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Sample records for north queensland australia

  1. Global Strategies for International Education Providers in Australia: A Case Study of Tropical North Queensland TAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Michelle; Haberman, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The continuing growth of Australia's international education market is causing providers to consider moving from international business approaches to global strategies. This paper examines factors affecting a regional Australian educational provider's approach to the international student market, using Tropical North Queensland TAFE (TNQT) for…

  2. Origin of north Queensland Cenozoic volcanism: Relationships to long lava flow basaltic fields, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, F. L.

    1998-11-01

    A plume model proposed for north Queensland late Cenozoic volcanism and long lava flow distribution combines basalt ages with recent seismic studies of Australia's mantle, regional stress fields, and plate motion. Several basalt fields overlie mantle "thermal" anomalies, and other fields outside these anomalies can be traced to them through past lithospheric motion. Elsewhere, anomalies close to Australia's eastern rift margin show little volcanism, probably due to gravity-enhanced compression. Since final collision of north Queensland with New Guinea, areas of basaltic volcanism have developed over 10 Myr, and episodes appear to migrate southward from 15° to 20°S. Long lava flows increase southward as area/volume of fields increases, but topography, vent distributions, and uplifts play a role. This is attributed to magmatic plume activation within a tensional zone, as lithosphere moves over mantle thermal anomalies. The plume model predicts peak magmatism under the McBride field, coincident with the Undara long lava flow and that long lava flow fields will erupt for another 5-10 Myr. Queensland's movement over a major N-S thermal system imparts a consistent isotopic signature to its northern younger basalts, distinct to basalts from older or more southern thermal systems. Australia's motion toward this northern thermal system will give north Queensland fields continued vigorous volcanism, in contrast to the Victorian field which is leaving its southern thermal system.

  3. A new species of gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vanderduys, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A new species of diplodactylid gecko in the genus Strophurus Fitzinger, from north Queensland, Australia, is described herein as Strophurus congoo sp. nov. It is a small, pale grey to tan, unpatterned or faintly striped gecko, resembling the phasmid geckos in appearance, habitat and behaviour. However, within Strophurus it is not closely related to the phasmid geckos. It is distinguished from all other Strophurus by a combination of even scalation, dull colouration, small size and short tail length. It is only known to occur in a restricted area of the northern Great Dividing Range, within the Einasleigh Uplands bioregion, in a relatively infertile area of rolling, largely granitic hills, and is only known from spinifex (Triodia) hummock grasslands in open woodland. PMID:27395178

  4. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (Far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. At a broad scale, it has long been recognised that the distributions of these two biomes are principally governed by precipitation and its seasonality, but with soil physical and chemical properties also potentially important. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical Far North Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ nitrogen (N) relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area or mass basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus (P) were relatively high (>20) at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P limitation of photosynthesis for either forest or savanna trees. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that, on a leaf-area basis, savanna trees of Far North Queensland, Australia, are capable of photosynthetically outperforming forest species at their common boundaries.

  5. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-06-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. Aside from precipitation patterns, boundaries between these two vegetation types are strongly determined by soil characteristics and nutrient availability. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical far north Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ Nitrogen relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area- or mass-basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus were above 20 at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P-limitation of photosynthesis for the forest group. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that in leaf area-based photosynthetic terms, savanna trees of far north Queensland, Australia are capable of out-performing forest species at their common boundaries1. 1 Adopted symbols and abbreviations are defined in Table 5.

  6. Late Quaternary vegetation history of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick T.; Tibby, John; Petherick, Lynda; McGowan, Hamish; Barr, Cameron

    2013-08-01

    Currently there is a paucity of records of late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental variability available from the subtropics of Australia. The three continuous palaeoecological records presented here, from North Stradbroke Island, subtropical Queensland, assist in bridging this large spatial gap in the current state of knowledge. The dominance of arboreal taxa in the pollen records throughout the past >40,000 years is in contrast with the majority of records from temperate Australia, and indicates a positive moisture balance for North Stradbroke Island. The charcoal records show considerable inter-site variability indicating the importance of local-scale events on individual records, and highlighting the caution that needs to be applied when interpreting a single site as a regional record. The variability in the burning regimes is interpreted as being influenced by both climatic and human factors. Despite this inter-site variability, broad environmental trends are identifiable, with changes in the three records comparable with the OZ-INTIMATE climate synthesis for the last 35,000 years.

  7. Late Holocene and recent rainforest cultural landscapes of North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, L. M.; Moss, P. T.; Haberle, S.; Cosgrove, R.; Ferrier

    2011-12-01

    The tropical rainforests of North Queensland, Australia, have been environments of significant human activity for several thousand years. Palaeoecological research has highlighted the long-term effects of Quaternary climate change on these environments at a broad spatial scale, including the expansion of tropical rainforest across the region following the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum. However, identifying the effects of a hunter-gatherer Aboriginal population has been more difficult. Palaeoecological suggestions of Pleistocene Aboriginal burning, based on pollen and charcoal records, have relied on coincident timing with a general narrative of colonisation rather than direct links with archaeological evidence. Current research is explicitly examining the environmental consequences of human activity in North Queensland rainforests by producing local palaeoecological data directly linked to sites and periods of human occupation. Pollen, macrocharcoal and phytolith records have been produced from sites of human activity within the rainforest. Late Holocene Aboriginal occupation of the rainforest is demonstrated to have had significant cultural links to patches of open vegetation that existed within the rainforest. While these patches are likely to have originated as edaphically controlled remnants of Pleistocene vegetation, their expansion and maintenance in the late Holocene is associated with increasing intensity of Aboriginal occupation of the rainforest. Late Holocene Aboriginal rainforest occupation is also contrasted with the historical European colonisation of the rainforest in the late 19th century, which resulted in the most significant environmental changes in the region since the early Holocene. Historical and ethnographic records provide important cultural context for understanding the transition between Aboriginal and European cultural landscapes of the rainforest.

  8. The Trophic Fate of Shrimp Farm Effluent in Mangrove Creeks of North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckinnon, A. D.; Trott, L. A.; Cappo, M.; Miller, D. K.; Duggan, S.; Speare, P.; Davidson, A.

    2002-10-01

    Zooplankton and fish communities in mangrove creeks removed materials originating from the discharge of effluent from ponds used for shrimp aquaculture at two commercial farms in North Queensland, Australia. Undisturbed mangrove creeks were compared to creeks receiving effluent from shrimp farms. Shrimp farm effluent was rich in chlorophyll a (56 μg l -1) and bacteria (1·9×10 6 cells ml -1). The potential grazing impact of ciliates was higher than that of copepod nauplii or copepodids upstream. In contrast, copepods were more important downstream. Carbon removal by ciliates and copepods accounted for as much as 85% of primary production during non-discharge periods, but was less important during discharge periods. Direct measurement of microzooplankton grazing with the dilution method indicated that growth and grazing were usually in balance, but during pond discharge periods microzooplankton grazing removed >120% of primary production and 117-266% of bacterioplankton production in the mixed lower reaches of the creeks and immediately offshore. Grazing by bacterivores was saturated in the upper reaches of the creeks, but was very high near the creek mouths, where the range of specific grazing rates was 5·2-11·8 d -1. Baitfish juveniles were abundant in the creek systems, and fed either directly on macro-particulates by indiscriminate filter feeding, or by selective feeding on microfauna. Trophic processes and their associated respiratory losses are instrumental in the assimilation and dissipation of effluent materials within the creek system, and are responsible for returning concentrations of bio-available materials to ambient levels. The sustainable use of coastal environments depends to a large degree on understanding and regulating the impacts from activities within the catchment. This research provides environmental managers with direct evidence that, under certain conditions, perturbations in creek water quality and biota originating from shrimp farm

  9. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Misting for Control of Aedes in Cryptic Ground Containers in North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jacups, Susan P.; Rapley, Luke P.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Benjamin, Seleena; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, dengue is not endemic, although the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established in far north Queensland (FNQ). Aedes albopictus has recently invaded the Torres Strait region, but is not established on mainland Australia. To maintain dengue-free, public health departments in FNQ closely monitor introduced dengue infections and confine outbreaks through rigorous vector control responses. To safeguard mainland Australia from Ae. albopictus establishment, pre-emptive strategies are required to reduce its breeding in difficult to access habitats. We compare the residual efficacy of VectoBac WDG, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) formulation, as a residual treatment when misted across a typical FNQ bushland using a backpack mister (Stihl SR 420 Mist Blower) at two dose rates up to 16 m. Semi-field condition results, over 16 weeks, indicate that Bti provided high mortality rates (> 80%) sustained for 11 weeks. Mist application penetrated 16 m of dense bushland without efficacy decline over distance. PMID:23358637

  11. Monitoring of wild birds for Newcastle disease virus in north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Burgess, G W; Karo-Karo, D; Cheam, A L; Skerratt, L F

    2012-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds (WABs) are considered as reservoir hosts for Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) and may act as vectors for transferring these viruses to poultry, causing outbreaks of disease. A 3-year epidemiological study was conducted on WABs of north Queensland from April 2007 to March 2010. Swab and fresh moist faecal samples of WABs were screened to detect Newcastle disease viral (NDV) RNA by one-step real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in multiplex primers, targeting the matrix gene. The potential reactor samples in rRT-PCR were processed for sequencing of the different NDV genes using conventional PCR. The overall NDV RNA prevalence was 3.5% for live bird samples (N=1461) and 0.4% for faecal samples (N=1157). Plumed whistling ducks (PWDs) had a higher prevalence (4.2%) than Pacific black ducks (PBDs) (0.9%) (χ(2) test, p=0.001). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between the proportion of reactor and non-reactor NDV RNA samples of PWDs and potential risk factors. The odds of reactor samples were 2.7 (95% Confidence Interval 1.5-4.9) times more likely in younger than older ducks (p=0.001) (data set B, multivariate analysis). Both NDV RNA class-one and class-two types were identified in samples of WABs (12 and 59, respectively) (Supplementary Table 1). Phylogenetic analysis of the matrix gene identified two reactor sequences of class-one type NDV RNA (PWD-48 and 55) which were closely related to the sequences of Australian Ibis and duck isolates (Fig. 2). Another reactor sample sequence was determined as class-two type NDV RNA (PWD-46, avirulent) based on analysis of the matrix and fusion genes which was more similar to the sequences of Australian I-2 progenitor virus and vaccine strain virus (Figs. 3 and 4). Our findings of higher prevalence in PWDs along with confirmation of class-one and class-two type NDV RNAs will significantly contribute to the design of

  12. Transient soil moisture profile of a water-shedding soil cover in north Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Christopher; Baumgartl, Thomas; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    In current agricultural and industrial applications, soil moisture determination is limited to point-wise measurements and remote sensing technologies. The former has limitations on spatial resolution while the latter, although has greater coverage in three dimensions, but may not be representative of real-time hydrologic conditions of the substrate. This conference paper discusses the use of elongated soil moisture probes to describe the transient soil moisture profile of water-shedding soil cover trial plots in north Queensland, Australia. Three-metre long flat ribbon cables were installed at designed depths across a soil cover with substrate materials from mining activities comprising of waste rocks and blended tailings. The soil moisture measurement is analysed using spatial time domain reflectometry (STDR) (Scheuermann et al., 2009) Calibration of the flat ribbon cable's soil moisture measurement in waste rocks is undertaken in a glasshouse setting. Soil moisture retention and outflows are monitored at specific time interval by mass balance and water potential measurements. These data sets together with the soil hydrologic properties derived from laboratory and field measurements are used as input in the numerical code on unsaturated flow, Hydrus2D. The soil moisture calculations of the glasshouse calibration using this numerical method are compared with results from the STDR soil moisture data sets. In context, the purpose of the soil cover is to isolate sulphide-rich mine wastes from atmospheric interaction as oxidation and leaching of these materials may result to acid and metalliferous drainage. The long term performance of a soil cover will be described in terms of the quantities and physico-chemical characteristics of its outflows. With the soil moisture probes set at automated and pre-determined measurement time intervals, it is expected to distinguish between macropore and soil moisture flows during high intensity rainfall events and, also continuously

  13. Causes of morbidity and mortality of wild aquatic birds at Billabong Sanctuary, Townsville, North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Burgess, G W; Greenhil, A R; Hedlefs, R; Skerratt, L F

    2012-03-01

    Infectious diseases are common causes of significant morbidity and mortality events of wild aquatic birds (WABs) worldwide. Reports of Australian events are infrequent. A 3-yr passive surveillance program investigating the common causes of morbidity and mortality of WABs was conducted at Billabong Sanctuary near Townsville, North Queensland, from April 2007 to March 2010. Forty-two carcasses were obtained and evaluated by clinico-pathologic, histologic, bacteriologic, and virologic (molecular) examinations. Morbidity and mortality were sporadic and more commonly observed in chicks and juvenile birds in April than other months of the year. Morbid birds were frequently unable to walk. Hemorrhagic lesions and infiltration of lymphocytes in various organs were the most common findings in dead birds. Identified bacterial diseases that could cause bird mortality were colibacillosis, pasteurellosis, and salmonellosis. Salmonella serotypes Virchow and Hvittingfoss were isolated from an Australian white ibis (Threskiornis molucca) chick and two juvenile plumed whistling ducks (Dendrocygna eytoni) in April 2007. These strains have been previously isolated from humans in North Queensland. A multiplex real time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR) detected Newcastle disease viral RNA (class 2 type) in one adult Australian pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) and a juvenile plumed whistling duck. No avian influenza viral RNA was detected from any sampled birds by the rRT-PCR for avian influenza. This study identified the public health importance of Salmonella in WABs but did not detect the introduction of the high pathogenicity avian influenza H5N1 virus in the population. A successful network was established between the property owner and the James Cook University research team through which dead birds, with accompanying information, were readily obtained for analysis. There is an opportunity for establishing a long-term passive disease surveillance program for WABs in North

  14. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  15. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic wrench tectonics in eastern Australia: Insights from the North Pine Fault System (southeast Queensland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Rosenbaum, G.

    2014-01-01

    The North Pine Fault System (NPFS) in SE Queensland belongs to a series of NNW-striking sinistral faults that displaced Paleozoic to Cenozoic rock units in eastern Australia. We have studied the geometry and kinematics of the NPFS by utilizing gridded aeromagnetic data, digital elevation models, and field observations. The results indicate that all segments of the NPFS were subjected to sinistral reverse strike-slip faulting. Restorations of displaced magnetic anomalies indicate sinistral offsets ranging from ˜3.4 to ˜8.2 km. The existence of a (possibly) Late Triassic granophyre dyke parallel to one of the fault segments, and the occurrence of NNW-striking steeply dipping strike-slip and normal faults in the Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous Maryborough Basin, indicate that the NPFS has likely been active during the Mesozoic. We propose that from Late Cretaceous to early Eocene, NNW-striking faults in eastern Australia, including the NPFS, were reactivated with oblique sinistral-normal kinematics in response to regional oblique extension associated with the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas. This interpretation is consistent with the modeled dominant NNE- to NNW-directed horizontal tensional stress in the Eocene. The latest movements along the NPFS involved sinistral transpressional kinematics, which was possibly related to far-field contractional stresses from collisional tectonics at the eastern and northern boundaries of the Australian plate in the Cenozoic. This sinistral-reverse oblique kinematics of the NPFS in the Cenozoic is in line with ˜ESE to ENE orientations of the modeled maximum horizontal stress in SE Queensland.

  16. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  17. Lifestyle changes as a treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a survey of general practitioners in North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Madeleine; Büttner, Petra; Raasch, Beverly; Daniell, Kym; McCutchan, Cindy; Harrison, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder in developed countries, with the usual treatment being medication. Previously, lifestyle modification was the only treatment for GERD; however, its effectiveness has not been assessed. Methods All practicing general practitioner (GP) members of two Divisions of General Practice (n = 193) in North Queensland, Australia, were surveyed in 2001 using a postal questionnaire to determine their views and practices relating to such treatment among adults with GERD. Results The response rate was 70.5%. Of those who responded, 17.6% recommended diet and postural advice as a first line of treatment, with postural advice (89.7%), avoid known precipitants (86.0%), reduce weight if overweight (79.4%), eat a low fat diet (45.6%), and stop smoking (17.6%) being the most common recommendations. Of the nine possible changes, the median number recommended was 3, interquartile range (IQR; 3, 4). Eighty-nine percent of GPs thought ≥ 10% of patients with GERD would benefit from lifestyle changes, but almost half thought ≤ 10% of patients would be prepared to change. Conclusion Most GPs thought lifestyle changes would be beneficial when treating GERD, but did not believe their patients would change. Most GPs recommended fewer than half the lifestyle changes their peers believed effective in treating GERD. PMID:18360562

  18. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery. PMID:23252802

  19. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA) level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM) rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires) had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires) had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years), ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research. PMID:21138551

  20. Comparative susceptibility of mosquito populations in North Queensland, Australia to oral infection with dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yixin H; Ng, Tat Siong; Frentiu, Francesca D; Walker, Thomas; van den Hurk, Andrew F; O'Neill, Scott L; Beebe, Nigel W; McGraw, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus, with at least 40% of the world's population at risk of infection each year. In Australia, dengue is not endemic, but viremic travelers trigger outbreaks involving hundreds of cases. We compared the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from two geographically isolated populations to two strains of dengue virus serotype 2. We found, interestingly, that mosquitoes from a city with no history of dengue were more susceptible to virus than mosquitoes from an outbreak-prone region, particularly with respect to one dengue strain. These findings suggest recent evolution of population-based differences in vector competence or different historical origins. Future genomic comparisons of these populations could reveal the genetic basis of vector competence and the relative role of selection and stochastic processes in shaping their differences. Lastly, we show the novel finding of a correlation between midgut dengue titer and titer in tissues colonized after dissemination. PMID:24420782

  1. Cairns and Townsville area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Cairns and Townsville area, on the northeast coast of Queensland, Australia (17.0S, 146.0E) is one of the best sport diving localities in the world where divers can explore the rich and varied flora and fauna of the nearby Great Barrier Reef. Onshore, the timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range, seen as dark green areas, separate the semi arid interior of Queensland.

  2. Frequency of Cyanogenesis in Tropical Rainforests of Far North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, REBECCA E.; JENSEN, RIGEL; WOODROW, IAN E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant cyanogenesis is the release of toxic cyanide from endogenous cyanide-containing compounds, typically cyanogenic glycosides. Despite a large body of phytochemical, taxonomic and ecological work on cyanogenic species, little is known of their frequency in natural plant communities. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of cyanogenesis in Australian tropical rainforests. Secondary aims were to quantify the cyanogenic glycoside content of tissues, to investigate intra-plant and intra-population variation in cyanogenic glycoside concentration and to appraise the potential chemotaxonomic significance of any findings in relation to the distribution of cyanogenesis in related taxa. • Methods All species in six 200 m2 plots at each of five sites across lowland, upland and highland tropical rainforest were screened for cyanogenesis using Feigl–Anger indicator papers. The concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides were accurately determined for all cyanogenic individuals. • Key Results Over 400 species from 87 plant families were screened. Overall, 18 species (4·5 %) were cyanogenic, accounting for 7·3 % of total stem basal area. Cyanogenesis has not previously been reported for 17 of the 18 species, 13 of which are endemic to Australia. Several species belong to plant families or orders in which cyanogenesis has been little reported, if at all (e.g. Elaeocarpaceae, Myrsinaceae, Araliaceae and Lamiaceae). A number of species contained concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides among the highest ever reported for mature leaves—up to 5·2 mg CN g−1 d. wt, for example, in leaves of Elaeocarpus sericopetalus. There was significant variation in cyanogenic glycoside concentration within individuals; young leaves and reproductive tissues typically had higher cyanogen content. In addition, there was substantial variation in cyanogenic glycoside content within populations of single species. • Conclusions This study expands

  3. Tick Paralysis in Spectacled Flying-Foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus) in North Queensland, Australia: Impact of a Ground-Dwelling Ectoparasite Finding an Arboreal Host

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Petra G.; Westcott, David A.; Maclean, Jennefer; Brown, Lawrence; McKeown, Adam; Johnson, Ashleigh; Wilson, Karen; Blair, David; Luly, Jonathan; Skerratt, Lee; Muller, Reinhold; Speare, Richard

    2013-01-01

    When a parasite finds a new wildlife host, impacts can be significant. In the late 1980s populations of Spectacled Flying-foxes (SFF) (Pteropus conspicillatus), a species confined, in Australia, to north Queensland became infected by paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus), resulting in mortality. This Pteropus-tick relationship was new to Australia. Curiously, the relationship was confined to several camps on the Atherton Tableland, north Queensland. It was hypothesised that an introduced plant, wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum), had facilitated this new host-tick interaction. This study quantifies the impact of tick paralysis on SFF and investigates the relationship with climate. Retrospective analysis was carried out on records from the Tolga Bat Hospital for 1998–2010. Juvenile mortality rates were correlated to climate data using vector auto-regression. Mortality rates due to tick paralysis ranged between 11.6 per 10,000 bats in 2003 and 102.5 in 2009; more female than male adult bats were affected. Juvenile mortality rates were negatively correlated with the total rainfall in January to March and July to September of the same year while a positive correlation of these quarterly total rainfalls existed with the total population. All tick affected camps of SFF were located in the 80% core range of S. mauritianum. This initial analysis justifies further exploration of how an exotic plant might alter the relationship between a formerly ground-dwelling parasite and an arboreal host. PMID:24066028

  4. Occurrence and seasonal variations of algal toxins in water, phytoplankton and shellfish from North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eri; Yu, Qiming; Eaglesham, Geoff; Connell, Des W; McBroom, James; Costanzo, Simon; Shaw, Glen R

    2007-10-01

    A number of marine microalgae are known to produce toxins that can accumulate in shellfish and when eaten, lead to toxic and potentially fatal reactions in humans. This paper reports on the occurrence and seasonal variations of algal toxins in the waters, phytoplankton and shellfish of Southeast Queensland, Australia. These algal toxins include okadaic acid (OA), domoic acid (DA), gymnodimine (GD), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and pectenotoxin-2-seco acid (PTX-2-SA), which were detected in the sampled shellfish and phytoplankton, via HPLC-MS/MS. Dissolved OA, PTX-2 and GD were also detected in the samples collected from the water column. This was the first occasion that DA and GD have been reported in shellfish, phytoplankton and the water column in Queensland waters. Phytoplankton tows contained both the toxic Dinophysis and Pseudo-nitzschia algae species, and are suspected of being the most likely producers of the OA, PTX-2s and DA found in shellfish of this area. The number of cells, however, did not correlate with the amount of toxins present in either shellfish or phytoplankton. This indicates that toxin production by algae varies with time and the species present and that number of cells alone cannot be used as an indicator for the presence of toxins. The presence of OA and PTX-2s were more frequently seen in the summer, while DA and GD were detected throughout the year and without any obvious seasonal patterns. PMID:17512582

  5. Pre-pregnancy predictors of diabetes in pregnancy among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sandra K; Lynch, John; Esterman, Adrian; McDermott, Robyn

    2012-08-01

    To identify pre-pregnancy risk factors for diabetes in pregnancy among a cohort of Australian Indigenous women. Data on 1,009 Indigenous women of childbearing age who participated in a 1998-2000 health screening program in far north Queensland were linked to Queensland hospitalisations data. Women who attended hospital after their health check for a pregnancy-related condition were identified. The data on women who were hospitalised for birth were also linked to Queensland perinatal data. Of 220 women who gave birth, 23 had diabetes in the pregnancy following their health check. A strong predictor of having a subsequent pregnancy affected by diabetes was suboptimal glucose control before conception. The presence of the metabolic syndrome predicted over a threefold increase in risk among non-diabetic women after adjustment for age and ethnicity (PR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.54-8.00). For each 1-cm increase in waist circumference, there was an age-adjusted increase in risk of 4% for diabetes in pregnancy (1.04; 1.01-1.06). For each 1-mmHg increase in blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), there was an age-adjusted increase in risk of 3% (1.03; 1.01-1.05 and 1.03; 1.00-1.07, respectively). Associations between hypercholesterolaemia and dyslipidaemia and diabetes in the subsequent pregnancy were diminished after adjustment for age and ethnicity. The risk for women with "hyper-triglyceridaemic waist" phenotype before pregnancy was diminished by adjustment for age, ethnicity and baseline fasting glucose. Alcohol intake, smoking, level of physical activity and red cell folate showed little effect. Identification of women at particularly high risk for future diabetes in pregnancy, given their pre-pregnancy health, is important so that they can manage their risks and where overweight or obesity is a factor, interventions aimed at weight management should be implemented. PMID:21959925

  6. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  7. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  8. Pre-School Education in Queensland, Australia: A Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Gerald F.

    This paper provides a detailed overview of the preschool education system in Queensland, Australia, from the perspective of one of the original designers of that program. The first section of the paper describes the social, political and general educational contexts within which the Queensland preschool system was developed. Steps in state level…

  9. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  10. Hydrology and Soil Erosion in Tropical Rainforests and Pasture Lands on the Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland, Australia - a rainfall simulator study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanne, Joanne; Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    The Barron and Johnstone Rivers rise in the basaltic Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia, and flow into the Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Natural rainforest in this region was cleared for settlement in the early 20th century. Rapid decline in soil fertility during the 1940's and 50's forced landholders to turn to pasture based industries from row crop agriculture. Since then, these pasture based industries have intensified. The intensified land use has been linked to increases in sediment and nutrient levels in terrestrial runoff and identified as a major environmental threat to the GBRWHA, which has raised alarm for the tourist industry and resource managers. Studies linking land-use to pollutant discharge are often based on measurements and modelling of end of catchment measurements of water quality. Whilst such measurements can be a reasonable indicator of the effects of land use on pollutant discharge to waterways, they are often a gross assessment. This project used rainfall simulations to investigate the relationship between land use and management with sources and sinks of runoff and soil erosion within the Barron and Johnstone Rivers catchments. Rainfall simulations were conducted and pollutant loads measured in natural rainforest, as well as dairy and beef farming systems. The dairy farming systems included an effluent fed pasture, a high mineral fertilizer and supplementary irrigation farm, and a rainfed organic pasture that relied on tropical legumes and introduced grasses and returned organic material to the soil. One of the beef farming systems used a 7-10 day rotation with a low fertilizer regime (kikuyu mostly), while the other, used a long period- two paddock-rotation with no fertiliser and paspalum pastures. The rainforests were generally small isolated enclaves with a well developed shrub layer (1-3 m), and a presence of scattered, deciduous trees. Simulations were carried out on sites which were

  11. The Reconstruction Potential of a 350 year-long, Mid-Elevation Proxy for PDSI in a Tree-Ring Record from Tropical North Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Duffy, R.; Balanzategui, D.; Baker, P. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    In far northern Queensland (FNQ) there are only sporadic coral and speleothem precipitation proxy records, and only one annually resolved, terrestrial record of rainfall that predates 1850 CE. Black kauri pine, Agathis atropurpurea, is a large conifer present in isolated stands near 1000 masl in the wet tropical dividing range of FNQ. Little is known about its phenology or responses to climate, although its presence near the elevational limit of the dividing range may hinder its ability to respond to increased temperature or decreased precipitation through elevational migration. We hypothesize that in this energy-limited forest, increased (decreased) solar radiation leads to increased (decreased) ring widths, and higher (lower) evapotranspiration rates produce increases (decreases) in the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of the a-cellulose component of wood. To test this hypothesis, we collected over 60 cores from 21 large (dbh = 56 to 186 cm) A. atropurpurea trees from Spurgeon Peak National Park. The resulting tree-ring chronology extends from 2013 to 1438 CE and shows high average mean sensitivity (0.642) although expressed population signal drops off at 1650 CE as sample depth decreases. Comparison of the most recent 100 years of ring widths and direct climate observations show a significant positive relationship (r2 = 0.4, p < 0.01) to PDSI in December through March, coinciding with the austral rainy season associated with onset of the northern Australian Monsoon. Annualized δ18Oxygen (a-cellulose) maxima for 1983-2013 show strong and significant spatial positive relationships to Tmax and Pacific seasurface temperatures. Work to refine the interpretation of the data is onoing, but the resulting dataset may enable extension of the terrestrial climate record of north Queensland two centuries beyond current tree-ring proxies and historical observations.

