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Sample records for north indian caste

  1. Presence of three different paternal lineages among North Indians: A study of 560 Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhongming; Khan, Faisal; Borkar, Minal; Herrera, Rene; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2009-01-01

    Background The genetic structure, affinities, and diversity of the 1 billion Indians hold important keys to numerous unanswered questions regarding the evolution of human populations and the forces shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation. Although there have been several recent studies of South Indian caste groups, North Indian caste groups, and South Indian Muslims using Y-chromosomal markers, overall, the Indian population has still not been well studied compared to other geographical populations. In particular, no genetic study has been conducted on Shias and Sunnis from North India. Aim This study aims to investigate genetic variation and the gene pool in North Indians. Subjects and methods A total of 32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins, Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped. Results Three distinct lineages were revealed based upon 13 haplogroups. The first was a Central Asian lineage harbouring haplogroups R1 and R2. The second lineage was of Middle-Eastern origin represented by haplogroups J2*, Shia-specific E1b1b1, and to some extent G* and L*. The third was the indigenous Indian Y-lineage represented by haplogroups H1*, F*, C* and O*. Haplogroup E1b1b1 was observed in Shias only. Conclusion The results revealed that a substantial part of today’s North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers, suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. The presence of haplogroup E in Shias, first reported in this study, suggests a genetic distinction between the two Indo Muslim sects. The findings of the present study provide insights into prehistoric and early historic patterns of migration into India and the evolution of Indian populations in recent history. PMID:19058044

  2. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India. PMID:26611129

  3. 126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. 4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH NEWER CHECK AND TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  5. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Populations

    E-print Network

    Bamshad, Michael; Kivisild, Toomas; Watkins, W. Scott; Dixon, Mary E.; Ricker, Chris E.; Rao, Baskara B.; Naidu, J. Mastan; Prasad, B. V. Ravi; Reddy, P. Govinda; Rasanayagam, Arani; Papiha, Surinder S.; Villems, Richard; Redd, Alan J.; Hammer, Michael F.; Nguyen, Son V.; Carroll, Marion L.; Batzer, Mark A.; Jorde, Lynn B.

    2001-11-01

    -upon-Tyne, UK; 9Department of Pathology, Biometry and Genetics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA The origins and affinities of the ?1 billion... subcontinent (Mountain et al. 1995; Kivisild et al. 1999) and to ?350 Africans, Asians, and Europeans (Jorde et al. 1995, 2000; Seielstad et al. 1999). RESULTS Analysis of mtDNA Suggests a Proto-Asian Origin of Indians MtDNA HVR1 genetic distances between caste...

  7. 66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. THE IRON RUNNER IS IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE BLOWERS CONTROL ROOM IS IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPHER. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  8. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  9. Penile anthropometry in North Indian children

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Amilal; Upadhyay, Ravi; Bhat, Mahakshit; Sabharwal, Karamveer; Singla, Manish; Kumar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Physicians frequently encounter questions by parents regarding the normal size of a child's penis. We evaluated normal variations of penile dimensions, correlation of penile length with height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of boys and analyzed the differences in penile dimensions from those reported from other countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at our institution during October 2012-December 2012. A total of 250 subjects (birth to 10 years) were evaluated and divided into 10 groups with 1-year interval taking 25 children in each. Penile dimensions measured twice by a single observer with Vernier calipers included the length of flaccid penis fully stretched and diameters at mid-shaft and corona. Diameters were multiplied by pi (? = 3.14) to calculate circumferences. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated. Height, weight, and BMI were noted and statistically correlated with the penile length using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were compared with similar studies reported on other populations in the past and individually evaluated with every study using Student's t-test. Results: The mean values for the penile length, mid-shaft circumference, and coronal circumference were 3.34, 3.05, 3.29 cm during infancy, 4.28, 3.86, 4.11 cm during 4-5 years, and 5.25, 4.78, 5.05 cm during 9-10 years, respectively. The penile length increased with advancing age in successive age groups, but it did not have a direct correlation with either height, weight, or BMI. Penile dimensions in North Indian children were found to be statistically smaller in comparison with most studies from other countries. Conclusion: We provide the normal range and variations of penile dimensions in North Indian children. PMID:25878409

  10. Guide to Reference Sources Dealing with North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindler, Luke

    This is an annotated bibliography of reference sources dealing with North American Indians and includes selected unpublished resources in the Chester Fritz Library, University of North Dakota. Among the resources presented are encyclopedias, biographical dictionaries, handbooks, general indexes, government publications, theses, and dissertations.…

  11. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells. PMID:24784218

  12. 77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of final agency...

  13. Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R. Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G.; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4–6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India. PMID:23209694

  14. North Indian Weddings: Speech Events Reflecting and Reinforcing Women's Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remlinger, Kathryn A.

    A study examined traditional Hindi songs typically sung by women during north Indian weddings, using pragmatic and semantic analysis. Some historical and cultural background for the practice of women's singing at weddings is offered. It is suggested that gender roles are defined and regulated through the language of this speech event, and that…

  15. North American Indians: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This teacher's resource guide produced by the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) is a collection of materials about North American Indians covering 3 categories, including an introduction, selected bibliographies, and a listing photographs and portraits. Additionally, there is a collecting of answers to questions that…

  16. North Potter Slough, Lower Brule Indian Reservation, SD

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    View of North Potter Slough showing dense stand of curly dock, with muskrat huts and cattail stand in the background. A reconnaissance-level study of selected wetlands on and near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in South Dakota was completed in 2012-13 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation...

  17. Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

    Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

  18. Oligoclonal interspecific origin of 'North Indian' and 'Chinese' sugarcanes.

    PubMed

    D'Hont, Angélique; Paulet, Florence; Glaszmann, Jean Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Sugarcanes consist of several groups of complex polyploid forms. The origin of 'North Indian' and 'Chinese' sugarcanes (referred to as S. barberi and S. sinense) was investigated using genomic in-situ hybridization (GISH), detection of species-specific repeated sequences and RFLP. GISH proved their interspecific hybrid origin. Together with the distribution of species-specific repeated sequences and earlier RFLP data, the results show that both taxa are derived from interspecific hybridization between S. officinarum and S. spontaneum and that no other genus has been directly involved. RFLP indicates that the clones are clustered into a few groups, each derived from a single interspecific hybrid that has subsequently undergone a few somatic mutations. These groups correspond quite well with those already defined based on morphological characters and chromosome numbers. However, the calculated genetic similarities do not support the existence of two distinct taxa. The 'North Indian' and 'Chinese' sugarcanes represent a set of horticultural groups rather than established species. PMID:12067214

  19. British Troops, Colonists, Indians, and Slaves in Southeastern North America, 1756-1763 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hyun Wu

    2014-05-01

    This work recasts the world of the North American Southeast during the Seven Years’ War by examining the intersecting stories of British soldiers, colonists, Indians, and enslaved and free Africans. Populated with diverse Indians, Europeans...

  20. Inbreeding depression and intelligence quotient among north Indian children.

    PubMed

    Badaruddoza; Afzal, M

    1993-07-01

    This study presents the assessment of inbreeding depression on the intelligence quotient among north Indian Muslim Children of school age. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R)-74 was given to the children in both groups (50 each non-inbred and inbred of the first-cousin status), aged 6 to 11 years and from the same socio-economic status. The change of the mean follows genetic theory; however, the nature of the change in variance seems to be somewhat different. PMID:8240214

  1. Prevalence of Taurodont molars in a North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Arya, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is very important for dentists to be familiar with anomalies of teeth not only for the clinical complications but also their management. Taurodontism also provides a valuable clue in detecting its association with various syndromes and other systemic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Taurodont molars among a North Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 patients’ full-mouth periapical radiographs were screened. The radiographs were evaluated under optimal conditions using double magnifying glasses. A total of 7615 molars (including third molars) were evaluated. The relative incidence and the correlations regarding the location of Taurodont teeth (right versus left side and maxillary versus mandibular) were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Twenty-eight patients were found to have a Taurodont molar (11 women and 17 men [P = 0.250]). The prevalence of Taurodont molar was 2.8%. Males had a higher prevalence rate than females (3.4% vs. 2.2%, respectively). A cluster analysis of total Taurodonts in the mandible (45%) versus maxilla (55%) of both males and females combined showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The occurrence of Taurodontism is basically based on racial expression in different populations. These variations in prevalence between different populations may be due to ethnic variations. The occurrence of Taurodont molars among this Indian population was rare. PMID:25767357

  2. Teleconnections due the north Indian Ocean tropical disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, V.; Behera, S. K.; Masumoto, Y.; Yamagata, T.

    2012-12-01

    Teleconnections due to long lasting intense tropical disturbances in the north Indian Ocean are investigated in this study. The analyses is carried out for both the pre-monsoon (April-May) and post-monsoon (Oct-Dec) periods. The OLR distribution of the pre-monsoon tropical storms in the Bay of Bengal shows a dipole like structure. The composite plot reveals strong negative OLR anomalies over the Bay region and strong positive OLR anomalies near the Indonesian region. The composite also shows negative OLR anomalies extending from the north-west Pacific region to the western Japan, which is remote from the origin of the Bay of Bengal disturbances. The associated surface temperature anomalies show positive surface temperature anomalies over the northwestern parts of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan with cold anomalies over the Arabian region which is also remote to the region of the tropical disturbances. Further analyses of the anomalies shows that, the negative OLR anomalies over western Japan are due to the Rossby waves generated by the heating over the Bay besides the enhancement of the Pacific-Japan teleconnection. However, the post-monsoon disturbances in the Bay of Bengal and the disturbances formed in the Arabian Sea in both pre- and post-monsoon seasons do not develop remote teleconnections associated with the above type of Rossby wave mechanism.

  3. Analysis of Tropical Cyclone Tracks in the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, A.; Paliwal, M.; Mohapatra, M.

    2011-12-01

    Cyclones are regarded as one of the most dangerous meteorological phenomena of the tropical region. The probability of landfall of a tropical cyclone depends on its movement (trajectory). Analysis of trajectories of tropical cyclones could be useful for identifying potentially predictable characteristics. There is long history of analysis of tropical cyclones tracks. A common approach is using different clustering techniques to group the cyclone tracks on the basis of certain characteristics. Various clustering method have been used to study the tropical cyclones in different ocean basins like western North Pacific ocean (Elsner and Liu, 2003; Camargo et al., 2007), North Atlantic Ocean (Elsner, 2003; Gaffney et al. 2007; Nakamura et al., 2009). In this study, tropical cyclone tracks in the North Indian Ocean basin, for the period 1961-2010 have been analyzed and grouped into clusters based on their spatial characteristics. A tropical cyclone trajectory is approximated as an open curve and described by its first two moments. The resulting clusters have different centroid locations and also differently shaped variance ellipses. These track characteristics are then used in the standard clustering algorithms which allow the whole track shape, length, and location to be incorporated into the clustering methodology. The resulting clusters have different genesis locations and trajectory shapes. We have also examined characteristics such as life span, maximum sustained wind speed, landfall, seasonality, many of which are significantly different across the identified clusters. The clustering approach groups cyclones with higher maximum wind speed and longest life span in to one cluster. Another cluster includes short duration cyclonic events that are mostly deep depressions and significant for rainfall over Eastern and Central India. The clustering approach is likely to prove useful for analysis of events of significance with regard to impacts.

  4. Extended winter Pacific North America oscillation as a precursor of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall

    E-print Network

    of the amount of precipitation received during the monsoon season (June to September) can cause severe droughtsExtended winter Pacific North America oscillation as a precursor of the Indian summer monsoon of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) is still a challenge for both statistical and dynamical tools. We

  5. Profile of West syndrome in North Indian children.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Ray, Munni

    2005-03-01

    To study the profile of West syndrome (WS) in North Indian Children, 165 cases of WS were analyzed. Details of seizure semiology, prenatal and perinatal events, developmental milestones, treatment received, physical and neurological examination and investigations were recorded. The response of seizures to various therapeutic modalities and the final developmental status were taken as primary outcome variables. Analysis was done to find the factors influencing these outcome variables. The age of onset of infantile spasms ranged from 1 to 19 (mean 6.1 +/- 3.4) months. Age at presentation ranged from 1.5 months to 4.5 years (mean 14.7 +/- 11.4 months); 74% had flexor spasms. Other types of seizures were associated in 31 children. Antenatal problems and adverse perinatal events were reported in 26.7 and 59.4%, respectively. Developmental delay was recognized in 69.7% prior to and in 27.9% after onset of spasms. Microcephaly was seen in 72.7%. Interictal EEG showed hypsarrhythmia in 44; generalized spike and slow waves in 31% and burst suppression in 7%. Computed tomography scan done in 94 cases showed cerebral atrophy in 15%, infarcts in 8%, tubers in 7%, developmental malformations in 5%. Magnetic resonance imaging done in 77 cases showed periventricular T2WI white matter hyper intensities in 33.8% and cerebral atrophy in 21%. Prednisolone and ACTH were used in 57 and 35 cases, respectively. Complete control of seizures was seen in 49 and 46% cases. No significant difference in seizure control or developmental outcome was found in the two groups. Overall, 42.4, 30.9 and 16% children showed complete, partial and no control of seizures. After therapy, developmental improvement was seen in 55.8% and no change in 23.6% cases. The type of spasms had no correlation with the other parameters including etiology, seizure or developmental outcome. An early age of onset correlated with presence of antenatal problems (P < 0.05). Seizure control and developmental improvement correlated significantly (P < 0.005). Developmental outcome was better in cryptogenic as compared to symptomatic cases (P < 0.05). No other significant correlations were found. In India WS is often diagnosed late because of lack of awareness. Adverse perinatal events are important etiological factors. Non-affordability of ACTH and Vigabatrin prompts the use of prednisolone in most cases. PMID:15668054

  6. Facial Indices of North and South Indian Adults: Reliability in Stature Estimation and Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    LC, Prasanna; S, Bhosale; AS, D’Souza; H, Mamatha; RH, Thomas; KS, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anthropological studies have document differences in craniofacial features as well as in body characteristics among different populations. The variations in the facial morphology arise through a differential growth and they help us in distinguishing one person from another. These are controlled by a number of factors which include genetic heritage, climate and environment in which we live. Very few researchers from India have worked on these facial features with respect to population and environment. The present work was undertaken to determine whether facial variations were subjected to sexual dimorphism. In addition, comparison of facial indices was made, in order to determine possible variations between south and north Indian populations. Methods: The sample consisted of 200 individuals, 100 each from north and south Indian regions. Various facial parameters were determined on the basis of international anatomical description and facial indices were calculated. Results: North Indian males and females had highest facial height and upper facial height. Facial width of south Indians was more as compared to that of north Indians in both sexes. Regression equation was calculated to compare the probable height with actual height. Conclusion: All the facial parameters and facial indices were found to be statistically highly significant and they showed inter-regional and gender variations. These indices will be beneficial in facial reconstruction surgeries, maxillofacial surgeries, and in forensic medicine, for estimating the stature and sex of an individual. PMID:24086833

  7. Sexual dimorphism in foot length ratios among North Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Passi, Neelam; DiMaggio, John A

    2015-11-01

    Determination of sex along with other parameters of identification like stature, age and ancestry is one of the foremost criteria in establishing the biological profile of an individual. The present study was conducted to analyze the sex differences in the foot length ratios in a North Indian adolescent population. The study was conducted on 149 females and 154 males aged from 13 to 18 years. Foot length measurements were taken from pternion to the most anterior part of each toe and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively for first to fifth toes on both the feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. A total of ten ratios (T1:T2, T1:T3, T1:T4, T1:T5, T2:T3, T2:T4, T2:T5, T3:T4, T3:T5, and T4:T5) were thus, obtained and the same were analyzed for sex differences using Student's t-test. Stature was measured in each participant and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to find the correlation between various foot length ratios, age and stature. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was employed to test the sexing accuracy of the variables. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Foot length dimensions from each toe (T1 to T5) and stature were found to be significantly higher in males than females. The foot length ratios did not show any statistically significant correlation with stature. Statistically significant sex differences were exhibited by ratios between T1 and T2 (p = 0.002), T1 and T3 (p = 0.001), T1 and T4 (p < 0.001), T1 and T5 (p = 0.001), and T2 and T4 (p = 0.014). Maximum sex differences were evident for foot length ratio between T1 and T4 (63.4%), and minimum for the ratio between T2 and T4 (56.5%). Though foot length measurements are significantly larger in males, its utility in sex differentiation may be limited owing to its direct correlation with stature of an individual. It has been observed that the foot length ratios are independent of stature and thus, can be considered a better sex determinant since they are not influenced by the body built of an individual. Apart from ratio between T2 and T4, only the foot length ratios with reference to first toe (T1:T2, T1:T3, T1:T4, T1:T5) were found to exhibit significant sex-differences. The present research concludes that the foot length ratios exhibit sex differences in the study population. However, its utility in forensic investigations may be limited owing to the lower sexing accuracy of foot length ratios. PMID:26414875

  8. On the Phase Relations between the Western North Pacific, Indian, and Australian Monsoons*

    E-print Network

    Li, Tim

    On the Phase Relations between the Western North Pacific, Indian, and Australian Monsoons* DEJUN GU Guangzhou Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, and Key Open Laboratory for Tropical Monsoon, China Laboratory for Tropical Monsoon, China Meteorological Administration, Guangzhou, China (Manuscript received

  9. Enactments of Discursive Empowerment in Narratives of Medium of Education by North Indian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Priti

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine how women in a north Indian city narratively construct their identities in relation to medium of education (MoE)--English only (EME), Hindi only (HME), and a combination of both. I specifically analyze how the participants discursively articulate empowerment or disempowerment while narrating stories connected to their MoEs.…

  10. Materials on Indians of North America. An Annotated List for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Children's Book Center, Madison, WI.

    In an attempt to present a variety of effective literary approaches and to facilitate an appreciation of the North Anerican Indian in the development of our civilization, this annotated list was compiled and arranged by broad cultural area classification. Some 86 citations of materials published between 1931 and 1970 are listed under the following…

  11. Integrating HyperInstruments, Musical Robots & Machine Musicianship for North Indian Classical Music

    E-print Network

    Tzanetakis, George

    Integrating HyperInstruments, Musical Robots & Machine Musicianship for North Indian Classical Music Ajay Kapur1,2,3 Eric Singer2 Manjinder S. Benning1,3 George Tzanetakis1 Trimpin ajay@karmetik.com e@ericsinger.com manj@karmetik.com gtzan@cs.uvic.ca trimpin@att.net 1 Music Intelligence and Sound

  12. A Comparative Study on Wearable Sensors for Signal Processing on the North Indian Tabla

    E-print Network

    Driessen, Peter F.

    A Comparative Study on Wearable Sensors for Signal Processing on the North Indian Tabla Manjinder S. A comparative study of motion capture systems, wearable accelerometer units, and wireless inertial sensor will describe an evolution to using a wearable sensor package to obtain acceleration data. Section IV

  13. A Critical Bibliography on North American Indians, for K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupp, P. Ann, Comp.; Burnett, Fiona, Comp.; Malloy, Maureen, Comp.; Wilson, Cheryl, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography is a response to teachers' concerns about choosing culturally sensitive and historically accurate books about American Indians and Alaska Natives. It contains critical annotations and evaluations of approximately 1,000 books, most published 1960-93, and points out controversial titles and disagreements about specific…

  14. The Nature and Extent of Indian Agriculture in North America

    E-print Network

    Dodge, Faye

    1911-05-01

    savages on a leve l with the Chinese, Japanese and other nations which are per fect ly c i v i l i z ed , but only to put them above the condition of beasts, to which the opinion of some has reduced them, to give them rank among men and to show... of corn which they had previously selected, culled and soaked for several days in water. And every year they thus planted corn in the same spots and places which they renovated with their small wood- en shovels. 1 1 In V i r g in i a , The Indian tr ibe...

  15. [North American Indians: A Collection of Bibliographies, Resource Lists, Questions and Answers, and Other Leaflets Prepared by the National Museum of Natural History].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This extensive collection of information and resource materials about North American Indians includes: (1) "A General Introduction to North American Indian Art"; (2) "Selected References on Native American Silverwork"; (3) "Selected References on Southwestern Native American Pottery"; (4) "Selected References on Southwestern Indian Textiles and…

  16. Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, J E; Smith, D R; Flegal, A R

    1991-01-01

    Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average (mean +/- SD) level of lead (expressed as the ratio of atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 +/- 4.4 x 10(-7)), which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 x 10(-7)) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 x 10(-7]. The adjusted average concentrations (microgram per gram dry weight) of biologic cadmium, silver, and zinc in the Pecos Indian bones were 0.032 +/- 0.013, 0.094 +/- 0.044, and 130 +/- 66, as compared to concentrations of 1.8, 0.01 to 0.44, and 75 to 170 in the bones of modern people, respectively. Therefore, cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations. PMID:1773793

  17. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VII: The Indian Tribes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The publication, Part VII of a series, includes the charters, constitutions, articles of association or community organization, and by-laws of California Indians on 16 reservations and rancherias. Legal documents from the following groups are provided: Hoopa, Me-Wuk, and Paiute Indians; the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians; the Mission Creek…

  18. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  19. Overweight and Obesity Among North American Indian Infants, Children, and Youth

    PubMed Central

    SCHELL, LAWRENCE M.; GALLO, MIA V.

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults’ size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan. PMID:22378356

  20. Determination of sex by radiographic analysis of mental foramen in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Akhilesh; Singh, Anil; Badni, Manjunath; Jaiswal, Rohit; Agnihotri, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Identification and determination of sex of unknown human skeletal remains has been one of the most challenging tasks for forensic dentistry. The purpose of this study was to determine the gender from the analysis of mental foramen on panoramic radiographs in a north Indian population. Materials and Methods: One hundred radiographs were selected for the analysis of mental foramen. Tangents were drawn to the superior and inferior borders of the foramen and perpendiculars were drawn from the tangents to the lower border of the mandible (S-L and I-L). The data obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The average values of S-L and I-L were significantly higher in males than in females, while the distances for the right and left sides of an individual were almost similar in both the male and the females group, and the results were non-significant. Conclusion: The distances from the mental foramen to the lower border of the mandible exhibit sexual dimorphism in the north Indian population. PMID:23960416

  1. Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged 40…

  2. Interannual linkage between Arctic/North Atlantic Oscillation and tropical Indian Ocean precipitation during boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Dao-Yi; Gao, Yongqi; Guo, Dong; Mao, Rui; Yang, Jing; Hu, Miao; Gao, Miaoni

    2014-02-01

    In the study authors analyzed the interannual relationship between the Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) precipitation in boreal winter for the period 1979-2009. A significant simultaneous teleconnection between them is found. After removing the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean dipole signals, the AO/NAO and the TIO precipitation (0°-10°S, 60°-80°E) yield a correlation of +0.56, which is also consistent with the AO/NAO-outgoing longwave radiation correlation of -0.61. The atmospheric and oceanic features in association with the AO/NAO-precipitation links are investigated. During positive AO/NAO winter, the Rossby wave guided by westerlies tends to trigger persistent positive geopotential heights in upper troposphere over about 20°-30°N and 55°-70°E, which is accompanied by a stronger Middle East jet stream. Meanwhile, there are anomalous downward air motions, strengthening the air pressure in mid-lower troposphere. The enhanced Arabian High brings anomalous northern winds over the northern Indian Ocean. As a result the anomalous crossing-equator air-flow enhances the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). On the other hand, the anomalous Ekman transport convergence by the wind stress curl over the central TIO deepens the thermocline. Both the enhanced ITCZ and the anomalous upper ocean heat content favor in situ precipitation in the central TIO. The AO/NAO-TIO precipitation co-variations in the IPCC AR4 historical climate simulation (1850-1999) of Bergen Climate Model version 2 were investigated. The Indian Ocean precipitation anomalies (particularly the convective precipitation along the ITCZ), in conjunction with the corresponding surface winds and 200 hPa anticyclonic atmospheric circulation and upper ocean heat contents were well reproduced in simulation. The similarity between the observation and simulation support the physical robustness of the AO/NAO-TIO precipitation links.

  3. Hydrothermal Plume Anomalies Along the Central Indian Ridge Immediately North of the Rodrigues Triple Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Lin, J.; Guo, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhou, B.; R/v Dayang 1, S.; Baker, E. T.

    2006-12-01

    Water column turbidity, temperature and salinity were investigated along the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) from 25°19'S to 23°48'S during a December 2005 cruise on board Chinese R/V Dayang 1. Measurements were made using NOAA's MARP (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder) sensors during CTD casts, TV grabber operations, and tow-yo transects, yielding the following results on hydrothermal plume anomalies: (1) Strong hydrothermal plume anomalies were recorded over the previously discovered Kairei Vent (25°19.2'S, 70°02.4'E) and Edmond Vent (23°52.8'S, 69°34.2'E), with the plume anomalies concentrated at depths of 2,170-2,370 m and 2,600-3,200 m, respectively. Sulfide samples were recovered at these vent sites together with video recording of live hydrothermal vent colonies. (2) No visible turbidity anomalies were detected near the Knorr Seamount near 24°30'S during both tow-yo transects and in situ CTD and TV grabber deployments. (3) Significant turbidity anomaly was detected from 24° S to 23°56'S along a ridge segment. The maximum turbidity value was centered at about 24° S at a depth of 2,800 m. This location is close to a water column anomaly site reported by Pluger et al. (1990). (4) A few other new areas with noticeable turbidity anomalies were detected during the six tow-yo transects. The most noticeable anomaly area is near 24°10'S, 69°44'E, where both a tow-yo profile and an in-situ CTD cast showed significant turbidity anomalies within depth ranges of 2,600-3,000 m.

  4. Intergenerational relations and elder care preferences of Asian Indians in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Sudha, S

    2014-03-01

    The US older population is growing in ethnic diversity. Persistent ethnic disparities in service use among seniors are linked to structural barriers to access, and also to family processes such as cultural preferences and intergenerational relations. There is sparse information on the latter issue for immigrant ethnic minority seniors. Information on the Asian group (the fastest growing senior sub-population) is extremely scarce, due to this group's diversity in national, linguistic, and cultural origins. We conducted a qualitative study among community-dwelling Asian Indian families (including at least one member aged 60 years and older) in North Carolina to examine preferences of seniors and the midlife generation regarding elder care, and the role of intergenerational relations in desired care for elders, exploring the theoretical perspective of intergenerational relationship ambivalence. Our results suggest that cultural preferences, ambivalence in intergenerational relations, and regulations on health service eligibility among immigrant/transnational seniors and midlife adults influence preferences for elder care. PMID:24370947

  5. Effect of inbreeding on Wechsler intelligence test scores among North Indian children.

    PubMed

    Badaruddoza

    2004-01-01

    The effects of inbreeding in humans on the intelligence has been investigated in the present study of offspring of second cousin matings (F=0.0156, n=138 male, 132 female), first cousins once removed (F=0.03125, n=148 male, 138 female), first cousins (F=0.0625, n=161 male, 151 female), and unrelated (F=0, n=194 male, 182 female) among North Indian Muslims. The Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R)-74 was given to the children in the both groups. An overall significant (p<0.001) reduction of means has been observed in inbred series. The results of this study confirm the appreciable inbreeding depression especially among the offspring of first cousins. PMID:15624786

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality data for the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, Rolette County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Vining, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation relies on groundwater supplies to meet the demands of community and economic needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, examined historical groundwater-level and groundwater-quality data for the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Rolla, and Shell Valley aquifers. The two main sources of water-quality data for groundwater were the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database and the North Dakota State Water Commission database. Data included major ions, trace elements, nutrients, field properties, and physical properties. The Fox Hills and Hell Creek aquifers had few groundwater water-quality data. The lack of data limits any detailed assessments that can be made about these aquifers. Data for the Rolla aquifer exist from 1978 through 1980 only. The concentrations of some water-quality constituents exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. No samples were analyzed for pesticides and hydrocarbons. Numerous water-quality samples have been obtained from the Shell Valley aquifer. About one-half of the water samples from the Shell Valley aquifer had concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and dissolved solids that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. Overall, the data did not indicate obvious patterns in concentrations.

  7. North Indian heavy rainfall event during June 2013: diagnostics and extended range prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Susmitha; Sahai, A. K.; Sharmila, S.; Abhilash, S.; Borah, N.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Pillai, P. A.; Rajeevan, M.; Kumar, Arun

    2015-04-01

    The Indian summer monsoon of 2013 covered the entire country by 16 June, one month earlier than its normal date. Around that period, heavy rainfall was experienced in the north Indian state of Uttarakhand, which is situated on the southern slope of Himalayan Ranges. The heavy rainfall and associated landslides caused serious damages and claimed many lives. This study investigates the scientific rationale behind the incidence of the extreme rainfall event in the backdrop of large scale monsoon environment. It is found that a monsoonal low pressure system that provided increased low level convergence and abundant moisture, and a midlatitude westerly trough that generated strong upper level divergence, interacted with each other and helped monsoon to cover the entire country and facilitated the occurrence of the heavy rainfall event in the orographic region. The study also examines the skill of an ensemble prediction system (EPS) in predicting the Uttarakhand event on extended range time scale. The EPS is implemented on both high (T382) and low (T126) resolution versions of the coupled general circulation model CFSv2. Although the models predicted the event 10-12 days in advance, they failed to predict the midlatitude influence on the event. Possible reasons for the same are also discussed. In both resolutions of the model, the event was triggered by the generation and northwestward movement of a low pressure system developed over the Bay of Bengal. The study advocates the usefulness of high resolution models in predicting extreme events.

