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Sample records for north queensland wet

  1. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery. PMID:23252802

  2. Australian Assassins, Part III: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of tropical north-eastern Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Harvey, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    The assassin spiders of the family Archaeidae from tropical north-eastern Queensland are revised, with eight new species described from rainforest habitats of the Wet Tropics bioregion and Mackay-Whitsundays Hinterland: Austrarchaea griswoldisp. n., Austrarchaea hoskinisp. n., Austrarchaea karenaesp. n., Austrarchaea tealeisp. n., Austrarchaea thompsonisp. n., Austrarchaea wallaceisp. n., Austrarchaea westisp. n. and Austrarchaea woodaesp. n. Specimens of the only previously described species, Austrarchaea daviesae Forster & Platnick, 1984, are redescribed from the southern Atherton Tableland. The rainforests of tropical eastern Queensland are found to be a potential hotspot of archaeid diversity and endemism, with the region likely to be home to numerous additional short-range endemic taxa. A key to species complements the taxonomy, with maps, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:22977344

  3. Global Strategies for International Education Providers in Australia: A Case Study of Tropical North Queensland TAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Michelle; Haberman, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The continuing growth of Australia's international education market is causing providers to consider moving from international business approaches to global strategies. This paper examines factors affecting a regional Australian educational provider's approach to the international student market, using Tropical North Queensland TAFE (TNQT) for…

  4. Stress Monitoring during Wonwawilli Extraction in 3 North Panel, Laleham No. 1 Colliery, South Blackwater, Queensland

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, L.J.; McNabb, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    The report describes investigations at the Laleham No. 1 Colliery, South Blackwater, Queensland, involving monitoring of stresses and convergences during Wongawilli (rib pillar) extraction in 3 North Panel. The project involved the installation of 16 vibrating wire stressmeters and 10 telescopic convergence rods. The aim of the project was to monitor changes in the stress distribution during extraction.

  5. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  6. Origin of north Queensland Cenozoic volcanism: Relationships to long lava flow basaltic fields, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, F. L.

    1998-11-01

    A plume model proposed for north Queensland late Cenozoic volcanism and long lava flow distribution combines basalt ages with recent seismic studies of Australia's mantle, regional stress fields, and plate motion. Several basalt fields overlie mantle "thermal" anomalies, and other fields outside these anomalies can be traced to them through past lithospheric motion. Elsewhere, anomalies close to Australia's eastern rift margin show little volcanism, probably due to gravity-enhanced compression. Since final collision of north Queensland with New Guinea, areas of basaltic volcanism have developed over 10 Myr, and episodes appear to migrate southward from 15° to 20°S. Long lava flows increase southward as area/volume of fields increases, but topography, vent distributions, and uplifts play a role. This is attributed to magmatic plume activation within a tensional zone, as lithosphere moves over mantle thermal anomalies. The plume model predicts peak magmatism under the McBride field, coincident with the Undara long lava flow and that long lava flow fields will erupt for another 5-10 Myr. Queensland's movement over a major N-S thermal system imparts a consistent isotopic signature to its northern younger basalts, distinct to basalts from older or more southern thermal systems. Australia's motion toward this northern thermal system will give north Queensland fields continued vigorous volcanism, in contrast to the Victorian field which is leaving its southern thermal system.

  7. Residual effectiveness of lambda-cyhalothrin harbourage sprays against foliage-resting mosquitoes in north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Muzari, Odwell M; Adamczyk, Rebecca; Davis, Joseph; Ritchie, Scott; Devine, Gregor

    2014-03-01

    The residual efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin sprayed on foliage was evaluated against various mosquito species in sections of forest in Cairns, Queensland, Australia Weekly sweep-net collections in treated and untreated areas before and after spraying showed 87-100% reductions in mosquito numbers for the first 9 wk postspray. After that period, reductions fluctuated but remained >71% up to 14 wk posttreatment. Mosquito mortality ranged from 96 to 100% in contact bioassays of treated leaves during the 14 wk study. Our results demonstrate that spraying harborage vegetation with lambda-cyhalothrin is an extremely effective strategy for the control of sylvan and peridomestic mosquito species in tropical north Queensland. PMID:24724295

  8. Causes of morbidity and mortality of wild aquatic birds at Billabong Sanctuary, Townsville, North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Burgess, G W; Greenhil, A R; Hedlefs, R; Skerratt, L F

    2012-03-01

    Infectious diseases are common causes of significant morbidity and mortality events of wild aquatic birds (WABs) worldwide. Reports of Australian events are infrequent. A 3-yr passive surveillance program investigating the common causes of morbidity and mortality of WABs was conducted at Billabong Sanctuary near Townsville, North Queensland, from April 2007 to March 2010. Forty-two carcasses were obtained and evaluated by clinico-pathologic, histologic, bacteriologic, and virologic (molecular) examinations. Morbidity and mortality were sporadic and more commonly observed in chicks and juvenile birds in April than other months of the year. Morbid birds were frequently unable to walk. Hemorrhagic lesions and infiltration of lymphocytes in various organs were the most common findings in dead birds. Identified bacterial diseases that could cause bird mortality were colibacillosis, pasteurellosis, and salmonellosis. Salmonella serotypes Virchow and Hvittingfoss were isolated from an Australian white ibis (Threskiornis molucca) chick and two juvenile plumed whistling ducks (Dendrocygna eytoni) in April 2007. These strains have been previously isolated from humans in North Queensland. A multiplex real time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR) detected Newcastle disease viral RNA (class 2 type) in one adult Australian pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) and a juvenile plumed whistling duck. No avian influenza viral RNA was detected from any sampled birds by the rRT-PCR for avian influenza. This study identified the public health importance of Salmonella in WABs but did not detect the introduction of the high pathogenicity avian influenza H5N1 virus in the population. A successful network was established between the property owner and the James Cook University research team through which dead birds, with accompanying information, were readily obtained for analysis. There is an opportunity for establishing a long-term passive disease surveillance program for WABs in North

  9. A decision support process to compare riparian revegetation options in Scheu Creek catchment in north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, M E; Harrison, S R

    2001-05-01

    While riparin vegetation can play a major role in protecting land, water and natural habitat in catchments, there are high costs associated with tree planting and establishment and in diverting land from cropping. The distribution of costs and benefits of riparian revegetation creates conflicts in the objectives of various stakeholder groups. Multicriteria analysis provides an appropriate tool to evaluate alternative riparian revegetation options, and to accommodate the conflicting views of various stakeholder groups. This paper discusses an application of multicriteria analysis in an evaluation of riparian revegetation policy options for Scheu Creek, a small sub-catchment in the Johnstone River catchment in north Queensland, Australia. Clear differences are found in the rankings of revegetation options for different stakeholder groups with respect to environmental, social and economic impacts. Implementation of a revegetation option will involve considerable cost for landholders for the benefits of society. Queensland legislation does not provide a means to require farmers to implement riparian revegetation, hence the need for subsidies, tax incentives and moral suasion. PMID:11400460

  10. "Being a Good German": A Case Study Analysis of Language Retention and Loss among German Migrants in North Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harres, Annette

    1989-01-01

    Examines language retention among German immigrant families in North Queensland, Australia. Major factors encouraging language shift were the presence of school-age children, prior knowledge of English, and a high education level of immigrant parents. Women maintained the first language longer as a result of occupational and social segregation.…

  11. Barriers, Successes and Enabling Practices of Education for Sustainability in Far North Queensland Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Neus; Whitehouse, Hilary; Gooch, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    There are many documented barriers to implementing school-based sustainability. This article examines a) the barriers faced by principals and staff in two regional primary schools in Far North Queensland, Australia, well known for their exemplary practice, and b) ways the barriers were overcome. Through interviews conducted with principals and key…

  12. A new species of gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vanderduys, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A new species of diplodactylid gecko in the genus Strophurus Fitzinger, from north Queensland, Australia, is described herein as Strophurus congoo sp. nov. It is a small, pale grey to tan, unpatterned or faintly striped gecko, resembling the phasmid geckos in appearance, habitat and behaviour. However, within Strophurus it is not closely related to the phasmid geckos. It is distinguished from all other Strophurus by a combination of even scalation, dull colouration, small size and short tail length. It is only known to occur in a restricted area of the northern Great Dividing Range, within the Einasleigh Uplands bioregion, in a relatively infertile area of rolling, largely granitic hills, and is only known from spinifex (Triodia) hummock grasslands in open woodland. PMID:27395178

  13. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-06-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. Aside from precipitation patterns, boundaries between these two vegetation types are strongly determined by soil characteristics and nutrient availability. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical far north Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ Nitrogen relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area- or mass-basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus were above 20 at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P-limitation of photosynthesis for the forest group. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that in leaf area-based photosynthetic terms, savanna trees of far north Queensland, Australia are capable of out-performing forest species at their common boundaries1. 1 Adopted symbols and abbreviations are defined in Table 5.

  14. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (Far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. At a broad scale, it has long been recognised that the distributions of these two biomes are principally governed by precipitation and its seasonality, but with soil physical and chemical properties also potentially important. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical Far North Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ nitrogen (N) relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area or mass basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus (P) were relatively high (>20) at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P limitation of photosynthesis for either forest or savanna trees. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that, on a leaf-area basis, savanna trees of Far North Queensland, Australia, are capable of photosynthetically outperforming forest species at their common boundaries.

  15. Late Holocene and recent rainforest cultural landscapes of North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, L. M.; Moss, P. T.; Haberle, S.; Cosgrove, R.; Ferrier

    2011-12-01

    The tropical rainforests of North Queensland, Australia, have been environments of significant human activity for several thousand years. Palaeoecological research has highlighted the long-term effects of Quaternary climate change on these environments at a broad spatial scale, including the expansion of tropical rainforest across the region following the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum. However, identifying the effects of a hunter-gatherer Aboriginal population has been more difficult. Palaeoecological suggestions of Pleistocene Aboriginal burning, based on pollen and charcoal records, have relied on coincident timing with a general narrative of colonisation rather than direct links with archaeological evidence. Current research is explicitly examining the environmental consequences of human activity in North Queensland rainforests by producing local palaeoecological data directly linked to sites and periods of human occupation. Pollen, macrocharcoal and phytolith records have been produced from sites of human activity within the rainforest. Late Holocene Aboriginal occupation of the rainforest is demonstrated to have had significant cultural links to patches of open vegetation that existed within the rainforest. While these patches are likely to have originated as edaphically controlled remnants of Pleistocene vegetation, their expansion and maintenance in the late Holocene is associated with increasing intensity of Aboriginal occupation of the rainforest. Late Holocene Aboriginal rainforest occupation is also contrasted with the historical European colonisation of the rainforest in the late 19th century, which resulted in the most significant environmental changes in the region since the early Holocene. Historical and ethnographic records provide important cultural context for understanding the transition between Aboriginal and European cultural landscapes of the rainforest.

  16. Late Quaternary vegetation history of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick T.; Tibby, John; Petherick, Lynda; McGowan, Hamish; Barr, Cameron

    2013-08-01

    Currently there is a paucity of records of late Quaternary palaeoenvironmental variability available from the subtropics of Australia. The three continuous palaeoecological records presented here, from North Stradbroke Island, subtropical Queensland, assist in bridging this large spatial gap in the current state of knowledge. The dominance of arboreal taxa in the pollen records throughout the past >40,000 years is in contrast with the majority of records from temperate Australia, and indicates a positive moisture balance for North Stradbroke Island. The charcoal records show considerable inter-site variability indicating the importance of local-scale events on individual records, and highlighting the caution that needs to be applied when interpreting a single site as a regional record. The variability in the burning regimes is interpreted as being influenced by both climatic and human factors. Despite this inter-site variability, broad environmental trends are identifiable, with changes in the three records comparable with the OZ-INTIMATE climate synthesis for the last 35,000 years.

  17. Cryptic diversity within the narrowly endemic Lerista wilkinsi group of north Queensland-two new species (Reptilia: Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Couper, Patrick J; Amey, Andrew P; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe two new species of the skink genus Lerista from north-eastern Queensland, based on morphological and genetic data.  Additionally, we redescribe L. cinerea as this species is morphologically more variable than previously suggested.  We allocate these three species to the L. wilkinsi group (Greer et al. 1983) which is here identified as an endemic Queensland radiation, comprising L. ameles, L. cinerea, L. hobsoni sp. nov., L. storri, L. vanderduysi sp. nov., L. vittata and L. wilkinsi.  A number of these species have strong associations with semi-evergreen vine thickets, listed as an endangered habitat under the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). PMID:27615959

  18. 'Hero to Healing' drink-driving program for Indigenous communities in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Fitts, Michelle S; Palk, Gavan R

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Alcohol-related road crashes are a leading cause of the injury burden experienced by Indigenous Australians. Existing drink driving programs are primarily designed for the mainstream population. The 'Hero to Healing' program was specifically developed with Indigenous communities and is underpinned by the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). This paper reports on the formative evaluation of the program from delivery in two Far North Queensland communities. Methods Focus groups and semistructured interviews were conducted with drink driver participants (n=17) and other Elders and community members (n=8) after each program. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise the transcripts. Results The CRA appealed to participants because of its flexible nature and encouragement of rearranging lifestyle factors, without specific focus on alcohol use. Participants readily identified with the social and peer-related risk and protective factors discussed. Cofacilitation of the program with Elders was identified as a key aspect of the program. More in-depth discussion about cannabis and driving, anger management skills and relationship issues are recommended. Conclusions Participants' recognition of content reinforced earlier project results, particularly the use of kinship pressure to motivate younger family members to drink drive. Study findings suggest that the principles of the CRA are useful; however, some amendments to the CRA components and program content were necessary. So what? Treating drink driving in regional and remote Indigenous Australian communities as a community and social issue, rather than an individual phenomenon, is likely to lead to a reduction in the number of road-related injuries Indigenous people experience. PMID:26857181

  19. The Trophic Fate of Shrimp Farm Effluent in Mangrove Creeks of North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckinnon, A. D.; Trott, L. A.; Cappo, M.; Miller, D. K.; Duggan, S.; Speare, P.; Davidson, A.

    2002-10-01

    Zooplankton and fish communities in mangrove creeks removed materials originating from the discharge of effluent from ponds used for shrimp aquaculture at two commercial farms in North Queensland, Australia. Undisturbed mangrove creeks were compared to creeks receiving effluent from shrimp farms. Shrimp farm effluent was rich in chlorophyll a (56 μg l -1) and bacteria (1·9×10 6 cells ml -1). The potential grazing impact of ciliates was higher than that of copepod nauplii or copepodids upstream. In contrast, copepods were more important downstream. Carbon removal by ciliates and copepods accounted for as much as 85% of primary production during non-discharge periods, but was less important during discharge periods. Direct measurement of microzooplankton grazing with the dilution method indicated that growth and grazing were usually in balance, but during pond discharge periods microzooplankton grazing removed >120% of primary production and 117-266% of bacterioplankton production in the mixed lower reaches of the creeks and immediately offshore. Grazing by bacterivores was saturated in the upper reaches of the creeks, but was very high near the creek mouths, where the range of specific grazing rates was 5·2-11·8 d -1. Baitfish juveniles were abundant in the creek systems, and fed either directly on macro-particulates by indiscriminate filter feeding, or by selective feeding on microfauna. Trophic processes and their associated respiratory losses are instrumental in the assimilation and dissipation of effluent materials within the creek system, and are responsible for returning concentrations of bio-available materials to ambient levels. The sustainable use of coastal environments depends to a large degree on understanding and regulating the impacts from activities within the catchment. This research provides environmental managers with direct evidence that, under certain conditions, perturbations in creek water quality and biota originating from shrimp farm

  20. The Reconstruction Potential of a 350 year-long, Mid-Elevation Proxy for PDSI in a Tree-Ring Record from Tropical North Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Duffy, R.; Balanzategui, D.; Baker, P. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    In far northern Queensland (FNQ) there are only sporadic coral and speleothem precipitation proxy records, and only one annually resolved, terrestrial record of rainfall that predates 1850 CE. Black kauri pine, Agathis atropurpurea, is a large conifer present in isolated stands near 1000 masl in the wet tropical dividing range of FNQ. Little is known about its phenology or responses to climate, although its presence near the elevational limit of the dividing range may hinder its ability to respond to increased temperature or decreased precipitation through elevational migration. We hypothesize that in this energy-limited forest, increased (decreased) solar radiation leads to increased (decreased) ring widths, and higher (lower) evapotranspiration rates produce increases (decreases) in the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of the a-cellulose component of wood. To test this hypothesis, we collected over 60 cores from 21 large (dbh = 56 to 186 cm) A. atropurpurea trees from Spurgeon Peak National Park. The resulting tree-ring chronology extends from 2013 to 1438 CE and shows high average mean sensitivity (0.642) although expressed population signal drops off at 1650 CE as sample depth decreases. Comparison of the most recent 100 years of ring widths and direct climate observations show a significant positive relationship (r2 = 0.4, p < 0.01) to PDSI in December through March, coinciding with the austral rainy season associated with onset of the northern Australian Monsoon. Annualized δ18Oxygen (a-cellulose) maxima for 1983-2013 show strong and significant spatial positive relationships to Tmax and Pacific seasurface temperatures. Work to refine the interpretation of the data is onoing, but the resulting dataset may enable extension of the terrestrial climate record of north Queensland two centuries beyond current tree-ring proxies and historical observations.

  1. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  2. Transient soil moisture profile of a water-shedding soil cover in north Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Christopher; Baumgartl, Thomas; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    In current agricultural and industrial applications, soil moisture determination is limited to point-wise measurements and remote sensing technologies. The former has limitations on spatial resolution while the latter, although has greater coverage in three dimensions, but may not be representative of real-time hydrologic conditions of the substrate. This conference paper discusses the use of elongated soil moisture probes to describe the transient soil moisture profile of water-shedding soil cover trial plots in north Queensland, Australia. Three-metre long flat ribbon cables were installed at designed depths across a soil cover with substrate materials from mining activities comprising of waste rocks and blended tailings. The soil moisture measurement is analysed using spatial time domain reflectometry (STDR) (Scheuermann et al., 2009) Calibration of the flat ribbon cable's soil moisture measurement in waste rocks is undertaken in a glasshouse setting. Soil moisture retention and outflows are monitored at specific time interval by mass balance and water potential measurements. These data sets together with the soil hydrologic properties derived from laboratory and field measurements are used as input in the numerical code on unsaturated flow, Hydrus2D. The soil moisture calculations of the glasshouse calibration using this numerical method are compared with results from the STDR soil moisture data sets. In context, the purpose of the soil cover is to isolate sulphide-rich mine wastes from atmospheric interaction as oxidation and leaching of these materials may result to acid and metalliferous drainage. The long term performance of a soil cover will be described in terms of the quantities and physico-chemical characteristics of its outflows. With the soil moisture probes set at automated and pre-determined measurement time intervals, it is expected to distinguish between macropore and soil moisture flows during high intensity rainfall events and, also continuously

  3. Monitoring of wild birds for Newcastle disease virus in north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Burgess, G W; Karo-Karo, D; Cheam, A L; Skerratt, L F

    2012-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds (WABs) are considered as reservoir hosts for Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) and may act as vectors for transferring these viruses to poultry, causing outbreaks of disease. A 3-year epidemiological study was conducted on WABs of north Queensland from April 2007 to March 2010. Swab and fresh moist faecal samples of WABs were screened to detect Newcastle disease viral (NDV) RNA by one-step real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in multiplex primers, targeting the matrix gene. The potential reactor samples in rRT-PCR were processed for sequencing of the different NDV genes using conventional PCR. The overall NDV RNA prevalence was 3.5% for live bird samples (N=1461) and 0.4% for faecal samples (N=1157). Plumed whistling ducks (PWDs) had a higher prevalence (4.2%) than Pacific black ducks (PBDs) (0.9%) (χ(2) test, p=0.001). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between the proportion of reactor and non-reactor NDV RNA samples of PWDs and potential risk factors. The odds of reactor samples were 2.7 (95% Confidence Interval 1.5-4.9) times more likely in younger than older ducks (p=0.001) (data set B, multivariate analysis). Both NDV RNA class-one and class-two types were identified in samples of WABs (12 and 59, respectively) (Supplementary Table 1). Phylogenetic analysis of the matrix gene identified two reactor sequences of class-one type NDV RNA (PWD-48 and 55) which were closely related to the sequences of Australian Ibis and duck isolates (Fig. 2). Another reactor sample sequence was determined as class-two type NDV RNA (PWD-46, avirulent) based on analysis of the matrix and fusion genes which was more similar to the sequences of Australian I-2 progenitor virus and vaccine strain virus (Figs. 3 and 4). Our findings of higher prevalence in PWDs along with confirmation of class-one and class-two type NDV RNAs will significantly contribute to the design of

  4. Pre-pregnancy predictors of diabetes in pregnancy among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sandra K; Lynch, John; Esterman, Adrian; McDermott, Robyn

    2012-08-01

    To identify pre-pregnancy risk factors for diabetes in pregnancy among a cohort of Australian Indigenous women. Data on 1,009 Indigenous women of childbearing age who participated in a 1998-2000 health screening program in far north Queensland were linked to Queensland hospitalisations data. Women who attended hospital after their health check for a pregnancy-related condition were identified. The data on women who were hospitalised for birth were also linked to Queensland perinatal data. Of 220 women who gave birth, 23 had diabetes in the pregnancy following their health check. A strong predictor of having a subsequent pregnancy affected by diabetes was suboptimal glucose control before conception. The presence of the metabolic syndrome predicted over a threefold increase in risk among non-diabetic women after adjustment for age and ethnicity (PR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.54-8.00). For each 1-cm increase in waist circumference, there was an age-adjusted increase in risk of 4% for diabetes in pregnancy (1.04; 1.01-1.06). For each 1-mmHg increase in blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), there was an age-adjusted increase in risk of 3% (1.03; 1.01-1.05 and 1.03; 1.00-1.07, respectively). Associations between hypercholesterolaemia and dyslipidaemia and diabetes in the subsequent pregnancy were diminished after adjustment for age and ethnicity. The risk for women with "hyper-triglyceridaemic waist" phenotype before pregnancy was diminished by adjustment for age, ethnicity and baseline fasting glucose. Alcohol intake, smoking, level of physical activity and red cell folate showed little effect. Identification of women at particularly high risk for future diabetes in pregnancy, given their pre-pregnancy health, is important so that they can manage their risks and where overweight or obesity is a factor, interventions aimed at weight management should be implemented. PMID:21959925

  5. 1987 WET DEPOSITION TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. he report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate...

