochemical properties (salinity, temperature, nutrients, calcium saturation) of the ambient water masses. These observations suggest that, particularly at the boundaries between different water masses, variations in morphological features of N. pachyderma can meaningfully be used to reconstruct paleoceanographic conditions from Indian Ocean sediments.

Khare, Neloy; Govil, Pawan; Mazumder, Abhijit

2009-02-01

157

First description of the worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The hitherto unknown worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Forel, 1894) is described for the first time. Sexuals are redescribed and photomontage images of all castes are provided. A key is presented to separate the six Indian species of Nylanderia. Previously described Nylanderia assimilis (Jerdon, 1851) is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:25197237

Bharti, Himender

2014-01-01

158

Cool Cast Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Placed? First, the doctor or cast technician — tech for short (or another person who is trained ... some water on it. The doctor or cast tech wraps the plaster or fiberglass around the soft ...

159

LLNL casting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

1994-01-01

160

LLNL casting technology  

SciTech Connect

Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III [eds.

1994-01-01

161

25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE INDIAN TRIBE, UINTAH AND OURAY RESERVATION, UTAH, BY THE TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and...

2012-04-01

162

25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE INDIAN TRIBE, UINTAH AND OURAY RESERVATION, UTAH, BY THE TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and...

2011-04-01

163

25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE INDIAN TRIBE, UINTAH AND OURAY RESERVATION, UTAH, BY THE TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION CORP. § 217.6 Method of casting votes. Within 30 days after an issue and...

2010-04-01

164

Casting and Molding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can explore the process used to cast and mold molten metal, glass, and plastics. Using gelatin, the learner will work with a variety of molds to create castings. When the shapes are unmolded, the learner can tactually explore the casts.

Perkins School for the Blind

2012-06-26

165

Secular Trends in Menarcheal Age in India-Evidence from the Indian Human Development Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified. Methods We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15–49 years) in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey. Results The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77) in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85) among women born prior to 1955–1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67) among women born during late 1985–1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955–1964 (95% CI: 14.89–15.11) to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63–12.56) during 1985–1989. Conclusion The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women. PMID:25369507

Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Tripathi, Niharika; Subramanian, S. V.

2014-01-01

166

Cast aluminized explosives (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current status and future trends of aluminized explosives. The major focus is on cast compositions,\\u000a which encompass both the melt-cast trinitrotoluene (TNT) based and the slurry cast polymer-based compositions. Widely reported\\u000a RDX and HMX based aluminized compositions with TNT used as a binder are discussed in detail. Various researchers have suggested\\u000a a 15–20% Al content as

P. P. Vadhe; R. B. Pawar; R. K. Sinha; S. N. Asthana; A. Subhananda Rao

2008-01-01

167

Prevalence of IncI1-I? and IncFIA-FIB type plasmids in extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from the NICU of a North Indian hospital.  

PubMed

We studied the molecular mechanism of resistance in extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of one of the hospitals in North India. A total of 3000 clinical samples were collected from a NICU (January 2009 to February 2011), of which 523 strains were K. pneumoniae positive and 262 of them were ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae strains. All of the ESBL-producing clinical isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. However, the majority of the clinical isolates (30-96?%) were resistant to a wide range of antibiotics including antibiotic/inhibitor combinations. The MIC values confirmed that these isolates were highly resistant to cephalosporins and aztreonam. In the 262 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, 15 different enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR-typed phylogenetic groups were identified and reconfirmed by PFGE. Characterization of plasmids from each representative member of these phylogenetic groups revealed the presence of three plasmids of different sizes. Conjugation experiments confirmed the presence of different resistance markers only on the 154 kb plasmid. PCR amplification and sequence analysis revealed that blaCTX-M-3, blaTEM-1, blaSHV-1, blaOXA-1 and armA were the predominant resistance markers. Plasmid-replicon typing showed that IncI1-I? and IncFIA-FIB types are the most prevalent. This study shows the co-existence of multiple ESBL-encoding genes and their polyclonal dissemination among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates in the NICU of a North Indian hospital. PMID:24687949

Ali, Saeedut Zafar; Ali, Syed Manazir; Khan, Asad U

2014-06-01

168

Indian Podophyllum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Indian Podophyllum is very rich in a resin of cathartic action, it has been the subject of several botanical, chemical\\u000a and pharmacological investigations, and has been admitted to the British Pharmacopoeia but not yet to that of the United States.

Ramgopal Chatterjee

1952-01-01

169

Indian Orphanages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

170

North Station North Station  

E-print Network

North Station North Station North Station East Station ... ... North Station Water Tower Elysian, and so on. She then hides the renamed map and the permutation table in a safe. Next, Virgil tosses a coin

Chazelle, Bernard

171

Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus Cysts in North Indian Patients: Identification of G1, G3, G5 and G6 Genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the Echinococcus granulosus, is a major public health problem worldwide, including India. The different genotypes of E. granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis have been reported from endemic areas throughout the world. However, the genetic characterization of E. granulosus infecting the human population in India is lacking. The aim of study was to ascertain the genotype(s) of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in North India. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the transmission patterns of E. granulosus, genotypic analysis was performed on hydatid cysts obtained from 32 cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients residing in 7 different states of North India. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit1 (cox1) sequencing was done for molecular identification of the isolates. Most of the CE patients (30/32) were found to be infected with hydatid cyst of either G3 (53.1%) or G1 (40.62%) genotype and one each of G5 (cattle strain) and G6 (camel strain) genotype. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate the zoonotic potential of G1 (sheep strain) and G3 (buffalo strain) genotypes of E. granulosus as these emerged as predominant genotypes infecting the humans in India. In addition to this, the present study reports the first human CE case infected with G5 genotype (cattle strain) in an Asian country and presence of G6 genotype (camel strain) in India. The results may have important implications in the planning of control strategies for human hydatidosis. PMID:23785531

Sharma, Monika; Sehgal, Rakesh; Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Malhotra, Anil; Malla, Nancy

2013-01-01

172

Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8206, all casts Hickey, W8206, all casts, page

Hickey, Barbara

173

Comparison of transradial and transfemoral artery approach for percutaneous coronary angiography and angioplasty: A retrospective seven-year experience from a north Indian center  

PubMed Central

Background With the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary artery procedures have become even more important. Our study has compared transradial to transfemoral artery approach for coronary procedures in Indian population. Aims and objective Comparison of transradial and transfemoral artery approach for percutaneous coronary procedures. Material & methods 26,238 patients, who underwent percutaneous coronary artery procedures, were divided into two groups depending upon transradial and transfemoral artery approach and compared for the various demographic and clinical characteristics, risk factors profile, vascular access and procedural details. Results 26,238 patients underwent percutaneous coronary procedures at our center. 81% were male and 19% were female. 55.65% and 44.35% procedures were done through transfemoral and transradial approach, respectively. 17,417 (66.38%) coronary angiographies were done, out of which 53.92% were transradial and 46.08% were transfemoral procedures. 8821 (33.62%) Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) were done, out of which 25.46% and 74.54% were done through transradial and transfemoral approach, respectively. Mean fluoroscopy time was 4.40 ± 3.55 min for transradial and 3.30 ± 3.66 min for transfemoral CAG (p < 0.001). For PTCA mean fluoroscopy time was 13.53 ± 2.53 min for transradial and 12.61 ± 9.524 min for transfemoral PTCA (p < 0.001). Minor and major procedure related complications and total duration of hospital stay were lower in transradial as compared to transfemoral group. Conclusion The number of percutaneous transradial procedures have increased significantly with reduced complication rates and comparable success rate to transfemoral approach, along with the additional benefits to patient in terms of patient comfort, preference and reduced cost of health delivery. PMID:23992998

Tewari, Satyendra; Sharma, Naveen; Kapoor, Aditya; Syal, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Sudeep; Garg, Naveen; Goel, Pravin K.

2013-01-01

174

Wyoming Indians, Unit II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the land.…

Robinson, Terry

175

Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

176

1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

177

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

178

Indian Health Disparities  

MedlinePLUS

... Indian and Alaska Native race on state death certificates; 2006-2008 rates.) Given the higher health status ... Indian and Alaska Native race on state death certificates. American Indian and Alaska Native age-adjusted death ...

179

Forest Diplomats: The Role of Interpreters in Indian-White Relations on the Early American Frontier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that, while interpreters of American Indian languages in French territories served merely as translators of language, interpreters in British North America were often field representatives of the colonies, serving as messengers and diplomatic agents to Indian tribes. Includes many anecdotes about Indian and White interpreters. Contains 35…

Kawashima, Yasuhide

1989-01-01

180

Clean Metal Casting  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05

181

Mechanisms of stabilization of earthworm casts and artificial casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh casts were collected from the earthworm species Aporrectodea caliginosa, and artificial casts were also made. The casts were subjected to ageing, drying-rewetting, and sterilization by hexanol vapour. Clay dispersion was determined, as a measure of the lack of stability of the casts. Two soils were used, the topsoil of a recently reclaimed polder soil in the Netherlands and the

J. C. Y. Marinissen; A. R. Dexter

1990-01-01

182

International Indian Treaty Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is "an organization of indigenous peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the sovereignty and self determination of indigenous peoples." To achieve their broad goals, the IITC works to support networks of indigenous peoples around the world through their policy work in areas that include global trade, women's rights, reproductive health, and the environment. On their homepage, visitors can browse through thematic headings on the left-hand side of the page, such as "Treaty Conferences", "Cultural Rights", "Health/Toxics", and about a dozen additional listings. Visitors should also click on the "Web Content" tab to read flyers, United Nations resolutions, and draft declarations. Also, visitors can sign up to subscribe to the IITC's electronic news updates here.

183

Omaha Indian Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The oral traditions of many North American Indian groups are generally well known, though access to existing sound recordings and the like can often be limited to on-site listening booths at major museums and archives. This nice collection of traditional music from the Omaha tribe is a fine way to begin learning about these traditions. The online exhibit was created by the American Memory project at the Library of Congress and includes traditional Omaha music both from the 1890s and the 1980s. The selections from the 1890s include 44 wax cylinder recordings made by Francis La Flesche and Alice Cunningham Fletcher. Equally compelling are the 323 songs from the 1983 Omaha harvest celebration powwow that are also available here. The collection also includes a brief introductory essay, fieldnotes from the 1983 powwow, and an original program from the 1983 celebration.

184

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

Poco, J.F.

1993-09-07

185

Method of casting aerogels  

DOEpatents

The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01

186

Relationships between the Colonists and the Indians. Grade 5 Model Lesson for Standard 5.3. California History-Social Science Course Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California State Standard 5.3 is delineated as: Students describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers. North American Indians once had inhabited regions now contained in the United States that stretched from far north to south and from the east to the west coasts. The…

Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

187

A Winning Cast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

2001-01-01

188

Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps  

DOEpatents

Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Schaeffer, Jon Conrad (Greenville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT)

2002-01-01

189

Rising Tide of Cardiovascular Disease in American Indians The Strong Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) used to be rare among American Indians, Indian Health Service data suggest that CVD mortality rates vary greatly among American Indian communities and appear to be increasing. The Strong Heart Study was initiated to investigate CVD and its risk factors in American Indians in 13 communities in Arizona, Oklahoma, and South\\/North Dakota. Methods and Results—A total

Barbara V. Howard; Elisa T. Lee; Linda D. Cowan; Richard B. Devereux; James M. Galloway; Oscar T. Go; William James Howard; Everett R. Rhoades; David C. Robbins; Maurice L. Sievers; Thomas K. Welty

190

Quantified smoking status and non-small cell lung cancer stage at presentation: analysis of a North Indian cohort and a systematic review of literature  

PubMed Central

Background: There are variable observations in published literature regarding smoking status and stage of lung cancer (LC) with positive, negative and no associations being reported. In particular, data regarding the association of quantified smoking status (QSS) with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage at the time of diagnosis is limited. In India, bidi - the hand rolled form of tobacco wrapped in the dried tendu leaf - is the most common smoking product. The current study was conducted to assess stage differences, if any, based upon QSS, among newly diagnosed LC patients. Methods A systematic review of English literature was performed for previous publications that had assessed NSCLC stage differences in relation to QSS. Collected data on demographic and disease characteristics of 654 LC patients presenting to the authors’ institute was also analyzed. Smoking index (SI) was used for QSS and was defined as number of bidis and cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by years smoked. Patients were categorized as never-smokers [Group I, n=151]; light/moderate smokers (SI=1-300) [Group II, n=202] and heavy smokers (SI ?301) [Group III, n=301]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis (LRA) was performed to derive adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Among the 520 NSCLC patients, mean [standard deviation (SD)] age in groups I, II and III was 54.5 (12.5), 58.6 (9.9) and 61.2 (9.4) years respectively (P<0.001). Percentage of males in the three groups was 48.1%, 88.0%, and 97.9% (P<0.001). Age and gender differences between groups I, II and III were also significant among 134 small cell lung cancer patients with mean (SD) ages of 44.0 (10.6), 55.7 (10.3) and 58.9 (9.3) years (P<0.001) and percentage of males being 50.0%, 90.4% and 95.5% respectively (P<0.001). Among NSCLC patients, distribution in groups I, II and III respectively of squamous (28.1%, 50.0% and 57.9%) and non-squamous histologies (59.3%, 37.3% and 27.2%) differed significantly (P<0.001). Stage distribution observed for NSCLC patients in groups I, II and III respectively was as follows: stages I-IIIA (8.1%, 19.3 and 18.7%), stage IIIB (24.4%, 34.7% and 42.1%) and stage IV (67.4%, 46.0% and 39.1%). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Differences remained significant (P<0.001) for presence of extrathoracic disease [ETD] (41.5%, 28.0% and 16.6%). On multivariate LRA, SI ?301 was the only variable that was independently associated with both advanced stage (IIIB-IV) [OR=0.25 (95% CI=0.11-0.61)] and ETD [OR=0.29 (95% CI=0.16-0.53)] at presentation. Conclusions Among newly diagnosed NSCLC patients in North India, significant differences exist, based upon SI, for disease stage. Heavy smoking was independently associated with lower odds of having advanced stage as well as with lower odds of having ETD at the time of diagnosis. This observation of the current study however requires confirmation by larger prospective studies. PMID:23050111

Aggarwal, Ashutosh N.; Gupta, Dheeraj; Behera, Digambar; Jindal, Surinder K.