  8. Evaluation of European coeliac disease risk variants in a north Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Sabyasachi; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Sood, Ajit; Midha, Vandana; Szperl, Agata; Romanos, Jihane; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Franke, Lude; Alonso, Santos; Thelma, B K; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia

    2015-01-01

    Studies in European populations have contributed to a better understanding of the genetics of complex diseases, for example, in coeliac disease (CeD), studies of over 23?000 European samples have reported association to the HLA locus and another 39 loci. However, these associations have not been evaluated in detail in other ethnicities. We sought to better understand how disease-associated loci that have been mapped in Europeans translate to a disease risk for a population with a different ethnic background. We therefore performed a validation of European risk loci for CeD in 497 cases and 736 controls of north Indian origin. Using a dense-genotyping platform (Immunochip), we confirmed the strong association to the HLA region (rs2854275, P=8.2 × 10?49). Three loci showed suggestive association (rs4948256, P=9.3 × 10?7, rs4758538, P=8.6 × 10?5 and rs17080877, P=2.7 × 10?5). We directly replicated five previously reported European variants (P<0.05; mapping to loci harbouring FASLG/TNFSF18, SCHIP1/IL12A, PFKFB3/PRKCQ, ZMIZ1 and ICOSLG). Using a transferability test, we further confirmed association at PFKFB3/PRKCQ (rs2387397, P=2.8 × 10?4) and PTPRK/THEMIS (rs55743914, P=3.4 × 10?4). The north Indian population has a higher degree of consanguinity than Europeans and we therefore explored the role of recessively acting variants, which replicated the HLA locus (rs9271850, P=3.7 × 10?23) and suggested a role of additional four loci. To our knowledge, this is the first replication study of CeD variants in a non-European population. PMID:25052311

  9. Evaluation of European coeliac disease risk variants in a north Indian population.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Sabyasachi; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Sood, Ajit; Midha, Vandana; Szperl, Agata; Romanos, Jihane; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Franke, Lude; Alonso, Santos; Thelma, B K; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trynka, Gosia

    2015-04-01

    Studies in European populations have contributed to a better understanding of the genetics of complex diseases, for example, in coeliac disease (CeD), studies of over 23?000 European samples have reported association to the HLA locus and another 39 loci. However, these associations have not been evaluated in detail in other ethnicities. We sought to better understand how disease-associated loci that have been mapped in Europeans translate to a disease risk for a population with a different ethnic background. We therefore performed a validation of European risk loci for CeD in 497 cases and 736 controls of north Indian origin. Using a dense-genotyping platform (Immunochip), we confirmed the strong association to the HLA region (rs2854275, P=8.2 × 10(-49)). Three loci showed suggestive association (rs4948256, P=9.3 × 10(-7), rs4758538, P=8.6 × 10(-5) and rs17080877, P=2.7 × 10(-5)). We directly replicated five previously reported European variants (P<0.05; mapping to loci harbouring FASLG/TNFSF18, SCHIP1/IL12A, PFKFB3/PRKCQ, ZMIZ1 and ICOSLG). Using a transferability test, we further confirmed association at PFKFB3/PRKCQ (rs2387397, P=2.8 × 10(-4)) and PTPRK/THEMIS (rs55743914, P=3.4 × 10(-4)). The north Indian population has a higher degree of consanguinity than Europeans and we therefore explored the role of recessively acting variants, which replicated the HLA locus (rs9271850, P=3.7 × 10(-23)) and suggested a role of additional four loci. To our knowledge, this is the first replication study of CeD variants in a non-European population. PMID:25052311

  10. Creation of North-East Indian face database for human face identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kankan; Saha, Priya; Bhowmik, Mrinal K.; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita

    2013-02-01

    Due to the various factors like illumination, expression, and pose variation etc., human face seem different in multiple occasions. To determine the efficiency of the different face recognition algorithms, it requires benchmark face images. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the available 2D face databases and also introduces the creation of a visual face database, North-East Indian (NEI) Face Database, which is under development in the Biometrics Laboratory of Tripura University, India. It contains high quality face images of 292 individuals of different tribe and non-tribe people of Mongolian origin collected from the North-Eastern states of India. The database contains four different types of illumination variations, eight different expressions, faces wearing glasses and each of these variations are being clicked concurrently from five different angles to provide pose variation using five CMOS sensor cameras, in a controlled indoor environment. Three different resolutions are being used for capturing the database images. Some baseline face recognition algorithms have also been tested using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier on the NEI face database, which may be used as the control algorithm performance score by other researchers.

  11. Gorlin–Goltz syndrome: A case series of 5 patients in North Indian population with comparative analysis of literature

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Jeevan; Verma, Nitin; Kaur, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Indian scenario, Gorlin–Goltz syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [NBCCS]) has been rarely reported. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings and major and minor criteria in five cases of NBCCS in North Indian population have been presented along with a discussion of the role of gene mutation analysis in early diagnosis of syndrome. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic findings of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in 5 patients were compared with other reports in Indian population and with reports of this syndrome in other parts of the world. Results: The most common features seen were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (100%), calcifications of falx cerebri (60%), palmar-plantar pits (80%), rib anomalies (80%), macroencephaly (60%), ocular hypertelorism (80%), and frontal bossing (60%) in our series. Retained deciduous teeth seen in 80% patients whose association has not been previously reported has been presented. None of our patients had basal cell carcinoma, syndactyly or polydactyly, pectus deformity, bridging of sella turcica, pigmented nevi, or family history of this syndrome in contrast to such findings in other Indian patients. Medulloblastoma has not been reported in any Indian patient so far compared to this finding in other studies conducted worldwide. Conclusions: Combining the features of 48 patients in 38 cases of NBCCS being published in Indian literature with five cases of our series and on comparison with other studies in the world, a wide disparity in different ethnic groups and a wide variation in presentation of syndrome within the same population is suggested. PMID:26604574

  12. Productivity response to the PETM in the North Atlantic and South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, T.; Kanamaru-Shinn, K.; Stoll, H. M.; Shimizu, N.

    2009-12-01

    During the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), transient changes in climate and the ocean carbonate system resulted from a major release of isotopically light C into the ocean and atmosphere. We examine the productivity response of calcareous planktonic nannofossils to the dramatic climate and ecosystem changes at DSDP Site 401 in the Bay of Biscay, North Atlantic, and ODP Site 738, Southernmost Indian Ocean. We use the productivity indicator based on Sr/Ca ratios of coccoliths, which is independent of changes in sediment accumulation rate. Sr/Ca is measured in individually picked coccoliths using secondary ion mass spectrometry. At site 401, Sr/Ca ratios in coccoliths of Toweius and Coccolithus pelagicus increase during the PETM, indicating an increase in coccolithophore productivity until the PETM isotope recovery. We are working to characterize the background pre-PETM variability at this site to establish if this increase is a unique response to PETM environmental changes. Bulk sediment Sr/Ca ratios from the same depths, measured by ICP-AES, do not covary with Sr/Ca Coccolithus or Toweius but instead increases monotonically towards shallower depths. One possible explanation is a change in proportion of Sr-poor type coccoliths, such as Discoaster sp. and Zygrhab sp. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes at site 401 exhibit extremely similar values among three different coccolith size fractions dominated by different genera, consistent with limited vital effects as observed at other sites. At ODP 738, Sr/Ca ratios in Toweius increase during the later part of the PETM and decrease by the end of the recovery, indicating a brief productivity increase. This increase is clearly beyond the background variability before the PETM or during the first part of the CIE. We are assessing whether a similar pattern is observed in Coccolithus. We will also similarly characterize productivity response to ELMO in the Equatorial Pacific and Southernmost Indian Ocean.

  13. Death receptor 4 variants enhanced prostate cancer risk in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rama D; Mandal, Raju K; Singh, Abhinav; Srivastava, Priyanka

    2015-07-01

    Death receptor 4 (DR4) is a tumor suppressor gene and plays an important mediator of apoptosis. Polymorphism in DR4 gene may reduce apoptotic capacity and provoke proliferation of cell and cancer. We evaluated genetic polymorphisms of DR4 gene in association with risk of prostate cancer (PCa) in Northern Indian population. We have recruited 192 PCa patients and 225 cancer-free ages matched unrelated healthy control of similar ethnicity. They were genotyped for DR4, 141 (G > A), 209 (C > G), and 228 (A > C) polymorphisms using amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) method. Variant genotype AA (OR = 2.54; p = 0.007) and A allele (OR = 1.51; p = 0.015) of DR4 141 demonstrated significant increased risk for PCa. Similarly, variant genotype GG (OR = 2.58; p = 0.003) and G allele carrier (CG + GG) (OR = 1.50; p = 0.043) of DR4 209 conferred increased risk. G allele (OR = 1.50, p = 0.005) was also statistically associated with PCa risk. High risk for PCa was also observed with respect to haplotypes A-G-A (OR = 2.86; Bonferroni correction Pc = 0.008) and A-G-C (OR = 3.18, Pc = 0.008). We observed significantly enhanced risk for PCa due to interaction between DR4 209 and 228 gene polymorphisms. Furthermore, a significantly increased risk of high Gleason grade tumor was found in the combined variant allele carrier (GA + AA) of DR4 141 compared with the GG genotype (OR = 2.27, Pc = 0.052). Interaction of smoking and genotypes did not further modulate the risk of PCa. Our observations suggested that genetic variants of the DR4 gene significantly influence the risk of PCa in North Indian population and might be involved in the etiology of PCa. PMID:25691252

  14. Diagonal tooth measurements in sex assessment: A study on North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Adesh S.; Narang, Ramandeep S.; Kahlon, Sukhdeep S.; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexual dimorphism has been of great interest to anthropologists and odontologists. Dental measurements are important in anthropology for the study of sexual dimorphism with most common being the traditional linear odontometric measurements. Apart from these, alternative dental measurements have been developed such as the crown and cervical diagonal diameters and mesiodistal and buccolingual cervical diameters of teeth. Aims and Objective: The primary objective of the following study is to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism in teeth of a North Indian population using the crown diagonal diameters and secondary is to evaluate the applicability of diagonal measurements in sex determination by means of discriminant functional analysis. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females) of an age group ranging from 18 to 57 years, in a North Indian population. The mesiobuccal-distolingual (MBDL) and distobuccal-mesiolingual (DBML) crown diameters of seven maxillary and seven mandibular teeth on the study models were measured using digital Vernier calipers. Results: The most dimorphic teeth amongst all for crown diagonal diameters are the maxillary central incisors and the least dimorphic are the maxillary second premolars. The mean diagonal crown dimensions in all but one tooth (DBML of maxillary lateral incisor) of males exceeded that of females. The difference was statistically significant in MBDL dimensions of maxillary and mandibular central incisor, canine, first and second molar and DBML dimensions of maxillary central incisor and maxillary and mandibular canine, first molar and second molar (P < 0.05). The accuracy of determination of sex by MBDL crown dimension ranges from 55% to 75% in males and 47-84% in females, while by DBML crown dimension ranges from 55% to 80% in males and 65-80% in females with the overall accuracy of sex determination ranging from 51% to 80% respectively. Conclusion: MBDL and DBML crown dimensions are reliable indicators and can be used along with or/and instead of linear measurements in sex determination. In situations in which it is difficult to take correct measurements of linear dimensions of teeth, these alternative odontometric measurements can be used consistently to determine sex. PMID:26005301

  15. Organochlorine Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson's Disease in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, B. D.; Bala, Kiran; Sharma, Deepika

    2013-01-01

    The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive, but environmental chemical exposures have been postulated to be involved in the etiology of PD. We examined the association between the persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and PD in the North Indian population. This case control study included 70 PD and 75 control subjects in the age group of 50 to 85 years. Blood samples were collected and high-purity grade hexane and acetone (2?:?1 ratio) were used for extraction of organochlorine residues. OCPs (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, pp?-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (pp?-DDE), op?-DDE, pp?- Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (pp?-DDT), op?-DDT, pp?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (pp?-DDD) and op?-DDD) were quantitatively estimated by using gas chromatography. The most frequently detected OCP was dieldrin, which was present in 9.3% of control and 61.4% of PD. The strongest predictor was ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), which reported an odds ratio of 2.566, indicating that for every additional one unit of ?-HCH, patients had 2.566 times more chances of presence of PD. This study indicates that increased level of ?-HCH and dieldrin may be associated with the risk of PD. PMID:23936670

  16. Nucleolar localization of cirhin, the protein mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bin; Mitchell, Grant A.; Richter, Andrea . E-mail: andrea.richter@umontreal.ca

    2005-12-10

    Cirhin (NP{sub 1}16219), the product of the CIRH1A gene is mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC/CIRH1A, OMIM 604901), a severe autosomal recessive intrahepatic cholestasis. It is a 686-amino-acid WD40-repeat containing protein of unknown function that is predicted to contain multiple targeting signals, including an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal, a C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a bipartite nuclear localization signal (BNLS). We performed the direct determination of subcellular localization of cirhin as a crucial first step in unraveling its biological function. Using EGFP and His-tagged cirhin fusion proteins expressed in HeLa and HepG2, cells we show that cirhin is a nucleolar protein and that the R565W mutation, for which all NAIC patients are homozygous, has no effect on subcellular localization. Cirhin has an active C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a unique nucleolar localization signal (NrLS) between residues 315 and 432. The nucleolus is not known to be important specifically for intrahepatic cholestasis. These observations provide a new dimension in the study of hereditary cholestasis.

  17. Variation in Tendinous Intersections of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in North Indian Population with Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mahboobul; Gupta, Amrita; Nasar, Areeba

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study Incisions through the abdominal wall are based on anatomical principles and Rectus abdominis muscle provides an excellent myocutaneous flap. The present work was proposed to identify variations in numbers and location of tendinous intersections of the Rectus Abdominis muscle in the cadavers as a guide to the surgical procedures. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 54 cadavers of North Indian origin allotted to undergraduate medical student for Anatomy dissection classes. Manual dissection was done to identify tendinous intersections of the Rectus Abdominis muscle with reference to number and location. Results In the present study one cadaver had five tendinous intersections (1.85%), one cadaver had four tendinous intersections (1.85%) and 52 cadavers had three tendinous intersections (96.29%). Conclusion The present study is an effort to provide data about the anatomical variation in numbers and location of tendinous intersections of the Rectus Abdomini muscles. Rectus abdominis muscle provides an excellent myocutaneous flap because the muscle belly is separated from surrounding tissue within the rectus sheath. This study is representative of a small study of the human population and only serves to illustrate the variations in the anatomy of the tendinous intersections. More extensive studies are required to establish a definitive pattern among local populations to serve as a guide for surgical procedures. PMID:26266107

  18. Oscillatory Climate Modes in the Indian Monsoon, North Atlantic and Tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, Andreas; Ghil, Michael; Feliks, Yizhak; Robertson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    In this presentation, we concentrate on potential teleconnections among the Indian monsoon, Tropical Pacific Ocean, and the North Atlantic. Most teleconnection studies so far were based on correlations between climatic time series from the regions of interest; often the correlations found in this way were no larger in absolute magnitude than 0.6, and they did not clarify in which frequency band the teleconnection under investigation was most active. To explore in greater depth the commonalities between the well-documented records of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and the Indian monsoon rain records we adopt here the viewpoint of synchronization between chaotic oscillators. Our synchronization analysis is based on singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and it is partly described in (Feliks 2010). It differs from that of previous studies that relied on SSA and on multichannel SSA (M-SSA) inasmuch as we rely upon the recently proposed varimax rotation of M-SSA eigenvectors (Groth & Ghil 2011) in order to improve the separation of oscillations and the identification of synchronized oscillators. With no need for any a priori phase definition for each of the subsystems, M-SSA is able to automatically identify multiple oscillatory modes and detect whether these modes are shared by phase- and frequency-locked oscillators; even if the oscillatory behavior is getting swamped by the observational noise. Given the presence of high stochasticity in the system's dynamics, we raise in particular the question of a reasonable spectral resolution as well as the robustness and reliability of M-SSA results with respect to parameter changes. In this study we show that interannual oscillatory modes exist in all the climatic records at hand, with statistically significant oscillatory modes having periods of 2.2-2.7 yr, 3.2-3.6 yr, 5 yr and 6-8 yr. Such a clustering of periodicities raises the possibility of teleconnection between these regions. A key result is that the 7-8-yr and 2.7-yr oscillatory modes in all three regions are strongly synchronized, and the energy ratio analysis suggests that the NAO induces these modes in the other two regions. Both these modes in the NAO appear to be connected to intrinsic modes of variability of the Gulf Stream front. In agreement with some recent studies, it was found here that the South Asian monsoon is not slaved to forcing from the equatorial Pacific, although it does interact strongly with it. The energy-ratio analysis pinpointed this to be the case in particular for the quasi-biennial oscillatory modes. Feliks, Ghil, and Robertson (2010), Oscillatory climate modes in the Eastern Mediterranean and their synchronization with the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 23 (15), 4060-4079. Groth and Ghil (2011), Multivariate singular spectrum analysis and the road to phase synchronization. Phys. Rev. E, 84, 036206

  19. Urinary casts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tubular epithelial casts; Waxy casts; Casts in the urine; Fatty casts; Red blood cell casts; White blood ... The urine sample you provide may need to be from your first morning urine. The sample needs to be ...

  20. Casting Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  1. Centennial-scale teleconnection between North Atlantic sea surface temperatures and the Indian summer monsoon during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Jin, Liya; Jia, Wanna

    2015-07-01

    Proxy records have shown that abrupt changes in the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) are closely linked to cold events in the North Atlantic at centennial timescales during the Holocene. However, mechanisms for these co-occurring phenomena are not fully understood. This study uses simulation results from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice general circulation model forced by astronomical variations to investigate how summer (June, July, August and September) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) may have influenced the ISM at centennial timescales during the Holocene (9.5-0 ka BP). Our analyses identified an intimate relationship between the North Atlantic tripole SST (NATS) mode and the ISM. The NATS mode can affect the ISM in several ways. First, air-sea interactions over the tropical Atlantic can induce negative tropospheric temperature (TT) anomalies over the Indian Ocean, resulting in a strengthened meridional TT gradient favorable to a prolonged monsoonal rainy season. Second, a positive NATS mode tends to induce closed zonal vertical circulation over the tropical Atlantic, North Africa and the tropical Indian Ocean, creating anomalous convergence over India, and hence an enhanced ISM. Third, westerly surface wind anomalies, related to the NATS mode and coursing over the Arabian Sea, can increase moisture delivery to the monsoon region, causing enhanced rainfall in India. This mechanism resembles a decadal-scale mechanism that operates in the present-day climate. We also compared the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), an alternative North Atlantic SST mode, with the NATS mode to determine their relationships to the ISM. A Holocene transient simulation indicates that the AMO's trend has diverged from that of the ISM since 5.5 ka BP, due to inverse SST trends over the tropical and extratropical North Atlantic. This latter trend leads to a much weaker relationship between the AMO and the ISM, relative to that observed between the NATS mode and the ISM. We therefore suggest that the centennial relationship between the North Atlantic SSTs and the ISM during the Holocene differs from the decadal to multidecadal relationship they share in the present-day climate system.

  2. Pulse and entrainment to non-isochronous auditory stimuli: the case of north Indian alap.

    PubMed

    Will, Udo; Clayton, Martin; Wertheim, Ira; Leante, Laura; Berg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pulse is often understood as a feature of a (quasi-) isochronous event sequence that is picked up by an entrained subject. However, entrainment does not only occur between quasi-periodic rhythms. This paper demonstrates the expression of pulse by subjects listening to non-periodic musical stimuli and investigates the processes behind this behaviour. The stimuli are extracts from the introductory sections of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music performances (alap, jor and jhala). The first of three experiments demonstrates regular motor responses to both irregular alap and more regular jor sections: responses to alap appear related to individual spontaneous tempi, while for jor they relate to the stimulus event rate. A second experiment investigated whether subjects respond to average periodicities of the alap section, and whether their responses show phase alignment to the musical events. In the third experiment we investigated responses to a broader sample of performances, testing their relationship to spontaneous tempo, and the effect of prior experience with this music. Our results suggest an entrainment model in which pulse is understood as the experience of one's internal periodicity: it is not necessarily linked to temporally regular, structured sensory input streams; it can arise spontaneously through the performance of repetitive motor actions, or on exposure to event sequences with rather irregular temporal structures. Greater regularity in the external event sequence leads to entrainment between motor responses and stimulus sequence, modifying subjects' internal periodicities in such a way that they are either identical or harmonically related to each other. This can be considered as the basis for shared (rhythmic) experience and may be an important process supporting 'social' effects of temporally regular music. PMID:25849357

  3. Pulse and Entrainment to Non-Isochronous Auditory Stimuli: The Case of North Indian Alap

    PubMed Central

    Will, Udo; Clayton, Martin; Wertheim, Ira; Leante, Laura; Berg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pulse is often understood as a feature of a (quasi-) isochronous event sequence that is picked up by an entrained subject. However, entrainment does not only occur between quasi-periodic rhythms. This paper demonstrates the expression of pulse by subjects listening to non-periodic musical stimuli and investigates the processes behind this behaviour. The stimuli are extracts from the introductory sections of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music performances (alap, jor and jhala). The first of three experiments demonstrates regular motor responses to both irregular alap and more regular jor sections: responses to alap appear related to individual spontaneous tempi, while for jor they relate to the stimulus event rate. A second experiment investigated whether subjects respond to average periodicities of the alap section, and whether their responses show phase alignment to the musical events. In the third experiment we investigated responses to a broader sample of performances, testing their relationship to spontaneous tempo, and the effect of prior experience with this music. Our results suggest an entrainment model in which pulse is understood as the experience of one’s internal periodicity: it is not necessarily linked to temporally regular, structured sensory input streams; it can arise spontaneously through the performance of repetitive motor actions, or on exposure to event sequences with rather irregular temporal structures. Greater regularity in the external event sequence leads to entrainment between motor responses and stimulus sequence, modifying subjects’ internal periodicities in such a way that they are either identical or harmonically related to each other. This can be considered as the basis for shared (rhythmic) experience and may be an important process supporting ‘social’ effects of temporally regular music. PMID:25849357

  4. A study of sex differences in fingerprint ridge density in a North Indian young adult population.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Ngangom, Chitrabala

    2013-05-01

    Fingerprints have considerable value in morphological, biological, anthropological and forensic studies. Fingerprints collected from the crime scene and from the items of evidence of crime have been successfully used to identify suspects, victims or any other person who had touched the surface in question. The thickness of epidermal ridges varies between individuals; females are supposed to have finer ridges than males and therefore a greater ridge density. The present research is an attempt to distinguish sex from fingerprint ridge density in the radial, ulnar and lower areas of a fingerprint in a North Indian population. A total of 194 individuals (97 males and 97 females) aged between 18 and 25 years were included in the study and fingerprints were collected from each finger of the participants. Thus, a total of 1940 fingerprints were obtained and epidermal ridges were counted in the radial, ulnar, and lower areas of each fingerprint. The radial and ulnar areas are the 5 mm × 5 mm areas on the radial and ulnar side of the central core respectively while the lower area is designated as 5 mm × 5 mm area adjoining the flexion crease of the terminal phalanx on a fingerprint. The fingerprint ridge density in radial, ulnar and lower areas and between sexes was compared statistically using t-test. The results indicate that the females tend to have a significantly higher ridge density than males in the three areas analyzed in the study. The fingerprint ridge density in the ulnar and radial areas of the fingerprints is significantly higher than the lower area. The present study suggests that the fingerprint ridge density can be a relevant and useful morphological parameter in distinguishing sex of a latent fingerprint of unknown origin from the scene of crime. The findings can also be useful in identification of mutilated remains when a dismembered hand is brought for medico-legal examination. PMID:23622462

  5. 77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Secretary--Indian Affairs made a final agency determination to acquire approximately 305.49 acres of land in... published to comply with the requirements of 25 CFR 151.12(b) that notice be given of the Secretary's... November 26, 2012, the Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs decided to accept approximately 305.49 acres...

  6. Changes in erosion and ocean circulation recorded in the Hf isotopic compositions of North Atlantic and Indian Ocean ferromanganese crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, John N.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.; Hein, James R.; Günther, Detlef

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution Hf isotopic records are presented for hydrogenetic Fe–Mn crusts from the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans. BM1969 from the western North Atlantic has previously been shown to record systematically decreasing Nd isotopic compositions from about 60 to ?4 Ma, at which time both show a rapid decrease to unradiogenic Nd composition, thought to be related to the increasing influence of NADW or glaciation in the northern hemisphere. During the Oligocene, North Atlantic Hf became progressively less radiogenic until in the mid-Miocene (?15 Ma) it reached +1. It then shifted gradually back to an ?Hf value of +3 at 4 Ma, since when it has decreased rapidly to about ?1 at the present day. The observed shifts in the Hf isotopic composition were probably caused by variation in intensity of erosion as glaciation progressed in the northern hemisphere. Ferromanganese crusts SS663 and 109D are from about 5500 m depth in the Indian Ocean and are now separated by ?2300 km across the Mid-Indian Ridge. They display similar trends in Hf isotopic composition from 20 to 5 Ma, with the more northern crust having a composition that is consistently more radiogenic (by ?2 ?Hf units). Paradoxically, during the last 20 Ma the Hf isotopic compositions of the two crusts have converged despite increased separation and subsidence relative to the ridge. A correlatable negative excursion at ?5 Ma in the two records may reflect a short-term increase in erosion caused by the activation of the Himalayan main central thrust. Changes to unradiogenic Hf in the central Indian Ocean after 5 Ma may alternatively have been caused by the expanding influence of NADW into the Mid-Indian Basin via circum-Antarctic deep water or a reduction of Pacific flow through the Indonesian gateway. In either case, these results illustrate the utility of the Hf isotope system as a tracer of paleoceanographic changes, capable of responding to subtle changes in erosional regime not readily resolved using other isotope systems.

  7. Association between beta-1 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism and ischemic stroke in North Indian population: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Pandit, A K; Vivekanandhan, S; Srivastava, M V P; Tripathi, M; Prasad, K

    2015-01-15

    Stroke is a multi-factorial disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of this case control study was to determine the relationship of beta-1 adrenergic receptor polymorphism with ischemic stroke in North Indian population. In this study, 224 patients and 224 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited from the outpatient department and neurology ward of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Genotyping was performed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. PCR results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Frequency distributions of genotypes and alleles were compared between cases and controls using logistic regression. Mean age of cases and controls was 53.9 ± 13.4 and 53.6 ± 12.9 years respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent association between Ser49Gly polymorphism and ischemic stroke under a dominant model of inheritance (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5) and large vessel disease (LVD) under a recessive model of inheritance (OR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.7 to 23; P=0.005). Independent association of Arg389Gly polymorphism with small vessel disease (SVD) (OR, 7.09; 95% CI, 1.9 to 25; P=0.003) under recessive model of inheritance. The findings of the present study Ser49Gly polymorphism of the ADRB1 gene confer higher risk of ischemic stroke in a North Indian population and especially in patients with LVD. Our findings also show that Arg389Gly polymorphism of ADRB1 confers higher risk of SVD in North Indian population. PMID:25510377

  8. Relook at lipoprotein (A): Independent risk factor of coronary artery disease in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Jamal; Yadav, Neeraj; Mukhopadhyay, Saibal; Goyal, Abhishek; Mehta, Vimal; Trehan, Vijay; Tyagi, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Aims Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels have shown wide ethnic variations. Sparse data on mean Lp(a) levels, its link with clinical variables and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in North Indian population needed further studies. Methods 150 patients, each of single vessel disease (SVD), double vessel disease (DVD) and triple vessel disease (TVD) with 150 healthy controls were drawn for the study. Serum Lp(a) estimation was performed by immunoturbidimetric method. Results Lp(a) had a skewed distribution. Median Lp(a) level was significantly raised in cases as compared to controls (median 30.30 vs. 20 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Cases with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, 55.8%) had significantly higher median Lp(a) levels as compared to those with chronic stable angina (35.4 mg/dl vs. 23 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Significant difference in median Lp(a) levels were observed in patients with DVD or TVD versus control (30, 39.05 vs 20 mg/dl, p < 0.008). Lp(a) level was found to be an independent risk factor for CAD (AOR{adjusted odds ratio} 1.018, 95% CI 1.010–1.027; p < 0.001). Analysis using Lp(a) as categorical variable showed that progressive increase in Lp(a) concentration was associated with increased risk of CAD [AOR from lowest to highest quartile (1, 1.04, 1.43 and 2.65, p value for trend = 0.00026)]. Multivariably AOR of CAD for subjects with Lp(a) in the highest quartile (above 40 mg/dl) compared to those with Lp(a) ?40 mg/dl was 2.308 (95% CI 1.465–3.636, p < 0.001). Conclusion Lp(a) above 40 mg/dl (corresponding to 75th percentile)assessed by an isoform insensitive assay is an independent risk factor for CAD. Raised Lp(a) level is also associated with increased risk of ACS and multivessel CAD. PMID:24973831

  9. Root and canal morphology of maxillary first premolar teeth in north Indian population using clearing technique: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shraddha; Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Gowhar, Owais; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Singh, Narendra Nath; Gupta, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the root form and canal configuration in maxillary first premolars. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 extracted human adult maxillary first premolar teeth from North Indian population were collected. Access cavities were prepared and the coronal pulp tissue was extirpated. The samples were stored in 5% nitric acid solution for 5 days. They were then rinsed, dried, and dehydrated using increasing concentrations of ethanol (70, 80, and 95%) successively for 1 day. Teeth were rendered transparent by immersing in methyl salicylate. India ink was then injected. The root canal morphology was examined under stereomicroscope. Result: 53.6% were single rooted followed by fused root form followed by two root form. 0.4% had three rooted maxillary first premolar. Variable root canal configurations were also found. Type IV configuration was most prevalent (33.2%). Two teeth showed an additional configuration. Lateral canals were present in 34.8% of the samples and intercanal communications in 16%. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that in North Indian population, there was an increased propensity for types IV, I, II, and III canal morphologies in maxillary first premolars. Single root form was most common. PMID:26069411

  10. Reconstructing Indian Population History

    PubMed Central

    Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.; Singh, Lalji

    2009-01-01

    India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyze 25 diverse groups to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the “Ancestral North Indians” (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, while the other, the “Ancestral South Indians” (ASI), is as distinct from ANI and East Asians as they are from each other. By introducing methods that can estimate ancestry without accurate ancestral populations, we show that ANI ancestry ranges from 39-71% in India, and is higher in traditionally upper caste and Indo-European speakers. Groups with only ASI ancestry may no longer exist in mainland India. However, the Andamanese are an ASI-related group without ANI ancestry, showing that the peopling of the islands must have occurred before ANI-ASI gene flow on the mainland. Allele frequency differences between groups in India are larger than in Europe, reflecting strong founder effects whose signatures have been maintained for thousands of years due to endogamy. We therefore predict that there will be an excess of recessive diseases in India, different in each group, which should be possible to screen and map genetically. PMID:19779445

  11. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  12. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 162, 2005, pp. 135146. Printed in Great Britain. Subsidence history of the north Indian continental margin, ZanskarLadakh

    E-print Network

    Watts, A. B. "Tony"

    . 135 Subsidence history of the north Indian continental margin, Zanskar­Ladakh Himalaya, NW India R. I of the tectonic subsidence and uplift through the pre- collisional history of the margin have been constructed.2. This model accounts for the general exponential decrease in the backstripped tectonic subsidence. The model

  13. Bibliography of Health Issues Affecting North American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts: 1950-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Mitchell V., Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography of 2,414 journal articles provides health professionals and others with quick references on health and related issues of American Indians and Alaska Natives. The citations cover articles published in U.S. and Canadian medical and health-related journals between 1950 and 1988. Five sections deal with major health categories and…

  14. Coagulation factor VIII, IX and XI levels in north Indian patients with venous thromboembolism: first study from India.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Rajpal, Sweta; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Bose, Sunil Kumar; Masih, Joseph; Das, Reena; Kumar, Narender; Malhotra, Pankaj; Suri, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown elevated levels of certain coagulation factors as risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this study, we investigated the levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), FIX and FXI in north Indian patients with VTE. A total of 123 patients with VTE were screened prospectively for FVIII, FIX and FXI levels and the conventional risk factors - deficiencies of protein C, S and antithrombin, positivity for antiphospholipid antibodies and the factor V Leiden mutation. Age-matched and sex-matched controls were included. VTE was secondary to known circumstantial and thrombophilic risk factors in 66 (53.7%) patients. In 46.3% (idiopathic VTE) patients, no cause was identified. The mean FVIII levels in idiopathic (187?IU/dl) and secondary VTE patients (185.4?IU/dl) were significantly higher compared with controls (129.6?IU/dl; P?north Indian population. Elevated levels of FIX and FXI were not associated with increased risk of VTE. PMID:26340461

  15. Detrital zircon provenance and paleontological constraints on the Cambrian paleogeography of the North China (Sino-Korean) block and its association with the north Indian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, R.; Hughes, N.; Myrow, P.; Choi, D. K.