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Misting for Control of Aedes in Cryptic Ground Containers in North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jacups, Susan P.; Rapley, Luke P.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Benjamin, Seleena; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, dengue is not endemic, although the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established in far north Queensland (FNQ). Aedes albopictus has recently invaded the Torres Strait region, but is not established on mainland Australia. To maintain dengue-free, public health departments in FNQ closely monitor introduced dengue infections and confine outbreaks through rigorous vector control responses. To safeguard mainland Australia from Ae. albopictus establishment, pre-emptive strategies are required to reduce its breeding in difficult to access habitats. We compare the residual efficacy of VectoBac WDG, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) formulation, as a residual treatment when misted across a typical FNQ bushland using a backpack mister (Stihl SR 420 Mist Blower) at two dose rates up to 16 m. Semi-field condition results, over 16 weeks, indicate that Bti provided high mortality rates (> 80%) sustained for 11 weeks. Mist application penetrated 16 m of dense bushland without efficacy decline over distance. PMID:23358637

  7. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic wrench tectonics in eastern Australia: Insights from the North Pine Fault System (southeast Queensland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Rosenbaum, G.

    2014-01-01

    The North Pine Fault System (NPFS) in SE Queensland belongs to a series of NNW-striking sinistral faults that displaced Paleozoic to Cenozoic rock units in eastern Australia. We have studied the geometry and kinematics of the NPFS by utilizing gridded aeromagnetic data, digital elevation models, and field observations. The results indicate that all segments of the NPFS were subjected to sinistral reverse strike-slip faulting. Restorations of displaced magnetic anomalies indicate sinistral offsets ranging from ˜3.4 to ˜8.2 km. The existence of a (possibly) Late Triassic granophyre dyke parallel to one of the fault segments, and the occurrence of NNW-striking steeply dipping strike-slip and normal faults in the Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous Maryborough Basin, indicate that the NPFS has likely been active during the Mesozoic. We propose that from Late Cretaceous to early Eocene, NNW-striking faults in eastern Australia, including the NPFS, were reactivated with oblique sinistral-normal kinematics in response to regional oblique extension associated with the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas. This interpretation is consistent with the modeled dominant NNE- to NNW-directed horizontal tensional stress in the Eocene. The latest movements along the NPFS involved sinistral transpressional kinematics, which was possibly related to far-field contractional stresses from collisional tectonics at the eastern and northern boundaries of the Australian plate in the Cenozoic. This sinistral-reverse oblique kinematics of the NPFS in the Cenozoic is in line with ˜ESE to ENE orientations of the modeled maximum horizontal stress in SE Queensland.

  8. Dua sakit (double sick): trauma and the settlement experiences of West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Kareth, Moses

    2009-08-01

    There is mounting evidence of systematic abuses, including torture, rape and extrajudicial killings directed against independence activists as well as the civilian population in Indonesian occupied West Papua. Refugees from West Papua have sought safety in neighbouring Australia, experiencing hazardous journeys during their flight. We report early observations from a mental health study among West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland, Australia. The project includes qualitative methods aimed at gathering histories of trauma and human rights violations as well as standard mental health assessments and indices of acculturation and resettlement stresses. We consider the emerging data from the vantage point of the Adaptation and Development After Persecution and Trauma model that identifies five psychosocial domains that require repair following exposure to gross human rights violations and refugee trauma. The model emphasizes the inter-relatedness of key challenges, the compounding of adversity, and the bivalent effects of complex experiences, with both positive and negative elements shaping the adaptive trajectory of displaced persons. Refugee groups have their own approaches to conceptualizing the complexity of their problems, with the term dua sakit representing the expression used by West Papuans to identify the multiple challenges they face. The study highlights the importance of assessing each refugee group within its unique social and cultural context, taking into account such diverse factors as geographical location, employment, and ongoing conflict in the homeland in designing appropriate interventions. PMID:19579126

  9. Lifestyle changes as a treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a survey of general practitioners in North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Madeleine; Büttner, Petra; Raasch, Beverly; Daniell, Kym; McCutchan, Cindy; Harrison, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder in developed countries, with the usual treatment being medication. Previously, lifestyle modification was the only treatment for GERD; however, its effectiveness has not been assessed. Methods All practicing general practitioner (GP) members of two Divisions of General Practice (n = 193) in North Queensland, Australia, were surveyed in 2001 using a postal questionnaire to determine their views and practices relating to such treatment among adults with GERD. Results The response rate was 70.5%. Of those who responded, 17.6% recommended diet and postural advice as a first line of treatment, with postural advice (89.7%), avoid known precipitants (86.0%), reduce weight if overweight (79.4%), eat a low fat diet (45.6%), and stop smoking (17.6%) being the most common recommendations. Of the nine possible changes, the median number recommended was 3, interquartile range (IQR; 3, 4). Eighty-nine percent of GPs thought ≥ 10% of patients with GERD would benefit from lifestyle changes, but almost half thought ≤ 10% of patients would be prepared to change. Conclusion Most GPs thought lifestyle changes would be beneficial when treating GERD, but did not believe their patients would change. Most GPs recommended fewer than half the lifestyle changes their peers believed effective in treating GERD. PMID:18360562

  10. Laboratory evaluation of two native fishes from tropical North Queensland as biological control agents of subterranean Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Russell, B M; Wang, J; Williams, Y; Hearnden, M N; Kay, B H

    2001-06-01

    The ability of 2 freshwater fishes, eastern rainbow fish Melanotaenia splendida splendida and fly-specked hardyhead Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum stercusmuscarum, native to North Queensland to prey on immature Aedes aegypti was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The predation efficiency of the 2 species was compared to the exotic guppy, Poecilia reticulata, which is commonly used as a biological control agent of mosquito larvae. Of the 3 fish species tested, M. s. splendida was shown to be the most promising agent for the biological control of Ae. aegypti that breed in wells. Melanotaenia s. splendida consumed significantly greater numbers of immature Ae. aegypti than P. reticulata, irrespective of developmental stage or light conditions. Unlike C s. stercusmuscarum, M. s. splendida could be handled, transported, and kept in captivity for extended periods with negligible mortality. However, M. s. splendida was also an efficient predator of Litoria caerulea tadpoles, a species of native frog found in wells during the dry season. This result may limit the usefulness of M. s. splendida as a biological control agent of well-breeding Ae. aegypti and suggests that predacious copepods, Mesocyclops spp., are more suitable. However, the use of M. s. splendida as a mosquito control agent in containers that are unlikely to support frog populations (e.g., aquaculture tanks and drinking troughs) should be given serious consideration. PMID:11480819

  11. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  12. Long-term frequent prescribed fire decreases surface soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a wet sclerophyll forest of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Muqaddas, Bushra; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Lewis, Tom; Wild, Clyde; Chen, Chengrong

    2015-12-01

    Prescribed fire is one of the most widely-used management tools for reducing fuel loads in managed forests. However the long-term effects of repeated prescribed fires on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate how different fire frequency regimes influence C and N pools in the surface soils (0-10 cm). A prescribed fire field experiment in a wet sclerophyll forest established in 1972 in southeast Queensland was used in this study. The fire frequency regimes included long unburnt (NB), burnt every 2 years (2yrB) and burnt every 4 years (4yrB), with four replications. Compared with the NB treatment, the 2yrB treatment lowered soil total C by 44%, total N by 54%, HCl hydrolysable C and N by 48% and 59%, KMnO4 oxidizable C by 81%, microbial biomass C and N by 42% and 33%, cumulative CO2-C by 28%, NaOCl-non-oxidizable C and N by 41% and 51%, and charcoal-C by 17%, respectively. The 4yrB and NB treatments showed no significant differences for these soil C and N pools. All soil labile, biologically active and recalcitrant and total C and N pools were correlated positively with each other and with soil moisture content, but negatively correlated with soil pH. The C:N ratios of different C and N pools were greater in the burned treatments than in the NB treatments. This study has highlighted that the prescribed burning at four year interval is a more sustainable management practice for this subtropical forest ecosystem. PMID:26196067

  13. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  14. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  15. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  16. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Atmospheric transport and wet deposition of ammonium in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, John T.; Aneja, Viney P.; Dickey, David A.

    Wet deposition and transport analysis has been performed for ammonium (NH 4+) in North Carolina, USA. Multiple regression analysis is employed to model the temporal trend and seasonality in monthly volume-weighted mean NH 4+ concentrations in precipitation from 1983 to 1996 at six National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) sites. A significant ( p<0.01) increasing trend beginning in 1990, which corresponds to an annual concentration increase of approximately 9.5%, is detected at the rural Sampson County site (NC35), which is located within a densely populated network of swine and poultry operations. This trend is positively correlated with increasing ammonia (NH 3) emissions related to the vigorous growth of North Carolina's swine population since 1990, particularly in the state's Coastal Plain region. A source-receptor regression model, which utilizes weekly NH 4+ concentrations in precipitation in conjunction with boundary layer air mass back trajectories, is developed to statistically test for the influence of a particular NH 3 source region on NH 4+ concentrations at surrounding NADP/NTN sites for the years 1995-1996. NH 3 emissions from this source region, primarily evolving from swine and poultry operations, are found to increase NH 4+ concentration in precipitation at sites up to ≈80 km away. At the Scotland County (NC36) and Wake County (NC41) sites, mean NH 4+ concentrations show increases of at least 44% for weeks during which 25% or more back trajectories are influenced by this source region.

  18. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere. PMID:24722001

  19. Tick Paralysis in Spectacled Flying-Foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus) in North Queensland, Australia: Impact of a Ground-Dwelling Ectoparasite Finding an Arboreal Host

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Petra G.; Westcott, David A.; Maclean, Jennefer; Brown, Lawrence; McKeown, Adam; Johnson, Ashleigh; Wilson, Karen; Blair, David; Luly, Jonathan; Skerratt, Lee; Muller, Reinhold; Speare, Richard

    2013-01-01

    When a parasite finds a new wildlife host, impacts can be significant. In the late 1980s populations of Spectacled Flying-foxes (SFF) (Pteropus conspicillatus), a species confined, in Australia, to north Queensland became infected by paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus), resulting in mortality. This Pteropus-tick relationship was new to Australia. Curiously, the relationship was confined to several camps on the Atherton Tableland, north Queensland. It was hypothesised that an introduced plant, wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum), had facilitated this new host-tick interaction. This study quantifies the impact of tick paralysis on SFF and investigates the relationship with climate. Retrospective analysis was carried out on records from the Tolga Bat Hospital for 1998–2010. Juvenile mortality rates were correlated to climate data using vector auto-regression. Mortality rates due to tick paralysis ranged between 11.6 per 10,000 bats in 2003 and 102.5 in 2009; more female than male adult bats were affected. Juvenile mortality rates were negatively correlated with the total rainfall in January to March and July to September of the same year while a positive correlation of these quarterly total rainfalls existed with the total population. All tick affected camps of SFF were located in the 80% core range of S. mauritianum. This initial analysis justifies further exploration of how an exotic plant might alter the relationship between a formerly ground-dwelling parasite and an arboreal host. PMID:24066028

  20. An overview of wet deposition of micropollutants to the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struyf, H.; Van Grieken, R.

    An overview of the wet deposition of micropollutants (trace metals—Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn— and organic compounds—PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) to the North Sea and adjacent areas is presented. The results of (in)direct measurements of the wet flux are compared to modelling results. Attention is given to specific problems like revolatilization, sea-spray, contamination, gas-to-particle ratios in wet deposition of Hg and the organic substances. Also, the importance of wet deposition is weighted to that of dry deposition and non-atmospheric input routes to the North Sea. It is concluded that—especially for organic micropollutants—current knowledge is insufficient to yield an accurate and detailed image of the impact and importance of wet deposition to the North Sea.

  1. Occurrence and seasonal variations of algal toxins in water, phytoplankton and shellfish from North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eri; Yu, Qiming; Eaglesham, Geoff; Connell, Des W; McBroom, James; Costanzo, Simon; Shaw, Glen R

    2007-10-01

    A number of marine microalgae are known to produce toxins that can accumulate in shellfish and when eaten, lead to toxic and potentially fatal reactions in humans. This paper reports on the occurrence and seasonal variations of algal toxins in the waters, phytoplankton and shellfish of Southeast Queensland, Australia. These algal toxins include okadaic acid (OA), domoic acid (DA), gymnodimine (GD), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and pectenotoxin-2-seco acid (PTX-2-SA), which were detected in the sampled shellfish and phytoplankton, via HPLC-MS/MS. Dissolved OA, PTX-2 and GD were also detected in the samples collected from the water column. This was the first occasion that DA and GD have been reported in shellfish, phytoplankton and the water column in Queensland waters. Phytoplankton tows contained both the toxic Dinophysis and Pseudo-nitzschia algae species, and are suspected of being the most likely producers of the OA, PTX-2s and DA found in shellfish of this area. The number of cells, however, did not correlate with the amount of toxins present in either shellfish or phytoplankton. This indicates that toxin production by algae varies with time and the species present and that number of cells alone cannot be used as an indicator for the presence of toxins. The presence of OA and PTX-2s were more frequently seen in the summer, while DA and GD were detected throughout the year and without any obvious seasonal patterns. PMID:17512582

  2. An Analysis of Simulated Wet Deposition of Mercury from the North American Mercury Model Intercomparison Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A previous intercomparison of atmospheric mercury models in North America has been extended to compare simulated and observed wet deposition of mercury. Three regional-scale atmospheric mercury models were tested; CMAQ, REMSAD and TEAM. These models were each employed using thr...

  3. Aedes aegypti population sampling using BG-Sentinel traps in north Queensland Australia: statistical considerations for trap deployment and sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Craig R; Long, Sharron A; Webb, Cameron E; Bitzhenner, Moritz; Geier, Martin; Russell, Richard C; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-03-01

    BG-Sentinel mosquito traps were trialed as a tool for the rapid assessment (24-h collections) and routine monitoring (72-h collections) of adult Aedes aegypti L. populations in north Queensland. Analysis of Ae. aegypti collections using BG-Sentinels set in suburban Cairns for 24 h permitted the calculation of sample size for a range of precision levels. Clusters of houses with BG-Sentinels operating continuously for 15 d, with collections every 72 h, also permitted required sample size calculation. Evidence of Ae. aegypti spatial clustering at the house scale was revealed, with statistically significant effects detected for all collection days. Less variation was detected at each trap location, with only nine of 32 trap locations revealing significant clustering over time. Trap-out effects through continuous BG-Sentinel operation at a fixed location were absent. The findings support fixed position sampling at 72-h intervals for routine monitoring ofAe. aegypti populations in Cairns. Despite the relationship between collections of adult vectors and the incidence of disease remaining unknown, BG-Sentinel collections provide an alternative and less labor-intensive abundance measure for assessing risk of dengue virus transmission and success of dengue vector control programs. PMID:17427707

  4. Age and gender correlation of gonial angle, ramus height and bigonial width in dentate subjects in a dental school in Far North Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Leversha, Jodi; McKeough, Glen; Myrteza, Adriana; Skjellrup-Wakefiled, Hannah; Welsh, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine if mandibular parameters (gonial angle, bigonial width and ramus height) measured from panoramic radiographs, can be used to determine a correlation with an individual’s age and gender in dentate subjects in Far North Queensland. Material and Methods The study utilised 2699 randomly selected panoramic radiographs of patients between the ages of 19-69 years, from which 220 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each panoramic radiograph was analysed and the above three parameters recorded and measured. These values were collated into appropriate age and gender groups and subjected to statistical analysis. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.1±14.41, with males being shown to have a statistically significant larger ramus height and bigonial width than females (P<0.0001 for both). Females, on the other hand, were shown to have a significantly larger gonial angle than males (P<0.0002). General trends revealed gonial angle to increase with age, whilst bigonial width and ramus height were shown to decrease with age. Conclusions The assessment of mandibular morphology through radiographic measurements may be useful in estimating an individual’s age and gender when comparing to a known population standard. Key words:Bigonial width, gonial angle, panoramic radiograph, ramus height. PMID:26855706

  5. Metasomatised lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths from north Queensland: Chemical and isotopic evidence bearing on the composition and source of the fluid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, A. J.; Davies, G. R.

    1989-03-01

    A diverse range of ultramafic and mafic granulite xenoliths from cone #32, north Queensland display mineralogical and chemical evidence for enhanced fluid activities in the lowermost crust and uppermost mantle. Metasomatism of spinel lherzolite, garnet and spinel websterite and garnet granulite produced variable amounts of amphibole ± mica, locally resulting in development of hornblendite as the end-product of reaction between spinel websterite and C-O-H fluids. In contrast, associated felsic and 2-pyroxene granulite xenoliths have remained relatively unaffected. The garnet granulites and spinel websterites are interpreted as products of underplating of the lower crust by Cenozoic magmatic activity, whereas Nd-Sr isotope systematics for the 2-pyroxene and felsic granulite xenoliths suggest that they may be of Proterozoic age. The development of amphibole and mica in the mafic and ultramafic xenoliths was accompanied by increases in TiO 2, Na 2O, K 2O, A1 2O 2, Sr, Ba, Zr, Nb, LREE and Fe 2O 3/FeO, and decreased MgO, SiO 2, Cr and Ni. Virtually anhydrous spinel websterite xenoliths have 87Sr /86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd almost identical to amphibole-rich variants and hornblendite, and very similar values to the host nepheline mugearite and an amphibole megacryst. The chemical and isotopic data suggest that the metasomatism is a relatively young feature caused by oxidized fluids exsolved from alkaline magmas similar to the host as they ascended through the lithosphere. This style of metasomatism is considered a relatively localized phenomenon which is unlikely to provide an important contribution to the source regions of alkali basaltic magmas.

  6. Preliminary results of the cruise dedicated to the bifurcation of the North Caledonian Jet onto the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, C.; Marin, F.; Bonnet, S.; Desnues, A.; Finot, L.; Varillon, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation, we intend to detail preliminary results and observations collected during the BIRFURCATION cruise, staged on board the R/V Alis of the IRD and operated under the auspices of SPICE (Southwest PacIfic Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment). A specific effort during SPICE was made to establish an observational program to survey air-sea fluxes and currents in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas, and their inflows and outflows, with special attention to the strong boundary currents. During its transit into the Coral Sea, the southern branch of the Southern Equatorial Current is affected by the presence of many reefs and small islands of a coral archipelago that cause it to form intense fine-scale oceanic jets downstream of these topographic obstacles. The North Caledonian Jet formed at its entry into the Coral Sea is further separated into flows towards the South (feeding the East Australian Current) and towards the equator (through the Solomon Sea). The obstacle responsible for this separation is the plateau of Queensland, near 17°S-152°E, which is composed of a group of small islands and coral reefs that are distinct from the Great Barrier Reef. The precise pathways and the relative contributions of the various water masses that arrive at the base of this plateau are still unknown and represent the focus of BIFURCATION. This cruise should thus supplement our vision of the circulation of the North Caledonian Jet within the Coral Sea, and make it possible to test to what extent this water contributes to the composition of the current at the western edge of the New Guinea UnderCurrent which feeds the equatorial band and whose climatological mass transport is estimated in the literature to vary by a factor of 2. By determining the characteristics of these water masses before their final arrival at the Australian coast it will also be possible to estimate to what extent they undergo further mixing with yet other water masses within the Coral and

  7. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  8. CMIP5 projected changes in spring and summer drought and wet conditions over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Sharmistha; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2015-05-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the mean and variability of future spring and summer drought and wet conditions during the twenty-first century across North America, as characterized by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Based on Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations, statistically significant increases are projected in mean spring SPI over the northern part of the continent, and drier conditions across the southwest. Dry conditions in summer also increase, particularly throughout the central Great Plains. By end of century, greater changes are projected under a higher radiative forcing scenario (RCP 8.5) as compared to moderate (RCP 6.0) and lower (RCP 4.5). Analysis of projected changes standardized to a range of global warming thresholds from +1 to +4 °C reveals a consistent spatial pattern of wetter conditions in the northern and drier conditions in the southwestern part of the continent in spring that intensifies under increased warming, suggesting that the magnitude of projected changes in wetness and drought may scale with global temperature. For many regions, SPI interannual variability is also projected to increase (even for regions that are projected to become drier), indicating that climate may become more extreme under greater warming, with increased frequency of both extreme dry and wet seasons. Quantifying the direction and magnitude of projected future trends from global warming is key to informing strategies to mitigate human influence on climate and help natural and managed resources adapt.