  12. Aedes aegypti population sampling using BG-Sentinel traps in north Queensland Australia: statistical considerations for trap deployment and sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Craig R; Long, Sharron A; Webb, Cameron E; Bitzhenner, Moritz; Geier, Martin; Russell, Richard C; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-03-01

    BG-Sentinel mosquito traps were trialed as a tool for the rapid assessment (24-h collections) and routine monitoring (72-h collections) of adult Aedes aegypti L. populations in north Queensland. Analysis of Ae. aegypti collections using BG-Sentinels set in suburban Cairns for 24 h permitted the calculation of sample size for a range of precision levels. Clusters of houses with BG-Sentinels operating continuously for 15 d, with collections every 72 h, also permitted required sample size calculation. Evidence of Ae. aegypti spatial clustering at the house scale was revealed, with statistically significant effects detected for all collection days. Less variation was detected at each trap location, with only nine of 32 trap locations revealing significant clustering over time. Trap-out effects through continuous BG-Sentinel operation at a fixed location were absent. The findings support fixed position sampling at 72-h intervals for routine monitoring ofAe. aegypti populations in Cairns. Despite the relationship between collections of adult vectors and the incidence of disease remaining unknown, BG-Sentinel collections provide an alternative and less labor-intensive abundance measure for assessing risk of dengue virus transmission and success of dengue vector control programs. PMID:17427707

  13. A New Equity Deal for Schools: A Case Study of Policy-Making in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Parlo; Taylor, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we draw on concepts from policy sociology to analyse the new equity deal for schools in Queensland, Australia. We examine this "new deal" through an analysis of the language of "inclusion" and "educational risk" in key policy documents associated with a major reform of public education in Queensland. In addition, we analyse the…

  14. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  15. "Being a Good German": A Case Study Analysis of Language Retention and Loss among German Migrants in North Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harres, Annette

    1989-01-01

    Examines language retention among German immigrant families in North Queensland, Australia. Major factors encouraging language shift were the presence of school-age children, prior knowledge of English, and a high education level of immigrant parents. Women maintained the first language longer as a result of occupational and social segregation.…

  16. Barriers, Successes and Enabling Practices of Education for Sustainability in Far North Queensland Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Neus; Whitehouse, Hilary; Gooch, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    There are many documented barriers to implementing school-based sustainability. This article examines a) the barriers faced by principals and staff in two regional primary schools in Far North Queensland, Australia, well known for their exemplary practice, and b) ways the barriers were overcome. Through interviews conducted with principals and key…

  17. Chronology of Pleistocene weathering processes, southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yue-Xing; Vasconcelos, Paulo

    2007-11-01

    40Ar/ 39Ar dating of Mn-oxides from the Upper Kandanga (UKA) Mn deposit, southeast Queensland, Australia shows that the weathering profile overlying the deposit is younger than 1 Ma. Seventy plateau ages obtained for 81 grains from 17 samples fall into three groups: I. 1000-800 ka ( n = 2), II. 630-510 ka ( n = 2), and III. 400-50 ka ( n = 66). The last age group can be further resolved, using the mixture modelling solution by Sambridge and Compston [Sambridge, M.S., Compston, W., 1994. Mixture modeling of multi-component data sets with application to ion-probe zircon ages. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 128, 373-390.], into two major age clusters (sub-groups, IIIa and IIIb) with peak values at 313 ± 4 ka ( n = 43, with an outlier) and 213 ± 7 ka ( n = 22), respectively. The results suggest that a supergene blanket in a Mn deposit may develop relatively fast if weathering and erosional conditions are appropriate. The age peaks measured in this study correspond to warm periods identified in SPECMAP (oxygen isotope records of deep-sea sediments) and local paleoclimatic data. The correlation of weathering age peaks with oceanic climatic indicators suggests a climatic control on continental chemical weathering, where warm and humid conditions are conducive to increasing weathering rates. The clustering of supergene Mn-oxide precipitation ages suggests that weathering rates vary with time, supporting an episodic weathering history for the profiles investigated.

  18. Integrated terrain mapping with digital Landsat images in Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Mapping with Landsat images usually is done by selecting single types of features, such as soils, vegetation, or rocks, and creating visually interpreted or digitally classified maps of each feature. Individual maps can then be overlaid on or combined with other maps to characterize the terrain. Integrated terrain mapping combines several terrain features into each map unit which, in many cases, is more directly related to uses of the land and to methods of land management than the single features alone. Terrain brightness, as measured by the multispectral scanners in Landsat 1 and 2, represents an integration of reflectance from the terrain features within the scanner's instantaneous field of view and is therefore more correlatable with integrated terrain units than with differentiated ones, such as rocks, soils, and vegetation. A test of the feasibilty of the technique of mapping integrated terrain units was conducted in a part of southwestern Queensland, Australia, in cooperation with scientists of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries. The primary purpose was to test the use of digital classification techniques to create a 'land systems map' usable for grazing land management. A recently published map of 'land systems' in the area (made by aerial photograph interpretation and ground surveys), which are integrated terrain units composed of vegetation, soil, topography, and geomorphic features, was used as a basis for comparison with digitally classified Landsat multispectral images. The land systems, in turn, each have a specific grazing capacity for cattle (expressed in beasts per km 2 ) which is estimated following analysis of both research results and property carrying capacities. Landsat images, in computer-compatible tape form, were first contrast-stretched to increase their visual interpretability, and digitally classified by the parallelepiped method into distinct spectral classes to determine their correspondence to the land systems classes and

  19. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, S.; Tong, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992-1993. This study explored spatio-temporal distribution and clustering of locally-acquired dengue cases in Queensland State, Australia and identified target areas for effective interventions. A computerised locally-acquired dengue case dataset was collected from Queensland Health for Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Dengue hot spots were detected using SatScan method. Descriptive spatial analysis showed that a total of 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in central and northern regions of tropical Queensland. A seasonal pattern was observed with most of the cases occurring in autumn. Spatial and temporal variation of dengue cases was observed in the geographic areas affected by dengue over time. Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in tropical Queensland, Australia. There is a clear evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of dengue and these clusters varied over time. These findings enabled us to detect and target dengue clusters suggesting that the use of geospatial information can assist the health authority in planning dengue control activities and it would allow for better design and implementation of dengue management programs.

  20. Residual effectiveness of lambda-cyhalothrin harbourage sprays against foliage-resting mosquitoes in north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Muzari, Odwell M; Adamczyk, Rebecca; Davis, Joseph; Ritchie, Scott; Devine, Gregor

    2014-03-01

    The residual efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin sprayed on foliage was evaluated against various mosquito species in sections of forest in Cairns, Queensland, Australia Weekly sweep-net collections in treated and untreated areas before and after spraying showed 87-100% reductions in mosquito numbers for the first 9 wk postspray. After that period, reductions fluctuated but remained >71% up to 14 wk posttreatment. Mosquito mortality ranged from 96 to 100% in contact bioassays of treated leaves during the 14 wk study. Our results demonstrate that spraying harborage vegetation with lambda-cyhalothrin is an extremely effective strategy for the control of sylvan and peridomestic mosquito species in tropical north Queensland. PMID:24724295

  1. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2014-01-01

    An unusual species of the genus Periclimenaeus Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae Pontoniinae) from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, collected by Dr Niel Bruce in 1979, is described and illustrated. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov., an ascidian associate was collected from coral reef at 7.0 m and presents some interesting new features. It increases to 17 the number of Periclimenaeus known from Heron Island, Queensland, and to 28 the number of species known from Australia. The new species has the second pereiopod fingers minutely denticulate and unique to the genus. PMID:24872280

  2. Some nemerteans (Nemertea) from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R; Sundberg, P

    2001-12-01

    Three species of marine nemerteans described and illustrated from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, include one new genus and two new species: these are the monostiliferous hoplonemerteans Thallasionemertes leucocephala gen. et sp. nov. and Correanemertes polyophthalma sp. nov. A new colour variety of the heteronemertean Micrura callima is also reported, this species previously only being known from Rottnest Island, Western Australia. A key for the field identification of the marine nemerteans recorded from coastal Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef is provided. PMID:11911083

  3. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii exposure in native marsupials and introduced animals in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A; Goullet, M; Mitchell, J; Ketheesan, N; Govan, B

    2012-07-01

    The state of Queensland has the highest incidence of Q fever in Australia. In recent years, there has been an increase in human cases where no contacts with the typical reservoir animals or occupations were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian native animals and introduced animals in northern and southeastern Queensland. Australian native marsupials sampled included the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and common northern bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus). Introduced species sampled included dingoes (Canis lupus dingo), cats (Felis catus), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pigs (Sus scrofa). Serum samples were tested by ELISA for both phase II and phase I antigens of the organism using an Australian isolate. The serological evidence of C. burnetii infection demonstrated in these species has public health implications due to their increasing movement into residential areas in regional Queensland. This study is the first known investigation of C. burnetii seroprevalence in these species in northern Queensland. PMID:21892986

  4. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. PMID:22324342

  5. The Characteristics of, and Motivations for, Indigenous Student Mobility: Examples from Urban and Regional Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navin, Fiona; Hill, Angela; Doyle, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Using the notion that research should "enlighten" policy responses, this paper considers the complex locational factors that affect and underlie patterns of Indigenous student mobility in Queensland, Australia. The paper presents data, captured through an action research project, to explore mobility "in and through" two environments. In so doing,…

  6. Exploring Management Practices in Child Care Centres in Australia, Queensland from a Social Systems Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nupponen, Hanna

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this research was on the nature and characteristics of effective leadership and management practices in centre-based child care. This paper is part of a larger doctoral study with a focus on management within child care centres. Eight directors were interviewed in south east Queensland, Australia using a case study methodology. There…

  7. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  8. Effects Of A Rapidly Urbanising Environment On Groundwater, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, M. E.; Hillier, J.; Foster, L.; Ellis, R.

    1996-01-01

    Southeastern Queensland, centred around Brisbane, has one of the fastest growing populations in Australia and has previously relied on surface storage of water for urban purposes. The projected demands for potable water mean that various groundwater supplies may need to be maintained for future urban use. Groundwater in this area occurs in a variety of aquifer types, some limited in extent and some susceptible to effects from increasing development, as well as from natural processes. Recorded impacts on groundwater in this area are varied and include: changes in land use from agricultural to residential; rising water tables as a result of cessation of extraction for irrigation; declining water tables in areas where irrigation has increased; decreasing quality, due to the introducing of nutrients (fertilizers and sewage); occurrence of acid saline waters in coastal Holocene sediments as a result of agricultural and engineering activities; and increased numbers of private bores on some bay islands. The large-scale managed development of groundwater supplies is now underway from North Stradbroke Island (a large sand island) to augment mainland surface supplies. At this stage, restrictions on the development of groundwater do not exist in the area, with the exception of North Stradbroke Island. Localised degradation of groundwater quality is produced by such features as old landfills, petroleum storage sites, and some old industrial sites. Possibly the major long-term impact will be the cumulative effect of increasing urban activity on a region whose drainage sink is Moreton Bay.

  9. The Probable Whole of Slope Submarine Landslides of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubble, T.

    2015-12-01

    A research cruise aboard the RV Southern Surveyor (SS2013-V01) conducted in January 2013 offshore east Australia collected regional bathymetric data for the seabed of the continental margin of southern Queensland for the seabed bounded by Noosa Heads in the south and Indian Head, Fraser Island in the north. This newly mapped area presents a particularly steep portion of continental slope (5o to 10 o) that presents numerous submarine landslides, including two 'whole-of-slope' features (The Wide Bay Canyon, and Inskip Slides. The slope is also dissected by three large submarine canyons offshore northern Fraser Island, Wide Bay and Noosa Heads (i.e. the Fraser Canyons, the Wide Bay Canyon and the Noosa Canyon). Dredge and core samples were collected from slide scars in the northern, central and southern areas of the bathymetric survey area. The initial examination of the area's bathymetry, the core and dredge sample sedimentology, and determination of biostratigraphic ages for these sediment samples indicates that the larger, submarine slides present in this study area have probably been shed from the slope since the late Pliocene and that canyon incision is currently active on this portion of the slope. In one case, canyon incision is partly responsible for generating slides due to undercutting and removal of the toe of the slope. Slope sediments are dominantly comprised of hemipelagic muds but the presence of massive coarse sands and graded sands in some cores above erosion surfaces that cut into slope mud units is interpreted to indicate that areas of the southern Queensland continental slope are probably subjected to abrasion by grain-flows and turbidites comprised of shelf-derived sands and upper slope sediment. The results from this voyage confirms and extends previous work on the southeastern Australian continental margin that indicates that sediment transport from the shelf to deep water on this margin is dominated by gravity mass transport and that the margin

  10. Evidence of high sea level during isotope stage 5c in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, J. W.; Thompson, C. H.; Kelley, R. A.; Roman, D.

    1985-07-01

    Thirty-nine species of scleractinian corals have been recovered from under a high dune on the western (mainland) side of North Stradbroke Island, eastern Australia. The corals are associated with thin intertidal sediments and their good condition implies burial in situ and preservation in a saturated zone. Most likely this occurred as the coast prograded and a large dune advanced into the littoral zone, burying intertidal sediments and coral. The species assemblage indicates a sheltered environment but one open to the ocean without wide fluctuations in salinity. Three species yielded a mean {230Th}/{234U} age of 105,000 yr B.P. which is significantly younger than the nearest Pleistocene corals at Evans Head, New South Wales. The corals provide evidence of a sea stand near present sea level during isotope Stage 5c, which is considerably higher than previously suggested for this period. Their good condition implies that the overlying parabolic dune is of comparable age and formed during that high stand of sea level. Also, the isotope age provides a maximum period for the development of giant podzols in the podzol chronosequences on coastal dunes in southern Queensland.

  11. Epidemiologic patterns of Ross River virus disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-07-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001-December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. PMID:24799374

  12. The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and Ross River virus incidence in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, Sinead; Holbrook, Neil; Beggs, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) is the most important vector-borne disease in Australia. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System has confirmed that its incidence is often greatest in the state of Queensland, where there is a clear seasonal pattern as well as interannual variability. Previous studies have examined relationships between large-scale climate fluctuations (such as El Niño Southern Oscillation) and vector-borne disease. No previous study has examined such relationships with the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), another large-scale climate fluctuation. We employ time-series analysis techniques to investigate cycles inherent in monthly RRV incidence in Queensland, Australia, from January 1991 to December 1997 inclusive. The presence of a quasi-biennial cycle in the RRV time series that is out of phase with the climatic QBO is described. Quantitative analyses using correlograms and periodograms demonstrate that the quasi-biennial cycle in the RRV time series is statistically significant, at the 95% level, above the noise. Together with the seasonal cycle, the quasi-biennial cycle accounts for 77% of the variance in Queensland RRV cases. Regression analysis of QBO and summer rainfall in three climatic zones of Queensland indicates a significant association between QBO and rainfall in the subtropical southeastern part of the state. These results suggest an indirect influence of the QBO on RRV incidence in Queensland, via its influence on climate in this region. Our findings indicate that the QBO may be a useful predictor of RRV at several months lead, and might be used by public health authorities in the management and prevention of this disease.

  13. Historical PCDD inputs and their source implications from dated sediment cores in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Gaus, C; Brunskill, G J; Weber, R; Papke, O; Muller, J F

    2001-12-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated the presence of an unidentified source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in the coastal zone of Queensland (Australia). The present study provides new information on the possible PCDD sources and their temporal input to this environment. Two estuarine sediment cores were collected in northern Queensland for which radiochemical chronologies were established. Core sections from different depositional ages, up to three centuries, have been analyzed for 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Variations of PCDD concentrations in the sediment cores over several centuries of depositional history were relatively small, and elevated PCDD levels were still present in sediment slices from the early 17th century. PCDD/F isomer patterns and congener profiles in sediments deposited during the last 350 years were almost identical and correlated well to the characteristic profiles observed in surface sediments and soils from the entire Queensland coastline. Profiles were dominated by higher chlorinated PCDDs, in particular octachlorodibenzodioxin (OCDD), whereas PCDF concentrations were below or near the limit of detection. These results indicate the presence of a PCDD source prior to industrialization and production of commercial organochlorine products. Further, the present study demonstrates that PCDD input patterns have been similar along an extensive but localized area over at least several centuries, contributing relatively high concentrations of PCDDs to the coastal system of Queensland. PMID:11770761

  14. Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Tan, Cindy S. E.; Wang, Wenqi; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Barton, Anita; Wright, John; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNVKUN and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic. PMID:24048209

  15. A decision support process to compare riparian revegetation options in Scheu Creek catchment in north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M E; Harrison, S R

    2001-05-01

    While riparin vegetation can play a major role in protecting land, water and natural habitat in catchments, there are high costs associated with tree planting and establishment and in diverting land from cropping. The distribution of costs and benefits of riparian revegetation creates conflicts in the objectives of various stakeholder groups. Multicriteria analysis provides an appropriate tool to evaluate alternative riparian revegetation options, and to accommodate the conflicting views of various stakeholder groups. This paper discusses an application of multicriteria analysis in an evaluation of riparian revegetation policy options for Scheu Creek, a small sub-catchment in the Johnstone River catchment in north Queensland, Australia. Clear differences are found in the rankings of revegetation options for different stakeholder groups with respect to environmental, social and economic impacts. Implementation of a revegetation option will involve considerable cost for landholders for the benefits of society. Queensland legislation does not provide a means to require farmers to implement riparian revegetation, hence the need for subsidies, tax incentives and moral suasion. PMID:11400460

  16. The implementation and development of complex alcohol control policies in indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Bird, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Very high rates of injury and death during the 1990s were linked with increased alcohol availability and misuse in discrete Indigenous communities in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). To address widespread concerns about a public health crisis, from 2002, the Queensland Government implemented alcohol control strategies known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) in 19 of these communities. Although resources for prevention and treatment were promised, AMPs became increasingly focused on local prohibition, restricted access to alcohol and punitive measures for breaching restrictions. An examination of legislation, regulations, explanatory notes, and published documents indicates this focus evolved across four phases since 2002. The first phase, from 2002 to 2004, saw 'restricted areas' with alcohol 'carriage limits' introduced, restricting the amounts and types of liquor permitted within some communities. The second phase (2002-2007) featured evaluations and reviews by the Queensland Government bringing recommendations for more stringent controls. Additionally, beyond the 'restricted areas', licenced premises situated within the 'catchments' of the targeted communities, mainly located in the nearby regional towns, became subject to 'minimising harm' provisions. These more stringent controls were implemented widely in the third phase (2008-2011) when: the operations of seven community-managed liquor outlets were terminated; the trading arrangements of two others were modified; Police powers to search and seize were increased; and 'attempting' to take liquor into a 'restricted area' also became an offence. Some communities have seen a reduction in alcohol-related harms that have been attributed to these alcohol control strategies. This commentary maps the recent regulatory history of Queensland's alcohol controls targeting discrete Indigenous communities highlighting their increasing focus on punitive measures to reduce access to alcohol. With AMPs in Queensland

  17. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Barmah Forest Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis. Methods/Principal Findings We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs) throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (χ2 = 7587, df = 7327,p<0.01). There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidence for all four periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.1506 to 0.2901 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the state. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to examine spatial and temporal variation in the incidence rates of BFV disease across Queensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland. PMID:22022430

  18. Infant feeding practices among Sudanese women now living in regional south east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Lee; Kirby, Rosemarie; Rogers, Cath

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to highlight and compare immigrant Sudanese women's infant feeding choices and patterns before and after moving to a regional city in Queensland, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Sudanese mothers who had birthed and breastfed babies both in Africa and Toowoomba. This qualitative research project supported previous research indicating a trend for immigrant women's breastfeeding duration to decline when they moved to another country. The outcomes of this research suggest that the reasons for this decline are complex. The authors conclude that a lack of social support, language difficulties and wanting to fit in with particular Western practices are contributing factors. PMID:25522458

  19. Spatial Patterns and Socioecological Drivers of Dengue Fever Transmission in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Understanding how socioecological factors affect the transmission of dengue fever (DF) may help to develop an early warning system of DF. Objectives: We examined the impact of socioecological factors on the transmission of DF and assessed potential predictors of locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases of DF in Queensland, Australia. Methods: We obtained data from Queensland Health on the numbers of notified DF cases by local government area (LGA) in Queensland for the period 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2005. Data on weather and the socioeconomic index were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was fitted at the LGA level to quantify the relationship between DF and socioecological factors. Results: Our estimates suggest an increase in locally acquired DF of 6% [95% credible interval (CI): 2%, 11%] and 61% (95% CI: 2%, 241%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1°C increase in average monthly maximum temperature between 2002 and 2005, respectively. By contrast, overseas-acquired DF cases increased by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 3%) and by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 2%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1-unit increase in average socioeconomic index, respectively. Conclusions: Socioecological factors appear to influence the transmission of DF in Queensland, but the drivers of locally acquired and overseas-acquired DF may differ. DF risk is spatially clustered with different patterns for locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases. PMID:22015625

  20. Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) from western Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rodrigues, Taissa; Costa, Fabiana R

    2011-03-01

    Flying reptiles from Australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Toolebuc Formation, which crops out in western Queensland. Among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian) of England. It was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes or Anhanguera. Here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of Pteranodontoid (sensu Kellner 2003), here named Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. It is the second named pterosaur from Australia and confirms that the Toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country. PMID:21437387

  1. Continuation of the New England Orogen, Australia, beneath the Queensland Plateau and Lord Howe rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Hauff, F.; Calvert, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Greywacke, argillite, greyschist and hypabyssal igneous rocks have been obtained from an Ocean Drilling Program core on the Queensland Plateau and from xenoliths in a volcanic breccia dredged from the crest of the Lord Howe Rise. Low to intermediate detrital quartz contents, 260-240 Ma K-Ar ages, and only moderately radiogenic Sr and Nd isotope compositions, suggest a correlation with the New England Orogen of eastern Australia, rather than with Australia's Lachlan Orogen or other adjacent geological provinces. Our results indicate that the New England Orogen terranes continue towards New Zealand at least as far as the southern Lord Howe Rise. The projected offshore boundaries of the major east Australian orogens are now known with more confidence, and do not appear to require any major cross-orogen offsets.

  2. A spatial epidemiological analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been changing and the incidence has been increasing in some settings. The main route of transmission to humans is considered to be from the environment. We aimed to describe spatial clusters of cases of NTM infections and to identify associated climatic, environmental and socio-economic variables. Methods NTM data were obtained from the Queensland Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory for the period 2001–2011. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was constructed at the postcode level, with covariates including soil variables, maximum, mean and minimum rainfall and temperature, income (proportion of population earning < $32,000 and < $52,000) and land use category. Results Significant clusters of NTM infection were identified in the central Queensland region overlying the Surat sub-division of the Great Artesian Basin, as well as in the lower North Queensland Local Government Area known as the Whitsunday region. Our models estimated an expected increase of 21% per percentage increase of population earning < $52,000 (95% CI 9–34%) and an expected decrease of 13% for every metre increase of average topsoil depth for risk of Mycobacterium intracellulare infection (95% CI -3 – -22%). There was an estimated increase of 79% per mg/m3 increase of soil bulk density (95% CI 26–156%) and 19% decrease for every percentage increase in population earning < $32,000 for risk of M. kansasii infection (95% CI -3 – -49%). Conclusions There were distinct spatial clusters of M. kansasii, M. intracellulare and M. abscessus infections in Queensland, and a number of socio-ecological, economic and environmental factors were found to be associated with NTM infection risk. PMID:24885916

  3. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  4. Microbiological quality of wheat grain and flour from two mills in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni

    2010-08-01

    A baseline investigation of the microbiological quality of wheat grain and flour from two mills in Queensland, Australia, was undertaken in order to assess the capacity of these two mills to meet microbiological criteria specified by a customer for raw, non-heat-treated flour. This baseline testing was performed over the 2006 to 2007 wheat season. Three hundred fifty flour samples were monitored for yeast, mold, and Bacillus cereus, 300 for Escherichia coli, 150 for Salmonella, and 100 for aerobic plate count. Fifty grain samples were analyzed for yeast, mold, E. coli, Salmonella, and B. cereus. There was a single isolation of Salmonella Give in unscreened wheat. The yeast, mold, E. coli, and B. cereus prevalences were 56, 40, 2.0, and 4.0% for grain and 71, 17, 0.7, and <0.3% for flour, respectively. Of the positive samples, the means were 3.7, 2.7, 0.6, and 2.1 for grain, and 3.0, 2.8, and 0.8 log CFU/g for flour. The mean of the aerobic plate count was 4.2 log CFU/g with a 95th percentile count of 4.6 log CFU/g. A microbiological quality baseline of wheat grain and flour from these two Queensland mills has been determined. These data in a specific sense assist the two mills to assess their capacity to meet microbiological criteria, and in a general sense provide at least a limited snapshot of Queensland wheat and flour quality for risk assessments being carried out to evaluate the safety of plant and plant products. PMID:20819368

  5. Evidence of sirenian cold stress syndrome in dugongs Dugong dugon from southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen C; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J; Palmieri, Chiara; Mills, Paul C

    2013-03-13

    Cold stress syndrome (CSS) is the term used to describe the range of clinical signs and chronic disease processes that can occur in Florida, USA, manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris exposed to water temperatures below 20°C for extended periods. Although no cold-related adverse events have been described in the closely related dugong Dugong dugon thus far, it has been established that they make movements in response to water temperatures lower than about 17 to 18°C. In this study, archive reports for dugong carcasses submitted to The University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science for post mortem examination during 2010 to 2012 were examined. These animals had been recovered from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia, and 10 out of 14 fulfilled the criteria for 'potential cold stress cases.' Epidermal hyperplasia and secondary bacterial infection, serous atrophy of pericardial adipose tissue, and multisystem abscessation were features commonly noted in these cases. Water temperature data were correlated with the time of year that carcasses were submitted for examination. Higher numbers of carcasses diagnosed with potential CSS were noted during sustained periods in which water temperature was below 20°C. Given the pattern of increased submission of non-specifically, chronically unwell animals in the colder months and evidence that environmental conditions known to precipitate CSS occur in southeast Queensland, it is probable that, like manatees, dugongs in this area are affected by CSS. Further investigation to confirm and to better characterize the syndrome is recommended to refine management practices and improve treatment of affected animals. PMID:23482380

  6. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  7. Perkinsus sp. infections and in vitro isolates from Anadara trapezia (mud arks) of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Dungan, Christopher F; Scott, Gail P; Reece, Kimberly S

    2015-02-10

    Perkinsus sp. protists were found infecting Anadara trapezia mud ark cockles at 6 sites in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, at prevalences of 4 to 100% during 2011 as determined by surveys using Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium. Perkinsus sp. lesions were found among gill and visceral connective tissues in histological samples from several cockles, where basophilic, eccentrically vacuolated Perkinsus sp. signet ring trophozoites and proliferating, Perkinsus sp. schizont cells were documented. Two Perkinsus sp. isolates were propagated in vitro during August 2013 from gill tissues of a single infected A. trapezia cockle from Wynnum in Moreton Bay. DNA from those isolate cells amplified universally by a Perkinsus genus-specific PCR assay, and rDNA-internal transcribed spacer sequences respectively grouped them with P. olseni and P. chesapeaki in phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of P. chesapeaki in Australia, and the first report of a P. chesapeaki in vitro isolate from an Australian mollusc host. Although P. olseni was originally described in 1981 as a pathogen of abalone in South Australia, and has subsequently been identified as a prevalent pathogen of numerous other molluscs worldwide, this is also the first report of a P. olseni-like in vitro isolate from an Australian mollusc host. PMID:25667336

  8. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  9. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. PMID:25440195

  10. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay. PMID:25537749

  11. Mental disorders and communication of intent to die in indigenous suicide cases, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Sveticic, Jerneja

    2012-04-01

    In comparing Indigenous to non-Indigenous suicide in Australia, this study focussed on the frequency of the association between some psychiatric conditions, such as depression and alcohol abuse, and some aspect of suicidality, in particular communication of suicide intent. Logistic regression was implemented to analyze cases of Indigenous (n = 471) versus non-Indigenous suicides (n = 6,655), using the Queensland Suicide Register as a data source. Compared to non-Indigenous suicides, Indigenous cases had lower odds of being diagnosed with unipolar depression, seeking treatment for psychiatric conditions or leaving a suicide note. Indigenous suicides had greater odds of verbally communicating suicide intent and having a history of alcohol and substance use. The magnitude of these differences is remarkable, underscoring the need for culturally sensitive suicide prevention efforts. PMID:22324735

  12. Groundwater salt accessions to land in the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Andrew J. W.

    2011-05-01

    Salt accessions from artesian and sub-artesian bores have been calculated for the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin (QMDB), Australia, using available water chemistry, licensing data and a number of assumptions. The majority (~90%) of the salt accessions come from sub-artesian bores used for irrigation (including intensive livestock) purposes. Historically, free-flowing artesian bores in the west of the basin have contributed large quantities of salt, but their contributions have declined with capping and piping of these bores. The highest salt yields (t/km2) are in the Condamine catchment, which also contains 70% of the bores in the region. Groundwater salt accessions are considerably less than atmospheric (rainfall) accessions in all catchments except the Condamine. Further expansion of the coal seam gas industry may substantially increase non-cyclic groundwater accessions, further reducing catchment salt export/import ratios.