    2009-12-01

    The paleogeographic position of the “outboard” Asian terranes of the eastern Gondwanaland during the Cambrian remains vigorously debated. One the most contentious issues is the location of the North China Block (NCB). Several reconstructions place an isolated NCB close to eastern Australia, and it has long been thought that the NCB trilobite fauna is similar to that of Australia but different from that of the South China Block (SCB). However, analysis of late Cambrian trilobite species distribution shows strongest correlation between the NCB and the SCB, and the presence of a unique, geographically restricted NCB trilobite assemblage in the Bhutanese Himalaya also suggests strong proximity between the north Indian margin and NCB. Reviews of published data on middle Cambrian trilobites from the Himalaya also show the greatest similarity between the north Indian margin, the NCB, and SCB. In support of this notion, we have obtained U-Pb ages for individual detrital zircon grains from later Cambrian strata of the southern margin of the NCB which yield a wide spectrum of grain ages that is statistically indistinguishable from spectra for later Cambrian strata from the Bhutanese Himalaya. This suggests contiguous sediment sources for both these regions which requires the NCB to be juxtaposed against Gondwanaland rather than an isolated terrane. However, this spectrum differs markedly from previously published spectra from the northwest NCB that shows a narrow range of ages around all older than 1700 Ma, likely related to derivation from a local source known to be of this age. Furthermore, a new spectrum from late Cambrian strata of South Korea on the eastern margin of the NCB shows characteristics of both southern and northern NCB spectra, suggesting mixed sediment sources. Spectra from the southern and eastern margins both contain high concentrations of relatively young grains. This is also seen in spectra from Himalayan strata of similar depositional age, and has been attributed to a regional Cambrian-Ordovician tectonic event. Both the eastern and southern margins of the NCB regions contain Cambrian-Ordovician aged volcanics and sedimentological evidence for a tectonic event during these intervals, and given our evidence for the proximity of the NCB with the eastern Himalaya, it is probable that these data are representative of single event that affected this sector of Gondwanaland.

  16. Gender variation in morphological patterns of lip prints among some north Indian populations

    PubMed Central

    Vats, Yogesh; Dhall, Jasmine Kaur; Kapoor, AK

    2012-01-01

    Background: Personal identification is an integral part of forensic investigations. For the same, DNA profiling and fingerprints are the most commonly used tools. But these evidences are not ubiquitous and may not necessarily be obtained from the crime scene. In such a scenario, other physical and trace evidences play a pivotal role and subsequently the branches employed are forensic osteology, odontology, biometrics, etc. A relatively recent field in the branch of forensic odontology is cheiloscopy or the study of lip prints. A comparison of lip prints from the crime scene and those obtained from the suspects may be useful in the identification or narrowing down the investigation. Aim: The purpose of the present study is to determine the gender and population variability in the morphological patterns of lip prints among brahmins, Jats, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana, India. Settings and Design: Samples were collected from Jats, brahmins, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana. The total sample size consisted of 1399 individuals including 781 males and 618 females in the age group of 8–60 years. Care was taken not to collect samples from genetically related individuals. The technique was standardized by recording lip prints of 20 persons and analyzing them. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were collected by using a corporate's invisible tape and analyzed using a hand lens. The patterns were studied along the entire length and breadth of both the upper and the lower lip. The data were analyzed by SPSS statistical package version 17 to determine the frequencies and percentages of occurrence of the pattern types in each population group and a comparison between males and females among the groups was carried out by using the z test. Results and Conclusions: The z-test comparison between patterns of males and females shows significant differences with respect to pattern types I’, II, III, and IV among brahmins; I’, II, III, IV, and Y among Jats; and I, I’, II, III, and V among scheduled castes. Thus, it can be concluded that the variability of the lip print pattern can help sex differentiation among groups and that more studies on the lip print pattern should be carried out to bring new dimensions to forensic anthropology and to aid the law enforcement agencies. PMID:23087577

  17. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS OF UTE INDIAN TRIBE, UINTAH AND OURAY RESERVATION, UTAH, BY THE TRIBE AND THE UTE DISTRIBUTION...

  18. Validation of SARAL/AltiKa significant wave height and wind speed observations over the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, U. Mahesh; Swain, D.; Sasamal, S. K.; Reddy, N. Narendra; Ramanjappa, T.

    2015-12-01

    SARAL/AltiKa, a joint Ka-band altimetry mission of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was successfully launched on February 25, 2013. The main purpose of this mission is to explore the ocean surface topography. As it is a Ka-band altimeter mission unlike other altimeters which were primarily in Ku-band, it is essential to calibrate and validate AltiKa data products before using the data for oceanographic applications. With this objective, two important geophysical parameters, Significant Wave Height (SWH) and Wind Speed (WS) from SARAL/AltiKa are inter-compared with those from 18 moored buoy stations in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) for a two year period from March 2013 to March 2015. SARAL/AltiKa GDR-T patch-2 version products are collocated with moored buoy observations with a collocation criteria of spatio-temporal window of 50 km radius about the buoy location and 30 min time for all the altimeter measurements. Following this, linear regression relations are developed and statistical analyses carried out to assess the performance of SARAL/AltiKa. The correlation between SARAL/AltiKa derived SWHs and those from moored buoys is 0.98 m with a bias of -0.02 m and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.15 m at 95% confidence level. The WSs derived from SARAL/AltiKa Ka-band correlates reasonably well with buoy observations with a correlation coefficient of 0.91, bias of -0.28 m/s and RMSE of 1.13 m/s. The inter-comparison results are found to be interesting with a good agreement between SARAL/AltiKa and moored buoys observations of SWH and WS in the NIO where SWHs are less than ?4 m and WS are less than ?13 m/s during the entire analysis period.

  19. Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Durand, F.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    this paper, we show that a linear, continuously stratified ocean model reproduces observed wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variability in the coastal waveguide of the Northern Indian Ocean (NIO). Sensitivity experiments with intraseasonal wind forcing selectively applied in the equatorial region, Bay of Bengal, and Arabian Sea show that a large part of the basin-scale sea level variations are driven by zonal wind fluctuations along the equator. Within the NIO coastal waveguide, the contribution of remote equatorial forcing decreases from ~80-90% in the Andaman Sea to ~50% northeast of Sri Lanka and then increases to ~60-70% along the west coast of India. During the southwest monsoon, intraseasonal wind variations become stronger over the NIO, resulting in a larger contribution of local wind forcing to sea level variability along the west (up to 60%) and east (up to 40%) coasts of India.

  20. Growth faulting and syntectonic casting of the Dawson Creek Graben Complex: A North American craton-marginal trough; Carboniferous-Permian Peace River Embayment, western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, J.E.; Utting, J. ); Krause, F.F.; Campbell, R.I. )

    1991-06-01

    The Dawson Creek Graben Complex was a 150 {times} 300 km, craton-perpendicular trough near the western North American craton margin. Sedimentary infill spanned 100 million years, and this tectonically controlled basin provides a comparison with other craton-marginal troughs or aulacogens, such as the Big Snowy, Uinta, Delaware, and Southern Oklahoma. The authors suspect that the graben complex was controlled by outboard, Antler-like orogeny and perhaps some strike-slip control. This syntectonic graben infill model provides a basis for developing new structural-stratigraphic plays in this mature basin. This extensional trough rests on a former basement arch and is centered in the broadly downwarped Peace River embayment. Sediment infill records several graben casting stages beginning with westernmost down-dropping, which then extended eastward and was accompanied by an increase in growth-type block faulting. Subsidence and faulting decay was followed by a retreat to western areas and tectonic stabilization. The complex was an arcuate half-graben, steep to the north, that widened asymmetrically and increased in depth to the west through time. The complex contained a principal half-graben with neighboring satellite grabens; throughout the complex are numerous kilometer-scale horst and graben blocks. The horsts subsided slower than neighboring grabens. This differential subsidence along block-bounding syn- and postdepositional growth-type normal faults controlled formation and bed thickness, as did inter- and intraformational unconformities.

  1. Risk factors for acquisition of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in North-Indian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Fatima, Jamale; Shakil, Shazi; Rizvi, Syed Mohd. Danish; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance and production of extended spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) by enteric gram negative rods in hospitals and community continue to be a matter of scientific concern. This retrospective study was executed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at two North Indian hospitals and to determine the risk factors associated with the acquisition of these organisms. A total of 346 bacterial isolates were obtained. Of these, 48.27% (n = 167) were confirmed to be ESBL producers while 51.73% (n = 179) were non ESBL-producers. Among the ESBL producers, 55.69% (n = 93) were E. coli and 44.31% (n = 74) were K. pneumoniae. ESBL producing isolates showed co-resistance to multitude of antibiotics tested. Length of hospital stay (>3 days) and previous exposure to antibiotics were found as significant risk factors (p = 0.01 and 0.02) associated with the acquisition of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Imipenem and meropenem can be suggested as drugs of choice in our study. PMID:25561881

  2. An Investigation of Genome-Wide Studies Reported Susceptibility Loci for Ulcerative Colitis Shows Limited Replication in North Indians

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, Garima; Prasad, Pushplata; Senapati, Sabyasachi; Midha, Vandana; Sood, Ajit; Amre, Devendra; Juyal, Ramesh C.; BK, Thelma

    2011-01-01

    Genome-Wide Association studies (GWAS) of both Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) have unearthed over 40 risk conferring variants. Recently, a meta-analysis on UC revealed several loci, most of which were either previously associated with UC or CD susceptibility in populations of European origin. In this study, we attempted to replicate these findings in an ethnically distinct north Indian UC cohort. 648 UC cases and 850 controls were genotyped using Infinium Human 660W-quad. Out of 59 meta-analysis index SNPs, six were not in the SNP array used in the study. Of the remaining 53 SNPs, four were found monomorphic. Association (p<0.05) at 25 SNPs was observed, of which 15 were CD specific. Only five SNPs namely rs2395185 (HLA-DRA), rs3024505 (IL10), rs6426833 (RNF186), rs3763313 (BTNL2) and rs2066843 (NOD2) retained significance after Bonferroni correction. These results (i) reveal limited replication of Caucasian based meta-analysis results; (ii) reiterate overlapping molecular mechanism(s) in UC and CD; (iii) indicate differences in genetic architecture between populations; and (iv) suggest that resources such as HapMap need to be extended to cover diverse ethnic populations. They also suggest a systematic GWAS in this terrain may be insightful for identifying population specific IBD risk conferring loci and thus enable cross-ethnicity fine mapping of disease loci. PMID:21304977

  3. Callionymus omanensis, a new species of dragonet from Oman, north-western Indian Ocean (Teleostei: Callionymidae).

    PubMed

    Fricke, R; Jawad, L A; Al-Mamry, J M

    2014-11-01

    A new species of deep-living dragonet Callionymus omanensis from Oman is described on the basis of a single male specimen collected in a trawl from 500 m depth off the coast of Oman. The new species is characterized within the subgenus Bathycallionymus by having a small branchial opening; head short (3·9 in proportion to standard length); eye large (2·4 in proportion to head length); preopercular spine with a long, upcurved main tip, with a small antrorse barb and a larger antrorse spine, and with a strong antrorse spine laterally at the preopercular-spine base, ventral margin smooth; first dorsal fin slightly higher than second dorsal fin (male); second dorsal fin distally straight; 17 pectoral fin rays; distal end of caudal fin slightly pointed, with two median unbranched rays bearing short filaments; first dorsal fin with basal black spot reaching from first to fourth membranes, third membrane with an ocellated distal black blotch; second dorsal fin with vertical dark grey bars; distal three-fourths of anal fin black; upper half of caudal fin with oblique dark grey bars; pelvic fin dark grey, second ray basally with a black blotch. The new species is compared with similar species. Revised keys to callionymid species of the western Indian Ocean and the Red Sea, as well as species of the subgenus Bathycallionymus, are presented. PMID:25098471

  4. Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmittner, A.; Galbraith, E.D.; Hostetler, S.W.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Zhang, R.

    2007-01-01

    Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic can cause large and synchronous variations of oxygen minimum zones, throughout the Northern Hemisphere of the Indian and Pacific oceans, consistent with the paleoclimate records. Cold periods in the North Atlantic are associated with reduced nutrient delivery to the upper Indo-Pacific oceans, thereby decreasing productivity. Reduced export production diminishes subsurface respiration of organic matter leading to higher oxygen concentrations and less denitrification. This effect of reduced oxygen consumption dominates at low latitudes. At high latitudes in the Southern Ocean and North Pacific, increased mixed layer depths and steepening of isopycnals improve ocean ventilation and oxygen supply to the subsurface. Atmospheric teleconnections through changes in wind-driven ocean circulation modify this basin-scale pattern regionally. These results suggest that changes in the Atlantic Ocean circulation, similar to those projected by climate models to possibly occur in the centuries to come because of anthropogenic climate warming, can have large effects on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles even in remote areas. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Amoebiasis: A Cross-Sectional Study among North East Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Joyobrato; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Singha, Baby; Paul, Jaishree

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies carried out using culture or microscopy in most of the amoebiasis endemic developing countries, yielded confusing results since none of these could differentiate the pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica from the non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. The Northeastern part of India is a hot spot of infection since the climatic conditions are most conducive for the infection and so far no systemic study has been carried out in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings Following a cross-sectional study designed during the period 2011–2014, a total of 1260 fecal samples collected from the Northeast Indian population were subjected to microscopy, fecal culture and a sensitive and specific DNA dot blot screening assay developed in our laboratory targeting the Entamoeba spp. Further species discrimination using PCR assay performed in microscopy, culture and DNA dot blot screening positive samples showed E. histolytica an overall prevalence rate of 11.1%, 8.0% and 13.7% respectively. In addition, infection rates of nonpathogenic E. dispar and E. moshkovskii were 11.8% (95% CI = 10.2, 13.8) and 7.8% (95% CI = 6.4, 9.4) respectively. The spatial distributions of infection were 18.2% (107/588) of Assam, 11.7% (23/197) of Manipur, 10.2% (21/207) of Meghalaya, and 8.2% (22/268) of Tripura states. Association study of the disease with demographic features suggested poor living condition (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.83, 5.63), previous history of infection in family member (OR = 3.18; 95% CI = 2.09, 4.82) and unhygienic toilet facility (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.49) as significant risk factors for amoebiasis. Children in age group <15 yr, participants having lower levels of education, and daily laborers exhibited a higher infection rate. Conclusions/Significance Despite the importance of molecular diagnosis of amoebiasis, molecular epidemiological data based on a large sample size from endemic countries are rarely reported in the literature. Improved and faster method of diagnosis employed here to dissect out the pathogenic from the nonpathogenic species would help the clinicians to prescribe the appropriate anti-amoebic drug. PMID:26633890

  6. Variability of palmprint ridge density in a North Indian population and its use in inference of sex in forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Ruchika; Pathania, Annu

    2014-12-01

    Fingerprints and palmprints are unique to an individual, and these biometric characters are used in the identification of individuals. In the recent past, ridge density (ridge count in a defined area) has been explored for its applicability in inference of sex from the fingerprints and palmprints recovered at the crime scene. The present research aims to study the variability of palmprint ridge density in a North Indian population, and its significance in inference of sex in forensic examinations. The sample consisted of 157 healthy young adults (110 females and 47 males) from Shimla city in North India. Bilateral palmprints were taken from all the participants following standard methods. The palmprints were manually analyzed in four defined areas of each palmprint that included the central prominent part of the thenar eminence (P1), the mount distal to the axial triradius on the hypothenar region (P2), the mount proximal to the triradius of the second digit (P3) and the mount proximal to the triradius of the fifth digit (P4). The ridge density was calculated diagonally using a square measuring 5 mm × 5 mm. The sex differences in palmprint ridge densities were statistically analyzed for each of the designated areas using statistical considerations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was done to test the overall ability of the palmprint ridge densities obtained from each area in inference of sex. The mean palmprint ridge density was found to be significantly greater in females than in males in all the four defined areas of the palmprint. Ridge densities in P3 and P4 areas of the palmprint showed statistically significant bilateral differences in both males and females. The study observed variations in the ridge density between the four designated areas of the palmprint. Based on the area under the ROC curve (AUC), maximum sexing potential for the palmprint ridge density was observed in the P4 area, followed by P3 area on both right and left sides. ROC analysis of the total palmprint ridge density indicated that the sexing accuracy from the right and left palmprint ridge densities was 70.2% and 71.8% respectively. The study shows variability of palmprint ridge density among sexes and in different regions of the palm on both sides. In view of the considerable overlapping in male and female values and lower levels of accuracy obtained in ROC analysis, the present research concludes that the palmprint ridge density cannot be used as an effective tool in inference of sex. However, in absence of other more reliable means/evidence, it still can be considered as a supportive trait in sex inference. PMID:25282684

  7. Polymorphism of FABP2 and PPARG2 genes in risk prediction of cataract among North Indian population?

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Shania; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Chandra, Anu; Singh, Luxmi; Rizvi, Saliha; eba, Ale; Ahmed, Faisal; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cataract is the leading cause of bilateral blindness in India. It has been reported that cataract is responsible for 50–80% of the bilaterally blind in the country. Cataract formation is a natural part of the ageing process. At present, adequate data are not available regarding the FABP2 and PPARG2 gene polymorphisms and their susceptibility with cataract cases in the North Indian population. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the association of FABP2 and PPARG2 gene polymorphisms with cataract cases and controls. Materials and methods This study includes 130 cataract cases and 118 controls. FABP2 and PPARG2 gene polymorphisms in cases and controls were evaluated by PCR-RFLP. Results Frequencies of Ala54Ala, Ala54Thr and Thr54Thr genotypes in FABP2 gene in cataract cases and controls were 50.76%, 39.23%, 10% and 25.42%, 61.86%, 12.71% respectively. The PPARG2 gene CC, CG, GG genotype frequencies were 11.53%, 87.69% and 0.76% in cases and 21.18%, 39.83% and 38.98% in healthy controls respectively. Significant differences were observed in the frequencies of FABP2 Ala54Ala, Ala54Thr genotype (p < 0.05) and PPARG2 CC, CG, GG genotype (p < 0.05) between cases and controls. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that FABP2 and PPARG2 gene polymorphisms can be an informative marker for early identification of population at risk of cataract. The potential role of FABP2 and PPARG2 gene polymorphisms as a marker of susceptibility to cataract needs further studies in a larger number of patients. PMID:25606413

  8. Polymorphism of Alcohol Metabolizing Gene ADH3 Predisposes to Development of Alcoholic Pancreatitis in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Divya; Negi, Tajwar S.; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam; Choudhuri, Gourdas

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Genetic factors regulating alcohol metabolism could predispose in developing alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP). Studies revealed that alcohol could be metabolized by both ways, oxidative and non-oxidative. The main oxidative pathway includes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and cytochrome P450 enzyme. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in these enzymes with the alcoholic pancreatitis in the north Indian population. Method: Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP; n = 72), tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP; n = 75), alcoholic controls (AC; n = 40), and healthy controls (HC; n = 100) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in EDTA coated vials. DNA was extracted and genotyping for ADH3, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 was done by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction—restriction fragment length polymorphism). The products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Result: The frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1 genotype was significantly higher in ACP group (59.7%) compared with TCP (38.7%), HC (42%), and AC (37.5%) and was found to be associated with increased risk of alcoholic pancreatitis. There was no statistically significant difference between the frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1, ADH3*1/*2, and ADH3*2/*2 genotypes between TCP and HC or healthy alcoholics. ALDH2 gene was monomorphic in our population, and the frequencies for CYP2E1 intron 6 Dra I polymorphism were comparable in all the four groups. Conclusion: This study shows that carriers of ADH3*1/*1 individuals consuming alcohol are at higher risk for alcoholic pancreatitis than those with other genotypes such as ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2.

  9. Analysis of the impact of cyclones on Chlorophyll-a in North Indian Ocean; a remote sensing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao Neerukattu, Srinivasa; H, Rao K.; v, Ramana I.; v, Rao M.; v, Murali Krishna I.; Anjanwyulu, A.

    Bay of Bengal (BOB) is considered to be less productive than the Arabian Sea (AS). Earlier studies attributed the reason to be strong stratified layer, which is not broken normally, for its less productivity. Monsoon winds with less wind speed are unable to break the stratified layer. Hypothetically, had there not been stratified layer in BOB, its productivity would have been comparable to that of AS. To meet the requirement of breaking stratified layer higher wind speeds are required, which are produced during cyclones. Thus the seasonal productivity comparisons has been done during cyclones, cyclones are quite common in different seasons in both BOB and AS. Four seasons of monsoon that North Indian Ocean (NIO) experience are; Spring intermonsoon (Apr - May), Southwest monsoon (June - Sep), Fall intermonsoon (Oct - Nov) and Northeast monsoon (Dec - Mar). Fourteen cyclones have been observed covering all the four seasons during for the years 1998 - 2006. During the southwest and fall seasons, cyclones occurred in either BOB or In AS and thus the comparison could not be done. Thus BOB and AS productivity during cyclones has been performed independently with out comparison between them. During the spring intermonsoon four cyclones, two in BOB (two in AS) have been observed. Four parameters of SST drop, MLD deepening, raise the percent of chlorophyll-a and increase in NPP have been derived. The parameters estimated in BOB (AS) during the cyclones are: SST drop of 5o C to 6.5o C (6.5o C to 8.5o C), MLD deepening of 30m to 90m (30m to 120m), raise in chlorophyll-a by 220 During northeast monsoon seven cyclones, four in BOB (three in AS) have been observed. In BOB, out of four cyclones, two were observed in north and two in south, where as in AS one in north and two in south were observed. Comparison was made based on latitude considering availability of sun light to be the same. The parameters estimated in northern BOB (AS) during the cyclones are: SST drop of 1.5o C to 3.75o C (7o C), MLD deepening of 20m to 50m (50m to 120m), raise in chlorophyll-a by 14 As already mentioned independent basin study has been done during Southwest monsoon over AS. The parameters observed during the only one cyclone are: SST drop of 7o C, MLD deepening of 40m to 85m, raise the chlorophyll-a by 192 During the fall intermonsoon over BOB, two cyclones (TC04B and TC05B) occurred consecutively in the same year. The parameters retrieved during TC04B (TC05B) are: SST drop of 5.7o C (4o C), MLD deepening of 20m to 70m (20m to 90m), raise in chlorophyll-a by 109 It has been observed that cyclone is breaking the stratified layer, bringing nutrients and increases productivity. Doubt will arise whether high wind speeds are sufficient to raise the productivity. If this were true, there should have been increase in chlorophyll-a throughout the cyclone wake. Satellite images reveal that the increase is not substantial and equal along the cyclone wake. The reason for this is the cyclone eye formation, its symmetricity, and the resonance effect that are contributing to raise in productivity due to more upwelling. Cyclones, increases productivity are helping reduce the green house gas (CO2) which is fixed into the ocean from the atmosphere. Thus atmospheric temperature falls down delaying early global warming. Earlier studies neglected the cyclone's effect while computing seasonal productivity changes. Now that cyclone plays a curtail role in the productivity enhancement, care has to be taken.

  10. CTLA4+49G allele associates with early onset of type 1 diabetes in North Indians.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N; Kaur, G; Kanga, U; Mehra, N K; Neolia, S C; Tandon, N; Zucman, S C

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex autoimmune disease with strong genetic influence. In this study, we investigated +49A/G SNP (rs 231775) in exon 1 of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) by PCR-RFLP and its influence as a risk factor for the disease in the North Indian population. This polymorphism at codon 17 results in an amino acid substitution (Thr/Ala) in the leader peptide of the molecule. The study included 232 patients with T1D (age at onset of disease (AOD): 0.5-37 years) and 305 ethnically matched healthy controls. The DNA obtained from these 537 individuals was amplified using a set of specific primers followed by restriction enzyme digestion with Fnu4HI. The +49G allele as well as its homozygous genotype G/G was observed to be significantly higher in patients as compared to the healthy controls {(37.3% vs. 25.6%, P = 4.96E(-05) , OR = 1.73; 95%CI = 1.33-2.25) (15.52% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.001, OR = 2.62; 95% CI = 1.48-4.63) respectively}. The frequency of G/G genotype was significantly higher in patients with early age at onset of disease (AOD:<12 years) as compared to that in the late-onset patients with AOD: ?12 years (21.1% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.042, OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.09-4.67) as well as to that in the healthy controls (21.1% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.00004, OR = 3.8; 95% CI = 2.01-7.2). Further analysis revealed that the median AOD significantly reduced (P = 0.049) from 14 years in patients with A/A genotype to 11 and 10 years in those with A/G and G/G genotypes, respectively. These results suggest that CTLA4+49G allele, particularly in homozygous G/G condition, associates with early onset of T1D. PMID:26385826

  11. Hind-Casting the Quantity and Composition of Discards by Mixed Demersal Fisheries in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R.; Cook, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (?80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term. PMID:25774938

  12. Hind-casting the quantity and composition of discards by mixed demersal fisheries in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Cook, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (?80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term. PMID:25774938

  13. Relationship between polymorphisms in beta -2 adrenergic receptor gene and ischemic stroke in North Indian Population: a hospital based case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a multi-factorial disease and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The purpose of the present case control study was to check the relationship between beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in North Indian Population. Methods In a hospital based case control study, patients with ischemic stroke and control subjects from outpatient department and neurology ward of All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi. Genotyping was performed by using Polymerase chain reaction–Restriction fragment length polymorphism. Frequency distributions of genotypes and alleles were compared between cases and controls using multivariate logistic regression. Results In this study, 224 patients and 224 age-and sex-matched control subjects were recruited. Mean age of cases and controls were 53.9?±?13.4 and 53.6?±?12.9 years respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent association between Gln27Glu polymorphism and large vessel stroke (LVD) under a recessive model of inheritance (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3 to 11). An age-stratified analysis, suggested independent association between Gln27Glu polymorphism and ischemic stroke, large vessel disease and small vessel disease stroke who had onset of disease at an older age. Conclusions The findings of the present study suggest that Gln27Glu polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene may confer higher risk of large vessel disease stroke in a North Indian population. Prospective studies with larger sample size are required for independent validation. PMID:24966013

  14. Investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, H.T.

    1996-04-01

    Materials and manufacturing technologies for investment casting have made impressive gains over the past several years, resulting in higher productivity, shorter lead times, and superior castings. To improve efficiency, investment casters have applied total quality control methods, new management concepts, and computer controls. Management and production efficiency improvements have been critical factors in maintaining and expanding market share.