  9. Hydrology and Soil Erosion in Tropical Rainforests and Pasture Lands on the Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland, Australia - a rainfall simulator study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanne, Joanne; Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    The Barron and Johnstone Rivers rise in the basaltic Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia, and flow into the Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Natural rainforest in this region was cleared for settlement in the early 20th century. Rapid decline in soil fertility during the 1940's and 50's forced landholders to turn to pasture based industries from row crop agriculture. Since then, these pasture based industries have intensified. The intensified land use has been linked to increases in sediment and nutrient levels in terrestrial runoff and identified as a major environmental threat to the GBRWHA, which has raised alarm for the tourist industry and resource managers. Studies linking land-use to pollutant discharge are often based on measurements and modelling of end of catchment measurements of water quality. Whilst such measurements can be a reasonable indicator of the effects of land use on pollutant discharge to waterways, they are often a gross assessment. This project used rainfall simulations to investigate the relationship between land use and management with sources and sinks of runoff and soil erosion within the Barron and Johnstone Rivers catchments. Rainfall simulations were conducted and pollutant loads measured in natural rainforest, as well as dairy and beef farming systems. The dairy farming systems included an effluent fed pasture, a high mineral fertilizer and supplementary irrigation farm, and a rainfed organic pasture that relied on tropical legumes and introduced grasses and returned organic material to the soil. One of the beef farming systems used a 7-10 day rotation with a low fertilizer regime (kikuyu mostly), while the other, used a long period- two paddock-rotation with no fertiliser and paspalum pastures. The rainforests were generally small isolated enclaves with a well developed shrub layer (1-3 m), and a presence of scattered, deciduous trees. Simulations were carried out on sites which were

  10. Water quality in sugar catchments of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rayment, G E

    2003-01-01

    Water quality condition and trend are important indicators of the impact of land use on the environment, as degraded water quality causes unwelcome changes to ecosystem composition and health. These concerns extend to the sea, where discharges of nutrients, sediments and toxicants above natural levels are unwelcome, particularly when they drain to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and other coastal waters of Queensland. Sugarcane is grown in 26 major river catchments in Queensland, most in environmentally sensitive areas. This puts pressure on the Queensland Sugar Industry to manage the land in ways that have minimum adverse off-site impacts. Sugar researchers including CRC Sugar have been associated with water quality studies in North Queensland. These include investigations and reviews to assess the role of groundwater as a pathway for nitrate loss from canelands in the Herbert Catchment, to find causes of oxygen depletion in water (including irrigation runoff) from Ingham to Mackay, to use residues of superseded pesticides as indicators of sediment loss to the sea, and to assemble information on water quality pressure and status in sugar catchments. Key findings, plus information on input pressures are described in this paper, and areas of concern and opportunities discussed. PMID:14653632

  11. Wet phases in the Sahara/Sahel region and human migration patterns in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, Isla S.; Mulitza, Stefan; Schefuß, Enno; Lopes dos Santos, Raquel A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual plant leaf waxes (a proxy for C3 vs. C4 vegetation) in a marine sediment core collected from beneath the plume of Sahara-derived dust in northwest Africa reveals three periods during the past 192,000 years when the central Sahara/Sahel contained C3 plants (likely trees), indicating substantially wetter conditions than at present. Our data suggest that variability in the strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a main control on vegetation distribution in central North Africa, and we note expansions of C3 vegetation during the African Humid Period (early Holocene) and within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 (≈50–45 ka) and MIS 5 (≈120–110 ka). The wet periods within MIS 3 and 5 coincide with major human migration events out of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results thus suggest that changes in AMOC influenced North African climate and, at times, contributed to amenable conditions in the central Sahara/Sahel, allowing humans to cross this otherwise inhospitable region. PMID:19910531

  12. Wet phases in the Sahara/Sahel region and human migration patterns in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Isla S; Mulitza, Stefan; Schefuss, Enno; Lopes dos Santos, Raquel A; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual plant leaf waxes (a proxy for C(3) vs. C(4) vegetation) in a marine sediment core collected from beneath the plume of Sahara-derived dust in northwest Africa reveals three periods during the past 192,000 years when the central Sahara/Sahel contained C(3) plants (likely trees), indicating substantially wetter conditions than at present. Our data suggest that variability in the strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a main control on vegetation distribution in central North Africa, and we note expansions of C(3) vegetation during the African Humid Period (early Holocene) and within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 ( approximately 50-45 ka) and MIS 5 ( approximately 120-110 ka). The wet periods within MIS 3 and 5 coincide with major human migration events out of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results thus suggest that changes in AMOC influenced North African climate and, at times, contributed to amenable conditions in the central Sahara/Sahel, allowing humans to cross this otherwise inhospitable region. PMID:19910531

  13. Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia.

    PubMed

    Talbot, L M; Turton, S M; Graham, A W

    2003-09-01

    Controlled trampling was conducted to investigate the trampling resistance of contrasting high fertility basaltic and low fertility rhyolitic soils and their associated highland tropical rainforest vegetation in north east Australia's Wet Tropics. Although this approach has been taken in numerous studies of trampling in a variety of ecosystem types (temperate and subtropical forest, alpine shrubland, coral reef and seagrass beds), the experimental method does not appear to have been previously applied in a tropical rainforest context. Ground vegetation cover and soil penetration resistance demonstrated variable responses to trampling. Trampling, most noticeably after 200 and 500 passes reduced organic litter cover. Bulk density increased with trampling intensity, particularly on basalt soils as rhyolite soils appeared somewhat resistant to the impacts of trampling. The permeability of the basalt and rhyolite soils decreased markedly with increased trampling intensity, even after only 75 passes. These findings suggest physical and hydrological changes may occur rapidly in tropical rainforest soils following low levels of trampling, particularly on basalt soils. PMID:12927152

  14. Wet, Dry, Dim, or Bright? The Future of Water Resources in North Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brikowski, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Future water resource availability in North Texas (Dallas-Ft. Worth Metroplex) is likely to be limited by the combined impact of decadal-scale and longer term climate changes. Two decadal precipitation anomalies are statistically distinguishable in the historical record (dry/wet, Table 1). These correspond temporally with the onset of global dimming/brightening events (hydrologic cycle retardation/acceleration) respectively (Table 1). Surface water hydrologic parameters are variably correlated with these events, depending on the degree of time-integration of each process. Precipitation correlates most strongly with the decadal anomalies. Runoff changes during these periods were magnified relative to precipitation changes, presumably an effect of soil moisture changes, and over the basin as a whole correlate best with the global events. Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) attempts to capture such effects, and also correlates most strongly with the global events. The most important time-integrators of the system, reservoirs, show mixed correlation in terms of total storage with the decadal and longer term climate periods. Reservoir flood releases (excess storage) correlate with decadal precipitation anomalies, in part reflecting short-term consumption influences. Major reservoirs in the area post-date the dry period, precluding direct evaluation of sustainability from historical records. Historical correlations versus PDSI can be combined with climate-model based PDSI projections to evaluate future sustainability. Climate projections based on a mean of 19 IPCC intermediate scenario (SRESa1b) models indicate an approximately 10% reduction in mean annual precipitation, and warming of 2oC by 2050 in this region. Steady lowering of mean annual PDSI results, with a 50% probability that annual PDSI will average -0.5 by 2050. Average climate will move from humid (Aridity Index=35) to semi-humid (AI=27), and runoff can be expected to decline accordingly. Probability of a

  15. Queensland Museum Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates three online educational resources on the Queensland Museum website in terms of their use of ICTs in science education; how they relate to the Queensland Middle School Science Curriculum and the Senior Biology, Marine Studies, Science 21 syllabuses; their visual appeal and level of student engagement; the appropriateness of…

  16. Wet deposition of fission-product isotopes to North America from the Fukushima Dai-ichi incident, March 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Gay, David A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Nilles, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the infrastructure of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), numerous measurements of radionuclide wet deposition over North America were made for 167 NADP sites before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station incident of March 12, 2011. For the period from March 8 through April 5, 2011, wet-only precipitation samples were collected by NADP and analyzed for fission-product isotopes within whole-water and filterable solid samples by the United States Geological Survey using gamma spectrometry. Variable amounts of 131I, 134Cs, or 137Cs were measured at approximately 21% of sampled NADP sites distributed widely across the contiguous United States and Alaska. Calculated 1- to 2-week individual radionuclide deposition fluxes ranged from 0.47 to 5100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period. Wet deposition activity was small compared to measured activity already present in U.S. soil. NADP networks responded to this complex disaster, and provided scientifically valid measurements that are comparable and complementary to other networks in North America and Europe.

  17. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA) level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM) rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires) had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires) had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years), ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research. PMID:21138551

  18. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  19. Elevated Mississippi River discharge during glacial times: A 6,000 year wet period on the North American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, H. W.; Hollander, D. J.; Flower, B. P.; Quinn, T. M.

    2005-12-01

    Sedimentary basins proximal to major rivers can provide a coherent, high-resolution assessment of the oceanic and continental responses to changing hydrologic regimes attributed to abrupt climate variability. Documenting these regime changes under climatic extremes, including glacial time periods that are often considered cold and dry in temperate North America, is important to understand the potential impacts associated with changing hydrologic conditions. The Orca Basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is ideally situated to record inputs from the Mississippi River and to relate these inputs to changing moisture balance over North America. We use organic and inorganic geochemical analyses to document a 6 ka wet period on the North American continent from 32-38 ka, during glacial Marine Isotope Stage 3, that is decoupled from Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater dynamics over this interval. This wet period is inferred from a 5-fold increase in the input of long-chain n-alkanes derived from terrestrial plants and concurrent increases in the percent coarse fraction and insoluble residue in the bulk sediment. Associated with the wet period, a 5-fold increase in the algal derived n-alkanes implies that continentally sourced nutrients supported marine production. A 0.6 ‰ increase in the inorganic δ13CG. ruber and a shift in the δ13C of bulk organic matter from -26 to -23 ‰ also points to an increase in marine production. Further, a 1°C cooling in SST, as determined from G.ruber Mg-derived temperatures, is synchronous with the fluvial inputs. Our evidence suggests that the GOM served as an enhanced moisture source to the Mississippi River basin during this interval, perhaps via the southern displacement of frontal weather systems, resulting in oceanic physical and biological changes. Results of this study will be discussed in the context of regionally defined climate patterns, continental paleorecords and global circulation models.

  20. Large-scale circulation departures related to wet episodes in north-east Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikdar, Dhirendra N.; Elsner, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Large scale circulation features are presented as related to wet spells over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) during the rainy season (March and April) of 1979. The rainy season is divided into dry and wet periods; the FGGE and geostationary satellite data was averaged; and mean and departure fields of basic variables and cloudiness were studied. Analysis of seasonal mean circulation features show: lowest sea level easterlies beneath upper level westerlies; weak meridional winds; high relative humidity over the Amazon basin and relatively dry conditions over the South Atlantic Ocean. A fluctuation was found in the large scale circulation features on time scales of a few weeks or so over Nordeste and the South Atlantic sector. Even the subtropical High SLPs have large departures during wet episodes, implying a short period oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere Hadley circulation.

  1. Estimation and mapping of wet and dry mercury deposition across northeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, E.K.; Vanarsdale, A.; Keeler, G.J.; Chalmers, A.; Poissant, L.; Kamman, N.C.; Brulotte, R.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas many ecosystem characteristics and processes influence mercury accumulation in higher trophic-level organisms, the mercury flux from the atmosphere to a lake and its watershed is a likely factor in potential risk to biota. Atmospheric deposition clearly affects mercury accumulation in soils and lake sediments. Thus, knowledge of spatial patterns in atmospheric deposition may provide information for assessing the relative risk for ecosystems to exhibit excessive biotic mercury contamination. Atmospheric mercury concentrations in aerosol, vapor, and liquid phases from four observation networks were used to estimate regional surface concentration fields. Statistical models were developed to relate sparsely measured mercury vapor and aerosol concentrations to the more commonly measured mercury concentration in precipitation. High spatial resolution deposition velocities for different phases (precipitation, cloud droplets, aerosols, and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM)) were computed using inferential models. An empirical model was developed to estimate gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) deposition. Spatial patterns of estimated total mercury deposition were complex. Generally, deposition was higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast. Elevation, land cover, and proximity to urban areas modified the general pattern. The estimated net GEM and RGM fluxes were each greater than or equal to wet deposition in many areas. Mercury assimilation by plant foliage may provide a substantial input of methyl-mercury (MeHg) to ecosystems. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  2. Inorganic nitrogen wet deposition: Evidence from the North-South Transect of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, X; Yu, G; He, N; Jia, B; Zhou, M; Wang, C; Zhang, J; Zhao, G; Wang, S; Liu, Y; Yan, J

    2015-09-01

    We examined the spatio-temporal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition in eight typical forest ecosystems of Eastern China for three consecutive years. DIN deposition exhibited an increasing gradient from north to south, with N-NH4(+) as the predominant contributor. DIN deposition in precipitation changed after interaction with the forest canopy, and serious ecological perturbations are expected in this region. DIN deposition presented seasonal fluctuations, which might be ascribed to agricultural activity, fossil-fuel combustion and environmental factors (i.e., wind direction, soil temperature). Notably, N fertilizer use (FN), energy consumption (E), and precipitation (P) jointly explained 84.3% of the spatial variation in DIN deposition, of which FN (27.2%) was the most important, followed by E (24.8%), and finally P (9.3%). The findings demonstrate that DIN deposition is regulated by precipitation mainly via anthropogenic N emissions, and this analysis provides decision-makers a novel view for N pollution abatement. PMID:25898231

  3. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  4. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985–2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229–54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  5. Legitimating and Contesting the Commodification of Schooling: The Case of Teachers' Learning in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws upon research into the nature of teachers' learning practices in the context of current policy conditions in the state of Queensland, Australia. The research explores how teachers in one school in the north of the state responded to policy pressure to adopt a specific standardised approach to "explicit teaching",…

  6. Queensland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... oxide per year. The red color is caused by hydroxides of iron that exist as impurities within the bauxite. A distinctively-shaped, ... November 19, 2001 - Sediment, hydroxides of iron, and vegetation. project:  MISR category:  ...

  7. Cairns and Townsville area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Cairns and Townsville area, on the northeast coast of Queensland, Australia (17.0S, 146.0E) is one of the best sport diving localities in the world where divers can explore the rich and varied flora and fauna of the nearby Great Barrier Reef. Onshore, the timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range, seen as dark green areas, separate the semi arid interior of Queensland.

  8. The influence of boreal winter extratropical North Pacific Oscillation on Australian spring rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linye; Li, Yun; Duan, Wansuo

    2016-08-01

    The North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) is a key atmospheric intrinsic mode. This study concerns mechanisms that the NPO influences Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies after several months. It is found that the boreal wintertime NPO has a significant negative connection with austral spring rainfall anomalies in Australia, particularly in the Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. A positive NPO phase tends to be followed by dry conditions, while a negative phase by wet conditions in austral spring over much of northern and eastern Australia. The physical mechanism by which the boreal winter NPO affects Australian rainfall arises from the NPO seasonal footprinting mechanism that generates significant tropical central and eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) warming anomalies during austral spring. Then, the positive NPO-related SST warming anomalies over the tropical central-eastern Pacific further induce a weakened Walker circulation, with its western subsiding branch over Australia, suppressing convection and thereby reducing rainfall. Furthermore, the NPO plays an important role in contributing to the significant long-term trends of the Northern Territory and Queensland rainfalls. The decreasing amplitude of the NPO contributes much of the observed rainfall wetting trends in the Northern Territory (~50 %) and Queensland (~60 %) regions during 1951-2010. Noted that caution is recommended regarding the Australian spring rainfall trend results obtained in this study as the austral spring rainfall trends may be sensitive to the choice of the selected time period.

  9. The influence of boreal winter extratropical North Pacific Oscillation on Australian spring rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linye; Li, Yun; Duan, Wansuo

    2015-11-01

    The North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) is a key atmospheric intrinsic mode. This study concerns mechanisms that the NPO influences Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies after several months. It is found that the boreal wintertime NPO has a significant negative connection with austral spring rainfall anomalies in Australia, particularly in the Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. A positive NPO phase tends to be followed by dry conditions, while a negative phase by wet conditions in austral spring over much of northern and eastern Australia. The physical mechanism by which the boreal winter NPO affects Australian rainfall arises from the NPO seasonal footprinting mechanism that generates significant tropical central and eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) warming anomalies during austral spring. Then, the positive NPO-related SST warming anomalies over the tropical central-eastern Pacific further induce a weakened Walker circulation, with its western subsiding branch over Australia, suppressing convection and thereby reducing rainfall. Furthermore, the NPO plays an important role in contributing to the significant long-term trends of the Northern Territory and Queensland rainfalls. The decreasing amplitude of the NPO contributes much of the observed rainfall wetting trends in the Northern Territory (~50 %) and Queensland (~60 %) regions during 1951-2010. Noted that caution is recommended regarding the Australian spring rainfall trend results obtained in this study as the austral spring rainfall trends may be sensitive to the choice of the selected time period.

  10. Timing and Nature of Wet Climatic Periods in North Africa and in the Arabian Peninsula: Inferences from Isotopic, Chronologic, and Remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emil, M. K.; Sultan, M.; Farag, A. Z. A.; Abouelmagd, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-12-01

    The wet climatic periods in the Quaternary in north Africa and in Arabia were traditionally attributed to intensification of paleo-monsoons during interglacial periods and progressive northward migration of monsoonal front. In N Africa, the monsoonal model could not account for: (1) progressive W to E depletion (Morocco: -20 to -40‰; ; Libya: -70 to -80‰; Egypt: -80 to -83‰) in isotopic composition of fossil groundwater ; (2) observed high lake levels during glacial periods (e.g., Lake Lisan: 160 m bmsl during glacial period MIS2); (3) the depleted isotopic compositions in the groundwater compared to modern precipitation (e.g., d2H: Morocco: - 25.8‰; ; Libya: -17.7; Egypt: -11.7‰) is consistent with deposition during relatively cool periods; (4) ages (Cl-36 : 170ka to 1000ka) of groundwater in the Empty Quarter are consistent with deposition in glacial periods; and (5) low recharge temperatures (e.g., 2-6 °C below average annual temperatures). Intensification of the paleo-westerlies during previous glacial periods can account for these observations. We propose a similar model for northern and central Arabia and probably the northern sectors of the Empty Quarter. Our reasoning: (1) a progressive north to south depletion in groundwater composition (north & center: d2H :-26.6 to -2.5‰, south: d2H: -76.6 to -26.9‰) is inconsistent with a paleo-monsoon origin; (2) ages of sediments in paleo-lakes (e.g., lake Mundafan: OSL ages: 88 to 147ka) favor deposition during glacial periods; (3) depleted isotopic compositions in the groundwater (d2H: -76.6 to -26.9‰) compared to modern precipitation (d2H: -22 to -45‰); (4) Cl-36 ages of groundwater (170ka to 1000ka ) are consistent with precipitation during glacial periods; (5) well documented records of monsoon-related wet events in Oman are not well developed northwards; and (6) well developed paleo-channels and theater-headed valleys in north and central Arabia compared to southern Arabia.

  11. Modelling wet and dry spells for daily rainfall data series: an application to irrigation management in North-West Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Stefano; Agnese, Carmelo; Baiamonte, Giorgio; Cat Berro, Daniele; Mercalli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall time variability is relevant for agricultural production. The daily time scale is often used in modelling crop and soil water balance. In this work a novel statistical analysis of wet and dry spells is presented, together with an application in an Italian area characterised by a relevant climate spatial variability, due to the presence of both high mountains (e.g.: Mont Blanc) and of the Mediterranean Sea. Statistical analysis of the sequences of rainy days, wet spells (WS), and that of no-rainy days, dry spells (DS), could be carried out separately (as widely applied in the past) or jointly, by introducing the inter-arrival time (IT), representing the time elapsed between two subsequent rainy days. Investigating on daily rainfall data series recorded in Sicily, Agnese et al. (2014) found that IT statistics can be described by the 3-parameter Lerch distribution; in turn, WS and DS distributions can be easily derived from IT distribution. Alternatively, the knowledge of both WS and DS distributions allow deriving IT distribution; in this case, WScan be described by the well-accepted geometric distribution, whereas the 2-parameter polylogarithm distribution can be used for DS, as recently suggested (Agnese et al., 2012) in place of the previously used 1-parameter logarithmic distribution (Chatfield, 1966). In this work, by using some daily rainfall data series recorded in Alpine and Sub-Alpine Areas, the equivalence between the above-mentioned approaches is showed. Furthermore, some interesting relationships between respective parameters are also illustrated. A simple soil water model is then used, using this rainfall statistical model, in order to evaluate the irrigation efficiency as a consequence of variations in the timing of surface irrigation, following the approach described in the paper of Canone et al. (2015). Agnese C., Baiamonte G., Cammalleri C., Cat Berro D., Ferraris S., Mercalli L. (2012). "Statistical analysis of inter-arrival times of

  12. Valuing Arts Education in Isolated Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncum, Paul; Cassidy, Howard

    1994-01-01

    A survey of home-schooling parents and staff associated with the Longreach School of Distance Education in a remote area of Queensland (Australia) examined attitudes about the importance of drama and visual arts education. The majority of parents valued their children's participation in the arts and would like to see more arts education included…

  13. Library Research Support in Queensland: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joanna; Nolan-Brown, Therese; Loria, Pat; Bradbury, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    University libraries worldwide are reconceptualising the ways in which they support the research agenda in their respective institutions. This paper is based on a survey completed by member libraries of the Queensland University Libraries Office of Cooperation (QULOC), the findings of which may be informative for other university libraries. After…

  14. Student Performance Standards and Queensland Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Andrew; Danaher, Patrick

    This paper considers the implementation of Student Performance Standards (SPS) in Queensland, Australia, and their implications for teacher education. Student testing procedures in various Australian states and territories are described. A theoretical framework, grounded in Australian educational history, is elaborated for understanding the…

  15. Advisory Teacher Service in Queensland Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Peter J.; Cumming, Joy

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about how advisory teachers and persons within schools perceive the operation of the Advisory Teacher Service inaugurated in the Queensland State Department of Education in 1970. The service was provided so that advisory teachers would visit primary schools on invitation of the principal and help…

  16. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  17. Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation: special report.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Gerry; Codd, Catrina; Aitken, Peter; Sinnott, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Development of any new profession is dependent on the development of a special body of knowledge that is the domain of the profession. Key to this is research. Following sustained lobbying, the Queensland Government agreed to establish an emergency medicine research fund as part of an Enterprise Bargaining Agreement in 2006. That fund is managed by the Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation. The present article describes the strategic approaches of the Foundation in its first 3 years, the application of research funds, and foreshadows an evaluative framework for determining the strategic value of this investment. The Foundation has developed a range of personnel and project support funding programmes, and competition for funding has increased. Ongoing evaluation will seek to determine the effectiveness of the current funding strategy on improving the effectiveness of research performance. It will also evaluate the clinical and organizational outcomes. PMID:22313558

  18. Outbreaks of the cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), related to weather in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.G.; Gage, S.H.