  13. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  14. Stress Monitoring during Wonwawilli Extraction in 3 North Panel, Laleham No. 1 Colliery, South Blackwater, Queensland

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, L.J.; McNabb, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    The report describes investigations at the Laleham No. 1 Colliery, South Blackwater, Queensland, involving monitoring of stresses and convergences during Wongawilli (rib pillar) extraction in 3 North Panel. The project involved the installation of 16 vibrating wire stressmeters and 10 telescopic convergence rods. The aim of the project was to monitor changes in the stress distribution during extraction.

  15. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  16. Anastomosing channels and arroyo development on the Nogoa River, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, B. L.; Brizga, S. O.

    1993-05-01

    It is widely accepted that European settlement in Australia has had a major impact on river channels. For many parts of Australia records are available which permit the history of channel changes to be reconstructed over most of the post-settlement period. In this paper the history of changes on part of the Nogoa River in Central Queensland is described from the first European contact until the present. The river channel at this site has changed from an anastomosing pattern to a single large channel (arroyo). There is evidence to suggest that such changes have occurred also in the past but an unusual feature of the present incision phase is that incision is synchronous throughout the region. This may have been triggered by the introduction of cattle which naturally congregate in the moister valley bottoms in this otherwise dry environment. The changes observed here reflect those reported for the semiarid regions of the USA. A linking factor appears to be hydrological behaviour characterised by high levels of variability in the annual flood series, which appears to render such streams more sensitive to disturbance than those with less variable flood behaviour.

  17. Naturally occurring radionuclides in materials derived from urban water treatment plants in southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Ross; Akber, Riaz

    2008-04-01

    An assessment of radiologically enhanced residual materials generated during treatment of domestic water supplies in southeast Queensland, Australia, was conducted. Radioactivity concentrations of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Rn-222, and Po-210 in water, sourced from both surface water catchments and groundwater resources were examined both pre- and post-treatment under typical water treatment operations. Surface water treatment processes included sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation and filtration, while the groundwater was treated using cation exchange, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal or methods similar to surface water treatment. Waste products generated as a result of treatment included sediments and sludges, filtration media, exhausted ion exchange resin, backwash and wastewaters. Elevated residual concentrations of radionuclides were identified in these waste products. The waste product activity concentrations were used to model the radiological impact of the materials when either utilised for beneficial purposes, or upon disposal. The results indicate that, under current water resource exploitation programs, reuse or disposal of the treatment wastes from large scale urban water treatment plants in Australia do not pose a significant radiological risk. PMID:17980468

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing for mineral mapping of structural related mineralizations around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Sandra; Salati, Sanaz; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Alone or combined with other remote sensing data, hyperspectral mineral mapping can be used to investigate mineralizations and deposits via alteration minerals. Their kind, abundance and spatial distribution can deliver important statements about the occurrence and formation of mineralizations and their relation to structural features. The high spectral and spatial resolution of HyMap data exceeds multispectral data distinctly and makes the recognition of even smaller geological structures possible. The spectral unmixing of single endmembers can be used for the accurate mapping of specific materials or minerals. The support of hyperspectral imaging by spectral data gathered in the field and the analysis of the composition of rock samples can help to determine endmembers and to identify absorption features. This study demonstrates the possibilities and limitations of remote sensing, especially hyperspectral data, for mineral mapping purposes, using the example of the Mount Isa Inlier. This geological area is situated in Northern Queensland, Australia, and is known for its considerable ore deposits and consequent mining of predominantly copper, zinc, lead, silver and gold. Beside hyperspectral HyMap data, multispectral Landsat 8 and SRTM digital elevation data were analyzed. A three-week field study in 2014 supported the investigations. After preprocessing and vegetation masking the data were analyzed using Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) for alteration mineral mapping. The outcomes were combined with results from decorrelation stretch, band ratioing, topographic indices and automated lineament analysis. Additional information was provided by field spectrometer measurements and the XRF and XRD analysis of rock samples. Throughout the study, mineral mapping using remote sensing data, especially hyperspectral data, turned out to deliver high qualitative results when it is supported by additional information. In situ

  19. Understanding the geomorphology of macrochannel systems for flood risk management in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky

    2016-04-01

    The year 2010-2011 was the wettest on record for the state of Queensland, Australia producing catastrophic floods. A tropical low pressure system in 2013 delivered further extreme flood events across South East Queensland (SEQ) which prompted state and local governments to conduct studies into flood magnitude and frequency in the region and catchment factors contributing to flood hazards. The floods in the region are strongly influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, but also modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) which leads to flood and drought dominated regimes and high hydrological variability. One geomorphic feature in particular exerted a significant control on the transmission speed, the magnitude of flood inundation and resultant landscape resilience. This feature was referred to as a 'macrochannel', a term used to describe a 'large-channel' which has bankfull recurrence intervals generally greater than 10 years. The macrochannels display non-linear downstream hydraulic geometry which leads to zones of flood expansion (when hydraulic geometry decreases) and zones of flood contraction (when hydraulic geometry increases). The pattern of contraction and expansion zones determines flood hazard zones. The floods caused significant wet flow bank mass failures that mobilised over 1,000,000 m3 of sediment in one subcatchment. Results suggest that the wetflow bank mass failures are a stage in a cyclical evolution process which maintains the macrochannel morphology, hence channel resilience to floods. Chronological investigations further show the macrochannels are laterally stable and identify periods of heightened flood activity over the past millennium and upper limits on flood magnitude. This paper elaborates on the results of the geomorphic investigations on Lockyer Creek in SEQ and how the results have alerted managers and policy makers to the different flood responses of these systems and how flood risk management plans can

  20. Comparative laboratory and field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and lemon eucalyptus oil against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Rigby, L M; Chow, W K

    2014-03-01

    A field trial comparing a formulation containing 40% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide) in ethanol (Bushman) and 32% lemon eucalyptus oil (LEO; Mosi-guard) as protection against mosquitoes at Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia, was conducted in February 2012 and February 2013. The 40% deet formulation provided 100% protection against mosquitoes for 7 h, while the 32% LEO provided >95% protection for 3 h. PMID:24772681

  1. Heavy metal distribution and controlling factors within coastal plain sediments, Bells Creek catchment, southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Liaghati, Tania; Preda, Micaela; Cox, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    Bells Creek catchment in southeast Queensland (Australia) is a non-industrialised coastal plain limited to small settlements and agricultural land. A study was initiated to examine elevated metal concentrations and to assess horizontal and vertical distribution of those elements. Ninety-nine samples were analysed for Cr, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Mn and Al. Total organic carbon, sulfur content and mineralogy of samples along with land-use practices across the catchment were used to identify processes which influence metal distribution. A comparison between metal concentration within the study area and mean heavy metal content of standard sandstone showed that except for Mn, all other metals showed elevated levels throughout the catchment. When metal concentrations were compared to parent bedrock, however, it was concluded that elevated levels are likely to be natural. A normalisation procedure was applied to the data set and this analysis validated that elevated trace metal concentrations in most samples are not due to artificial contamination. While surficial estuarine sediments were only enriched in V, soils were dominantly enriched in Cr, Zn and V. Overall, geochemistry and mineralogy of the samples show the effect of both natural and anthropogenic inputs to the catchment, however, natural processes are more dominant than anthropogenic inputs in concentrating metals. PMID:14592571

  2. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species. PMID:25096127

  3. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Belinda; Undery, Rebecca; Ahmed, Humza

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs), brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant's sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual. PMID:24526901

  4. New U/Th ages for Pleistocene megafauna deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Hocknull, Scott A.

    2009-02-01

    Arguments over the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna have become particularly polarised in recent years. Causes for the extinctions are widely debated with climate change, human hunting and/or habitat modification, or a combination of those factors, being the dominant hypotheses. However, a lack of a spatially constrained chronology for many megafauna renders most hypotheses difficult to test. Here, we present several new U/Th dates for a series of previously undated, megafauna-bearing localities from southeastern Queensland, Australia. The sites were previously used to argue for or against various megafauna extinction hypotheses, and are the type localities for two now-extinct Pleistocene marsupials (including the giant koala, Phascolarctos stirtoni). The new dating allows the deposits to be placed in a spatially- and temporally constrained context relevant to the understanding of Australian megafaunal extinctions. The results indicate that The Joint (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is middle Pleistocene or older (>292 ky); the Cement Mills (Gore) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene or older (>53 ky); and the Russenden Cave Bone Chamber (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene (˜55 ky). Importantly, the new results broadly show that the sites date prior to the hypothesised megafaunal extinction 'window' (i.e., ˜30-50 ky), and therefore, cannot be used to argue exclusively for or against human/climate change extinction models, without first exploring their palaeoecological significance on wider temporal and spatial scales.

  5. Monitoring temporal changes in use of two cathinones in a large urban catchment in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; Lai, Foon Yin; Edirisinghe, Methsiri; Hall, Wayne; Bruno, Raimondo; O'Brien, Jake W; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater analysis was used to examine prevalence and temporal trends in the use of two cathinones, methylone and mephedrone, in an urban population (>200,000 people) in South East Queensland, Australia. Wastewater samples were collected from the inlet of the sewage treatment plant that serviced the catchment from 2011 to 2013. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure mephedrone and methylone in wastewater sample using direct injection mode. Mephedrone was not detected in any samples while methylone was detected in 45% of the samples. Daily mass loads of methylone were normalized to the population and used to evaluate methylone use in the catchment. Methylone mass loads peaked in 2012 but there was no clear temporal trend over the monitoring period. The prevalence of methylone use in the catchment was associated with the use of MDMA, the more popular analogue of methylone, as indicated by other complementary sources. Methylone use was stable in the study catchment during the monitoring period whereas mephedrone use has been declining after its peak in 2010. More research is needed on the pharmacokinetics of emerging illicit drugs to improve the applicability of wastewater analysis in monitoring their use in the population. PMID:26747989

  6. Clay mineralogy of the Greenvale Ore Body, Queensland, Australia: Implications for the interpretation of paleoclimate

    SciTech Connect

    Lev, S.; Anderson, K.; Ramirez, B.; Sun, H.; Swank, R.; Yost, D.; Huff, W.; Maynard, J.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    A 3--5% nickel enriched laterite in the Greenvale Ore Body of Queensland, Australia, is the result of weathering a serpentinized ultramafic intrusion. Variations in solubilities and drainage, typical of laterite deposits, resulted in the formation of three primary zones: (1) the Saprolite zone, (2) the Intermediate zone, and (3) the Limonite zone. Within these zones, clay mineral species with distinct chemistries and/or mineralogies have been identified, including: Ni-rich Smectite, Halloysite, and Palygorskite. Clay minerals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction and SEM. Bulk chemistry was determined by X-ray fluorescence in an attempt to better constrain the chemical conditions at the time of formation of the clay minerals. Results indicate a complex drainage system and history for the Greenvale Ore Body. Based on the distribution of ore grade material, it is apparent that the deposit was initially characterized by fracture controlled drainage. Owing to precipitation of Ni-rich smectite, halloysite, and palygorskite, subsequent alteration of the ore body drainage network and/or local climate can be inferred.

  7. Pathogen presence in feral pigs and their movement around two commercial piggeries in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, H E; Toribio, J-A L M L; Hernandez-Jover, M; Marshall, D; Lapidge, S J

    2014-03-29

    Feral pigs are wild animal reservoirs of infectious pathogens transmissible to other species, all of which are transmissible to domestic pigs. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of harmful production-limiting pathogens; Brucella suis, Leptospira species, Lawsonia intracellularis, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a feral pig population within a 10 km radius of two large-scale commercial piggeries in Southern Queensland, Australia. The movement pattern of six pigs within the feral population was also investigated using geographic positioning system collars. All pathogens were present in the feral pig population except for A pleuropneumoniae. The true seroprevalence (TP) from 83 serum samples was 10.5 per cent for B suis, 48.6 per cent for Leptospira species, 100 per cent for L intracellularis and 42.1 per cent for M hyopneumoniae. Of 72 lung samples, 27.6 per cent were positive for M hyopneumoniae. Serum samples from 86 domestic sows within the study region were positive for Leptospira species (TP 2.1 per cent), L intracellularis (TP 100 per cent) and M hyopneumoniae (TP 100 per cent). The majority of feral pig movement was within 5 km of the piggeries, with one approaching to 100 m of the free-range piggery. The presence of pathogens in feral pigs in such close proximity to commercial piggeries could pose a biosecurity risk. PMID:24572722

  8. Perceptions of air pollution during the work-related commute by adults in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badland, Hannah M.; Duncan, Mitch J.

    2009-12-01

    BackgroundThis study examines perceived health effect risks from air pollution during the work-related commute by socio-demographic and travel mode variables. MethodsPopulation-representative survey data were collected by telephone from 745 adults from Queensland, Australia. Variables assessed included socio-demographics, usual work travel mode, commute perceptions, and perceived health effects associated with air pollution during the work-related commute. ResultsApproximately 45% of the sample perceived air pollution negatively affected health outcomes when commuting to/from work, yet only 13% recognised air pollution as a major barrier to walking or cycling to/from work. No relationships existed between usual travel mode to/from work and perceived health risks associated with air pollution. Those higher educated or living in major cities were more likely to recognise air pollution harmed their health during their work-related commute when compared to respective referent categories ( p ≤ 0.05). ConclusionsRecognition of health risks from air pollution during the work-related commute was high, and awareness did not differ by travel mode. For the majority, air pollution was not a primary barrier for walking or cycling to/from work.

  9. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of maternal red cell alloimmunisation: a population study from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pal, Manika; Williams, Bronwyn

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current prevalence of red cell antigen alloimmunisation in Australia. Blood group (ABO and RhD) and red cell antibody screen results of pregnant women who presented at public hospitals in Queensland between the period of January 2011 and June 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Antibody prevalence in pregnancy was compared to other published studies. A total of 482 positive antibody screens from 66,354 samples (0.73%) were identified. The prevalence of antibodies was: anti-E 27.6%; anti-D 10.4%; anti-Kell 9.5%; anti-c 8.7%; anti-Duffy 3.1%, including Fy and Fy; anti-MNS 7.9%, including M, N, S and s; anti-Lewis 6%, including Le and Le; and multiple antibodies (16%, including anti-D). Compared to other studies, including one from Australia in 1977, the anti-D alloimmunisation rate had dropped significantly, with little change in anti-c and some increase in anti-E and anti-Kell cases. Continued vigilance is required to ensure eligible RhD negative women receive prophylaxis according to the current RhD immunoprophylaxis guidelines, especially those who have a fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH). RhD positive women that are at risk of developing an antibody during pregnancy should have their pregnancy monitored according to published guidelines. Once antibodies are identified, consideration should be given to paternal antigen status in an attempt to identify the pregnancy that will be at risk of alloimmunisation. PMID:25551305

  11. School Leavers in Country Areas. A Study of School Leavers in Selected Rural Areas of Western Australia, Queensland and Tasmania. Research Study No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoessiger, Rex

    Two or three selected rural regions in Western Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania were surveyed to find out what happens to school leavers in rural areas of Australia and how their perceived options and actual opportunities can be enhanced. The three-phase survey began with a questionnaire being administered to all Year 9-12 students in Western…

  12. Fine-suspended sediment and water budgets for a large, seasonally dry tropical catchment: Burdekin River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Zoë T.; Lewis, Stephen E.; Smithers, Scott G.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Henderson, Brent L.; Brodie, Jon E.

    2014-11-01

    The Burdekin River catchment (˜130,400 km2) is a seasonally dry tropical catchment located in north-east Queensland, Australia. It is the single largest source of suspended sediment to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Fine sediments are a threat to ecosystems on the GBR where they contribute to elevated turbidity (reduced light), sedimentation stress, and potential impacts from the associated nutrients. Suspended sediment data collected over a 5 year period were used to construct a catchment-wide sediment source and transport budget. The Bowen River tributary was identified as the major source of end-of-river suspended sediment export, yielding an average of 530 t km-2 yr-1 during the study period. Sediment trapping within a large reservoir (1.86 million ML) and the preferential transport of clays and fine silts downstream of the structure were also examined. The data reveal that the highest clay and fine silt loads—which are of most interest to environmental managers of the GBR—are not always sourced from areas that yield the largest total suspended sediment load (i.e., all size fractions). Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating particle size into catchment sediment budget studies undertaken to inform management decisions to reduce downstream turbidity and sedimentation. Our data on sediment source, reservoir influence, and subcatchment and catchment yields will improve understandings of sediment dynamics in other tropical catchments, particularly those located in seasonally wet-dry tropical savannah/semiarid climates. The influence of climatic variability (e.g., drought/wetter periods) on annual sediment loads within large seasonally dry tropical catchments is also demonstrated by our data.

  13. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and paracetamol use in Queensland and in the whole of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Barozzi, Nadia; Tett, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    Background Cross national drug utilization studies can provide information about different influences on physician prescribing. This is important for medicines with issues around safety and quality of use, like non selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ns-NSAIDs) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. To enable comparison of prescription medicine use across different jurisdictions with a range of population sizes, data first need to be compared within Australia to understand whether use in a smaller sub-population may be considered as representative of the total use within Australia. The aim of this study was to compare the utilization of non selective NSAID, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol between Queensland and Australia. Method Dispensing data were obtained for concession beneficiaries for Australia for ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol subsidized by the PBS over the period 1997–2003. The same data were purchased for Queensland. Data were converted to Defined Daily Dose (DDD)/1000 beneficiaries/day (World Health Organization anatomical therapeutic chemical classification, 2005). Results Total NSAID and paracetamol consumption were similar in Australia and Queensland. Ns-NSAID use decreased sharply with the introduction of COX-2 inhibitors (from approximately 80 to 40 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day). Paracetamol was constant (approximately 45 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day). COX-2 inhibitors consumption was initially higher in Queensland than in the whole of Australia. Conclusion Despite initial divergence in celecoxib use between Queensland and Australia, the use of ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol overall, in concession beneficiaries, was comparable in Australia and Queensland. PMID:18816393

  14. Validation of satellite-based operational flood monitoring in Southern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouweleeuw, Ben; Ticehurst, Catherine; Lerat, Julien; Thew, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The integration of remote sensing observations with stage data and flood modeling has the potential to provide improved support to a number of disciplines, such as flood warning emergency response and operational water resources management. The ability of remote sensing technology to monitor the dynamics of hydrological events lies in its capacity to map surface water. For flood monitoring, remote sensing imagery needs to be available sufficiently frequently to capture subsequent inundation stages. MODIS optical data are available at a moderately high spatial and temporal resolution (250m-1km, twice daily), but are affected by cloud cover. AMSR-E passive microwave observations are available at comparable temporal resolution, but coarse spatial resolution (5-70km), where the smaller footprints corresponds with the higher frequency bands, which are affected by precipitating clouds. A novel operational technique to monitor flood extent combines MODIS reflectance and AMSR-E passive microwave imagery to optimize data continuity. Flood extent is subsequently combined with a DEM to obtain total flood water volume. The flood extent and volume product is operational for the lower-Balonne floodplain in Southern Queensland, Australia. For validation purposes, two moderate flood events coinciding with the MODIS and AMSR-E sensor lifetime are evaluated. The flood volume estimated from MODIS/AMSR-E images gives an accurate indication of both the timing and the magnitude of the flood peak compared to the net volume from recorded flow. In the flood recession, however, satellite-derived water volume declines rapidly, while the net flow volume remains level. This may be explained by a combination of ungauged outflows, soil infiltration, evaporation and diversion of flood water into many large open reservoirs for irrigation purposes. The open water storage extent unchanged, the water volume product is not sensitive enough to capture the change in storage water level. Additional

  15. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  16. Habitat and biodiversity of on-farm water storages: a case study in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Markwell, Kim A; Fellows, Christine S

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners' motivations in making farm pond management decisions.The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover.The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds across

  17. Petrogenesis of peralkaline rhyolites in an intra-plate setting: Glass House Mountains, southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fengli; Niu, Yaoling; Regelous, Marcel; Zhu, Di-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    We report petrological and geochemical data on coeval trachybasalts, syenites with enclaves, trachytes, peralkaline rhyolites and peraluminous rhyolites from the Glass House Mountains-Maleny-Noosa area, southeast Queensland, Australia. This rock association and the unique characteristics of the peralkaline rhyolites offer convincing lines of evidence that the petrogenesis of the peralkaline rhyolites is a straightforward consequence of protracted fractional crystallization from basaltic melts of alkali-rich composition. Compared to the common peraluminous rhyolites elsewhere, the peralkaline rhyolites here are characterized by elevated abundances of most incompatible elements, especially the very high Nb (vs. Th) and Ta (vs. U), the very low Ba, Sr and Eu and the extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratio. The high Nb and Ta are inherited from the parental alkali basaltic melts. The low Ba, Sr and Eu result from removal of plagioclase during the protracted fractional crystallization. These rocks altogether define a Rb-Sr isochron of ~ 28 Ma, which is similar to Ar-Ar age data on these rocks in the literature. The extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the peralkaline rhyolites (up to 1.88) is actually characteristic of peralkaline rhyolites because of extreme Sr (also Eu and Ba) depletion and thus the very high Rb/Sr ratio. That is, the Sr in these rocks is essentially radiogenic 87Sr accumulated from the 87Rb decay since the volcanism. We suggest that the petrogenesis of the peralkaline rhyolites from the Glass House Mountain area may be of general significance globally. The coeval peraluminous rhyolites apparently result from crustal anatexis in response to the basaltic magma underplating. The small "Daly Gap" exhibited in this rock association is anticipated during the protracted fractional crystallization from basaltic parent to the more evolved felsic varieties.

  18. Catchment salt balances in the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Andrew J. W.; Silburn, D. Mark; Power, R. Edward

    2013-09-01

    Catchment salt mass balances and export/import ratios were calculated for 55 gauging stations in nine major catchments across the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin (QMDB), Australia. Salt inputs were comprised of atmospheric, groundwater and inter-basin transfer contributions, while exports were derived from model runs calibrated to streamflow data and flow-salt relationships. Catchment atmospheric salt inputs were larger than groundwater inputs in the major catchments, with the exception of the Condamine catchment. Across the whole QMDB, the magnitude of atmospheric and groundwater inputs is potentially equal. Average annual streamflow salt export is generally much less than salt input, even when atmospheric inputs alone are considered, and is strongly influenced by episodic, large events. The exceptions to this are some smaller salt-affected upland catchments in the eastern QMDB where flow is more continual (i.e. baseflow occurs) and stream salinity is higher - a result of long-term land use change impacts. Variability in catchment salt export/import ratio (E/I) as a result of different calculation methods for both inputs and outputs creates a wide range in possible E/I for some sites, but trends remain the same. Losses of stream water to floodplains, seepage and extractions in lower portions of catchments leads to significant reductions in E/I with distance downstream. It appears that in general, the natural status of the QMDB is one of salt accumulation and significant hydrologic changes - as represented through salt mass balance calculations - are largely confined to the eastern half of the Basin, although further change may yet express in the landscape.

  19. Geology of oil-shale deposits within the Narrows Graben, Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Henstridge, D.A.; Missen, D.D.

    1982-06-01

    The Narrows Beds are a Tertiary sedimentary sequence containing oil shale seams, which were deposited in a narrow north-northwest-trending graben. The graben is about 24 mi (38 km) long by 3 mi (5 km) wide and is located adjacent to the central Queensland coast. Two similar oil-shale deposits, Rundle and Stuart containing 5.1 billion bbl of shale oil have been defined within the graben. The Tertiary sedimentary rocks, which were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine environment, are more than 3280 ft (1000 m) thick and dip gently westward. They consist of the Worthington beds and the Rundle and Curlew Formations. The Worthington beds range from conglomerate through sandstone to claystone. The Rundle Formation consists of six kerogenous seams and a claystone unit. The sedimentary rocks are consistent throughout the graben. The Curlew Formation is an interbedded sequence of claystone and minor carbonaceous shale. The Worthington beds and the Rundle Formation have been intruded by olivine dolerite, which is not extensive. Quaternary overburden blankets most of the area. Paleontologic studies indicate an early to late eocene age for the Rundle and Curlew Formations. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Parasites of QX-resistant and wild-type Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) in Moreton Bay, SE Queensland, Australia: diversity and host response.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C; Chan, Janlin; Hénault, Olivier; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    Wild caught (WC) and QX resistant (QXR) Sydney rock oysters were introduced at North Stradbroke Island and Pimpama River, SE Queensland, Australia, and sampled monthly during 1 year. Three groups of parasites/diseases were identified by observation of histological sections: (1) Marteilia sydneyi (Queensland unknown (QX) disease) and Steinhausia sp. (Microsporidia) characterized by a high prevalence and deleterious impact on the host; (2) disseminated neoplasia and the trematode Proctoeces sp. characterized by low prevalence but deleterious effects on the host; (3) parasites or symbionts with no detectable effect on the host: trematodes, ciliates, turbellarians and metacestodes. Mortality rates were similar between both oyster lines but higher at Pimpama River (reaching around 90%) than Stradbroke Island, mostly because of QX disease and, to a lesser extent, to the unfavourable environmental conditions of the summer 2010-2011. Lower prevalences of QX disease at Stradbroke Island probably related to the relative lack of intermediate hosts of the parasite and to lower freshwater input. Surprisingly, no difference in prevalence of QX disease was observed between the two oyster lines. PMID:23274078

  1. Landsat Based Woody Vegetation Loss Detection in Queensland, Australia Using the Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, K.; Phinn, S. R.; Taylor, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land clearing detection and woody Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) monitoring at the state and national level in Australia has mainly been undertaken by state governments and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) because of the considerable expense, expertise, sustained duration of activities and staffing levels needed. Only recently have services become available, providing low budget, generalized access to change detection tools suited to this task. The objective of this research was to examine if a globally available service, Google Earth Engine Beta, could be used to predict woody vegetation loss with accuracies approaching the methods used by TERN and the government of the state of Queensland, Australia. Two change detection approaches were investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper time series and the Google Earth Engine Application Programming Interface: (1) CART and Random Forest classifiers; and (2) a normalized time series of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) and NDVI combined with a spectral index. The CART and Random Forest classifiers produced high user's and producer's mapping accuracies of clearing (77-92% and 54-77%, respectively) when detecting change within epochs for which training data were available, but extrapolation to epochs without training data reduced the mapping accuracies. The use of FPC and NDVI time series provided a more robust approach for calculation of a clearing probability, as it did not rely on training data but instead on the difference of the normalized FPC / NDVI mean and standard deviation of a single year at the change point in relation to the remaining time series. However, the FPC and NDVI time series approach represented a trade-off between user's and producer's accuracies. Both change detection approaches explored in this research were sensitive to ephemeral greening and drying of the landscape. However, the developed normalized FPC and NDVI time series approach can be tuned to provide automated alerts for large

  2. Dua sakit (double sick): trauma and the settlement experiences of West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Kareth, Moses

    2009-08-01

    There is mounting evidence of systematic abuses, including torture, rape and extrajudicial killings directed against independence activists as well as the civilian population in Indonesian occupied West Papua. Refugees from West Papua have sought safety in neighbouring Australia, experiencing hazardous journeys during their flight. We report early observations from a mental health study among West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland, Australia. The project includes qualitative methods aimed at gathering histories of trauma and human rights violations as well as standard mental health assessments and indices of acculturation and resettlement stresses. We consider the emerging data from the vantage point of the Adaptation and Development After Persecution and Trauma model that identifies five psychosocial domains that require repair following exposure to gross human rights violations and refugee trauma. The model emphasizes the inter-relatedness of key challenges, the compounding of adversity, and the bivalent effects of complex experiences, with both positive and negative elements shaping the adaptive trajectory of displaced persons. Refugee groups have their own approaches to conceptualizing the complexity of their problems, with the term dua sakit representing the expression used by West Papuans to identify the multiple challenges they face. The study highlights the importance of assessing each refugee group within its unique social and cultural context, taking into account such diverse factors as geographical location, employment, and ongoing conflict in the homeland in designing appropriate interventions. PMID:19579126

  3. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R. Lesley; Gynther, Ian C.; Leung, Luke K-P.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species’ range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population’s size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline. PMID:26789521

  4. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R Lesley; Gynther, Ian C; Leung, Luke K-P; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline. PMID:26789521