2012-01-01

191

Swift fox reintroductions on the Blackfeet Indian  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swift foxes (Vulpes velox) were once common prairie inhabitants throughout western North America and were integral components within ecosystems and some Native American tri- bal cultures. In response to extirpation from tribal lands, the Blackfeet Tribe and Defenders of Wildlife reintroduced 123 captive-raised swift foxes from 1998 to 2002 to the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana, USA. We used two success

David E. Ausband; Kerry R. Foresman

192

A Steward of American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

David Gipp, Hunkpapa Lakota and member of the Standing Rock Indian Tribe, is considered by many to be the unofficial historian of tribal colleges and the tribal college movement. He has been president of the United Tribes Technical College (UTTC), one of the first tribal colleges, in Bismarck, North Dakota since 1977 and led the college to its…

Pember, Mary Annette

2008-01-01

193

American Indians: Hands-On Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes some of the teaching methods she uses to teach how different American Indian groups lived in different regions of the North American continent. Her lessons include a number of projects: (1) Practicing symbolic writing; (2) Creating a personal timeline; (3) Studying winter counts and creating a personalized…

Rethlefsen, Ann Lyle

2006-01-01

194

Indian Studies Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

195

American Indians Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

Snipp, C. Matthew

196

The relation between caste ratios and division of labor in the ant genus Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten species of Pheidole, representing as many species groups from various localities in North and South America, Asia, and Africa, were analyzed to probe for possible relationships between caste ratios and division of labor.

Edward O. Wilson

1984-01-01

197

Gene diversity in some Muslim populations of North India.  

PubMed

North Indian Muslim populations have historical, linguistic, and socioreligious significance to the Indian subcontinent. Although sociocultural and political dimensions of their demography are well documented, no detailed genetic structure of the populations is available. We have undertaken a survey of the gene frequencies of the ABO, Rh, PTC taste ability, sickling, and G6PD systems for different endogamous groups: Sheikh, Syed, Pathan, Ansari, Saifi, and Hindu Bania. All the groups at most loci showed statistically nonsignificant differences, except for ABO and PTC traits, for which interpopulational differences were seen. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.048 to 0.617 among the Sheikh, 0.149 to 0.599 among the Pathan, 0.105 to 0.585 among the Ansari, 0.25 to 0.869 among the Syed, 0.107 to 0.565 among the Saifi, and 0.100 to 0.492 among the Hindu Bania. The average D(ST) and G(ST) values for the five marker loci were 0.0625 +/- 0.098 and 0.1072 +/- 0.041, respectively. A dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA clustering method. Our results revealed that the Pathan and the Sheikh form one cluster, the Syed and the Hindu Bania form another cluster, and the two clusters join together (the so-called higher caste); also, the Saifi and the Ansari form a separate cluster (lower caste). The results of the genetic distance analysis are useful for understanding the pattern of genetic relationships between different endogamous groups of Muslims. PMID:16392636

Aarzoo, S Shabana; Afzal, Mohammad

2005-06-01

198

Spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that A, B and O allele frequency surfaces on the Indian subcontinent are highly fractured.  

PubMed

Spatial autocorrelation analysis performed on published data pertaining to caste and tribal populations of the Indian subcontinent has revealed that the surfaces of A, B and O allele frequencies are highly fractured. The only significant spatial autocorrelation was observed in respect of the A allele frequency among caste populations. PMID:9270330

Mukherjee, B N; Majumder, P P

1995-12-01

199

Indian Parliament  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With one of the largest parliamentary bodies in the world, it is not surprising that the Web site for the Indian Parliament contains a staggering amount of information about its operations, its members, bills, budget proposals, and other important governmental proceedings. Visitors will want to begin by browsing through the section on the president of India (currently this is Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam) to learn about his recent statements and speeches, along with information about the beautiful presidential palace and the exquisite Mughal Garden. The other sections of the site are also compelling, and include areas devoted to the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People), where guests can read recent debates (some of which are only available in Hindi), and learn about the members of each body. Additionally, there is a frequently asked questions area that answers some basic queries about the organization and history of the Parliament.

200

The USAMP magnesium powertrain cast components project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project in 2001 to determine the feasibility of producing a magnesiumintensive engine—a six-cylinder engine with a magnesium block, bedplate, oil pan, and front cover. As the project approaches its midpoint, two goals are near completion: evaluation of the best available low-cost, creep-resistant magnesium alloys and design of engine components using the properties of the best alloys. Phase II of the project sets three additional goals: casting and testing the magnesium components in assembled powertrains, developing a powertrain magnesium alloy design database and common specification for magnesium powertrain alloys, and funding and promoting research to enable even more advanced powertrain applications in North America.

Powell, Bob R.

2003-11-01

201

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the mold in the center-right of the photo are present immediately after the pour has been completed - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

202

American Indian Stereotyping, Resource Competition, and Status-Based Prejudice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed undergraduates from Texas, North Dakota, and Wisconsin to compare status-based prejudice toward American Indians. Hypothesized that intergroup competition increases status-based prejudice. Factual knowledge and cultural stereotypes did not differ across the three samples, but negative stereotypes were more likely to occur in North Dakota…

Rouse, Linda P.; Hanson, Jeffery, R.

1991-01-01

203

Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 2 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 3 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 4 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 5 #12

Hickey, Barbara

204

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

205

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

206

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

207

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-09-28

208

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

209

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

210

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

211

New Frontiers in Clinical Training: The UND Indians into Psychology Doctoral Education (InPsyDE) Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of North Dakota's (UND) Indians into Psychology Doctoral Education program seeks to identify and recruit promising American Indian students into the field of psychology and to provide culturally appropriate training to all UND students. The staff, including three American Indian psychologists, provide a culturally sensitive program…

McDonald, Doug

1994-01-01

212

Towards the Creation of Appropriate Teaching Materials for High Proficiency ESL Learners: The Case of Indian Management Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of the textbooks used to teach Indian management students are South East Asian editions of U.S. publications. Although these provide a great deal of information on the business world, particularly in a North American context, outside of India, they do not always meet the needs of either the Indian ESL Learner, or of Indian business and…

Nickerson, Catherine

2008-01-01

213

Rapid casting solutions: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to review the industrial applications of state-of-the-art additive manufacturing (AM) techniques in metal casting technology. An extensive survey of concepts, techniques, approaches and suitability of various commercialised rapid casting (RC) solutions with traditional casting methods is presented. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The tooling required for producing metal casting such as fabrication of patterns, cores and moulds with

Munish Chhabra; Rupinder Singh

2011-01-01

214

Number Suppletion in North American Indian Languages  

E-print Network

. A Grammar of Southeastern Porno. UCPL 72. Newman, Stanley. 1965. Zuni Grammar. University of New Mexico Publi cations in Anthropology 14. Parks, Douglas R. 1976. A Grammar of Pawnee. New York: Garland. Radin, Paul. 1929. A Grammar of the Wappo...

Booker, Karen M.

1982-01-01

215

Ohno continuous casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of net-shape products directly from the liquid is an attractive manufacturing route for alloys that are difficult to process or that cannot be rolled, drawn, or extruded. Developed at the Chiba Institute of Technology in Japan, the Ohno Continuous Casting (OCC) approach not only provides significant cost savings, but also has the potential to create new products. OCC process

H. Soda; A. McLean; G. Motoyasu; A. Ohno

1995-01-01

216

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

217

Casting and Angling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

Smith, Julian W.

218

Mix/Cast Contamination Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented is a training handbook for Mix/Cast Contamination Control; a part of a series of training courses to qualify access to Mix/Cast facilities. Contents: List Contamination Control Requirements; Identify foreign objects debris (FOD), Control Areas and their guidelines; Describe environmental monitoring; List Contamination Control Initiatives; Describe concern for Controlled Materials; Identify FOD Controlled Areas in Mix/Cast.

Wallentine, M.

2005-01-01

219

Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the

Michael Bamshad; Toomas Kivisild; W. Scott Watkins; Mary E. Dixon; Chris E. Ricker; Baskara B. Rao; J. Mastan Naidu; B. V. Ravi Prasad; P. Govinda Reddy; Arani Rasanayagam; Surinder S. Papiha; Richard Villems; Alan J. Redd; Michael F. Hammer; Son V. Nguyen; Marion L. Carroll; Mark A. Batzer; Lynn B. Jorde

2001-01-01

220

American Indian Population in South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an Indians of North America class for undergraduate students. This activity looks at Indian poulation shifts in South Dakota. Using the CensusScope website, similar trends can be analyzed in all 50 states. This activity uses the charts, rankings and maps on CensusScope.org. CensusScope is an easy-to-use tool to investigate U.S. trends using census data. There is an answer key for the activity that can be found under teaching materials.

Hess, Donna

221

Odontometric sex assessment in Indians.  

PubMed

Sex determination of unidentified skeletal remains is important and various hard-tissue parameters have been evaluated towards this end. The dentition is considered as a useful adjunct in skeletal sex determination, particularly since teeth are resistant to postmortem destruction and fragmentation. Sex dimorphism in tooth size and the accuracy of odontometric sex prediction, is found to vary in different regions and researchers have advocated the need for population-specific data. No odontometric standards exist for Indians for use in forensic sex prediction. Therefore, this study examined sexual dimorphism in Indians using univariate and multivariate statistics. Mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) measurements of all teeth, except third molars, were obtained on dental casts of [corrected] 105 Indians (52 females, 53 males). The canines were [corrected] found to be the most dimorphic tooth, followed by the [corrected] BL dimensions of [corrected]first molars and that of mandibular second premolars. In general, mandibular teeth and BL dimensions showed greater tendency to be larger in males. However, just over a quarter of the measured variables (16/56; 28.6%) were statistically larger in males (p < 0.05). Moreover, ten tooth variables exhibited reverse dimorphism, i.e. female dimensions were larger than those of males. Stepwise discriminant function analysis revealed moderate accuracy in sex prediction: the teeth from both jaws taken together were able to determine sex to higher levels (76.2%) compared to only mandibular teeth (72.4%) or only maxillary teeth (67.6%). Interestingly, teeth that contributed to the stepwise discriminant analysis were either statistically larger in males or exhibited reverse dimorphism, indicating that such tooth variables may have better ability to correctly identify sex. [corrected] PMID:19744808

Prabhu, Sudeendra; Acharya, Ashith B

2009-11-20

222

Precision cast vs. wrought superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While cast polycrystalline superalloys recommend themselves in virtue of better 'buy-to-fly' ratios and higher strengthening gamma-prime volume fractions than those of wrought superalloys, the expansion of their use into such critical superalloy applications as gas turbine hot section components has been slowed by insufficient casting process opportunities for microstructural control. Attention is presently drawn, however, to casting process developments facilitating the production of defect-tolerant superalloy castings having improved fracture reliability. Integrally bladed turbine wheel and thin-walled turbine exhaust case near-net-shape castings have been produced by these means.

Tien, J. K.; Borofka, J. C.; Casey, M. E.

1986-01-01

223

Ecological organization of Indian society.  

PubMed

Some of the factors involved in securing the well being of an Indian rural population in a sustainable and environmentally sound fashion are discussed. Population pressure on the land and declining productivity threaten the balance between man and nature. The options are to provide outside technological inputs and/or to empower the rural population who may be able to provide an intimate knowledge of the local environment and must be organized and motivated to value and protect their resource base. Attention in paid to the Indian caste system, resource use diversification, group size and range, group dynamics, elites and the ecosystem, the drain on rural resources, the iron triangle of beneficiaries of subsidies, of administrators of subsidies, and of politicians, and the growing strife. The Indian caste system is differentiated by its subgroups which maintain communication within the subgroup, and resource access is determined by an individual's affiliation with the subgroup. It is not a smooth continuum between subgroups. Inequalities in resource access can create social tensions and/or partitioning of resources. The example is given of the subgroups Gavlis and Kunbis, in the Western Ghats in Pune district of Maharashtra, where exchanges are made for livestock or surplus grain, and the multicaste system of 40 subgroups in Uttara Kannada, with occupations specific to each subgroup. In order to function effectively as a subgroup the numbers must be limited or splinter groups develop. Several estimates of possible ranges are given, i.e., an upper limit of 10,000 or the equivalent of a subcaste and 10-20 endogenous groups/larger village with an area of 1000 km. Mergers and group splits are described among the Gavlis in Western Ghat and Tirumal Nadivallas and settlers of the Andaman Islands. Historically, communities were self-sufficient and surrounded elite communities; they had their own self-government and organized local resources for sustainable use, even though this was sometimes inequitable but not overexploited. Elites formed on the surplus of resources, but there was little outflow to other regions. British colonial rule made tremendous changes which led to the lack of security within depressed subgroups. The resources were controlled by the elite in the iron triangle at the expense of the small landholder, landless agricultural workers, village artisans, tribals and nomads, and urban slum dwellers. There was no reason for efficient resource use, and development was wasteful and benefited the elites. Regionalism is growing as well as tension between the elites and the poorer members of minorities. PMID:12285490

Gadgil, M

1991-01-01

224

Indians in Minneapolis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The League of Women Voters of Minneapolis decided in May of 1967 to examine public and private agencies in the city of Minneapolis to determine agency perception of Indian problems, and to assess how well the various agencies were dealing with problems related to the Indian population of the city. In addition, 100 Indians were randomly selected…

Woods, Richard G.