    1986-10-01

    The cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Zeller), has periodically caused serious damage to seedling cotton in Southeast Queensland. An analysis of data over 11 years revealed that outbreaks of this pest are weather related. A heat/precipitation ratio (weather index) was calculated and compared with population levels of the tipworm. Outbreaks were strongly correlated to cool and wet weather during March--November, the principal growth period of the weed host Malva parviflora (L.). Infestations were minor when conditions were dry. A prediction based on this index is compared with field infestation levels in 1984. 16 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  19. A field investigation into a suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis in horses in western Queensland.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B; Gummow, B

    2015-03-01

    A disease outbreak investigation was conducted in western Queensland to investigate a rare suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) toxicosis in horses. Thirty five of 132 horses depastured on five properties on the Mitchell grass plains of western Queensland died in the first six months of 2010. Clinical-pathological findings were consistent with PA toxicosis. A local variety of Crotalaria medicaginea was the only hepatotoxic plant found growing on affected properties. Pathology reports and departure and arrival dates of two brood mares provided evidence of a pre wet season exposure period. All five affected properties experienced a very dry spring and early summer preceded by a large summer wet season. The outbreak was characterised as a point epidemic with a sudden peak of deaths in March followed by mortalities steadily declining until the end of June. The estimated morbidity (serum IGG>50IU/L) rate was 76%. Average crude mortality was 27% but higher in young horses (67%) and brood mares (44%). Logistic regression analysis showed that young horses and brood mares and those grazing denuded pastures in December were most strongly associated with dying whereas those fed hay and/or grain based supplements were less likely to die. This is the first detailed study of an outbreak of PA toxicosis in central western Queensland and the first to provide evidence that environmental determinants were associated with mortality, that the critical exposure period was towards the end of the dry season, that supplementary feeding is protective and that denuded pastures and the horses physiological protein requirement are risk factors. PMID:25604478

  20. Science Education: Innovation in Rural and Remote Queensland Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, David

    2008-01-01

    Outside its heavily-populated south-eastern corner, Queensland is a huge administrative area with many small, remote communities that can be separated by hundreds of kilometres of dirt road, or, in other areas, not accessible by road. In this study, parents, students and teachers in nine schools from rural and regional Queensland were interviewed…

  1. Inclusive Education Reform in Queensland: Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Patricia E.

    2010-01-01

    In Queensland, Australia, the school system is being reformed to be more "inclusive". However, the enthusiasm for "inclusive education" in Queensland seems to be waning amongst practitioners, and the "confusion, frustration, guilt and exhaustion" that has emerged with teachers and support practitioners in the UK is emerging amongst support…

  2. Local Area Initiatives, 1986. Priority Country Area Program, Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priority Country Area Program Office, Brisbane (Australia).

    The Priority Country Area Program is a Rural Education Program funded by the Commonwealth Schools Commission and jointly administered by the Queensland (Australia) Department of Education and the Queensland Catholic Education Office. The program develops educational strategies to address problems engendered by the social and geographical nature of…

  3. Sole Fighter Mentality: Stakeholder Agency in CLIL Programmes in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smala, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an insight into content and language integrated learning (CLIL) practices in the Australian state of Queensland. The article comprises four main sections. The first section outlines the context of CLIL in Australia and Queensland; there follows a brief review of the literature on stakeholders in CLIL programmes, such as…

  4. The Queensland "New Basics": An Interview with Allan Luke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lisa

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Allan Luke, current editor of "The Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy," and Deputy Director General of Education for Queensland. Discusses several reform projects--Education 2010 (a futures-oriented analysis and philosophy for Queensland Schools); The New Basics ( a new curriculum/pedagogy/assessment framework);…

  5. Pre-School Education in Queensland, Australia: A Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Gerald F.

    This paper provides a detailed overview of the preschool education system in Queensland, Australia, from the perspective of one of the original designers of that program. The first section of the paper describes the social, political and general educational contexts within which the Queensland preschool system was developed. Steps in state level…

  6. The geographical co-distribution and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Hu, W; Tong, S

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal patterns, geographical co-distribution, and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive model was used to quantify the impacts of socio-ecological factors on both childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea at a postal area level. A distinct seasonality of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea was found. Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea were mainly distributed in the northwest of Queensland. Mount Isa city was the high-risk cluster where childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea co-distributed. Emergency department visits (EDVs) for pneumonia increased by 3% per 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall in wet seasons. By comparison, a 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall may cause an increase of 4% in EDVs for diarrhoea. Monthly average temperature was negatively associated with EDVs for childhood diarrhoea in wet seasons. Low socioeconomic index for areas (SEIFA) was associated with high EDVs for childhood pneumonia. Future pneumonia and diarrhoea prevention and control measures in Queensland should focus more on Mount Isa. PMID:25018008

  7. A spatial epidemiological analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been changing and the incidence has been increasing in some settings. The main route of transmission to humans is considered to be from the environment. We aimed to describe spatial clusters of cases of NTM infections and to identify associated climatic, environmental and socio-economic variables. Methods NTM data were obtained from the Queensland Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory for the period 2001–2011. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was constructed at the postcode level, with covariates including soil variables, maximum, mean and minimum rainfall and temperature, income (proportion of population earning < $32,000 and < $52,000) and land use category. Results Significant clusters of NTM infection were identified in the central Queensland region overlying the Surat sub-division of the Great Artesian Basin, as well as in the lower North Queensland Local Government Area known as the Whitsunday region. Our models estimated an expected increase of 21% per percentage increase of population earning < $52,000 (95% CI 9–34%) and an expected decrease of 13% for every metre increase of average topsoil depth for risk of Mycobacterium intracellulare infection (95% CI -3 – -22%). There was an estimated increase of 79% per mg/m3 increase of soil bulk density (95% CI 26–156%) and 19% decrease for every percentage increase in population earning < $32,000 for risk of M. kansasii infection (95% CI -3 – -49%). Conclusions There were distinct spatial clusters of M. kansasii, M. intracellulare and M. abscessus infections in Queensland, and a number of socio-ecological, economic and environmental factors were found to be associated with NTM infection risk. PMID:24885916

  8. Fine-suspended sediment and water budgets for a large, seasonally dry tropical catchment: Burdekin River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Zoë T.; Lewis, Stephen E.; Smithers, Scott G.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Henderson, Brent L.; Brodie, Jon E.

    2014-11-01

    The Burdekin River catchment (˜130,400 km2) is a seasonally dry tropical catchment located in north-east Queensland, Australia. It is the single largest source of suspended sediment to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Fine sediments are a threat to ecosystems on the GBR where they contribute to elevated turbidity (reduced light), sedimentation stress, and potential impacts from the associated nutrients. Suspended sediment data collected over a 5 year period were used to construct a catchment-wide sediment source and transport budget. The Bowen River tributary was identified as the major source of end-of-river suspended sediment export, yielding an average of 530 t km-2 yr-1 during the study period. Sediment trapping within a large reservoir (1.86 million ML) and the preferential transport of clays and fine silts downstream of the structure were also examined. The data reveal that the highest clay and fine silt loads—which are of most interest to environmental managers of the GBR—are not always sourced from areas that yield the largest total suspended sediment load (i.e., all size fractions). Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating particle size into catchment sediment budget studies undertaken to inform management decisions to reduce downstream turbidity and sedimentation. Our data on sediment source, reservoir influence, and subcatchment and catchment yields will improve understandings of sediment dynamics in other tropical catchments, particularly those located in seasonally wet-dry tropical savannah/semiarid climates. The influence of climatic variability (e.g., drought/wetter periods) on annual sediment loads within large seasonally dry tropical catchments is also demonstrated by our data.

  9. [Wet work].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work. PMID:20437890

  10. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  11. Spatial patterns and temporal trends in mercury concentrations, precipitation depths, and mercury wet deposition in the North American Great Lakes region, 2002-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Gay, David A.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Keeler, Gerard J.; Backus, Sean M.; Blanchard, Pierrette; Barres, James A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Annual and weekly mercury (Hg) concentrations, precipitation depths, and Hg wet deposition in the Great Lakes region were analyzed by using data from 5 monitoring networks in the USA and Canada for a 2002-2008 study period. High-resolution maps of calculated annual data, 7-year mean data, and net interannual change for the study period were prepared to assess spatial patterns. Areas with 7-year mean annual Hg concentrations higher than the 12 ng per liter water-quality criterion were mapped in 4 states. Temporal trends in measured weekly data were determined statistically. Monitoring sites with significant 7-year trends in weekly Hg wet deposition were spatially separated and were not sites with trends in weekly Hg concentration. During 2002-2008, Hg wet deposition was found to be unchanged in the Great Lakes region and its subregions. Any small decreases in Hg concentration apparently were offset by increases in precipitation.

  12. The 2012 Total Eclipse Expeditions in Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.; Lucas, R.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Gaintatzis, P.; Steele, A.; Sterling, A. C.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.

    2013-07-01

    A total eclipse swept across Queensland and other sites in northeastern Australia on the early morning of 14 November 2012, local time. We mounted equipment to observe coronal images and spectra during the approximately 2 minutes of totality, the former for comparison with spacecraft images and to fill in the doughnut of imaging not well covered with space coronagraphs. Matching weather statistics, viewing was spotty, and our best observations were from a last-minute inland site on the Tablelands, with some observations from a helicopter at 9000 feet altitude over our original viewing site at Miallo. Only glimpses of the corona were visible at our Port Douglas and Trinity Beach, Cairns, locations, with totality obscured from our sites at Newell and Miallo, though some holes in the clouds provided coronal views from Palm Cove and elsewhere along the coast. Preliminary analysis of the spectra again shows Fe XIV stronger than Fe X, as in 2010 but not earlier, a sign of solar maximum, as was the coronal shape. An intriguing CME is discernible in the SE. Acknowledgments: We thank Terry Cuttle, Aram Friedman, Michael Kentrianakis, and Nicholas Weber for assistance and collaboration in Australia and Wendy Carlos for image processing. Our expedition was supported in part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division, and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams College. ML was also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS acknowledge support from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of the National Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan) for kindly providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images.

  13. Accessing Queensland's soil information - an open data revolution!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Kelly; O'Brien, Lauren; Brough, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Queensland government is the custodian of soil and land resource information with an estimated value of 75 million. The Soil and Land Information (SALI) system houses this data from over 600 distinct studies with some 96,000 soil observations dating back to the 1940s. This data is now not only used by government but by universities, councils, landowners, consultants and schools. Providing this information to the public in an easy and accessible way, with a focus towards online delivery is crucial. Previous issues with distribution of online soils information in Queensland have stemmed not only from limits to technology but also, changing departmental structures and multiple websites. The department which manages soils information in Queensland has undergone nine name changes in the last 12 years due to Machinery of Government (MoG) restructures. This constantly changing web presence and branding is as confusing for people sourcing soils information as it is for those providing it. The Queensland government has now moved to a whole of government online environment. This is a single website with no reference to the convoluted structures within government or department names. The aim is to prevent impacts from future MoG changes on the provision of data and information to the public. Queensland government soils now has a single dedicated website (qld.gov.au/environment/land/soil) which has allowed us to start to build a repository for soils information and is a single portal for people to access soils data. It has been demonstrated that this consistent approach to websites improves trust and confidence of users [1] and from this, confidence in using Queensland soils information and data and ultimately better land management decisions.

  14. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns.

    PubMed

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V

    2016-05-01

    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications. PMID:26963432

  15. Universities and Freedom of Information Legislation in Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhs, Ted; Duhs, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Implications of 1992 Australian freedom of information legislation for higher education in Queensland are discussed, based in part on the outcomes of specific requests. Issues addressed include student and staff records, supervisor comments and recommendations, research theses, and the impact on universities in other states. Statistical data on…

  16. Leading or Managing? Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance, in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Ray; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Iyer, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Education reform aimed at achieving improved student learning is a demanding challenge for leaders and managers at all levels of education across the globe. In 2010, the position of Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance (ARD-SP), was established to positively impact upon student learning across public schools in Queensland,…

  17. The New Sexuality Education Curriculum for Queensland Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    A departmental review of education curricula in Queensland, Australia has found that minimal or no learning about sexuality education takes place. Its public schools and teachers are able to avoid or not fulfil their obligations regarding the teaching of sexuality education and reproductive health to children and young people. This lacuna in…

  18. Board of Teacher Education (Queensland). Research Grants Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Board of Teacher Education, Toowong (Australia).

    The Queensland (Australia) Board of Teacher Education lets research grants for work in the area of teacher education. As projects are completed, the Board periodically publishes summaries of the project reports. This volume, number three in the series, describes six research studies, as follows: "Student Teacher Stress in Field Studies" (M.…

  19. The Queensland Itinerant Teacher Service 1901-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    The historical review outlines the activities of the Queensland Itinerant Service from 1901-1930. The report begins with an account of the Service's first traveling teacher, Mr. Johnson, who in his first year of duty visited 103 homesteads that housed 113 families having 319 children of school age; of its peak period in 1921 when there were 18…

  20. Queensland's proposed surrogacy legislation: an opportunity for national reform.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tammy

    2010-02-01

    Surrogacy has existed since Biblical times when Hagar, the maidservant of the infertile Sarah, acted as a surrogate to bear Sarah and her husband, Abraham, a son. Despite the longevity of the practice of surrogacy, modern society has been reluctant to embrace surrogacy arrangements due to the ethical and sometimes practical debates they spark. This reluctance is evidenced by the general lack of legislative support for surrogacy arrangements in Australia and worldwide. In 2009 it was announced that Queensland will decriminalise altruistic surrogacy. While this decision is a step towards bringing Queensland in line with other Australian jurisdictions, it also has the potential to open up a Pandora's Box of legal and ethical issues. This article provides a snapshot of the anticipated new Queensland surrogacy legislation together with a brief overview of the regulation of surrogacy in all Australian jurisdictions. Recommendations are made as to whether there is a need for further reform of surrogacy regulation in certain Australian jurisdictions and if so, whether the proposed Queensland legislation constitutes an appropriate model on which to base such reform. PMID:20329461

  1. The Itinerant Teacher Service, Queensland 1901-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, M.

    The monograph reports on research from primary sources about Queensland's Itinerant Teacher Service from 1901 to 1930. Chapter One traces its history and shows that the Service was inaugurated in 1901 with 1 teacher visiting 103 homesteads having 319 children, reached its peak in 1921 with 18 teachers visiting 1,889 children, and declined until…

  2. Prevalence and intensity of non-strongyle intestinal parasites of horses in northern Queensland.

    PubMed

    Mfitilodze, M W; Hutchinson, G W

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative post-mortem study of 57 horses from northern Queensland was done to determine the prevalence and intensity of non-strongyle intestinal parasites. The following species (% prevalence) were found: Draschia megastoma (39%); Habronema muscae (43%); Gasterophilus intestinalis (34%), G. nasalis (30%); Parascaris equorum (15%); Strongyloides westeri (6%); Probstmayria vivipara (2%); Oxyuris equi (26%); Anoplocephala magna (2%); A. perfoliata (32%). Mean parasite numbers of individual species ranged from 10 to 1310. Prevalence and intensity data were compared to recent studies in Western Australia and in the United States of America. Differences between stabled and paddocked horses were noted, particularly for botfly larvae and spiruroids. Climatic and seasonal changes in prevalence were restricted to H. muscae, G. nasalis and P. equorum with highest prevalence in the wet season or in horses from wet coastal areas. Only P. equorum showed any age effect being restricted to horses less than 5 years old. Breed and sex of horses was not important. The likelihood of changing parasite population dynamics with improved anthelmintic regimen is discussed. PMID:2930389

  3. Understanding the geomorphology of macrochannel systems for flood risk management in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky

    2016-04-01

    The year 2010-2011 was the wettest on record for the state of Queensland, Australia producing catastrophic floods. A tropical low pressure system in 2013 delivered further extreme flood events across South East Queensland (SEQ) which prompted state and local governments to conduct studies into flood magnitude and frequency in the region and catchment factors contributing to flood hazards. The floods in the region are strongly influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, but also modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) which leads to flood and drought dominated regimes and high hydrological variability. One geomorphic feature in particular exerted a significant control on the transmission speed, the magnitude of flood inundation and resultant landscape resilience. This feature was referred to as a 'macrochannel', a term used to describe a 'large-channel' which has bankfull recurrence intervals generally greater than 10 years. The macrochannels display non-linear downstream hydraulic geometry which leads to zones of flood expansion (when hydraulic geometry decreases) and zones of flood contraction (when hydraulic geometry increases). The pattern of contraction and expansion zones determines flood hazard zones. The floods caused significant wet flow bank mass failures that mobilised over 1,000,000 m3 of sediment in one subcatchment. Results suggest that the wetflow bank mass failures are a stage in a cyclical evolution process which maintains the macrochannel morphology, hence channel resilience to floods. Chronological investigations further show the macrochannels are laterally stable and identify periods of heightened flood activity over the past millennium and upper limits on flood magnitude. This paper elaborates on the results of the geomorphic investigations on Lockyer Creek in SEQ and how the results have alerted managers and policy makers to the different flood responses of these systems and how flood risk management plans can

  4. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. PMID:22324342

  5. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia's Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jay, Katya R; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R; Coblens, Michelle J; Oberski, Jill T; Sharma, Prashant P; Boyer, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608

  6. The Probable Whole of Slope Submarine Landslides of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubble, T.

    2015-12-01

    A research cruise aboard the RV Southern Surveyor (SS2013-V01) conducted in January 2013 offshore east Australia collected regional bathymetric data for the seabed of the continental margin of southern Queensland for the seabed bounded by Noosa Heads in the south and Indian Head, Fraser Island in the north. This newly mapped area presents a particularly steep portion of continental slope (5o to 10 o) that presents numerous submarine landslides, including two 'whole-of-slope' features (The Wide Bay Canyon, and Inskip Slides. The slope is also dissected by three large submarine canyons offshore northern Fraser Island, Wide Bay and Noosa Heads (i.e. the Fraser Canyons, the Wide Bay Canyon and the Noosa Canyon). Dredge and core samples were collected from slide scars in the northern, central and southern areas of the bathymetric survey area. The initial examination of the area's bathymetry, the core and dredge sample sedimentology, and determination of biostratigraphic ages for these sediment samples indicates that the larger, submarine slides present in this study area have probably been shed from the slope since the late Pliocene and that canyon incision is currently active on this portion of the slope. In one case, canyon incision is partly responsible for generating slides due to undercutting and removal of the toe of the slope. Slope sediments are dominantly comprised of hemipelagic muds but the presence of massive coarse sands and graded sands in some cores above erosion surfaces that cut into slope mud units is interpreted to indicate that areas of the southern Queensland continental slope are probably subjected to abrasion by grain-flows and turbidites comprised of shelf-derived sands and upper slope sediment. The results from this voyage confirms and extends previous work on the southeastern Australian continental margin that indicates that sediment transport from the shelf to deep water on this margin is dominated by gravity mass transport and that the margin

  7. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change. PMID:27479240

  8. Queensland 2010-2011: A Summer of Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroulis, J.

    2012-04-01

    "I love a sunburnt country, A land of sweeping plains, Of ragged mountain ranges, Of droughts and flooding rains. I love her far horizons, I love her jewel-sea, Her beauty and her terror, The wide brown land for me." (Dorothea Mackellar OBE, 1885-1968). This second stanza from Mackellar's famous poem "My Country", beautifully sums up the Australian environment. In late 2010-early 2011, the "droughts and flooding rains" were the perfect terms to describe the climatic variability and the resulting flooding impacts experienced in many parts of Queensland under an enhanced La Niña as part of the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) climate pattern, with over 75% of Queensland being declared a disaster zone. This contrasts with the severe drought that had gripped many parts of Australia over the previous 8 years which saw water storage levels plummet, and resulted in 35% of Queensland being 'drought declared' as at April 2010. On the Darling Downs in southern Queensland, over 100,000 ha of land was inundated by the Condamine River due to flooding in early 2011. The river which is generally <100 m wide was seven kilometres wide at the widest point during the floods. However, the erosive impacts of the floods on largely tilled floodplains was relatively low with most erosion confined to the bed and banks of the river. In Grantham, where 13 lives were lost, flooding was especially hazardous because of the combined depth and velocity of floodwaters and the rapid rise of floodwaters across the floodplain. Floodwaters were ~2.0-2.5 m deep across the northern parts of the floodplain with a maximum velocity of ~2-3 m/s. The rate of rise was estimated at ~12 m/hour, indicating that it would have taken only 10-15 minutes to rise to full depth. However, despite detailed river and flood gauging in the more urbanised catchments such as the Brisbane River valley, this is by far the exception rather than the rule throughout mainland Australia. The Queensland floods highlight the

  9. Potential distribution of an invasive species under climate change scenarios using CLIMEX and soil drainage: a case study of Lantana camara L. in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Subhashni; Kumar, Lalit

    2013-01-15

    Invasive species pose a major threat to biodiversity which may be intensified by the effects of climate change, particularly if favourable climate conditions allow invasives to spread to new areas. This research explores the combined effects of climate change and soil drainage on the potential future distribution of Lantana camara L. (lantana) in Queensland, Australia. Lantana is an invasive woody shrub species that has a profound economic and environmental impact worldwide. CLIMEX was used to develop a process-based niche model of lantana to estimate its potential distribution under current and future climate. Two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC-H, were used to explore the impacts of climate change. These models were run with the A1B and A2 scenarios for 2030, 2070 and 2100. Further refinements of the potential distributions were carried out through the integration of fine scale soil drainage data in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results from both GCMs show a progressive reduction in climatic suitability for lantana in Queensland. The MIROC-H projects a larger area as remaining at risk of lantana invasion in 2100 compared to CSIRO-Mk3.0. Inclusion of soil drainage data results in a more refined distribution. Overall results show a dramatic reduction in potential distribution of lantana in Queensland in the long term (2100). However, in the short term (2030), areas such as South East Queensland and the Wet Tropics, both regions of significant ecological importance, remain at risk of invasion consistently under both GCMs and with both the climate only and climate and soil drainage models. Management of lantana in these regions will need to be prioritized to protect environmental assets of ecological significance. PMID:23164541

  10. Effects Of A Rapidly Urbanising Environment On Groundwater, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, M. E.; Hillier, J.; Foster, L.; Ellis, R.