  5. Building of tropical beach ridges, northeastern Queensland, Australia: Cyclone inundation and aeolian decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Toru; Nicholas, William; Brooke, Brendan; Oliver, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Processes associated with tropical cyclones are thought responsible for building coarse sand beach ridges along the northeastern Queensland coast, Australia. While these ridges are expected to be geological records of the past cyclone, they question the general consensus of the aeolian genesis of sandy beach ridges. To explore the ridge-forming process, we carried out the GPR survey, auger drilling, pit excavation, grain-size analysis, and OSL dating for coarse sand beach ridges at the Cowley Beach, northeastern Queensland. The Cowley Beach is a mesotidal beach characterized by a low-tide terrace and steep beach face. Ten beach ridges are recognized along the survey transect that extends 700 m inland from the shore. 37 OSL ages are younger seawards, indicating the seaward accretion of the ridge sequence over the last 2700 years. The highest ridge is +5.1 m high above AHD (Australian Height Datum). Two GPR units are bounded by a groundwater surface at c. +1.5 m AHD. The upper unit is characterized by horizontal to hummocky reflectors punctuated by seaward dipping truncation surfaces. These reflectors in places form dome-like structure that appears to be the nucleus of a beach ridge. The shape and level (+2.5 m AHD) of the dome are similar to those of the present swash berm. The lower unit shows a sequence of reflectors that dip at an angle of present beach face. The sequence is dissected by truncation surfaces, some of which are continuous to those in the upper unit. Coarse sand mainly forms beach ridge deposits below +4.0 m AHD, while a few higher ridges have an upward fining layer composed of medium sand above +4.0 m, which is finer than aeolian ripples found on the backshore during the survey. In addition, pumice gravel horizons underlie the examined ridge crests. The sequence of seaward dipping reflectors indicates that the Cowley Beach, like other many sandy beaches, has prograded during onshore sand accretion by fairweather waves and has been eroded by storms

  6. Spatiotemporal modelling of groundwater extraction in semi-arid central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keir, Greg; Bulovic, Nevenka; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid Surat Basin in central Queensland, Australia, forms part of the Great Artesian Basin, a groundwater resource of national significance. While this area relies heavily on groundwater supply bores to sustain agricultural industries and rural life in general, measurement of groundwater extraction rates is very limited. Consequently, regional groundwater extraction rates are not well known, which may have implications for regional numerical groundwater modelling. However, flows from a small number of bores are metered, and less precise anecdotal estimates of extraction are increasingly available. There is also an increasing number of other spatiotemporal datasets which may help predict extraction rates (e.g. rainfall, temperature, soils, stocking rates etc.). These can be used to construct spatial multivariate regression models to estimate extraction. The data exhibit complicated statistical features, such as zero-valued observations, non-Gaussianity, and non-stationarity, which limit the use of many classical estimation techniques, such as kriging. As well, water extraction histories may exhibit temporal autocorrelation. To account for these features, we employ a separable space-time model to predict bore extraction rates using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference. A joint approach is used to model both the probability (using a binomial likelihood) and magnitude (using a gamma likelihood) of extraction. The correlation between extraction rates in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model. To reduce computational burden, we allow the GMRF to be evaluated at a relatively coarse temporal resolution, while still allowing predictions to be made at arbitrarily small time scales. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, and present some

  7. What Makes Community Engagement Effective?: Lessons from the Eliminate Dengue Program in Queensland Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide, more than 40% of the population is at risk from dengue and recent estimates suggest that up to 390 million dengue infections are acquired every year. The Eliminate Dengue (ED) Program is investigating the use of Wolbachia-infected, transmission-compromised, mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission. Previous introductions of genetically-modified strategies for dengue vector control have generated controversy internationally by inadequately engaging host communities. Community Engagement (CE) was a key component of the ED Program’s initial open release trials in Queensland Australia. Their approach to CE was perceived as effective by the ED team’s senior leadership, members of its CE team, and by its funders, but if and why this was the case was unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study of the ED Program’s approach to CE to identify and critically examine its components, and to explain whether and how these efforts contributed to the support received by stakeholders. Methodology/Principal Findings In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants with a range of experiences and perspectives related to the ED Program’s CE activities. Our analytic approach combined techniques of grounded theory and qualitative description. The ED Program’s approach to CE reflected four foundational features: 1) enabling conditions; 2) leadership; 3) core commitments and guiding values; and 4) formative social science research. These foundations informed five key operational practices: 1) building the CE team; 2) integrating CE into management practices; 3) discerning the community of stakeholders; 4) establishing and maintaining a presence in the community; and 5) socializing the technology and research strategy. We also demonstrate how these practices contributed to stakeholders’ willingness to support the trials. Conclusions/Significance Our case study has identified, and explained the functional relationships among, the

  8. Thermal History of Drummond Basin, Queensland (Australia) from Apatite and Zircon (U-Th)/He Thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Min, K. K.; Bryan, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal history of the Drummond Basin in central Queensland (Australia) has only been partly investigated. Inverse thermal modeling of apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He data can reveal the complex thermal history of sedimentary basins. We performed (U-Th)/He dating for detrital apatite and zircon grains extracted from five sandstone samples from the Campaspe DDH-1 drill hole. Mean apatite helium ages generally increase from 65.9 Ma (depth = 538 m) to 83.8 Ma (depth = 263 m). The deeper four samples yielded mean zircon helium (ZHe) ages of 289.7 - 278.2 Ma, with a systematic increase of the ZHe ages from deep to shallow samples. The shallowest sample (depth = 117 m) yielded a mean ZHe age of 263.6 Ma. Our inverse thermal modeling suggests five thermal events since burial: (1) rapid heating to the maximum temperature of 180~380 oC during ~320-290 Ma, (2) rapid cooling from ~260 oC to ~80 oC during ~290-240 Ma, (3) subdued cooling from ~80 oC to ~30 oC during ~240-200 Ma, (4) slow heating from ~30 oC to ~80 oC during ~200-80 Ma, followed by (5) rapid cooling from ~80 oC to ~35 oC at ~80 Ma. The timing and temperature conditions of the initial thermal event are consistent with K/Ar ages and temperatures deduced from illite. This period was characterized by voluminous regional magmatism and crustal extension preceding opening of the overlying Bowen Basin. Rapid cooling during ~290-240 Ma identified by our inverse thermal modeling roughly coincides with the thermal relaxation phase and foreland basin phase of the overlying Bowen Basin. This rapid cooling was probably a result of cessation of extension and subsequent contractional events to the east of Bowen Basin. Cooling slowed down during ~240-200 Ma. The Drummond Basin probably underwent serious erosion during this period, coeval with the peneplanation phase of the Bowen Basin. As is delineated by our modeling, the Drummond Basin was slowly heated from ~20 oC to ~90 oC during ~200-80 Ma, synchronous with development of

  9. Formulating a VET roadmap for the waste and recycling sector: A case study from Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing qualifications do not meet the needs of the sector in Queensland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Businesses may not be best positioned to identify training needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Companies are developing training internally to meet their own specific needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smaller companies lack the resources to develop internal training are disadvantaged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is industry support for an entry-level, minimum industry qualification. - Abstract: Vocational Education and Training (VET) is an essential tool for providing waste management and recycling workers with the necessary skills and knowledge needed to beneficially influence their own employment and career development; and to also ensure productivity and safe working conditions within the organisations in which they are employed. Current training opportunities within Queensland for the sector are limited and not widely communicated or marketed; with other States, particularly Victoria and New South Wales, realising higher numbers of VET enrollments for waste management courses. This paper presents current VET opportunities and trends for the Queensland waste management sector. Results from a facilitated workshop to identify workforce requirements and future training needs organised by the Waste Contractors and Recyclers Association of Queensland (WCRAQ) are also presented and discussion follows on the future training needs of the industry within Queensland.

  10. A qualitative study of pharmacy nurse providers of community based post-birth care in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced length of hospital stay following childbirth has placed increasing demands on community-based post-birth care services in Australia. Queensland is one of several states in Australia in which nurses are employed privately by pharmacies to provide maternal and child health care, yet little is known about their prevalence, attributes or role. The aims of this paper are to (1) explore the experiences and perspectives of a sample of pharmacy nurses and GPs who provide maternal and child health services in Queensland, Australia (2) describe the professional qualifications of the sample of pharmacy nurses, and (3) describe and analyze the location of pharmacy nurse clinics in relation to publicly provided services. Methods As part of a state-wide evaluation of post-birth care in Queensland, Australia, case studies were conducted in six regional and metropolitan areas which included interviews with 47 key informants involved in postnatal care provision. We report on the prevalence of pharmacy nurses in the case study sites, and on the key informant interviews with 19 pharmacy nurses and six General Practitioners (GPs). The interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Results The prevalence of pharmacy nurses appears to be highest where public services are least well integrated, coordinated and/or accessible. Pharmacy nurses report high levels of demand for their services, which they argue fill a number of gaps in the public provision of maternal and child health care including accessibility, continuity of carer, flexibility and convenient location. The concerns of pharmacy nurses include lack of privacy for consultations, limited capacity for client record keeping and follow up, and little opportunity for professional development, while GPs expressed concerns about inadequate public care and about the lack of regulation of pharmacy based care. Conclusions Pharmacy based clinics are a market-driven response to gaps in the public provision of

  11. Significant features of the epidemiology of equine influenza in Queensland, Australia, 2007.

    PubMed

    Kung, N; Mackenzie, S; Pitt, D; Robinson, B; Perkins, N R

    2011-07-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) caused by influenza A H3N8 subtype virus occurred in the Australian states of Queensland and New South Wales in August 2007. Infection in the Australian horse population was associated with the introduction of infection by horses from overseas. The first case of EI in Queensland was detected on 25 August 2007 at an equestrian sporting event. Infection subsequently spread locally and to other clusters through horse movements prior to the implementation of an official standstill. There were five main clusters of infected properties during this outbreak and several outliers, which were investigated to find the potential mechanism of disease spread. To contain the outbreak, Queensland was divided into infection status zones, with different movement controls applied to each zone. Vaccination was implemented strategically in infected areas and within horse subpopulations. Control and eventual eradication of EI from Queensland was achieved through a combination of quarantine, biosecurity measures, movement control, rapid diagnostic testing and vaccination. PMID:21711297

  12. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  13. Student Focus: Project Report of a Student-Centered Study of University Services at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenders, David A.; Hope, Peter; Ninnan, Abraham

    This study assessed student perceptions of service at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane (Australia). Data were based on open-ended discussions with 48 undergraduate focus groups during which participants were asked what they perceived to be the good and bad aspects of university life, what they did to cope with obstacles, and how…

  14. Promoting and Disseminating Good Practice in the Planning and Management of Educational Facilities: Capital Investment Strategic Planning - A Case Study, Gold Coast Institute of TAFE, Queensland, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Kelvin

    This paper presents a case study of the process of capital investment strategic planning at the Gold Coast Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE), Queensland, Australia. Capital investment strategic planning is a means of contributing to success by providing strategies to ensure that assets are managed efficiently, effectively, and…

  15. Metals in agricultural produce associated with acid-mine drainage in Mount Morgan (Queensland, Australia).

    PubMed

    Vicente-Beckett, Victoria A; McCauley, Gaylene J Taylor; Duivenvoorden, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) into the Dee River from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) has been of concern to farmers in the area since 1925. This study sought to determine the levels of AMD-related metals and sulfur in agricultural produce grown near the mine-impacted Dee River, compare these with similar produce grown in reference fields (which had no known AMD influence), and assess any potential health risk using relevant Australian or US guidelines. Analyses of lucerne (Medicago sativa; also known as alfalfa) from five Dee fields showed the following average concentrations (mg/kg dry basis): Cd < 1, Cu 11, Fe 106, Mn 52, Pb < 5, Zn 25 and S 3934; similar levels were found in lucerne hay (used as cattle feed) from two Dee fields. All lucerne and lucerne hay data were generally comparable with levels found in the lucerne reference fields, suggesting no AMD influence; the levels were within the US National Research Council (US NRC) guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake. Pasture grass (also cattle feed) from two fields in the Dee River floodplains gave mean concentrations (mg/kg dry) of Cd 0.14, Cu 12, Fe 313, Mn 111, Pb 1.4, Zn 86 and S 2450. All metal levels from the Dee and from reference sites were below the US NRC guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake; however, the average Cd, Cu and Fe levels in Dee samples were significantly greater than the corresponding levels in the pasture grass reference sites, suggesting AMD influence in the Dee samples. The average levels in the edible portions of mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) from Dee sites (mg/kg wet weight) were Cd 0.011, Cu 0.59, Fe 2.2, Mn 0.56, Pb 0.18, S 91 and Zn 0.96. Cd and Zn were less than or close to, average Fe and Mn levels were at most twice, Cd 1.8 or 6.5 times, and Pb 8.5 or 72 times the maximum levels in raw oranges reported in the US total diet study (TDS) or the Australian TDS, respectively. Average Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and

  16. Cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine residues in wastewater: Consumption trends (2009-2015) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Hall, Wayne; Chan, Gary; Bruno, Raimondo; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Carter, Steve; Anuj, Shalona; Kirkbride, K Paul; Gartner, Coral; Humphries, Melissa; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater analysis, or wastewater-based epidemiology, has become a common tool to monitor trends of illicit drug consumption around the world. In this study, we examined trends in cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine consumption by measuring their residues in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Australia (specifically, an urban and a rural catchment, both in South East Queensland) between 2009 and 2015. With direct injection of the samples, target analytes were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine and MDMA residues and metabolites were mainly quantifiable in the urban catchment while methamphetamine residues were consistently detected in both urban and rural catchments. There was no consistent trend in the population normalised mass loads observed for cocaine and MDMA at the urban site between 2009 and 2015. In contrast, there was a five-fold increase in methamphetamine consumption over this period in this catchment. For methamphetamine consumption, the rural area showed a very similar trend as the urban catchment starting at a lower baseline. The observed increase in per capita loads of methamphetamine via wastewater analysis over the past six years in South East Queensland provides objective evidence for increased methamphetamine consumption in the Australian population while the use of other illicit stimulants remained relatively stable. PMID:27325011

  17. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period. PMID:26322495

  18. Floodplain dynamics in space and time: the case of the Lockyer Valley south-east Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croke, J.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-two lives were lost in the Lockyer Creek floods in southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia in the summer of 2011. The predicted average recurrence interval (ARI) for this event in the upper catchment was ~ 2000 yrs based on relatively short gauging station records (median 38 yrs in Eastern Australia). This study presents an assessment of the basin-scale (3000km2) spatial patterns of floodplain erosion, deposition, and net morphological change following the January 2011 using multitemporal Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) DEMs. Clear spatial patterns of floodplain deposition and erosion are evident reflecting high degrees of variability in channel capacity and floodplain inundation frequency. This data is then compared to a millennial-scale record of floodplain deposition from six key reaches of the Lockyer Valley determined using extensive stratigraphic and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. OSL samples were taken from both bedrock and alluvial reaches and from both floodplain and within-channel benches. This presentation discusses the resultant spatial and temporal dynamics of floodplain deposition in a catchment dominated by hydrological extremes. The results highlight some important considerations of preservation potential in floodplain reconstruction but also provide data to test key hypotheses with respect to flood reconstruction in south eastern Australia.

  19. An empirical model of water quality for use in rapid management strategy evaluation in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    de la Mare, William; Ellis, Nick; Pascual, Ricardo; Tickell, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Simulation models have been widely adopted in fisheries for management strategy evaluation (MSE). However, in catchment management of water quality, MSE is hampered by the complexity of both decision space and the hydrological process models. Empirical models based on monitoring data provide a feasible alternative to process models; they run much faster and, by conditioning on data, they can simulate realistic responses to management actions. Using 10 years of water quality indicators from Queensland, Australia, we built an empirical model suitable for rapid MSE that reproduces the water quality variables' mean and covariance structure, adjusts the expected indicators through local management effects, and propagates effects downstream by capturing inter-site regression relationships. Empirical models enable managers to search the space of possible strategies using rapid assessment. They provide not only realistic responses in water quality indicators but also variability in those indicators, allowing managers to assess strategies in an uncertain world. PMID:22342574

  20. New evidence of reproductive organs of Glossopteris based on permineralized fossils from Queensland, Australia. I. Ovulate organ Homevaleia gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Harufumi; Pigg, Kathleen B; Kudo, Kensuke; Rigby, John F

    2007-07-01

    This study describes Homevaleia gouldii H. Nishida, Pigg, Kudo et Rigby gen. et sp. nov., an ovule-bearing glossopterid organ, based on a combination of recently collected permineralized specimens from the Late Permian Homevale Station locality in the Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia, and on previously studied material from the 1977 Gould and Delevoryas study. Homevaleia, which resembles the compression-impression genus Dictyopteridium, is an inrolled megasporophyll with a distinct keel that bears numerous (over 70) stalked ovules on its adaxial surface. Ovules are small, oval, with an elaborate mesh-like structure that is developed from the outermost integumentary layers. Specimens interpreted as representing different developmental stages show there is an apparent interrelationship between megagametophyte development and the opening of the surrounding fertile structure for pollination. Together, new information provided by this material enables better understanding of glossopterid reproductive structure and its function in one distinctive form. PMID:17534692

  1. Designing Australia's North West Shelf offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, E.V.; Craze, D.J.; Ruinen, W.

    1984-05-07

    Design studies for the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project in Australia commenced in the early 1970s. The trunkline from the North Rankin A platform to shore has recently been completed as the first part of the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project. This pipeline originates from the platform in a water depth of 125 m (410 ft), enters the mouth of Mermaid Sound, and terminates just south of Withnell Bay on the Burrup Peninsula, on the North West coastline of Western Australia. The pipeline is 1,016 mm (40 in.) in diameter and 134.2 km (83.4 miles) long. It will operate in two-phase flow, bringing both gas and condensate to an onshore plant near its landfall. A slugcatcher has been constructed within the plant to receive liquidhydrocarbon slugs from the pipeline. The trunkline to shore will initially serve only the one offshore platform and operate at about 25% of its capacity to supply the Western Australian domestic gas market. The domestic gas plant on the Burrup Peninsula is being constructed by Woodside to produce pipeline-quality gas for delivery to the State Energy Commission and condensate for shipment by coastal tankers.

  2. Outbreaks of the cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), related to weather in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.G.; Gage, S.H.

    1986-10-01

    The cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Zeller), has periodically caused serious damage to seedling cotton in Southeast Queensland. An analysis of data over 11 years revealed that outbreaks of this pest are weather related. A heat/precipitation ratio (weather index) was calculated and compared with population levels of the tipworm. Outbreaks were strongly correlated to cool and wet weather during March--November, the principal growth period of the weed host Malva parviflora (L.). Infestations were minor when conditions were dry. A prediction based on this index is compared with field infestation levels in 1984. 16 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  3. Non-river flood barium signals in the skeletons of corals from coastal Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Daniel J.

    2005-09-01

    Two corals from coastal Queensland (Cow and Calf Islands, and Orpheus Island) have been analysed for a suite of trace elements by laser-ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS). Barium signals in these two corals are 'anomalous' in comparison with Ba behaviour seen in other near-shore corals from this region. The two corals display large sharp peaks in spring which do not correlate with markers of river discharge (Y/Ca and fluorescence). This Ba pattern contrasts with 'normal' behaviour—characterised here by the patterns previously published for two other coastal Queensland corals (King Reef and Pandora Reef), which display Ba peaks in summer associated with flooding of nearby rivers [1] [D.J. Sinclair, M.T. McCulloch, Corals record low mobile barium concentrations in the Burdekin River during the 1974 flood: evidence for limited Ba supply to rivers?, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 214 (1-2) (2004) 155-174]. Similarities are observed between the anomalous Ba in the Queensland corals and other published patterns of Ba behaviour in corals from South Africa and the Arabian Sea. This non-river flood Ba behaviour is characterized by large sharp spikes of Ba which are resistant to oxidative cleaning and form a continuous horizon within the coral. Curiously, not all corals from a region display anomalous Ba behaviour despite being in similar environments. The timing of anomalous Ba is consistent within a coral, but may vary from one location to the next. Anomalous Ba spikes are too large to be caused by Ba-rich upwelling, and no single environmental forcing function seems to be able to account for their timing. This combination of observations argues against an exogenous abiotic source for the anomalous Ba signal; instead, it may result from a biological event triggered by a combination of environmental parameters. Three hypotheses are presented, and critically tested against the observations: barite inclusion following phytoplankton blooms, decaying blooms of the blue

  4. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  5. Net primary productivity (NPP) of a biological soil crust (BSC) in northwestern Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, B.; Reichenberger, H.; Williams, W.

    2012-04-01

    In the tropical savanna of northwestern Queensland, BSCs are mainly composed of cyanobacteria, liverworts and more rarely, lichens. These BSCs cover up to 30% of the soil, thus stabilizing the soil surface against erosion. One of the major BSC types there is almost completely formed by the filamentous cyanobacterium Symplocastrum sp., with scattered occurrence of different species of the liverwort genus Riccia. Because of the local dominance of these crust type, we selected it for the determination of its NPP over a period of 18 months by setting up a semi-continuous and semi-automatic CO2 - gas exchange measuring device in the natural environment at Boodjamulla National Park. We found astonishingly high CO2-fixation rates of the Sympolcastrum sp. dominated crust type and also could show the crust was adapted to extremely high temperatures (47°C), at which time considerable positive net photosynthetic rates were still gained.

  6. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  7. New Mid-Cretaceous (Latest Albian) Dinosaurs from Winton, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hocknull, Scott A.; White, Matt A.; Tischler, Travis R.; Cook, Alex G.; Calleja, Naomi D.; Sloan, Trish; Elliott, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Australia's dinosaurian fossil record is exceptionally poor compared to that of other similar-sized continents. Most taxa are known from fragmentary isolated remains with uncertain taxonomic and phylogenetic placement. A better understanding of the Australian dinosaurian record is crucial to understanding the global palaeobiogeography of dinosaurian groups, including groups previously considered to have had Gondwanan origins, such as the titanosaurs and carcharodontosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe three new dinosaurs from the late Early Cretaceous (latest Albian) Winton Formation of eastern Australia, including; Wintonotitan wattsi gen. et sp. nov., a basal titanosauriform; Diamantinasaurus matildae gen. et sp. nov., a derived lithostrotian titanosaur; and Australovenator wintonensis gen. et sp. nov., an allosauroid. We compare an isolated astragalus from the Early Cretaceous of southern Australia; formerly identified as Allosaurus sp., and conclude that it most-likely represents Australovenator sp. Conclusion/Significance The occurrence of Australovenator from the Aptian to latest Albian confirms the presence in Australia of allosauroids basal to the Carcharodontosauridae. These new taxa, along with the fragmentary remains of other taxa, indicate a diverse Early Cretaceous sauropod and theropod fauna in Australia, including plesiomorphic forms (e.g. Wintonotitan and Australovenator) and more derived forms (e.g. Diamantinasaurus). PMID:19584929

  8. Intercultural Communications Skills Conference Proceedings (Townsville, Queensland, Australia, July 1-3, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migrant Resource Centre, Townsville (Australia).

    This document contains 11 papers presented at a conference on multicultural issues such as cultural identity, stereotyping, and verbal and nonverbal communication: "Intercultural Communication--An Overview" (Karen Dennien); "Cultural Identity, Communication and Community Relations" (Lyn Trad); "Immigration to Australia" (Mary Woods); "Culturally…

  9. Mental Disorders and Communication of Intent to Die in Indigenous Suicide Cases, Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Sveticic, Jerneja

    2012-01-01

    In comparing Indigenous to non-Indigenous suicide in Australia, this study focussed on the frequency of the association between some psychiatric conditions, such as depression and alcohol abuse, and some aspect of suicidality, in particular communication of suicide intent. Logistic regression was implemented to analyze cases of Indigenous (n =…

  10. Diagenesis and reservoir potential of volcanogenic sandstones - Cretaceous of the Surat Basin, Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hawlader, H.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The sandstones of the Lower Cretaceous succession of the Surat basin are characterized by abundant volcanogenic detritus in the form of rock-fragments and feldspars derived from an andesitic magmatic arc coincident with the present Great Barrier Reef in offshore Queensland. These compositionally immature sandstones are not regarded as favorable exploration targets because of their labile nature, their shallow burial depths, and hence the low thermal maturity of the intercalated mudrocks that might have constituted hydrocarbon source rocks. However, petrographic and petrophysical examinations show that significant primary and early diagenetic secondary dissolution porosity and permeability exist in some of these stratigraphic units that under certain circumstances could be the host for hydrocarbons and may become the future exploration targets. Flushing by CO{sub 2}-charged meteoric water after the inception of the Great Artesian basin (of which the Surat basin is a component) in the Tertiary is likely to have been the principal agent of secondary porosity development in these sandstones. Additionally, products of microbial degradation of organic matter (in the intercalated mudstones) and/or maturation products from the deeply buried part of the basin might have assisted in the dissolution of framework grains and previously deposited cement.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Phoebe A.; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J.; Cribb, Thomas H.; Mills, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species—one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics. PMID:26901786

  12. Real-time PCR detection of pathogenic microorganisms in roof-harvested rainwater in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Huygens, F; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of roof-harvested rainwater was assessed by monitoring the concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and Bacteroides spp. in rainwater obtained from tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Samples were also tested using real-time PCR (with SYBR Green I dye) for the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms. Of the 27 rainwater samples tested, 17 (63%), 21 (78%), 13 (48%), and 24 (89%) were positive for E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens, and Bacteroides spp., respectively. Of the 27 samples, 11 (41%), 7 (26%), 4 (15%), 3 (11%), and 1 (4%) were PCR positive for the Campylobacter coli ceuE gene, the Legionella pneumophila mip gene, the Aeromonas hydrophila lip gene, the Salmonella invA gene, and the Campylobacter jejuni mapA gene. Of the 21 samples tested, 4 (19%) were positive for the Giardia lamblia beta-giardin gene. The binary logistic regression model indicated a positive correlation (P < 0.02) between the presence/absence of enterococci and A. hydrophila. In contrast, the presence/absence of the remaining potential pathogens did not correlate with traditional fecal indicators. The poor correlation between fecal indicators and potential pathogens suggested that fecal indicators may not be adequate to assess the microbiological quality of rainwater and consequent health risk. PMID:18621865

  13. Genotypic and phenotypic identification of Aeromonas species and CphA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Holly A; Heney, Claire; Sidjabat, Hanna E; George, Narelle M; Bergh, Haakon; Anuj, Snehal N; Nimmo, Graeme R; Paterson, David L

    2016-05-01

    Infection caused by Aeromonas spp. ranges from superficial wound infection to life-threatening septicemia. Carbapenem resistance due to metallo-beta-lactamase, CphA encoded by the cphA gene, is a significant problem. This study defines Aeromonas spp. causing clinical disease in Queensland, Australia. Phenotypic tests for carbapenemase detection were assessed. One hundred Aeromonas isolates from blood (22), wound (46), sterile sites (11), stool (18), eye (2), and sputum (1) were characterized by rpoB and gyrB sequencing. Meropenem susceptibility by VITEK2, disk diffusion, and E-test MIC were determined. Carbapenemase production was assessed by Carba NP test and cphA by PCR. Gene sequencing identified isolates as Aeromonas dhakensis (39), Aeromonas veronii (21), Aeromonas hydrophila (20), Aeromonas caviae (14), Aeromonas jandaei (4), Aeromonas bestiarum (1), and Aeromonas sanarellii (1). Disk diffusion and E-test failed to detect resistance in isolates with presence of cphA. Carba NP was performed with 97.4% sensitivity and 95.7% specificity. Carbapenem resistance gene cphA was detected in A. veronii (21; 100%), A. hydrophila (18; 90%), A. dhakensis (34; 87.2%), A. jandaei (3; 75%), and A. bestiarum (1; 100%) but not A. caviae. We found that A. dhakensis was the predominant species, a previously unrecognized pathogen in this region. PMID:26971634

  14. Growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae from fluctuating brackish and sea water locations in South East Queensland-Australia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Van Thang; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-01-01

    One challenge constraining the use of microalgae in the food and biofuels industry is growth and lipid accumulation. Microalgae with high growth characteristics are more likely to originate from the local environment. However, to be commercially effective, in addition to high growth microalgae must also have high lipid productivities and contain the desired fatty acids for their intended use. We isolated microalgae from intertidal locations in South East Queensland, Australia with adverse or fluctuating conditions, as these may harbor more opportunistic strains with high lipid accumulation potential. Screening was based on a standard protocol using growth rate and lipid accumulation as well as prioritizing fatty acid profiles suitable for biodiesel or nutraceuticals. Using these criteria, an initial selection of over 50 local microalgae strains from brackish and sea water was reduced to 16 strains considered suitable for further investigation. Among these 16 strains, the ones most likely to be effective for biodiesel feedstock were Nitzschia sp. CP3a, Tetraselmis sp. M8, Cymbella sp. CP2b, and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c, reaching growth rates of up to 0.53 day(-1) and lipid productivities of 5.62 μg mL(-1)day(-1). Omega-3 fatty acids were found in some strains such as Nitzschia sp. CP2a, Nitzschia sp. CP3a and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c. These strains have potential for further research as commercial food supplements. PMID:26042142