225

Urban American Indian Aging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document begins by dispelling several misperceptions about American Indians that are especially pernicious to older American Indians living in cities, and then goes on to discuss what is known about urban American Indian elders and the implications for planning and service delivery for Area Agencies on Aging and contractor agencies. It notes…

Kramer, Josea

226

Nevada Indians Speak.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anthology presents Indian works which reflect the attitudes of the native Indian people of the State of Nevada, commencing with the possible first White-Indian contact in the 1820's when Anglo American fur trappers and Mexican traders entered the Great Basin. The writer points out in the Preface that no effort has been made to exclude native…

Forbes, Jack D., Ed.

227

Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

Wilson, James

228

Indian Calendars Akhil Doegar  

E-print Network

Indian Calendars Akhil Doegar :: Akshay Prasad Supervisor :: Associate Professor Helmer Aslaksen Section Topic 1. Introduction 2. Astronomical Background 3. Solar Calendar 4. Indian Solar Calendar 5. Regional Variations in Indian Solar Calendar 6. Luni-Solar Calendar 6.1 Amanta Calendar 6.2 Tithi 6

Aslaksen, Helmer

229

Indian Studies Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1973 the Montana Legislature enacted the Indian Studies Law which required that by July 1, 1979 all certified personnel in schools on or in the vicinity of Montana's Indian reservations must have received training in the history, traditions, customs, values, beliefs, ethics, and contemporary affairs of American Indians, particularly the Montana…

Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

230

Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5 Hickey, TT162, Casts 2-5, page 1  

E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

231

Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7 Hickey, TT162, casts 6-7, page 1  

E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

232

Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5 Hickey, TT136, casts 3-5, page 1  

E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

233

Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10 Hickey, TT136, casts 6-10, page 1  

E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

234

Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy  

SciTech Connect

The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

1998-11-01

235

USGS CoreCast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just about everyone seems to be creating a podcast these days, and a number of government agencies have entered the fray as of late. The United States Geological Survey recently decided to hang out their own podcast shingle, and the results of their labors can be explored here. The site states that their "CoreCast" is "natural science from the inside out", which seems like an appropriate label. The podcasts range in length from two to fifteen minutes, and they cover topics such as polar bear research, sex-changing fish, and climate change. One podcast that shouldn't be overlooked is "This Episode of CoreCast is Highly Questionable". In a mere three minutes, host Scott Horvath responds to a number of questions in an engaging fashion. After listening to an episode or two, visitors will probably want to sign up to receive email updates about new episodes.

236

Volume MLS ray casting.  

PubMed

The method of Moving Least Squares (MLS) is a popular framework for reconstructing continuous functions from scattered data due to its rich mathematical properties and well-understood theoretical foundations. This paper applies MLS to volume rendering, providing a unified mathematical framework for ray casting of scalar data stored over regular as well as irregular grids. We use the MLS reconstruction to render smooth isosurfaces and to compute accurate derivatives for high-quality shading effects. We also present a novel, adaptive preintegration scheme to improve the efficiency of the ray casting algorithm by reducing the overall number of function evaluations, and an efficient implementation of our framework exploiting modern graphics hardware. The resulting system enables high-quality volume integration and shaded isosurface rendering for regular and irregular volume data. PMID:18988986

Ledergerber, Christian; Guennebaud, Gaël; Meyer, Miriah; Bächer, Moritz; Pfister, Hanspeter

2008-01-01

237

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-01-29

238

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-11-26

239

Indian – American contributions to psychiatric research  

PubMed Central

The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian – American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years. PMID:21836715

Pandurangi, Anand K.

2010-01-01

240

27. Bollinger twinchain tandem, pigcasting machine, located at the north ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Bollinger twin-chain tandem, pig-casting machine, located at the north end of the plant. Prior to closing, approximately 40 percent of the plant's: iron production was cast into pigs and sold to foundry customers. The pig-casting machine employed a controller, lime man, trough man, and crane operator. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

241

Directional migration in the Hindu castes: inferences from mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosomal data.  

PubMed

Genetic, ethnographic, and historical evidence suggests that the Hindu castes have been highly endogamous for several thousand years and that, when movement between castes does occur, it typically consists of females joining castes of higher social status. However, little is known about migration rates in these populations or the extent to which migration occurs between caste groups of low, middle, and high social status. To investigate these aspects of migration, we analyzed the largest collection of genetic markers collected to date in Hindu caste populations. These data included 45 newly typed autosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs), 411 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence, and 43 Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were assayed in more than 200 individuals of known caste status sampled in Andrah Pradesh, in South India. Application of recently developed likelihood-based analyses to this dataset enabled us to obtain genetically derived estimates of intercaste migration rates. STRPs indicated migration rates of 1-2% per generation between high-, middle-, and low-status caste groups. We also found support for the hypothesis that rates of gene flow differ between maternally and paternally inherited genes. Migration rates were substantially higher in maternally than in paternally inherited markers. In addition, while prevailing patterns of migration involved movement between castes of similar rank, paternally inherited markers in the low-status castes were most likely to move into high-status castes. Our findings support earlier evidence that the caste system has been a significant, long-term source of population structuring in South Indian Hindu populations, and that patterns of migration differ between males and females. PMID:15232732

Wooding, Stephen; Ostler, Christopher; Prasad, B V Ravi; Watkins, W Scott; Sung, Sandy; Bamshad, Mike; Jorde, Lynn B

2004-08-01

242

Leadership Preferences of Indian and Non-Indian Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among 86 Indian and non-Indian volleyball competitors, non-Indian players indicated significantly greater preferences for leadership that involved democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, or social support. Indians may adapt their behavior by participating in non-Indian games, without changing their traditional value orientations. Contains 22…

Malloy, D. C.; Nilson, R. N.

1991-01-01

243

Decadal trends in Indian Ocean ambient sound.  

PubMed

The increase of ocean noise documented in the North Pacific has sparked concern on whether the observed increases are a global or regional phenomenon. This work provides evidence of low frequency sound increases in the Indian Ocean. A decade (2002-2012) of recordings made off the island of Diego Garcia, UK in the Indian Ocean was parsed into time series according to frequency band and sound level. Quarterly sound level comparisons between the first and last years were also performed. The combination of time series and temporal comparison analyses over multiple measurement parameters produced results beyond those obtainable from a single parameter analysis. The ocean sound floor has increased over the past decade in the Indian Ocean. Increases were most prominent in recordings made south of Diego Garcia in the 85-105?Hz band. The highest sound level trends differed between the two sides of the island; the highest sound levels decreased in the north and increased in the south. Rate, direction, and magnitude of changes among the multiple parameters supported interpretation of source functions driving the trends. The observed sound floor increases are consistent with concurrent increases in shipping, wind speed, wave height, and blue whale abundance in the Indian Ocean. PMID:24180757

Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Bradley, David L; Niu, Xiaoyue Maggie

2013-11-01

244

2. GENERAL VIEW OF BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; BOILER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW OF BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; BOILER HOUSE ON LEFT; BLAST FURNACE, OVENS AND CASTING HOUSE BEYOND. - U.S. Steel Corporation, Clairton Works, Blast Furnace Blowing Engine Building, 400 State Street, Clairton, Allegheny County, PA

245

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts  

PubMed Central

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

2013-01-01

246

Man in the North Technical Paper. Education in the Canadian North, Three Reports: 1971-1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 3 research topics examined in this report are identified as crucially important by the 1970 Man in the North Inuvik Conference. Eskimo, Indian, and Metis residents of the North comprise 2/3 of the conference participants. The first 2 reports are on applied research projects, the first dealing with some practical ways to apply the concept of…

Brown, Doug; And Others

247

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E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

248

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E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

249

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E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

250

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E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

251

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E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

252

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E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

253

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E-print Network

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Hickey, Barbara

254

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Hickey, Barbara

255

Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 1 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 2 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 3 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18 Hickey, W8201, casts 11-18, page 4 CTD011 #12;Hickey, W8201

Hickey, Barbara

256

Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 1 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 2 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 3 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87 Hickey, TT162, Casts 83-87, page 4 CTD083 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

257

Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 1 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 2 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 3 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97 Hickey, TT136, casts 96-97, page 4 CTD096 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

258

Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 1 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 2 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 3 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76 Hickey, TT136, casts 56-76, page 4 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

259

Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 1 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 2 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51, page 3 CTD048 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 48, 49, 51 Hickey, TT136, casts

Hickey, Barbara

260

Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 1 CTD011 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 2 CTD011 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 3 CTD012 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20 Hickey, TT136, casts 11-20, page 4 CTD013 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

261

Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 1 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 2 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 3 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36 Hickey, TT136, casts 27-36, page 4 CTD027 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

262

Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 1 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 2 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 3 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26 Hickey, TT136, casts 21-26, page 4 CTD021 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

263

Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD001 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 1 #12;CTD001 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 2 #12;CTD002 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 3 #12;CTD002 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10 Hickey, W8201, Casts 1-10, page 4 #12;CTD003 Hickey, W8201

Hickey, Barbara

264

Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 1 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 2 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 3 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99 Hickey, TT136, casts 98-99, page 4 CTD098 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

265

Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 1 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 2 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 3 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62 Hickey, TT162, Casts 56-62, page 4 CTD056 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

266

Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 1 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 2 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 3 #12;CTD041 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43 Hickey, TT136, casts 41-43, page 4 #12;CTD041

Hickey, Barbara

267

Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 1 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 2 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 3 #12;CTD037 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40 Hickey, TT136, casts 37-40, page 4 #12;CTD037

Hickey, Barbara

268

Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 1 CTD017 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 2 CTD017 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 3 CTD018 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24 Hickey, TT162, Casts 17-24, page 4 CTD018 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

269

Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 1 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 2 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 3 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92 Hickey, TT162, Casts 88-92, page 4 CTD088 #12;Hickey, TT162

Hickey, Barbara

270

Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 1 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 2 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 3 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90 Hickey, TT136, casts 77-90, page 4 CTD077 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

271

Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 1 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 2 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 3 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46 Hickey, TT136, casts 44-46, page 4 CTD044 #12;Hickey, TT136

Hickey, Barbara

272

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

273

Electrical properties of slow-spreading ridge gabbros from ODP Site 735, Southwest Indian Ridge  

E-print Network

Electrical properties of slow-spreading ridge gabbros from ODP Site 735, Southwest Indian Ridge B a block of igneous crust which was accreted at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge, and was uplifted to seafloor by progressive unroofing along a north-dipping low-angle detachment fault. Physical

Demouchy, Sylvie

274

Teaching the American Indian in the American School: An Adventure in Cultural Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to teach students about American Indian culture, it is suggested that a chronological approach be taken in terms of where it all began, what it all means, and what of the entire Indian story is pertinent to geographic education for the student of any age. Archeology dates man's arrival in North America further and further back. This…

Jacobson, Daniel

275

48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. 52.226-1 Section...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26...Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises (JUN 2000) (a)...

2010-10-01

276

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

277

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

278

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

279

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

280

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

281

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

282

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

283

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment...approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the...

2010-11-09

284

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

285

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

286

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

287

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

288

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

289

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

290

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

291

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

292

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

293

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

294

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

295

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

296

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

297

76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2011-03-01

298

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2012-04-01

299

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2011-04-01

300

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2013-04-01

301

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2014-04-01

302

21 CFR 888.5940 - Cast component.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast component. 888.5940 Section 888.5940...ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5940 Cast component. (a) Identification. A cast component is a device intended for medical...

2010-04-01

303

Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

Mihalow, Paula

1980-01-01

304

Education and Caste in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

2008-01-01

305

Clogging in Continuous Casting Nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nozzle clogging is a serious productivity and qua lity problem in continuous casting. This work reviews the causes, effects, and solutions to cloggi ng in continuous casting nozzles. The results of a one-dimensional, steady state analysis of the heat loss from the molten steel stream through the nozzle wall are discussed. The analyses show that steel may freeze within the

K. G. Rackers; B. G. Thomas

306

On the influence of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas upon the bottom waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bottom waters of the North Pacific and North Indian Oceans have temperature and salinity distributions that suggest origins from the extreme waters of the Norwegian-Greenland and Weddell seas. We attempt to trace these waters from their sources to the abyssal Pacific and Indian oceans by examining distributions of temperature and salinity along a stratum defined by density parameters. We

JOSEPH L. REID; RONALD J. LYNN

1971-01-01

307

Indian Education in Maine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Maine Department of Education assumed the responsibility for the education of Indian children living on Indian reservations on July 1, 1966. This report provides information on the present status of the program. Information is provided on number of schools, school enrollment for the 1969-1970 school year, characteristics of the teaching staff,…

Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

308

Indians of Oklahoma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oklahoma's present-day Indian culture and civilization, it is noted, are very much pronounced, with more than 68 tribes still proudly embracing their identities. Oklahoma is shown to be the melting pot of Indian America on a map indicating the original homelands of some of the many tribes that settled in the State. The historical development and…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

309

Indian Ocean proposed drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO\\/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the

Joseph R. Curray

1984-01-01

310

Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

Velie, Alan R.

1984-01-01

311

mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p < 0.002). The effects of social structure on mtDNA variation are much greater than those on variation measured by traditional markers. Explanations for this discordance include (1) the higher resolving power of mtDNA, (2) sex-dependent gene flow, (3) differences in male and female effective population sizes, and (4) elements of the kinship structure. Thirty distinct haplotypes are found in Africans, 17 in Asians, and 13 in Europeans. Mean nucleotide diversity is 0.019, 0.014, 0.009, and 0.007 for Africans, Indians, Asians, and Europeans, respectively. These populations are highly structured geographically (GST = 0.15; p < 0.001). The caste populations of Andhra Pradesh cluster more often with Africans than with Asians or Europeans. This is suggestive of admixture with African populations. PMID:8907753

Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B

1996-02-01

312

Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan  

E-print Network

Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM;Hickey -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total -TT174, casts 1 to cast 11 Cruise cast lat (dd.mm.m) lon(dd.mm.m) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scan

Hickey, Barbara

313

Strip casting apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

1988-09-20

314

Multi-layer Clouds Over the South Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on April 23, 2003. These clouds occur at multiple altitudes and exhibit a noticeable cyclonic circulation over the Southern Indian Ocean, to the north of Enderbyland, East Antarctica.