  15. English 367: American Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert W.; DeFlyer, Joseph E.

    A study guide to American Indian Literature (English 367), a 3-credit hour correspondence course available through the University of North Dakota, contains eight lessons to be used with the following six textbooks: "Black Elk Speaks,""Carriers of the Dream Wheel,""Ceremony,""The Portable North American Indian Reader,""Winter in Blood,""In the…

  16. Hair casts

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  17. Polymorphisms in the HPC/ELAC-2 and alpha 1-antitrypsin genes that correlate with human diseases in a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sobti, Ranbir C; Thakur, Hitender; Gupta, Lipsy; Janmeja, Ashok K; Seth, Amlesh; Singh, Sharwan K

    2011-06-01

    Two genes HPC/ELAC-2 and AAT were studied in north Indian population. HPC/ELAC-2 was studied in prostate cancer cases and AAT was studied in COPD patients. HPC/ELAC-2 is considered as an important cancer-susceptibility gene in prostate cancer. There are two common polymorphisms of this gene, i.e., Ser217Leu and Ala541Thr. Alpha 1 antitrypsin is a highly polymorphic anti-elastase enzyme, especially active in the protection of alveoli and liver. In the present study, we observed the distribution of two deficient alleles PiZ and Pi S in COPD patients. We extracted the DNA from 157 prostate cancer cases, 200 COPD patients, 170 BPH and 370 healthy controls. The polymorphisms were studied by PCR-RFLP technique. The mutant genotype (Leu/Leu) of HPC/ELAC-2 was present in 9.6, 7.6 and 5.9% of BPH, cancer cases and healthy controls, respectively. Higher risk of Ser/Leu as well as Leu/Leu had shown when compared to healthy controls. That was about 1.5 and 1.7-fold (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 0.96-2.51; OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 0.74-3.92), respectively. Risk was found to be increased in smokers and those consuming non-vegetarian diet. Our results suggest that the HPC/ELAC-2 polymorphisms, especially in localized cases, could help to predict prostate cancer risk and confirm its high prevalence of the leu/leu allele in north Indian population. Considering heterozygous PiZ genotype, we obtained an OR of 3.82 (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis adjusted by age sex and drinking habit showed 4.15-fold increased risk for COPD in PiZ heterozygous individuals. No increased risk was observed in the individuals carrying PiS alleles. PMID:20119870

  18. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. Methods In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Results Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 ?mol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730 PMID:26098427

  19. Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Polymorphisms with Body Mass Index among Hypertensive North Indians

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed T.; Siddiqi, Zeba; Abbas, Shania; Mahdi, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene polymorphisms with body mass index (BMI) in hypertensive North Indians. Methods: This case-control study was carried out between May 2013 and November 2014 at the Era’s Lucknow Medical College & Hospital, Lucknow, India, and included 378 subjects divided into three groups. One group constituted 253 hypertensive individuals (sustained diastolic blood pressure of >90 mmHg and systolic blood pressure of >140 mmHg) who were subcategorised according to normal (<25 kg/m2) or high (?25 kg/m2) BMI. The third group consisted of 125 age-, gender- and ethnically-matched normotensive controls with a normal BMI. Gene polymorphisms were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction. The genotypic and allelic frequency distribution among both groups were analysed. Results: A significant difference was found between GST theta 1-null and GST mu 1-positive genotype frequencies among the hypertensive overweight/obese individuals and controls (P = 0.014 and 0.033, respectively). However, no difference was observed in the frequency of ACE polymorphisms. ACE insertion/insertion genotype (P = 0.006), insertion and deletion alleles (P = 0.007 each) and GST theta 1-null and GST theta 1-positive genotypes (P = 0.006 each) were found to differ significantly between hypertensive cases and controls, regardless of BMI. Conclusion: ACE and GST gene polymorphisms were not associated with BMI but were significantly associated with hypertension among the studied group of North Indians. PMID:26629373

  20. Marry for What? Caste and Mate Selection in Modern India

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    This paper analyzes how preferences for a noneconomic characteristic (e.g., caste) can affect equilibrium patterns of matching, and empirically evaluates this in the context of middle-class Indian arranged marriages. We ...

  1. Ground-water data for the Warm Springs Indian Reservation and contiguous areas north-central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Donald B.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents well data that were collected and compiled during 1985-86 by the U.S. Geological Survey and used to determine the amount of ground water discharging to the Deschutes River on and near the Warm Springs Indian Reservation. The report contains well-construction data from 171 wells, information from drillers' logs for 66 wells, water-level data for 29 wells, and a map showing well locations.

  2. Genomic Diversity at Thirteen Short Tandem Repeat Loci in a Substructured Caste Population, Golla, of Southern Andhra Pradesh, India

    E-print Network

    Reddy, B. Mohan; Sun, Guangyun; Luis, Javier Rodriguez; Crawford, Michael H.; Hemam, Natabar Shyam; Deka, Ranjan

    2001-04-01

    , among castes. It is, however, much higher when compared to the average observed for Indian caste and tribal populations, based on classical markers. Genetic distance measures revealed clusters of populations that are consistent with the known...

  3. Electromagnetic casting

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.W.; Kageyama, R.; Deepak; Cook, D.P.; Prasso, D.C.; Nishioka, S.

    1995-12-31

    Electromagnetic casting (EMC) is a technology that is used extensively in the aluminum industry to cast ingots with good surface finish for subsequent rolling into consumer product. The paper reviews briefly some investigations from the eighties wherein models for EMC were developed. Then more recent work is examined wherein more realistic 3D models have been developed, the traditional studies of electromagnetic and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena have been supplemented with research on heat transport, and the stability of the metal free surface has been examined. The paper concludes with three generalizations concerning modeling that may have wider applicability than EMC.

  4. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  5. Body Fat Patterning, Hepatic Fat and Pancreatic Volume of Non-Obese Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes in North India: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Anoop, Shajith; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate body fat patterning and phenotype including hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non-obese (BMI: < 25 kg/m2) Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes residing in North India. Methods Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 93) and non-obese, normo-glycemic subjects (n = 40) were recruited. BMI, waist & hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at 8 sites, body fat, lean mass and detailed abdominal fat evaluation [total abdominal fat, total subcutaneous fat (superficial, deep, anterior, and posterior), total intra-abdominal fat (intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal)], liver span, grades of fatty liver and pancreatic volume were compared. Results Waist circumference, subscapular skinfolds and total truncal fat (on DEXA) were higher whereas calf, total peripheral skinfolds and total leg fat (on DEXA) lower in patients. Specifically, the following volumes were higher in cases as compared to controls; total abdominal fat (19.4%), total intra-abdominal fat (49.7%), intra-peritoneal fat (47.7%), retroperitoneal fat (70.7%), pancreatic volume (26.6%), pancreatic volume index (21.3%) and liver span (10.8%). In cases, significant positive correlations were observed for pancreatic volume with BMI, waist and hip circumferences, W-HR, subscapular, abdominal and total truncal skinfolds, truncal, total subcutaneous, total intra-abdominal, intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal fat depots, liver span and fatty liver. Conclusions In non-obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal obesity, including fatty liver, and pancreatic volume were higher and peripheral subcutaneous adiposity was lower than BMI matched non-diabetic subjects. Importantly, increased pancreatic volume in patients was highly correlated with multiple measures of abdominal obesity and liver fat. PMID:26474415

  6. Role of natural external forcing factors in modulating the Indian summer monsoon rainfall, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation and their relationship on inter-decadal timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xuedong; Gao, Yongqi; Sun, Jianqi; Guo, Dong; Li, Shuanglin; Johannessen, Ola M.

    2014-10-01

    We use reconstructed data and multi-centennial integrations performed with the Bergen Climate Model Version 2 to investigate the impact of natural external forcing factors on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall, the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the potential relationship between the ISM rainfall and the winter NAO on decadal to inter-decadal timescales. The model simulations include a 600-year control integration (CTL600) and a 600-year integration with time-varied natural external forcing factors from 1400 to 1999 (EXT600). Both reconstructed data and the simulation showed increased ISM rainfall 2-3 years after strong volcanic eruptions. Strong volcanic eruptions decrease the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST), which increases the strength of the southwesterly winds over the Arabian Sea. With negative externally-forced radiative anomaly, the lower stratospheric pole-to-equator winter temperature gradient is enhanced, leading to a positive winter NAO anomaly with a time lag of 1 year. There is no significant correlation between the winter NAO and ISM rainfall in CTL600. However, the ISM rainfall is significantly positively correlated with the winter NAO in EXT600, with the NAO leading by 2-4 years, which is consistent with the NAO-ISM rainfall relationship in the reconstructed data. We suggest that natural external forcing factors regulate the inter-decadal variability of both the winter NAO and the ISM rainfall and thus likely lead to an increased statistical but not causal relationship between them on the inter-decadal timescale over the past centuries.

  7. Complement receptor 1 (A3650G RsaI and intron 27 HindIII) polymorphisms and risk of gallbladder cancer in north Indian population.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Mittal, B

    2009-12-01

    Decreased expression due to genetic variations in complement receptor 1 (CR1) on erythrocytes might result in reduced clearance of immune complexes, conferring interindividual variation for gallbladder cancer (GBC) susceptibility. We studied role of CR1 (A(3650)G RsaI and Intron 27 HindIII) polymorphisms in gallstone disease and GBC in north Indian population. Study included 185 GBC patients, 185 gallstone patients and 200 controls. Genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP. Result showed GG genotype and G allele of CR1 A(3650)G RsaI were conferring significant risk for GBC [(P = 0.022; OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.1-3.4) and (P = 0.035; OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.0-3.8) respectively]. Also, comparison of GBC patients with gallstone patients showed increased risk for GBC in presence of GG genotype and G allele GBC (P = 0.048; OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.0-3.0) and (P = 0.027; OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8) respectively. No association of CR1 A(3650)G RsaI polymorphism was observed when gallstone patients were compared with controls. CR1 Intron 27 HindIII polymorphism was not associated with GBC and gallstone susceptibility. Haplotype analysis showed increased risk of GBC in presence of G,L haplotype (P = 0.046; OR = 1.35: 95% CI = 1.0-1.8). Subgroup stratifications on basis of gender and gallstone status showed GG genotype of CR1 A(3650)G RsaI polymorphism imparted high risk for GBC in females (P = 0.043; OR = 1.99: 95% CI = 1.4-3.9). Also there was increased risk for GBC in presence as well as absence of gallstones (OR = 1.85 and 1.76 respectively), but it was not statistically significant. We conclude that CR1 A(3650)G RsaI polymorphism plays an important role in conferring genetic susceptibility to gallbladder cancer GBC in north Indian population. PMID:19906204

  8. Casting methods

    DOEpatents

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  9. Indians as Resources: The Changing Relationship between Indians and Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Michael M.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional academic or curatorial associations with North American Indians--treating them as informants, subjects, students, or specimens--is no longer sufficient because these associations imply unequal relations with anthropologists and curators in the superior position. Indians now want, expect, and demand equality; and new relationships are…

  10. Highly Protective Association of MMP-2-1306C/T Promoter Polymorphism With Asthma in a North Indian Population: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Birbian, Niti; Jindal, Surinder Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Asthma is the most prevalent disease in India according to the national survey conducted by NFHS 2 in 1998-1999. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), a collagenase encoded by the MMP-2 gene, degrades the type IV collagen and is responsible for inflammatory responses. This is a pilot study evaluating the role of MMP-2 -1306C/T promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in asthma pathogenesis. Methods A case-control study was performed with a total of 824 adult subjects, including 410 adult asthmatics and 414 healthy controls from regions of North India. The MMP-2 -1306C/T polymorphism was genotyped by the Tetra-Primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System Polymerase Chain Reaction (Tetra-Primer ARMS PCR). Results Statistical analysis of the results for the MMP-2 -1306C/T polymorphism revealed an extremely protective role of the mutant T allele in asthma pathogenesis with OR=0.45, 95% CI (0.35-0.58) and P=0.000. The heterozygous CT genotype also conferred protection from asthma with OR=0.37, 95% CI (0.27-0.51) and P=0.000. The homozygous TT genotype was also significantly associated with asthma with OR=0.35, 95% CI (0.16-0.72) and P=0.002. Moreover, the polymorphism was significantly associated with all the phenotypic traits of the disease. Conclusion The MMP-2 -1306C/T promoter polymorphism confers significant protection from asthma in the studied North Indian population PMID:24843799

  11. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part XI: The Basin-Plateau Tribes. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XI of the series, deals with the Indian tribes of Nevada: The Moapa Band of Paiute Indians, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, the…

  12. Association of IL13R alpha 1 +1398A/G polymorphism in a North Indian population with asthma: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shweta; Jindal, Surinder Kumar; Birbian, Niti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interleukin 13 (IL13) is directly involved in the secretion of total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), which plays a major role in the asthma pathogenesis. Objective: One of the polymorphic receptor of IL13 is IL13R?1, which after binding to IL13, initiates signal transduction that results in mucin secretion, airway hyperreactivity, fibrosis, and chitinase up-regulation, which increases asthma risk. Methods: In the present study, the role of IL13R?1 +1398A/G gene polymorphisms in asthma was detected with a total of 964 individuals, including 483 healthy controls and 481 asthma patients from a North Indian population using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that the mutant allele (G) is predominant in asthma patients (42.7%) than the controls (38.2%), which shows an increased risk toward asthma with odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (1.00–1.45), ?2 = 4.10 and p = 0.043. Furthermore, the phenotypic characteristics also reveal a significant association with the disease (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This is the first study conducted in India and +1398A/G polymorphism in noncoding region of IL13R?1 confer risk toward asthma in the studied population. PMID:26302731

  13. THE THERUAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDIAN OCEAN

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    r IL i THE THERUAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDIAN OCEAN A THESIS SUBMITTEDTO THE GRADUATEDIVISION Gallagher Colln S. Ramage #12;ABSTRACT The International Indian Ocean Expedltion (1960-65) has for the flrst and cllmatic 6easonal lnfluence oD Indian Ocean thermal structure ln the upper 500 rn and north of 40"S

  14. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  15. American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)

  16. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0.49). Evidence for validity was comparatively lower for Dun & Bradstreet, online Yellow Pages, and the NC Department of Agriculture. Conclusions Secondary data sources both over- and under-represented the food environment; they were particularly problematic for identifying convenience stores and specialty markets. More attention is needed to improve the validity of existing data sources, especially for rural local food environments. PMID:23173781

  17. Clinical spectrum and outcome of invasive filamentous fungal infections in children with Type 1 diabetes: North Indian experience

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Devi; Jain, Puneet; Kumar, Rakesh; Bakshi, Jaimanti; Menon, Prema; Das, Ashim; Singhi, Sunit; Singh, Meenu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is scarcity of data on spectrum and outcome of invasive filamentous fungal infections (IFIs) in children with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) from developing countries. A retrospective review of medical records of children with T1D hospitalized with IFI over the past decade at the Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit of a large tertiary care hospital of North India was performed with an aim to study their clinical spectrum, hospital course and final outcome. Of the 10 patients studied, nasal/paranasal involvement was seen in 6 and pulmonary involvement in 5 patients. One patient developed disseminated disease. Majority of the identified mycoses belonged to Class Zygomycetes Order Mucorales. Early surgery along with antifungal therapy helped limit the extension of infection and achieve a good outcome in majority of patients. Two patients died; one with a late diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis and the other with disseminated disease. The longterm morbidity in the survivors was minimal. In conclusion, rapid diagnosis followed by a multimodal approach involving aggressive surgical debridement, appropriate antifungal therapy and control of hyperglycemic state is the key to good outcome in this otherwise lethal infection. PMID:26019401

  18. Participation in Mass Gatherings Can Benefit Well-Being: Longitudinal and Control Data from a North Indian Hindu Pilgrimage Event

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events – a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155

  19. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.

    PubMed

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

    1999-01-01

    The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society. PMID:10081237

  20. NOL11, implicated in the pathogenesis of North American Indian childhood cirrhosis, is required for pre-rRNA transcription and processing.

    PubMed

    Freed, Emily F; Prieto, José-Luis; McCann, Kathleen L; McStay, Brian; Baserga, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental process of ribosome biogenesis requires hundreds of factors and takes place in the nucleolus. This process has been most thoroughly characterized in baker's yeast and is generally well conserved from yeast to humans. However, some of the required proteins in yeast are not found in humans, raising the possibility that they have been replaced by functional analogs. Our objective was to identify non-conserved interaction partners for the human ribosome biogenesis factor, hUTP4/Cirhin, since the R565W mutation in the C-terminus of hUTP4/Cirhin was reported to cause North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC). By screening a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library derived from human liver, and through affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we identified an uncharacterized nucleolar protein, NOL11, as an interaction partner for hUTP4/Cirhin. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that NOL11 is conserved throughout metazoans and their immediate ancestors but is not found in any other phylogenetic groups. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that NOL11 is a component of the human ribosomal small subunit (SSU) processome. siRNA knockdown of NOL11 revealed that it is involved in the cleavage steps required to generate the mature 18S rRNA and is required for optimal rDNA transcription. Furthermore, abnormal nucleolar morphology results from the absence of NOL11. Finally, yeast two-hybrid analysis shows that NOL11 interacts with the C-terminus of hUTP4/Cirhin and that the R565W mutation partially disrupts this interaction. We have therefore identified NOL11 as a novel protein required for the early stages of ribosome biogenesis in humans. Our results further implicate a role for NOL11 in the pathogenesis of NAIC. PMID:22916032

  1. American Indian Music for the Classroom: An Indian Education Curriculum Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Esther

    This teaching guide, produced in cooperation with Indian parents, students and teachers, offers classroom material on the complex culture and history of American Indians. The guide suggests youngsters be taught that, contrary to stereotypes, there was a wide variation of Indian tribal groups and cultures in North America. A list of 14 "Stereotypes…

  2. 1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF INDIAN BEND PUMP DITCH LOOKING EAST. SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE OVER SALT RIVER IN BACKGROUND. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Indian Bend Pond & Pump Ditch, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  4. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part IV: The Southwest (Navajo--Zuni). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part IV of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, articles of association, and by-laws of Indian tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. Documents are included relative to the Navajo Tribe of Arizona and New Mexico; the Eastern Navajo Council--New Mexico; the…

  5. AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS THEY MOVE IN BINS ALONG TRACKS IN THE OVEN BOTTOM IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS BRITTLE WHITE IRON CASTINGS INTO SOFTER, STRONGER MALLEABLE IRON. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted wooded post at top, located at north end of bridge. VIEW NORTHEAST - Chelsea Street Bridge & Draw Tender's House, Spanning Chelsea River, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING AND FOUNDRY FLASKS TO RIGHT. - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, Workshop, 800 Twenty-eighth Street North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. Overshooting Thundercloud, Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This very large thunderstorm was photographed in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar (25.0N, 56.0E). The storm is about 65 nautical miles on a side and has an overshooting cloud top. Overshooting clouds result from strong updrafts rising from the troposphere, the portion of the atmosphere near the surface, where most of the Earth's weather occurs. The top reaches into the stratosphere at 45,000 to 50,000 ft. and casts long shadows in the low sun.

  10. PARK2 and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine gene interactions contribute to the susceptibility to leprosy: a case–control study of North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cytokines and related molecules in immune-response pathways seem important in deciding the outcome of the host–pathogen interactions towards different polar forms in leprosy. We studied the role of significant and functionally important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes, published independently from our research group, through combined interaction with an additional analysis of the in silico network outcome, to understand how these impact the susceptibility towards the disease, leprosy. Design The study was designed to assess an overall combined contribution of significantly associated individual SNPs to reflect on epistatic interactions and their outcome in the form of the disease, leprosy. Furthermore, in silico approach was adopted to carry out protein–protein interaction study between PARK2 and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines. Setting Population-based case–control study involved the data of North India. Protein–protein interaction networks were constructed using cytoscape. Participants Study included the data available from 2305 Northern Indians samples (829 patients with leprosy; 1476 healthy controls), generated by our research group. Primary and secondary outcome measures For genotype interaction analysis, all possible genotype combinations between selected SNPs were used as an independent variable, using binary logistic regression with the forward likelihood ratio method, keeping the gender as a covariate. Results Interaction analysis between PARK2 and significant SNPs of anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory cytokine genes, including BAT1 to BTNL2-DR spanning the HLA (6p21.3) region in a case–control comparison, showed that the combined analysis of: (1) PARK2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), BTNL2-DR, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6 and TGFBR2 increased the risk towards leprosy (OR=2.54); (2) PARK2, BAT1, NFKBIL1, LTA, TNF-LTB, IL12B and IL10RB provided increased protection (OR=0.26) in comparison with their individual contribution. Conclusions Epistatic SNP–SNP interactions involving PARK2 and cytokine genes provide an additive risk towards leprosy susceptibility. Furthermore, in silico protein–protein interaction of PARK2 and important proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory molecules indicate that PARK2 is central to immune regulation, regulating the production of different cytokines on infection. PMID:24578538

  11. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Anderson, T. L.; Baynard, T.; Bond, T.; Boucher, O.; Carmichael, G.; Clarke, A.; Erlick, C.; Guo, H.; Horowitz, L.; Howell, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Maring, H.; McComiskey, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Noone, K.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Ogren, J.; Penner, J.; Quinn, P. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Savoie, D. L.; Schwartz, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Tang, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Wu, Y.

    2006-05-01

    The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar) radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions (IPCC, 2001). Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean (NIO) during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP) during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA) during ICARTT), incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART). Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth (AOD), and direct radiative effect of aerosols (DRE - change in radiative flux due to total aerosols) are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity) are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan) to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Constraining the radiative transfer calculations by observational inputs increases the clear-sky, 24-h averaged AOD (34±8%), top of atmosphere (TOA) DRE (32±12%), and TOA direct climate forcing of aerosols (DCF - change in radiative flux due to anthropogenic aerosols) (37±7%) relative to values obtained with "a priori" parameterizations of aerosol loadings and properties (GFDL RTM). The resulting constrained clear-sky TOA DCF is -3.3±0.47, -14±2.6, -6.4±2.1 Wm-2 for the NIO, NWP, and NWA, respectively. With the use of constrained quantities (extensive and intensive parameters) the calculated uncertainty in DCF was 25% less than the "structural uncertainties" used in the IPCC-2001 global estimates of direct aerosol climate forcing. Such comparisons with observations and resultant reductions in uncertainties are essential for improving and developing confidence in climate model calculations incorporating aerosol forcing.

  12. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Anderson, T. L.; Baynard, T.; Bond, T.; Boucher, O.; Carmichael, G.; Clarke, A.; Erlick, C.; Guo, H.; Horowitz, L.; Howell, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Maring, H.; McComiskey, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Noone, K.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Ogren, J.; Penner, J.; Quinn, P. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Savoie, D. L.; Schwartz, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Tang, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Wu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar) radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions (IPCC, 2001). Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean (NIO) during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP) during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA) during ICARTT), incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART). Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth (AOD), and direct radiative effect of aerosols (DRE - change in radiative flux due to total aerosols) are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity) are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan) to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Constraining the radiative transfer calculations by observational inputs increases the clear-sky, 24-h averaged AOD (34±8%), top of atmosphere (TOA) DRE (32±12%), and TOA direct climate forcing of aerosols (DCF - change in radiative flux due to anthropogenic aerosols) (37±7%) relative to values obtained with "a priori" parameterizations of aerosol loadings and properties (GFDL RTM). The resulting constrained TOA DCF is -3.3±0.47, -14±2.6, -6.4±2.1 Wm-2 for the NIO, NWP, and NWA, respectively. Constraining the radiative transfer calculations by observational inputs reduces the uncertainty range in the DCF in these regions relative to global IPCC (2001) estimates by a factor of approximately 2. Such comparisons with observations and resultant reductions in uncertainties are essential for improving and developing confidence in climate model calculations incorporating aerosol forcing.

  13. Current Biology, Vol. 14, 231235, February 3, 2004, 2004 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2004.01.024 Independent Origins of Indian Caste

    E-print Network

    Richard, Cordaux,

    Current Biology, Vol. 14, 231­235, February 3, 2004, 2004 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved derive from the same Pleistocene genetic heritage, with only3 Department of Anthropology University of paternal lineagesLondon WC1E 6BT England of caste groups [5], which is at odds with nongenetic evidence [2

  14. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  15. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  16. Maize Genetics Outreach to American Indians

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is an excellent vehicle for plant genomics outreach to those American Indian tribes who use and appreciate it nutritionally, culturally, and spiritually. During the summer 2006 season we mentored six Native American Indian students for eight weeks. All six worked at the USDA-ARS North Centra...

  17. Indian Education Programs in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Reg

    The British North America Act of 1867, the founding constitution of Canada, provides that all matters pertaining to Indians and Indian lands are under Federal jurisdiction. Because of this, the province of British Columbia (BC) has not felt it could do much for native peoples and little attention has been paid to the extension of provincial…

  18. Famous Indians: A Collection of Short Biographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A collection of 20 short biographies of American Indian warriors, statesmen, prophets, and scholars highlights leaders in the often tragic, yet inspiring, saga of North American Indians. Most of the heroes and heroines whose lives are briefly described were chiefs; some of them have become famous around the world. All were leaders in a great…

  19. General Historical Survey of Federal Indian Policies. Chapter II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockman, W. H.

    This paper summarizes the history of North America, especially of the United States, from the earliest explorations and settlements through the present. Emphasis is placed on the Europeans' effect on American Indian life and the inadequate development of Indian education. Comparisons are made between the various colonizers' Indian policies before…

  20. The Sky Clears; Poetry of the American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, A. Grove

    More than 200 authentic poems and lyrics of North American Indians are compiled in this anthology. The poetry was translated from tribal languages into English over the past 100 years by students of Indian language, lore, and life. The poems, taken from about 40 North American tribes, include songs of Eskimos of the Arctic coasts, totem-pole…

  1. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  2. Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  3. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios could be attributed to close-in fallout Pu delivered from the Enewetak and Bikini Atolls by ocean currents of branches of the North Equatorial Current to the Southeast Asian seas. PMID:16165190

  4. Indian Sports Nicknames/Logos: Affective Difference between American Indian and Non-Indian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocque, Angela R.; McDonald, J. Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2011-01-01

    The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed the…

  5. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part XII: The Basin-Plateau Tribes (cont'd.). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XII, is a continuation of the publication on Basin-Plateau Indian groups: the Ely Indian Colony and Reno-Sparks Indian Colony of…

  6. Secular Trends in Menarcheal Age in India-Evidence from the Indian Human Development Survey

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Praveen Kumar; Tripathi, Niharika; Subramanian, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence from a number of countries in Europe and North America point towards the secular declining trend in menarcheal age with considerable spatial variations over the past two centuries. Similar trends were reported in several developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. However, data corroborating any secular trend in the menarcheal age of the Indian population remained sparse and inadequately verified. Methods We examined secular trends, regional heterogeneity and association of socioeconomic, anthropometric and contextual factors with menarcheal age among ever-married women (15–49 years) in India. Using the pseudo cohort data approach, we fit multiple linear regression models to estimate secular trends in menarcheal age of 91394 ever-married women using the Indian Human Development Survey. Results The mean age at menarche among Indian women was 13.76 years (95 % CI: 13.75, 13.77) in 2005. It declined by three months from 13.83 years (95% CI: 13.81, 13.85) among women born prior to 1955–1964, to nearly 13.62 years (95% CI: 13.58, 13.67) among women born during late 1985–1989. However, these aggregate national figures mask extensive spatial heterogeneity as mean age at menarche varied from 15.0 years in Himachal Pradesh during 1955–1964 (95% CI: 14.89–15.11) to about 12.1 years in Assam (95% CI: 11.63–12.56) during 1985–1989. Conclusion The regression analysis established a reduction of nearly one month per decade, suggesting a secular decline in age at menarche among Indian women. Notably, the menarcheal age was significantly associated with the area of residence, geographic region, linguistic groups, educational attainment, wealth status, caste and religious affiliations among Indian women. PMID:25369507

  7. Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

  8. Mutualistic interactions between granivorous heteromyid rodents and a preferred food resource, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Granivorous heteromyid rodent species and Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) are both widely distributed throughout North American deserts. The vast majority (~95%) of Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment occurs from seed clusters cached in shallowly-buried scatterhoards by heteromyids, espe...

  9. INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE OPERATOR SPRAYING A POWDER TO HELP SOLIDIFY THE PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Casting in Sport

    PubMed Central

    DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast construction should be hard enough to provide sufficient stabilization to the injured area and include adequate padding to absorb blunt impact forces. The purpose of the biomechanical portion of this investigation was to attempt to determine the most appropriate materials for use in constructing playing casts for the hand and wrist by assessing different materials for: 1) hardness using a Shore durometer, and 2) ability to absorb impact using a force platform. Results revealed that RTV11 and Scotchcast were the “least hard” of the underlying casting materials and that Temper Stick foam greatly increased the ability of RTV11 to absorb impact. Assessment of the mechanical properties of playing cast materials and review of current developments in high school football rules are used to aid practitioners in choosing the most appropriate materials for playing cast construction. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558257

  11. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  12. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  13. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.

  14. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  15. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  16. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  17. Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

  18. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  19. Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Schaeffer, Jon Conrad (Greenville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT)

    2002-01-01

    Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

  20. Changes in the Food Habits of Asian Indians in the United States: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Santosh P.