    1996-01-01

    Southeastern Queensland, centred around Brisbane, has one of the fastest growing populations in Australia and has previously relied on surface storage of water for urban purposes. The projected demands for potable water mean that various groundwater supplies may need to be maintained for future urban use. Groundwater in this area occurs in a variety of aquifer types, some limited in extent and some susceptible to effects from increasing development, as well as from natural processes. Recorded impacts on groundwater in this area are varied and include: changes in land use from agricultural to residential; rising water tables as a result of cessation of extraction for irrigation; declining water tables in areas where irrigation has increased; decreasing quality, due to the introducing of nutrients (fertilizers and sewage); occurrence of acid saline waters in coastal Holocene sediments as a result of agricultural and engineering activities; and increased numbers of private bores on some bay islands. The large-scale managed development of groundwater supplies is now underway from North Stradbroke Island (a large sand island) to augment mainland surface supplies. At this stage, restrictions on the development of groundwater do not exist in the area, with the exception of North Stradbroke Island. Localised degradation of groundwater quality is produced by such features as old landfills, petroleum storage sites, and some old industrial sites. Possibly the major long-term impact will be the cumulative effect of increasing urban activity on a region whose drainage sink is Moreton Bay.

  11. A comparative analysis of Mediterranean and Queensland fruit fly wing-buzzing sounds associated with mating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male Mediterranean and Queensland fruit flies both produce wing-buzzing sounds during courtship but the functional role of the sounds is not clear for either species. In further consideration of the roles of these sounds, we report on a video and acoustic analysis of Queensland fruit fly courtship ...

  12. School Experience in Queensland Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs. 2. Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duck, Greg, Ed.; Cunningham, Debra, Ed.

    This report discusses the third major stage of the Queensland Board of Teacher Education's investigation into the nature of school experiences in preservice teacher education programs in Queensland, Australia. An account is presented of the proceedings of a statewide conference held in September 1984 to discuss results of the survey research…

  13. A New Equity Deal for Schools: A Case Study of Policy-Making in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Parlo; Taylor, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we draw on concepts from policy sociology to analyse the new equity deal for schools in Queensland, Australia. We examine this "new deal" through an analysis of the language of "inclusion" and "educational risk" in key policy documents associated with a major reform of public education in Queensland. In addition, we analyse the…

  14. The Use of Mathematical Investigations in a Queensland Primary School and Implications for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshman, Margaret; Clark, Darren; Carey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of Ways of Working in 2008, Queensland teachers received professional development on using investigations to teach mathematics. This case study explores the extent to which teachers in one Queensland Primary School use this pedagogy. To determine teachers' beliefs and teaching approaches, a five point Likert scale…

  15. Learning Not Borrowing from the Queensland Education System: Lessons on Curricular, Pedagogical and Assessment Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the Queensland education system's engagement with reforming curriculum, pedagogies and assessment. In so doing, it responds to the University College London's Institute of Education report on "high-performing" jurisdictions, of which Queensland, Australia, was identified as one. In this report,…

  16. A NEW CHROOCOCCACEAN ALGA FROM THE PROTEROZOIC OF QUEENSLAND

    PubMed Central

    Licari, Gerald R.; Cloud, Preston E.; Smith, W. D.

    1969-01-01

    Nannofossils§ here described are from the middle Proterozoic Paradise Creek Formation, along Paradise Creek in northwestern Queensland, Australia. These fossils, in chert blebs associated with branched stromatolites, comprise cubic colonies analogous to living Eucapsis, a member of the blue-green algal family Chroococcaceae. The age of the enclosing rocks, bracketed by the ages of older and younger granitic events, is about 1.6 × 109 years. We record, therefore, a new chronological and biological datum in the currently accumulating sequence of pre-Paleozoic microbiotas. Images PMID:16591730

  17. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    MedlinePlus

    ... their development. Bed-wetting is more common among boys than girls. What causes bed-wetting? A number of things ... valves in boys or in the ureter in girls or boys Abnormalities in the spinal cord A small bladder ...

  18. Geology of oil-shale deposits within the Narrows Graben, Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Henstridge, D.A.; Missen, D.D.

    1982-06-01

    The Narrows Beds are a Tertiary sedimentary sequence containing oil shale seams, which were deposited in a narrow north-northwest-trending graben. The graben is about 24 mi (38 km) long by 3 mi (5 km) wide and is located adjacent to the central Queensland coast. Two similar oil-shale deposits, Rundle and Stuart containing 5.1 billion bbl of shale oil have been defined within the graben. The Tertiary sedimentary rocks, which were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine environment, are more than 3280 ft (1000 m) thick and dip gently westward. They consist of the Worthington beds and the Rundle and Curlew Formations. The Worthington beds range from conglomerate through sandstone to claystone. The Rundle Formation consists of six kerogenous seams and a claystone unit. The sedimentary rocks are consistent throughout the graben. The Curlew Formation is an interbedded sequence of claystone and minor carbonaceous shale. The Worthington beds and the Rundle Formation have been intruded by olivine dolerite, which is not extensive. Quaternary overburden blankets most of the area. Paleontologic studies indicate an early to late eocene age for the Rundle and Curlew Formations. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Evidence of high sea level during isotope stage 5c in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, J. W.; Thompson, C. H.; Kelley, R. A.; Roman, D.

    1985-07-01

    Thirty-nine species of scleractinian corals have been recovered from under a high dune on the western (mainland) side of North Stradbroke Island, eastern Australia. The corals are associated with thin intertidal sediments and their good condition implies burial in situ and preservation in a saturated zone. Most likely this occurred as the coast prograded and a large dune advanced into the littoral zone, burying intertidal sediments and coral. The species assemblage indicates a sheltered environment but one open to the ocean without wide fluctuations in salinity. Three species yielded a mean {230Th}/{234U} age of 105,000 yr B.P. which is significantly younger than the nearest Pleistocene corals at Evans Head, New South Wales. The corals provide evidence of a sea stand near present sea level during isotope Stage 5c, which is considerably higher than previously suggested for this period. Their good condition implies that the overlying parabolic dune is of comparable age and formed during that high stand of sea level. Also, the isotope age provides a maximum period for the development of giant podzols in the podzol chronosequences on coastal dunes in southern Queensland.

  20. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia’s Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Katya R.; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R.; Coblens, Michelle J.; Oberski, Jill T.; Sharma, Prashant P.; Boyer, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608

  1. Wetting in electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Ibagon, Ingrid; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2013-06-01

    Wetting of a charged substrate by an electrolyte solution is investigated by means of classical density functional theory applied to a lattice model. Within the present model the pure, i.e., salt-free solvent, for which all interactions are of the nearest-neighbor type only, exhibits a second-order wetting transition for all strengths of the substrate-particle and the particle-particle interactions for which the wetting transition temperature is nonzero. The influences of the substrate charge density and of the ionic strength on the wetting transition temperature and on the order of the wetting transition are studied. If the substrate is neutral, the addition of salt to the solvent changes neither the order nor the transition temperature of the wetting transition of the system. If the surface charge is nonzero, upon adding salt this continuous wetting transition changes to first-order within the wide range of substrate surface charge densities and ionic strengths studied here. As the substrate surface charge density is increased, at fixed ionic strength, the wetting transition temperature decreases and the prewetting line associated with the first-order wetting transition becomes longer. This decrease of the wetting transition temperature upon increasing the surface charge density becomes more pronounced by decreasing the ionic strength. PMID:23758391

  2. Origins of Wetting.

    PubMed

    Extrand, Charles W

    2016-08-01

    This feature article provides an overview of wetting phenomena. Much of the analysis done on wetting in the last 100 years assumes that the phenomena are determined by molecular interactions within the interfacial area between the liquid and solid. However, there is now ample evidence that wetting is controlled by interactions in the vicinity of the contact line where the liquid and solid meet. Recent experiments and modeling that demonstrate this are reviewed. PMID:27459085

  3. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    Capillary phenomena associated with fluids wetting other condensed matter phases have drawn great scientific interest for hundreds of years; consider the recent bicentennial celebration of Thomas Young's paper on equilibrium contact angles, describing the geometric shape assumed near a three phase contact line in terms of the relevant surface energies of the constituent phases [1]. Indeed, nearly a century has passed since the seminal papers of Lucas and Washburn, describing dynamics of capillary imbibition [2, 3]. While it is generally appreciated that dynamics of fluid wetting processes are determined by the degree to which a system is out of capillary equilibrium, myriad complications exist that challenge the fundamental understanding of dynamic capillary phenomena. The topic has gathered much interest from recent Nobel laureate Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, who provided a seminal review of relevant dissipation mechanisms for fluid droplets spreading on solid surfaces [4] Although much about the dynamics of wetting has been revealed, much remains to be learned and intrinsic technological and fundamental interest in the topic drives continuing high levels of research activity. This is enabled partly by improved experimental capabilities for resolving wetting processes at increasingly finer temporal, spatial, and chemical resolution. Additionally, dynamic wetting research advances via higher fidelity computational modeling capabilities, which drive more highly refined theory development. The significance of this topic both fundamentally and technologically has resulted in a number of reviews of research activity in wetting dynamics. One recent example addresses the evaluation of existing wetting dynamics theories from an experimentalist's perspective [5]. A Current Opinion issue was recently dedicated to high temperature capillarity, including dynamics of high temperature spreading [6]. New educational tools have recently emerged for providing instruction in wetting

  4. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii exposure in native marsupials and introduced animals in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A; Goullet, M; Mitchell, J; Ketheesan, N; Govan, B

    2012-07-01

    The state of Queensland has the highest incidence of Q fever in Australia. In recent years, there has been an increase in human cases where no contacts with the typical reservoir animals or occupations were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian native animals and introduced animals in northern and southeastern Queensland. Australian native marsupials sampled included the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and common northern bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus). Introduced species sampled included dingoes (Canis lupus dingo), cats (Felis catus), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pigs (Sus scrofa). Serum samples were tested by ELISA for both phase II and phase I antigens of the organism using an Australian isolate. The serological evidence of C. burnetii infection demonstrated in these species has public health implications due to their increasing movement into residential areas in regional Queensland. This study is the first known investigation of C. burnetii seroprevalence in these species in northern Queensland. PMID:21892986

  5. Wetting and spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Daniel; Eggers, Jens; Indekeu, Joseph; Meunier, Jacques; Rolley, Etienne

    2009-04-01

    Wetting phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and technology. A solid substrate exposed to the environment is almost invariably covered by a layer of fluid material. In this review, the surface forces that lead to wetting are considered, and the equilibrium surface coverage of a substrate in contact with a drop of liquid. Depending on the nature of the surface forces involved, different scenarios for wetting phase transitions are possible; recent progress allows us to relate the critical exponents directly to the nature of the surface forces which lead to the different wetting scenarios. Thermal fluctuation effects, which can be greatly enhanced for wetting of geometrically or chemically structured substrates, and are much stronger in colloidal suspensions, modify the adsorption singularities. Macroscopic descriptions and microscopic theories have been developed to understand and predict wetting behavior relevant to microfluidics and nanofluidics applications. Then the dynamics of wetting is examined. A drop, placed on a substrate which it wets, spreads out to form a film. Conversely, a nonwetted substrate previously covered by a film dewets upon an appropriate change of system parameters. The hydrodynamics of both wetting and dewetting is influenced by the presence of the three-phase contact line separating “wet” regions from those that are either dry or covered by a microscopic film only. Recent theoretical, experimental, and numerical progress in the description of moving contact line dynamics are reviewed, and its relation to the thermodynamics of wetting is explored. In addition, recent progress on rough surfaces is surveyed. The anchoring of contact lines and contact angle hysteresis are explored resulting from surface inhomogeneities. Further, new ways to mold wetting characteristics according to technological constraints are discussed, for example, the use of patterned surfaces, surfactants, or complex fluids.

  6. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, S.; Tong, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992-1993. This study explored spatio-temporal distribution and clustering of locally-acquired dengue cases in Queensland State, Australia and identified target areas for effective interventions. A computerised locally-acquired dengue case dataset was collected from Queensland Health for Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Dengue hot spots were detected using SatScan method. Descriptive spatial analysis showed that a total of 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in central and northern regions of tropical Queensland. A seasonal pattern was observed with most of the cases occurring in autumn. Spatial and temporal variation of dengue cases was observed in the geographic areas affected by dengue over time. Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in tropical Queensland, Australia. There is a clear evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of dengue and these clusters varied over time. These findings enabled us to detect and target dengue clusters suggesting that the use of geospatial information can assist the health authority in planning dengue control activities and it would allow for better design and implementation of dengue management programs.

  7. Very, Very Fast Wetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacqmin, David; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor); Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Just after formation, optical fibers are wetted stably with acrylate at capillary numbers routinely exceeding 1000. It is hypothesized that this is possible because of dissolution of air into the liquid coating. A lubrication/boundary integral analysis that includes gas diffusion and solubility is developed. It is applied using conservatively estimated solubility and diffusivity coefficients and solutions are found that are consistent with industry practice and with the hypothesis. The results also agree with the claim of Deneka, Kar & Mensah (1988) that the use of high solubility gases to bathe a wetting line allows significantly greater wetting speeds. The solutions indicate a maximum speed of wetting which increases with gas solubility and with reduction in wetting-channel diameter.

  8. Integrated terrain mapping with digital Landsat images in Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Mapping with Landsat images usually is done by selecting single types of features, such as soils, vegetation, or rocks, and creating visually interpreted or digitally classified maps of each feature. Individual maps can then be overlaid on or combined with other maps to characterize the terrain. Integrated terrain mapping combines several terrain features into each map unit which, in many cases, is more directly related to uses of the land and to methods of land management than the single features alone. Terrain brightness, as measured by the multispectral scanners in Landsat 1 and 2, represents an integration of reflectance from the terrain features within the scanner's instantaneous field of view and is therefore more correlatable with integrated terrain units than with differentiated ones, such as rocks, soils, and vegetation. A test of the feasibilty of the technique of mapping integrated terrain units was conducted in a part of southwestern Queensland, Australia, in cooperation with scientists of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries. The primary purpose was to test the use of digital classification techniques to create a 'land systems map' usable for grazing land management. A recently published map of 'land systems' in the area (made by aerial photograph interpretation and ground surveys), which are integrated terrain units composed of vegetation, soil, topography, and geomorphic features, was used as a basis for comparison with digitally classified Landsat multispectral images. The land systems, in turn, each have a specific grazing capacity for cattle (expressed in beasts per km 2 ) which is estimated following analysis of both research results and property carrying capacities. Landsat images, in computer-compatible tape form, were first contrast-stretched to increase their visual interpretability, and digitally classified by the parallelepiped method into distinct spectral classes to determine their correspondence to the land systems classes and

  9. Kinetics of Reactive Wetting

    SciTech Connect

    YOST, FREDERICK G.

    1999-09-09

    The importance of interfacial processes in materials joining has a long history. A significant amount of work has suggested that processes collateral to wetting can affect the extent of wetting and moderate or retard wetting rate. Even very small additions of a constituent, known to react with the substrate, cause pronounced improvement in wetting and are exploited in braze alloys, especially those used for joining to ceramics. The wide diversity of processes, such as diffusion, chemical reaction, and fluxing, and their possible combinations suggest that various rate laws should be expected for wetting kinetics depending on the controlling processes. These rate laws are expected to differ crucially from the standard fluid controlled wetting models found in the literature. Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. have shown data that suggests diffusion control for some systems and reaction control for others. They also presented a model of wetting kinetics controlled by the diffusion of a constituent contained by the wetting fluid. In the following a model will be constructed for the wetting kinetics of a small droplet of metal containing a constituent that diffuses to the wetting line and chemically reacts with a flat, smooth substrate. The model is similar to that of Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. but incorporates chemical reaction kinetics such that the result contains both diffusion and reaction kinetics. The model is constructed in the circular cylinder coordinate system, satisfies the diffusion equation under conditions of slow flow, and considers diffusion and reaction at the wetting line to be processes in series. This is done by solving the diffusion equation with proper initial and boundary conditions, computing the diffusive flux at the wetting line and equating this to both the convective flux and reaction flux. This procedure is similar to equating the current flowing in components of a series circuit. The wetting rate will be computed versus time

  10. Kinetics of reactive wetting

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, F.G.

    2000-04-14

    The importance of interfacial processes in materials joining has a long history. A significant amount of work has suggested that processes collateral to wetting can affect the extent of wetting and moderate or retard wetting rate. Even very small additions of a constituent, known to react with the substrate, cause pronounced improvement in wetting and are exploited in braze alloys, especially those used for joining to ceramics. In the following a model will be constructed for the wetting kinetics of a small droplet of metal containing a constituent that diffuses to the wetting line and chemically reacts with a flat, smooth substrate. The model is similar to that of Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. but incorporates chemical reaction kinetics such that the result contains both diffusion and reaction kinetics. The model is constructed in the circular cylinder coordinate system, satisfies the diffusion equation under conditions of slow flow, and considers diffusion and reaction at the wetting line to be processes in series. This is done by solving the diffusion equation with proper initial and boundary conditions, computing the diffusive flux at the wetting line, and equating this to both the convective flux and reaction flux. This procedure is similar to equating the current flowing in components of a series circuit. The wetting rate will be computed versus time for a variety of diffusion and reaction conditions. A transition is observed from nonlinear (diffusive) to linear (reactive) behavior as the control parameters (such as the diffusion coefficient) are modified. This is in agreement with experimental observations. The adequacy of the slow flow condition, used in this type of analysis, is discussed and an amended procedure is suggested.

  11. Alcohol and Drug Use by Queensland School Children. The First Report in a Series on the Queensland Alcohol and Drug Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Terence J.; McClure, Lyndall

    The principal aim of this study is to provide information on the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs by Queensland school children, and survey their attitudes toward and knowledge about alcohol and drugs. Various questionnaires were presented to a large sample of students from grades six to twelve. Some results were: (1) from grade six to twelve…

  12. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1999-07-01

    The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and requires accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained.

  13. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1998-03-30

    The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and may require accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained.

  14. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: ‘sugar’, ‘essential’, or ‘yeast-sugar’. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging. PMID:26147734

  15. Comparing Pediatric Rotations at Two University of Queensland Clinical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Park, Julie; Kantrow, Charles M.; Coulthard, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The University of Queensland (UQ), Ochsner Clinical School (OCS) is a partnership between Ochsner Health System in New Orleans, LA, and UQ in Brisbane, Australia. OCS medical students are trained on both continents, receiving their didactic education in Australia and their clinical education in the United States. Methods: We review the OCS experience and compare the pediatric rotations at OCS and UQ. Results: Students in the pediatric rotations in Australia and in the United States receive their clinical instruction in the real-world learning environment of hospitals and clinics. In addition, lectures, online learning modules, case-based tutorials, and rigorous assessment at the end of the rotation help prepare medical students for future contact with pediatric patients. Sixty-nine third-year OCS students and 499 fourth-year UQ students completed the pediatric rotation in 2014. In 2015, 105 third-year OCS students and approximately 400 fourth-year UQ students completed the pediatric rotation. Conclusion: In a unique educational collaboration, OCS has used e-learning and face-to-face tutorials to produce a well-rounded curriculum that assimilates global healthcare and international medicine. This article demonstrates the feasibility of delivering a standardized curriculum across two continents using modern e-learning tools. PMID:27046407

  16. Chronology of Pleistocene weathering processes, southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yue-Xing; Vasconcelos, Paulo

    2007-11-01

    40Ar/ 39Ar dating of Mn-oxides from the Upper Kandanga (UKA) Mn deposit, southeast Queensland, Australia shows that the weathering profile overlying the deposit is younger than 1 Ma. Seventy plateau ages obtained for 81 grains from 17 samples fall into three groups: I. 1000-800 ka ( n = 2), II. 630-510 ka ( n = 2), and III. 400-50 ka ( n = 66). The last age group can be further resolved, using the mixture modelling solution by Sambridge and Compston [Sambridge, M.S., Compston, W., 1994. Mixture modeling of multi-component data sets with application to ion-probe zircon ages. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 128, 373-390.], into two major age clusters (sub-groups, IIIa and IIIb) with peak values at 313 ± 4 ka ( n = 43, with an outlier) and 213 ± 7 ka ( n = 22), respectively. The results suggest that a supergene blanket in a Mn deposit may develop relatively fast if weathering and erosional conditions are appropriate. The age peaks measured in this study correspond to warm periods identified in SPECMAP (oxygen isotope records of deep-sea sediments) and local paleoclimatic data. The correlation of weathering age peaks with oceanic climatic indicators suggests a climatic control on continental chemical weathering, where warm and humid conditions are conducive to increasing weathering rates. The clustering of supergene Mn-oxide precipitation ages suggests that weathering rates vary with time, supporting an episodic weathering history for the profiles investigated.