The image at left was created by overlying a natural-color view from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) camera with a color-coded stereo height field. MISR retrieves heights by a pattern recognition algorithm that utilizes multiple view angles to derive cloud height and motion. The opacity of the height field was then reduced until the field appears as a translucent wash over the natural-color image. The resulting purple, cyan and green hues of this aesthetic display indicate low, medium or high altitudes, respectively, with heights ranging from less than 2 kilometers (purple) to about 8 kilometers (green). In the lower right corner, the edge of the Antarctic coastline and some sea ice can be seen through some thin, high cirrus clouds.

The right-hand panel is a natural-color image from MISR's 70-degree backward viewing camera. This camera looks backwards along the path of Terra's flight, and in the southern hemisphere the Sun is in front of this camera. This perspective causes the cloud-tops to be brightly outlined by the sun behind them, and enhances the shadows cast by clouds with significant vertical structure. An oblique observation angle also enhances the reflection of light by atmospheric particles, and accentuates the appearance of polar clouds. The dark ocean and sea ice that were apparent through the cirrus clouds at the bottom right corner of the nadir image are overwhelmed by the brightness of these clouds at the oblique view.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 17794. The panels cover an area of 335 kilometers x 605 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 142 to 145 within World Reference System-2 path 155.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

315

Swift fox reintroductions on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swift foxes (Vulpes velox) were once common prairie inhabitants throughout western North America and were integral components within ecosystems and some Native American tribal cultures. In response to extirpation from tribal lands, the Blackfeet Tribe and Defenders of Wildlife reintroduced 123 captive-raised swift foxes from 1998 to 2002 to the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana, USA. We used two success criteria,

David E. Ausband; Kerry R. Foresman

2007-01-01

316

Potential Change in the Indian Monsoon Circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In India and East Africa more than 350 million people face chronic undernourishment; population growth alone could bring this number to 500 million by 2030. Below normal rains have become more frequent as falling water tables, land degradation, warmer air temperatures, and rising fuel and fertilizer costs limit crop production growth. The Indian and East African boreal summer monsoons rely on large moisture transports from the southern Indian Ocean (SIO, 55-90°E, 0-15°S) and a low pressure cell over the north Indian Ocean (NIO, 55-90°E, 0-15°N). The relatively cloud free NIO warm pool receives a large excess of solar radiation, which the ocean transports south across the equator. While many factors influence this system, we present here observations and climate simulations linking preferential SIO-versus-NIO warming, evaporation and precipitation changes to weaker monsoon winds, weaker northward moisture transports, and warmer and drier weather in India and East Africa. Observations show that increasing SIO sea surface temperatures (SSTs) below rapid surface winds provide an 'evaporative window' (Fig. 1) that transfers energy and moisture to the atmosphere, increasing SIO rainfall. Climate simulations driven with i) observed SSTs and ii) mid-tropospheric SIO heating associate increased SIO rainfall with lower NIO rainfall. Given the empirical relationships between increasing SIO rainfall and reduced summer monsoon rains, continued warming in the Indian Ocean could lead to more frequent droughts in India, and perhaps, East Africa.

Funk, C. C.; Williams, A. P.; Mishra, V.; Barlow, M. A.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.

2011-12-01

317

New Indian Tribalism. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this paper are to identify the problems Washington State Indians face and to provide considerations that might assist in promoting the welfare and well-being of American Indians. It is stated that the major barrier to the Indian's success in American society is the attitude of the Anglo towards the Indian. Thus, the programs and…

Beckmann, Kathleen

318

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

319

Resources for American Indian Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory is intended to provide a comprehensive listing of organizational and informational resources related to the rehabilitation needs of American Indians with disabilities. The guide is divided into two sections. The first section contains lists of American Indian organizations, American Indian centers, Bureau of Indian Affairs offices,…

Thomason, Timothy C., Ed.

320

Tritium, radiocarbon, 90Sr and 129I in the Pacific and Indian Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic radionuclides have been widely used to investigate water circulation on regional and global scales. We observed that 3H, 14C, 90Sr and 129I concentrations in surface water of the Indian Ocean are similar to those measured in the North-western Pacific Ocean. This is due to the transport of water masses from the North-western Pacific via the Indonesian Seas to the Indian Ocean. The observed variations of radionuclide concentrations with latitude in the Indian Ocean are not due to deposition patterns of global fallout, but due to different water masses present in the region. Higher radionuclide concentrations observed in the South Indian Ocean in the latitudinal belt of 20-40°S are associated with the Indian Ocean Subtropical gyre, which acts as a reservoir of radionuclides.

Povinec, P. P.; Lee, S.-H.; Kwong, L. Liong Wee; Oregioni, B.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kieser, W. E.; Morgenstern, U.; Top, Z.

2010-04-01

321

Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide  

E-print Network

Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide Version B January 27, 2003 IM-1002 Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide General information and protocols for using Novex® pre-cast gels www.invitrogen.com tech.....................................................................................................................1 Novex® Pre-Cast Gels

Kirschner, Marc W.

322

Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 1 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 2 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 3 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136,Casts 1-2, page 4 CTD001 #12;Hickey -TT136 casts 1-2 Hickey -TT136

Hickey, Barbara

323

Energy and Technolgy Assessment of Zinc and Magnesium Casting Plants, Technical Report Close-out, August 25,2006  

SciTech Connect

Twin City Die Castings Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota, Twin City Die Castings Company was awarded project No. DE-FG36-05GO15097 to perform plant wide assessments of ten (10) die casting facilities that produce zinc and magnesium alloy castings in order to determine improvements and potential cost savings in energy use. Mr. Heider filled the role of team leader for the project and utilized the North American Die Casting Association (NADCA) to conduct audits at team participant plants so as to hold findings specific to each plant proprietary. The intended benefits of the project were to improve energy use through higher operational and process efficiency for the plants assessed. An improvement in energy efficiency of 5 – 15% was targeted. The primary objectives of the project was to: 1) Expand an energy and technology tool developed by the NADCA under a previous DOE project titled, “Energy and Technology Assessment for Die Casting Plants” for assessing aluminum die casting plants to be more specifically applicable to zinc and magnesium die casting facilities. 2) Conduct ten (10) assessments of zinc and magnesium die casting plants, within eight (8) companies, utilizing the assessment tool to identify, evaluate and recommend opportunities to enhance energy efficiency, minimize waste, and improve productivity. 3) Transfer the assessment tool to the die casting industry at large.

Twin City Die Castings Company; Tom Heider; North American Die Castings Association

2006-08-25

324

Innovations in cast magnesium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines questions related to aspects of the production of castings of magnesium alloys in molds made by volumetric\\u000a stamping without the use of the corresponding tooling. Information is presented on features of the gating-feeding systems\\u000a used to obtain magnesium-alloy castings in molds made by volumetric stamping. Also examined are features of the effect of\\u000a small additions of calcium

V. D. Belov; A. V. Koltygin; N. A. Belov; I. V. Plisetskaya

2010-01-01

325

Indian Policy and Westward Expansion  

E-print Network

, Indian wars, the Pacific railroad project, the extension of the frontier, schemes for the civilization of the Indians, etc., are topics in Western history which are more or less unrelated in the form in which they have usually been treated. Indian.... CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Position of the Indian Country—Time during which problem developed—Factors determining Indian policy: Settlement of the Pacific Coast, Transcontinental lines of communication and transportation, Westward expansion in the Trans...

Malin, James Claude

1921-11-01

326

Indian concepts on sexuality  

PubMed Central

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

327

EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREESTORY BRICK BUILDING WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREE-STORY BRICK BUILDING WITH DEEPLY-BRACKETED AND OVERHANGING EAVES INCLUDES MULTIPLE BAYS CONSTRUCTED BEGINNING IN 1913 TO SERVE AS A 'CIVIC CENTER' FOR ACIPCO EMPLOYEES AND THEIR FAMILIES. THE BUILDING CURRENTLY INCLUDES THE TIME OFFICE, CAFETERIA, AND AUDITORIUM. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Service Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

328

Indian Language Information Retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the proliferation of the Internet in south Asia over the last decade, the availability of digital documents in Indian languages has increased considerably. The need for effective information access methods for these languages is being increasingly felt. Although Indian language information retrieval (ILIR) research is in a relatively nascent stage (especially with regard to large-scale quantitative evaluation), several research efforts in this area have been reported in the recent past. This chapter reviews the current state of the art in mono-lingual and cross-lingual information access in Indian languages and outlines a recent project that aims to create a comprehensive, end-to-end IR system for Indian languages, along with a standardized evaluation framework (in the spirit of TREC, CLEF, or NTCIR) that will provide a sound empirical basis for further work.

Majumder, Prasenjit; Mitra, Mandar

329

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

330

Directory of Vocational Rehabilitation Service Projects for American Indians, 1997-98. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief directory lists 39 American Indian vocational rehabilitation services programs in 16 states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, and Washington. Each listed program contains tribal name, name of director,…

Lang-Ferrell, Karen, Comp.

331

Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.  

PubMed Central

The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI. PMID:11607687

Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

1996-01-01

332

Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.  

PubMed

The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI. PMID:11607687

Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

1996-06-25

333

76 FR 58076 - Designation of The Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian Mujahidin, Also Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM), as a Specially...Mujahedeen, also known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF- IM),...

2011-09-19

334

76 FR 58076 - Designation of the Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian Mujahidin, Also Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM), as a Foreign...Mujahedeen, also known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM)....

2011-09-19

335

The Social Impact of Broadcasting in the North.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1970 paper is an expression of personal views acquired during 12 years of broadcasting in the Canadian North. The population of the North is polarized between 2 social groups: the minority of white incomers, who have the jobs, money, and power; and the native Indians, Eskimos, and Metis, who are economically deprived, culturally alienated, and…

Cowan, Andrew

336

Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings  

SciTech Connect

The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

2002-07-30

337

Indian Ocean experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and

V. Ramanathan; P. J. Crutzen; J. Lelieveld; A. P. Mitra; D. Althausen; J. Anderson; M. O. Andreae; W. Cantrell; G. R. Cass; C. E. Chung; A. D. Clarke; J. A. Coakley; W. D. Collins; W. C. Conant; F. Dulac; J. Heintzenberg; A. J. Heymsfield; B. Holben; S. Howell; J. Hudson; A. Jayaraman; J. T. Kiehl; T. N. Krishnamurti; D. Lubin; G. McFarquhar; T. Novakov; J. A. Ogren; K. Priestley; J. M. Prospero; P. K. Quinn; K. Rajeev; P. Rasch; S. Rupert; R. Sadourny; S. K. Satheesh; G. E. Shaw; P. Sheridan; F. P. J. Valero

2001-01-01

338

CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 1 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 2 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 3 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22 Hickey, W8201_casts 19-22, page 4 #12;CTD019Hickey, W8201_casts 19

Hickey, Barbara

339

CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 1 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 2 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 3 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25 Hickey, W8201_casts 23-25, page 4 #12;CTD023Hickey, W8201_casts 23

Hickey, Barbara

340

CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 1  

E-print Network

CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 1 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 2 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 3 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23 Hickey, W8101_casts 21-23, page 4 #12;CTD021Hickey, W8101_casts 21

Hickey, Barbara

341

Casting Castings: A Classroom Hands-on Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity will provide a useful technique for students to learn casting concepts. The class will be allowed a hands-on experience with casting. Students will make their own fishing sinkers. The lesson plan document includes step by step instructions for the lesson along with photographs.This activity would be appropriate for high school and college level students. The lesson should take about one hour of class time. This document will serve as a framework for instructors and may be downloaded in PDF format.

Johnson, Craig

2012-11-08

342

USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components: Fundamental research summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components (MPCC) Project is an effort, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), to demonstrate the readiness of magnesium for use in powertrain applications by testing a set the magnesium-intensive engines which were designed, cast, and assembled. A second MPCC goal is to promote new and strengthen existing magnesium scientific research in North America. The project investigated several of the newly developed high-temperature (creep-resistant) magnesium alloys, which will potentially experience service conditions in the temperature range of 150-200°C and about 50-110 MPa in stresses (typical powertrain). However, the mechanical and physical behaviors of these new alloys are not fully understood. This article outlines MPCC-supported fundamental scientific research into the workings of these new alloys. The areas of research are: phase equilibrium and computational thermodynamics, creep deformation mechanisms, corrosion, hot tearing, and alloy recycling.

Beals, Randy S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Wayne Jones, J.; Mallick, P. K.; Emadi, Daryoush; Schwam, David; Powell, Bob R.

2007-08-01

343

Blasting casting to raise productivity  

SciTech Connect

Normally, surface mines employ draglines or truck and shovel systems to remove overburden. Blasting merely fragments and displaces the overburden enough to allow for easy digging. But during the past two decades, the effect of inflation and increased labor costs have encouraged unconventional methods of overburden removal. All of us are aware of the tremendous inflationary effects on costs of equipment, fuel, labor, interest, insurance, environmental compliance, etc. This has allowed the authors to take a new look at the use of explosives as an effective alternate method of overburden removal. This technique is known by several names, but basically blast casting or just casting best describes it. Other terms in vogue are explosive casting, controlled trajectory blasting, trajectory control blasting, and whatever terminology comes to mind.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-07-01

344

CAST results and Axion review  

E-print Network

We present results from the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), together with a brief review on prospects on Axion searches with a variety of experimental techniques. CAST has explored masses up to 0.64 eV setting the most stringent limit on the axion-photon coupling, apart for the micro-eV region where ADMX is the most competitive experiment. CAST is aiming at surpassing the 1eV WMAP upper limit and possibly revisiting the operation in vacuum with extra sensitive X-ray detectors, while ADMX, using improved extra sensitive SQUID amplifiers will explore the micro-eV mass range.

T. Geralis; for the CAST collaboration

2009-05-26

345

Prevalence of multidrug-resistant, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus in nasal carriage, food, wastewater and paper currency in Jalandhar city (north-western), an Indian state of Punjab.  