  15. Oviposition and larval habitat preferences of the saltwater mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in a subtropical mangrove forest in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat; Phinn, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical Queensland, Australia. Eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. Two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. The third class was in freely flushed mangroves that corresponded with more frequent tidal connections than the depression classes. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to analyze the data. The null hypotheses were rejected: the hummock class was a significant habitat based on both eggshell and larval data. The conclusion was that mosquito production in the mangrove system was distributed unevenly between habitat classes, and that the hummock class had conditions suited to the requirements of the immature stages of Ae. vigilax. This research has the potential to inform mosquito management strategies by focusing treatment on the problem habitats and underpinning habitat modifications including reducing water retention in the basins. PMID:22938052

  16. Baseline survey of sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy in early childhood settings in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Simone L; Saunders, V; Nowak, M

    2007-04-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/coordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response). Most (73.7%) services had a written sun-protection policy (SPP). However, 40.6% of pre-schools and kindergartens had not developed a written SPP. Most directors had moderate knowledge about sun-protection (median score: 7/12 [IQR 6, 8]), but few understood the UV index, the sun-protection factor rating for sunscreens or the association between childhood sun-exposure, mole development and melanoma. Pre-school teachers had lower knowledge scores than directors of long day care centers and other services (P = 0.0005). Staff members reportedly wore sun-protective hats, clothing and sunglasses more often than children. However, sunscreen use was higher among children than staff. Directors' knowledge scores predicted reported hat, clothing, sunscreen and shade utilization among children. Remoteness impacted negatively on director's knowledge (P = 0.043) and written SPP development (P = 0.0005). Higher composite sun-protection scores were reported for children and staff from services with written sun-protection policies. SPP development and increased sun-protection knowledge of directors may improve reported sun-protective behaviors of children and staff of early childhood services. PMID:16880216

  17. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics. PMID:26901786

  18. Oviposition and Larval Habitat Preferences of the Saltwater Mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in a Subtropical Mangrove Forest in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat; Phinn, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical Queensland, Australia. Eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. Two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. The third class was in freely flushed mangroves that corresponded with more frequent tidal connections than the depression classes. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to analyze the data. The null hypotheses were rejected: the hummock class was a significant habitat based on both eggshell and larval data. The conclusion was that mosquito production in the mangrove system was distributed unevenly between habitat classes, and that the hummock class had conditions suited to the requirements of the immature stages of Ae. vigilax. This research has the potential to inform mosquito management strategies by focusing treatment on the problem habitats and underpinning habitat modifications including reducing water retention in the basins. PMID:22938052

  19. Effect of temperature and precipitation on salmonellosis cases in South-East Queensland, Australia: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adrian Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Foodborne illnesses in Australia, including salmonellosis, are estimated to cost over $A1.25 billion annually. The weather has been identified as being influential on salmonellosis incidence, as cases increase during summer, however time series modelling of salmonellosis is challenging because outbreaks cause strong autocorrelation. This study assesses whether switching models is an improved method of estimating weather–salmonellosis associations. Design We analysed weather and salmonellosis in South-East Queensland between 2004 and 2013 using 2 common regression models and a switching model, each with 21-day lags for temperature and precipitation. Results The switching model best fit the data, as judged by its substantial improvement in deviance information criterion over the regression models, less autocorrelated residuals and control of seasonality. The switching model estimated a 5°C increase in mean temperature and 10 mm precipitation were associated with increases in salmonellosis cases of 45.4% (95% CrI 40.4%, 50.5%) and 24.1% (95% CrI 17.0%, 31.6%), respectively. Conclusions Switching models improve on traditional time series models in quantifying weather–salmonellosis associations. A better understanding of how temperature and precipitation influence salmonellosis may identify where interventions can be made to lower the health and economic costs of salmonellosis. PMID:26916693

  20. Morphological and historical resilience to catastrophic flooding: The case of Lockyer Creek, SE Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryirs, Kirstie; Lisenby, Peyton; Croke, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of geomorphic change resulting from the catastrophic flood of 2011 in the Lockyer Valley in southeast Queensland and to place these impacts within a history of geomorphic adjustment. Aerial photographs dated from 1933 to 2011 and parish maps and historical on-ground photographs dating from 1865 to 1966 were examined for evidence of geomorphic adjustment since European settlement in the first half of the nineteenth century. Eleven forms of geomorphic adjustment were identified in three categories; erosional, depositional, and reorganisational. Only 26% of the Lockyer Creek channel length has been affected by some form of geomorphic adjustment since European settlement. Most of this adjustment was localised and dominated by reorganisation of geomorphic unit assemblages within the macrochannel and sediment deposition on floodplains. No wholesale river change in the form of lateral migration or avulsion has occurred, and the river's morphology has remained relatively characteristic over time (i.e., morphology remains relatively uniform in a reach-averaged sense). Geomorphic responses to extreme flooding have been minor, and the geomorphic effectiveness of floods in this system (including the 2011 flood) has been limited over the last several hundred years. The system is likely still adjusting to past flooding events that 'set' the morphology of the current system (i.e., the macrochannel). A form of event resilience has resulted in this system such that it is less prone to geomorphic adjustment during events than would normally be considered geomorphically effective. As a result, antecedent controls on macrochannel presence and capacity are considered to be first-order controls on contemporary forms and processes in this system. Work is required to test whether the resilience of this system will hold in the future, with more extreme episodes of flooding predicted to occur in this region under future climate change.

  1. Bacteria isolated from dugongs (Dugong dugon) submitted for postmortem examination in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristen A; Owen, Helen C; Mills, Paul C; Flint, Mark; Gibson, Justine S

    2013-03-01

    Microbial infection may contribute to disease in a significant proportion of marine mammal mortalities, but little is known about infectious bacterial species and their prevalence in dugongs (Dugong dugon). This study represents a survey of the species of bacteria and fungi isolated from dugongs submitted to the University of Queensland's School of Veterinary Science for postmortem examination. Thirty-six dugongs were included in the survey, with 23 species of bacteria and four species of fungus cultured from lesions that were suspected of contributing to local infection, systemic infection, or both. The most abundant bacteria included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas spp. In six cases, the microorganism(s) cultured were considered to have been associated with disease. Mixed infections containing Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp.; Morganella morganii, Pasteurella multocida, and Serratia marcescens; and Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. were associated with pneumonia or pleuritis, and Enterococcus faecalis was associated with a multisystemic infection in a neonate. Clostridium spp. was cultured from two animals with peritonitis and likely septicemia. The significance of many of the other isolates is uncertain because the samples were taken after death, and some of the species isolated may represent postmortem overgrowth. It is also difficult to fulfil Koch's postulates through experimental infection in marine mammals. Regardless, this information will assist clinicians working with dugongs to make treatment decisions and the baseline data on the prevalence of bacterial and fungal species is of value for monitoring coastal water habitat health and risks of zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:23505701

  2. A land management history for central Queensland, Australia as determined from land-holder questionnaire and aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Fensham, Roderick J; Fairfax, Russell J

    2003-08-01

    Features of the land management history over a 125,755 km(2) area of central Queensland, Australia were determined from a variety of sources. A random sample of 205 site locations provided the basis for determining trends in land use. Trends in vegetation clearing were determined using sequential aerial photography for the sample sites, revealing a steady rate averaging nearly 1% of the region per annum over 41 years. This measure of sustained clearing over a large region is higher than recently published clearing rates from South America. Land types have been selectively cleared with over 90% of the Acacia on clay land type having been cleared. A land-holder questionnaire pertaining to the random sites yielded a response rate of 71% and provided information on vegetation clearing, ploughing, tree killing (ring-barking or tree poisoning), and fire frequency, season and intensity. The land-holder responses were compared with independent data sources where possible and revealed no mis-information. However, land-holders may have been marginally less likely to respond if the sample area had been cleared, although this effect was not statistically significant. Ploughing and tree killing are variable depending on land type, but the former has affected about 40% of the Acacia on clay land type, effectively eliminating options for natural regrowth. The proportion of decade-site combinations that were reported as having no fires increased from 22% in the 1950s to an average of 42% for subsequent decades, although the reporting of more than one fire per decade has been relatively constant through the study period. The reporting of at least one fire per decade varies from 46% for the Acacia on sand land type to 77% for the Eucalypt on sand land type for decade-site combinations. Fires are more intense when associated with clearing than in uncleared vegetation, but the proportion of cool and hot fires is relatively constant between land types in uncleared vegetation. Nearly

  3. AIMECS 09--Seventh AFMC International Medicinal Chemistry Congress. 23-27 August 2009, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Danny

    2009-10-01

    The Seventh Asian Federation for Medicinal Chemistry (AFMC) International Medicinal Chemistry Congress (AIMECS) held in Cairns, Australia was co-hosted by the Royal Australian Chemical Institute Division of Biomolecular Chemistry and included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the fields of cancer, cardiovascular disease, anti-infectives and CNS disorders. This conference report highlights selected presentations on anticancer agents, including ALK5 inhibitors, PAR1 inhibitors, anticoagulants, iron chelators, anxiolytics and GABA receptor antagonists. Investigational drugs discussed include IN-1130 (SK Chemicals Co Ltd/In2Gen Co), SCH-530348 (Schering-Plough Corp), apixaban (Bristol-Myers Squibb Co/Pfizer Inc) and BNC-210 (Bionomics Ltd). PMID:19790007

  4. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  5. Australian Assassins, Part III: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of tropical north-eastern Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Harvey, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    The assassin spiders of the family Archaeidae from tropical north-eastern Queensland are revised, with eight new species described from rainforest habitats of the Wet Tropics bioregion and Mackay-Whitsundays Hinterland: Austrarchaea griswoldisp. n., Austrarchaea hoskinisp. n., Austrarchaea karenaesp. n., Austrarchaea tealeisp. n., Austrarchaea thompsonisp. n., Austrarchaea wallaceisp. n., Austrarchaea westisp. n. and Austrarchaea woodaesp. n. Specimens of the only previously described species, Austrarchaea daviesae Forster & Platnick, 1984, are redescribed from the southern Atherton Tableland. The rainforests of tropical eastern Queensland are found to be a potential hotspot of archaeid diversity and endemism, with the region likely to be home to numerous additional short-range endemic taxa. A key to species complements the taxonomy, with maps, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:22977344

  6. Cryptic diversity within the narrowly endemic Lerista wilkinsi group of north Queensland-two new species (Reptilia: Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Couper, Patrick J; Amey, Andrew P; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe two new species of the skink genus Lerista from north-eastern Queensland, based on morphological and genetic data.  Additionally, we redescribe L. cinerea as this species is morphologically more variable than previously suggested.  We allocate these three species to the L. wilkinsi group (Greer et al. 1983) which is here identified as an endemic Queensland radiation, comprising L. ameles, L. cinerea, L. hobsoni sp. nov., L. storri, L. vanderduysi sp. nov., L. vittata and L. wilkinsi.  A number of these species have strong associations with semi-evergreen vine thickets, listed as an endangered habitat under the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). PMID:27615959

  7. Impact of biting midges on residential property values in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Jay; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil G; Daniels, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Biting midges (Culicoides spp.) are an important environmental health issue in Hervey Bay, an area of rapid population growth in Australia. It is also the gateway to a World Heritage area (Great Sandy Strait) and a destination for tourists. The spread of housing developments into suburbs close to midge breeding habitats has led to a problem for the local government responsible for managing biting insects in its area. Suburbs with a severe biting midge problem were found to have significantly lower residential property values than less affected suburbs. The gross reduction in value in due to the midge problem was estimated to range from more than AUS dollar 25 million, based on actual sale price, to more than AUS dollar 55 million, based on the perceptions of the most severely affected residents. PMID:16646336

  8. Lithofacies and biofacies of mid-Paleozoic thermal spring deposits in the Drummond Basin, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, M. R.; Desmarais, D.; Farmer, J. D.; Hinman, N. W.

    1996-01-01

    The Devonian to Carboniferous sinters of the Drummond Basin, Australia, are among the oldest well established examples of fossil subaerial hot springs. Numerous subaerial and subaqueous spring deposits are known from the geological record as a result of the occurrence of economic mineral deposits in many of them. Some are reported to contain fossils, but very few have been studied by paleobiologists; they represent an untapped source of paleobiological information on the history of hydrothermal ecosystems. Such systems are of special interest, given the molecular biological evidence that thermophilic bacteria lie near the root of the tree of extant life. The Drummond Basin sinters are very closely comparable with modern examples in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere. Thirteen microfacies are recognisable in the field, ranging from high temperature apparently abiotic geyserite through various forms of stromatolitic sinter probably of cyanobacterial origin to ambient temperature marsh deposits. Microfossils in the stromatolites are interpreted as cyanobacterial sheaths. Herbaceous lycopsids occur in the lower temperature deposits.

  9. Tanning behaviors and determinants of solarium use among indoor office workers in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Louisa G; Hirst, Nicholas G; Green, Adèle C; Neale, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Using cross-sectional survey data from Brisbane, Australia, this study identifies prevalence and factors associated with indoor tanning in office workers. Over 12-months, 72/2867 (2.5%) survey participants used solaria. Twenty-eight sunbed users (39%) tanned outdoors and used spray-tans and 42 (58%) reported burns after indoor tanning. Results from regression modelling suggests the strongest predictors of sunbed use were beliefs that tanning was safer indoors than outdoors (OR 6.1, 95%CI: 2.6-14.0) and engaging in outdoor tanning (OR 4.1, 95%CI: 1.8-9.0). We recommend that health authorities promote health gains by reducing ultraviolet radiation exposure or substituting indoor tanning with a spray-on tan. PMID:22131168

  10. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  11. Temporal variations of mineral character of acid-producing pyritic coastal sediments, Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Preda, Micaela; Cox, Malcolm E

    2004-06-29

    The lower Pimpama River catchment possesses many features of morphology, geology and landuse, typical for Southeast Queensland. Pimpama River and its main tributary Hotham Creek meander over a coastal plain which developed during the last several thousand years as a result of sea level fluctuations and changing fluvial and estuarine regimes which provided ideal conditions for the formation of sedimentary pyrite. A complex mixture of natural and human factors triggers and controls the oxidation and hydrolysis of this pyrite. The consequent production of sulfuric acid and leaching of metals from the pyrite-rich sediments represent main environmental issues of this coastal setting. This study aimed to determine the lithological character of the coastal unconsolidated sediments, and identify changes produced by acidity over a long period of time in a natural system and over a short period of time in a laboratory system. The mineral composition of the estuarine sediments of the coastal plain reflects the lithology of their source, the geological basement, and also the enhanced weathering rate due to acid production. The primary minerals present in the sediments consist of quartz and feldspars (primarily albite, K-feldspars to a lesser extent and minor anorthite) the product of physical weathering of bedrock material, mainly sandstone. Kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral and represents the product of intense leaching of feldspars promoted by acid conditions. Kaolinite is fairly ordered in structure in fresh and weathered bedrock and it becomes disordered in the estuarine sediments. Illite is mainly present in bedrock-related samples and the highest amounts are associated with muscovite. In the tidal sediments, illite is present to a lesser extent and is not found in the lower estuary. The distribution of mixed layers of smectite-illite is highly variable and their deposition is mainly controlled by the hydrodynamic conditions of the environment. Only low energy tidal

  12. Occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolates from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Masters, N; Sidhu, J P S; Katouli, M; Toze, S

    2011-10-01

    In this study, 200 Escherichia coli isolates from 22 rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia, were tested for the presence of 20 virulence genes (VGs) associated with intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes. In addition, E. coli isolates were also classified into phylogenetic groups based on the detection of the chuA, yjaA, and TSPE4.C2 genes. Of the 22 rainwater tanks, 8 (36%) and 5 (23%) were positive for the eaeA (belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC] and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli [STEC]) and ST1 (belonging to enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]) genes, respectively. VGs (cdtB, cvaC, ibeA, kpsMT allele III, PAI, papAH, and traT) belonging to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) were detected in 15 (68%) of the 22 rainwater tanks. Of the 22 samples, 17 (77%) and 11 (50%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1, respectively. Similarly, 10 (45%) and 16 (72%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. Of the 96 of the 200 strains from 22 tanks that were VG positive, 40 (42%) were carrying a single VG, 36 (37.5%) were carrying two VGs, 17 (18%) were carrying three VGs, and 3 (3%) had four or more VGs. This study reports the presence of multiple VGs in E. coli strains belonging to the STEC, EPEC, ETEC, and ExPEC pathotypes in rainwater tanks. The public health risks associated with potentially clinically significant E. coli in rainwater tanks should be assessed, as the water is used for drinking and other, nonpotable purposes. It is recommended that rainwater be disinfected using effective treatment procedures such as filtration, UV disinfection, or simply boiling prior to drinking. PMID:21873477

  13. Entomological investigations in a focus of dengue transmission in Cairns, Queensland, Australia, by using the sticky ovitraps.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Long, Sharron; Smith, Greg; Pyke, Alyssa; Knox, Tessa B

    2004-01-01

    Sticky ovitraps (patent pending) were used to sample female Aedes aegypti (L.) weekly in a focus of dengue activity in Cairns, Queensland, Australia. In February 2003, transmission of dengue virus serotype 2 began in the suburb of Parramatta Park, peaking in mid-March 2003. This suburb features many older, unscreened houses with high populations of Ae. aegypti. Highest densities (2-3.5 females per trap per week) were obtained during peak dengue transmission (January and February) before mosquito control was initiated. Beginning in late March, female Ae. aegypti collected in sticky ovitraps were tested for dengue viral RNA by using a TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Dengue viral RNA was detected in six pools of Ae. aegypti collected in late March. The highest minimum infection rate was 116/1000 mosquitoes. After the initiation of larval control (containers treated with S-methoprene or lambda-cyhalothrin) and adult control (interior harborage sites sprayed with lambda-cyhalothrin) in early March, trap collections dropped to <0.5 per trap per week, and no virus was detected in trapped mosquitoes. Human cases subsequently dropped from a high of seven cases per day in mid-March to only sporadic cases in late April, with the final reported onset of 7 May. Sticky ovitraps have potential as a monitoring device for gravid Ae. aegypti and can be used to assess control efficacy and dengue virus activity. A sticky ovitrap index (mean number of female Ae. Aegypti per trap per week) could be useful in gauging the risk of dengue transmission. PMID:14989339

  14. The impacts of flooding on the high-latitude, terrigenoclastic influenced coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, I. R.; Sommer, B.; Zann, M.; Zhao, J.-x.; Pandolfi, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    This study examines the impacts of an acute flooding event on the marginal, high-latitude, terrigenoclastic influenced coral reefs of Hervey Bay in southeast Queensland, Australia. In January 2011, the Mary River near Hervey Bay experienced its eleventh highest flood on record. The Mary River catchment has been highly modified since European colonisation, and, as a result of heavy rain and flooding, Hervey Bay was exposed to reduced salinity and elevated levels of turbidity and nutrients for approximately 14 weeks. Through the use of photograph transects and point intercept analysis, per cent cover of coral reef benthic communities was measured prior to and just after the flooding event. Sites were located between 250 m and 5 km from the mainland and from 18 to 85 km away from the mouth of the Mary River. Overall, there was a ~40 % reduction in coral cover post-flood, including significant mortality up to 89 % at four of six reefs. Mortality did not vary with distance along the coast from the Mary River, but mortality was found to be highest closer to the mainland, where turbidity and nutrients levels were also the highest. Despite the decades of input of highly turbid and nutrient laden waters from the Mary River, recovery has occurred in the past, and, given the persistence of similar conditions, would be expected to take place again. Climate change predicts increased frequency of severe storms and flooding, and this, combined with elevated sedimentation and nutrients from the highly modified catchment, may reduce these recovery periods, resulting in the deterioration of Hervey Bay reef communities.

  15. Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal

  16. Fecal Indicators and Zoonotic Pathogens in Household Drinking Water Taps Fed from Rainwater Tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hodgers, L.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Toze, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal

  17. 'Hero to Healing' drink-driving program for Indigenous communities in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Fitts, Michelle S; Palk, Gavan R

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Alcohol-related road crashes are a leading cause of the injury burden experienced by Indigenous Australians. Existing drink driving programs are primarily designed for the mainstream population. The 'Hero to Healing' program was specifically developed with Indigenous communities and is underpinned by the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). This paper reports on the formative evaluation of the program from delivery in two Far North Queensland communities. Methods Focus groups and semistructured interviews were conducted with drink driver participants (n=17) and other Elders and community members (n=8) after each program. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise the transcripts. Results The CRA appealed to participants because of its flexible nature and encouragement of rearranging lifestyle factors, without specific focus on alcohol use. Participants readily identified with the social and peer-related risk and protective factors discussed. Cofacilitation of the program with Elders was identified as a key aspect of the program. More in-depth discussion about cannabis and driving, anger management skills and relationship issues are recommended. Conclusions Participants' recognition of content reinforced earlier project results, particularly the use of kinship pressure to motivate younger family members to drink drive. Study findings suggest that the principles of the CRA are useful; however, some amendments to the CRA components and program content were necessary. So what? Treating drink driving in regional and remote Indigenous Australian communities as a community and social issue, rather than an individual phenomenon, is likely to lead to a reduction in the number of road-related injuries Indigenous people experience. PMID:26857181

  18. Lithofacies and biofacies of mid-paleozoic thermal spring deposits in the Drummond Basin, Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.R.; Desmarais, D.; Farmer, J.C.; Hinman, N.W.

    1996-12-01

    The Devonian to Carboniferous sinters of the Drummond Basin, Australia, are among the oldest well established examples of fossil subaerial hot springs. Numerous subaerial and subaqueous spring deposits are known from the geological record as a result of the occurrence of economic mineral deposits in many of them. Some are reported to contain fossils, but very few have been studied by paleobiologists; they represent an untapped source of paleobiological information on the history of hydrothermal ecosystems. Such systems are of special interest, given the molecular biological evidence that thermophilic bacteria lie near the root of the tree of extant life. The Drummond Basin sinters are very closely comparable with modern examples in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere. Thirteen microfacies are recognisable in the field, ranging from high temperature apparently abiotic geyserite through various forms of stromatolitic sinter probably of cyanobacterial origin to ambient temperature marsh deposits. Microfossils in the stromatolites are interpreted as cyanobacterial sheaths. Herbaceous lycopsids occur in the lower temperature deposits. 56 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Concentrations of phthalates and DINCH metabolites in pooled urine from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gomez Ramos, M J; Heffernan, A L; Toms, L M L; Calafat, A M; Ye, X; Hobson, P; Broomhall, S; Mueller, J F

    2016-03-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters (phthalates) are ubiquitous chemicals used extensively as plasticizers, solvents and adhesives in a range of industrial and consumer products. 1,2-Cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid, diisononyl ester (DINCH) is a phthalate alternative introduced due to a more favourable toxicological profile, but exposure is largely uncharacterised. The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to phthalates and DINCH in the general Australian population. De-identified urine specimens stratified by age and sex were obtained from a community-based pathology laboratory and pooled (n=24 pools of 100). Concentrations of free and total species were measured using online solid phase extraction isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 71.9ng/mL for metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and from <0.5 to 775ng/mL for all other metabolites. Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites concentrations in Australia were at least two times higher than in the United States and Germany; and may be related to legislative differences among countries. DINCH metabolite concentrations were comparatively low and consistent with the limited data available. Ongoing biomonitoring among the general Australian population may help assess temporal trends in exposure and assess the effectiveness of actions aimed at reducing exposures. PMID:26760715

  20. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of 11 species of Queensland (Australia) fish.

    PubMed

    Belling, G B; Abbey, M; Campbell, J H; Campbell, G R

    1997-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of 11 species of fish caught of the northeast coast of Australia was determined. No fatty acid profiles have been previously published for fish from this area nor for nine of these species. Although the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the same as the calculated average for Australian fish (42.3%), the percentage of n-3 fatty acids was lower (24.4 +/- 5.4% vs. 30.7 +/- 10.1%) and the n-6 fatty acids higher (16.5 +/- 4.5% vs. 11.2 +/- 5.9%), P < 0.001 in each case. The major n-3 PUFA were docosahexaenoic (15.6 +/- 6.3%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (4.3 +/- 1.1%) while the major n-6 PUFA were arachidonic (8.3 +/- 3.2%) and n-6 docosatetraenoic acid (3.1 +/- 1.3%). The second-most abundant class of fatty acid was the saturates (31.6 +/- 3.5%) while the monounsaturates accounted for 17.4 +/- 4.3% of the total fatty acids. The monounsaturate with the highest concentration was octadecenoic acid (11.8 +/- 2.6%). There was a positive correlation between the total lipid content and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.675 and 0.567, respectively) and a negative correlation between the total lipid content and PUFA (r = 0.774). PMID:9208391

  1. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere. PMID:24722001

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from primary schools in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mazaheri, Mandana; Brommer, Sandra; Clifford, Samuel; Drage, Daniel; Mueller, Jochen F; Thai, Phong; Harrad, Stuart; Morawska, Lidia; Harden, Fiona A

    2015-10-01

    PBDE concentrations are higher in children compared to adults with exposure suggested to include dust ingestion. Besides the home environment, children spend a great deal of time in school classrooms which may be a source of exposure. As part of the "Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children's Health (UPTECH)" project, dust samples (n=28) were obtained in 2011/12 from 10 Brisbane, Australia metropolitan schools and analysed using GC and LC-MS for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) -17, -28, -47, -49, -66, -85, -99, -100, -154, -183, and -209. Σ11PBDEs ranged from 11-2163 ng/g dust; with a mean and median of 600 and 469 ng/g dust, respectively. BDE-209 (range n.d. -2034 ng/g dust; mean (median) 402 (217)ng/g dust) was the dominant congener in most classrooms. Frequencies of detection were 96%, 96%, 39% and 93% for BDE-47, -99, -100 and -209, respectively. No seasonal variations were apparent and from each of the two schools where XRF measurements were carried out, only two classroom items had detectable bromine. PBDE intake for 8-11 year olds can be estimated at 0.094 ng/day BDE-47; 0.187 ng/day BDE-99 and 0.522ng/day BDE-209 as a result of ingestion of classroom dust, based on mean PBDE concentrations. The 97.5% percentile intake is estimated to be 0.62, 1.03 and 2.14 ng/day for BDEs-47, -99 and -209, respectively. These PBDE concentrations in dust from classrooms, which are higher than in Australian homes, may explain some of the higher body burden of PBDEs in children compared to adults when taking into consideration age-dependant behaviours which increase dust ingestion. PMID:26142718

  3. Multivalvulid myxozoans from eastern Australia: three new species of Kudoa from scombrid and labrid fishes of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Adlard, Robert D; Bryant, Malcolm S; Whipps, Christopher M; Kent, Michael L

    2005-10-01

    Three new species of Kudoa, each having 6 polar capsules, are described from the somatic muscle of fishes collected on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Kudoa grammatorcyni n. sp. was observed in the shark mackerel Grammatorcynus bicarinatus. Spores are stellate in apical view, width (all measurements in microm) 8.62 (8.03-8.95); thickness 8.14 (7.63-8.68); suture width 7.7 (7.24-8.16); length 6.54 (6.32-6.71); polar capsule length 3.68 (3.55-3.82); polar capsule width 1.72 (1.65-1.84). Kudoa scomberomori n. sp. is described from the Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus commerson. Spores are stellate in apical view, width 7.56 (6.84-8.16); thickness 6.79 (6.18-7.63); suture width 5.92 (5.26-6.32); length 5.43 (5.00-6.18); polar capsule length 3.24 (3.03-3.55); polar capsule width 1.37 (1.25-1.51). Kudoa thalassomi n. sp. is described from the moon wrasse Thalassoma lunare. Spores are stellate in apical view, width 10.66 (9.47-11.84); thickness 9.37 (8.55-10.79); suture width 7.98 (6.84-8.82); length 6.65 (6.18-7.11); polar capsule length 4.92 (4.74-5.00); polar capsule width 2.12 (2.04-2.24). All 3 species differ in spore morphology from the 1 previously described myxozoan with 6 polar capsules, Hexacapsula neothunni from yellowfin tuna Neothunnus macropterus, which has since been reassigned to Kudoa. PMID:16419761

  4. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  5. Potential distribution of an invasive species under climate change scenarios using CLIMEX and soil drainage: a case study of Lantana camara L. in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Subhashni; Kumar, Lalit