    1975-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on acculturation in the food habits of first generation Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that: 1) food habits of Asian Indians are changing toward the American pattern; and 2) these changes are directly related to the subject's sex, caste, age, marital status, and duration of exposure…

  1. Indian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

  2. Variations in land use and nonpoint-source contamination on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, west-central North Dakota, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen; Lent, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of land-use activities on the water quality of five streams on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation were evaluated. The five basinsevaluated were East Fork Shell Creek, Deepwater Creek, Bear Den Creek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek. East Fork Shell Creek and DeepwaterCreek Basins are located east of Lake Sakakawea and Bear Den Creek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek Basins are located west of the lake. Land-use data for the five selected basins on and adjacent to the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation were obtained for 1990-92. Discharge measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected at stations and sites on each of the five streams during October 1991 through September 1993. Analysis of land-use data indicated that prairie was the largest land-use category in the study area. More prairie acreage was found in the basins located west of Lake Sakakawea than in the basins located east of the lake. Wheat was the predominant crop in the study area. More wheat acreage was found in the basins located east of Lake Sakakawea than in the basins located west of the lake. Discharge data for the five selected streams indicated that all of thestreams were ephemeral and had many days of no flow during the study period. High flows were usually the result of spring runoff or intense storms over the basins. East Fork Shell Creek and Deepwater Creek with larger basins and flatter stream slopes had high flows characterized by rapidly rising flows and gradually receding flows. In contrast, Bear DenCreek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek with smaller basins and steeper stream slopes had high flows characterized by rapidly rising flows and receding flows of shorter duration. Analysis of water-quality samples indicated concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and total organic carbon varied throughout the study area. Nitrogen concentrations were larger in the streams located east of LakeSakakawea than in the streams located west of the lake. The largest nitrogen concentrations in all of the streams occurred during the nongrowing periods.Phosphorus (orthophosphate and total phosphorus)concentrations were larger in the streams located east of Lake Sakakawea than in the streams located west of the lake. The larger orthophosphateconcentrations in the eastern streams may be indicative of insecticide application in the eastern streams' basins. Total organic carbon concentrations were fairly consistent in all five streams. Water- quality samples were analyzed for the pesticides atrazine, carbofuran, cyanazine, and 2,4-D by using immunoassay testing. Pesticide concentrations above the minimum reporting levels were more prevalent insamples from streams located east of Lake Sakakawea than in the streams located west of the lake. The eastern streams drain areas where herbicides were applied to crops. Fecal-bacteria concentrations were larger in the streams located west of Lake Sakakawea, where prairie is more dominant, than in the streams located east of the lake. The larger concentrations and loads were associated with intense storm events and the presence of livestock.

  3. View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the mold in the center-right of the photo are present immediately after the pour has been completed - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  4. 16. DETAIL OF WICKET AND CAST IRON BALL JOINT (off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF WICKET AND CAST IRON BALL JOINT (off site) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  5. 25 CFR 309.22 - What are examples of painting and other fine art forms that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Indian including but, not limited to, works on canvas, photography, sand painting, mural, computer generated art, graphic art, video art work, printmaking, drawing, bronze casting, glasswork, and art forms to be developed in the future,...

  6. 25 CFR 309.22 - What are examples of painting and other fine art forms that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Indian including but, not limited to, works on canvas, photography, sand painting, mural, computer generated art, graphic art, video art work, printmaking, drawing, bronze casting, glasswork, and art forms to be developed in the future,...

  7. 25 CFR 309.22 - What are examples of painting and other fine art forms that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Indian including but, not limited to, works on canvas, photography, sand painting, mural, computer generated art, graphic art, video art work, printmaking, drawing, bronze casting, glasswork, and art forms to be developed in the future,...

  8. 25 CFR 309.22 - What are examples of painting and other fine art forms that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Indian including but, not limited to, works on canvas, photography, sand painting, mural, computer generated art, graphic art, video art work, printmaking, drawing, bronze casting, glasswork, and art forms to be developed in the future,...

  9. 25 CFR 309.22 - What are examples of painting and other fine art forms that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Indian including but, not limited to, works on canvas, photography, sand painting, mural, computer generated art, graphic art, video art work, printmaking, drawing, bronze casting, glasswork, and art forms to be developed in the future,...

  10. 29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN BEND POND LABELLED 'SETTLING BASIN,' STEAM/DIESEL PLANT AND OTHER FEATURES. 1951 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 1 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 2 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 3 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 4 #12;Hickey, C8206_all casts Hickey, C8206_all casts, page 5 #12

  12. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  13. 1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  14. Simulation of Dimensional Changes in Steel Casting

    E-print Network

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Simulation of Dimensional Changes in Steel Casting Shouzhu (Hans) Ou and Christoph Beckermann Pattern allowances in casting of steel are predicted using the casting simulation software MAGMASOFT to predict dimensional changes occurring during solidification and cooling of a steel casting

  15. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the land.…

  16. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  17. Sealing micropores in thin castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mersereau, G. A.; Nitzschke, G. O.; Ochs, H. L.; Sutch, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic pores in thin-walled aluminum castings are sealed by impregnation pretreatment. Technique was developed for investment castings used in hermetically sealed chassic for electronic circuitry. Excessively high leakage rates were previously measured in some chassis.

  18. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  19. Hair Casts or Pseudonits

    PubMed Central

    França, Katlein; Villa, Ricardo Tadeu; Silva, Isabella Rezende; de Carvalho, Cristine Almeida; Bedin, Valcinir

    2011-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are thin, elongated, cylindrical concretions that encircle the hair shaft and can be easily dislodged. A case of pseudonits in a 9-year-old girl is reported. Though not unusual, false diagnoses are common. PMID:22223977

  20. AMCC casting development, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

  1. American Indians: Hands-On Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rethlefsen, Ann Lyle

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes some of the teaching methods she uses to teach how different American Indian groups lived in different regions of the North American continent. Her lessons include a number of projects: (1) Practicing symbolic writing; (2) Creating a personal timeline; (3) Studying winter counts and creating a personalized…

  2. American Indian Prose and Poetry. An Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrov, Margot, Ed.

    In this anthology of translations of American Indian prose and poetry, it is pointed out that differences in styles and mental attitudes of various tribes are reflected through self-expression. In keeping with this, the compilation is organized according to geographical regions in North and South America, including Mexico and Central America.…

  3. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  4. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  5. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the advance in computer technology has increased the computing power of small work stations as well as PC (personal computers) to permit a much shorter turn-around time for complex computations. The DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARC station 10-41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  6. KNOW YOUR NEVADA INDIANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    POEHLMAN, CHARLES H.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL BACKGROUNDS OF THE PAIUTE, WASHOE, AND SHOSHONE INDIANS OF NEVADA. INCLUDED ARE AN OUTLINE OF GENERAL PROBLEMS PERTAINING TO INDIAN EDUCATION, SOME DISTINCT CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE DOMINANT NON-INDIAN SOCIETY AND THE INDIAN SOCIETY, AND THE PREHISTORIC ASPECTS OF THE…

  7. INDIAN BACKGROUNDS Patuxent Wildlife

    E-print Network

    INDIAN BACKGROUNDS of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center |./«arine'a(Megical Laboratory NOV 19 of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 138 #12;#12;INDIAN BACKGROUNDS of the Patuxent Wildlife Research of Indian Relics The Indian artifacts on display in the C. Hart Merriam Laboratory were collected

  8. Indian Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

    A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

  9. LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Qingyou; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Sklad, Philip S; Currie, Kenneth; Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Vondra, Fred; Walford, Graham; Nolan, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  10. High density tape casting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A system is provided for casting thin sheets (or tapes) of particles bound together, that are used for oxygen membranes and other applications, which enables the particles to be cast at a high packing density in a tape of uniform thickness. A slurry contains the particles, a binder, and a solvent, and is cast against the inside walls of a rotating chamber. Prior to spraying the slurry against the chamber walls, a solvent is applied to a container. The solvent evaporates to saturate the chamber with solvent vapor. Only then is the slurry cast. As a result, the slurry remains fluid long enough to spread evenly over the casting surface formed by the chamber, and for the slurry particles to become densely packed. Only then is the chamber vented to remove solvent, so the slurry can dry. The major novel feature is applying solvent vapor to a rotating chamber before casting slurry against the chamber walls.

  11. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  12. 27. Bollinger twinchain tandem, pigcasting machine, located at the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Bollinger twin-chain tandem, pig-casting machine, located at the north end of the plant. Prior to closing, approximately 40 percent of the plant's: iron production was cast into pigs and sold to foundry customers. The pig-casting machine employed a controller, lime man, trough man, and crane operator. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. Casting Equipment. Casting and Angling Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Robert D., Jr.

    Part of a series of self-contained instructional units designed by the Missouri Department of Conservation to teach Missourians how to use outdoor resources wisely and skillfully, the instructor manual, the first in the casting and angling series, is intended both as a reference book on casting equipment and as an introduction to the sport.…

  14. New Frontiers in Clinical Training: The UND Indians into Psychology Doctoral Education (InPsyDE) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Doug

    1994-01-01

    The University of North Dakota's (UND) Indians into Psychology Doctoral Education program seeks to identify and recruit promising American Indian students into the field of psychology and to provide culturally appropriate training to all UND students. The staff, including three American Indian psychologists, provide a culturally sensitive program…

  15. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  17. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  18. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  19. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  20. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  1. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  2. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  3. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  4. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  5. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  6. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  7. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  8. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  9. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  10. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  11. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the method of inspection used; and (2) Need not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable casting factor. (c) Critical castings. For each casting whose failure...

  12. When Your Child Needs a Cast

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hard bandage that's usually made of material like fiberglass or plaster. Casts keep bones in place while ... water. Plaster of Paris casts are heavier than fiberglass casts and don't hold up as well ...

  13. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; BOILER HOUSE ON LEFT; BLAST FURNACE, OVENS AND CASTING HOUSE BEYOND. - U.S. Steel Corporation, Clairton Works, Blast Furnace Blowing Engine Building, 400 State Street, Clairton, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 77 FR 3241 - Intent To Hold North Dakota Task Force Meeting as Established by the Missouri River Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...River from sedimentation, and protect Indian and non-Indian historical and cultural sites along the Missouri River from erosion. DATES: North Dakota Missouri River Task Force established by the Missouri River Protection and Improvement Act of 2000...

  15. Number Suppletion in North American Indian Languages

    E-print Network

    Booker, Karen M.

    1982-01-01

    . Li, Fang-Kuei. 1946. Chipewyan.1S~A,Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 6, ed. by H. Hoijer et al., 298-423. New York: Viking Fund. Lindenfeld, Jacqueline. 1973. Yaqui Syntax. UCPL 76. Moshinsky, Julius. 1974. A Grammar of Southeastern Porno...

  16. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  17. Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cromwell, W.E.

    1992-03-01

    The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials (``STEREOLITHOGRAPHY``) continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming more feasible as we continue to successfully yield experimental castings by the ``SHELL`` processing method. This supplemental (to 11/90 publication) report briefly reviews the original project objectives, activities related to these objectives since November 1990, and progress made through December 1991. We discuss several new case studies involving new resin materials (and other materials) tested along with investment casting processing results. The most recent success, the processing of the highly complex ``C`` HOUSING design by the ``shell`` mold process in both aluminum and steel, will be discussed. This is considered a major breakthrough toward establishing this new technology as a viable approach to the rapid development of prototype investment castings, employing the most common aerospace (precision) cast process. Our future planning calls for expanding the study to help the investment casting industry in refining related processing techniques and to continue our evaluation of new resins suitable for the casting process. Present project planning calls for the completion of this study by the third quarter FY93 or sooner. We believe that with the continued excellent cooperation of our casting supplier study team and an accelerated effort by resin materials producers to further refine related materials, we can achieve all objectives during the planned time frame.

  18. Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cromwell, W.E.

    1992-03-01

    The evolution of the new technology of producing CAD models by ultraviolet solidification of resin materials ( STEREOLITHOGRAPHY'') continues to progress. The potential application area of rigid fabrication of prototype investment castings is becoming more feasible as we continue to successfully yield experimental castings by the SHELL'' processing method. This supplemental (to 11/90 publication) report briefly reviews the original project objectives, activities related to these objectives since November 1990, and progress made through December 1991. We discuss several new case studies involving new resin materials (and other materials) tested along with investment casting processing results. The most recent success, the processing of the highly complex C'' HOUSING design by the shell'' mold process in both aluminum and steel, will be discussed. This is considered a major breakthrough toward establishing this new technology as a viable approach to the rapid development of prototype investment castings, employing the most common aerospace (precision) cast process. Our future planning calls for expanding the study to help the investment casting industry in refining related processing techniques and to continue our evaluation of new resins suitable for the casting process. Present project planning calls for the completion of this study by the third quarter FY93 or sooner. We believe that with the continued excellent cooperation of our casting supplier study team and an accelerated effort by resin materials producers to further refine related materials, we can achieve all objectives during the planned time frame.

  19. Biotransformation and ToxCast

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major focus in toxicology research is the development of in vitro methods to predict in vivo chemical toxicity. Within the EPA ToxCast program, a broad range of in vitro biochemical and cellular assays have been deployed to profile the biological activity of 320 ToxCast Phase I...

  20. Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalow, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

  1. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting

  2. 75 FR 1384 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial. CFDA Numbers:...

  3. 78 FR 16685 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pre-graduate, and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pre-graduate, and Indian Health Professions Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: Initial. ]...

  4. INDIAN NATIONAL SCIENCE ACADEMY

    E-print Network

    Pal, Debnath

    are highlighted. #12;FOUNDATION The Indian National Science Academy (INSA) is the apex body of Indian scientists to various provincial Governments, scientific departments, learned societies, universities and to the ISCA

  5. Chameleon foreCAST

    E-print Network

    Philippe Brax; Axel Lindner; Konstantin Zioutas

    2012-01-24

    Dark energy models, such as the chameleon, where the acceleration of the expansion of the universe results from the dynamics of a scalar field coupled to matter, suffer from the potential existence of a fifth force. Three known mechanisms have been proposed to restore General Relativity in the solar system and the laboratory, which are the symmetron/Damour-Polyakov effect, the Vainshtein property and the chameleon screening. Here, we propose to probe the existence of chameleons in the laboratory, considering their particle physics consequences. We envisage the resonant and non-resonant production of chameleons in the sun and their back-conversion into X-ray photons in a solar helioscope pipe such as the one used by CAST. A detection of these X-rays would indicate the existence of chameleons. We focus on a template model for the solar magnetic field: a constant magnetic field in a narrow shell surrounding the tachocline. The X-ray photons in a helioscope pipe obtained from back-conversion of the chameleons created inside the sun have a spectrum which is peaked in the sub-keV region, just below the actual sensitivity range of the present axion helioscopes. Nevertheless they are detectable by present day magnetic helioscopes like CAST and Sumico, which were built originally for solar axions. We also propose a chameleon-through-a-wall experiment whereby X-ray photons from a synchroton radiation source could be converted into chameleons inside a dipole magnet, then pass a wall which is opaque to X-rays before being back-converted into X-ray photons in a second magnet downstream. We show that this could provide a direct signature for the existence of chameleon particles.

  6. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  7. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  8. Indian Calendars Akhil Doegar

    E-print Network

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    Indian Calendars Akhil Doegar :: Akshay Prasad Supervisor :: Associate Professor Helmer Aslaksen Section Topic 1. Introduction 2. Astronomical Background 3. Solar Calendar 4. Indian Solar Calendar 5. Regional Variations in Indian Solar Calendar 6. Luni-Solar Calendar 6.1 Amanta Calendar 6.2 Tithi 6

  9. Urban American Indian Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Josea

    This document begins by dispelling several misperceptions about American Indians that are especially pernicious to older American Indians living in cities, and then goes on to discuss what is known about urban American Indian elders and the implications for planning and service delivery for Area Agencies on Aging and contractor agencies. It notes…

  10. American Indian Population Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C., Ed.

    This report summarizes American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population statistics from the 1990 Census. In 1990 there were about 2 million persons who identified themselves as American Indians in the United States, a 38 percent increase over the 1980 census. More than half of the Indian population lived in six states, with Oklahoma having the…

  11. Indian Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Hap

    A bibliography of books about American Indians provides annotations and evaluations by Indian educators and others for each book, and indicates grade level, and whether the book would be recommended for Indian children. Chapter 1 discusses organization of material and lists the evaluators. Chapter 2 addresses problems (inaccuracies, omission of…

  12. Nevada Indians Speak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Jack D., Ed.

    The anthology presents Indian works which reflect the attitudes of the native Indian people of the State of Nevada, commencing with the possible first White-Indian contact in the 1820's when Anglo American fur trappers and Mexican traders entered the Great Basin. The writer points out in the Preface that no effort has been made to exclude native…

  13. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  14. Indian – American contributions to psychiatric research

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangi, Anand K.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian – American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years. PMID:21836715

  15. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  16. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); O'Malley, Ronald J. (Miamisburg, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  17. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S. (Plum, PA); Baker, Donald F. (Hempfield, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  18. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...direct effect on one or more Indian tribes, on the relationship between the Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution...between the Federal Government and Indian tribes. 12. Energy Effects...Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA....

  19. 75 FR 47621 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the North Fork Rancheria's Proposed 305-Acre Trust...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...This notice advises the public that the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) as lead agency, with the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians (Tribe), California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Madera Irrigation District, City of Madera, National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as cooperating agencies, intends to file a Final Environmental Impact......

  20. Supplementary Fig. 1. Geographical definition of the fourteen regions. NPO North Pacific Ocean, NAM North America, NAO North Atlantic Ocean, EUR Europe, ASI Asia, TPO

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Ocean, TAO ­ Tropical Atlantic Ocean, AFR ­ Africa, TIO ­ Tropical Indian Ocean, SPO ­ South Pacific Ocean, SAM ­ South America, SAO ­ South Atlantic Ocean, SIO ­ South Indian Ocean, OCE ­ Oceania. 5 #12Supplementary Fig. 1. Geographical definition of the fourteen regions. NPO ­ North Pacific Ocean

  1. Energy and Technolgy Assessment of Zinc and Magnesium Casting Plants, Technical Report Close-out, August 25,2006

    SciTech Connect

    Twin City Die Castings Company; Tom Heider; North American Die Castings Association

    2006-08-25

    Twin City Die Castings Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota, Twin City Die Castings Company was awarded project No. DE-FG36-05GO15097 to perform plant wide assessments of ten (10) die casting facilities that produce zinc and magnesium alloy castings in order to determine improvements and potential cost savings in energy use. Mr. Heider filled the role of team leader for the project and utilized the North American Die Casting Association (NADCA) to conduct audits at team participant plants so as to hold findings specific to each plant proprietary. The intended benefits of the project were to improve energy use through higher operational and process efficiency for the plants assessed. An improvement in energy efficiency of 5 – 15% was targeted. The primary objectives of the project was to: 1) Expand an energy and technology tool developed by the NADCA under a previous DOE project titled, “Energy and Technology Assessment for Die Casting Plants” for assessing aluminum die casting plants to be more specifically applicable to zinc and magnesium die casting facilities. 2) Conduct ten (10) assessments of zinc and magnesium die casting plants, within eight (8) companies, utilizing the assessment tool to identify, evaluate and recommend opportunities to enhance energy efficiency, minimize waste, and improve productivity. 3) Transfer the assessment tool to the die casting industry at large.

  2. Investment casting design of experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, R.

    1997-10-01

    Specific steps in the investment casting process were analyzed in a designed experiment. The casting`s sensitivity to changes in these process steps was experimentally determined Dimensional and radiographic inspection were used to judge the sensitivity of the casting. Thirty-six castings of different pedigrees were poured and measured. Some of the dimensional inspection was conducted during the processing. It was confirmed that wax fixturing, number of gates, gate location, pour and mold temperature, pour speed, and cooling profile all affected the radiographic quality of the casting. Gate and runner assembly techniques, number of gates, and mold temperature affect the dimensional quality of the casting.

  3. Decadal trends in Indian Ocean ambient sound.

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Bradley, David L; Niu, Xiaoyue Maggie

    2013-11-01

    The increase of ocean noise documented in the North Pacific has sparked concern on whether the observed increases are a global or regional phenomenon. This work provides evidence of low frequency sound increases in the Indian Ocean. A decade (2002-2012) of recordings made off the island of Diego Garcia, UK in the Indian Ocean was parsed into time series according to frequency band and sound level. Quarterly sound level comparisons between the first and last years were also performed. The combination of time series and temporal comparison analyses over multiple measurement parameters produced results beyond those obtainable from a single parameter analysis. The ocean sound floor has increased over the past decade in the Indian Ocean. Increases were most prominent in recordings made south of Diego Garcia in the 85-105?Hz band. The highest sound level trends differed between the two sides of the island; the highest sound levels decreased in the north and increased in the south. Rate, direction, and magnitude of changes among the multiple parameters supported interpretation of source functions driving the trends. The observed sound floor increases are consistent with concurrent increases in shipping, wind speed, wave height, and blue whale abundance in the Indian Ocean. PMID:24180757

  4. Can genetics help us understand Indian social history?

    PubMed

    Thapar, Romila

    2014-11-01

    Attempts have been made recently to determine the identity of the so-called "Aryans" as components of the Indian population by using DNA analysis. This is largely to ascertain whether they were indigenous to India or were foreign arrivals. Similar attempts have been made to trace the origins of caste groups on the basis of varna identities and record their distribution. The results so far have been contradictory and, therefore, not of much help to social historians. There are problems in the defining of categories and the techniques of analysis. Aryan is a linguistic and cultural category and not a biological one. Caste groups have no well-defined and invariable boundaries despite marriage codes. Various other categories have been assimilated into particular castes as part of the evolution of social history on the subcontinent. A few examples of these are discussed. The problems with using DNA analysis are also touched on. PMID:24968702

  5. Spatial and temporal coherence of paleomonsoon records from marine and land proxies in the Indian region

    E-print Network

    Giri, Ranjit K.

    greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols (Rupa Kumar et al 2002). Many north Indian rivers such as the Ganga, Yamuna, etc., have shown a sharp decline in the summer discharge in the recent past, possibly due

  6. Teaching the American Indian in the American School: An Adventure in Cultural Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Daniel

    In order to teach students about American Indian culture, it is suggested that a chronological approach be taken in terms of where it all began, what it all means, and what of the entire Indian story is pertinent to geographic education for the student of any age. Archeology dates man's arrival in North America further and further back. This…

  7. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Volume 1, 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Barry T., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the fourth edition of the encyclopedia contains directory and descriptive listings of organizations in the United States and Canada, resource materials concerning North American Indians, and a bibliography of in-print books about the American Indian. The first section of the volume contains source listings of government agencies,…

  8. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  9. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in diameter, which corresponds to the size of a dime as viewed from about two and a half miles. Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Illustration of Crab, Titan's Shadow and Chandra Unlike almost all of Chandra's images which are made by focusing X-ray emission from cosmic sources, Titan's X-ray shadow image was produced in a manner similar to a medical X-ray. That is, an X-ray source (the Crab Nebula) is used to make a shadow image (Titan and its atmosphere) that is recorded on film (Chandra's ACIS detector). Titan's atmosphere, which is about 95% nitrogen and 5% methane, has a pressure near the surface that is one and a half times the Earth's sea level pressure. Voyager I spacecraft measured the structure of Titan's atmosphere at heights below about 300 miles (500 kilometers), and above 600 miles (1000 kilometers). Until the Chandra observations, however, no measurements existed at heights in the range between 300 and 600 miles. Understanding the extent of Titan's atmosphere is important for the planners of the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will reach Saturn in July of this year to begin a four-year tour of Saturn, its rings and its moons. The tour will include close flybys of Titan that will take Cassini as close as 600 miles, and the launching of the Huygens probe that will land on Titan's surface. Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan Chandra's X-ray Shadow of Titan "If Titan's atmosphere has really expanded, the trajectory may have to be changed." said Tsunemi. The paper on these results has been accepted and is expected to appear in a June 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Other members of the research team were Haroyoski Katayama (Osaka University), David Burrows and Gordon Garmine (Penn State University), and Albert Metzger (JPL). Chandra observed Titan from 9:04 to 18:46 UT on January 5, 2003, using its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters,

  10. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  11. 15. LOOKING NORTH, FROM THE ROADWAY, A VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. LOOKING NORTH, FROM THE ROADWAY, A VIEW OF THE INSIDE OF THE NORTH SIDE OF THE BRIDGE. THE WORDS 'HAW CREEK' ARE CAST IN THE CENTER PANEL OF THE PIER AT THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - Seventh Street Bridge, Spanning Haw Creek at Seventh Street, Columbus, Bartholomew County, IN

  12. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREESTORY BRICK BUILDING WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREE-STORY BRICK BUILDING WITH DEEPLY-BRACKETED AND OVERHANGING EAVES INCLUDES MULTIPLE BAYS CONSTRUCTED BEGINNING IN 1913 TO SERVE AS A 'CIVIC CENTER' FOR ACIPCO EMPLOYEES AND THEIR FAMILIES. THE BUILDING CURRENTLY INCLUDES THE TIME OFFICE, CAFETERIA, AND AUDITORIUM. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Service Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Social Network Analysis of the Caste-Based Reservation System in India

    E-print Network

    Iyengar, S R S; Saini, Jaspal Singh

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that the reservation system in India, which has existed since the time of Indian Independence (1947), has caused more havoc and degradation than progress. This being a popular public opinion, these notions have not been based on any rigorous scientific study or research. In this paper, we revisit the cultural divide among the Indian population from a purely social networks based approach. We study the reservation system in detail, starting from its past and observing its effect on the people. Through a survey, we analyze the variation in behavioural characteristics exhibited towards members of the same caste group versus members from another caste group. We study the distinct cluster formation that takes place in the Indian community, and find that this is largely due to the effect of caste-based homophily. To study the social capital associated with each individual in the backward class, we define a new parameter called social distance. We study the changes that take place with regard to t...

  14. Indian Ocean sea surface salinity variations in a coupled model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayachandran, P. N.; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2009-08-01

    The variability of the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the Indian Ocean is studied using a 100-year control simulation of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM 2.0). The monsoon-driven seasonal SSS pattern in the Indian Ocean, marked by low salinity in the east and high salinity in the west, is captured by the model. The model overestimates runoff into the Bay of Bengal due to higher rainfall over the Himalayan-Tibetan regions which drain into the Bay of Bengal through Ganga-Brahmaputra rivers. The outflow of low-salinity water from the Bay of Bengal is too strong in the model. Consequently, the model Indian Ocean SSS is about 1 less than that seen in the climatology. The seasonal Indian Ocean salt balance obtained from the model is consistent with the analysis from climatological data sets. During summer, the large freshwater input into the Bay of Bengal and its redistribution decide the spatial pattern of salinity tendency. During winter, horizontal advection is the dominant contributor to the tendency term. The interannual variability of the SSS in the Indian Ocean is about five times larger than that in coupled model simulations of the North Atlantic Ocean. Regions of large interannual standard deviations are located near river mouths in the Bay of Bengal and in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Both freshwater input into the ocean and advection of this anomalous flux are responsible for the generation of these anomalies. The model simulates 20 significant Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events and during IOD years large salinity anomalies appear in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The anomalies exist as two zonal bands: negative salinity anomalies to the north of the equator and positive to the south. The SSS anomalies for the years in which IOD is not present and for ENSO years are much weaker than during IOD years. Significant interannual SSS anomalies appear in the Indian Ocean only during IOD years.

  15. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  16. 25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

  17. 25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

  18. 25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

  19. 25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

  20. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  1. First description of the male caste of the Himalayan endemic ant Lasius alienoflavus Bingham, 1903 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with re-description of the female and queen castes

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present paper provides a description of the male caste and re-description of the worker and queen castes of the poorly known ant species Lasius alienoflavus Bingham, 1903. This species has hitherto been reported only from the Himalayas, and the present data are also based on specimens collected in the north-western part of the mountain range. Likewise other Himalayan ants, this species also shows restricted distribution, which suggests a rather high degree of endemism (45%) of this group in the Himalayas. PMID:25197233

  2. Casting propellant in rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, J. E.; Froehling, S. C. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for casting a solid propellant in the casing of a rocket engine having a continuous wall with a single opening which is formed by leaves of a material which melt at a temperature of the propellant and with curved edges concentric to the curvature of the spherical casing. The leaves are inserted into the spherical casing through the opening forming a core having a greater width than the width of the single opening and with curved peripheral edges. The cast propellant forms a solid mass and then heated to melt the leaves and provide a central opening with radial projecting flutes.

  3. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE COOLING A 20' IRON PIPE PRIOR TO EXTRACTION FROM CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4" DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING EXTRACTED FROM CASTING MACHINE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF CASTING MACHINE WITH 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING WEIGHED ON SCALES AT CASTING MACHINE. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.621 Casting factors. (a... except castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not...

  7. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.621 Casting factors. (a... castings that are pressure tested as parts of hydraulic or other fluid systems and do not...

  8. Prevalence of photoparoxysmal response among South Indian epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, K; Nayak, S D; Nandini, V S; Venugopal, A

    1998-10-01

    The reported geographical variations in the prevalence of photoparoxysmal response (PPR) among epilepsy patients have been variously attributed to methodological problems such as patient selection, technique of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and definition of PPR, and environmental and racial factors. We determined the prevalence rate of PPR among South Indian epilepsy patients and compared it with the rates reported from elsewhere. Twenty of our 575 patients had a PPR, a prevalence ratio of 3.5%, which is in striking contrast to the 0.6% reported for North Indian epilepsy patients. Environmental and racial factors cannot explain the difference in the prevalence rates of PPR between South and North Indian epilepsy patients. We conclude that the demographic characteristics of the patient group, such as age and gender, the epilepsy type, sleep deprivation, technique of IPS and definition of PPR, greatly influence the prevalence rate of PPR. PMID:9808116

  9. Indian Heritage: A Selected Book List for All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Public Library, CO.

    This book list, a sampling of resources from the Denver Public Library, pertains to the Indians of North America, especially those west of the Mississippi River. The annotated list is divided into two main parts: "Adult and Young Adult Books, Films, and Records" and "Children's Books, Films, and Records." The bulk of the list is adult and young…

  10. 19th Century Plains Indian Robe Painting: Wearable Art Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    The Indians of the Great Plains of North America once wore some of the most magnificent works of art in the form of bison robes that were painted in a variety of modes. These forms of expression have become obsolete and their function has been replaced by new materials. (Availability: CHEA National Office, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P…

  11. Barriers to diabetes prevention and control among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ronny A

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina's American Indian population experiences a disproportionate diabetes burden, in terms of both a high prevalence of the disease and excess diabetes-related death and disability. Concerted efforts need to be made to provide culturally appropriate and easily accessible education, health care, and health-promoting resources in these vulnerable communities. PMID:22416521

  12. Indian Academy of Sciences

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Shiv K.