  17. A survey of Angiostrongylus species in definitive hosts in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Reid, Simon A.; Aland, Kieran V.; Restrepo, Angela Cadavid; Traub, Rebecca J.; McCarthy, James S.; Jones, Malcolm K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent sporadic reports of angiostrongyliasis in humans, dogs and wildlife in eastern Australia there has been no systematic study to explore the epidemiology of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive and intermediate hosts in the region. Little is known about the epidemiology of Angiostrongylus species in the definitive host in southeast Queensland, since the only survey conducted in this region was performed in the late 1960s. In this study, free-living populations of Rattus spp. were sampled and examined for the presence of adult and larval Angiostrongylus in the lungs, and of larvae in faeces. The prevalence of infection with Angiostrongylus spp. was 16.5% in Rattus spp. trapped in urban Brisbane and surrounds. This prevalence is much higher than estimates of earlier studies. This highlights the possible risk of zoonotic infection in children, dogs and wildlife in this region and indicates the necessity for public awareness as well as more detailed epidemiological studies on this parasite in eastern Australia. PMID:26236633

  18. Queensland public sector nurse executives: job satisfaction and career opportunities.

    PubMed

    Courtney, M; Yacopetti, J; James, C; Walsh, A

    2001-01-01

    During the past decade, economic and political forces have caused radical transformations in health care systems resulting in changed circumstances within which nursing executives must function. This paper provides an understanding of nursing executives' roles and responsibilities and the impact changes in the health industry have had on their careers. One hundred and forty-seven (52%) of the 281 nursing executives employed in the Queensland Public Health Sector completed a postal self-administered survey. The findings of this study demonstrate their role has expanded to include not only nursing administration, but also responsibility for financial, human resources, strategic and resource management, staff development and quality improvement. The impact of these role changes has affected the health and well-being of nursing executives, with nearly half reporting increased stress, frustration and irritation. Their workload has increased and some reported deterioration in their health, specifically, exhaustion, fatigue and insomnia. Respondents reported they now have less time to spend with families and friends, which has had a negative impact on family relationships. Overall, nursing executives were satisfied with their current position, the work itself and their relationships with their co-workers, but dissatisfied with organisational aspects, especially the quality of mentorship and opportunities for promotion. PMID:11496477

  19. Haptic perception of wetness.

    PubMed

    Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kosters, N Dolfine; Kappers, Astrid M L; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-10-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the mechanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic discrimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool, sponge-structured viscose and thin viscose. Two ways of touching were investigated: static touching, in which only thermal cues were available, and dynamic touching, in which additional mechanical cues were available. For dynamic touching, average Weber fractions for discrimination were around 0.3, whereas for static touching, they ranged from 0.34 to 0.63. The results show that people can make use of the additional mechanical cues to significantly improve their discrimination performance. There was no significant difference between Weber fractions for the three materials, showing that wetness can be judged as a separate perceptual quantity, independent of the material. PMID:22964056

  20. Formulating a VET roadmap for the waste and recycling sector: A case study from Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing qualifications do not meet the needs of the sector in Queensland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Businesses may not be best positioned to identify training needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Companies are developing training internally to meet their own specific needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smaller companies lack the resources to develop internal training are disadvantaged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is industry support for an entry-level, minimum industry qualification. - Abstract: Vocational Education and Training (VET) is an essential tool for providing waste management and recycling workers with the necessary skills and knowledge needed to beneficially influence their own employment and career development; and to also ensure productivity and safe working conditions within the organisations in which they are employed. Current training opportunities within Queensland for the sector are limited and not widely communicated or marketed; with other States, particularly Victoria and New South Wales, realising higher numbers of VET enrollments for waste management courses. This paper presents current VET opportunities and trends for the Queensland waste management sector. Results from a facilitated workshop to identify workforce requirements and future training needs organised by the Waste Contractors and Recyclers Association of Queensland (WCRAQ) are also presented and discussion follows on the future training needs of the industry within Queensland.

  1. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from the Wet Tropics Region of Eastern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Tandanus tropicanus, new species, is described based on specimens from streams in the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland. Previously, two species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tandanus of eastern Australia and T. bostocki of Western Australia. A combination of meristic and morphometric characters distinguishes the new species from all congeners. Further, taxonomic distinctness based on morphologic differences between the new species and all congeners is corroborated by genetic analyses.

  2. Advanced tests of wet welded joints

    SciTech Connect

    Pachniuk, I.; Petershagen, H.; Pohl, R.; Szelagowski, P.; Drews, O.

    1994-12-31

    Wet Welding has in former times only been applied to secondary structural components. Nowadays wet welding has become an upcoming repair process due to high process flexibility, its low investment costs and its high versatility. Even the quality of the wet welded joints has been improved remarkably due to intensive and concentrated development activities. However, especially in the North Sea regions owners of offshore structures and classifying authorities still hesitate to recognize the process as a reliable alternative to dry hyperbaric welding repair methods. It therefore requires further activities especially in the field of data development for life prediction of such repaired components. Advanced testing methods are necessary, additional design criteria are to be developed and achievable weldment quality data are to be included in acknowledged and approved standards and recommendations to improve the credibility of the process and to solve the problem of quality assurance for wet welded joints. A comprehensive project, sponsored by the European Community under the Thermie Programme, is in progress to develop new testing procedures to generate the required data and design criteria for the future application of the wet welding process to main components of offshore structures. It is the aim of the project to establish additional fitness for purpose data for this process.

  3. Parasites of QX-resistant and wild-type Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) in Moreton Bay, SE Queensland, Australia: diversity and host response.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C; Chan, Janlin; Hénault, Olivier; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    Wild caught (WC) and QX resistant (QXR) Sydney rock oysters were introduced at North Stradbroke Island and Pimpama River, SE Queensland, Australia, and sampled monthly during 1 year. Three groups of parasites/diseases were identified by observation of histological sections: (1) Marteilia sydneyi (Queensland unknown (QX) disease) and Steinhausia sp. (Microsporidia) characterized by a high prevalence and deleterious impact on the host; (2) disseminated neoplasia and the trematode Proctoeces sp. characterized by low prevalence but deleterious effects on the host; (3) parasites or symbionts with no detectable effect on the host: trematodes, ciliates, turbellarians and metacestodes. Mortality rates were similar between both oyster lines but higher at Pimpama River (reaching around 90%) than Stradbroke Island, mostly because of QX disease and, to a lesser extent, to the unfavourable environmental conditions of the summer 2010-2011. Lower prevalences of QX disease at Stradbroke Island probably related to the relative lack of intermediate hosts of the parasite and to lower freshwater input. Surprisingly, no difference in prevalence of QX disease was observed between the two oyster lines. PMID:23274078

  4. Using MSD prevention for cultural change in mining: Queensland Government/Anglo Coal Industry partnership.

    PubMed

    Tilbury, Trudy; Sanderson, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Queensland Mining has a strong focus on safety performance, but risk management of health, including Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) continues to have a lower priority. The reliance on individual screening of workers and lower level approaches such as manual handling training is part of the coal mining 'culture'. Initiatives such as the New South Wales and Queensland Mining joint project to develop good practice guidance for mining has allowed for a more consistent message on participatory ergonomics and prevention of MSD. An evidence based practice approach, including the introduction of participatory ergonomics and safe design principles, was proposed to Anglo American Coal operations in Queensland. The project consisted of a skills analysis of current health personnel, design of a facilitated participatory ergonomics training program, site visits to identify good practice and champions, and a graduated mentoring program for health personnel. Early results demonstrate a number of sites are benefiting from site taskforces with a focus on positive performance outcomes. PMID:22317407

  5. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment. PMID:24853090

  6. Electroretinographic wet electrode.

    PubMed

    Carpi, Federico; Benini, Gabriella; Tomei, Franca; Figliuzzi, Rosa Maria; De Napoli, Alberto

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the first systematic characterisation of a new electroretinographic (ERG) electrode, recently described. The new 'wet' electrode uses a conducting liquid as a distributed electrical interface between the eye and a solid electronic conductor; the latter detects the ERG potential without any direct contact with the ocular surface. This technique avoids the contact-induced discomfort of both corneal and conjunctival standard electrodes. The wet electrode was tested on 10 volunteers, in comparison with a conjunctival electrode (HK loop), as the most comfortable standard. It was also compared with a cutaneous (cup) electrode, which is even more comfortable, although not standard. Results showed the efficacy of the wet electrode for detecting morphologically accurate ERG responses, with amplitudes respectively analogous and higher of those measured by the conjunctival and cutaneous electrodes. Properties of wet electrodes include: no solid interface with the eye, no need for anaesthesia, intrinsic safety, mechanical and electrical stability against ocular movements, tolerance to misplacements and immunity to lacrimation. As a drawback, the liquid can still be a source of discomfort for some patients and it requires care against possible leakage. All these features suggest a possible use of wet electrodes as an additional tool for ERG procedures, although limited to tests of short duration. PMID:19501539

  7. Interannual variability in chlorophyll-a on the southern Queensland continental shelf and its relationship to ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dien V.; Gabric, Albert; Cropp, Roger

    2015-12-01

    significant physical driver of the upwelling system. Our results suggest that variability in phytoplankton biomass on the southern Queensland continental shelf is driven by upwelling of nutrients during the spring dry season and fluvial nutrient loads during the summer and autumn wet seasons. Seasonal change is the primary factor controlling the variability of Chl-a and SST while climate variability (ENSO) and upwelling are secondary but significant factors.

  8. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2014-01-01

    An unusual species of the genus Periclimenaeus Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae Pontoniinae) from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, collected by Dr Niel Bruce in 1979, is described and illustrated. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov., an ascidian associate was collected from coral reef at 7.0 m and presents some interesting new features. It increases to 17 the number of Periclimenaeus known from Heron Island, Queensland, and to 28 the number of species known from Australia. The new species has the second pereiopod fingers minutely denticulate and unique to the genus. PMID:24872280

  9. Some nemerteans (Nemertea) from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R; Sundberg, P

    2001-12-01

    Three species of marine nemerteans described and illustrated from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, include one new genus and two new species: these are the monostiliferous hoplonemerteans Thallasionemertes leucocephala gen. et sp. nov. and Correanemertes polyophthalma sp. nov. A new colour variety of the heteronemertean Micrura callima is also reported, this species previously only being known from Rottnest Island, Western Australia. A key for the field identification of the marine nemerteans recorded from coastal Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef is provided. PMID:11911083

  10. Wet storage integrity update

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  11. Comparative susceptibility of mosquito populations in North Queensland, Australia to oral infection with dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yixin H; Ng, Tat Siong; Frentiu, Francesca D; Walker, Thomas; van den Hurk, Andrew F; O'Neill, Scott L; Beebe, Nigel W; McGraw, Elizabeth A

    2014-03-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus, with at least 40% of the world's population at risk of infection each year. In Australia, dengue is not endemic, but viremic travelers trigger outbreaks involving hundreds of cases. We compared the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from two geographically isolated populations to two strains of dengue virus serotype 2. We found, interestingly, that mosquitoes from a city with no history of dengue were more susceptible to virus than mosquitoes from an outbreak-prone region, particularly with respect to one dengue strain. These findings suggest recent evolution of population-based differences in vector competence or different historical origins. Future genomic comparisons of these populations could reveal the genetic basis of vector competence and the relative role of selection and stochastic processes in shaping their differences. Lastly, we show the novel finding of a correlation between midgut dengue titer and titer in tissues colonized after dissemination. PMID:24420782

  12. Frequency of Cyanogenesis in Tropical Rainforests of Far North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, REBECCA E.; JENSEN, RIGEL; WOODROW, IAN E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant cyanogenesis is the release of toxic cyanide from endogenous cyanide-containing compounds, typically cyanogenic glycosides. Despite a large body of phytochemical, taxonomic and ecological work on cyanogenic species, little is known of their frequency in natural plant communities. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of cyanogenesis in Australian tropical rainforests. Secondary aims were to quantify the cyanogenic glycoside content of tissues, to investigate intra-plant and intra-population variation in cyanogenic glycoside concentration and to appraise the potential chemotaxonomic significance of any findings in relation to the distribution of cyanogenesis in related taxa. • Methods All species in six 200 m2 plots at each of five sites across lowland, upland and highland tropical rainforest were screened for cyanogenesis using Feigl–Anger indicator papers. The concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides were accurately determined for all cyanogenic individuals. • Key Results Over 400 species from 87 plant families were screened. Overall, 18 species (4·5 %) were cyanogenic, accounting for 7·3 % of total stem basal area. Cyanogenesis has not previously been reported for 17 of the 18 species, 13 of which are endemic to Australia. Several species belong to plant families or orders in which cyanogenesis has been little reported, if at all (e.g. Elaeocarpaceae, Myrsinaceae, Araliaceae and Lamiaceae). A number of species contained concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides among the highest ever reported for mature leaves—up to 5·2 mg CN g−1 d. wt, for example, in leaves of Elaeocarpus sericopetalus. There was significant variation in cyanogenic glycoside concentration within individuals; young leaves and reproductive tissues typically had higher cyanogen content. In addition, there was substantial variation in cyanogenic glycoside content within populations of single species. • Conclusions This study expands the limited knowledge of the frequency of cyanogenesis in natural plant communities, includes novel reports of cyanogenesis among a range of taxa and characterizes patterns in intra-plant and intra-population variation of cyanogensis. PMID:16520340

  13. Nutrient loss and water quality under extensive grazing in the upper Burdekin river catchment, North Queensland.

    PubMed

    O'Reagain, P J; Brodie, J; Fraser, G; Bushell, J J; Holloway, C H; Faithful, J W; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    Increased sediment and nutrient losses resulting from unsustainable grazing management in the Burdekin River catchment are major threats to water quality in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. To test the effects of grazing management on soil and nutrient loss, five 1 ha mini-catchments were established in 1999 under different grazing strategies on a sedimentary landscape near Charters Towers. Reference samples were also collected from watercourses in the Burdekin catchment during major flow events. Soil and nutrient loss were relatively low across all grazing strategies due to a combination of good cover, low slope and low rainfall intensities. Total soil loss varied from 3 to 20 kg ha(-1) per event while losses of N and P ranged from 10 to 1900 g ha(-1) and from 1 to 71 g ha(-1) per event respectively. Water quality of runoff was considered moderate across all strategies with relatively low levels of total suspended sediment (range: 8-1409 mg l(-1)), total N (range: 101-4000 microg l(-1)) and total P (range: 14-609 microg l(-1)). However, treatment differences are likely to emerge with time as the impacts of the different grazing strategies on land condition become more apparent. Samples collected opportunistically from rivers and creeks during flow events displayed significantly higher levels of total suspended sediment (range: 10-6010 mg l(-1)), total N (range: 650-6350 microg l(-1)) and total P (range: 50-1500 microg l(-1)) than those collected at the grazing trial. These differences can largely be attributed to variation in slope, geology and cover between the grazing trial and different catchments. In particular, watercourses draining hillier, grano-diorite landscapes with low cover had markedly higher sediment and nutrient loads compared to those draining flatter, sedimentary landscapes. These preliminary data suggest that on relatively flat, sedimentary landscapes, extensive cattle grazing is compatible with achieving water quality targets, provided high levels of ground cover are maintained. In contrast, sediment and nutrient loss under grazing on more erodable land types is cause for serious concern. Long-term empirical research and monitoring will be essential to quantify the impacts of changed land management on water quality in the spatially and temporally variable Burdekin River catchment. PMID:15757706

  14. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Products and Services: Indigenous Gamblers in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…

  15. Drop Tower Facility at Queensland University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagens, Owen; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore; Ong, Teng-Cheong

    The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility is a {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}2.1 second, 21.3 m fall, dual capsule drop tower system. The dual capsule comprises of an uncoupled exterior hollow drag shield that experiences drag by the ambient atmosphere with the experimental capsule falling within the drag shield. The dual capsule system is lifted to the top of the drop tower via a mechanical crane and the dropping process is initiated by the cutting of a wire coupling the experimental package and suspending the drag shield. The internal experimental capsule reaches the bottom of the drag shield floor just prior to the deceleration stage at the air bag and during this time experience gravity levels of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{-6} g. The deceleration system utilizes an inflatable airbag where experimental packages can be designed to experience a maximum deceleration of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{18} g for {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.1 seconds. The drag shield can house experimental packages with a maximum diameter of 0.8 m and height of 0.9 m. The drag shield can also be used in foam mode, where the walls are lined with foam and small experiments can be dropped completely untethered. This mode is generally used for the study of microsatellite manipulation. Payloads can be powered by on-board power systems with power delivered to the experiment until free fall occurs. Experimental data that can be collected includes but is not limited to video, temperature, pressure, voltage/current from the power supply, and triggering mechanisms outputs which are simultaneously collected via data logging systems and high speed video recording systems. Academic and commercial projects are currently under investigation at the QUT Drop Tower Facility and collaboration is openly welcome at this facility. Current research includes the study of heterogeneously burning metals in oxygen which is aimed at fire safety applications and

  16. UV Radiation in an Urban Canyon in Southeast Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, A. R.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has the possibility to both harm and to benefit human beings when unprotected exposure occurs. After receiving small amounts of UV our bodies begin to synthesise vitamin D, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones, however excessive UV exposure can result in a variety of damaging outcomes ranging from sunburn to skin cancer and cataracts. For this reason it is very important to understand the different environments in which people encounter UV so as to better prepare the public to make smart and healthy sun exposure decisions. Each day more and more people are moving into large cities around the world and spending their time inside the urban canyon, however UV measurements are generally taken at scientific stations in open areas or on top of tall buildings, meaning that at times the environmental characteristics measured may not accurately represent those found at street-level in these highly urbanized areas. Urban canyons are home to both very tall buildings and tropospheric air pollution, each of which reduces the amount of UV reaching street-level. This study measured the varying difference between UV measurements taken at street-level and at a standard UV monitoring site on top of a building outside of the urban canyon. Investigation was conducted in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia, which models the CBDs of large cities around the world in that it boasts a great number of tall buildings, including many skyscrapers. Data was collected under clear sky conditions at five different street-level sites in the CBD (on either side of two streets running perpendicular to one another (four sites) and in a public square) and then compared to that obtained on the same day at the Queensland University of Technology's Australian Sun and Health Research Laboratory (ASHRL), which is located 2.5 kilometres outside Brisbane's CBD. Minimum erythemal dose (MED) data was collected at each location and it was found that

  17. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1999-03-30

    The elastic modulus E of wet granular material was found to be of the order of 0.25 MPa, this value does not compare well with the value predicted for a cubic array of spheres under Hertzian contact were the predicted values were in the order of 250 MPa . The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and requires accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained. New information was found to support the experimental finding and a first theory to explain the very small elastic modulus is presented. A new model based on the used of the finite element method is being developed.

  18. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  19. Hard Times, Expedient Measures: Women Teachers in Queensland Rural Schools, 1920-50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadmore, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Examines women teachers who taught in one-teacher schools in Queensland, Australia, from 1920-50. Discusses the research and provides a historical context. Focuses on topics such as teaching as a career, women teachers and marriage, unequal pay, and living conditions of women teachers. (CMK)

  20. Acoustic assessments of the severity of grub infestations in Queensland sugarcane fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective management of sugarcane, Queensland's 2nd-most-important crop, currently requires the digging-up of large numbers of cane stools to estimate populations of Dermolepida albohirtum and Antitrogus parvulus grubs. In recent field tests, these relatively large, active grubs were easily detecte...

  1. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

    Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

  2. Vocational Education and Training Provision and Recidivism in Queensland Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan Victor; Gardner, John

    2005-01-01

    This report examines links between prisoners' participation in the vocational education and training (VET) programs available within the Queensland prison system and their chances of returning to prison. The findings reveal that being involved in VET before initial release decreases the chances of returning to prison from 32% to 23%. Nevertheless,…

  3. "I Just Want to Teach": Queensland Independent School Teachers and Their Workload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timms, Carolyn; Graham, Deborah; Cottrell, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The present study seeks to elucidate observed mismatches with workload in teacher respondents to a survey exploring aspects of the work environment. Design/methodology/approach: This phase of the study constituted a pen and paper survey of 298 currently serving teachers in independent schools in Queensland, Australia. Measures used in the…

  4. Effective Implementation of Online Learning: A Case Study of the Queensland Mining Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Diane; Hase, Stewart; Ellis, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with key stakeholders in the mining industry in Queensland, Australia, identified six factors that are important in the effective implementation of online learning: external influences, organizational culture, organizational structures, training environment, learners' needs, and the learning environment. (Contains 54 references.) (JOW)

  5. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  6. Winton Contact Teacher Centre Report. Priority Country Area Program, Queensland Project Report 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saide, Tom

    The experimental Contact Teacher Centre at Winton State Primary School was established in March 1983 to expand the avenues of service delivery for 20 isolated Queensland primary school children from 14 families living within an 80 kilometer radius of Winton. The aims of the Centre were to: (1) assist correspondence pupils with their work; (2)…

  7. Significant features of the epidemiology of equine influenza in Queensland, Australia, 2007.

    PubMed

    Kung, N; Mackenzie, S; Pitt, D; Robinson, B; Perkins, N R

    2011-07-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) caused by influenza A H3N8 subtype virus occurred in the Australian states of Queensland and New South Wales in August 2007. Infection in the Australian horse population was associated with the introduction of infection by horses from overseas. The first case of EI in Queensland was detected on 25 August 2007 at an equestrian sporting event. Infection subsequently spread locally and to other clusters through horse movements prior to the implementation of an official standstill. There were five main clusters of infected properties during this outbreak and several outliers, which were investigated to find the potential mechanism of disease spread. To contain the outbreak, Queensland was divided into infection status zones, with different movement controls applied to each zone. Vaccination was implemented strategically in infected areas and within horse subpopulations. Control and eventual eradication of EI from Queensland was achieved through a combination of quarantine, biosecurity measures, movement control, rapid diagnostic testing and vaccination. PMID:21711297

  8. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  9. Evaluation of Educational Provisions for Isolated Children Enrolled with the Primary Correspondence School in Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Peter J.; And Others

    Because of geographical isolation, a number of Queensland children cannot attend regular primary schools, and their education must be based at home. In 1979, 1,528 children were enrolled in the Primary Correspondence School. Children in the program receive lesson papers, textbooks and audio-visual items in the major subject areas of language arts,…

  10. PCAP Project Profiles and General Profiles. Priority Country Area Program--Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priority Country Area Program Office, Brisbane (Australia).