    2013-01-15

    Invasive species pose a major threat to biodiversity which may be intensified by the effects of climate change, particularly if favourable climate conditions allow invasives to spread to new areas. This research explores the combined effects of climate change and soil drainage on the potential future distribution of Lantana camara L. (lantana) in Queensland, Australia. Lantana is an invasive woody shrub species that has a profound economic and environmental impact worldwide. CLIMEX was used to develop a process-based niche model of lantana to estimate its potential distribution under current and future climate. Two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC-H, were used to explore the impacts of climate change. These models were run with the A1B and A2 scenarios for 2030, 2070 and 2100. Further refinements of the potential distributions were carried out through the integration of fine scale soil drainage data in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results from both GCMs show a progressive reduction in climatic suitability for lantana in Queensland. The MIROC-H projects a larger area as remaining at risk of lantana invasion in 2100 compared to CSIRO-Mk3.0. Inclusion of soil drainage data results in a more refined distribution. Overall results show a dramatic reduction in potential distribution of lantana in Queensland in the long term (2100). However, in the short term (2030), areas such as South East Queensland and the Wet Tropics, both regions of significant ecological importance, remain at risk of invasion consistently under both GCMs and with both the climate only and climate and soil drainage models. Management of lantana in these regions will need to be prioritized to protect environmental assets of ecological significance. PMID:23164541

  6. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Methods Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15) involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. Results The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems), and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco-environmental health

  7. Assessing the repeatability of terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring gully topography: A case study from Aratula, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Nicholas Robert; Armston, John; Stiller, Isaac; Muir, Jasmine

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for quantifying gully morphology and monitoring change over time. This is due to the high sampling density, sub-centimetre positional accuracies (x, y, z), flexibility of survey configurations and ability to link multiple TLS scans together. However, to ensure correct interpretation of results, research is needed to test the repeatability of TLS derived products to quantify the accuracy and separate 'false' from 'true' geomorphic change. In this study, we use the RIEGL VZ400 scanner to test the repeatability of TLS datasets for mapping gully morphology. We then quantify change following a rainfall event of approximately 100 mm. Our study site, located in south-east Queensland, Australia was chosen to be challenging from a repeatability perspective with high topographic variability. The TLS data capture involved three sets of linked scans: one survey pre-rainfall, to be compared to two surveys post-rainfall acquired on consecutive days. Change is considered negligible in the two post-rainfall scans to test survey repeatability. To verify TLS accuracy, an independent dataset of gully extent and spot heights were acquired using traditional total station techniques. Results confirm that the TLS datasets can be registered multi-temporally at sub-centimetre levels of accuracy in three dimensions. Total station and TLS elevation samples showed strong agreement with a mean error and standard deviation (SD) of residuals equal to 0.052 and 0.047 m, respectively (n = 889). Significantly, our repeatability tests found that return type and pulse deviation influence the accuracy and repeatability of DEMs in gully environments. Analysis of consecutive day datasets showed that DEMs derived from first return data recorded 40% higher SD of residual error than DEMs using multiple return data. A significant empirical relationship between pulse deviation and the variance of residuals for repeat DEMs is also shown (r2 = 0

  8. Radiocarbon and geochemical constraints on shallow groundwater recharge in a large arid zone river, Cooper Creek, SW Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Joshua; Cendón, Dioni; Nanson, Gerald; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    In the arid and semi-arid internally drained Lake Eyre Basin of central Australia, large mud dominated anabranching river systems transport monsoon derived floodwaters into the centre of the continent during the summer months, and subsequently spend much of the year under low to no flow conditions. Cooper Creek has the largest catchment in this basin, and in south west Queensland has a wide (20-60km) floodplain and multiple channel system. Enlarged channel segments, known as waterholes or billabongs, can retain water throughout much of the dry season, and their mud base can often be scoured during floods into the underlying sandy alluvium where the shallow groundwater table exists ~3-5m below the base of the waterholes. Little is known of the groundwater recharge mechanisms in this ecologically important and hydrologically unregulated river system, thus a number of piezometer transects were construct across the floodplain between two waterholes to investigate groundwater recharge processes in further detail. Samples recovered from all piezometers were analysed for major-trace element, water stable isotopes (δ2H and δ180), 3H and 14C. Water stable isotopes reveal shallow groundwater is recharged by high magnitude, low frequency monsoonal flood events, with minor evaporative enrichment probably linked to recent smaller flooding events. 14C dating of dissolved inorganic carbon reveals recharge is most effective beneath the deepest channel segments of the waterholes, and that residence time of the shallow groundwater increases with distance from major waterholes, with the post 1950's 14C bomb pulse signature present only in close proximity to the channels. 3H allows further refinement of the shallow groundwater residence times, with no 3H detected in groundwater over ~500m from the waterholes, indicating groundwater recharge is slow and restricted to major flooding events. The increase in groundwater residence time with distance from waterholes, is also accompanied

  9. Connecting landscape function to hyperspectral reflectance in a dry sub-humid native grassland in southern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wendy; Apan, Armando; Alchin, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Native grasslands cover over 80% of significant ecosystems in Australia, stretching across arid, semi-arid, tropical, sub-tropical and savannah landscapes. Scales of pastoral operations in Australia range from hundreds of hectares to thousands of square kilometres and are predominately found in regions with highly variable rainfall. Land use is governed by the need to cope with droughts, floods and fires. Resilience to climatic extremes can be attained through effective soil management. Connecting landscape function on the fine scale to broad land management objectives is a critical step in evaluation and requires an understanding of the relevant spectral properties in remotely sensed images. The aim of this study was to assess key landscape function indices across spatial scales in order to examine their correlation with hyperspectral reflectance measurements. The results from this study could be applied as a model for land management centred on remote sensing. The study site is located at Stonehenge (southern Queensland) on a moderately deep texture contrast soil with hard setting gravelly topsoil. Mean annual rainfall of 667 mm supports open forest and native perennial pastures with a diverse biocrust dominated by N-fixing cyanobacteria. Land use history is continuous grazing however; it had been destocked for several years prior to our study. There was some evidence of cattle, kangaroos and feral herbivores (rabbits, deer and goats) although impacts appeared to be minimal. We established four land cover types: native pasture - NP1 (~100% FPC - foliage projective cover), native pasture - NP2 (~50% FPC, 50% biocrust), natural bare soil - BC (>80% biocrust), bare and eroded soil - BE (<1% biocrust). Duplicate 0.25 m2 quadrats of each land cover type were selected contiguous with a 100 m transect across the slope. The quadrats were analysed as five micro-transects with each row consisting of five sub-cells. Stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling indices were

  10. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  11. Responding to Literacy Needs: Implications for Teacher Educators and Training Consultants. Conference Proceedings (Queensland, Australia, April 17-19, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Board of Teacher Registration, Toowong (Australia).

    The conference reported in this document, jointly sponsored by the Queensland Board of Teacher Registration and the Centre for Research in Literacy, arose out of public concern about literacy standards and claims that higher literacy levels will be needed in an increasingly technological society--concerns that make it necessary for educators to…

  12. The oxygen isotopic composition of phytoliths from tropical rainforest soils (Queensland, Australia): application of a new paleoenvironmental tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, A.; Crespin, J.; Sylvestre, F.; Sonzogni, C.; Hilbert, D. W.

    2011-05-01

    Variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecipitation) in inter-tropical areas mainly record variations in water sources, amounts of precipitation, and atmospheric temperature and provide information regarding local climate and regional atmospheric circulation changes. On continents, fossil biogenic minerals and speleothems formed in isotopic equilibrium with water can produce continuous δ18O records and are becoming increasingly valuable for reconstructing past climate changes. Here, we explore the efficiency and limitations of using the oxygen isotopic composition of wood phytoliths (δ18Owood phytolith) from tropical rainforest soils as a suitable proxy for atmospheric temperature and δ18Oprecipitation values, under conditions that are assumed to be non-evaporative. Soil phytolith assemblages, that should contain 100s of years of phytolith production, were collected along four altitude, temperature, and precipitation gradients in the Queensland rainforests (Australia). Oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on 1.6 mg phytolith samples, after controlled isotopic exchange (CIE), using the IR Laser-Heating Fluorination Technique. Long-term mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) values at the sampled sites were obtained using a regional GIS database. The δ18Oprecipitation values were estimated. The δ18Owood phytolith values from the leeward slopes were scattered but recorded the modern combination of weighted mean annual δ18Oprecipitation values and MAT. The empirical relationship was &Delta18Owood phytolith-precipitation (‰ vs. VSMOW) = -0.4 (±0.2) t (°C) + 46 (±3) (R2 = 0.4, p<0.05; n=12). δ18Oprecipitation estimates were close to estimates for δ18Oforming water when using the temperature-dependant relationships previously described for sedimentary diatoms and natural quartz. However, they were 3 ‰ higher than estimates for δ18Oforming water when using the fractionation relationship obtained

  13. Legitimating and Contesting the Commodification of Schooling: The Case of Teachers' Learning in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws upon research into the nature of teachers' learning practices in the context of current policy conditions in the state of Queensland, Australia. The research explores how teachers in one school in the north of the state responded to policy pressure to adopt a specific standardised approach to "explicit teaching",…

  14. The cumulative impacts of repeated heavy rainfall, flooding and altered water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Butler, I R; Sommer, B; Zann, M; Zhao, J-X; Pandolfi, J M

    2015-07-15

    Terrestrial runoff and flooding have resulted in major impacts on coral communities worldwide, but we lack detailed understanding of flood plume conditions and their ecological effects. Over the course of repeated flooding between 2010 and 2013, we measured coral cover and water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia. In 2013, salinity, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were altered for up to six months post-flooding. Submarine groundwater caused hypo-saline conditions for a further four months. Despite the greater magnitude of flooding in 2013, declines in coral abundance (∼28%) from these floods were lower than the 2011 flood (∼40%), which occurred immediately after a decade of severe drought. There was an overall cumulative decrease of coral by ∼56% from 2010 to 2013. Our study highlights the need for local scale monitoring and research to facilitate informed management and conservation of catchments and marine environments. PMID:25935807

  15. The geographical co-distribution and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Hu, W; Tong, S

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal patterns, geographical co-distribution, and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive model was used to quantify the impacts of socio-ecological factors on both childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea at a postal area level. A distinct seasonality of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea was found. Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea were mainly distributed in the northwest of Queensland. Mount Isa city was the high-risk cluster where childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea co-distributed. Emergency department visits (EDVs) for pneumonia increased by 3% per 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall in wet seasons. By comparison, a 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall may cause an increase of 4% in EDVs for diarrhoea. Monthly average temperature was negatively associated with EDVs for childhood diarrhoea in wet seasons. Low socioeconomic index for areas (SEIFA) was associated with high EDVs for childhood pneumonia. Future pneumonia and diarrhoea prevention and control measures in Queensland should focus more on Mount Isa. PMID:25018008

  16. Dendromonocotyle lasti n. sp. from the skin and Monocotyle caseyae n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the gills of Himantura sp. (Dasyatidae) in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Leslie A; Whittington, Ian D

    2005-02-01

    Seven specimens of rays of the genus Himantura which could not be identified to species were collected from waters near Dunwich, Stradbroke Island, Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. The five smallest specimens of Himanturasp. (disc width 218-302 mm; four female, one male) had a banded tail and the dorsal surface was uniformly grey/brown. The two largest individuals of Himantura sp. (disc widths 460, 533 mm; female and male, respectively) also had a banded tail but the grey/brown dorsal surface had white spots. Two new monogenean species (Monocotylidae: Monocotylinae) are described from both the 'plain' and 'white-spotted' specimens of Himantura. Dendromonocotyle lastin. sp. is distinguished from other species in the genus by the number of papillae on the haptor, by the morphology of the male copulatory organ and by the morphology of the proximal portion of the vagina. The muscular sheath which surrounds the male copulatory organ is also unique having sclerotised spines at the distal end. Dendromonocotyle species are skin parasites, but a total of five juvenile specimens of D. lasti were found on the gills of four rays. Monocotyle caseyae n. sp. from the gills is characterised by the morphology of the male copulatory organ and its accessory piece. One specimen of M. spiremae Measures, Beverley-Burton & Williams, 1990, originally described from the gills of Himantura fai Jordan & Seale off Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia, was also found on the gills of one Himantura specimen. The site and host-specificity of the parasites and the identity of the hosts are discussed. PMID:15841345

  17. Unicapsula species (Myxosporea: Trilosporidae) of Australian marine fishes, including the description of Unicapsula andersenae n. sp. in five teleost families off Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Adlard, R D

    2013-08-01

    A survey of the myxosporean fauna of Australian marine fishes revealed the presence of three previously unreported species of Unicapsula (Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) from sites off Southeast Queensland, off Lizard Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, and from Jurien Bay in Western Australia. Morphometric data (spore, polar capsule and caudal appendage dimensions) combined with Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used for species identification and to explore relationships among these taxa. The four species of Unicapsula for which DNA data are now available for comparative purposes (Unicapsula andersenae n. sp., Unicapsula pflugfelderi, Unicapsula seriolae and Unicapsula pyramidata) formed a well-supported monophyletic sister clade to the other major multivalvulidan group, the Kudoidae. The combined morphometric and genetic diagnostic approach identified an undescribed taxon, U. andersenae n. sp., from the muscle of Argyrosomus japonicus, Acanthopagrus australis and Eleutheronema tetradactylum off the Southeast Queensland coast and in Lutjanus russellii and Sillago ciliata off Lizard Island. Intra-specific variation within U. andersenae n. sp. varied from 2-4 (0.2-0.4%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 2-20 (0.3-3.2%) over the LSU region. Inter-specific variation between U. andersenae n. sp. and the other three species for which genetic sequence data are now available ranged from 15-66 (3-6.5%) nucleotides over the SSU region to 103-120 (17.6-21.2%) nucleotides over the LSU region. The host distribution observed here for U. andersenae n. sp. (five fish species from five different fish families) represents the broadest specificity known for a single species of Unicapsula. U. pyramidata Naidjenova & Zaika 1970, whose spore morphology and presence of caudal appendages immediately distinguish it from other species, was recovered from the nemipterid, Scolopsis monogramma

  18. Late Quaternary stream sedimentation in the humid tropics: a review with new data from NE Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Michael F.; Nott, Jonathan; Price, David M.

    2001-07-01

    There is now a wide agreement that temperature depression in the humid tropics during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was at least 5°C. Most estimates of precipitation reduction at the LGM range from 25-30% to 50-65%, based on proxy data, but the recent CCM1 model envisages only around 12%. Dates obtained from river sediments indicate major changes to fluvial activity in the late Quaternary. Isotope Zone 3 sediments (58-28 ka BP) are widespread and possibly indicate cooler conditions. Post-28 ka BP, and certainly post-21 ka BP, river regimes altered radically towards fan building, braiding or major reduction in all activity. This paper reports on fan formation in NE Queensland between 26 and 14 ka BP and reviews evidence for comparable changes in humid tropical areas of S America, W Africa and SE Asia, including records of Holocene sedimentation. Within a global rhythm of major changes to river regimes in the humid tropics during the late Quaternary, it is now possible to detect regional variations in stream response to climatic change. At the LGM, reductions in stream power may have led to fan formation in NE Queensland, while vegetation changes may have contributed to increased sediment loads and braiding in some forest marginal areas. But, in W Africa, greater aridity may have been responsible for enfeebled streams leaving few records. Channel cutting, then deposition of coarse sediment in braided rivers marked the transition to the early Holocene in W Africa, and fans became entrenched in NE Queensland. This regime persisted until forest recovery was complete by 9.5-8.5 ka BP, when widespread overbank deposition occurred and a change towards meandering channels took place widely across the humid tropical zone, followed by several cut-and-fill episodes in the middle and late Holocene.

  19. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cotton in north eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, P.; Rowlings, D.; Weier, K.; Rochester, I.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2009-04-01

    Cotton is one of many agricultural industries in Australia heavily reliant on nitrogenous fertilizers and water storages to maintain high levels of production. Cotton-based farming systems are therefore labelled as potentially high-risk agricultural systems with respect to gaseous losses of nitrogen to the atmosphere. The on-farm study was undertaken at Dalby in the Darling Downs region of Queensland in north eastern Australia. The field was furrow irrigated and had been under continuous cotton (with winter bare fallow) for 10 years. The block was conventionally tilled, with a spraying regime typical for cotton production in this area. The black clay (with a surface clay content of 68%) and soil organic carbon content (0-10 cm) of 1.0% and a pH of 8.5, is typical of the region. During the the 2006/07 season, soil water (0-50 cm with Enviroscan), mineral nitrogen (0-10 cm) and crop production data was also collected to develop accurate models for predicting greenhouse gas emissions as a function of key chemical, physical and biological processes and specific management events. The 2006/07 experiment also attempted to directly measure the specific losses of N2O and N2 from a single application of N fertiliser using 15N isotopically labelled urea. The automated greenhouse gas measuring system (developed by Butterbach-Bahl et al.) consists of six chambers connected to sequential sampling unit, a gas chromatograph (equipped with both electron capture and flame ionization detectors for nitrous oxide and methane analysis respectively), and a Licor for carbon dioxide. To meet the demand for high mobility, the sample acquisition and analysis system is trailer mounted. During a normal sampling period, the chambers were closed for 90 minutes (unless temperatures within the chambers exceeded 55oC). The sampling program ensured that that a single gas sample was drawn back from each chamber every 20 minutes. To facilitate 15N gas sampling, Swagelok T-pieces were inserted into

  1. Evaluating sewage-associated JCV and BKV polyomaviruses for sourcing human fecal pollution in a coastal river in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Wan, C; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the host-sensitivity and host-specificity of JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) polyomaviruses were evaluated by testing wastewater and fecal samples from nine host groups in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The JCV and BKV polyomaviruses were detected in 63 human wastewater samples collected from primary and secondary effluent, suggesting high sensitivity of these viruses in human wastewater. In the 81 animal wastewater and fecal samples tested, 80 were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative for the JCV and BKV markers. Only one sample (out of 81 animal wastewater and fecal samples) from pig wastewater was positive. Nonetheless, the overall host-specificity of these viruses to differentiate between human and animal wastewater and fecal samples was 0.99. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Australia that reports on the high specificity of JCV and BKV polyomaviruses. To evaluate the field application of these viral markers for detecting human fecal pollution, 20 environmental samples were collected from a coastal river. In the 20 samples tested, 15% (3/20) and 70% (14/20) samples exceeded the regulatory guidelines for Escherichia coli and enterococci levels for marine waters. In all, five (25%) samples were PCR positive for JCV and BKV, indicating the presence of human fecal pollution in the coastal river investigated. The results suggest that JCV and BKV detection using PCR could be a useful tool for identifying human-sourced fecal pollution in coastal waters. PMID:21043279

  2. Screening of Oomycete Fungi for Their Potential Role in Reducing the Biting Midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Larval Populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Kirsty; Kurtböke, D. Ipek

    2011-01-01

    Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region. PMID:21655137

  3. 10Be constrains the sediment sources and sediment yields to the Great Barrier Reef from the tropical Barron River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Kyle K.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2014-11-01

    Estimates of long-term, background sediment generation rates place current and future sediment fluxes to the Great Barrier Reef in context. Without reliable estimates of sediment generation rates and without identification of the sources of sediment delivered to the reef prior to European settlement (c. 1850), determining the necessity and effectiveness of contemporary landscape management efforts is difficult. Here, using the ~ 2100-km2 Barron River catchment in Queensland, Australia, as a test case, we use in situ-produced 10Be to derive sediment generation rate estimates and use in situ and meteoric 10Be to identify the source of that sediment, which enters the Coral Sea near Cairns. Previous model-based calculations suggested that background sediment yields were up to an order of magnitude lower than contemporary sediment yields. In contrast, in situ 10Be data indicate that background (43 t km- 2 y- 1) and contemporary sediment yields (~ 45 t km- 2 y- 1) for the Barron River are similar. These data suggest that the reef became established in a sediment flux similar to what it receives today. Since western agricultural practices increased erosion rates, large amounts of sediment mobilized from hillslopes during the last century are probably stored in Queensland catchments and will eventually be transported to the coast, most likely in flows triggered by rare but powerful tropical cyclones that were more common before European settlement and may increase in strength as climate change warms the south Pacific Ocean. In situ and meteoric 10Be concentrations of Coral Sea beach sand near Cairns are similar to those in rivers on the Atherton Tablelands, suggesting that most sediment is derived from the extensive, low-gradient uplands rather than the steep, more rapidly eroding but beach proximal escarpment.

  4. 10Be constrains the sediment sources and sediment yields to the Great Barrier Reef from the tropical Barron River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, K. K.; Bierman, P. R.; Rood, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of long-term, background sediment generation rates place current and future sediment fluxes to the Great Barrier Reef in context. Without reliable estimates of sediment generation rates and without identification of the sources of sediment delivered to the reef prior to European settlement (c. 1850), determining the necessity and effectiveness of contemporary landscape management efforts is difficult. Using the ~2100-km2 Barron River catchment in Queensland, Australia, as a test case, we use in situ-produced 10Be to derive sediment generation rate estimates and use in situ and meteoric 10Be to identify the source of that sediment, which enters the Coral Sea near Cairns. Previous model-based calculations suggested that background sediment yields were up to an order of magnitude lower than contemporary sediment yields. In contrast, in situ 10Be data indicate that background (43 t km-2 y-1) and contemporary sediment yields (~45 t km-2 y-1) for the Barron River are similar. These data suggest that the reef became established in a sediment flux similar to what it receives today. Since western agricultural practices increased erosion rates, large amounts of sediment mobilized from hillslopes during the last century are probably stored in Queensland catchments and will eventually be transported to the coast, most likely in flows triggered by rare but powerful tropical cyclones that were more common before European settlement and may increase in strength as climate change warms the south Pacific Ocean. In situ and meteoric 10Be concentrations of Coral Sea beach sand near Cairns are similar to those in rivers on the Atherton Tablelands, suggesting that most sediment is derived from the extensive, low-gradient uplands rather than the steep, more rapidly eroding but beach proximal escarpment.

  5. Identification of Radar Facies and Linked Process-Based Palaeo-environmental Interpretations, Cooloola Sand Mass, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontz, A. M.; McCallum, A. B.; Moss, P. T.; Shulmeister, J.

    2015-12-01

    During 2015 and 2014, nearly 60 km of high-resolution ground penetrating radar data were acquired on the Cooloola Sand Mass (CSM) in southeastern coastal Queensland. The CSM is part of the world's largest downdrift sand system. It contains three of the world's largest sand islands, several National Parks, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and covers 500 km of the eastern Australian coastline in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland. The large (>200 m) composite dunes of the CSM exhibit multiple activation phases, coastally eroding bluffs and dune development is not obvious from surficial exposures. This provides an ideal environment for ground penetrating radar. The dune sequences have been provisionally dated to the mid Quaternary through present and represent the potential for a large palaeo-environmental proxy dataset. GPR imagery was collected using a MALA GeoSciences Ground Explorer (GX) system with 160 and 450 MHz antennae from the numerous physiographic and ecological provinces as well as mapped surficial soil units at the CSM. These data were used to determine the subsurface architecture, identify radar facies and develop environmental interpretations. In the clean, aeolian quartz-rich sands, radar wave penetration exceeded 30 m (radar velocity = 0.07 m/ns) with the 160 MHz antenna. From the interpreted environmental units including palaeosol, dune slip face, dune stoss face, sand blow, beach, estuarine and fluvial, we are developing maps to relate the units and focus a detailed sampling regime that includes OSL, sediment geochemistry and sedimentology, The interpreted units, stratigraphic correlation and spatial distribution of the facies is the first step in a broader project to unravel the Quaternary environmental and climate records that are archived within the sediments of the CSM.

  6. MINErosion 3: A user friendly hillslope model for predicting erosion from steep post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hwat-Bing; Khalifa, Ashraf; Carroll, Chris; Yu, Bofu

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is around 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a reliable and accurate method is required to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. A user friendly hillslope computer package MINErosion 3, was developed to predict potential erosion to select suitable combinations of landscape design parameters (slope gradient, slope length and vegetation cover

  7. Laboratory evaluation of two native fishes from tropical North Queensland as biological control agents of subterranean Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Russell, B M; Wang, J; Williams, Y; Hearnden, M N; Kay, B H

    2001-06-01

    The ability of 2 freshwater fishes, eastern rainbow fish Melanotaenia splendida splendida and fly-specked hardyhead Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum stercusmuscarum, native to North Queensland to prey on immature Aedes aegypti was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The predation efficiency of the 2 species was compared to the exotic guppy, Poecilia reticulata, which is commonly used as a biological control agent of mosquito larvae. Of the 3 fish species tested, M. s. splendida was shown to be the most promising agent for the biological control of Ae. aegypti that breed in wells. Melanotaenia s. splendida consumed significantly greater numbers of immature Ae. aegypti than P. reticulata, irrespective of developmental stage or light conditions. Unlike C s. stercusmuscarum, M. s. splendida could be handled, transported, and kept in captivity for extended periods with negligible mortality. However, M. s. splendida was also an efficient predator of Litoria caerulea tadpoles, a species of native frog found in wells during the dry season. This result may limit the usefulness of M. s. splendida as a biological control agent of well-breeding Ae. aegypti and suggests that predacious copepods, Mesocyclops spp., are more suitable. However, the use of M. s. splendida as a mosquito control agent in containers that are unlikely to support frog populations (e.g., aquaculture tanks and drinking troughs) should be given serious consideration. PMID:11480819

  8. Suitability of macrophytes for nutrient removal from surface flow constructed wetlands receiving secondary treated sewage effluent in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenway, M

    2003-01-01

    From a botanical perspective the major difference between waste stabilisation ponds and wetlands is the dominance of algae or floating plants in the former and emergent plants in the latter. Algae, floating and submerged plants remove nutrients directly from the water column whereas emergent species remove nutrients from the sediment. Water depth is a crucial factor in determining which plant types will become established. Surface flow constructed wetlands offer the greatest potential to grow a wide variety of different types of macrophytes. In assessing the suitability of plant species for nutrient removal, consideration must be given not only to nutrient uptake for growth but also storage of nutrients as plant biomass. A survey of macrophytes in 15 surface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent was conducted in Queensland; 63 native species and 14 introduced species were found. Emergent species have been able to tolerate deeper water than in their natural environment and permanent waterlogging. All species grew well in the higher nutrient enriched wastewater. Submerged, floating leaved-attached and free floating species had the highest tissue nutrient content, followed by aquatic creepers. All these species remove nutrients from the water column. Emergent species had lower nutrient content but a greater biomass and were therefore able to store more nutrients per unit area of wetland. In order to maximise the efficiency of constructed wetlands for nutrient removal, a range of species should be used. Native species should be selected in preference to introduced/exotic species. PMID:14510202

  9. Comparison of carbon dioxide- and octenol-baited encephalitis virus surveillance mosquito traps at the Shoal Water Bay Training area, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Wing, Jeremy; Cope, Stanton; Davey, Ronald B; Kline, Daniel L

    2005-12-01

    The use of octenol in combination with carbon dioxide (CO2)-baited encephalitis virus surveillance (EVS) mosquito traps was evaluated under simulated wartime operational conditions during Operation Tandem Thrust (TT01) at the Shoalwater Bay Training area, Queensland, Australia in 2001. A greater number of mosquito species were captured in traps baited with octenol plus CO2 than those baited with CO2 or octenol in the saltwater marsh, Freshwater Beach. In the inland environments of Camp Growl and Raspberry Creek, the addition of octenol did not significantly increase the numbers of mosquito species captured. Trap treatment (octenol only, CO2 only, or octenol plus CO2) influenced the species captured at Freshwater Beach. More Ochlerotatus vigilax, Mansonia uniformis, and Coquillettidia xanthogaster were captured in traps baited with octenol plus CO2, and more Anopheles were captured in traps baited with CO2 only. The most commonly captured (83%) mosquito species in the Shoalwater Bay Training Area during TT01 was the salt marsh breeder and Ross River virus vector, Oc. vigilax. PMID:16506585

  10. Geographical Inequalities in Surgical Treatment for Localized Female Breast Cancer, Queensland, Australia 1997–2011: Improvements over Time but Inequalities Remain

    PubMed Central

    Baade, Peter D.; Dasgupta, Paramita; Youl, Philippa H.; Pyke, Christopher; Aitken, Joanne F.