    Science Association) 3. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy 4. Journal of Biosciences 5. Journal of Chemical Sciences 6. Journal of Earth System Science 7. Journal of Genetics 8. Pramana ­ Journal of PhysicsIndian Academy of Sciences BENGALURU A N N U A L R E P O R T 2014­2015 #12;Address Indian Academy

  13. Indians in Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollow, Kitty, Ed.; Heuving, Jeanne, Ed.

    Every student in high school is faced with the question of what to do after graduation. American Indian students, whether on or off reservations, need ideas as to what is available to them. This compilation of interviews with 10 individuals who are maintaining their "Indian identity" and making contributions in the working world provides role…

  14. Pima Indian Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Anna Moore

    The stated purpose of this book is to preserve in writing some of the Pima Indian legends that had been verbally passed from generation to generation in the past. This collection of 23 legends, which were originally used to instruct the young people of the tribe, presents in story form various aspects of American Indian life--including…

  15. Indian Culture and Industrialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigart, Robert J.

    Since factories were developed by and for Western culture, those on American Indian reservations need to be adjusted to a nonwestern social and cultural milieu. Among Indian cultural traits which differ from Western culture are independence, nature of authority, attitude toward property and nature, competition, rewards system, and sense of time.…

  16. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  17. Publications Indian Ocean

    E-print Network

    Publications Indian Ocean Atlas Is Published The "Climatic Atlas of the Indian Ocean," by Stefan Climate and Atmospher- ic Circulation" and "The Oceanic Heat Budget." They are part of a continuing series, specific humidity, total cloudiness, low clouds, and precipita- tion frequency. Part II, The Oceanic Heat

  18. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

  19. Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

  20. Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velie, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

  1. Overview of ToxCast

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2007, EPA launched ToxCast™ in order to develop a cost-effective approach for prioritizing the toxicity testing of large numbers of chemicals in a short period of time. Using data from state-of-the-art high throughput screening (HTS) bioassays developed in the pharmaceutical i...

  2. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  3. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  4. Molding A Cast Metals Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumble, Dale E.

    1975-01-01

    The cast metals program, a two-year associate degree program, at Muskegon Community College, Musegon, Michigan operates in close cooperation with the local foundry industry to provide a background for entry-level technical jobs and for continued studies toward a four-year degree. (EA)

  5. Math: Objectives Guide. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The guide lists math objectives needed for independent living by secondary special education students. One of a series of Project CAST (Community and School Together) life skills manuals, the guide outlines basic competencies in terms of goal statements, behavioral objectives, and specialized vocabulary for the following areas: money, making…

  6. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

    2000-11-30

    This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

  8. Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995 Hickey, W8009C, casts 992-995, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C

  9. Prototype casting fabrication by stereolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Cromwell, W.E.

    1990-11-01

    A new product development technology is emerging which could have a major impact on the investment casting industry. It's identified by several names, the most common of which is STEREOLITHOGRAPHY.'' This technology involves a three-dimensional printing process which will yield plastic parts (polymer models) from solid, surface, or wireframe CAD files. The concept links a CAD database to a process which guides a laser beam to solidify liquid photo-curable polymer into a programmed shaped. The process can produce models in far less time and at far less cost than can be done by other known (conventional) model producing methods. Parts that would normally require weeks or months to prototype with conventional processes can be produced in a matter of hours by Stereolithography. The Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, is engaged in a development project (funded by the Department of Energy) which is aimed at establishing this process as a practical, expedient, and cost-effective method fabricating prototype investment castings. The early phases of the project include procurement of a special designed test unit for several companies (Service Centers) involved in fabrication of models. These models are produced in various materials and used in experimental casting programs being conducted with four casting suppliers (two ferrous and two non-ferrous). This presentation will cover the objectives of the project and the results obtained up to this time. We will also briefly review future plans for the continuation of the project, until this new technology has been proven as a viable process for rapid development of investment castings.

  10. 20. Detail of low crib dam and apron, looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail of low crib dam and apron, looking north. Building across river is part of Muckleshoot Indian fish hatchery, constructed in 1989. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  11. Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

    1996-01-01

    The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI. PMID:11607687

  12. 77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...between the State of California and the Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians. DATES...Indian lands. On October 31, 2012, the Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians and the State...between the State of California and the Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians is now...

  13. Land-based turbine casting initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.A.; Spicer, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    To meet goals for the ATS program, technical advances developed for aircraft gas turbine engines need to be applied to land-based gas turbines. These advances include directionally solidified and single crystal castings, alloys tailored to exploit these microstructures, complex internal cooling schemes, and coatings. The proposed program to scale aircraft gas turbine casting technology up to land based gas turbine size components is based on low sulfur alloys, casting process development, post-cast process development, and establishing casting defect tolerance levels. The inspection side is also discussed.

  14. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  15. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  16. Navigating the Nation and Positioning the Other: Undergraduate Students' Experiences with Caste, Class, Gender, and Communalism in Bangalore, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranha, Rima Marina

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the idea of national belonging, held amongst Indian youth in general, and male and female college students in an urban city in particular, to examine the multiple ways in which social and cultural dynamics (e.g., communalism, gender, class, and caste) interact with their idea of nation. It analyses the data gathered…

  17. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  18. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  19. Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 1 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 2 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 3 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9, page 4 #12;Hickey, W8009C, casts 1-9 Hickey, W8009C, casts

  20. The Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Assistance Program, Robeson County, N.C., 1973-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynor, Waltz; Thompson, Vernon R.

    Major priority areas established by the American Indian (Lumbee) Parent Committee of the Indian Elementary and Secondary School Assistance Program for Robeson County, North Carolina were: remedial reading; additional vocational education; special guidance programs; accelerated training for gifted; specialists in math; and cultural enrichment…

  1. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter (inventor); Hutto, William R. (inventor); Philips, Albert R. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  2. Search for chameleons with CAST

    E-print Network

    Anastassopoulos, V; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Desch, K; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Hailey, C; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hofmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakobsen, A; Jakov?i?, K; Kaminski, J; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Kr?mar, M; Krieger, C; Krüger, A; Laki?, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubi?i?, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovarov, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Solanki, S K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K; Brax, P; Lavrentyev, I; Upadhye, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  3. Search for chameleons with CAST

    E-print Network

    V. Anastassopoulos; M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; H. Bräuninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; F. Christensen; J. I. Collar; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; K. Desch; A. Dermenev; C. Eleftheriadis; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; P. Friedrich; J. Galán; J. A. García; A. Gardikiotis; J. G. Garza; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; I. Giomataris; C. Hailey; F. Haug; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; A. Jakobsen; K. Jakov?i?; J. Kaminski; M. Karuza; M. Kavuk; M. Kr?mar; C. Krieger; A. Krüger; B. Laki?; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; G. Luzón; S. Neff; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovarov; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; S. K. Solanki; T. Vafeiadis; J. A. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas; P. Brax; I. Lavrentyev; A. Upadhye

    2015-03-16

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  4. Search for chameleons with CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastassopoulos, V.; Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Christensen, F.; Collar, J. I.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Desch, K.; Dermenev, A.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Giomataris, I.; Hailey, C.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakobsen, A.; Jakov?i?, K.; Kaminski, J.; Karuza, M.; Kavuk, M.; Kr?mar, M.; Krieger, C.; Krüger, A.; Laki?, B.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubi?i?, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Solanki, S. K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J. A.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; Brax, P.; Lavrentyev, I.; Upadhye, A.

    2015-10-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (?m) and to photons (??) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of ?? ?1011 for 1

  5. NEVADA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Nevada. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. As...

  6. ARIZONA INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in Arizona. Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location source are included with the coverage. A...

  7. REGION 9 INDIAN RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polygon coverage of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name and location...

  8. The use of tin and bronze in prehistoric southern Indian metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Sharada

    1998-07-01

    Although the findings are from disparate contexts, they demonstrate a long familiarity of Indian metal workers with the use of tin and with manipulating bronze alloys to exploit the functional properties of phases and intermetallic compounds. Thus, the copper-bronze tradition in southern Indian antiquity and in the Indian subcontinent has more depth than suspected, with some evidence for the use of local tin sources in southern India. Some of the findings are reasonably peculiar to the region, such as the solid-cast bronze images, ? bronze coinage, ? bronze mirrors, and ? bronze slags, while the high-tin ? bronzes and vessels from Indian prehistory predate those known elsewhere and probably go back to the Indus Valley. All of this strengthens the case for indigenous copper-bronze traditions.

  9. Tape casting of lanthanum chromite

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Smith, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are currently being developed for a variety of applications such as stationary on-site power plants and cogeneration. The effects of process additives, ball milling, and solids loading were evaluated for tape casting suspensions of glycine-nitrate-synthesized La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.31}CrO{sub 3} powder. An optimized formulation was obtained based on rheological characterization, electrokinetic sonic amplitude measurements, qualitative examination of green tapes, and the sintered microstructure. The tape casting formulation incorporated 66:34 methyl ethyl ketone/ethyl alcohol solvent, an aliphatic phosphate ester dispersant, and 80 wt% (35 vol%) solids. The best binder/plasticizer system was 12 wt% (15 vol%) poly(isobutyl methacrylate) and 5 wt% (6.3 vol%) benzyl butyl phthalate plasticizer (binder:plasticizer = 2.3). Cast tapes were sintered at 1300 C for 2 h, producing a bulk density of 96.2% theoretical, with linear shrinkage of 22% and an approximate grain size of 1.3 {micro}m.

  10. Ishi: A Yahi Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Yahi Indians were part of a larger tribal group called the Yana. The Yahi way of life, along with the lives of many other California Indian groups, changed when European and U.S. settlers came to California. In 1872 Ishi and his family were the last of the Yahi living in the Deer Creek (California) area. By 1911 Ishi was the last surviving…

  11. Centrifugally cast bimetallic pipe for offshore corrosion resistant pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitake, A.; Torigoe, T.

    1994-12-31

    Centrifugally cast bimetallic pipes and fittings have been developed for the use of offshore oil and gas production. The metallurgical properties, mechanical properties, and corrosion properties of centrifugal a cast bimetallic pipe with outside metal of API 5L X52 to X65 internally clad with alloy 825 and 625 are discussed. First, molten steel for outer pipe is introduced into a rotating metallic mold. During the solidification of the outer pipe (carbon steel), the temperature of the pipe inside is monitored. After the solidification of the outer pipe, and when a certain temperature is reached, then a corrosion resistant alloy such as Alloy 825 or 625 for inside layer is poured. By controlling the casting conditions and selecting suitable flux, sound metallurgical bonded bimetallic pipe is produced with a minimum mixing layer at the interface also keeping a homogeneous outside wall thickness along the pipe length. The weld joints of the pipe are also evaluated from the view points of weldability, mechanical strength, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance properties. The welding method applied was basically TIG welding (GTAW). COD tests at {minus}10 C are applied to the welds to investigate fracture toughness of the weld joints. Huey test according to ASTM A262C is carried out on the root of the welds as the corrosion test. As a result, the weld joint using filler wire of alloy625 from root to cover pass has proved a very reliable method from the point of view of mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. These centrifugally cast bimetallic pipes and fittings have been widely used for riser pipes, template process lines, top side and subsea manifolds, and flow bends for christmas trees in the North Sea.

  12. Racial Minority Groups in North Dakota, 1970-1980: A Statistical Portrait. North Dakota Census Data Center Report Series No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daul, Jennifer; And Others

    Demographic and economic characteristics of racial minorities (American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, Black, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, Asian Indian or other) in North Dakota in 1980 are presented, using U.S. Bureau of the Census data. Between 1970 and 1980, the number of racial minority residents increased by 8,900 (48.6%), with…

  13. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  14. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  15. Method for casting thin metal objects

    DOEpatents

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  16. A Benchmark Study on Casting Residual Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric M.; Watkins, Thomas R; Schmidlin, Joshua E; Dutler, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Stringent regulatory requirements, such as Tier IV norms, have pushed the cast iron for automotive applications to its limit. The castings need to be designed with closer tolerances by incorporating hitherto unknowns, such as residual stresses arising due to thermal gradients, phase and microstructural changes during solidification phenomenon. Residual stresses were earlier neglected in the casting designs by incorporating large factors of safety. Experimental measurement of residual stress in a casting through neutron or X-ray diffraction, sectioning or hole drilling, magnetic, electric or photoelastic measurements is very difficult and time consuming exercise. A detailed multi-physics model, incorporating thermo-mechanical and phase transformation phenomenon, provides an attractive alternative to assess the residual stresses generated during casting. However, before relying on the simulation methodology, it is important to rigorously validate the prediction capability by comparing it to experimental measurements. In the present work, a benchmark study was undertaken for casting residual stress measurements through neutron diffraction, which was subsequently used to validate the accuracy of simulation prediction. The stress lattice specimen geometry was designed such that subsequent castings would generate adequate residual stresses during solidification and cooling, without any cracks. The residual stresses in the cast specimen were measured using neutron diffraction. Considering the difficulty in accessing the neutron diffraction facility, these measurements can be considered as benchmark for casting simulation validations. Simulations were performed using the identical specimen geometry and casting conditions for predictions of residual stresses. The simulation predictions were found to agree well with the experimentally measured residual stresses. The experimentally validated model can be subsequently used to predict residual stresses in different cast components. This enables incorporation of the residual stresses at the design phase along with external loads for accurate predictions of fatigue and fracture performance of the cast components.

  17. Directional Solidification of Nodular Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Cerium enhances formation of graphite nodules. Preliminary experiments in directional solidification of cast iron shows quantitative correlation of graphite microstructure with growth rate and thermal gradient, with sufficient spheroidizing element to form spheroidal graphite under proper thermal conditions. Experimental approach enables use of directional solidification to study solidification of spheriodal-graphite cast iron in low gravity. Possible to form new structural materials from nodular cast iron.

  18. Indian Control of Indian Education: A Burkian Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Bryan

    1985-01-01

    Applies Burke's concept of orientation (relationships developed by contingencies of experiences) to the place of Indians within the Canadian educational system, focusing upon the issues of band controlled schools, residential school systems, and Indian orientations to education. (NEC)

  19. Microstructured metal molds fabricated via investment casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Andrew H.; King, William P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes an investment casting process to produce aluminum molds having integrated microstructures. Unlike conventional micromolding tools, the aluminum mold was large and had complex curved surfaces. The aluminum was cast from curved microstructured ceramic molds which were themselves cast from curved microstructured rubber. The aluminum microstructures had an aspect ratio of 1:1 and sizes ranging from 25 to 50 µm. Many structures were successfully cast into the aluminum with excellent replication fidelity, including circular, square and triangular holes. We demonstrate molding of large, curved surfaces having surface microstructures using the aluminum mold.

  20. Teleconnections of Indian monsoon rainfall with AMO and Atlantic tripole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmi; Krishnamurthy, V.

    2015-06-01

    The teleconnections between the decadal modes in the Indian monsoon rainfall (IMR) and the North Atlantic sea surface temperature are investigated. The two decadal modes of variability in the North Atlantic, the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) and the Atlantic tripole, have opposite relation with the two decadal modes of IMR. The AMO has positive correlation with the monsoon rainfall while the Atlantic tripole has negative correlation. This study has put forward hypotheses for the mechanisms involved in the teleconnections of the AMO and the Atlantic tripole with the IMR. The warm phase of AMO may influence the monsoon through the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO) and further through the equatorial zonal winds which increase the moisture flow over India by enhancing the southwesterly flow. The warm phase of Atlantic tripole may impact the monsoon through the all-season NAO, leading to decreased moisture flow over India through the equatorial wind pattern. The observed relations between the decadal modes in the North Atlantic and the Indian monsoon are explored in the simulations of National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) model. Although the model supports the observed decadal teleconnection between the Atlantic Ocean and Indian monsoon, it has limitations in capturing the details of the spatial pattern associated with the teleconnection. The teleconnections of AMO and Atlantic tripole with the Indian monsoon is further demonstrated through an experiment with CCSM4 by decoupling the North Atlantic Ocean. The hypotheses for the mechanisms of the Atlantic teleconnections are also explored in the CCSM4 simulation.

  1. Release of ToxCastDB and ExpoCastDB databases

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released two databases - the Toxicity Forecaster database (ToxCastDB) and a database of chemical exposure studies (ExpoCastDB) - that scientists and the public can use to access chemical toxicity and exposure data. ToxCastDB users can search and download data from over 50...

  2. Spray casting project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  3. Indian Tales of the Northern Rockies. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Old Coyote, Sally; Toineeta, Joy Yellowtail

    Part of the Montana Council for Indian Education's Indian Culture Series, the book contains six folk stories recorded on reservations and by headstart teachers. The stories are: "The Owl", a Gros Ventre tale; "How the Robin Got a Red Breast", from the Flathead Tribe; "Old Man Coyote and the Wild Geese", a Crow Indian folk story; "How the Animals…

  4. Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by establishing…

  5. Transgenic Indian Mustard Overexpressing Selenocysteine

    E-print Network

    Transgenic Indian Mustard Overexpressing Selenocysteine Lyase or Selenocysteine Methyltransferase new transgenic Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] lines were tested under field conditions mustard. Further, this study confirms the importance of field testing for evaluating future transgenic

  6. Indian Education in Colonial Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Luis

    1973-01-01

    The Spaniards who dedicated themselves to the education of the American Indians in colonial Peru were firm believers in intellectual capabilities of the Indians and in the need to approach them through their own Quechua language. (FF)

  7. 75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment allows for multi- player games on video lottery terminals (VLTs). Dated: November 1, 2010. Larry Echo Hawk, Assistant Secretary--Indian...

  8. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation... Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy's Reservation and the State of Montana submitted a Class III...

  9. Southern Plains Indian Relocation Returnees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinker, Paul A.; Taylor, Benjamin J.

    1974-01-01

    The relocation of 323 Southern Plains Indians from western Oklahoma from 1968 to 1972 was studied. A further study was made of the 47 Indians who left their relocation city within a year to return to the reservation. (NQ)

  10. Indian Policy and Westward Expansion

    E-print Network

    Malin, James Claude

    1921-11-01

    , Indian wars, the Pacific railroad project, the extension of the frontier, schemes for the civilization of the Indians, etc., are topics in Western history which are more or less unrelated in the form in which they have usually been treated. Indian... to base an interpreta tion. The fact stands out clearly that the early history of the Trans-Mississippi Valley is essentially the history of the relation between the Indian and the advancing frontier placed in proper perspective with all the other...

  11. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the distance of a non-pressurized riser, and can increase casting yield by decreasing the required number of risers. All case studies for this projects were completed and compiled into an SFSA Technical Report that is submitted part of this Final Report

  12. Energy use in selected metal casting facilities - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Eppich, Robert E.

    2004-05-01

    This report represents an energy benchmark for various metal casting processes. It describes process flows and energy use by fuel type and processes for selected casting operations. It also provides recommendations for improving energy efficiency in casting.

  13. A History of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon; Eder, Jeanne

    The goal of assimilating American Indians into an alien culture seemed inevitable as superior weaponry and foreign diseases conquered the Indians. Only in the 20th century has serious consideration been given to allowing Indians to choose their own destiny. Using many excerpts from historical accounts, this book describes educational efforts by…

  14. Indian Calendars Leow Choon Lian

    E-print Network

    Aslaksen, Helmer

    1 Indian Calendars Leow Choon Lian An academic exercise presented in partial fulfillment Bases of Calendars 1 Chapter 2 Classification of Calendars 8 Chapter 3 The Indian Calendars 11 3 Bibliography 69 #12;3 Acknowledgements I am delighted to be the first student to work on a project about Indian

  15. Facts about American Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  16. Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

    Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

  17. The American Indian: A Microcourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Norman; And Others

    Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

  18. The Lummi Indian Demonstration Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Collin

    Purpose of the Lummi Indian Demonstration Project was to improve the efficiency and utilization of services by locating a Department of Social and Health Services office on the Lummi Indian Reservation, involving Indians as project staff, and identifying and utilizing social welfare resources. Among its activities were to: establish a career…

  19. The Indian as American

    E-print Network

    Levine, Stuart

    1965-01-01

    said that he wasn't really sure whether the statements referred to "full-blooded," "on-reservation," "traditional," or "any­ one with any Indian blood"; this was just something which he had heard.]1 The Indian Problem is essentially like the Negro... area, why aren't you helping us some? If you get this federal grant, we will be looking for sidewalks for our children to skate on, etc. Since living in Winston-Salem, there ar$ many things that I would like to tell you about. A tree fell in my...

  20. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  1. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Casting factors. 25.621 Section 25.621 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.621 Casting factors. (a) General. The factors, tests, and...

  2. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Casting factors. 29.621 Section 29.621 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.621 Casting factors. (a) General. The factors, tests, and...

  3. Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength with only a fraction of density of the alloy. NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated research to investigate lattice block castings of high temperature Ni-base superalloys such as the model system Inconel-718 (IN-718) for lightweight nozzle applications. Although difficulties were encountered throughout the manufacturing process , a successful investment casting procedure was eventually developed. Wax formulation and pattern assembly, shell mold processing, and counter gravity casting techniques were developed. Ten IN-718 lattice block castings (each measuring 15-cm wide by 30-cm long by 1.2-cm thick) have been successfully produced by Hitchiner Gas Turbine Division, Milford, New Hampshire, using their patented counter gravity casting techniques. Details of the processing and resulting microstructures are discussed in this paper. Post casting processing and evaluation of system specific mechanical properties of these specimens are in progress.

  4. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  5. Iron/Phosphorus Alloys for Continuous Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous casting becomes practicable because of reduced eutectic temperature. Experimental ferrous alloy has melting point about 350 degrees C lower than conventional steels, making possible to cast structural members and eliminating need for hot rolling. Product has normal metal structure and good physical properties. Process used to make rails, beams, slabs, channels, and pipes.

  6. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Allison, Carrie; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a parental questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions. In this validation study, the CAST was distributed to 1925 children aged 5-11 in mainstream Cambridgeshire schools. A sample of participants received a full diagnostic assessment, conducted blind to screen status. The sensitivity of…

  7. BMM SHAKEOUT AND VIBRATING CONVEYOR TRANSPORT SAND AND CASTINGS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BMM SHAKEOUT AND VIBRATING CONVEYOR TRANSPORT SAND AND CASTINGS TO SEPARATIONS SCREENS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Shaking, Degating & Sand Systems, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Final report on Expendable Pattern Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Expendable Pattern Casting (EPC) process is a potential casting process breakthrough which could dramatically improve the competitiveness of the US foundry industry. Cooperatively supported by US Industry and the Department of Energy and managed by the American Foundrymen's Society, a project was started in May 1989 to develop and optimize expendable pattern casting technology. Four major tasks were conducted in the first phase of the project. Those tasks involved: (1) reviewing published literature to determine the major problems in the EPC process, (2) evaluating factors influencing sand flow and compaction, (3) evaluating and comparing factors influencing sand flow and compaction, (3) evaluating and comparing casting precision obtained in the EPC process with that obtained in other processes, and (4) identifying critical parameters that control dimensional precision and defect formation in EP castings. 26 refs., 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Subcritical Measurments Multiple HEU Metal Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, John T; Archer, Daniel E; Wright, Michael C; Mullens, James Allen

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with the standard annular highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal castings at the Y-12 National Security Complex were performed in which up to five castings ({approx}90 kg) were assembled in a tightly packed array with minimal spacing between castings. The fission chain multiplication process was initiated by a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf spontaneously fissioning neutron source or by time and directionally tagged neutrons from a small portable DT neutron generator. The prompt neutron time behavior was measured with plastic scintillation detectors sensitive to the fast neutron (>1 MeV) and gamma ray without distinction. These experiments were performed to provide data to benchmark methods for the calculation of the prompt neutron time behavior. Previous measurements with a single casting have been reported. This paper presents the experimental results for multiple castings.

  10. The role of water in slip casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, R. A.; Phelps, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Slips and casting are considered in terms of physical and colloidal chemistry. Casting slips are polydisperse suspensions of lyophobic particles in water, whose degree of coagulation is controlled by interaction of flocculating and deflocculating agents. Slip casting rate and viscosity are functions of temperature. Slip rheology and response to deflocculating agents varies significantly as the kinds and amounts of colloid modifiers change. Water is considered as a raw material. Various concepts of water/clay interactions and structures are discussed. Casting is a de-watering operation in which water moves from slip to cast to mold in response to a potential energy termed moisture stress. Drying is an evaporative process from a free water surface.

  11. 4. A photo, looking north, northwest, from the stream bed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. A photo, looking north, northwest, from the stream bed east of the bridge. In this view of the north entrados of the concrete arch, cracks in the concrete castings are evident, as are some rebars in the faults. Graffiti is evident on the underside of the arch - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  12. 77 FR 21568 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Indian health professionals to provide health care services to Indians. The IHS is committed to the... authorized by section 103 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act (IHCIA), Public Law 94-437 (1976). The... scholarships, and inherently the number of service obligated scholars, to better meet the health care...

  13. Perspectives on American Indian Health

    PubMed Central

    Roubideaux, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives continue to experience significant disparities in health status compared with the US general population and now are facing the new challenges of rising rates of chronic diseases. The Indian health system continues to try to meet the federal trust responsibility to provide health care for American Indians and Alaska Natives despite significant shortfalls in funding, resources, and staff. New approaches to these Indian health challenges, including a greater focus on public health, community-based interventions, and tribal management of health programs, provide hope that the health of Indian communities will improve in the near future. PMID:12197964

  14. A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

  15. Signals of the South China Sea summer rainfall variability in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhuoqi; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Weiqiang

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigates signals of the South China Sea (SCS) summer rainfall variability in the Indian Ocean. It is found that the SCS summer rainfall has a negative relationship with December-January-February (DJF) western-equatorial Indian Ocean (WIO) sea surface temperature (SST), a positive relationship with an asymmetric mode of precipitation anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean during March-April-May (MAM), and a positive relationship with June-July-August (JJA) South Indian Ocean (SIO) SST. The WIO SST anomalies induce same-sign southeast Indian Ocean SST anomalies through an anomalous zonal vertical circulation. The southeast Indian Ocean SST anomalies last from late winter to early summer and induce opposite-sign SCS summer rainfall anomalies via an anomalous meridional vertical circulation. The asymmetric mode influences the SCS summer rainfall variation via the North Indian Ocean (NIO) SST anomalies with significant cloud-radiation and wind-evaporation effect. Positive (negative) SIO SST anomalies drive an anomalous direct circulation between the SIO and the NIO, and an anomalous indirect circulation between the NIO and the SCS which facilitates the occurrence of cyclonic (anti-cyclonic) wind anomalies over the SCS-western North Pacific and results in positive (negative) SCS summer rainfall anomalies. Partial correlation analysis indicates that the influence of DJF WIO SST anomalies and JJA SIO SST anomalies on the SCS summer rainfall is partly ENSO-independent, while the MAM asymmetric mode is mostly related to the preceding DJF eastern Pacific SST anomalies.

  16. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Pima, Papago, Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Cocopah, Havasupai, Hualapai, Yavapai, and Paiute Indian tribes of Arizona are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, housing, employment, and economic development taking place on the…

  17. Early Indian People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doermann, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

  18. Downriver Indians' Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Exline, Jesse

    Yurok Indian legends in Yurok Unifon text include English translations of the entire texts in order to produce fluent reading for English speakers and a continuous text for Yurok readers. Although corresponding sentences are numbered, translation is not word-for-word or sentence-for-sentence. The five stories refer to a time when animals could…

  19. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  20. Indians of the Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

  1. American Indian Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  2. Indian School Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil H.

    This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age from 4 to…

  3. Problems of Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Marigold

    Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

  4. CTD015Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26 Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD015Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26 Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26, page 1 #12;CTD015Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26 Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26, page 2 #12;CTD016Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26 Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26, page 3 #12;CTD016Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26 Hickey, W8009C, casts 15-26, page 4 #12;CTD017

  5. CTD027Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33 Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33, page 1

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Barbara

    CTD027Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33 Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33, page 1 #12;CTD027Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33 Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33, page 2 #12;CTD027Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33 Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33, page 3 #12;CTD027Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33 Hickey, W8009C, casts 27-33, page 4 #12;CTD027

  6. Bioinspired Design: Magnetic Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael Martin

    Nature is the ultimate experimental scientist, having billions of years of evolution to design, test, and adapt a variety of multifunctional systems for a plethora of diverse applications. Next-generation materials that draw inspiration from the structure-property-function relationships of natural biological materials have led to many high-performance structural materials with hybrid, hierarchical architectures that fit form to function. In this dissertation, a novel materials processing method, magnetic freeze casting, is introduced to develop porous scaffolds and hybrid composites with micro-architectures that emulate bone, abalone nacre, and other hard biological materials. This method uses ice as a template to form ceramic-based materials with continuously, interconnected microstructures and magnetic fields to control the alignment of these structures in multiple directions. The resulting materials have anisotropic properties with enhanced mechanical performance that have potential applications as bone implants or lightweight structural composites, among others.

  7. 27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Graffiti in north cells: 'When the golden sun has sunk beyond the desert horizon, and darkness followed, under a dim light casting my lonesome heart.'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  8. VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. 78 FR 42788 - American Indians Into Nursing; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Nursing; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Nursing Program Announcement Type: Competing Continuation. Funding Announcement... competitive cooperative agreement applications for the American Indians into Nursing Program (Section...

  10. Physical Activity and Incident Diabetes in American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Barbara V.; Kriska, Andrea M.; Smith, Nicolas L.; Lumley, Thomas; Lee, Elisa T.; Russell, Marie; Siscovick, David

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the association between total physical activity (leisure-time plus occupational) and incident diabetes among 1,651 American Indians who participated in the Strong Heart Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among 13 American Indian communities in 4 states (North Dakota, South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Arizona). Discrete Cox models were used to examine the association between physical activity level (in tertiles), compared with no physical activity, and incident diabetes, after adjustment for potential confounders. During 10 years of follow-up (f1989–1999), 454 incident cases of diabetes were identified. Compared with participants who reported no physical activity, those who reported any physical activity had a lower risk of diabetes: Odds ratios were 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.99), 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.99), and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.99) for increasing tertile of physical activity, after adjustment for age, sex, study site, education, smoking, alcohol use, and family history of diabetes. Further adjustment for body mass index and other potential mediators attenuated the risk estimates. These data suggest that physical activity is associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes in American Indians. This study identifies physical activity as an important determinant of diabetes among American Indians and suggests the need for physical activity outreach programs that target inactive American Indians. PMID:19622672

  11. NWIS MEASUREMENTS FOR URANIUM METAL ANNULAR CASTINGS

    SciTech Connect

    MATTINGLY, J.K.; VALENTINE, T.E.; MIHALCZO, J.T.