PubMed

Development of multidrug-resistant pattern in the bacterial community is a major threat to the society. Staphylococcus aureus is perhaps the pathogen of the greatest concern because of its inherent virulence, its ability to cause a diverse array of life-threatening situations and capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions. The aims of this study is to investigate the multidrug-resistant pattern of the coagulase-positive S. aureus isolated from nasal carriage, food, paper currency and wastewater samples. We had also studied the multiple antibiotic resistance index and in vitro production of ?-lactamase. The study had found out 130 coagulase-positive S. aureus strains isolated from total of 595 samples such as anterior nares of preschool children (195), hospital nurses (100), drivers (76), food (86), wastewater (3) and paper currency (135) (Indian rupee). The biotypes pattern were as follows; A > D > B > C> UT. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) value clearly defines the multidrug-resistant pattern of the S. aureus among different sources. Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) of results obtained indicated that the difference in the antibiotic resistance observed in the 130 bacterial isolates against the 23 different antibiotics used in this study was statically significant (p?

Kumar, Harsh; Palaha, Rajdeep; Kaur, Navreet; Ratnakar, Wankhede Swapnil; Sodi, Aakanksha; Kaur, Manmeet; Katiyar, Richa; Sharma, Mamta; Kaur, Charanpreet; Kumar, Virendra

2015-01-01

346

Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations  

SciTech Connect

Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

2004-03-15

347

Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

2005-01-01

348

A Look at Indian Control of Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The opportunity for American Indians to learn in their own way, a way of deep cultural roots and implications, must be provided in schools rather than using the educational psychology which dominates today's classrooms. The importance of adopting an Indian philosophy is stressed in this policy statement by the National Indian Brotherhood. (See…

Weitz, Jacqueline M.

1974-01-01

349

Casting propellant in rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for casting a solid propellant in the casing of a rocket engine having a continuous wall with a single opening which is formed by leaves of a material which melt at a temperature of the propellant and with curved edges concentric to the curvature of the spherical casing. The leaves are inserted into the spherical casing through the opening forming a core having a greater width than the width of the single opening and with curved peripheral edges. The cast propellant forms a solid mass and then heated to melt the leaves and provide a central opening with radial projecting flutes.

Roach, J. E.; Froehling, S. C. (inventors)

1976-01-01

350

Cast-a-Box: Casting Conditions and Macroporosity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An illustration of three-dimensional finite difference simulation of heat conduction with phase change and complex boundary conditions, this requires students to adjust boundary conditions to make the top surface of a regular hexahedral "casting" to freeze last, eliminating macroporosity.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-08-24

351

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

352

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

353

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

354

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

355

North Pole  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will be able to browse through the north pole and read messages from Santa, his elves, the reindeer and get a North Pole weather report. our 'I E-Mailed Santa' button (North Pole Productions, a division of Internet Access Inc, Ottawa, Canada).

356

American Indian Policy Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Arizona State University, the American Indian Policy Institute collaborates with tribal governments and American Indian communities on issues that affect them and also works to nurture innovation for American Indian sustainability. The site offers a wealth of reports, news articles, publications, conference programs, and other items that will be of interest to scholars. The Reports & Publications area contains thoughtful missives such as "Tribes and Energy within Arizona" and "Land Use Challenges and Choices for the 21st Century." The Award-Winning First Innovations area offers up a host of best practices designed to introduce sustainability entrepreneurship in Native American communities. Additionally, the Projects & Initiatives area offers detailed program information about tribal planning summits and financial management seminars.

357

Indian Child Welfare in Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

358

The Revolution in Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though the educational achievement of American Indians during the last 10 years has been impressive, indications are that it will be some time before Indian people have an equal educational opportunity with the majority population. To understand the statistics and social indicators of the revolution in Indian education, it is necessary to examine…

Chavers, Dean

359

White Control of Indian "Education."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper is about White control of Indian education; how Euro-Canadian missionaries and government agents worked hand-in-hand in their relentless attempts to transform Indian people into their own image. The shrill and persistent theme of Euro-Canadians was how best to civilize and Christianize the Indians. Controlled situations in school and in…

LaRocque, Emma D.

360

The Indian in American History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The treatment of American Indians is discussed historically with reference to the 4 principal methods used to create or perpetuate false impressions: obliteration, defamation, disembodiment, and disparagement. Indian contributions to American civilization are cited in contrast with historical references to Indians in textbooks. The author suggests…

Vogel, Virgil J.

361

Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

362

[Presidential Message on Indian Affairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Nixon's message pointed out the deprivation and the injustices which the American Indians have suffered for centuries. It was noted that now is the time to break with the past and create conditions for a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and decisions. The relationship between the Federal Government and the…

Nixon, Richard

363

Facts about American Indian Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

364

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

365

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2012-12-28

366

ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10  

E-print Network

ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 3 #12;ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10 Hickey, W8101, casts 1-10, page 4 #12;ATTEN ATTEN Hickey, W8101

Hickey, Barbara

367

48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian...

2010-10-01

368

Biocompatibility of Dental Casting Alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most cast dental restorations are made from alloys or commercially pure titanium (cpTi). Many orthodontic appliances are also fabricated from metallic materials. It has been documented in vitro and in vivo that metallic dental devices release metal ions, mainly due to corrosion. Those metallic components may be locally and systemically distributed and could play a role in the etiology of

Werner Geurtsen

2002-01-01

369

Scheduled Castes and Land Deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is more in the form of setting broad contours for a comprehensive buildup. It is divided into four sections. The first section discusses the landlessness or nearlandlessness of majority of Scheduled Caste households and the benefits of land assigned to them as a part of redistributive land reform strategy. The second section analyses the impact of redistributive land

D. Narasimha Reddy

370

Math: Objectives Guide. Project CAST.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide lists math objectives needed for independent living by secondary special education students. One of a series of Project CAST (Community and School Together) life skills manuals, the guide outlines basic competencies in terms of goal statements, behavioral objectives, and specialized vocabulary for the following areas: money, making…

Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

371

Homogenization heat treating cast microstructure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cast microstructures have variations in composition on the length scale of dendrites and homogenization heat treatments are performed to smooth out these variations. This problem is an integral analysis of the 1D diffusion mass transfer in this problem. The results using two different assumed profiles are compared.

Krane, Matthew J. M.

2008-10-25

372

Overview of ToxCast?  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2007, EPA launched ToxCast? in order to develop a cost-effective approach for prioritizing the toxicity testing of large numbers of chemicals in a short period of time. Using data from state-of-the-art high throughput screening (HTS) bioassays developed in the pharmaceutical i...

373

Spray casting project final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in

S. R. Churnetski; J. E. Thompson

1996-01-01

374

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

375

Electroslag casting of compressor crankshafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all of the methods of production of crankshaft castings a method making it possible to melt sections of it with three molds was used. The essence of production of castinss of sections using the method selected is as follows. In one mold a crank is produced by remelting of a consumable electrode with obtaining of a crank (with axes)

A. P. Alikin; A. A. Dan'kin

1993-01-01

376

Molding A Cast Metals Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cast metals program, a two-year associate degree program, at Muskegon Community College, Musegon, Michigan operates in close cooperation with the local foundry industry to provide a background for entry-level technical jobs and for continued studies toward a four-year degree. (EA)

Trumble, Dale E.

1975-01-01

377

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2014-04-01

378

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2013-04-01

379

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2011-04-01

380

A Microbiological Study of Earthworm Casts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Microbiological, physical and chemical changes were followed in worm casts ageing in the field. Filamentous fungi and yeasts increased in number rapidly after the cast was produced, but not bacteria or actinomycetes which were initially numerous. Measurements of hyphal length confirmed the increased growth of fungi. Ageing casts showed a declining respiratory activity, possibly because the bacteria formed resting

J. N. Parle

1963-01-01

381

Coping with type casts in C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of type casts is pervasive in C. Although casts provide great flexibility in writing programs, their use obscures the meaning of programs, and can present obstacles during maintenance. Casts involving pointers to structures (C structs) are particularly problematic, because by using them, a programmer can interpret any memory region to be of any desired type, thereby compromising C's

Michael Siffr; Satish Chandra; Thomas Ball; Krishna Kunchithapadam; Thomas W. Reps

1999-01-01

382

21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food...Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical...

2012-04-01

383

July/August 20056 Casting aluminum  

E-print Network

includes `continuous' casting of Al, whereby the solid is formed in the water- cooled casterJuly/August 20056 Bob Rapp Casting aluminum Lay people unfamiliar with metallurgical processing to cast Al commercially. Perhaps I can interest the reader with a summary of this important process. I

Colton, Jonathan S.

384

A Mechanism Relating the Indian Ocean SSTs, ENSO, and the Nile Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant fraction of the inter-annual variability in the Nile River flow is associated with ElNino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Fluctuations of the Indian Ocean Sea Surface temperature (SST) are also associated with the Nile flow. Here, we investigate the intermediate role of Indian Ocean SSTs in the teleconnection between Nile flow and ENSO. Using the partial coherency analysis, we show that connection between the North and Middle of Indian Ocean SSTs and Nile flow is driven by ENSO. However, the South of Indian Ocean SSTs have an independent role from ENSO in shaping variability of Nile flow. This independence allows for indices of SSTs over the South of Indian Ocean and ENSO to explain about 60% of the variability of the Nile flow when they are used together. During ElNino events, the SSTs over the Indian Ocean increase following the warming of the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), which forces a Matsuno-Gill circulation with enhanced westerlies winds over Indian Ocean that decreases the convergence of boundary layer air over the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin. On the other hand, the increased SSTs over South of Indian Ocean generate a cyclonic motion, which has a similar effect on the convergence of boundary layer air over the UBN. The proposed mechanism has an important implication in understanding the potential climate change impacts on the Nile flow induced by warming of over Indian Ocean and provide new indices for Nile flow forecast models.

Siam, M.; Eltahir, E. A.

2012-12-01

385

Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C

Hickey, Barbara

386

INDIAN ETHOS, INDIAN CULTURE AND INDIAN MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS NEW FRONTIERS IN MANAGEMENT THINKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

During recent years, Indian concepts have acquired a new prominence at the global level. Its roots go back to 1960s, when several Indian Spiritual Movements (ISMs) acquired a worldwide acceptance and presence. TM, ISKCON, Brahma Kumaries, SRF (Self-Realization Fellowship), Art of Living, etc. are a few illustrations. Many new movements are emerging and Indian cultural ideas and concepts are finding

Subhash Sharma

387

Indian Education in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pictorial publication briefly discusses Indian education in Canada. Discussed are: nursery schools and kindergartens; elementary and secondary schools; teaching staff--preschool instructors, teacher aides, classroom assistants, teachers, and principals; guidance staff--guidance and social counsellors, and home and school coordinators; support…

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

388

Early Indian People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

Doermann, Elisabeth

1979-01-01

389

South Dakota Indian Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed in this American Indian bibliography are 310 books and pamphlets dating from 1894 to 1971. Entries are arranged under the following headings: Art and Music, Bibliography, Culture, Fiction, Government Relations, History, Language, and Religion and Mythology. Also included is a list of publishers and addresses, containing 111 entries. (HBC)

South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

390

Indians of the Northwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

391

American Indian Recipes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

392

American Indian Heritage Month  

E-print Network

into the "human condition" are obvious. You are encouraged to bring your lunch to this mid- day performance: American Indian Studies and the Anthropology Club Contact: Nick Copeland, ncopel@vt.edu Monday, October 28 Studies, the Anthropology Club and Multicultural Programs and Services Contact: Sam Cook, sacook2@vt

Virginia Tech

393

Viscosity of casting fluxes used during continuous casting of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten flux viscosity of eighteen commercially available casting fluxes has been measured as a function of temperature in\\u000a the range of 1223 to 1723 K. Results show that, at a constant temperature, the flux viscosity is primarily dependent on the\\u000a mole fractions of SiO2 and A12O3. The calculated activation energy for viscous flow at 1573 K varies from 59 to

Michael D. Lanyi; Casimir J. Rosa

1981-01-01

394

Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting  

SciTech Connect

The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

R. Allen Miller

2005-03-30

395

Process development of thin strip steel casting  

SciTech Connect

An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

1990-12-01

396

Manufacture of large castings in permanent molds  

SciTech Connect

A new technological process has been introduced for manufacturing large cast-iron pulley blanks in permanent molds. The pulley casting weighs 137 kg and has a rim diameter of 650 mm. The permanent mold is split horizontally. Before pouring metal the mold is heated with a gas torch to a temperature of 200-250/sup 0/C and coated with a layer of thermal insulation material. The molten metal is poured at a temperature of 1280-1300/sup 0/C within a period of 40-50 seconds. The casting is held in the mold for 4-5 minutes. A simple pneumatic machine has been designed for ejecting the castings. The permanent mold, being made of cast iron, can be used for more than 500 castings. Introduction of the new technological process for casting pulleys in permanent molds has reduced the labor requirement by four times, eliminated rejections caused by using sand molds, and improved the working conditions.

Panin, V.I.; Baryshnikov, V.G.; Papandopoulo, A.N.

1983-01-01

397

Land surface conditions over Eurasia and Indian summer monsoon rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using observations of snow cover, soil moisture, surface air temperature, atmospheric circulation, and Indian summer monsoon precipitation from 1870 to 2000, we examine the relationship between interannual variations of the strength of the monsoon and land surface conditions over Eurasia. For the periods 1870-1895 and 1950-1995, strong Indian summer monsoon precipitation was preceded by warmer than normal temperatures over Europe and North America in the previous winter and over western Asia in the previous spring but colder temperatures over Tibet. The European temperature anomalies were related to the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Related negative snow cover anomalies in Europe in winter and central Asia in spring were produced by circulation and temperature anomalies. The snow-albedo feedback is always operating, but the snow by itself did not physically control the monsoon. Anomalous snow cover impacts on temperature were not prolonged by soil moisture feedbacks because of its short time memory, and there was no obvious relationship between soil moisture and the monsoon. Strong Indian summer monsoon precipitation was actually preceded by higher than normal Tibetan snow cover in winter and spring in contrast to the suggestion of [1884] more than a century ago. The correlation between Indian summer monsoon rainfall and winter land temperatures and snow cover only exists when interannual variation of the NAO is very strong, and therefore NAO is not a robust predictor of the monsoon. Climate models show that the relationship between NAO and monsoon is random.