    Four Priority Country Area overviews, one State overview and one Project Profile are included in this report from the Priority Country Area Program (PCAP), designed to improve the educational opportunities of rural Queensland children. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report suggesting that rural students may be disadvantaged…

  11. Exploring Management Practices in Child Care Centres in Australia, Queensland from a Social Systems Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nupponen, Hanna

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this research was on the nature and characteristics of effective leadership and management practices in centre-based child care. This paper is part of a larger doctoral study with a focus on management within child care centres. Eight directors were interviewed in south east Queensland, Australia using a case study methodology. There…

  12. Historical PCDD inputs and their source implications from dated sediment cores in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Gaus, C; Brunskill, G J; Weber, R; Papke, O; Muller, J F

    2001-12-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated the presence of an unidentified source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in the coastal zone of Queensland (Australia). The present study provides new information on the possible PCDD sources and their temporal input to this environment. Two estuarine sediment cores were collected in northern Queensland for which radiochemical chronologies were established. Core sections from different depositional ages, up to three centuries, have been analyzed for 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Variations of PCDD concentrations in the sediment cores over several centuries of depositional history were relatively small, and elevated PCDD levels were still present in sediment slices from the early 17th century. PCDD/F isomer patterns and congener profiles in sediments deposited during the last 350 years were almost identical and correlated well to the characteristic profiles observed in surface sediments and soils from the entire Queensland coastline. Profiles were dominated by higher chlorinated PCDDs, in particular octachlorodibenzodioxin (OCDD), whereas PCDF concentrations were below or near the limit of detection. These results indicate the presence of a PCDD source prior to industrialization and production of commercial organochlorine products. Further, the present study demonstrates that PCDD input patterns have been similar along an extensive but localized area over at least several centuries, contributing relatively high concentrations of PCDDs to the coastal system of Queensland. PMID:11770761

  13. Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Tan, Cindy S. E.; Wang, Wenqi; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Barton, Anita; Wright, John; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNVKUN and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic. PMID:24048209

  14. Exploring Information Experience Using Social Media during the 2011 Queensland Floods: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce, Sharon; Partridge, Helen; Davis, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Social media networks have emerged as a powerful tool in allowing collaboration and sharing of information during times of crisis (Axel Bruns, The Centre for Creative Industries Blog, comment posted January 19, 2011). The 2011 Queensland floods provided a unique opportunity to explore social media use during an emergency. This paper presents the…

  15. The Characteristics of, and Motivations for, Indigenous Student Mobility: Examples from Urban and Regional Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navin, Fiona; Hill, Angela; Doyle, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Using the notion that research should "enlighten" policy responses, this paper considers the complex locational factors that affect and underlie patterns of Indigenous student mobility in Queensland, Australia. The paper presents data, captured through an action research project, to explore mobility "in and through" two environments. In so doing,…

  16. UQ Library's First CIS: Towards Customising Information Services at the University of Queensland Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxlee, Ruth; Borchardt, Karen

    The University of Queensland (Australia) Library (UQL) conducted a pilot study to investigate how the university's leading researchers and postgraduate students gather information and what services and/or collections would create the ideal research environment for them. At focus group sessions, researchers and students were asked about information…

  17. Utilising Year Three NAPLAN Results to Improve Queensland Teachers' Mathematical Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Klinken, Eduarda

    2010-01-01

    Poor results in Queensland Year Three NAPLAN Numeracy tests have provided a focus to critically review the classroom practices of lower primary mathematics teachers. This paper outlines how pedagogical content knowledge can be strengthened by emphasising conceptual understanding, by utilising dynamic classroom discourse, by an awareness of…

  18. The Influence of Bush Identity on Attitudes to Mental Health in a Queensland Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that impact on mental health and the utilization of these services in the bush. The results from a three year ethnographic study in a bush community indicate that attitudes to mental health in this area of Queensland are influenced by bush identity, defined by reference to historical and current characteristics which include…

  19. School Outcomes in New South Wales and Queensland: A Regression Discontinuity Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul W.; Voon, Derby

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the differences in school (NAPLAN) outcomes between New South Wales and Queensland. It shows that there are pronounced differences in Year 3 NAPLAN results between these states, though these dissipate when later class years are considered. The reasons for these state effects in school outcomes are explored using an empirical…

  20. The Health Legislation Amendment Act 2013 (QLD) and Queensland's health assets privatisation dispute.

    PubMed

    Colton, Caroline; Faunce, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    'New legislation in Queensland has provided a "pathway" for the privatisation of health assets and services in Queensland, which effectively realigns the health care system to the financial market. This column explores how this legislation contained the antecedents of the Queensland doctors' dispute when doctors roundly rejected new employment contracts in February 2014. It also argues that such legislation and its attendant backlash provides a valuable case study in view of the federal government's 2014 budget offer to the States of extra funding if they sell their health assets to fund new infrastructure. The move to privatise health in Queensland has also resulted in a government assault on the ethical credibility of the opposing medical profession and changes to the health complaints system with the introduction of a Health Ombudsman under ministerial control. The column examines these changes in light of R (Heather) v Leonard Cheshire Foundation [2001] EWHC Admin 429, a case concerning the obligations of a private entity towards publically funded clients in the United Kingdom. In discussing concerns about the impact of privatisation on the medical profession, the column points to a stark conflict between the duty to operate hospitals as a business rather than as a duty to patients. PMID:25341319

  1. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], γlg cos θ = γsg - γsl (1) In modern terms, γ denotes the excess free energy per unit area of the interface indicated by its indices, with l, g and s corresponding to the liquid, gas and solid, respectively [2]. After that, wetting seems to have been largely ignored by physicists for a long time. The discovery by Gabriel Lippmann that θ may be tuned over a wide range by electrochemical means [3], and some important papers about modifications of equation~(1) due to substrate inhomogeneities [4,5] are among the rare exceptions. This changed completely during the seventies, when condensed matter physics had become enthusiastic about critical phenomena, and was vividly inspired by the development of the renormalization group by Kenneth Wilson [6]. This had solved the long standing problem of how to treat fluctuations, and to understand the universal values of bulk critical exponents. By inspection of the critical exponents of the quantities involved in equation~(1), John W Cahn discovered what he called critical point wetting: for any liquid, there should be a well-defined transition to complete wetting (i.e., θ = 0) as the critical point of the liquid is approached along the coexistence curve [7]. His paper inspired an enormous amount of further work, and may be legitimately viewed as the entrance of wetting into the realm of modern physics. Most of the publications directly following Cahn's work were theoretical papers which elaborated on wetting in relation to critical phenomena. A vast amount of interesting, and in part quite unexpected, ramifications were discovered, such as the breakdown of universality in thin film systems [8]. Simultaneously, a number

  2. The implementation and development of complex alcohol control policies in indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Bird, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Very high rates of injury and death during the 1990s were linked with increased alcohol availability and misuse in discrete Indigenous communities in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). To address widespread concerns about a public health crisis, from 2002, the Queensland Government implemented alcohol control strategies known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) in 19 of these communities. Although resources for prevention and treatment were promised, AMPs became increasingly focused on local prohibition, restricted access to alcohol and punitive measures for breaching restrictions. An examination of legislation, regulations, explanatory notes, and published documents indicates this focus evolved across four phases since 2002. The first phase, from 2002 to 2004, saw 'restricted areas' with alcohol 'carriage limits' introduced, restricting the amounts and types of liquor permitted within some communities. The second phase (2002-2007) featured evaluations and reviews by the Queensland Government bringing recommendations for more stringent controls. Additionally, beyond the 'restricted areas', licenced premises situated within the 'catchments' of the targeted communities, mainly located in the nearby regional towns, became subject to 'minimising harm' provisions. These more stringent controls were implemented widely in the third phase (2008-2011) when: the operations of seven community-managed liquor outlets were terminated; the trading arrangements of two others were modified; Police powers to search and seize were increased; and 'attempting' to take liquor into a 'restricted area' also became an offence. Some communities have seen a reduction in alcohol-related harms that have been attributed to these alcohol control strategies. This commentary maps the recent regulatory history of Queensland's alcohol controls targeting discrete Indigenous communities highlighting their increasing focus on punitive measures to reduce access to alcohol. With AMPs in Queensland

  3. The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and Ross River virus incidence in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, Sinead; Holbrook, Neil; Beggs, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) is the most important vector-borne disease in Australia. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System has confirmed that its incidence is often greatest in the state of Queensland, where there is a clear seasonal pattern as well as interannual variability. Previous studies have examined relationships between large-scale climate fluctuations (such as El Niño Southern Oscillation) and vector-borne disease. No previous study has examined such relationships with the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), another large-scale climate fluctuation. We employ time-series analysis techniques to investigate cycles inherent in monthly RRV incidence in Queensland, Australia, from January 1991 to December 1997 inclusive. The presence of a quasi-biennial cycle in the RRV time series that is out of phase with the climatic QBO is described. Quantitative analyses using correlograms and periodograms demonstrate that the quasi-biennial cycle in the RRV time series is statistically significant, at the 95% level, above the noise. Together with the seasonal cycle, the quasi-biennial cycle accounts for 77% of the variance in Queensland RRV cases. Regression analysis of QBO and summer rainfall in three climatic zones of Queensland indicates a significant association between QBO and rainfall in the subtropical southeastern part of the state. These results suggest an indirect influence of the QBO on RRV incidence in Queensland, via its influence on climate in this region. Our findings indicate that the QBO may be a useful predictor of RRV at several months lead, and might be used by public health authorities in the management and prevention of this disease.

  4. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-03-25

    The yield locus, tensile strength and fracture mechanisms of wet granular materials were studied. The yield locus of a wet material was shifted to the left of that of the dry specimen by a constant value equal to the compressive isostatic stress due to pendular bridges. for materials with straight yield loci, the shift was computed from the uniaxial tensile strength, either measured in a tensile strength tester or calculated from the correlation, and the angle of internal friction of the material. The predicted shift in the yield loci due to different moisture contents compare well with the measured shift in the yield loci of glass beads, crushed limestone, super D catalyst and Leslie coal. Measurement of the void fraction during the shear testing was critical to obtain the correct tensile strength theoretically or experimentally.

  5. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  6. Different Things to Different People, That's What Colleges Are: The Affiliation of Residential Colleges at the University of Queensland, Brisbane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymont, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on study analyses and historical aspects related to the development and establishment of the University of Queensland (Brisbane, Australia). Discusses the role of the Higher Education Financing and Policy Review Committee in reviewing Australia's higher education sector. (MER)

  7. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  10. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  11. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1997-03-31

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in flat bottomed silo. This was done by for dry materials introducing mustard seeds and poppy seeds as tracer particles and imaging them using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128*128 to 256*256 pixels were generated for each image. The size of the silo was limited by the size of the high resolution NMR imager available. Cross-sections of 150mm flat bottomed silos, with the tracer layers immobilized by a gel, showed similar qualitative patterns for both dry and wet granular solids.

  12. Wet-dog shake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Mills, Zack; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    The drying of wet fur is a critical to mammalian heat regulation. We investigate experimentally the ability of hirsute animals to rapidly oscillate their bodies to shed water droplets, nature's analogy to the spin cycle of a washing machine. High-speed videography and fur-particle tracking is employed to determine the angular position of the animal's shoulder skin as a function of time. We determine conditions for drop ejection by considering the balance of surface tension and centripetal forces on drops adhering to the animal. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the relationship between animal size and oscillation frequency required to self-dry.

  13. Wetting in Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  14. Wet granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nori, Franco

    2006-04-01

    Most studies on granular physics have focused on dry granular media, with no liquids between the grains. However, in geology and many real world applications (e.g. food processing, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, civil engineering, construction, and many industrial applications), liquid is present between the grains. This produces inter-grain cohesion and drastically modifies the mechanical properties of the granular media (e.g. the surface angle can be larger than 90 degrees). Here we present a review of the mechanical properties of wet granular media, with particular emphasis on the effect of cohesion. We also list several open problems that might motivate future studies in this exciting but mostly unexplored field.

  15. Metals in agricultural produce associated with acid-mine drainage in Mount Morgan (Queensland, Australia).

    PubMed

    Vicente-Beckett, Victoria A; McCauley, Gaylene J Taylor; Duivenvoorden, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) into the Dee River from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) has been of concern to farmers in the area since 1925. This study sought to determine the levels of AMD-related metals and sulfur in agricultural produce grown near the mine-impacted Dee River, compare these with similar produce grown in reference fields (which had no known AMD influence), and assess any potential health risk using relevant Australian or US guidelines. Analyses of lucerne (Medicago sativa; also known as alfalfa) from five Dee fields showed the following average concentrations (mg/kg dry basis): Cd < 1, Cu 11, Fe 106, Mn 52, Pb < 5, Zn 25 and S 3934; similar levels were found in lucerne hay (used as cattle feed) from two Dee fields. All lucerne and lucerne hay data were generally comparable with levels found in the lucerne reference fields, suggesting no AMD influence; the levels were within the US National Research Council (US NRC) guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake. Pasture grass (also cattle feed) from two fields in the Dee River floodplains gave mean concentrations (mg/kg dry) of Cd 0.14, Cu 12, Fe 313, Mn 111, Pb 1.4, Zn 86 and S 2450. All metal levels from the Dee and from reference sites were below the US NRC guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake; however, the average Cd, Cu and Fe levels in Dee samples were significantly greater than the corresponding levels in the pasture grass reference sites, suggesting AMD influence in the Dee samples. The average levels in the edible portions of mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) from Dee sites (mg/kg wet weight) were Cd 0.011, Cu 0.59, Fe 2.2, Mn 0.56, Pb 0.18, S 91 and Zn 0.96. Cd and Zn were less than or close to, average Fe and Mn levels were at most twice, Cd 1.8 or 6.5 times, and Pb 8.5 or 72 times the maximum levels in raw oranges reported in the US total diet study (TDS) or the Australian TDS, respectively. Average Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and

  16. In vivo X-ray fluorescence estimation of bone lead concentrations in Queensland adults.

    PubMed

    Price, J; Baddeley, H; Kenardy, J A; Thomas, B J; Thomas, B W

    1984-01-01

    A group of 200 Queensland adults without known health problems had in-vivo estimation of finger bone lead concentrations using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). Forty of these subjects had elevated levels of bone lead of 25 ppm or more, consistent with exposure to the metal. Although the correlation between Queensland residence during childhood and raised bone lead levels was not significant, there were significant correlations between childhood residence in a painted wooden house and raised levels, and between occupational exposure and raised levels. Of the 40 subjects with elevated lead levels only two had neither a history of occupational exposure or childhood residence in a wooden house, whereas 11 of the 25 who had a history of both occupational and residential exposure were positive. The data are consistent with lead in housepaint, or absorbed during occupational exposure, being the two major sources of raised bone lead concentrations. PMID:6704645

  17. Epidemiologic patterns of Ross River virus disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-07-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001-December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. PMID:24799374

  18. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period. PMID:26322495

  19. 'Filthy vessels': milk safety and attempts to restrict the spread of bovine tuberculosis in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Colclough, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a dangerous mycobacterium that can be conveyed to humans in the meat and milk of cattle. By the mid-1800s, when health scientists began arguing about its zoonotic potential and danger to humans, the disease was well established in Australian cattle herds. This article examines the Queensland response to bovine tuberculosis from the late 1800s to the 1940s, when the problem of tubercular cattle could no longer be ignored. It shows that despite widespread concern about milk safety and increasing knowledge of the disease's aetiology, the Queensland government directed its milk safety activities towards public health education rather than the inadequacies of the dairy industry's approach to bovine tuberculosis. As such, it was tardy in addressing bovine tuberculosis. PMID:20973334

  20. A survey of the pattern of private general dental practice in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Spratley, M H; Coyne, L N

    1989-10-01

    All non-specialist ADA member private practitioners in Queensland were invited to participate in a survey to determine the number of the various types of permanent restorations placed in one week and the percentage breakdown of the time they devoted to the various areas of dentistry. Final year dentistry students at the University of Queensland were asked to estimate the projected breakdown of their time in future practice. Results showed that amalgam is still by far the most commonly used material followed by composite resin and glass ionomer cement and that restorative dentistry accounts for the bulk of the practitioners' time. Students' estimations of the work mix were in agreement with those of the practitioners. PMID:2818304

  1. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], γlg cos θ = γsg - γsl (1) In modern terms, γ denotes the excess free energy per unit area of the interface indicated by its indices, with l, g and s corresponding to the liquid, gas and solid, respectively [2]. After that, wetting seems to have been largely ignored by physicists for a long time. The discovery by Gabriel Lippmann that θ may be tuned over a wide range by electrochemical means [3], and some important papers about modifications of equation~(1) due to substrate inhomogeneities [4,5] are among the rare exceptions. This changed completely during the seventies, when condensed matter physics had become enthusiastic about critical phenomena, and was vividly inspired by the development of the renormalization group by Kenneth Wilson [6]. This had solved the long standing problem of how to treat fluctuations, and to understand the universal values of bulk critical exponents. By inspection of the critical exponents of the quantities involved in equation~(1), John W Cahn discovered what he called critical point wetting: for any liquid, there should be a well-defined transition to complete wetting (i.e., θ = 0) as the critical point of the liquid is approached along the coexistence curve [7]. His paper inspired an enormous amount of further work, and may be legitimately viewed as the entrance of wetting into the realm of modern physics. Most of the publications directly following Cahn's work were theoretical papers which elaborated on wetting in relation to critical phenomena. A vast amount of interesting, and in part quite unexpected, ramifications were discovered, such as the breakdown of universality in thin film systems [8]. Simultaneously, a number

  2. Astronomical Association of Queensland Program of Measurements of Seven Southern Multiple Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, Graeme

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a mid-2014 program of the Astronomical Association of Queensland of photographic measurements of seven southern multiple stars. The images were obtained using a Meade DSI CCD camera in conjunction with an equatorially mounted 150mm F8 refractor. For each target pair, either a 2x or 5x barlow lens was used as required. Image processing was carried out using Losse's REDUC software.

  3. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann; Brady, Carole; Dry, Allison

    2013-03-15

    Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation.

  4. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann; Brady, Carole; Dry, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. Methods A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. Results All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. Conclusion The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation. PMID:26229604

  5. Spatial Patterns and Socioecological Drivers of Dengue Fever Transmission in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Background: Understanding how socioecological factors affect the transmission of dengue fever (DF) may help to develop an early warning system of DF. Objectives: We examined the impact of socioecological factors on the transmission of DF and assessed potential predictors of locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases of DF in Queensland, Australia. Methods: We obtained data from Queensland Health on the numbers of notified DF cases by local government area (LGA) in Queensland for the period 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2005. Data on weather and the socioeconomic index were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was fitted at the LGA level to quantify the relationship between DF and socioecological factors. Results: Our estimates suggest an increase in locally acquired DF of 6% [95% credible interval (CI): 2%, 11%] and 61% (95% CI: 2%, 241%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1°C increase in average monthly maximum temperature between 2002 and 2005, respectively. By contrast, overseas-acquired DF cases increased by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 3%) and by 1% (95% CI: 0%, 2%) in association with a 1-mm increase in average monthly rainfall and a 1-unit increase in average socioeconomic index, respectively. Conclusions: Socioecological factors appear to influence the transmission of DF in Queensland, but the drivers of locally acquired and overseas-acquired DF may differ. DF risk is spatially clustered with different patterns for locally acquired and overseas-acquired cases. PMID:22015625

  6. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Barmah Forest Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis. Methods/Principal Findings We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs) throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (χ2 = 7587, df = 7327,p<0.01). There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidence for all four periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.1506 to 0.2901 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the state. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to examine spatial and temporal variation in the incidence rates of BFV disease across Queensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland. PMID:22022430

  7. Possible risk factors on Queensland dairy farms for acaricide resistance in cattle tick (Boophilus microplus).

    PubMed

    Jonsson, N N; Mayer, D G; Green, P E

    2000-02-29

    A case control study was carried out within a cross-sectional survey designed to investigate the management by Queensland dairy farmers of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Although 199 farmers were surveyed, data on acaricide resistance were only obtained from 66 farms. Multiple models were used to predict the probability of acaricide resistance associated with 30 putative risk factors. The region of the state in which the farm was located and the frequency of acaricide application were consistently associated with acaricide resistance. The risk of resistance to all synthetic pyrethroids (Parkhurst strain) was highest in Central Queensland and increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, when spray races were used and when buffalo fly treatments with a synthetic pyrethroid were applied frequently. The probability of resistance to amitraz (Ulam strain) was highest in Central Queensland, increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, and decreased on farms when a hand-spray apparatus was used to apply acaricides to cattle. The probability of resistance to flumethrin (Lamington strain) was highest in the Wide Bay-Burnett region. PMID:10681025

  8. Wet solids flow enhancemant

    SciTech Connect

    Caram, H.S.; Foster, N.; Wildman, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    WE used glass beads of different sizes as.a model system to study the flow enhancing properties of Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). 0TS provides Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}CH{sub 3} groups that bind with the surface hydrox groups to make it hydrophobic. Experimental data showed, indeed, that surface hydrophobicity promotes the flow of wet granular materials. Mixtures of different percentage of silanized/unsilanized particles were prepared for tensile strength measurements. The tensile strength decreased as more silanized particles were added to the samples. The relationship between dimensionless tensile strength and void fraction followed the correlation found by Pierrat (1994). Contact angles were larger for the silanized particles, as compared with unsilanized ones.

  9. Wetting of cholesteric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Nuno M; Figueirinhas Pereira, Maria Carolina; Bernardino, Nelson R; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2016-02-01

    We investigate theoretically the wetting properties of cholesteric liquid crystals at a planar substrate. If the properties of substrate and of the interface are such that the cholesteric layers are not distorted, the wetting properties are similar to those of a nematic liquid crystal. If, on the other hand, the anchoring conditions force the distortion of the liquid crystal layers the wetting properties are altered, the free cholesteric-isotropic interface is non-planar and there is a layer of topological defects close to the substrate. These deformations can either promote or hinder the wetting of the substrate by a cholesteric, depending on the properties of the cholesteric liquid crystal. PMID:26920516

  10. Surveillance snapshot of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals across Queensland detects binary toxin producing ribotype UK 244.