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of breast conserving surgery (BCS) for early stage breast cancer varies by where women live. We investigate whether these geographical patterns have changed over time using population-based data linkage between cancer registry records and hospital inpatient episodes. The study cohort consisted of 11,631 women aged 20 years and over diagnosed with a single primary invasive localised breast cancer between 1997 and 2011 in Queensland, Australia who underwent either BCS (n = 9223, 79%) or mastectomy (n = 2408, 21%). After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical factors, compared to women living in very high accessibility areas, women in high (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.58 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.49, 0.69)), low (OR 0.47 (0.41, 0.54)) and very low (OR 0.44 (0.34, 0.56)) accessibility areas had lower odds of having BCS, while  the odds for women from middle (OR 0.81 (0.69, 0.94)) and most disadvantaged (OR 0.87 (0.71, 0.98)) areas was significantly lower than women living in affluent areas. The association between accessibility and the type of surgery reduced over time (interaction p = 0.028) but not for area disadvantage (interaction p = 0.209). In making informed decisions about surgical treatment, it is crucial that any geographical-related barriers to implementing their preferred treatment are minimised. PMID:27447656

  11. New evidence of the reproductive organs of Glossopteris based on permineralized fossils from Queensland, Australia. II: pollen-bearing organ Ediea gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Harufumi; Pigg, Kathleen B; Kudo, Kensuke; Rigby, John F

    2014-03-01

    Ediea homevalensis H. Nishida, Kudo, Pigg & Rigby gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for permineralized pollen-bearing structures from the Late Permian Homevale Station locality of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia. The taxon represents unisexual fertile shoots bearing helically arranged leaves on a central axis. The more apical leaves are fertile microsporophylls bearing a pair of multi-branched stalks on their adaxial surfaces that each supports a cluster of terminally borne pollen sacs. Proximal to the fertile leaves there are several rows of sterile scale-like leaves. The pollen sacs (microsporangia) have thickened and dark, striate walls that are typical of the Arberiella type found in most pollen organs presumed to be of glossopterid affinity. An examination of pollen organs at several developmental stages, including those containing in situ pollen of the Protohaploxypinus type, provides the basis for a detailed analysis of these types of structures, which bear similarities to both compression/impression Eretmonia-type glossopterid microsporangiate organs and permineralized Eretmonia macloughlinii from Antarctica. These fossils demonstrate that at least some Late Permian pollen organs were simple microsporophyll-bearing shoot systems and not borne directly on Glossopteris leaves. PMID:24165836

  12. Geographical Inequalities in Surgical Treatment for Localized Female Breast Cancer, Queensland, Australia 1997-2011: Improvements over Time but Inequalities Remain.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Youl, Philippa H; Pyke, Christopher; Aitken, Joanne F

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of breast conserving surgery (BCS) for early stage breast cancer varies by where women live. We investigate whether these geographical patterns have changed over time using population-based data linkage between cancer registry records and hospital inpatient episodes. The study cohort consisted of 11,631 women aged 20 years and over diagnosed with a single primary invasive localised breast cancer between 1997 and 2011 in Queensland, Australia who underwent either BCS (n = 9223, 79%) or mastectomy (n = 2408, 21%). After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical factors, compared to women living in very high accessibility areas, women in high (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.58 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.49, 0.69)), low (OR 0.47 (0.41, 0.54)) and very low (OR 0.44 (0.34, 0.56)) accessibility areas had lower odds of having BCS, while  the odds for women from middle (OR 0.81 (0.69, 0.94)) and most disadvantaged (OR 0.87 (0.71, 0.98)) areas was significantly lower than women living in affluent areas. The association between accessibility and the type of surgery reduced over time (interaction p = 0.028) but not for area disadvantage (interaction p = 0.209). In making informed decisions about surgical treatment, it is crucial that any geographical-related barriers to implementing their preferred treatment are minimised. PMID:27447656

  13. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Lucy G; Molnar, Ralph E; Carpenter, Kenneth; Witmer, Lawrence M; Salisbury, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station near Richmond, preliminarily referred to a possible new species of Minmi. The Marathon specimen represents one of the world's most complete ankylosaurian skeletons and the best-preserved dinosaurian fossil from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, among ankylosaurians, its skull is one of only a few in which the majority of sutures have not been obliterated by dermal ossifications or surface remodelling. Recent preparation of the Marathon specimen has revealed new details of the palate and narial regions, permitting a comprehensive description and thus providing new insights cranial osteology of a basal ankylosaurian. The skull has also undergone computed tomography, digital segmentation and 3D computer visualisation enabling the reconstruction of its nasal cavity and endocranium. The airways of the Marathon specimen are more complicated than non-ankylosaurian dinosaurs but less so than derived ankylosaurians. The cranial (brain) endocast is superficially similar to those of other ankylosaurians but is strongly divergent in many important respects. The inner ear is extremely large and unlike that of any dinosaur yet known. Based on a high number of diagnostic differences between the skull of the Marathon specimen and other ankylosaurians, we consider it prudent to assign this specimen to a new genus and species of ankylosaurian. Kunbarrasaurus ieversi gen. et sp. nov. represents the second genus of ankylosaurian from Australia and is characterised by an unusual melange of both primitive and derived characters, shedding new light on the evolution of the ankylosaurian skull. PMID:26664806

  14. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Ralph E.; Carpenter, Kenneth; Witmer, Lawrence M.; Salisbury, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station near Richmond, preliminarily referred to a possible new species of Minmi. The Marathon specimen represents one of the world’s most complete ankylosaurian skeletons and the best-preserved dinosaurian fossil from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, among ankylosaurians, its skull is one of only a few in which the majority of sutures have not been obliterated by dermal ossifications or surface remodelling. Recent preparation of the Marathon specimen has revealed new details of the palate and narial regions, permitting a comprehensive description and thus providing new insights cranial osteology of a basal ankylosaurian. The skull has also undergone computed tomography, digital segmentation and 3D computer visualisation enabling the reconstruction of its nasal cavity and endocranium. The airways of the Marathon specimen are more complicated than non-ankylosaurian dinosaurs but less so than derived ankylosaurians. The cranial (brain) endocast is superficially similar to those of other ankylosaurians but is strongly divergent in many important respects. The inner ear is extremely large and unlike that of any dinosaur yet known. Based on a high number of diagnostic differences between the skull of the Marathon specimen and other ankylosaurians, we consider it prudent to assign this specimen to a new genus and species of ankylosaurian. Kunbarrasaurus ieversi gen. et sp. nov. represents the second genus of ankylosaurian from Australia and is characterised by an unusual melange of both primitive and derived characters, shedding new light on the evolution of the ankylosaurian skull. PMID:26664806

  15. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Niel L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota) is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region. PMID:25878536

  16. Development of a catchment/landscape erosion prediction model (MINErosion 4) for post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Ashraf; Yu, Bofu; Ghadiri, Hossain; Carroll, Chris; So, Hwat-Bing

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is approximately 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a hillslope erosion model MINErosion 3 (this conference) was developed to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. This model was useful to determine the design parameters for the construction of a suitable post-mining landscape that meets the required erosion criteria. However, the mining

  17. Implementing large-scale workforce change: learning from 55 pilot sites of allied health workforce redesign in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasingly, health workforces are undergoing high-level ‘re-engineering’ to help them better meet the needs of the population, workforce and service delivery. Queensland Health implemented a large scale 5-year workforce redesign program across more than 13 health-care disciplines. This study synthesized the findings from this program to identify and codify mechanisms associated with successful workforce redesign to help inform other large workforce projects. Methods This study used Inductive Logic Reasoning (ILR), a process that uses logic models as the primary functional tool to develop theories of change, which are subsequently validated through proposition testing. Initial theories of change were developed from a systematic review of the literature and synthesized using a logic model. These theories of change were then developed into propositions and subsequently tested empirically against documentary, interview, and survey data from 55 projects in the workforce redesign program. Results Three overarching principles were identified that optimized successful workforce redesign: (1) drivers for change need to be close to practice; (2) contexts need to be supportive both at the local levels and legislatively; and (3) mechanisms should include appropriate engagement, resources to facilitate change management, governance, and support structures. Attendance to these factors was uniformly associated with success of individual projects. Conclusions ILR is a transparent and reproducible method for developing and testing theories of workforce change. Despite the heterogeneity of projects, professions, and approaches used, a consistent set of overarching principles underpinned success of workforce change interventions. These concepts have been operationalized into a workforce change checklist. PMID:24330616

  18. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) of faulting and subsidence at an abandoned coal mine in the Walloon Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; MacDonald-Creevey, Amanda; Smith, Ben

    2016-04-01

    As urban and suburban areas expand into previously unoccupied sites, the problem of accurately determining the locations of abandoned mine workings and the possible effects of fault reactivation on surface subsidence becomes more important. Here, we present the results of DC electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys above an abandoned coal mine in the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures of the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Queensland. Objectives were to: (1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, (2) determine the extent of the mine workings, (3) determine if the workings are open, partly- or fully-collapsed, (4) locate the possible existence of a high angle fault delineating the western extent of the workings. Coal seams were mined underground by the bord-and-pillar technique at the site until the first half of the 20th century to within ~20 m of the ground surface. This has led to ground settlement post-abandonment, with an additional hazard of this stress-redistribution being the possible reactivation of steeply-dipping faults known to pervade the coal measures. After an initial site reconnaissance, desktop study and modelling, it was determined that existing mine plans, maps and records were poorly kept and inaccurate, making a satisfactory geotechnical risk assessment prior to land development and construction difficult. The 2D ERI transects, coupled with boreholes, identified lateral zones of moderate-high resistivity that are interpreted to be partly-collapsed workings. The second key feature identified was a reverse fault that delineated the western edge of the mine workings. The key outcome is that for abandoned mine risk assessment to be optimised, careful integration of geophysical data and direct testing needs to be made.

  19. Exploring LiDAR data for mapping the micro-topography and tidal hydro-dynamics of mangrove systems: An example from southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jon M.; Dale, Pat E. R.; Spencer, John; Griffin, Lachlan

    2009-12-01

    The aim was to explore the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to map the micro-topography of an intertidal wetland in southeast Queensland Australia. The driver for this was the need to identify and map the habitats of the immature stages of an aedine disease vector mosquito ( Aedes vigilax (Skuse)). We derived a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data set at a vertical resolution of 0.05 m from LiDAR data. The relative accuracy of the DEM across the site was tested by comparing water depth predictions derived from the DEM against in-situ water depth readings from pressure sensors over a 10-day tidal cycle, which included high spring tides. We found that the field observations of micro-topographic units important for mosquito management matched those delineated from the DEM. The micro-topography included a low berm or central ridge that was more or less continuous across the site, a shallow back basin and fringing mangroves. The fringing mangroves had unimpeded connection to the tidal source, however the central ridge blocked tidal water from the back basin for all but the highest tides. Eggshell survey indicated that the back basin was the area suitable for immature mosquitoes. We conclude that LiDAR data has application for understanding and mapping the structure of mangrove wetlands. We have also demonstrated (in a small area) that LiDAR is useful for modelling the effect of sea level changes on the coastal fringe. LiDAR may be the only method to inform research on changes to land use and ecosystems caused by sea level change.

  20. Reproductive parameters of rhinobatid and urolophid batoids taken as by-catch in the Queensland (Australia) east coast otter-trawl fishery.

    PubMed

    Kyne, P M; Courtney, A J; Jacobsen, I P; Bennett, M B

    2016-08-01

    Reproductive variables are provided for batoids regularly taken as by-catch in the east coast otter-trawl fishery on the inner-mid continental shelf off the south-east and central coasts of Queensland, Australia. Total length at maturity (LT50 and 95% c.i.) for the eastern shovelnose ray Aptychotrema rostrata was 639·5 mm (617·6-663·4 mm) for females and 597·3 mm (551·4-648·6 mm) for males. Litter size (n = 9) ranged from nine to 20 (mean ± s.e. = 15·1 ± 1·2). This species exhibited a positive litter size-maternal size relationship. Disc width at maturity (WD50 and 95% c.i.) for the common stingaree Trygonoptera testacea was 162·7 mm (155·8-168·5 mm) for females and 145·9 mm (140·2-150·2 mm) for males. Gravid T. testacea (n = 6) each carried a single egg in the one functional (left) uterus. Disc width at maturity (WD50 and 95% c.i.) for the Kapala stingaree Urolophus kapalensis was 153·7 mm (145·1-160·4 mm) for females and 155·2 mm (149·1-159·1 mm) for males. Gravid U. kapalensis (n = 16) each carried a single egg or embryo in the one functional (left) uterus. A single female yellowback stingaree Urolophus sufflavus carried an embryo in each uterus. A global review of the litter sizes of shovelnose rays (Rhinobatidae) and stingarees (Urolophidae) is provided. PMID:27238204

  1. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  2. Assessment of groundwater-surface water interaction using long-term hydrochemical data and isotope hydrology: Headwaters of the Condamine River, Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jorge L; Raiber, Matthias; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-12-01

    A spatial analysis of hydrochemical data of groundwater and surface water was undertaken to identify groundwater-surface water connectivity in the headwaters of the Condamine River catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. An assessment of long-term hydrochemical and water level data supplemented by stable- and radioisotope measurements following a prolonged dry period dominated by baseflow, helped in determining patterns of interaction in different tributaries of the upper Condamine catchment. A conceptual hydrological model representing the major hydrochemical processes and their implications for stream-aquifer connectivity was developed and tested using multiple lines of evidence. The results of a multivariate statistical analysis highlight that there are two main regions with distinct hydrochemical facies (salinity, alkalinity, and predominant ions) in surface water. Geomorphology, geology, anthropogenic and climate influence were identified as the most relevant controlling factors of the spatial variability in water quality. Stable isotope data confirmed a clear evaporation trend in almost all surface water samples during baseflow conditions. Two water types can be identified and separated by the degree of evaporation and the proximity of one group to the local meteoric water line. The results confirm the discharge of groundwater from aquifers recharged by rainfall and located upstream of the surface water sampling sites. Overall, 222Rn data show a trend of increased activity in surface water towards the upstream portions of these tributaries, validating the use of this tracer to estimate groundwater input to the local creeks. The proportion of groundwater contribution to stream flow calculated by 222Rn and chloride mass balance is in agreement, and ranges between 20-70% in tributaries in the northern areas, and between 8-50% in the upper reaches of the main river channel. This study shows the efficacy of an integrated approach combining long

  3. Earliest known Carboniferous shallow-water reefs, Gudman Formation (Tn1b), Queensland, Australia: Implications for Late Devonian reef collapse and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. E.

    1998-10-01

    The Phanerozoic history of reefs extensively has been considered a direct reflection of the history of skeletal reef-building organisms. However, such a relationship does not characterize global mid-Paleozoic reef history. The extinction of most reef-building stromatoporoids and corals at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary correlates with the collapse of North American and European stromatoporoid-dominated reefs, but Western Australian, Russian, and Chinese reefs were much less severely affected until the late Famennian, when algae, calcimicrobes, and nonskeletal microbialites (i.e., stromatolites, thrombolites) declined globally. Additionally, reef recovery was more rapid than previously thought. Small, early Tournaisian (Tn1b) shallow-water reefs in the Gudman Formation of eastern-central Queensland substantially reduce the duration of the “reefless lag time” following Late Devonian reef decline, essentially confining it to the Strunian. Gudman reefs are dominated by microbialite, but contain a diverse, although volumetrically insignificant, skeletal fauna and flora, including large colonial corals, bryozoans, crinoids, brachiopods, and calcareous algae. Hence, mid-Paleozoic reef collapse and recovery reflect an amalgam of more-or-less independent histories of skeletal organisms, calcimicrobes, and nonskeletal microbialites, in response to regional and global environmental parameters. A better understanding of mid-Paleozoic reef history will require detailed local- and regional-scale studies to isolate global from nonglobal signals.

  4. Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH) in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia): Study Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Ezz, Wafaa Nabil; Mazaheri, Mandana; Robinson, Paul; Johnson, Graham R.; Clifford, Samuel; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Marks, Guy B.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafine particles are particles that are less than 0.1 micrometres (µm) in diameter. Due to their very small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, and potentially cause more damage than larger particles. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH) study is the first Australian epidemiological study to assess the health effects of ultrafine particles on children’s health in general and peripheral airways in particular. The study is being conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Continuous indoor and outdoor air pollution monitoring was conducted within each of the twenty five participating school campuses to measure particulate matter, including in the ultrafine size range, and gases. Respiratory health effects were evaluated by conducting the following tests on participating children at each school: spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT) and multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW) (to assess airway function), fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, to assess airway inflammation), blood cotinine levels (to assess exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (to measure systemic inflammation). A pilot study was conducted prior to commencing the main study to assess the feasibility and reliably of measurement of some of the clinical tests that have been proposed for the main study. Air pollutant exposure measurements were not included in the pilot study. PMID:25648226

  5. Patterns of tree dieback in Queensland, Australia: the importance of drought stress and the role of resistance to cavitation.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kevin J; Matzner, Steven L; Byer, William; Brown, Joel R

    2004-04-01

    During the extreme 1992-1997 El Niño drought event, widespread stem mortality, or tree "dieback", of both mature and juvenile eucalypts occurred within the tropical savannas of northeast Australia. Most of the dieback occurred in individuals of the ironbark species complex ( Eucalyptus crebra- E. xanthoclada) while individuals of the bloodwood species Corymbia erythrophloia, exhibited significantly less stem mortality. Indicative of greater water stress, predawn and midday xylem water potentials of ironbark adults and saplings were significantly more negative than predawn values of bloodwoods. The very negative xylem water potentials in ironbarks suggest that stem mortality in both adult and juvenile ironbarks results from drought-induced embolism and that ironbarks perhaps have a shallower and less extensive root system than bloodwoods. Although predawn and midday water potentials for ironbark adults and saplings were similar, a census of mature and juvenile ironbark trees indicated that mortality was higher in adult trees. Cavitation vulnerability curves indicated that ironbark saplings may be better buffered against cavitation than adult trees. If they possess smaller root systems, saplings are more likely than adults to experience low xylem water potentials, even in non-drought years. Xylem conduits produced in adult trees during periods of normal rainfall, although perhaps more efficient in water conduction, may be more vulnerable to cavitation during infrequent severe droughts. PMID:14767754

  6. The geochemistry of primary and weathered oil shale and coquina across the Julia Creek vanadium deposit (Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Stephen Edward; Henderson, Robert A.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Shields, Graham A.; Coxhell, Simon

    2010-08-01

    A significant resource of vanadium and molybdenum exists near Julia Creek, Australia, where the middle Cretaceous organic-rich Toolebuc Formation lies between 0 and 25 m of the surface. We present and discuss a comprehensive geochemical study of the Toolebuc Formation and its enclosing stratigraphy near Julia Creek to understand this ore deposit. V and Mo contents in fresh facies are strongly associated with total organic carbon (TOC) contents, but not with Al or CaCO3; this suggests that V and Mo were originally concentrated in the organic fraction. However, chemical extractions using H2O2 indicate that Mo was originally concentrated in pyrite. The data also suggest that V was mobilised from organic matter during early diagenesis and became associated with clays as little V was extracted by H2O2 in the fresh samples. TOC contents in the Toolebuc Formation were removed during weathering, residually enriching trace metals including V and Mo, and as a result, the TOC relationship with V and Mo disintegrates. With weathering, both V and Mo predominantly became associated with iron oxide/hydroxide phases (and possibly other unidentified phases) as these elements in the weathered facies were highly soluble in the sodium citrate-sodium dithionite digestion. Large shale-hosted V and Mo deposits such as Julia Creek offer a potentially viable alternative to the currently mined magnetite-hosted deposits. A thorough understanding of the formation and host mineral phases for V and Mo of these shale deposits, however, is critical to ensure that these valuable metals can be feasibly extracted.

  7. Eucalyptus Pollen Allergy and Asthma in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jane E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate Eucalyptus (gum tree) pollen allergy in children in relation to geography, particularly vegetation, and its relationship to asthma. Methods Males (n = 180) and females (n = 200) aged 9 to 14 participated. Some were healthy (asymptomatic), some had asthma, and some had other symptoms associated with atopy. School students were from three urban coastal schools and one school from a nearby semi-rural elevated area (range) near Brisbane, Australia. Coastal and range locations featured different distributions of Myrtaceae family vegetation (including Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum species). Skin prick test (SPT) responses to 15 commercial allergens were compared. As well, responses from coast versus range groups, and ‘asthma’ (n = 97) versus ‘healthy’ status (n = 107) groups, were compared. Results SPT responses (≥3mm wheal diameter) indicate that children with asthma are 31.1 times more likely to be allergic to Eucalyptus pollen extract (OR: 31.1; 95%CI 4.1- 235.7) compared to healthy children. Dust mite (p = .018), Eucalyptus (p = .046) and cockroach (p = .047) allergen SPT responses (wheals ≥3mm) were significantly greater in participants located on the coast versus range as determined by Fisher’s Exact Test (α .05). For each location, percentage of positive responses (wheals ≥3mm) was greatest for ‘dust mite’ (30.9%-46%), ‘cockroach’ (18.1% -35%) and ‘Bermuda grass’ (10.6%-19.4%). Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that proximity to Myrtaceae vegetation is related to positive SPT response and that Eucalyptus is an important allergen for children with asthma. Substantial response to olive allergen, in the absence of olive trees, suggests that the response may be driven by substances in other plants, perhaps Melaleuca quinquenervia, which abounds in coastal areas. Implications Response to Eucalyptus allergen indicates that changes in gardening practice in schools and public areas may be

  8. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-07-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. It can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined at 4 replicate sites which were burned during the combustion and another 4 adjacent unburned sites located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 day-1. The burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates at the burned sites measured in August 2014. While within the next 3 months the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to pre-burning levels. Mean CO2 emission from forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 day-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned sites in both August and November 2014. The temporal dynamics of the CO2 emission presented more seasonal variations, rather than burning effects. The N2O emission at the studied sites was quite low, and no significant impact of burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial activities, resulting from the

  9. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-11-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. Prescribed burning can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined in four replicate plots which were burned during the combustion and in another four adjacent unburned plots located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 d-1. Prescribed burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates in the burned plots measured in August 2014. In the following 3 months, the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to the pre-burning level. Mean CO2 emission from the forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 d-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned plots in both August and November 2014. The CO2 emissions showed more seasonal variations, rather than the effects of prescribed burning. The N2O emission in the plots was quite low, and no significant impact of prescribed burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial

  10. The use of ERTS/LANDSAT imagery in relation to airborne remote sensing for terrain analysis in Western Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator); Owen-Jones, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT 1 and 2 imagery contrast the geology of the Cloncurry-Dobbyn and the Gregory River-Mt. Isa areas very clearly. Known major structural features and lithological units are clearly displayed while, hitherto unknown lineaments were revealed. Throughout this area, similar rock types produce similar spectral signatures, e.g. quartzites produce light signatures, iron rich rocks produce dark signatures. More geological data are discernible at the 1:50,000 scale than on the 1:250,000 scale. Ore horizons may be identified at the 1:50,000 scale, particularly where they are associated with iron rich rocks. On the level plains north of Cloncurry, distinctive spectral signatures produced by the combined reflectances of plant cover, soils, and geology, distinguish different types of superficial deposits. Existing and former channels of the Cloncurry and Williams Rivers are distinguished at the 1:50,000 scale on both the LANDSAT 1 and 2 imagery. On the Cloncurry Plains, fence lines are discernible on the 1:50,000 LANDSAT 2 imagery.

  11. Trends in the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia from 2000 to 2013: what is the impact of an increase in invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi)?

    PubMed

    Wan Sai Cheong, J; Smith, H; Heney, C; Robson, J; Schlebusch, S; Fu, J; Nourse, C

    2015-10-01

    Following the introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), cases of invasive encapsulated Hib disease have decreased markedly. This study aimed to examine subsequent epidemiological trends in invasive H. influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia and in particular, assess the clinical impact and public health implications of invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. A multicentre retrospective study was conducted from July 2000 to June 2013. Databases of major laboratories in Queensland including Queensland Forensic and Scientific Services (jurisdictional referral laboratory for isolate typing) were examined to identify cases. Demographic, infection site, Indigenous status, serotype, and mortality data were collected. In total, 737 invasive isolates were identified, of which 586 (79·5%) were serotyped. Hib, NTHi and encapsulated non-b strains, respectively, constituted 12·1%, 69·1% and 18·8% of isolates. The predominant encapsulated non-b strains were f (45·5%) and a (27·3%) serotypes. Of isolates causing meningitis, 48·9% were NTHi, 14·9% Hib, 14·9% Hie, 10·6% Hif, 6·4% Hia and 4·3% were untyped. During the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of invasive NTHi disease (P = 0·007) with seasonal peaks in winter and spring (P 0·001) and Hib (P = 0·039) than non-Indigenous patients. In Queensland, invasive H. influenzae disease is now predominantly encountered in adults and most commonly caused by NTHi strains with demonstrated pathogenicity extending to otherwise young or immunocompetent individuals. Routine public health notification of these strains is recommended and recent available immunization options should be considered. PMID:25762194

  12. Mineralogical maturity in dunefields of North America, Africa and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of dunefields in central and western North America show that mineralogical maturity can provide new insights into the origin and evolution of aeolian sand bodies. Many of the world's great sand seas in Africa, Asia and Australia are quartz-dominated and thus can be considered to be mineralogically mature. The Algodones (California) and Parker (Arizona) dunes in the southwestern United States are also mature, but have inherited a high degree of mineralogical maturity from quartz-rich sedimentary rocks drained by the Colorado River. In Libya, sediments of the Zallaf sand sea, which are almost pure quartz, may have originated in a similar fashion. The Fort Morgan (Colorado) and Casper (Wyoming) dunefields in the central Great Plains of North America, and the Namib sand sea of southern Africa have an intermediate degree of mineralogical maturity because their sources are large rivers that drained both unweathered plutonic and metamorphic rocks and mature sedimentary rocks. Mojave Desert dunefields in the southwestern United States are quite immature because they are in basins adjacent to plutonic rocks that were their sources. Other dunefields in the Great Plains of North America (those in Nebraska and Texas) are more mature than any possible source sediments and therefore reflect mineralogical evolution over time. Such changes in composition can occur because of either of two opposing long-term states of the dunefield. In one state, dunes are stable for long periods of time and chemical weathering depletes feldspars and other weatherable minerals in the sediment body. In the other state, which is most likely for the Great Plains, abrasion and ballistic impacts deplete the carbonate minerals and feldspars because the dunes are active for longer periods than they are stable. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Integrative Taxonomy in the Conservation Management of Cryptic Species: The Taxonomic Status of Endangered Earless Dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the Grasslands of Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered ‘species’ of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available. PMID:25076129

  14. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available. PMID:25076129

  15. Local Area Initiatives, 1986. Priority Country Area Program, Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priority Country Area Program Office, Brisbane (Australia).