    1998-03-13

    This report describes measurements performed with annular uranium metal castings of different enrichments to investigate the use of {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis measurements as a means to quantify the amount of special nuclear material (SNM) in the casting. This work in FY 97 was sponsored by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the DOE Office of Technology Development Programs. Previous measurements and calculational studies have shown that many of the signatures obtained from the source-driven measurement are very sensitive to fissile mass. Measurements were performed to assess the applicability of this method to standard annular uranium metal castings at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant under verification by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using the Nuclear Weapons Identification System (NWIS) processor. Before the measurements with different enrichments, a limited study of source-detector-casting moderator configurations was performed to enhance the correlated information. These configurations consisted of a casting with no reflector and with various thicknesses of polyethylene reflectors up to 10.16 cm in 2.54 cm steps. The polyethylene moderator thickness of 7.62 cm was used for measurements with castings of different enrichments reported here. The sensitivity of the measured parameters to fissile mass was investigated using four castings each with a different enrichment. The high sensitivity of this measurement method to fissile mass and to other material and configurations provides some advantages over existing safeguards methods.

  12. AMCC casting development. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Combustion Chamber Casting (AMCC) has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or Thermal Gradient Control. This method, of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification, represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. Metallurgical integrity of the final four castings was very good. Only the areas of the parts that utilized 'TGC Shape & Location System #2' showed any significant areas of microshrinkage when evaluated by non-destructive tests. Alumina oxides detected by FPI on the 'float' surfaces (top sid surfaces of the casting during solidification) of the part were almost entirely less than the acceptance criteria of .032 inches in diameter. Destructive chem mill of the castings was required to determine the effect of the process variables used during the processing of these last four parts (with the exception of the 'Shape & Location of TGC' variable).

  13. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  14. Defrosting North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 June 2004 Spring is upon the martian northern hemisphere, and the north polar cap is shrinking. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired on 12 June 2004, shows the retreating edge of the seasonal north polar cap near 70oN, 209oW. Low clouds and fogs stream away from the cap edge as it sublimes away. North is approximately up and the image covers an area roughly 500 km (311 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. The crater containing a thick mound of material near the right-center of the image is Korolev.

  15. Clinical applications and implications of common and founder mutations in Indian subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Ankala, Arunkanth; Tamhankar, Parag M; Valencia, C Alexander; Rayam, Krishna K; Kumar, Manisha M; Hegde, Madhuri R

    2015-01-01

    South Asian Indians represent a sixth of the world's population and are a racially, geographically, and genetically diverse people. Their unique anthropological structure, prevailing caste system, and ancient religious practices have all impacted the genetic composition of most of the current-day Indian population. With the evolving socio-religious and economic activities of the subsects and castes, endogamous and consanguineous marriages became a commonplace. Consequently, the frequency of founder mutations and the burden of heritable genetic disorders rose significantly. Specifically, the incidence of certain autosomal-recessive disorders is relatively high in select Indian subpopulations and communities that share common recent ancestry. Although today clinical genetics and molecular diagnostic services are making inroads in India, the high costs associated with the technology and the tests often keep patients from an exact molecular diagnosis, making more customized and tailored tests, such as those interrogating the most common and founder mutations or those that cater to select sects within the population, highly attractive. These tests offer a quick first-hand affordable diagnostic and carrier screening tool. Here, we provide a comprehensive catalog of known common mutations and founder mutations in the Indian population and discuss them from a molecular, clinical, and historical perspective. PMID:25323826

  16. Methods for Casting Subterranean Ant Nests

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2010-01-01

    The study of subterranean ant nests has been impeded by the difficulty of rendering their structures in visible form. Here, several different casting materials are shown to make perfect casts of the underground nests of ants. Each material (dental plaster, paraffin wax, aluminum, zinc) has advantages and limitations, which are discussed. Some of the materials allow the recovery of the ants entombed in the casts, allowing a census of the ants to be connected with features of their nest architecture. The necessary equipment and procedures are described in the hope that more researchers will study this very important aspect of ant natural history. PMID:20673073

  17. Improved Slip Casting Of Ceramic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Gregory M.; Vasquez, Peter; Hicks, Lana P.

    1994-01-01

    Improved technique of investment slip casting developed for making precise ceramic wind-tunnel models. Needed in wind-tunnel experiments to verify predictions of aerothermodynamical computer codes. Ceramic materials used because of their low heat conductivities and ability to survive high temperatures. Present improved slip-casting technique enables casting of highly detailed models from aqueous or nonaqueous solutions. Wet shell molds peeled off models to ensure precise and undamaged details. Used at NASA Langley Research Center to form superconducting ceramic components from nonaqueous slip solutions. Technique has many more applications when ceramic materials developed further for such high-strength/ temperature components as engine parts.

  18. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values. PMID:12158005

  19. GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GRINDING ROOM AT SOUTHERN DUCTILE CASTING COMPANY, BESSEMER FOUNDRY SHOWING WHEELABORATOR THAT IMPALE SHOT AT TUMBLING CASTINGS TO REMOVE EXCESS SURFACE METALS AND SAND; ANNEALING OVENS TO HEAT CERTAIN CASTINGS TO ACHIEVE A DESIRED CHARACTERISTIC; AND GRINDING WHEELS USED TO REMOVE GATES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  20. Basic Casting from A to Z. Student's Instruction Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebco, Tulsa, OK.

    A profusely illustrated student instruction booklet contains step-by-step directions and diagrams for learning four basic casting techniques. Separate sections cover basic spin-casting, spinning, bait-casting, and fly-casting. Each section details recommended equipment (reel, rod, line, plug, tackle, lures, leaders, flies), describes specific…

  1. Modeling and control of casting and welding processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, S.; Mehrabian, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: process monitor and control in welding; plasma processing and refining; strip casting; modelling of welding processes; CAD/CAM in casting; investment and die casting; ingot, continuous and other shape casting; and rapid solidification and microstructural evolution.

  2. Diabetic Neuropathy: What is a Total Contact Cast?

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Diabetic Neuropathy | What is a Total Contact Cast? What is a total contact cast? A total contact cast is a cast used to treat ulcers (serious, deep sores) on a person’s foot. It consists of a fiberglass shell that fits around your leg and foot very ...

  3. North Carolina

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Mixing Waters and Moving Ships off the North Carolina Coast     ... the Atlantic Ocean are ship wakes. The  movements of the ships  have been visualized by displaying the views from MISR's four ...

  4. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  5. WinMod: An expert advisor for investment casting

    SciTech Connect

    Bivens, H.P.; Williamson, G.A. Jr.; Luger, G.F.; Erdmann, R.G.; Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Anderson, D.J.

    1998-04-01

    Investment casting is an important method for fabricating a variety of high quality components in mechanical systems. Cast components, unfortunately, have a large design and gate/runner build time associated with their fabrication. In addition, casting engineers often require many years of actual experience in order to consistently pour high quality castings. Since 1989, Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating casting technology and software that will reduce the time overhead involved in producing quality casts. Several companies in the casting industry have teamed up with Sandia to form the FASTCAST Consortium. One result of this research and the formation of the FASTCAST consortium is the creation of the WinMod software, an expert casting advisor that supports the decision making process of the casting engineer through visualization and advice to help eliminate possible casting defects.

  6. Advanced lost foam from casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C. E.; Littleton, H. E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B. A.; Sheldon, D. S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects Task 4: Pattern Gating Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas in the period of October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers.

  7. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable...

  8. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable...

  9. 14 CFR 25.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable...

  10. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in paragraphs (c) and...not be used with respect to the bearing surfaces of a part whose bearing factor is larger than the applicable...

  11. Preparation of iron castings for enameling

    SciTech Connect

    Mironenko, V.V.; Naletov, A.S.; Paladich, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    This article investigates the conditions of formation of a strong metallic bond between 08 steel and molten cast iron and of obtaining a low-carbon (ferritic) layer on the surface of a sheathed casting on the side of the iron. Points out that the quality of enameling depends not only upon the composition of the enamel but also upon the structure, composition, and properties of the metal being enameled. The results of the investigation are being used as the basis of a new method of producing cast iron enameled fittings with a surface low-carbon layer. Finds that the strength of the cast iron was increased by 1.5 times and the soundness of the enamel coating by 4 times using the new method.

  12. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength.

  13. Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar Dec. 23, 2011 (Friday) TIME Dec. 23, 14:30 ~ 15 evaluated around the future lightcone of the joint measurement by Alice. The distortion of the quantum state

  14. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  15. Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, R.L.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin

    1996-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  16. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS has instituted the `IVS- Professor D Y Phadke Memorial Prize' in memory of our founder presid

  17. The Feasibility of Casting Sculpture in Kirksite

    E-print Network

    Fox, Lewis Howard

    1968-01-01

    can be used effectively, the negative patterns must first be cast or machined in copper or aluminum. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books ASM Handbook Committee. Metals Handbook, Vol. I and Vol. II. Metals Park, Ohio: American Society for Metals, 1961. Hofman, H... INTRODUCTION Kirksite is one of the brand names given to the various zinc die-casting alloys. Kirksite consists of 91 percent zinc, 4 percent aluminum, 4 percent copper, and 1 percent magnesium. It is a bluish- white metal commonly used commercially...

  18. Arc Casting Intermetallic Alloy (Materials Preparation Center)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Arc casting of intermetallic (La-Ni-Sn) AB5 alloy used for metal hydride hydrogen storage. Upon solidification the Sn is partially rejected and increases in concentration in the remaining liquid. Upon completing solidification there is a great deal of internal stress in the ingot. As the ingot cools further the stress is relieved. This material was cast at the Ames Laboratorys Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

  19. Computed Tomography For Internal Inspection Of Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Timothy L.

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomography used to detect internal flaws in metal castings before machining and otherwise processing them into finished parts. Saves time and money otherwise wasted on machining and other processing of castings eventually rejected because of internal defects. Knowledge of internal defects gained by use of computed tomography also provides guidance for changes in foundry techniques, procedures, and equipment to minimize defects and reduce costs.

  20. Combination Of Investment And Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creeger, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    Modifications, including incorporation of centrifugal casting, made in investment-casting process reducing scrap rate. Used to make first- and second-stage high-pressure-fuel-turbopump nozzles, containing vanes with thin trailing edges and other thin sections. Investment mold spun for short time while being filled, and stopped before solidification occurs. Centrifugal force drives molten metal into thin trailing edges, ensuring they are filled. With improved filling, preheat and pour temperatures reduced and solidification hastened so less hot tearing.

  1. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian...

  2. 7 CFR 25.500 - Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Indian reservations. 25.500 Section 25.500 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.500 Indian reservations. (a) An area in an Indian...

  3. Preparation of iron castings for enameling

    SciTech Connect

    Mironenko, V.V.; Naletov, A.S.; Paladich, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The quality of enameling depends not only upon the composition of the enamel but also upon the structure, composition and properties of the metal being enameled. An increase in enameling quality and in the properties of enameled cast iron parts may be obtained by surface sheathing of cast iron parts with 08 low-carbon steel. The authors have investigated the conditions of formation of a strong metallic bond between 08 steel and molten cast iron and of obtaining a low-carbon layer on the surface of a sheathed casting on the side of the iron. On the basis of the experimental data, a nomogram was drawn making it possible to determine the production conditions of the process. The results of the investigation are being used as the basis of a new method of producing cast iron enameled fittings with a surface low-carbon layer. The method developed specifies the preparation of halves of a thin-walled hollow nonremovable core of 08 sheet steel, diffusion butt welding of the halves prepared, shot peening, placement of the cores in the sand mold and pouring of iron at 1430-1460/sup 0/C. Production tests of experimental housings for valves showed the effectiveness of the new method in comparison with the traditional. The strength of the cast iron was increased by 1.5 times and the soundness of the enamel coating by 4 times.

  4. Reinforcement of Aluminum Castings with Dissimilar Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q

    2004-01-07

    The project ''Reinforcement of Aluminum Casting with Dissimilar Metal'' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Cummins Inc. This project, technologies have been developed to reinforce aluminum castings with steel insert. Defect-free bond between the steel insert and the aluminum casting has been consistently obtained. The push-out experiment indicated that the bond strength is higher than that of the Al-Fin method. Two patents have been granted to the project team that is comprised of Cummins Inc. and ORNL. This report contains four sections: the coating of the steel pins, the cast-in method, microstructure characterization, and the bond strength. The section of the coating of the steel pins contains coating material selection, electro-plating technique for plating Cu and Ni on steel, and diffusion bonding of the coatings to the steel. The section of cast-in method deals with factors that affecting the quality of the metallurgical bond between the coated steel and the aluminum castings. The results of microstructure characteristics of the bonding are presented in the microstructure characterization section. A push-out experiment and the results obtained using this method is described in the section of bond strength/mechanical property.

  5. Silica exposure in hand grinding steel castings.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D; Froehlich, P A; Gressel, M G; Hall, R M; Clark, N J; Bost, P; Fischbach, T

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to silica dust was studied in the grinding of castings in a steel foundry that used conventional personal sampling methods and new real-time sampling techniques developed for the identification of high-exposure tasks and tools. Approximately one-third of the personal samples exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit for crystalline silica, a fraction similar to that identified in other studies of casting cleaning. Of five tools used to clean the castings, the tools with the largest wheels, a 6-in. grinder and a 4-in. cutoff wheel, were shown to be the major sources of dust exposure. Existing dust control consisted of the use of downdraft grinding benches. The size of the casting precluded working at a distance close enough to the grates of the downdraft benches for efficient capture of the grinding dust. In addition, measurements of air recirculated from the downdraft benches indicated that less than one-half of the respirable particles were removed from the contaminated airstream. Previous studies have shown that silica exposures in the cleaning of castings can be reduced or eliminated through the use of mold coatings, which minimize sand burn-in on the casting surface; by application of high-velocity, low-volume exhaust hoods; and by the use of a nonsilica molding aggregate such as olivine. This study concluded that all these methods would be appropriate control options. PMID:1317091

  6. Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This program assisted in the design and implementation of the composite casting demonstration for the Apollo 14 mission. Both flight and control samples were evaluated. Some conclusions resulting from a comparison of the flight and control samples were: (1) Solidification in neither the flight nor control samples was truly directional. (2) Apparent intermittent contact of the melt with the container in the flight samples led to unusual nucleation and growth structures. (3) There was greater uniformity, on a macro scale, of both pores and structural features in the flight sample; presumably the result of the reduced gravity conditions. (4) It seems quite feasible to produce enhanced dispersions of gases and dense phases in a melt which is solidified in reduced gravity. (5) A two-stage heating/cooling cycle may help directional solidification. (6) Sample materials should be selected from materials in which the dispersant fully wets the matrix material. (7) Experiments should be conducted in two modes: (1) where the melt is in good thermal contact with the container, and (2) where the melt is in a free-float condition.

  7. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    Garza, J G; Calvet, D; Castel, J F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Decker, T; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Giomataris, I; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Jourde, D; Mirallas, H; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Tomás, A; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

    2015-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  8. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; J. A. García; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. Tomás; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

    2015-03-17

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  9. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J. F.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10-6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10-7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  10. Indian Ocean analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Gary

    1992-01-01

    The background and goals of Indian Ocean thermal sampling are discussed from the perspective of a national project which has research goals relevant to variation of climate in Australia. The critical areas of SST variation are identified. The first goal of thermal sampling at this stage is to develop a climatology of thermal structure in the areas and a description of the annual variation of major currents. The sampling strategy is reviewed. Dense XBT sampling is required to achieve accurate, monthly maps of isotherm-depth because of the high level of noise in the measurements caused by aliasing of small scale variation. In the Indian Ocean ship routes dictate where adequate sampling can be achieved. An efficient sampling rate on available routes is determined based on objective analysis. The statistical structure required for objective analysis is described and compared at 95 locations in the tropical Pacific and 107 in the tropical Indian Oceans. XBT data management and quality control methods at CSIRO are reviewed. Results on the mean and annual variation of temperature and baroclinic structure in the South Equatorial Current and Pacific/Indian Ocean Throughflow are presented for the region between northwest Australia and Java-Timor. The mean relative geostrophic transport (0/400 db) of Throughflow is approximately 5 x 106 m3/sec. A nearly equal volume transport is associated with the reference velocity at 400 db. The Throughflow feeds the South Equatorial Current, which has maximum westward flow in August/September, at the end of the southeasterly Monsoon season. A strong semiannual oscillation in the South Java Current is documented. The results are in good agreement with the Semtner and Chervin (1988) ocean general circulation model. The talk concludes with comments on data inadequacies (insufficient coverage, timeliness) particular to the Indian Ocean and suggestions on the future role that can be played by Data Centers, particularly with regard to quality control of data as research bodies are replaced by operational bodies in the Global Ocean Observing System.

  11. 25 CFR 241.5 - Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. 241.5 Section 241.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN...

  12. 25 CFR 273.15 - Establishment of Indian Education Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Establishment of Indian Education Committee. 273.15 Section 273.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND...

  13. 25 CFR 273.15 - Establishment of Indian Education Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Establishment of Indian Education Committee. 273.15 Section 273.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND...

  14. 25 CFR 273.15 - Establishment of Indian Education Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Establishment of Indian Education Committee. 273.15 Section 273.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND...

  15. 25 CFR 273.15 - Establishment of Indian Education Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of Indian Education Committee. 273.15 Section 273.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND...

  16. 25 CFR 273.15 - Establishment of Indian Education Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Establishment of Indian Education Committee. 273.15 Section 273.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND...

  17. Cast Metals Coalition Technology Transfer and Program Management Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn, Mike

    2009-03-31

    The Cast Metals Coalition (CMC) partnership program was funded to ensure that the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) metalcasting research and development (R&D) projects are successfully deployed into industry. Specifically, the CMC program coordinated the transfer and deployment of energy saving technologies and process improvements developed under separately funded DOE programs and projects into industry. The transition of these technologies and process improvements is a critical step in the path to realizing actual energy savings. At full deployment, DOE funded metalcasting R&D results are projected to save 55% of the energy used by the industry in 1998. This closely aligns with DOE's current goal of driving a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017. In addition to benefiting DOE, these energy savings provide metalcasters with a significant economic advantage. Deployment of already completed R&D project results and those still underway is estimated to return over 500% of the original DOE and industry investment. Energy savings estimates through December 2008 from the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) portfolio of projects alone are 12 x 1012 BTUs, with a projection of over 50 x 1012 BTUs ten years after program completion. These energy savings and process improvements have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the CMC partnership. The CMC team consists of DOE's Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical societies in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders Society of America; and the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. CMC provides collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,100 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration, new technologies enabling energy efficiencies and environment-friendly improvements are slow to develop, and have trouble obtaining a broad application. The CMC team was able to effectively and efficiently transfer the results of DOE's metalcasting R&D projects to industry by utilizing and delivering the numerous communication vehicles identified in the proposal. The three metalcasting technical associations achieved significant technology transition results under this program. In addition to reaching over 23,000 people per year through Modern Casting and 28,000 through Engineered Casting Solutions, AFS had 84 national publications and reached over 1,200 people annually through Cast Metals Institute (CMI) education courses. NADCA's education department reached over 1,000 people each year through their courses, in addition to reaching over 6,000 people annually through Die Casting Engineer, and publishing 58 papers. The SFSA also published 99 research papers and reached over 1,000 people annually through their member newsletters. In addition to these communication vehicles, the CMC team conducted numerous technical committee meetings, project reviews, and onsite visits. All of these efforts to distribute the latest metalcasting technologies contributed to the successful deployment of DOE's R&D projects into industry. The DOE/CMC partnership demonstrated significant success in the identification and review of relevant and easy-to-implement metalcasting energy-saving processes and technologies so that the results are quickly implemented and become general practice. The results achieved in this program demonstrate that sustained technology transfer efforts are a critical step in the deployment of R&D projects to industry.

  18. Effects of Aerosols over the Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aerosols that contain black carbon both absorb and reflect incoming sunlight. Even as these atmospheric particles reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the surface, they increase the amount of solar energy absorbed in the atmosphere, thus making it possible to both cool the surface and warm the atmosphere. The images above show satellite measurements of the region studied during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX)a vast region spanning the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal (west to east), and from the foot of the Himalayan Mountains, across the Indian subcontinent to the southern Indian Ocean (north to south). The Aerosol images show aerosol pollution (brownish pixels) in the lower atmosphere over the INDOEX study area, as measured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Terra. These were composited from March 14-21, 2001. The Albedo images show the total solar energy reflected back to space, as measured by Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) aboard Terra. White pixels show high values, greens are intermediate values, and blues are low. Note how the aerosols, particularly over the ocean, increase the amount of energy reflected back to space. The Atmospheric Warming images show the absorption of the black carbon aerosols in the atmosphere. Where the aerosols are most dense, the absorption is highest. Red pixels indicate the highest levels of absorption, blues are low. The Surface Cooling images show that the aerosol particles reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the surface. Dark pixels show where the aerosols exert their cooling influence on the surface (or a high magnitude of negative radiative forcing). The bright pixels show where there is much less aerosol pollution and the incoming sunlight is relatively unaffected.

  19. Evaluating and Staffing Canadian Indian Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mear-Crine, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    The article discusses evaluation as it relates to Canadian Indian bilingual programs and suggests differentiated staffing procedures for various Canadian Indian bilingual education programs. (Author/NQ)

  20. Thoughts on the Indian Dilemma: Backgrounding the "Indian Problem"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muskrat, Joseph

    1973-01-01

    Argues that the core of the Indians' problem is the inability of their community to achieve a sense of control over its own destiny, and explores ways in which the Indians can organize to gain the necessary internal cohesion, resources, and capabilities in order to create a satisfactory position within American society. (JM)

  1. Neutron radiography inspection of investment castings.

    PubMed

    Richards, W J; Barrett, J R; Springgate, M E; Shields, K C

    2004-10-01

    Investment casting, also known as the lost wax process, is a manufacturing method employed to produce near net shape metal articles. Traditionally, investment casting has been used to produce structural titanium castings for aero-engine applications with wall thickness less than 1 in (2.54 cm). Recently, airframe manufacturers have been exploring the use of titanium investment casting to replace components traditionally produced from forgings. Use of titanium investment castings for these applications reduces weight, cost, lead time, and part count. Recently, the investment casting process has been selected to produce fracture critical structural titanium airframe components. These airframe components have pushed the traditional inspection techniques to their physical limits due to cross sections on the order of 3 in (7.6 cm). To overcome these inspection limitations, a process incorporating neutron radiography (n-ray) has been developed. In this process, the facecoat of the investment casting mold material contains a cocalcined mixture of yttrium oxide and gadolinium oxide. The presence of the gadolinium oxide, allows for neutron radiographic imaging (and eventual removal and repair) of mold facecoat inclusions that remain within these thick cross sectional castings. Probability of detection (POD) studies have shown a 3 x improvement of detecting a 0.050 x 0.007 in2 (1.270 x 0.178 mm2) inclusion of this cocalcined material using n-ray techniques when compared to the POD using traditional X-ray techniques. Further, it has been shown that this n-ray compatible mold facecoat material produces titanium castings of equal metallurgical quality when compared to the traditional materials. Since investment castings can be very large and heavy, the neutron radiography facilities at the University of California, Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (UCD/MNRC) were used to develop the inspection techniques. The UCD/MNRC has very unique facilities that can handle large parts up to 39 ft (12 m) in length and 13 ft (4 m) high weighing up to 5000 lbs (2300 kg). These handling systems are robotically driven. The neutron radiographic system consists of a highly thermalized neutron beam. The neutron beam has an intensity of 5.6 x 10(6) n/cm2 s, with a L/D = 200 at a power of 2 MW. A divergent beam collimator is used which provides a beam of approximately 22 in (56 cm) in diameter at the film plane. A vacuum cassette with a gadolinium vapor deposited screen is used to collect the image. Exposure times can be as short as 3 min, or up to 30 min. PMID:15246417

  2. GRAIN REFINEMENT OF PERMANENT MOLD CAST COPPER BASE ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    M. SADAYAPPAN, J.P. THOMSON, M.ELBOUJDAINI, G. PING GU, M. SAHOO

    2004-04-29

    Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys. Aluminum promoted b phase formation and modified the grain structure from dendritic to equiaxed. Lead or bismuth reduces the size of grains, but not change the morphology of the structure in Cu-Zn alloys. The grain size of the Cu-Zn-alloy can be reduced from 3000 mm to 300 mm after the addition of aluminum and lead. Similar effects were observed in EnviroBrass III after the addition of aluminum and bismuth. Boron refined the structure of yellow brasses in the presence of iron. At least 50 ppm of iron and 3 ppm of boron are necessary to cause grain refinement in these alloys. Precipitation of iron from the melt is identified as the cause of grain refinement. Boron initiates the precipitation of iron which could not be explained at this time. On the other hand zirconium causes some reduction in grain size in all four alloys investigated. The critical limit for the zirconium was found to be around 100 ppm below which not much refinement could be observed. The mechanism of grain refinement in the presence of zirconium could not be explained. Grain refinement by boron and iron can remain over a long period of time, at least for 72 hours of holding or after remelting few times. It is necessary to have the iron and boron contents above the critical limits mentioned earlier. On the other hand, refinement by zirconium is lost quite rapidly, some times within one hour of holding, mostly due to the loss of zirconium, most probably by oxidation, from the melt. In all the cases it is possible to revive the refinement by adding more of the appropriate refining element. Cooling curve analysis (thermal analysis) can be used successfully to predict the grain refinement in yellow brasses. The precipitation of iron in the liquid metal causes the metal to solidify without undercooling. Absence of this reaction, as indicated by the time-temperature (t-T) and its first derivative (dt/dT) curves, proved to be an indicator of refinement. The viability of the technique as an on-line quality control tool was proved in two foundries. The method can also correctly predict the onset of fading. Th

  3. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  4. Methods and apparatus for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2014-01-14

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  5. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, Nathan G. (Gettysburg, PA)

    2011-11-01

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  6. 12. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE GLAZE KILN CHIMNEYS ON THE LEFT. CISTERN TOWER. BOILER AND TWO BISCUIT KILN CHIMNEYS ARE ON THE RIGHT. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE INDIAN HOUSE TOWER. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  7. 86. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE GLAZE KILN CHIMNEYS ON THE LEFT. CISTERN TOWER, BOILER AND TWO BISCUIT KILN CHIMNEY'S ARE ON THE RIGHT. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE INDIAN HOUSE TOWER. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-12. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  8. 21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  9. 90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-21. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  10. Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect

    F. Douglas Neece Neil Chaudhry

    2006-02-08

    Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.

  11. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2005-09-01

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The wax patterns are used to create a ceramic shell by the application of a series of ceramic coatings, and the alloy is cast into the dewaxed shell mold (Fig. 1.1). However, the complexity of shape and the close dimensional tolerances required in the final casting make it difficult to determine tooling dimensions. The final linear dimension of the casting depends on the cumulative effects of the linear expansions or contractions in each step of the investment casting process (Fig. 1.2). In most cases, the mold geometry or cores restrict the shrinkage of the pattern or the cast part, and the final casting dimensions may be affected by time-dependent processes such as viscoelastic deformation of the wax, and viscoplastic creep and plastic deformations of the shell and alloy. The pattern die is often reworked several times to produce castings whose dimensions are within acceptable tolerances. To date, investment casting technology has been based on hands-on training and experience. Technical literature is limited to experimental, phenomenological studies aimed at obtaining empirical correlations for quick and easy application in industry. The goal of this project was to predict casting dimensions for investment castings in order to meet blueprint nominal during the first casting run. Several interactions have to be considered in a coupled manner to determine the shrinkage factors: these are the die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy interactions (as illustrated in Fig. 1.3). In this work, the deformations of the die-wax and shell-alloy systems were considered in a coupled manner, while the coupled deformation of the wax-shell system was not considered. Future work is needed in order to deliver to industry a computer program in which all three systems are coupled for determining the dimensions of the wax pattern, the shell mold, and casting in a sequential but coupled manner.

  12. Microstructure of thin-wall ductile iron castings

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Druschitz, A.P.

    2001-10-01

    The automotive industry is seeking to replace current car parts made of aluminum and iron castings with thin wall (down to 2 mm) iron castings to reduce the cost and weight of automobiles. The mechanical properties of thin wall ductile iron castings are affected strongly by the thickness of the castings. The thinner castings cool at a faster rate, and microstructural features that form during solidification, and subsequently, transform in the solid state, are strongly dependent on a geometrical parameter related to the ratio of surface area-to-volume of the casting. As this ratio becomes larger, castings cool faster. As a result, the nodule count on the observation plane of the specimens increases dramatically (>2000 nodules/mm2 in most specimens), i.e. as the thickness of castings decreases. Also, the matrix of the thin walled ductile iron castings becomes more ferritic as the ratio of surface area-to-volume decreases.

  13. 6. CLOSEUP OF U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE AND U.S. RECLAMATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CLOSE-UP OF U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE AND U.S. RECLAMATION SERVICE BENCHMARKS ON TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN T3S, R5E, S14 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Flood Water Canal, North Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  14. Some Thoughts on "Taking" Pictures: Imaging "Indians" and the Counter-Narratives of Visual Sovereignty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Morgan F.