Robock, Alan; Mu, Mingquan; Vinnikov, Konstantin; Robinson, David

2003-02-01

398

Influence of Casting Parameters on the Critical Casting Size of Bulk Metallic Glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of various casting parameters and thermophysical properties of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) on critical section size, defined as the maximum casting size that generates a through-section amorphous alloy, has been analyzed using a simple heat-transfer model. It was found that the interfacial heat transfer between the mold and the casting has a strong influence on the critical section thickness of a BMG. It is argued herein that the critical cooling rate rather than the critical casting size is a more robust indicator of glass-forming ability (GFA). Further, with respect to the critical cooling rate and heat-transfer effects during casting, a distinct difference was found between the critical casting thickness in rectangular-shaped castings and the critical casting diameter in rod-shaped castings, and a relationship was derived for relating these parameters.

Laws, Kevin J.; Gun, Bulent; Ferry, Michael

2009-10-01

399

Seismic Refraction Measurements in the Southern Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-seven seismic refraction profiles in the southern Indian Ocean are described. They straddle four major physiographic features: Two branches of the mid-ocean ridge system, Broken ridge, and the Ninetyeast ridge. The Runion and Crozet basins are structurally very similar to the flanks and adjacent basins of the northern mid-Atlantic ridge. North of Amster- dam Island the mantle beneath the crest

Timothy J. G. Francis; Russell W. Raitt

1967-01-01

400

A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

1985-01-01

401

Casting Alloys: Side-Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Side-effects from dental materials are a minor problem, but should be recognized. In recent questionnaire surveys about side-effects, the incidence was estimated to be 1:300 in periodontics and 1:2600 in pedodontics. None of these reactions was related to dental casting alloys. In prosthodontics, the incidence was calculated to be about 1:400, and about 27% were related to base-metal alloys forremovable

Arne Hensten-Pettersen

1992-01-01

402

Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts

Hickey, Barbara

403

Indian scales and inventories  

PubMed Central

This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

Venkatesan, S.

2010-01-01

404

INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

Pearson, Robert C.; Speltz, Charles N.

1984-01-01

405

West Indian Orchidaceae Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New York Botanical Garden has recently placed online this searchable database of West Indian Orchids. Containing approximately 5,200 specimen records for the family Orchidacese (from the New York Botanical Garden's collection), the database may be searched by Family, Collector, Country, Taxon, State/Province, and other select fields. Typical returns provide information on Specimen name (scientific name), Location, Collector, Description, and Habitat.

406

Indian Converts Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First published in 1727, the remarkable book "Indian Converts, or Some account of the lives and dying speeches of a considerable number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard" is now available in full online. Written by Experience Mayhew, the book provides remarkable insights into the lives and culture of four generations of Native Americans in colonial America. This digitized version was created at Reed College, and visitors can look through all four sections of the work, which include "Indian Ministers" and "Pious Children." Throughout the work, Mayhew details the books that different age groups were reading, provides insights into early New England pedagogy and childrearing practices, and also describes each individual in terms of their own genealogy and personal history. The truly fantastic thing about the site is that it also contains an archive with over 600 images and documents that further contextualize the work. Also, the site contains study guides designed for classroom use that cover artifact analysis, genealogy, and reading gravestones.

407

Indian and Chinese cosmologies reconsidered.  

PubMed

Indian and Chinese cosmic elements are five. They originate from a common source, Bralrma in Indian and Thai-chi in Chinese. The first created element is Mu = Tree, not wood, and life-form itself, immovable but moves everything else = Akaska in Indian cosmology. Dryness = Metal in Chinese, Moisture = Earth. Fire as Heat and Water as Cold, are common to both systems. PMID:3895884

Mahdihassan, S

1985-01-01

408

Diverse genetic origin of Indian Muslims: evidence from autosomal STR loci.  

PubMed

The origin and relationships of Indian Muslims is still dubious and are not yet genetically well studied. In the light of historically attested movements into Indian subcontinent during the demic expansion of Islam, the present study aims to substantiate whether it had been accompanied by any gene flow or only a cultural transformation phenomenon. An array of 13 autosomal STR markers that are common in the worldwide data sets was used to explore the genetic diversity of Indian Muslims. The austere endogamy being practiced for several generations was confirmed by the genetic demarcation of each of the six Indian Muslim communities in the phylogenetic assessments for the markers examined. The analyses were further refined by comparison with geographically closest neighboring Hindu religious groups (including several caste and tribal populations) and the populations from Middle East, East Asia and Europe. We found that some of the Muslim populations displayed high level of regional genetic affinity rather than religious affinity. Interestingly, in Dawoodi Bohras (TN and GUJ) and Iranian Shia significant genetic contribution from West Asia, especially Iran (49, 47 and 46%, respectively) was observed. This divulges the existence of Middle Eastern genetic signatures in some of the contemporary Indian Muslim populations. Our study reveals that the spread of Islamic faith in the Indian subcontinent was predominantly cultural transformation associated with minor gene flow from West Asia. PMID:19424286

Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Dubey, Bhawna; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Ravesh, Zeinab; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Haque, Ikramul

2009-06-01

409

7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian...

2010-01-01

410

76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action...On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of...

2011-10-12

411

77 FR 43111 - Indian Gaming; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Correction...notice that the Tribal-- State Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-23

412

Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

2004-03-30

413

Indian Ocean analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality control of data as research bodies are replaced by operational bodies in the Global Ocean Observing System.

Meyers, Gary

1992-01-01

414

A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress  

SciTech Connect

Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

Johnson, Eric M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL; Dutler, S. A. [MAGMA Foundry Technologies, Inc.

2012-01-01

415

Clinical applications and implications of common and founder mutations in Indian subpopulations.  

PubMed

South Asian Indians represent a sixth of the world's population and are a racially, geographically, and genetically diverse people. Their unique anthropological structure, prevailing caste system, and ancient religious practices have all impacted the genetic composition of most of the current-day Indian population. With the evolving socio-religious and economic activities of the subsects and castes, endogamous and consanguineous marriages became a commonplace. Consequently, the frequency of founder mutations and the burden of heritable genetic disorders rose significantly. Specifically, the incidence of certain autosomal-recessive disorders is relatively high in select Indian subpopulations and communities that share common recent ancestry. Although today clinical genetics and molecular diagnostic services are making inroads in India, the high costs associated with the technology and the tests often keep patients from an exact molecular diagnosis, making more customized and tailored tests, such as those interrogating the most common and founder mutations or those that cater to select sects within the population, highly attractive. These tests offer a quick first-hand affordable diagnostic and carrier screening tool. Here, we provide a comprehensive catalog of known common mutations and founder mutations in the Indian population and discuss them from a molecular, clinical, and historical perspective. PMID:25323826

Ankala, Arunkanth; Tamhankar, Parag M; Valencia, C Alexander; Rayam, Krishna K; Kumar, Manisha M; Hegde, Madhuri R

2015-01-01

416

25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or upon...

2010-04-01

417

25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or upon...

2014-04-01

418

25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or upon...

2011-04-01

419

Casting an Object with a Core Hee-Kap Ahn  

E-print Network

Casting an Object with a Core Hee-Kap Ahn Sang Won Bae Siu-Wing Cheng Kyung-Yong Chwa Abstract This paper addresses geometric problems that concern manufacturing an object using a cast with a core. In casting, molten material is poured into the cavity of the cast and allowed to solidify. The cast has two

Cheng, Siu-Wing

420

Thoughts on the Indian Dilemma: Backgrounding the "Indian Problem"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the core of the Indians' problem is the inability of their community to achieve a sense of control over its own destiny, and explores ways in which the Indians can organize to gain the necessary internal cohesion, resources, and capabilities in order to create a satisfactory position within American society. (JM)

Muskrat, Joseph

1973-01-01

421

Release of ToxCastDB and ExpoCastDB databases  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has released two databases - the Toxicity Forecaster database (ToxCastDB) and a database of chemical exposure studies (ExpoCastDB) - that scientists and the public can use to access chemical toxicity and exposure data. ToxCastDB users can search and download data from over 50...

422

Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 1 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 2 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 3 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6 Hickey, W8010A casts 1-6, page 4 CTD001 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 1

Hickey, Barbara

423

4. A photo, looking north, northwest, from the stream bed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. A photo, looking north, northwest, from the stream bed east of the bridge. In this view of the north entrados of the concrete arch, cracks in the concrete castings are evident, as are some rebars in the faults. Graffiti is evident on the underside of the arch - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

424

AN INTRODUCTION TO R-CAST Developing Simple Agents Using Decision-making Modeling and the R-CAST Architecture  

E-print Network

AN INTRODUCTION TO R-CAST Developing Simple Agents Using Decision-making Modeling and the R-CAST and Technology The Pennsylvania State University #12;ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2006. This R-CAST tutorial, the R-CAST. Prindible For more information. Visit: http://agentlab.psu.edu/ 2 #12;R-CAST 2.5 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS Minimum

425

Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

2002-02-18

426

Clean cast steel technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

1998-06-01

427

Geochemical and Nd Pb isotopic characteristics of the Tethyan asthenosphere: implications for the origin of the Indian Ocean mantle domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is unclear why the Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic composition of the modern mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from the Indian Ocean is different from that of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. A possible explanation for this is that the Indian MORB-type isotopic signature is a long-lived regional feature of the mantle, as evidently shown by the isotopic composition of the ˜350 Ma MORB-like Mian-Lue northern ophiolite, which was formed in the same region presently occupied by the Indian Ocean. However, this hypothesis is in conflict with the lack of Indian MORB-type isotopic signature in a number of ˜150 Ma Tethyan and Indian Ocean crusts. To further constrain the origin of the Indian MORB-type isotopic signature, we analyze the geochemical and Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic composition of representative mafic rocks from four Tethyan ophiolites ranging in age from 90 to 360 Ma. The Sr isotopic composition of the samples is unreliable due to alteration, but the age-corrected Nd and Pb isotopic ratios and geochemical data indicate that these Tethyan rocks were derived from a geochemically depleted asthenospheric source that had a clear Indian MORB-type isotopic signature. We therefore conclude that the bulk of the Indian suboceanic mantle was most probably inherited from the Tethyan asthenosphere. A few regions in both the Tethyan and Indian Oceans, however, are most probably underlain by Pacific and North Atlantic MORB-type mantle (and vice-versa) because of the flow of the asthenosphere in response to tectonic plate reorganizations that lead to openings and closures of ocean basins. The Indian MORB-type isotopic signature of the western Pacific marginal basin crusts could be due to either flow of the Indian Ocean mantle into the western Pacific or to endogenous production of such an isotopic signature from delaminated East-Asian sublithospheric materials during closure of the Tethys Ocean.

Xu, Ji-Feng; Castillo, Paterno R.

2004-11-01

428

California Indian Food and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

2001

429

Acoustics of the Indian Drum  

E-print Network

This article investigates as to how the Indian Drums are able to produce harmonics. In particular, it looks at the density distribution on an Indian Drum, the Tabla, and shows that it is the form of the density distribution that results in harmonics.

Siddharth S Malu; Advaith Siddharthan

2000-01-20

430

DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN  

E-print Network

DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN SOCIETIES: An Essay in Comparative Pragmatics THESIS SUBMITTED and complexity are presented in the first part of the thesis, as a basis of comparison with the decision-makingSl).cietal organization in the Plains and surrounding area. #12;DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN SOCIETIES: An Essay

White, Douglas R.

431

A Better Day for Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vesting Congress with implied powers over American Indians produces attitudes and assumptions which are extremely influential. There are seven such controlling assumptions: Congress is presumed to act in good faith toward Indians; the belief that past policies were based upon some intelligent criteria that incorporated an understanding of…

Deloria, Vine, Jr.

432

Indians of the Eastern Seaboard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief history is presented of Indian tribes living along the eastern seaboard of the United States from the time of contact of these tribes with the first European settlers to the present day. Early Indian-white relationships are discussed, as well as relationships established between the various tribes themselves. An historical presentation of…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

433

American Indians of the Southwest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for both the specialist and nonspecialist, the book provides a synthesis of Southwestern Indian culture based on long familiarity with the people. Chapter 1 describes the physical aspects of American Indians, land and Aboriginal inhabitants, and development of socio-religious patterns. Chapter II is about Pueblo Peoples (Tanoans,…

Dutton, Bertha P.

434

Indian Calendars Leow Choon Lian  

E-print Network

1 Indian Calendars Leow Choon Lian An academic exercise presented in partial fulfillment Bases of Calendars 1 Chapter 2 Classification of Calendars 8 Chapter 3 The Indian Calendars 11 3) Overview 13 3.2 The Solar Calendars 16 3.3 The National Calendar 26 3.4 The Lunisolar Calendars 29 (a

Aslaksen, Helmer

435

78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Wiyot Tribe and...

2013-09-06

436

Omaha Indian Music  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Library of Congress website houses the digitized Omaha Indian Music collection. Featuring a pithy Collection Overview and links to contextualizing elements, such as Historical Eras and Related Collections and Exhibits, the site makes accessible an important cultural tradition. Of course, the exhibit itself really shines. The multiformat ethnographic field collection contains dozens of wax cylinder recordings from the 1890s, as well as modern recordings of pow-wows and performances. Additionally, black and white photographs and contemporary films exhibit dances and celebrations, while interviews with tribal members elucidate the various cultural practices.

437

Historicizing Indian psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

Basu, Amit Ranjan

2005-01-01

438

American Indians and Crime  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report, released in 1999 by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, measures and characterizes the rate of violent crimes experienced by Native Americans in the US, who as the report concludes, are victimized by violent crime at more than twice the rate of US residents in general. The data collection was garnered from a variety of government sources and presents statistics on the involvement of drugs, alcohol, and weapons in crimes; the relationship between victim and offender; the rate of crime reporting by victims; and the physical and financial damage incurred by victims. The report also summarizes data on American Indians in the criminal justice system.