    The Priority Country Area Program is a Rural Education Program funded by the Commonwealth Schools Commission and jointly administered by the Queensland (Australia) Department of Education and the Queensland Catholic Education Office. The program develops educational strategies to address problems engendered by the social and geographical nature of…

  16. Sole Fighter Mentality: Stakeholder Agency in CLIL Programmes in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smala, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an insight into content and language integrated learning (CLIL) practices in the Australian state of Queensland. The article comprises four main sections. The first section outlines the context of CLIL in Australia and Queensland; there follows a brief review of the literature on stakeholders in CLIL programmes, such as…

  17. Inclusive Education Reform in Queensland: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Patricia E.

    2010-01-01

    In Queensland, Australia, the school system is being reformed to be more "inclusive". However, the enthusiasm for "inclusive education" in Queensland seems to be waning amongst practitioners, and the "confusion, frustration, guilt and exhaustion" that has emerged with teachers and support practitioners in the UK is emerging amongst support…

  18. Nd, Sr and Os isotope systematics in young, fertile spinel peridotite xenoliths from northern Queensland, Australia: A unique view of depleted MORB mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, M. R.; Bennett, V. C.; Carlson, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Northeastern Queensland, a part of the Phanerozoic composite Tasman Fold Belt of eastern Australia, has a Paleozoic to Mesozoic history dominated by subduction zone processes. A suite of 13 peridotite xenoliths from the <3 Ma Atherton Tablelands Volcanic Province, predominantly from Mount Quincan, comprise fertile (1.8-3.4 wt.% Al 2O 3 and 38.7-41.9 wt.% MgO) spinel lherzolites free from secondary volatile-bearing phases and with only weak metasomatic enrichment of incompatible trace elements (Sm N/Yb N = 0.23-1.1; La N/Yb N = 0.11-4.9). The suite is isotopically heterogeneous, with measured Sr ( 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7027-07047), Nd ( 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.51249-0.51362), and to a lesser extent, Os ( 187Os/ 188Os = 0.1228-0.1292) compositions broadly overlapping MORB source mantle (DMM) and extending to more depleted compositions, reflecting evolution in a time-integrated depleted reservoir. Major and rare earth element systematics are consistent with mantle that is residual after low to moderate degrees of melt extraction predominantly in the spinel facies, but with a few samples requiring partial melting at greater pressures in the garnet field or near the garnet-spinel transition. In contrast to most previously studied suites of continental lithospheric mantle samples, the incompatible trace element contents and Sr and Nd isotopic systematics of these samples suggest only minimal modification of the sampled lithosphere by metasomatic processes. Five of six Mount Quincan xenoliths preserving depleted middle to heavy REE patterns form a whole rock Sm-Nd isochron with an age of ˜275 Ma (ɛ Ndi = +9), coincident with widespread granitoid emplacement in the overlying region. This isochron is interpreted to indicate the timing of partial melting of a DMM-like source. Xenoliths from other Atherton localities scatter about the isochron, suggesting that the sampled mantle represents addition of DMM mantle to the lithosphere in the Permian, when the region may have broadly been

  19. An hypothesis for integrating climate, geomorphology, soils, and land use for interpreting runoff and erosion in catchment management studies, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, soil movement has been reported in the literature under processes of raindrop impact/splash, overland sheet flow, rills, gullies, and ephemeral and fluent streams and rivers. From the perspective of a land manager this information needs to be structured in a way that integrates these many strands of knowledge thus facilitating decision making about land use operations and conservation of the resource. This paper describes the interconnectedness of hydrologic and sedimentological processes of landscape elements and segments in the headwaters of the semi/arid - subhumid Fitzroy River, Central Queensland, Australia and options for managing severe erosion. The central notion of the hypothesis is that sediment has been pulsing through this landscape for thousands of years. Stratigraphy of valley alluvial fans indicates that the valleys have been filled and re-excavated many times. The pulsing of sediment through valleys where incision of alluvial fans and subsequent downstream deposition creates a sequence of similar landforms, but of a different scale, is largely driven by the morphology of the landforms themselves. The "noses" of alluvial fans exhibit a convex shape with the surface being characterised by finer sediments. Positive pore water pressures develop throughout the fan due to the highest infiltration occurring at the head of the fan where coarsest sediments are deposited. Strata of coarser materials are thus laid down progressively up-valley as the fans continue to grow. In the base of the "nose" of alluvial fans there are the remnants of the coarse material that were laid down initially and movement of water through fans is subsequently along the layers of coarse gravel and exfiltrated at the "nose" of the fan. A "pothole" in these locations is the first visible evidence of the impending rapid retreat of a new gully whereby sediment is pulsed down-valley and again deposited to form a new fan. Thus alluvial fans are destroyed and gullies are in

  20. Quantifying denitrification losses from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia - use of the 15N gas flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, Johannes; Scheer, Clemens; Warner, Daniel; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification remains a major uncertainty in estimating N losses from soils, the magnitude of N2 losses and related N2:N2O ratios from soils are largely unknown due to difficulties measuring N2 against a high atmospheric background. In order to address this lack of data, this study investigated the influence of different soil moisture contents on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia using the 15N gas flux method. Intact soil cores were incubated over 14 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS). Gas samples were taken up to six times per day after application of 15N labelled nitrate, equivalent to 50 kg N ha-1 and analysed for N2 and N2O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fluxes were calculated assuming non-random 15N distribution in the headspace according to Mulvaney and Kurtz (1984) using the labelled pool of nitrate estimated from N2O measurements (Stevens and Laughlin 2001). The main product of denitrification in both treatments was N2. N2 emissions exceeded N2O emissions by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.3 at 80% WFPS and a factor of 3 ± 0.8 at 100% WFPS. The total amount of N-N2 lost over the incubation period was 13.5±1.0 kg N ha-1 at 80% WFPS and 21.8±1.8 kg ha-1 at 100% WFPS respectively. Over the entire incubation period, N2 emissions remained elevated at 100% WFPS, showing high variation between soil cores, while related N2O emissions decreased. At 80% WFPS, N2 emissions increased constantly over time showing significantly higher values after day five. At the same time, N2O fluxes declined. Consequently, N2:N2O ratios rose over the incubation period in both treatments. Overall denitrification rates and related N2:N2O ratios were higher at 100% WFPS compared to 80% WFPS, confirming WFPS as a major driver of

  1. Health Risk from the Use of Roof-Harvested Rainwater in Southeast Queensland, Australia, as Potable or Nonpotable Water, Determined Using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, W.; Vieritz, A.; Goonetilleke, A.; Gardner, T.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 214 rainwater samples from 82 tanks were collected in urban Southeast Queensland (SEQ) in Australia and analyzed for the presence and numbers of zoonotic bacterial and protozoal pathogens using binary PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) analysis was used to quantify the risk of infection associated with the exposure to potential pathogens from roof-harvested rainwater used as potable or nonpotable water. Of the 214 samples tested, 10.7%, 9.8%, 5.6%, and 0.4% were positive for the Salmonella invA, Giardia lamblia β-giardin, Legionella pneumophila mip, and Campylobacter jejuni mapA genes, respectively. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst wall protein (COWP) could not be detected. The estimated numbers of Salmonella, G. lamblia, and L. pneumophila organisms ranged from 6.5 × 101 to 3.8 × 102 cells, 0.6 × 10° to 3.6 × 10° cysts, and 6.0 × 101 to 1.7 × 102 cells per 1,000 ml of water, respectively. Six risk scenarios were considered for exposure to Salmonella spp., G. lamblia, and L. pneumophila. For Salmonella spp. and G. lamblia, these scenarios were (i) liquid ingestion due to drinking of rainwater on a daily basis, (ii) accidental liquid ingestion due to hosing twice a week, (iii) aerosol ingestion due to showering on a daily basis, and (iv) aerosol ingestion due to hosing twice a week. For L. pneumophila, these scenarios were (i) aerosol inhalation due to showering on a daily basis and (ii) aerosol inhalation due to hosing twice a week. The risk of infection from Salmonella spp., G. lamblia, and L. pneumophila associated with the use of rainwater for showering and garden hosing was calculated to be well below the threshold value of one extra infection per 10,000 persons per year in urban SEQ. However, the risk of infection from ingesting Salmonella spp. and G. lamblia via drinking exceeded this threshold value and indicated that if undisinfected rainwater is ingested by drinking, then the incidences of the

  2. A new genus and two new species of soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Chiromyzinae) from Australia, one found infesting sugarcane in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Metridius nov. gen. and types species M. robertsoni nov. sp. with winged males and apterous females is described from adults and larvae found infesting sugarcane stools from near Mackay, central Queensland. A second new species, M. mcalpinei nov. sp., based only on males from near Sydney, New South Wales is also described. Notes on the biology of both species and an identification key to the genera of the subfamily Chiromyzinae and to the species are also given. PMID:27394475

  3. Student Performance Standards and Queensland Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Andrew; Danaher, Patrick

    This paper considers the implementation of Student Performance Standards (SPS) in Queensland, Australia, and their implications for teacher education. Student testing procedures in various Australian states and territories are described. A theoretical framework, grounded in Australian educational history, is elaborated for understanding the…

  4. Valuing Arts Education in Isolated Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncum, Paul; Cassidy, Howard

    1994-01-01

    A survey of home-schooling parents and staff associated with the Longreach School of Distance Education in a remote area of Queensland (Australia) examined attitudes about the importance of drama and visual arts education. The majority of parents valued their children's participation in the arts and would like to see more arts education included…

  5. Health sciences librarians' research on medical students' use of information for their studies at the medical school, University of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lasserre, Kaye E; Foxlee, Nicola; Kruesi, Lisa; Walters, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research undertaken by health sciences librarians at the University of Queensland Library into how medical students use information for their studies, particularly resources and services provided by the Library. The methods utilized were an online survey and focus groups. Results indicated that students favor print resources over electronic, value accessing resources on a one-stop basis, and prefer training to be delivered flexibly. The implication of these results for future resource selection, service provision, and instructional design and delivery is discussed. PMID:21534114

  6. "Think Tank" on Research into Rural Education. Proceedings of the Conference Held by the Rural Education Research and Development Centre (Townsville, Queensland, Australia June 10-14, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, M., Ed.; Walton, J., Ed.

    A conference was held to develop a plan of research into rural education in Australia and to form a consortium of rural education researchers. Part I of this proceedings contains an introductory paper, "Rural Education: The State of the Art" (Steve Clark), which analyzes research in rural education in Australia in recent decades with regard to…

  7. The significance of E-W structural trends for the Alice Springs Orogeny in the Charters Towers Province, North Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quentin de Gromard, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    E-W structural and igneous trends in the Charters Towers Province are highly anomalous within the overall N-S trending Tasman orogen of eastern Australia and resulted from a sequence of N-S shortening events. A succession of ~ E-W trending FIAs (Foliation Intersection/Inflexion Axis preserved within porphyroblasts) dated at 474.7 ± 7.2, 413 ± 13 and 381.1 ± 8.1 Ma correspond with adjacent granite crystallization ages and E-W trending FIA ages in the Greenvale Province to the NW. The magnetic anomaly map of Australia reveals that this E-W trending portion of the Tasman orogen links with and truncates several earlier formed orogens. The E-W trend of the Charters Towers Province resulted from overprinting of early Palaeozoic N-S trending structures in the Tasman Orogen by younger E-W ones during the Alice Springs Orogeny (450-300 Ma) resolving the E-W pluton shape and distribution of Cambrian to Devonian magmatic activity plus the truncational nature of aeromagnetic data from Central Australia to the East coast.

  8. Age and gender correlation of gonial angle, ramus height and bigonial width in dentate subjects in a dental school in Far North Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Leversha, Jodi; McKeough, Glen; Myrteza, Adriana; Skjellrup-Wakefiled, Hannah; Welsh, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine if mandibular parameters (gonial angle, bigonial width and ramus height) measured from panoramic radiographs, can be used to determine a correlation with an individual’s age and gender in dentate subjects in Far North Queensland. Material and Methods The study utilised 2699 randomly selected panoramic radiographs of patients between the ages of 19-69 years, from which 220 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each panoramic radiograph was analysed and the above three parameters recorded and measured. These values were collated into appropriate age and gender groups and subjected to statistical analysis. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.1±14.41, with males being shown to have a statistically significant larger ramus height and bigonial width than females (P<0.0001 for both). Females, on the other hand, were shown to have a significantly larger gonial angle than males (P<0.0002). General trends revealed gonial angle to increase with age, whilst bigonial width and ramus height were shown to decrease with age. Conclusions The assessment of mandibular morphology through radiographic measurements may be useful in estimating an individual’s age and gender when comparing to a known population standard. Key words:Bigonial width, gonial angle, panoramic radiograph, ramus height. PMID:26855706

  9. A comparison of vegetation development on coarse coal reject and replaced topsoil on an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, D.R.; Grigg, A.H.; Bowen, D.; Orr, M.S.; Bell, L.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1988, the University of Queensland commenced a research program at Curragh coal mine in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland to examine factors that would encourage the growth of a cover crop sufficient t control soil erosion, but not so competitive as to hinder the establishment of native species. Weed and grass growth from the soil seed store in replaced topsoil often has a negative impact on the establishment and survival of sown native tree and shrub species. In contrast, good establishment has been achieved using a surface mulch of coarse coal reject. Longer term data confirm the beneficial effect of coarse coal reject, with approximately 4,500 trees/ha on coarse reject after 10 years compared to 300 trees/ha on replaced topsoil. The difference is attributed largely to the competitive effects of the dense ground cover on topsoil at initial establishment. However, there are two potential problems for the long-term sustainability of communities on coarse coal reject. Firstly, reject is very low in nutrients and microbial biomass, limiting the satisfactory development of nutrient cycling. Secondly, it is often saline and will be likely to continue to generate salt with weathering, raising concerns over the success of secondary recruitment. It is concluded that coarse coal reject can play a role in successful tree and shrub establishment and hence in increasing the diversity of post-mining ecosystems. However, careful management is required to avoid the use of saline materials, and strategies need to be explored to increase its biological activity.

  10. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION POLICY APPROACHES IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA. (R825761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Soil and water conservation policies and programs in developed countries in North America, Europe, and Australia are examined in the context of their effectiveness for addressing environmental degradation associated with technology-intensive agricultural syste...

  11. Antibacterial hydroxycinnamic esters from Piper caninum from Paluma, north Queensland, Australia. The crystal and molecular structure of (+)-bornyl coumarate.

    PubMed

    Setzer, W N; Setzer, M C; Bates, R B; Nakkiew, P; Jackes, B R; Chen, L; McFerrin, M B; Meehan, E J

    1999-12-01

    The crude chloroform bark extract of Piper caninum (Piperaceae) exhibits antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The antibacterial agents in this extract have been isolated using bioactivity-directed chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy as (+)-bornyl p-coumarate and bornyl caffeate. A single-crystal X-ray structure has been carried out on (+)-bornyl p-coumarate. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) (#19) with a = 12.659(4), b = 13.281(4), and c = 10.177(3) A. Fullmatrix least-squares refinement converged at R = 0.047, and Rw = 0.058. PMID:10630119

  12. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  13. Drowning Mortality and Morbidity Rates in Children and Adolescents 0-19yrs: A Population-Based Study in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A.; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C.; Nixon, James W.; Kimble, Roy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To redress the lack of Queensland population incidence mortality and morbidity data associated with drowning in those aged 0-19yrs, and to understand survival and patient care. Design, Setting and Participants Retrospective population-based study used data linkage to capture both fatal and non-fatal drowning cases (N = 1299) among children aged 0-19years in Queensland, from 2002-2008 inclusive. Patient data were accessed from pre-hospital, emergency department, hospital admission and death data, and linked manually to collate data across the continuum of care. Main Outcome Measures Incidence rates were calculated separately by age group and gender for events resulting in death, hospital admission, and non-admission. Trends over time were analysed. Results Drowning death to survival ratio was 1:10, and two out of three of those who survived were admitted to hospital. Incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal drowning increased over time, primarily due to an increase in non-fatal drowning. There were non-significant reductions in fatal and admission rates. Rates for non-fatal drowning that did not result in hospitalisation more than doubled over the seven years. Children aged 5-9yrs and 10-14yrs incurred the lowest incidence rates 6.38 and 4.62 (expressed as per 100,000), and the highest rates were among children aged 0-4yrs (all drowning events 43.90; fatal 4.04; non-fatal 39.85–comprising admission 26.69 and non-admission 13.16). Males were over-represented in all age groups except 10-14yrs. Total male drowning events increased 44% over the seven years (P<0.001). Conclusion This state-wide data collection has revealed previously unknown incidence and survival ratios. Increased trends in drowning survival rates may be viewed as both positive and challenging for drowning prevention and the health system. Males are over-represented, and although infants and toddlers did not have increased fatality rates, they had the greatest drowning burden demonstrating

  14. Issues Affecting Rural Communities. Proceedings of an International Conference Held by the Rural Education Research and Development Centre (Townsville, Queensland, Australia, July 10-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwan, D., Ed.; McShane, M., Ed.

    This proceedings contains approximately 100 conference papers and workshop summaries on rural health, education, and community development. The majority of the papers are concerned with conditions in rural Australia; about 20 examine rural issues in the United States; while a smaller number cover Canada, New Zealand, and European countries. A…

  15. The relative sizes and asymmetry of kidneys in passerine birds from Australia and North America.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, K C; Wooller, R D; Casotti, G

    1991-01-01

    Despite their close taxonomic affinities, nectar-feeding passerine birds from Australia had smaller kidneys, on average, than sympatric passerines of equivalent weight that fed entirely upon insects. Insectivorous passerines from North America had larger kidneys, on average, than comparable insect-feeding passerines from the separate endemic radiation in Australia. Dietary and other environmental differences, rather than phylogenetic origins, may account for these differences. The left kidney of Australian passerines was significantly longer, on average, than the right. Kidney widths showed no lateral asymmetry. PMID:2050563

  16. Supportive care needs among Indigenous cancer patients in Queensland, Australia: less comorbidity is associated with greater practical and cultural unmet need.

    PubMed

    Diaz, A; Bernardes, C M; Garvey, G; Valery, P C

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the supportive care needs (SCN) of Australian Indigenous cancer patients. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between comorbidity and SCN among newly diagnosed Indigenous cancer patients in Queensland. Comorbidity was ascertained from medical chart review using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and SCN were measured using the Supportive Care Needs Assessment Tool for Indigenous Peoples (SCNAT-IP). Of 183 participants, 76 (42%) had no comorbidity (CCI = 0), 60 (33%) had had a CCI score of 1 and 47 (26%) had a CCI of two or more, with the most common condition being diabetes (30%). The most common moderate-high unmet need items varied between comorbidity groups, although all patients most frequently reported moderate-high unmet need in the Physical and Psychological and the Practical and Cultural needs domains. Patients with the greatest comorbidity (CCI ≥ 2) had significantly more reduced odds of practical and cultural needs than patients without comorbidity (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.75). This appeared to be partially explained by time since diagnosis, age, whether they were receiving current treatment and residential remoteness. Patients' experience of chronic disease, hospitals and the healthcare system may better prepare them for the practical and cultural aspects of their cancer journey. PMID:26918689

  17. Metasomatised lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths from north Queensland: Chemical and isotopic evidence bearing on the composition and source of the fluid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, A. J.; Davies, G. R.

    1989-03-01

    A diverse range of ultramafic and mafic granulite xenoliths from cone #32, north Queensland display mineralogical and chemical evidence for enhanced fluid activities in the lowermost crust and uppermost mantle. Metasomatism of spinel lherzolite, garnet and spinel websterite and garnet granulite produced variable amounts of amphibole ± mica, locally resulting in development of hornblendite as the end-product of reaction between spinel websterite and C-O-H fluids. In contrast, associated felsic and 2-pyroxene granulite xenoliths have remained relatively unaffected. The garnet granulites and spinel websterites are interpreted as products of underplating of the lower crust by Cenozoic magmatic activity, whereas Nd-Sr isotope systematics for the 2-pyroxene and felsic granulite xenoliths suggest that they may be of Proterozoic age. The development of amphibole and mica in the mafic and ultramafic xenoliths was accompanied by increases in TiO 2, Na 2O, K 2O, A1 2O 2, Sr, Ba, Zr, Nb, LREE and Fe 2O 3/FeO, and decreased MgO, SiO 2, Cr and Ni. Virtually anhydrous spinel websterite xenoliths have 87Sr /86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd almost identical to amphibole-rich variants and hornblendite, and very similar values to the host nepheline mugearite and an amphibole megacryst. The chemical and isotopic data suggest that the metasomatism is a relatively young feature caused by oxidized fluids exsolved from alkaline magmas similar to the host as they ascended through the lithosphere. This style of metasomatism is considered a relatively localized phenomenon which is unlikely to provide an important contribution to the source regions of alkali basaltic magmas.

  18. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  19. Different Things to Different People, That's What Colleges Are: The Affiliation of Residential Colleges at the University of Queensland, Brisbane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymont, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on study analyses and historical aspects related to the development and establishment of the University of Queensland (Brisbane, Australia). Discusses the role of the Higher Education Financing and Policy Review Committee in reviewing Australia's higher education sector. (MER)

  20. Long-term frequent prescribed fire decreases surface soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a wet sclerophyll forest of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Muqaddas, Bushra; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Lewis, Tom; Wild, Clyde; Chen, Chengrong

    2015-12-01

    Prescribed fire is one of the most widely-used management tools for reducing fuel loads in managed forests. However the long-term effects of repeated prescribed fires on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate how different fire frequency regimes influence C and N pools in the surface soils (0-10 cm). A prescribed fire field experiment in a wet sclerophyll forest established in 1972 in southeast Queensland was used in this study. The fire frequency regimes included long unburnt (NB), burnt every 2 years (2yrB) and burnt every 4 years (4yrB), with four replications. Compared with the NB treatment, the 2yrB treatment lowered soil total C by 44%, total N by 54%, HCl hydrolysable C and N by 48% and 59%, KMnO4 oxidizable C by 81%, microbial biomass C and N by 42% and 33%, cumulative CO2-C by 28%, NaOCl-non-oxidizable C and N by 41% and 51%, and charcoal-C by 17%, respectively. The 4yrB and NB treatments showed no significant differences for these soil C and N pools. All soil labile, biologically active and recalcitrant and total C and N pools were correlated positively with each other and with soil moisture content, but negatively correlated with soil pH. The C:N ratios of different C and N pools were greater in the burned treatments than in the NB treatments. This study has highlighted that the prescribed burning at four year interval is a more sustainable management practice for this subtropical forest ecosystem. PMID:26196067

  1. Preliminary results of the cruise dedicated to the bifurcation of the North Caledonian Jet onto the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, C.; Marin, F.; Bonnet, S.; Desnues, A.; Finot, L.; Varillon, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation, we intend to detail preliminary results and observations collected during the BIRFURCATION cruise, staged on board the R/V Alis of the IRD and operated under the auspices of SPICE (Southwest PacIfic Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment). A specific effort during SPICE was made to establish an observational program to survey air-sea fluxes and currents in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas, and their inflows and outflows, with special attention to the strong boundary currents. During its transit into the Coral Sea, the southern branch of the Southern Equatorial Current is affected by the presence of many reefs and small islands of a coral archipelago that cause it to form intense fine-scale oceanic jets downstream of these topographic obstacles. The North Caledonian Jet formed at its entry into the Coral Sea is further separated into flows towards the South (feeding the East Australian Current) and towards the equator (through the Solomon Sea). The obstacle responsible for this separation is the plateau of Queensland, near 17°S-152°E, which is composed of a group of small islands and coral reefs that are distinct from the Great Barrier Reef. The precise pathways and the relative contributions of the various water masses that arrive at the base of this plateau are still unknown and represent the focus of BIFURCATION. This cruise should thus supplement our vision of the circulation of the North Caledonian Jet within the Coral Sea, and make it possible to test to what extent this water contributes to the composition of the current at the western edge of the New Guinea UnderCurrent which feeds the equatorial band and whose climatological mass transport is estimated in the literature to vary by a factor of 2. By determining the characteristics of these water masses before their final arrival at the Australian coast it will also be possible to estimate to what extent they undergo further mixing with yet other water masses within the Coral and

  2. Impacts of Groundwater Discharge at Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) on the Phenolic Metabolism of Eelgrass, Zostera muelleri, and Grazing by the Juvenile Rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Thomas; Freundlich, Grace; Weilnau, Taylor; Verdi, Arielle; Tibbetts, Ian R.

    2014-01-01

    Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH / high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs. Proximity to the spring did not significantly alter the carbon and nitrogen contents of seagrass tissues but did result in the extraordinary loss of soluble phenolics, including Folin-reactive phenolics, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids by ≥87%. Conversely, seagrass lignin contents were, in this and related experiments, unaffected or increased, suggesting a shift in secondary metabolism away from the production of soluble, but not insoluble, (poly)phenolics. We suggest that groundwater discharge sites such as Myora Springs, and other sites characterized by low pH, are likely to be popular feeding grounds for seagrass grazers seeking to reduce their exposure to soluble phenolics. PMID:25127379

  3. Impacts of groundwater discharge at Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) on the phenolic metabolism of eelgrass, Zostera muelleri, and grazing by the juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Thomas; Freundlich, Grace; Weilnau, Taylor; Verdi, Arielle; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2014-01-01

    Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH/high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs. Proximity to the spring did not significantly alter the carbon and nitrogen contents of seagrass tissues but did result in the extraordinary loss of soluble phenolics, including Folin-reactive phenolics, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids by ≥87%. Conversely, seagrass lignin contents were, in this and related experiments, unaffected or increased, suggesting a shift in secondary metabolism away from the production of soluble, but not insoluble, (poly)phenolics. We suggest that groundwater discharge sites such as Myora Springs, and other sites characterized by low pH, are likely to be popular feeding grounds for seagrass grazers seeking to reduce their exposure to soluble phenolics. PMID:25127379

  4. Peat Formation on Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island), subtropical eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Tibby, John; Barr, Cameron; Weerensena, Chagi; Gontz, Allen; Petherick, Lynda

    2016-04-01

    Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island) is the second largest sand island in the world and contains extensive peat dominated wetlands, comprising ~20% of the total area of the island. These wetland systems include large areas of estuarine swamps [mainly mangrove forest (~16% of the island's wetland area)], freshwater swamps [both herb (~58% of the island's wetland area) and tree dominated (~20% of the island's wetland area)] and numerous lake systems [both perched and window lakes (~2% of the island's wetland area)]. This presentation will examine peat formation processes at four wetland sites: a late Holocene prograding beach system (Flinders Beach); a 150,000 year lacustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 1), as well as a late Holocene lacustrine/palustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 2); and a late Quaternary lacustrine/palustrine system (Tortoise Lagoon), as well as discussing broader environmental characteristics of Minjerribah's nationally and internationally important wetland systems.

  5. Policy Fuzz and Fuzzy Logic: Researching Contemporary Indigenous Education and Parent-School Engagement in North Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Tess; Thompson, Helen; McRae-Williams, Eva; Wegner, Aggie

    2011-01-01

    "Engagement" is the second of six top priorities in Australia's most recent Indigenous education strategy to "close the gap" in schooling outcomes. Drawing on findings from a three-year ethnographic analysis of school engagement issues in the north of Australia, this article situates engagement within the history of Indigenous education policy,…

  6. Comparison of Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) and Schmidt hammer 'R' for rapid assessment of rock surface hardness: a preliminary assessment from southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; Winkler, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    This research focuses on one of the key challenges in geomorphology - quantifying rock surface hardness via in situ measurements, to provide information on rock physical properties. This has been a focus in recent years with the rapid emergence of studies that center on surface and near surface weathering impacts, and rates of material loss. Indeed, a key element to understanding how weathering and erosion processes combine to influence rock surface (and landscape) evolution is the measurement and monitoring of rock surface hardness. We provide results from a preliminary assessment of the applicability of the Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) to subaerial rock surface hardness, in comparison with an N-Type Schmidt hammer. The AEM apparatus consists of a geophone which is in contact with the rock surface and some electronics. The AEM is held normal to the surface to be tested and the surface is struck with a small hammer (typically 0.75 kg), with the AEM quantifying the decay time of seismically-induced oscillations within the top c. 1-2 m of the rock mass. Previous work using an AEM has focused on measuring roof stability and delamination in South African underground coal, gold and platinum mines, where long AEM reverberation times correlated well with weak rock mass and dense microfracturing. However, the technique has rarely been applied to the assessment of rock surfaces in a subaerial setting. We applied the technique to a range of lithologies at five sites in southeast Queensland in the Brisbane area, each an exposure of phyllite, granite, mudstone, argillite or volcanic tuff. The aims were: (1) quantifying the response of different rock masses to the AEM technique; and (2) assessing the applicability of the AEM as a rapid in situ measure of rock hardness by comparing results with Schmidt hammer 'R' values from the same exposures. Results showed that the AEM is useful in discriminating rock hardness across rocks with different lithological properties. Second, an

  7. Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Examines educational provisions for ethnic and racial groups in Australia, comprised primarily of the aborigines and the migrants or non-English speaking immigrants. Discussion of the official policies of "self determination" and "multiculturalism" emphasizes the important differences between the two and the considerations given them by the…

  8. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  9. Epidemiology of Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz infections in Australia.

    PubMed

    Slack, Andrew T; Symonds, Meegan L; Dohnt, Michael F; Corney, Bruce G; Smythe, Lee D

    2007-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Leptospira weilii serovar (sv.) Topaz is a newly described serovar first isolated in the far north of Queensland, Australia. The epidemiology of L. weilii sv. Topaz infections in Australia was characterised through the use of surveillance questionnaires and molecular studies. There have been 24 human and 2 animal (bovine and bandicoot) L. weilii sv. Topaz infections diagnosed since 1991. The majority of these infections have occurred in Far North Queensland, with the remaining infections occurring in South East Queensland and in Western Australia. The majority of patients with L. weilii sv. Topaz infections presented with classical leptospirosis symptoms including; fever, headaches, sweats, chills and myalgia. The occupations of human cases of L. weilii sv. Topaz infection included banana farming, dairy and beef cattle production and tourist related activities. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) was performed on 15 L. weilii sv. Topaz isolates including 2 animal isolates. Clustering analysis grouped the 15 isolates into 5 main clades with 13 unique FAFLP profiles. A high level of relatedness was demonstrated between 2 animal and 2 human isolates. PMID:17724998

  10. Tebuthiuron Movement via Leaching and Runoff from Grazed Vertisol and Alfisol Soils in the Brigalow Belt Bioregion of Central Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Craig M; Elledge, Amanda E

    2016-05-25

    Tebuthiuron is one of five priority herbicides identified as a water pollutant entering the Great Barrier Reef. A review of tebuthiuron research in Australia found 13 papers, 6 of which focused on water quality at the basin scale (>10,000 km(2)) with little focus on process understanding. This study examined the movement of tebuthiuron in soil and runoff at the plot (1.7 m(2)) and small catchment (12.7 ha) scales. The greatest concentration and mass in soil occurred from 0 to 0.05 m depth 30-57 days after application. Concentrations at all depths tended to decrease after 55-104 days. Runoff at the small catchment scale contained high concentrations of tebuthiuron (average = 103 μg/L) 100 days after application, being 0.05% of the amount applied. Tebuthiuron concentrations in runoff declined over time with the majority of the chemical in the dissolved phase. PMID:26881916