    2011-01-01

    Soon after its inception the camera became the primary vehicle for producing images of Native Americans. Without question, late nineteenth and early twentieth-century images of Native Americans have been integral in forming the stereotypical ideal of "Indian." For many imaginations, these images have frozen North America's indigenous people, not…

  15. Objective Definition of the Indian Summer Monsoon Onset* BIN WANG AND QINGHUA DING

    E-print Network

    Wang, Bin

    by the beginning of the sustained 850-hPa zonal wind averaged over the southern Arabian Sea (SAS) from 58 to 158N Ocean toward the southeast Arabian Sea. On the intraseasonal time scale, the onset tends to be led a few thousand kilometers from the low-latitude regions of the Arabian Sea in the north Indian Ocean

  16. Indian women cry foul.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen organizations in Bombay issued a position statement on women's reproductive health and family planning as part of a national Planned Parenthood Foundation 1990's meeting on new contraception. The statement asserted that women needed to have an understanding of their bodies, wanted contraceptives that would not harm physiological functions, and desired men's and women's joint responsibility for reproduction. Women's groups voiced a concern about women gaining awareness of their ability to control their own health and contraception. The Indian government has been concerned with population control since 1952 and has stressed reducing the birth rate rather than providing for people's needs. The Indian government has followed the advice of Western nations and promoted the IUD during the 1960s, vasectomies during the 1970s, female sterilization during the 1980s, and long acting contraceptives during the 1990s. Government policy after the 1970s that focused on women's methods was viewed as coercive. Women's groups such as Stree Shakti Sanghatana, Saheli, and Chingari and the Andhra Pradesh Civil Liberties Union protested the Indian's governments promotion of injectable contraceptives such as NET-EN which were considered hazardous to women's health. Women's groups asked for legislative action, which helped to focus discussion and debate on the issues of the side effects of contraception. The concern was raised that people needed to be made aware of the issues and that the NET-EN campaign was only a dialogue among experts. Women's groups have focused on creating understanding about family planning rather than on simplistic labeling of harmful contraception. Demands should be put in a positive framework that redefines couple relationships, explores a variety of expressions of sexuality, and asserts the primacy of women's decision making about reproduction. PMID:12290478

  17. DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN SOCIETIES: An Essay in Comparative Pragmatics THESIS SUBMITTED and complexity are presented in the first part of the thesis, as a basis of comparison with the decision-makingSl).cietal organization in the Plains and surrounding area. #12;DECISION MAKING IN EQUESTRIAN INDIAN SOCIETIES: An Essay

  18. American Indians of the Southwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Bertha P.

    Designed for both the specialist and nonspecialist, the book provides a synthesis of Southwestern Indian culture based on long familiarity with the people. Chapter 1 describes the physical aspects of American Indians, land and Aboriginal inhabitants, and development of socio-religious patterns. Chapter II is about Pueblo Peoples (Tanoans,…

  19. Teaching English to American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    Many practices in Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools were negative, but this paper emphasizes the positive efforts that were made throughout their history, especially in regard to teaching English. The Carlisle Indian School, which opened in 1879, encouraged the use of English through an English language student newspaper and frequently…

  20. Human Behavior and American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Wynne DuBray; Eisenbise, Margaret DeOcampo

    Divided into five sections, the monograph is intended to make students aware that the practices customary to social work agencies are not relevant to the needs of most American Indian clientele. The first section provides an overview of the following historical, geographical, and cultural areas of American Indian tribes: California, Plateau, Great…

  1. Indian Education: An Intergenerational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalohead, Priscilla; Sterner, Michele

    The Indian Education Program in the Osseo School District (Minnesota) serves approximately 200 American Indian students in grades K-12 from 27 schools and a variety of tribes. The Program's intergenerational approach reflects tribal traditions in that generations learn together and grandparents, parents, and students are involved in the…

  2. California Indian Food and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

  3. Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Walter P.; McGregor, Tony L.

    This paper describes the use of Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language (KPISL) in one small, Keresan-speaking pueblo in central New Mexico, where 15 out of 650 tribal members have severe to profound hearing loss (twice the national average). KPISL did not originate for the same purposes as the Plains Indian Sign Language, (PISL) which was developed…

  4. Recent distribution of lead in the Indian Ocean reflects the impact of regional emissions

    PubMed Central

    Echegoyen, Yolanda; Boyle, Edward A.; Lee, Jong-Mi; Gamo, Toshitaka; Obata, Hajime; Norisuye, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Humans have injected lead (Pb) massively into the earth surface environment in a temporally and spatially evolving pattern. A significant fraction is transported by the atmosphere into the surface ocean where we can observe its transport by ocean currents and sinking particles. This study of the Indian Ocean documents high Pb concentrations in the northern and tropical surface waters and extremely low Pb levels in the deep water. North of 20°S, dissolved Pb concentrations decrease from 42 to 82 pmol/kg in surface waters to 1.5–3.3 pmol/kg in deep waters. South of 20°S, surface water Pb concentrations decrease from 21 pmol/kg at 31°S to 7 pmol/kg at 62°S. This surface Pb concentration gradient reflects a southward decrease in anthropogenic Pb emissions. The upper waters of the north and central Indian Ocean have high Pb concentrations resulting from recent regional rapid industrialization and a late phase-out of leaded gasoline, and these concentrations are now higher than currently seen in the central North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. The Antarctic sector of the Indian Ocean shows very low concentrations due to limited regional anthropogenic Pb emissions, high scavenging rates, and rapid vertical mixing, but Pb still occurs at higher levels than would have existed centuries ago. Penetration of Pb into the northern and central Indian Ocean thermocline waters is minimized by limited ventilation. Pb concentrations in the deep Indian Ocean are comparable to the other oceans at the same latitude, and deep waters of the central Indian Ocean match the lowest observed oceanic Pb concentrations. PMID:25313063

  5. Recent distribution of lead in the Indian Ocean reflects the impact of regional emissions.

    PubMed

    Echegoyen, Yolanda; Boyle, Edward A; Lee, Jong-Mi; Gamo, Toshitaka; Obata, Hajime; Norisuye, Kazuhiro

    2014-10-28

    Humans have injected lead (Pb) massively into the earth surface environment in a temporally and spatially evolving pattern. A significant fraction is transported by the atmosphere into the surface ocean where we can observe its transport by ocean currents and sinking particles. This study of the Indian Ocean documents high Pb concentrations in the northern and tropical surface waters and extremely low Pb levels in the deep water. North of 20°S, dissolved Pb concentrations decrease from 42 to 82 pmol/kg in surface waters to 1.5-3.3 pmol/kg in deep waters. South of 20°S, surface water Pb concentrations decrease from 21 pmol/kg at 31°S to 7 pmol/kg at 62°S. This surface Pb concentration gradient reflects a southward decrease in anthropogenic Pb emissions. The upper waters of the north and central Indian Ocean have high Pb concentrations resulting from recent regional rapid industrialization and a late phase-out of leaded gasoline, and these concentrations are now higher than currently seen in the central North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. The Antarctic sector of the Indian Ocean shows very low concentrations due to limited regional anthropogenic Pb emissions, high scavenging rates, and rapid vertical mixing, but Pb still occurs at higher levels than would have existed centuries ago. Penetration of Pb into the northern and central Indian Ocean thermocline waters is minimized by limited ventilation. Pb concentrations in the deep Indian Ocean are comparable to the other oceans at the same latitude, and deep waters of the central Indian Ocean match the lowest observed oceanic Pb concentrations. PMID:25313063

  6. Growing Up Indian: Stories from the Life of Louie Gingras, an 82 Year Old Kootenai Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Louie

    Eleven short stories from the life of Louie Gingras, an 82-year-old Kootenai Indian, illustrate many aspects of Indian culture. Accompanied by black and white drawings, ths stories describe daily life, mission schools, the Carlisle Indian School, Indian medicine, discipline for children, spiritual powers, beliefs, and several ceremonies. The book…

  7. Superplasticity in Rapidly Solidified White Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Oscar A.; Eiselstein, Lawrence E.; Sherby, Oleg D.

    1982-10-01

    Superplastic properties of three different composition white cast irons were investigated in the temperature range of 630 to 725 °C. Fine structures consisting of 1 to 2 ?m ferrite grains were developed in these materials by consolidation of rapidly solidified powders at intermediate temperatures below the A1 critical temperature. Tensile elongations of 1410 pct were found for a 3.0 pct C + 1.5 pct Cr white cast iron, 940 pct for a 3.0 pct C white cast iron, and 480 pct for a 2.4 pct C white cast iron when tested at 700 °C and at a strain rate of 1 pct per minute. The superplastic white cast irons exhibited a high strain rate sensitivity exponent, m, of 0.5 and activation energies for plastic flow were found to be nearly equal to the activation energy for grain boundary self-diffusion in iron. These observations are in agreement with the creep behavior of superplastic materials controlled by grain boundary diffusion.

  8. True North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jo-Anne Mary

    2007-01-01

    For Americans wanting to explore beyond their frontiers, their neighbor to the north is an ideal destination. Much of Canada's population is concentrated near the shared border, mostly in Ontario and Quebec. While nature is an obvious draw, Canada's dynamic urban centers present their own sophisticated enticements, and the country's ten provinces…

  9. Influence of large-scale climate modes on dynamical complexity patterns of Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Donner, Reik V.; Stolbova, Veronika; Balasis, Georgios; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Indian Summer monsoon is one of the most anticipated and important weather events with vast environmental, economical and social effects. Predictability of the Indian Summer Monsoon strength is crucial question for life and prosperity of the Indian population. In this study, we are attempting to uncover the relationship between the spatial complexity of Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall patterns, and the monsoon strength, in an effort to qualitatively determine how spatial organization of the rainfall patterns differs between strong and weak instances of the Indian Summer Monsoon. Here, we use observational satellite data from 1998 to 2012 from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42V7) and reanalysis gridded daily rainfall data for a time period of 57 years (1951-2007) (Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources, APHRODITE). In order to capture different aspects of the system's dynamics, first, we convert rainfall time series to binary symbolic sequences, exploring various thresholding criteria. Second, we apply the Shannon entropy formulation (in a block-entropy sense) using different measures of normalization of the resulting entropy values. Finally, we examine the effect of various large-scale climate modes such as El-Niño-Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Indian Ocean Dipole, on the emerging complexity patterns, and discuss the possibility for the utilization of such pattern maps in the forecasting of the spatial variability and strength of the Indian Summer Monsoon.

  10. Indian Tribes as Developing Nations; A Question of Power: Indian Control of Indian Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Americans for Indian Opportunity, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    The report discusses how Indian tribes can conserve and develop their own resources at their own pace and explores the options available to them as owners of valuable natural resources. Discussed are problems encountered by tribal leaders with various government agencies; the basic precepts of the Bureau of Indian Affairs; how the problems of…

  11. 76 FR 8743 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pre-Graduate and Indian Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Preparatory Scholarship authorized by section 103 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act (IHCIA), Public... inherently the number of service obligated scholars, to better meet the health care provider needs of the IHS and its Tribal and Urban Indian health care system partners. Anticipated Number of...

  12. Emotions: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ramaprasad, Dharitri

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to understand emotions and the affect from Indian traditional point of view. In the Indian philosophical texts’ detailed descriptions of emotions are not available nor are dealt with as a separate concept. This view of emotions lays emphasis on desires as the root cause of emotional upheavals. They are seen as modification of desire and attachment. The desires are seen as arising from the contact and attachment of the ego or ahamkara with the external world and are caused by a sense of imperfection, incompleteness or non-fulfillment. Ego or ahamkara is differentiated from the true Self or atman. Emotions are viewed as springs of action and are bipolar in nature. According to Patanjali's Yoga Shastra, suffering is due to ignorance about one's true “self” (avidya). Hence, suffering or dukha arises from within and not from the outside world. Bhagvadgita traces all emotional experiences to the gunas, i.e., sattva, rajas, and tamas. Works of Bharathmuni have contributed to the understanding of emotional experiences. Concept of rasa or aesthetic relish is central to this approach to understanding affective experiences as dealt with in the Natyashastra of Bharathamuni. These views underline the recommended path for self-transformation. Regulating emotions, both emotional experience and emotional expression, is an integral part of the recommended “principles of living.” PMID:23858247

  13. Indian Education from the Tribal Perspective: A Survey of American Indian Tribal Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Robert N., Jr.

    This 1990 survey on American Indian education was conducted among 511 Native American tribal leaders, 227 (44.4%) of whom responded. The study found that 92% of Indian children attend state public schools. Fewer than 10% of Indian children attend Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools or tribally-operated schools. Only 52% of Indian students graduate…

  14. Indian & Metis Trivia Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This booklet consists of 220 questions about Native North Americans and Metis people that can be used as learning activities for elementary and secondary school students. Suggestions for using the questions include playing games in pairs or teams, locating resources to find answers to questions, playing trivia games and board games, and using…

  15. Indian Giving: Federal Programs for Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Sar A.; Johnston, William B.

    Aimed at highlighting American Indian reservation conditions, outlining the scope of Federal aid to Indians, and suggesting the nature of future Indian problems and choices, this book attempts to assess the current socioeconomic status of the Indian community and its relationship with the Federal Government. Specifically, this book provides both…

  16. Jurisdictional Problems of Indian Controlled Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killer, Francis

    An overwhelming confusion caused by lack of knowledge exists among the general public, American Indian parents, and even Indian school boards concerning the rules, purposes, and regulations of the myriad pieces of legislation dealing with Indian education. Such confusion is used by school administrators to perpetuate the power in Bureau of Indian

  17. Improving Academic Performance Among American Indian, Alaska

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Improving Academic Performance Among American Indian, Alaska Native, & Native Hawaiian Students Office of English Language Acquisition Office of Indian Education U.S. Department of Education Services National Institute for Literacy Office of Indian Education Programs Bureau of Indian Affairs OTHER

  18. YEAR BOOK INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Giri, Ranjit K.

    YEAR BOOK 2015 #12;#12;YEAR BOOK 2015 INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES #12;© 2015 Indian Academy Ltd., Bengaluru (Ph. 2341 2455) Postal Address Indian Academy of Sciences Post Box No. 8005 C.V. Raman OF ASSOCIATION* I. The name of the Association shall be `The Indian Academy of Sciences'. II. The objects

  19. New Potentials for Modern Indian Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Wallace G.

    Recently American Indians have experienced an unprecedented renaissance in community spirit. Capitalizing upon this spirit, Indian economic development should be directed toward particular community needs, utilizing Indian leadership to determine needed training and development programs. There is no question but that the majority of Indian

  20. Modeling microstructure development in gray cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettsch, David D.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.

    1994-05-01

    Recent years have seen increasing use of solidification process modeling as a tool to aid in the analysis and elimination of manufacturing defects in castings. Grain size and other microstructural features such as second-phase morphology and distribution are the primary factors in determining the mechanical properties in cast metals. In this work, a representation of nucleation and growth kinetics for gray cast irons, based on a statistical description of the microstructure, has been coupled with a commercial finite-element method code for transient heat-flow calculation to determine microstructure. Features predicted include eutectic cell size, fractions of gray and white iron, graphite morphology, percent pearlite, percent ferrite, and pearlite spacing. The predicted microstructure can then be used to determine the strength and fatigue properties using published correlations. The theoretical development and results of the finite-elementbased model will be discussed and compared with experimental results.

  1. Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems (CASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr. (compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the in-house and contract work accomplished under the CASTS Project. In July 1975 the CASTS Project was initiated to develop graphite fiber/polyimide matrix (GR/PI) composite structures with 589K (600 F) operational capability for application to aerospace vehicles. Major tasks include: (1) screening composites and adhesives, (2) developing fabrication procedures and specifications, (3) developing design allowables test methods and data, and (4) design and test of structural elements and construction of an aft body flap for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle which will be ground tested. Portions of the information are from ongoing research and must be considered preliminary. The CASTS Project is scheduled to be completed in September 1983.

  2. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  3. On the damping capacity of cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovin, S. A.

    2012-07-01

    The treatment of experimental data on the amplitude-dependent internal friction (ADIF) in terms of various theoretical models has revealed a staged character and the main mechanisms of the processes of energy dissipation in graphite with increasing amplitude of vibrations upon cyclic loading. It is shown that the level of the damping capacity of lamellar cast iron depends on the relationship between the elastic and strength characteristics of graphite and the matrix phase. In cast irons with a rigid matrix structure (pearlite, martensite), the energy dissipation is determined by the volume fraction and morphology of the initial graphite phase. In cast irons with a softer metallic phase (ferrite), the contact interaction of graphite inclusions with the matrix and the properties of the matrix introduce additional sources of high damping.

  4. A new casting defect healing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, E.S.; Reddoch, T.W.; Viswanathan, S.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology is presented for healing of defects in 356 aluminium alloys that provides economic upgrading of these cast alloys. It uses pneumatic isostatic forging (PIF) to produce high quality Al alloys products with enhanced mechanical properties uniform throughout the part, allowing higher design allowables and increased usage of Al alloy castings. The fundamental mechanism underlying PIF is a single mode plastic deformation process that uses isostatic application of pressures for 10-30 seconds at temperature. The process can be integrated in-line with other production operations, i.e., using the latent heat from the previous casting step. Results of applying the PIF process indicate lower cost and significant improvement in mechanical properties that rival and often exceed corresponding properties of other technologies like hot isostatic pressing and related processes. This process offers many advantages that are described in this paper in addition to presenting case histories of property enhancement by PIF and the mechanism responsible for property enhancement.

  5. Using recycled superalloys in precision casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambergts, M.; Drapier, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    The recycling of cast scrap is not uniquely justified by fear of difficulties in supplying primary metals or by care to preserve the relationship limited natural supplies of certain of these materials: it is imperative that the smelter minimize costs. Recyling can, however, lead to a deterioration of the metallurgical properties of precision cast superalloys and to a certain chemical contamination that can affect the service life of cast parts. Recycling can be introduced only after careful control of all the consequences. The influence of recycling on composition (trace elements), solidification behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties was investigated in various nickel alloys such as IN 100, IN 728, and Mar-M-002. Cobalt alloys such as X45 and W152 were also studied. Particular emphasis is given to inclusion content and to the tendency to microporosity. The technical occurrence and economics of an eventual hot isostatic compression cycle is evaluated.

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Surface Roughness of Castings Produced Using ZCast Direct Metal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, M.; Singh, R.

    2015-04-01

    Aim of this investigation is to develop a mathematical model for predicting surface roughness of castings produced using ZCast process by employing Buckingham's ?-theorem. A relationship has been proposed between surface roughness of castings and shell wall thickness of the shell moulds fabricated using 3D printer. Based on model, experiments were performed to obtain the surface roughness of aluminium, brass and copper castings produced using ZCast process based on 3D printing technique. Based on experimental data, three best fitted third-degree polynomial equations have been established for predicting the surface roughness of castings. The predicted surface roughness values were then calculated using established best fitted equations. An error analysis was performed to compare the experimental and predicted data. The average prediction errors obtained for aluminium, brass and copper castings are 10.6, 2.43 and 3.12 % respectively. The obtained average surface roughness (experimental and predicted) values of castings produced are acceptable with the sand cast surface roughness values range (6.25-25 µm).

  7. Compound cast product and method for producing a compound cast product

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N. (3987 Murray Highlands Cir., Murrysville, PA 15668-1747); Viswanathan, Srinath (1104 Albermarle La., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    2002-09-17

    A compound cast product is formed in a casting mold (14) having a mold cavity (16) sized and shaped to form the cast product. A plurality of injectors (24) is supported from a bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). The injectors (24) are in fluid communication with the mold cavity (16) through the bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). A molten material holder furnace (12) is located beneath the casting mold (14). The holder furnace (12) defines molten material receiving chambers (36) configured to separately contain supplies of two different molten materials (37, 38). The holder furnace (12) is positioned such that the injectors (24) extend downward into the receiving chamber (36). The receiving chamber (36) is separated into at least two different flow circuits (51, 52). A first molten material (37) is received in a first flow circuit (51), and a second molten material (38) is received into a second flow circuit (52). The first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into the mold cavity (16) by the injectors (24) acting against the force of gravity. The injectors (24) are positioned such that the first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into different areas of the mold cavity (16). The molten materials (37, 38) are allowed to solidify and the resulting compound cast product is removed from the mold cavity (16).

  8. 25 CFR 140.24 - Cash payments only to Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash payments only to Indians. 140.24 Section 140.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.24 Cash payments only to Indians. Traders must not pay Indians in tokens, tickets, store...

  9. 25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Children of competent Indians. 153.5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained...

  10. 25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Children of competent Indians. 153.5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained...

  11. 25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Children of competent Indians. 153.5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained or...

  12. 25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Children of competent Indians. 153.5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained...

  13. 25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Children of competent Indians. 153.5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained...

  14. Modeling of casting microstructures and defects

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Summers, L.T.; Eckels, D.J.; Sahai, V.

    1997-09-26

    Casting is an ancient art that has been a trial-and-error process for more than 4000 years. To predict the size, shape, and quality of a cast product, casting manufacturers typically cast full-size prototypes. If one part of the process is done incorrectly, the entire process is repeated until an acceptable product is achieved. One way to reduce the time, cost, and waste associated with casting is to use computer modeling to predict not only the quality of a product on the macro- scale, such as distortion and part shape, but also on the micro-scale such as grain defects. Modeling of solidification is becoming increasingly feasible with the advent of parallel computers. There are essentially two approaches to solidification modeling.The first is that of macro-modeling where heat transfer codes model latent heat release during solidification as a constant and based solely on the local temperature. This approach is useful in predicting large scale distortion and final part shape. The second approach, micro-modeling, is more fundamental. The micro-models estimate the latent heat release during solidification using nucleation and grain growth kinetics. Micro-models give insight into cast grain morphology and show promise in the future to predict engineering properties such as tensile strength. The micro-model solidification kinetics can be evaluated using first principles or they can be evaluated using experiments. This work describes an implementation of a micro-model for uranium which uses experimental results to estimate nucleation and growth kinetics.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: North American Indian childhood cirrhosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a small region inside the nucleus where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is produced. A chemical cousin of DNA, ... mutation ; neonatal ; nucleolus ; nucleus ; population ; protein ; recessive ; ribosomal RNA ; RNA ; transient You may find definitions for these ...

  16. Elevated red cell volume in North Indian students.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, D; Kakkar, N; Cherian, J; Das, S; Britt, R P

    2006-11-01

    In a survey for beta-thalassemia carrier status among students in the State of Punjab in India, a surprisingly large number were found to have an elevated red cell volume over 99 fl. The finding was predominantly but not exclusively in females. Similar student surveys from other states showed less macrocytosis. Follow-up tests in a group of affected students were carried out. Volunteers were asked to modify their diet then after six months they were provided with oral vitamin B12. The resulting changes are reported and the implications of the probable vitamin B12 and or folic acid deficiency are considered. PMID:17333781

  17. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOEpatents

    Gunkel, Ronald W. (Lower Burrell, PA); Podey, Larry L. (Greensburg, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  18. Pressure slip casting of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, H.J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper discusses the potential of pressure slip casting for components made of technical ceramic materials. The tests carried out on pressure slip casting and pressure filtration of silicon nitride show that the highest green density will be obtained if a slurry is used which is completely deflocculated and does not contain any binding agent. Penetration of fine particles into the porous plastic mould cannot be completely prevented but can be reduced to a large extent by the proper selection of the pressure-time regime.

  19. 75 FR 70900 - Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ...Certain Iron Construction Castings From Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic...construction castings (``castings'') from Brazil, Canada, and the People's Republic...CVD'') order on castings from Brazil would likely lead to continuation or...

  20. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The...

  1. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The...

  2. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The...

  3. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The...

  4. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  5. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  6. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  7. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  8. 40 CFR 464.20 - Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. 464.20 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper Casting Subcategory § 464.20 Applicability; description of the copper casting subcategory. The...

  9. 40 CFR 464.40 - Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. 464.40 Section...MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting Subcategory § 464.40 Applicability; description of the zinc casting subcategory. The...

  10. Engineering scale demonstration of a prospective Cast Stone process

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Fowley, M.; Hansen, E.; Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Williams, M.

    2014-09-30

    This report documents an engineering-scale demonstration with non-radioactive simulants that was performed at SRNL using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. Over three days, the SCPF was used to fill a 1600 gallon container, staged outside the facility, with simulated Cast Stone grout. The container, staged outside the building approximately 60 ft from the SCPF, was instrumented with x-, y-, and z-axis thermocouples to monitor curing temperature. The container was also fitted with two formed core sampling vials. For the operation, the targeted grout production rate was 1.5 gpm. This required a salt solution flow rate of approximately 1 gpm and a premix feed rate of approximately 580 lb/h. During the final day of operation, the dry feed rate was increased to evaluate the ability of the system to handle increased throughput. Although non-steady state operational periods created free surface liquids, no bleed water was observed either before or after operations. The final surface slope at a fill height of 39.5 inches was 1-1.5 inches across the 8.5 foot diameter container, highest at the final fill point and lowest diametrically opposed to the fill point. During processing, grout was collected in cylindrical containers from both the mixer discharge and the discharge into the container. These samples were stored in a humid environment either in a closed box proximal to the container or inside the laboratory. Additional samples collected at these sampling points were analyzed for rheological properties and density. Both the rheological properties (plastic viscosity and yield strength) and density were consistent with previous and later SCPF runs.

  11. Identification of a pheromone regulating caste differentiation in termites

    E-print Network

    Keller, Laurent

    Identification of a pheromone regulating caste differentiation in termites Kenji Matsuuraa,1 power. Identification of a volatile pheromone regulating caste differentiation in a termite provides verylittleprogressinthechemicalidentificationofinhibitoryqueen pheromones. In termites, which evolved eusociality independently of Hymenoptera, the existence

  12. 22 CFR 121.10 - Forgings, castings, and machined bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.10 Forgings, castings, and machined bodies. The U.S. Munitions List controls as defense articles those forgings, castings, and other unfinished products, such...

  13. OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE AND RUN OUT WITH TRAVELING TORCH. MACHINE IS CASTING IN TWIN MOLD. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  14. The industrial ecology of the iron casting industry

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alissa J. (Alissa Jean)

    2007-01-01

    Metal casting is an energy and materials intensive manufacturing process, which is an important U.S. industry. This study analyzes iron casting, in particular, for possible improvements that will result in greater efficiencies ...

  15. Heritability of anthropometric phenotypes in caste populations of Visakhapatnam, India

    E-print Network

    Arya, Rector; Duggirala, R.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Puppala, Sobah; Modem, Saileela; Busi, Bhaskara R.; Crawford, Michael H.

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we used anthropometric data from six Andhra caste populations to examine heritability patterns of 23 anthropometric phenotypes (linear, craniofacial, and soft tissue measures) with special reference to caste differences. We obtained...

  16. Edinburgh College of Art : cast collection and architecture 

    E-print Network

    Stoica, Ruxandra-Iulia; Stewart, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The Edinburgh Cast Collection comprises 265 plaster casts of Antique, Renaissance, and Gothic statues, bas reliefs, and architectural passages held at the Edinburgh College of Art and the University of Edinburgh. The plaster ...

  17. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    The need to produce lighter components in transportation equipment is the main driver in the increasing demand for magnesium castings. In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While being lighter, often times the magnesium parts have lower impact and fatigue properties than the aluminum. The main objective of this study was to identify potential improvements in the impact resistance of magnesium alloys. The most common magnesium alloys in automotive applications are AZ91D, AM50 and AM60. Accordingly, these alloys were selected as the main candidates for the study. Experimental quantities of these alloys were melted in an electrical furnace under a protective atmosphere comprising sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and dry air. The alloys were cast both in a permanent mold and in a UBE 315 Ton squeeze caster. Extensive evaluation of tensile, impact and fatigue properties was conducted at CWRU on permanent mold and squeeze cast test bars of AZ91, AM60 and AM50. Ultimate tensile strength values between 20ksi and 30ksi were obtained. The respective elongations varied between 25 and 115. the Charpy V-notch impact strength varied between 1.6 ft-lb and 5 ft-lb depending on the alloy and processing conditions. Preliminary bending fatigue evaluation indicates a fatigue limit of 11-12 ksi for AM50 and AM60. This is about 0.4 of the UTS, typical for these alloys. The microstructures of the cast specimens were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Concomitantly, a study of the fracture toughness in AM60 was conducted at ORNL as part of the study. The results are in line with values published in the literature and are representative of current state of the art in casting magnesium alloys. The experimental results confirm the strong relationship between aluminum content of the alloys and the mechanical properties, in particular the impact strength and the elongation. As the aluminum content increases from about 5% in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further improvement in impact resistance depends on the processing condition of the casting. Sound castings without porosity and impurities will have better mechanical properties. Since magnesium oxidizes readily, good melting and metal transfer practices are essential. The liquid metal has to be protected from oxidation at all times and entrainment of oxide films in the casting needs to be prevented. In this regard, there is evidence that us of vacuum to evacuate air from the die casting cavity can improve the quality of the castings. Fast cooling rates, leading to smaller grain size are beneficial and promote superior mechanical properties. Micro-segregation and banding are two additional defect types often encountered in magnesium alloys, in particular in AZ91D. While difficult to eliminate, segregation can be minimized by careful thermal management of the dies and the shot sleeve. A major source of segregation is the premature solidification in the shot sleeve. The primary solid dendrites are carried into the casting and form a heterogeneous structure. Furthermore, during the shot, segregation banding can occur. The remedies for this kind of defects include a hotter shot sleeve, use of insulating coatings on the shot sleeve and a short lag time between pouring into the shot sleeve and the shot.

  18. Reinforcing a Spica Cast With a Fiberglass Bar.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Sonia; Kang, Kevin; Lee, Mark C

    2015-11-01

    Hip spica casting is used in the treatment of femur fractures and hip dysplasia in children 1 to 6 years old. A bar connecting the legs of the cast has been shown to improve cast integrity and assist in patient transport. We present a simple and low-cost technique that can be used to create a connecting bar and that can be performed with readily available casting materials. PMID:26566556

  19. 76 FR 35221 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban...competitive cooperative agreement applications to establish Tribal Epidemiology Centers serving American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes...

  20. 75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ...Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Psychology Program Announcement Type: New...applications for the American Indians into Psychology Program. This program is...