1999-01-01

439

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2012-04-01

440

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2013-04-01

441

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2014-04-01

442

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2010-04-01

443

21 CFR 888.5960 - Cast removal instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast removal instrument. 888.5960 Section...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5960 Cast removal instrument. (a) Identification. A cast removal instrument is an AC-powered,...

2011-04-01

444

Southwestern limits of Indian Ocean Ridge mantle and the origin of low Pb-206/Pb-204 mid-ocean ridge basalt - Isotope systematics of the central Southwest Indian Ridge (17 deg - 50 deg E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic characteristics of the Indian Ocean Ridge midocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and of the Atlantic and the Pacific MORBs (north of 25 deg S) were determined in order to estimate the southwestern limits of the Indian Ocean Ridge mantle and the origin of low Pb-206/Pb-204 MORB. In view of the possible importance of a Marion-type mantle along portions of the ridge, lavas from several Marion Island, Prince Edward Island, and Funk Seamount were also analyzed isotopically. The isotopic results include analyses of fields for the Indian Ocean triple junction area, the entire Central Indian and southern Carlsberg ridges, for several oceanic islands, and Pacific and/or North Atlantic MORBs.

Mahoney, J.; Le Roex, A. P.; Peng, Z.; Fisher, R. L.; Natland, J. H.

1992-12-01

445

27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has sunk beyond the desert horizon, and darkness followed, under a dim light casting my lonesome heart.'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

446

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

447

53. Photographic copy of historic photograph, view of north front ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. Photographic copy of historic photograph, view of north front corner showing cast-iron fence, 1902 (Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum, Portsmouth, VA; copy photo for Marshall W. Butt's Portsmouth Under Four Flags 1752-1970, p. 135) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Hospital Building, Rixey Place, bounded by Williamson Drive, Holcomb Road, & The Circle, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

448

Blast casting requires fresh assessment of methods  

SciTech Connect

The article says that because blast casting differs from conventional blasting, our ideas about explosive products, drilling, and initiating methods must change. The author discusses how to select a casting explosive and what factors are important in its selection. He also looks at how to determine the best blasthole diameter and burden blasting pattern.

Pilshaw, S.R.

1987-08-01

449

Level Responsive Control with Continuous Casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

REFERENCES TO THE concept of continuous casting of metals are found in literature dating as far back as 1840. Machines were actually constructed in the mid 1800s for the continuous casting of long sections, such as pipes, of nonferrous materials. Since that time, there have been many modifications of the basic ideas, and a large percentage of nonferrous materials are

Torrence E. DeViney; L. J. Penkowski

1965-01-01

450

Control of semicontinuous aluminum casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a semicontinuous casting process, the metal level is controlled by the inflow of liquid metal. The quality of the cast product depends on the accuracy of the mold level control. There is a need for a control strategy giving better results than the fixed parameter controller and simple enough to be implemented on the existing control structure, in order

A. Besancon-Voda; C. Delclos

1998-01-01

451

The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a parental questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions. In this validation study, the CAST was distributed to 1925 children aged 5-11 in mainstream Cambridgeshire schools. A sample of participants received a full diagnostic assessment, conducted blind to screen status. The sensitivity of…

Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Allison, Carrie; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

2005-01-01

452

Bone response to machined cast titanium implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to evaluate the bone response to machined cast titanium (Ti) implants. Commercially pure (c.p.) machined Ti implants served as controls. Analyses of the surface composition and topography by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed no differences comparing the two materials. Cast screw-shaped and identical machined Ti implants were inserted in the tibial metaphysis

S. Mohammadi; M. Esposito; L. Wictorin; B.-O. Aronsson; P. Thomsen

2001-01-01

453

Thermo fatigue cracking of die casting dies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of aluminium alloy die casting die failures was done with the emphasis on thermal cracks. The aim of the study was to prolog the in-service die life by cladding with maraging steels, which would be economically beneficial. A vast analysis of thermal fatigue cracks in aluminium alloy die casting is done. Immersion test apparatus was developed, which enables

D. Klob?ar; L. Kosec; B. Kosec; J. Tušek

2010-01-01

454

Iron/Phosphorus Alloys for Continuous Casting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous casting becomes practicable because of reduced eutectic temperature. Experimental ferrous alloy has melting point about 350 degrees C lower than conventional steels, making possible to cast structural members and eliminating need for hot rolling. Product has normal metal structure and good physical properties. Process used to make rails, beams, slabs, channels, and pipes.

Dufresne, E. R.

1986-01-01

455

Thermomechanical model of a continuous casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the analysis of thermal stresses arising at the early stage of a continuous casting process is proposed. The model is used to simulate the casting of round billets assuming axial symmetry. Thermal analysis takes into account phase-change in the material and heat transfer through the mould. The heat balance equation is solved using an Eulerian formulation for

A. E. Huespe; A. Cardona; V. Fachinotti

2000-01-01

456

Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

Seiko, Y.

1985-01-01

457

Dimensional variability of production steel castings  

SciTech Connect

Work is ongoing to characterize the dimensional variability of steel casting features. Data are being collected from castings produced at representative Steel Founders` Society of America foundries. Initial results based on more than 12,500 production casting feature measurements are presented for carbon and low alloy steel castings produced in green sand, no-bake, and shell molds. A comprehensive database of casting, pattern, and feature variables has been developed so that the influence of the variables on dimensional variability can be determined. Measurement system analysis is conducted to insure that large measurement error is not reported as dimensional variability. Results indicate that the dimensional variability of production casting features is less than indicated in current US (SFSA) and international (ISO) standards. Feature length, casting weight, parting line and molding process all strongly influence dimensional variability. Corresponding pattern measurements indicate that the actual shrinkage amount for casting features varies considerably. This variation in shrinkage will strongly influence the ability of the foundry to satisfy customer dimensional requirements.

Peters, F.E.; Risteu, J.W.; Vaupel, W.G.; DeMeter, E.C.; Voigt, R.C.

1994-12-31

458

Aqueous tape casting of silicon nitride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurries consisting of a low cost silicon nitride powder, sintering aids yttria and alumina, dispersants, binders, defoamers and water as a solvent were optimised for tape casting by electroacoustic and viscosity measurements and by casting experiments. The slurries exhibit shear-thinning behaviour due to the highly shear-thinning binder emulsion. Crack free tapes with a maximum thickness of approx. 250 ?m and

Bernd Bitterlich; Jürgen G Heinrich

2002-01-01

459

Knee motion in a long leg cast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five principles to reestablish static ligamentous sta bility are introduced, including secure, temporary, ti biofemoral fixation to protect against early postoper ative stretch or disruption. The necessity for empha sizing this point is demonstrated by a cadaver study. Knee motion in and out of long leg plaster casts was carefully studied in necropsy specimens. Casts ap plied over minimal or

Kenneth A. Krackow; William Laughlin Vetter

1981-01-01

460

Casting of electron field defining apertures: casting with the metal mold kits.  

PubMed

Cerrobend alloy casts are made to define the desired electron field shapes. These custom casts are fabricated for the selected electron applicator size that has been chosen for the patient. When the cast is placed into that selected electron applicator, it will block out areas that are not to be treated. When an all metal mold assembly was used for the fabrication of these casts, the lip region of the cast which is used to accurately align the cast in the actual treatment applicator, had an irregular edge that prevented an accurate alignment of the cast. To eliminate the irregular edges on the lip region of the cast, the metal mold assembly was heated to approximately 80-85 degrees C before the molten cerrobend alloy was poured into it. The heating of the metal mold assembly helps eliminate the irregular edges on the lip region of the cast. Unfortunately it also created new flaws such as holes, dents, cracks and/or crystallization of the cast as it solidified. These flaws were controlled by cooling the metal mold assembly and the cast immediately after the pouring of the molten cerrobend alloy, evenly with water. PMID:3151256

Dea, D; San Luis, E

1988-09-01

461

Thermocline and Intermediate Water Communication Between the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conductivity-temperature-depth and tracer chemistry section in the southeast South Atlantic in December 1989 and January 1990 presents strong evidence that there is a significant interocean exchange of thermocline and intermediate water between the South Atlantic and Indian oceans. Eastward flowing water at 10°W composed of South Atlantic Central (thermocline) Water is too enriched with chlorofluoromethanes 11 and 12 and oxygen to be the sole source of similar ?-S water within the northward flowing Benguela Current. About two thirds of the Benguela Current thermocline transport is drawn from the Indian Ocean; the rest is South Atlantic water that has folded into the Benguela Current in association with the Agulhas eddy-shedding process. South Atlantic Central water passes in the Indian Ocean by a route to the south of the Agulhas Return Current. The South Atlantic water loops back to the Atlantic within the Indian Ocean, perhaps mostly within the Agulhas recirculation cell of the southwest Indian Ocean. Linkage of Atlantic and Indian Ocean water diminishes with increasing depth; it extends through the lower thermocline into the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) (about 50% is derived from the Indian Ocean) but not into the deep water. While much of the interocean exchange remains on an approximate horizontal "isopycnal" plane, as much as 10 × 106 m3 s-1 of Indian Ocean water within the 25 × 106 m3 s-1 Benguela Current, mostly derived from the lower thermocline and AAIW, may balance deeper Atlantic export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). The addition of salt water from the evaporative Indian Ocean into the South Atlantic Ocean thermocline and AAIW levels may precondition the Atlantic for NADW formation. While AAIW seems to be the chief feed for NADW, the bulk of it enters the subtropical South Atlantic, spiked with Indian Ocean salt, within the Benguela Current rather than along the western boundary of the South Atlantic.

Gordon, Arnold L.; Weiss, Ray F.; Smethie, William M.; Warner, Mark J.

1992-05-01

462

Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date/Time (MMDDYYHHMM) Total Scans  

E-print Network

Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date;Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date;Hickey -TT174, casts 21, line 18 to cast 31, line 24 Cruise cast lat(dd.mm.mm) lon(dd.mm.mm) Date

Hickey, Barbara

463

The role of water in slip casting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. Slip casting rate and viscosity are functions of temperature. Slip rheology and response to deflocculating agents varies significantly as the kinds and amounts of colloid modifiers change. Water is considered as a raw material. Various concepts of water/clay interactions and structures are discussed. Casting is a de-watering operation in which water moves from slip to cast to mold in response to a potential energy termed moisture stress. Drying is an evaporative process from a free water surface.

Mccauley, R. A.; Phelps, G. W.

1984-01-01

464

Subcritical Measurments Multiple HEU Metal Castings  

SciTech Connect

Experiments with the standard annular highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal castings at the Y-12 National Security Complex were performed in which up to five castings ({approx}90 kg) were assembled in a tightly packed array with minimal spacing between castings. The fission chain multiplication process was initiated by a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf spontaneously fissioning neutron source or by time and directionally tagged neutrons from a small portable DT neutron generator. The prompt neutron time behavior was measured with plastic scintillation detectors sensitive to the fast neutron (>1 MeV) and gamma ray without distinction. These experiments were performed to provide data to benchmark methods for the calculation of the prompt neutron time behavior. Previous measurements with a single casting have been reported. This paper presents the experimental results for multiple castings.

Mihalczo, John T [ORNL] [ORNL; Archer, Daniel E [ORNL] [ORNL; Wright, Michael C [ORNL] [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL] [ORNL

2008-01-01

465

American Indian Resources Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website offers a directory of briefly annotated links to resources and Websites in Native American Studies, Texts, Culture, Literature and Background, History, Representations, Languages, and Nations. Students and researchers can find information here on everything from the representation of Laguna women in Leslie Marmon Silko's fiction to the Bureau of Indian Affairs's official definition of a "tribe," to dozens of links for Native American law and advocacy issues. All of the pages we visited had been updated in the past few months, and the site links to a page by Elaine Cubbins, graduate student at University of Arizona, "Techniques for Evaluating American Indian Web Sites," that not only serves to give a sense of the inclusion criteria of the site's authors, but provides a kind of tutorial for doing Web research related to Native Americans or Native American issues. The Website is authored by Will Karkavelas of Osaka University and is part of his larger site, Multicultural Resources, offering similar directories for African-American and Hawaiian studies.

466

10A.7 CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF WESTERN NORTH PACIFIC TROPICAL CYCLONE TRACKS Suzana J. Camargo  

E-print Network

). The trajectories in cluster A tend to exist and form in the Philippines sea and especially the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean. The genesis region for cluster B is north and east of the Philippines. The dominant and Japan. Tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific occur year round, with a peak in

Smyth, Padhraic

467

Journey North  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Journey North, funded by Annenberg/CPB, is a long-established, free online site supported by a grant from the Annenberg Foundation to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Additional funding comes from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. At Journey North, students, teachers, and adults will find a huge, skill-oriented reservoir of information and lessons on global wildlife migration and seasonal change. Although the site is large and a bit cumbersome, much effort is made to connect with researchers who are tracking animal migrations north and south. Live interactive programming is scheduled from early February until June 1. Site visitors will find enthusiastic, but quite objective regular news updates, copious tracking reports (for example, bald eagles or monarch butterflies) from learner groups in schools mostly in North America, equally plentiful information on botany projects (emerging plants like tulips), lesson plans, challenging questions, etc. Students keep a very vigorous discussion going on the site; teachers have their own discussion space, but don't seem to use it as much. Solid lessons in math and science (like charting latitude/longitude against distance traveled) add value as an educational tool. A Journey North printed manual can be ordered for a moderate price.

Science Netlinks (Corporation for Public Broadcasting;)

1997-01-01

468

Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents and Native American Indians: Factorial Validity Generalization for Ojibwe Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replication of the core syndrome factor structure of the "Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents" (ASCA; P.A. McDermott, N.C. Marston, & D.H. Stott, 1993) is reported for a sample of 183 Native American Indian (Ojibwe) children and adolescents from North Central Minnesota. The six ASCA core syndromes produced an identical two-factor…

Canivez, Gary L.

2006-01-01

469

77 FR 61780 - Preparation of the 2013 American Indian Population and Labor Force Report  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...942-1400. Tuesday, October 30, 2012, 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. MST--at the Bureau of Indian Affairs' Western Regional office...Thursday, November 1, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. MST-- Holiday Inn Rushmore Plaza 505 North 5th Street, Rapid...

2012-10-11

470

Attitudes of Parents and Teachers of American Indian Children toward Multicultural Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between Indian education and multicultural education was studied via an exploration of the literature and a survey of a random sample of 50 parents and the total teacher population (n=18) of Standing Rock Community Elementary School, Fort Yates, North Dakota. A 30-item attitude scale with a reliability coefficient of .89 was…

Swisher, Karen

471

6. CLOSEUP OF U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE AND U.S. RECLAMATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. CLOSE-UP OF U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE AND U.S. RECLAMATION SERVICE BENCHMARKS ON TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN T3S, R5E, S14 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Flood Water Canal, North Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

472

Some Thoughts on "Taking" Pictures: Imaging "Indians" and the Counter-Narratives of Visual Sovereignty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soon after its inception the camera became the primary vehicle for producing images of Native Americans. Without question, late nineteenth and early twentieth-century images of Native Americans have been integral in forming the stereotypical ideal of "Indian." For many imaginations, these images have frozen North America's indigenous people, not…

Bell, Morgan F.

2011-01-01

473

C-reactive protein and dietary nutrients in urban Asian Indian adolescents and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP), a surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk, and dietary nutrients is not known. We investigated the relationship between serum CRP levels and dietary nutrients in young Asian Indians residing in a major metropolitan city in north India.

Shipra Arya; Sumit Isharwal; Anoop Misra; Ravindra M. Pandey; Kavita Rastogi; Naval K. Vikram; Vibha Dhingra; Ananya Chatterjee; Rekha Sharma; Kalpana Luthra

2006-01-01

474

Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors start early, track through the young age and manifest in middle age in most societies. We conducted epidemiological studies to determine prevalence and age-specific trends in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescent and young urban Asian Indians. METHODS: Population based epidemiological studies to identify cardiovascular risk factors were performed in North India in 1999–2002. We evaluated major

Rajeev Gupta; Anoop Misra; Naval K Vikram; Dimple Kondal; Shaon Sen Gupta; Aachu Agrawal; RM Pandey

2009-01-01

475

Configuration of the Indian Moho beneath the NW Himalaya and Ladakh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teleseismic receiver function analysis of seismograms recorded on a ~700 km long profile of 17 broadband seismographs traversing the NW Himalaya shows a progressive northward deepening of the Indian Moho from ~40 km beneath Delhi south of the Himalayan foredeep to ~75 km beneath Taksha at the Karakoram Fault. Similar studies by Wittlinger et al. (2004) to the north of

S. S. Rai; K. Priestley; V. K. Gaur; S. Mitra; M. P. Singh; M. Searle

2006-01-01

476

FIELD SURVEYS OF 2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI FROM SUMATRA TO EAST AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Sunday December 26th at 00:58:53 UTC, a great earthquake with a moment magnitude of 9.0 - or possibly greater (Stein and Okal, 2005) - occurred 250 km southwest of the North tip of Sumatra, Indonesia. Large tsunamis were generated and severely damaged coastal communities in countries along the Indian Ocean, including Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Maldives and Somalia

Hermann M. Fritz; Jose C. Borrero; Costas E. Synolakis; Emile A. Okal

477

Tuberculosis among American Indians of the contiguous United States.  

PubMed

Paleopathologic findings provide strong evidence for the existence of tuberculosis in Andean populations of pre-Columbian America. Indirect evidence is available also to suggest its possible endemicity among some American Indian tribes who lived within the present-day contiguous United States before the arrival of Europeans. The available data suggest that tuberculosis became a major health problem in some tribes with increased population density and cultural changes after increased contact with European civilization, paralleling the deterioration in living conditions after relocation of the tribes to reservations. By 1900, tuberculosis had become one of the most serious health problems among North American Indians. Tuberculosis control was hampered by the lack of a specific treatment, and only the advent of specific chemotherapy in an ambulatory setting brought a breakthrough. Mortality, morbidity, and risk of infection have all sharply decreased over the past three decades. However, tuberculosis incidence rates among American Indians remain well above rates in the white population. An intensified effort to identify those with tuberculosis and those at risk of tuberculosis as well as to develop compliance-enhancing strategies with treatment regimens will be necessary to eliminate tuberculosis from Indian reservations. PMID:2511601

Rieder, H L

1989-01-01

478

Indian Education -- Alberta, 1975-76.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprised of tabular statistics regarding the American Indian student enrollment of Alberta, Canada, this annual report presents the following: (1) total enrollment statistics (a comparative table designating Indian enrollment for each year from 1937 to 1975 in Indian Federal, Indian residential, and provincial schools; a 1975 enrollment summary…

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

479

New Potentials for Modern Indian Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently American Indians have experienced an unprecedented renaissance in community spirit. Capitalizing upon this spirit, Indian economic development should be directed toward particular community needs, utilizing Indian leadership to determine needed training and development programs. There is no question but that the majority of Indian

Heath, Wallace G.

480

Indian Giving: Federal Programs for Native Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at highlighting American Indian reservation conditions, outlining the scope of Federal aid to Indians, and suggesting the nature of future Indian problems and choices, this book attempts to assess the current socioeconomic status of the Indian community and its relationship with the Federal Government. Specifically, this book provides both…

Levitan, Sar A.; Johnston, William B.

481

Washington Irving and the American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some modern scholars feel that Washington Irving vacillated between romanticism and realism in his literary treatment of the American Indian. However, a study of all his works dealing with Indians, placed in context with his non-Indian works, reveals that his attitude towards Indians was intelligent and enlightened for his time. (CM)

Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr.

1979-01-01

482

American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

483

Effective Showcase Projects: Office of Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Indian Education Programs supplement state, local, and tribal education efforts to improve the quality of Indian education and assure parental and community participation. Each year, the Office of Indian Education, assisted by the six regional Indian Education Technical Assistance Centers, selects effective projects to be showcased at the…

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Indian Education Programs.

484

Surface Characteristics Observed over the Central Tropical Indian Ocean During Indoex IFP99  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is based on the observations carried out over the IndianOcean from the Indian research vessel ORV Sagar Kanya during the intensive field phase of the Indian Ocean Experiment in January-March 1999. The study area spanned from 15°N to 20°S in the central Indian Ocean. Near surface variations and surface fluxes along the cruise track are presented. A comparison of near surface characteristics over the Indian Ocean and tropical west Pacific has been made. It is observed that the average difference between the sea surface temperature and air temperature at 10 m height was 0.7 °C over the study area, nearly half of that observed over the tropical west Pacific. A comparison between observed and NCEP reanalysissurface data has been made. We find good agreement between ship measured andNCEP reanalysis surface pressure, specific humidity and wind fields.On the other hand, surface air temperature in the reanalysis tends to be lowcompared to observations. The components of the net surface heat flux comparebetter in the north Indian Ocean than in the southern Indian Ocean.

Bhat, G. S.; Thomas, Manu Anna; Raju, J. V. S.; et al.

485

21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

486

90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-21. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

487

Porosity inside a metal casting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pores and voids often form in metal castings on Earth (above) making them useless. A transparent material that behaves at a large scale in microgravity the way that metals behave at the microscopic scale on Earth, will help show how voids form and learn how to prevent them. Scientists are using the microgravity environment on the International Space Station to study how these bubbles form, move and interact. The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox aboard the International Space Station uses a transparent material called succinonitrile that behaves like a metal to study this problem. Video images sent to the ground allow scientists to watch the behavior of the bubbles as they control the melting and freezing of the material. The bubbles do not float to the top of the material in microgravity, so they can study their interactions.

2003-01-01

488

Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128 Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128 Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128 Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128 Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128 Hickey, W8206_ctd_casts 67-128, page 4 #12;Hickey

Hickey, Barbara

489

Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31 Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31 Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31, page 1 CTD028 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31 Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31, page 2 CTD028 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31 Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31, page 3 CTD028 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31 Hickey, W8010A casts 28-31, page 4 CTD028 #12;Hickey, W8010A

Hickey, Barbara

490

Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34 Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34 Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34, page 1 CTD032 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34 Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34, page 2 CTD032 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34 Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34, page 3 CTD032 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34 Hickey, W8010A casts 32-34, page 4 CTD032 #12;Hickey, W8010A

Hickey, Barbara

491

Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40 Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40 Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40, page 1 CTD035 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40 Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40, page 2 CTD035 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40 Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40, page 3 CTD035 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40 Hickey, W8010A casts 35-40, page 4 CTD035 #12;Hickey, W8010A

Hickey, Barbara

492

Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27 Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27, page 1  

E-print Network

Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27 Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27, page 1 CTD021 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27 Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27, page 2 CTD021 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27 Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27, page 3 CTD021 #12;Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27 Hickey, W8010A casts 21-27, page 4 CTD022 #12;Hickey, W8010A

Hickey, Barbara

493

Indian & Metis Trivia Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet consists of 220 questions about Native North Americans and Metis people that can be used as learning activities for elementary and secondary school students. Suggestions for using the questions include playing games in pairs or teams, locating resources to find answers to questions, playing trivia games and board games, and using…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

494

Best outcomes for Indian children.  

PubMed

The Wisconsin Department of Children and Families and the Midwest Child Welfare Implementation Center are collaborating with Wisconsin's tribes and county child welfare agencies to improve outcomes for Indian children by systemically implementing the Wisconsin Indian Child Welfare Act (WICWA). This groundbreaking collaboration will increase practitioners' understanding of the requirements of WICWA and the need for those requirements, enhance communication and coordination between all stakeholders responsible for the welfare of Indian children in Wisconsin; it is designed to effect the systemic integration of the philosophical underpinnings of WICWA. PMID:23444793

Porter, Loa L; Zink, Patina Park; Gebhardt, Angela R; Ells, Mark; Graef, Michelle I

2012-01-01

495

NWIS MEASUREMENTS FOR URANIUM METAL ANNULAR CASTINGS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes measurements performed with annular uranium metal castings of different enrichments to investigate the use of {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis measurements as a means to quantify the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in the casting. This work in FY 97 was sponsored by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the DOE Office of Technology Development Programs. Previous measurements and calculational studies have shown that many of the signatures obtained from the source-driven measurement are very sensitive to fissile mass. Measurements were performed to assess the applicability of this method to standard annular uranium metal castings at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant under verification by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using the Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) processor. Before the measurements with different enrichments, a limited study of source-detector-casting moderator configurations was performed to enhance the correlated information. These configurations consisted of a casting with no reflector and with various thicknesses of polyethylene reflectors up to 10.16 cm in 2.54 cm steps. The polyethylene moderator thickness of 7.62 cm was used for measurements with castings of different enrichments reported here. The sensitivity of the measured parameters to fissile mass was investigated using four castings each with a different enrichment. The high sensitivity of this measurement method to fissile mass and to other material and configurations provides some advantages over existing safeguards methods.

MATTINGLY, J.K.; VALENTINE, T.E.; MIHALCZO, J.T.

1998-03-13

496

AMCC casting development. Volume 1: Executive Summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Combustion Chamber Casting (AMCC) has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or Thermal Gradient Control. This method, of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification, represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. Metallurgical integrity of the final four castings was very good. Only the areas of the parts that utilized 'TGC Shape & Location System #2' showed any significant areas of microshrinkage when evaluated by non-destructive tests. Alumina oxides detected by FPI on the 'float' surfaces (top sid surfaces of the casting during solidification) of the part were almost entirely less than the acceptance criteria of .032 inches in diameter. Destructive chem mill of the castings was required to determine the effect of the process variables used during the processing of these last four parts (with the exception of the 'Shape & Location of TGC' variable).

1995-03-01

497

AMCC casting development. Volume 1: Executive Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Combustion Chamber Casting (AMCC) has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or Thermal Gradient Control. This method, of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification, represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. Metallurgical integrity of the final four castings was very good. Only the areas of the parts that utilized 'TGC Shape & Location System #2' showed any significant areas of microshrinkage when evaluated by non-destructive tests. Alumina oxides detected by FPI on the 'float' surfaces (top sid surfaces of the casting during solidification) of the part were almost entirely less than the acceptance criteria of .032 inches in diameter. Destructive chem mill of the castings was required to determine the effect of the process variables used during the processing of these last four parts (with the exception of the 'Shape & Location of TGC' variable).

1995-01-01

498

The Nature and Extent of Indian Agriculture in North America  

E-print Network

- ((31 l a r e s . " "In coming into the country of the Osages he men­ tions cont inua l ly Big V i l l a g e , L i t t l e V i l l a g e , Grand Vi l lage* i/t> etc. On the Lewis and Clarke Expedition we find descr ip ­ tions of the journey which... years before the Lewis and Clarke expedition but they are the most r e l i a b l e . The people were l i v i ng in v i l l ages which had the appearance of being very extensive and populous. The manner of the Ind­ ians was v e r y c i v i l , order ly...

Dodge, Faye

1911-05-01

499

INDIAN STATISTICAL INSTITUTE NORTH-EAST CENTRE, TEZPUR  

E-print Network

Pay : Consolidated pay of Rs. 10000/- (Rupees ten thousand only) per month. Age : Below 35 years. Job to candidates having at Least 3 years experience. B. Name of Post : Multi-tasking Attendant Pay : Consolidated pay of Rs. 12000/- (Rupees twelve thousand only) per month. Age : Below 35 years Job Requirement

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

500

Sacred Circles: 2000 Years of North American Indian Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Sacred Circles" opened April 16, 1977 at the Nelson Gallery of Art-Atkins Museum of Fine Arts in Kansas City for its only showing in the Americas; the 850 objects on loan from 90 museums and private collectors included the "Adena Pipe" (considered the most important archaeological object found in the eastern US). (JC)

Journal of American Indian Education, 1977

1977-01-01