    PubMed

    Huber, Charlotte A; Hall, Lisa; Foster, Nikki F; Gray, Mareeka; Allen, Michelle; Richardson, Leisha J; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Schlebusch, Sanmarie; George, Narelle; Nimmo, Graeme R; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L

    2014-12-01

    In North America and Europe, the binary toxin positive Clostridium difficile strains of the ribotypes 027 and 078 have been associated with death, toxic megacolon and other adverse outcomes. Following an increase in C. difficile infections (CDIs) in Queensland, a prevalence study involving 175 hospitals was undertaken in early 2012, identifying 168 cases of CDI over a 2 month period. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were recorded, and C. difficile isolates were ribotyped and tested for the presence of binary toxin genes. Most patients (106/168, 63.1%) were aged over 60 years. Overall, 98 (58.3%) developed symptoms after hospitalisation; 89 cases (53.0%) developed symptoms more than 48 hours after admission. Furthermore, 27 of the 62 (67.7%) patients who developed symptoms in the community ad been hospitalised within the last 3 months. Thirteen of the 168 (7.7%) cases identified had severe disease, resulting in admission to the Intensive Care Unit or death within 30 days of the onset of symptoms. The 3 most common ribotypes isolated were UK 002 (22.9%), UK 014 (13.3%) and the binary toxin-positive ribotype UK 244 (8.4%). The only other binary toxin positive ribotype isolated was UK 078 (n = 1). Of concern was the detection of the binary toxin positive ribotype UK 244, which has recently been described in other parts of Australia and New Zealand. No isolates were of the international epidemic clone of ribotype UK 027, although ribotype UK 244 is genetically related to this clone. Further studies are required to track the epidemiology of ribotype UK 244 in Australia and New Zealand. PMID:25631588

  11. Hyperspectral remote sensing for mineral mapping of structural related mineralizations around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Sandra; Salati, Sanaz; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Alone or combined with other remote sensing data, hyperspectral mineral mapping can be used to investigate mineralizations and deposits via alteration minerals. Their kind, abundance and spatial distribution can deliver important statements about the occurrence and formation of mineralizations and their relation to structural features. The high spectral and spatial resolution of HyMap data exceeds multispectral data distinctly and makes the recognition of even smaller geological structures possible. The spectral unmixing of single endmembers can be used for the accurate mapping of specific materials or minerals. The support of hyperspectral imaging by spectral data gathered in the field and the analysis of the composition of rock samples can help to determine endmembers and to identify absorption features. This study demonstrates the possibilities and limitations of remote sensing, especially hyperspectral data, for mineral mapping purposes, using the example of the Mount Isa Inlier. This geological area is situated in Northern Queensland, Australia, and is known for its considerable ore deposits and consequent mining of predominantly copper, zinc, lead, silver and gold. Beside hyperspectral HyMap data, multispectral Landsat 8 and SRTM digital elevation data were analyzed. A three-week field study in 2014 supported the investigations. After preprocessing and vegetation masking the data were analyzed using Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) for alteration mineral mapping. The outcomes were combined with results from decorrelation stretch, band ratioing, topographic indices and automated lineament analysis. Additional information was provided by field spectrometer measurements and the XRF and XRD analysis of rock samples. Throughout the study, mineral mapping using remote sensing data, especially hyperspectral data, turned out to deliver high qualitative results when it is supported by additional information. In situ

  12. An investigation into underwater wet welding using the flux cored arc welding process

    SciTech Connect

    Brydon, A.M.; Nixon, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    For the last two years, Cranfield has been carrying out a program of process investigations into wet underwater welding (Graham and Nixon 1993, Nixon and Webb 1994), and has demonstrated that it is possible to markedly improve the stability and consistency of the process by using control techniques developed for hyperbaric welding. In the project reported below, an initial evaluation of wet flux cored arc welding was undertaken. Although there continues to be considerable resistance to the use of wet welding on structures in the North Sea, continued pressure to reduce repair and maintenance costs is causing the industry to re-examine techniques previously discounted, such as wet welding (Anon 1993).

  13. Wet Winding Improves Coil Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Wet-winding process encapsulates electrical coils more uniformily than conventional processes. Process requires no vacuum pump and adapts easily to existing winding machines. Encapsulant applied to each layer of wire as soon as added to coil. Wet-winding process eliminates voids, giving more uniformly encapsulated coil.

  14. Extensive wetting due to roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, F.G.; Michael, J.R.; Eisenmann, E.T. . Center for Solder Science and Technology)

    1995-01-01

    Typically, a small mass of eutectic Sn-Pb solder wets a copper surface and flows radially outward to form a hemispherical shape with a contact angle of approx. 15--20 deg. When a similar mass of solder wets and thick electroless copper coated substrate, rapid radial flow commences and surprising new effects occur. Thick coats of electroless copper have a nodular surface structure and spreading on it does not subside until all solder is consumed. When the nodular structure is wetted by solder a coastline'' with many nearby islands'' are defined. Photos of regions at the wetting front were taken in the backscatter imaging mode of an SEM. These images show that solder wets the valleys between the surface nodules forming a delicate, lacy arrangement. The geometry of this coastal'' solder structure is described as fractal-like having a dimension D = 1.38 making it similar to drying fronts and cloud configurations. The importance of surface roughness in wetting phenomena is discussed in the light of an extensive history on the subject. It is shown that for spontaneous flow, assisted by roughness, the surface geometry must consist of local angles that are larger than the equilibrium contact angle. Kinetics of the wetting process are demonstrated by image analysis of wetted area taken from videotaped experiments. These experimental kinetics are shown to be similar in form to flow in open channel capillaries.

  15. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  16. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  17. WET AND DRY SCRUBBERS FOR EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generally speaking, absorption equipment includes two major categories: Wet adsorption scrubbers (or wet scrubbers); Dry absorption scrubbers (or dry scrubbers).
    Wet scrubbers: As the name implies, wet scrubbers (also known as wet collectors) are devices which use a liquid fo...

  18. Forced wetting and hydrodynamic assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Terence D.; Fernandez-Toledano, Juan-Carlos; Doyen, Guillaume; De Coninck, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Wetting is a prerequisite for coating a uniform layer of liquid onto a solid. Wetting failure and air entrainment set the ultimate limit to coating speed. It is well known in the coating art that this limit can be postponed by manipulating the coating flow to generate what has been termed "hydrodynamic assist," but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Experiments have shown that the conditions that postpone air entrainment also reduce the apparent dynamic contact angle, suggesting a direct link, but how the flow might affect the contact angle remains to be established. Here, we use molecular dynamics to compare the outcome of steady forced wetting with previous results for the spontaneous spreading of liquid drops and apply the molecular-kinetic theory of dynamic wetting to rationalize our findings and place them on a quantitative footing. The forced wetting simulations reveal significant slip at the solid-liquid interface and details of the flow immediately adjacent to the moving contact line. Our results confirm that the local, microscopic contact angle is dependent not simply only on the velocity of wetting but also on the nature of the flow that drives it. In particular, they support an earlier suggestion that during forced wetting, an intense shear stress in the vicinity of the contact line can assist surface tension forces in promoting dynamic wetting, thus reducing the velocity-dependence of the contact angle. Hydrodynamic assist then appears as a natural consequence of wetting that emerges when the contact line is driven by a strong and highly confined flow. Our theoretical approach also provides a self-consistent model of molecular slip at the solid-liquid interface that enables its magnitude to be estimated from dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the model predicts how hydrodynamic assist and slip may be influenced by liquid viscosity and solid-liquid interactions.

  19. Characteristics of Queensland physicians and the influence of rural exposure on practice location.

    PubMed

    Runge, C E; MacKenzie, A; Loos, C; Waller, M; Gabbett, M; Mills, R; Eley, D

    2016-08-01

    The Queensland branch of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) commissioned this study to update their workforce profile and examine rural practice. The present investigation aimed to describe characteristics of Queensland physicians and determine the influence of childhood and training locations on current rural practice. A cross-sectional online survey, conducted 4 July-4 November 2013, was administered to Fellows of The RACP, Queensland. Descriptive statistics report characteristics and logistic regression analyses identify associations and interactions. The outcome measure was current practice location using the Australian Standard Geographic Classification - Remoteness Area. Data were obtained for 633 physicians. Their average age was 49.5 years, a third was female and a quarter was in rural practice. Rural practice was associated with a rural childhood (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) 1.89 (1.10, 3.27) P = 0.02) and any time spent as an intern (OR 4.07 (2.12, 7.82) P < 0.001) or registrar (OR 4.00 (2.21, 7.26) P < 0.001) in a rural location. Physicians with a rural childhood and rural training were most likely to be in rural practice. However, those who had a metropolitan childhood and a rural internship were approximately five times more likely to be working in rural practice than physicians with no rural exposure (OR 5.33 (1.61, 17.60) P < 0.01). The findings demonstrate the positive effect of rural vocational training on rural practice. A prospective study would determine if recent changes to the Basic Physician Training Pathway and the Basic Paediatric Training Network (more rural training than previous pathways) increases the rate of rural practice. PMID:27554000

  20. Microbiological quality of wheat grain and flour from two mills in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni

    2010-08-01

    A baseline investigation of the microbiological quality of wheat grain and flour from two mills in Queensland, Australia, was undertaken in order to assess the capacity of these two mills to meet microbiological criteria specified by a customer for raw, non-heat-treated flour. This baseline testing was performed over the 2006 to 2007 wheat season. Three hundred fifty flour samples were monitored for yeast, mold, and Bacillus cereus, 300 for Escherichia coli, 150 for Salmonella, and 100 for aerobic plate count. Fifty grain samples were analyzed for yeast, mold, E. coli, Salmonella, and B. cereus. There was a single isolation of Salmonella Give in unscreened wheat. The yeast, mold, E. coli, and B. cereus prevalences were 56, 40, 2.0, and 4.0% for grain and 71, 17, 0.7, and <0.3% for flour, respectively. Of the positive samples, the means were 3.7, 2.7, 0.6, and 2.1 for grain, and 3.0, 2.8, and 0.8 log CFU/g for flour. The mean of the aerobic plate count was 4.2 log CFU/g with a 95th percentile count of 4.6 log CFU/g. A microbiological quality baseline of wheat grain and flour from these two Queensland mills has been determined. These data in a specific sense assist the two mills to assess their capacity to meet microbiological criteria, and in a general sense provide at least a limited snapshot of Queensland wheat and flour quality for risk assessments being carried out to evaluate the safety of plant and plant products. PMID:20819368

  1. Where children and adolescents drown in Queensland: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C; Nixon, James W; Kimble, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This retrospective population-based study examined drowning location by the site of immersion for both fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Queensland. Drowning location is not routinely collected, and this study used data linkage to identify drowning sites. The resulting enhanced quality data quantify drowning incidence for specific locations by geographic region, age group and by severity for the first time. Design Linked data were accessed from the continuum of care (prehospital, emergency, hospital admission and death data) on fatal and non-fatal drowning episodes in children aged 0–19 years in Queensland for the years 2002–2008 inclusive. Results Drowning locations ranked in order of overall incidence were pools, inland water, coastal water, baths and other man-made water hazards. Swimming pools produced the highest incidence rates (7.31/100 000) for overall drowning events and were more often privately owned pools and in affluent neighbourhoods. Toddlers 0–4 years were most at risk around pools (23.94/100 000), and static water bodies such as dams and buckets—the fatality ratios were highest at these 2 locations for this age group. Children 5–14 years incurred the lowest incidence rates regardless of drowning location. Adolescents 15–19 years were more frequently involved in a drowning incident on the coast shoreline, followed by inland dynamic water bodies. Conclusions Linked data have resulted in the most comprehensive data collection on drowning location and severity to date for children in the state of Queensland. Most mortality and morbidity could have been prevented by improving water safety through engaged supervision around pools and bath time, and a heightened awareness of buckets and man-made water hazards around the farm home for young children. These data provide a different approach to inform prevention strategies. PMID:26610762

  2. Evidence of sirenian cold stress syndrome in dugongs Dugong dugon from southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen C; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J; Palmieri, Chiara; Mills, Paul C

    2013-03-13

    Cold stress syndrome (CSS) is the term used to describe the range of clinical signs and chronic disease processes that can occur in Florida, USA, manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris exposed to water temperatures below 20°C for extended periods. Although no cold-related adverse events have been described in the closely related dugong Dugong dugon thus far, it has been established that they make movements in response to water temperatures lower than about 17 to 18°C. In this study, archive reports for dugong carcasses submitted to The University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science for post mortem examination during 2010 to 2012 were examined. These animals had been recovered from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia, and 10 out of 14 fulfilled the criteria for 'potential cold stress cases.' Epidermal hyperplasia and secondary bacterial infection, serous atrophy of pericardial adipose tissue, and multisystem abscessation were features commonly noted in these cases. Water temperature data were correlated with the time of year that carcasses were submitted for examination. Higher numbers of carcasses diagnosed with potential CSS were noted during sustained periods in which water temperature was below 20°C. Given the pattern of increased submission of non-specifically, chronically unwell animals in the colder months and evidence that environmental conditions known to precipitate CSS occur in southeast Queensland, it is probable that, like manatees, dugongs in this area are affected by CSS. Further investigation to confirm and to better characterize the syndrome is recommended to refine management practices and improve treatment of affected animals. PMID:23482380

  3. Infant feeding practices among Sudanese women now living in regional south east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Lee; Kirby, Rosemarie; Rogers, Cath

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to highlight and compare immigrant Sudanese women's infant feeding choices and patterns before and after moving to a regional city in Queensland, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Sudanese mothers who had birthed and breastfed babies both in Africa and Toowoomba. This qualitative research project supported previous research indicating a trend for immigrant women's breastfeeding duration to decline when they moved to another country. The outcomes of this research suggest that the reasons for this decline are complex. The authors conclude that a lack of social support, language difficulties and wanting to fit in with particular Western practices are contributing factors. PMID:25522458

  4. Confirmation of Elsey virus infection in a Queensland horse with mild neurologic signs.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Kalpana; Pease, Bradley; Oakey, Jane; Campbell, Grant

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, a 2-year-old horse in northern Queensland, Australia, was reported to have developed mild neurologic signs, and a blood sample was submitted for laboratory investigation. Virus isolation was performed using the blood sample, and an orbivirus was isolated. This was confirmed to be a strain of Elsey virus (ELSV) after transmission electron microscopy and nucleotide sequencing. The nucleotide sequence was compared with those in GenBank, and had 100% identity with ELSV previously reported from the Northern Territory, Australia. ELSV is taxonomically closely related to Peruvian horse sickness virus. PMID:27240568

  5. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  6. Processing and utilization of wet flue gas desulfurization material

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.; Hassett, D.J. |

    1997-05-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) became fully operational in 1981. The two 550-MW units at CCS burn North Dakota lignite. The resulting by-products are fly ash, bottom ash, and wet FGD material. Although disposal of the coal combustion by-products (CCBs) was included in the original site plant at CCS, even early on, consideration was given to utilization of the fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete and as a partial sorbent replacement for the wet scrubbing system. CCS fly ash has been successfully marketed into North Dakota, Minnesota, and the surrounding region as a construction material that is environmentally benign, highly consistent, and an excellent performer in numerous construction applications. Attempts to use CCS fly ash as part of the scrubbing medium in the wet scrubbing system at the site were not as successful as first hoped, primarily due to the abrasive nature of the fly ash. Currently, CCS scrubbers use lime as the scrubbing medium for SO{sub 2} removal. CCS`s efforts to market its fly ash have been successful, so with increased awareness of the economic advantages of by-product utilization, the favorable US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory determination that CCBs are not hazardous, and the improved understanding of potential local and regional markets, Cooperative Power has taken additional steps to investigate the processing and utilization of its wet FGD material. These steps are discussed.

  7. URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provides the annual Urban Wet Weather Flow Literture Review for the calendar year 1998 conducted for the Water Environment Federation. It contains hundreds of citations covering the topics of characterization and effects, management, modeling, regulator policies and contol and t...

  8. Development of 14 microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Ishida, Yasuko; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2014-06-01

    We report the development of 14 new microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus). Ten unrelated Queensland koala individuals from the San Diego Zoo, USA, were genotyped. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 5.14 alleles per locus. Across all loci, the average observed and expected heterozygosity values were both 0.69. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful for genetic studies relevant to the conservation of the koala, a species listed as vulnerable. PMID:25067980

  9. WET BEAVER ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, George E.; Bielski, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of field studies there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the Wet Beaver Roadless Area, Arizona. No significant concentrations of metals were indicated by geochemical sampling or aeromagnetic data within the area. Basaltic cinders and sandstone have been quarried for construction materials near the area but are readily available and more accessible outside the precipitous canyons of Wet Beaver Creek and its tributaries.

  10. Reentrant Wetting of Network Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, N. R.; Telo da Gama, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    We use a simple mesoscopic Landau-Safran theory of network fluids to show that a reentrant phase diagram, in the “empty liquid” regime, leads to nonmonotonic surface tension and reentrant wetting, as previously reported for binary mixtures. One of the wetting transitions is of the usual kind, but the low temperature transition may allow the display of the full range of fluctuation regimes predicted by renormalization group theory.

  11. SETAC-U.S. EPA WET INITIATIVES: ALL WET AND NOTHING BUT WET

    EPA Science Inventory

    To ensure that sould scientific principles and sound science are applied to the challenging issues in t he Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) process, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Foundation for Environmental Education was awarded a cooperative agreem...

  12. Making us what we are: noteworthy people and achievements in Queensland mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret; Happell, Brenda; Bradshaw, Julie

    2010-08-01

    Understanding mental health nursing's past is an important way to preserve our cultural heritage. By exploring and then disseminating the insights gained through examination of the past, students and practicing mental health nurses may become more aware of the social and intellectual origins of the profession. They may also have their professional connections and commitment to mental health nursing clarified and reconfirmed. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in Queensland in 2009. Members of the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses were invited to identify mental health nurses who they perceived had made a noteworthy contribution to the profession. Twenty mental health nurses were identified from the 38 surveys received. The reasons underlying the nominations revealed two main themes: achievements and qualities. Achievements included the subthemes: practice pioneer; career longevity; and far reach of influence. Qualities included: inspirational role model; and passion, dedication and/or commitment. The study provides a beginning conversation on the preservation of heritage and recommends deeper exploration of the history of mental health nursing within Australia, and specifically Queensland. PMID:20618525

  13. Mining and urban impacts on semi-arid freshwater aquatic systems: the example of Mount Isa, Queensland.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark P; Mackay, Alana; Kuypers, Tabitha; Hudson-Edwards, Karen

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines the environmental risk and impact of trace metals affecting river water and sediment in and around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia. Bacterial indicator densities are also analysed throughout the catchment to assess the impacts and the potential hazards arising from agricultural activities, sewage treatment plant releases and urban runoff. The area is drained by the ephemeral Leichhardt River, which bisects Mount Isa City and the major Pb, Zn, Cu and Ag Mount Isa Mine. Runoff is captured downstream in Lake Moondarra, with the water being used following natural filtration via a lagoon-reed bed system for potable purposes by the residents of Mount Isa City. During the dry season, the channel is characterised by numerous pools that act as storage zones for sediment and water-soluble metals as well as urban and agriculturally derived nutrients and pathogens. Our results show that sediment and water quality within the Leichhardt River adjacent to and downstream of the mine frequently exceed Australian government sediment guidelines with average values of Cu, Pb and Zn found adjacent to the footprint of the mine being 1550, 510 and 470 mg kg(-1), respectively. Dry season analysis of water-soluble Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations within pools showed that Australian government low trigger guidelines are exceeded in 100, 46 and 100% cases, respectively. The densities of bacterial indicators in remnant pools throughout the Leichhardt River also exceeded acceptable guidelines. Maximum dry season faecal coliform densities of 2000 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL and Enterococcus counts of 900 organisms per 100 mL were recorded in dry season remnant pools compared to wet season maximum faecal coliform and Enterococcus densities of 119 000 CFU per 100 mL and 95 000 organisms per 100 mL, respectively. The impacts on biota were also examined by assessing the metal content of the tissue of seven fish from Lake Moondarra for their Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn

  14. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  15. Children's Physical Activity, Health and Physical Education in Isolated Rural Contexts: The Views of Parent Educators in Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Tony; Wright, Jan

    2002-01-01

    A study of rural Queensland (Australia) parents' views of their children's involvement in physical activity interviewed parents who taught their children at home using distance education. Physical activity was encouraged, but not formally taught; health was linked more to nutrition than exercise; and lack of participation in team games was…

  16. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles and General Profilles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program-Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saide, Tom, Ed.

    Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report…

  17. Who Pays for Standardised Testing? A Cost-Benefit Study of Mandated Testing in Three Queensland Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Merilyn Gladys; Klenowski, Valentina; Chalmers, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an Australian study that explored the costs and benefits of the National Assessment Programme, Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing, both tangible and intangible, of Year 9 students in three Queensland schools. The study commenced with a review of pertinent studies and other related material about standardised testing in…

  18. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  19. Developing a Cardiac Rehabilitation Education Resource for Rural Health Workers in Queensland: Reviewing the Process and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth; O'Connor-Fleming, M.; Tooth, L.; Humphries, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A resource manual on cardiac rehabilitation education was developed for health workers providing patient education in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). A process evaluation of the manual received feedback from 5 key informants and 31 rural health care workers following a 3-month trial. Overall, feedback was positive. Recommended content…

  20. Responding to Literacy Needs: Implications for Teacher Educators and Training Consultants. Conference Proceedings (Queensland, Australia, April 17-19, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Board of Teacher Registration, Toowong (Australia).

    The conference reported in this document, jointly sponsored by the Queensland Board of Teacher Registration and the Centre for Research in Literacy, arose out of public concern about literacy standards and claims that higher literacy levels will be needed in an increasingly technological society--concerns that make it necessary for educators to…

  1. The Mobile Manual Arts Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Clifford F.; Peters, Joanne

    Begun in 1978 to bring manual arts experience to children in Queensland's "disadvantaged country areas," the Mobile Manual Arts Unit by the end of the 1980 school year had visited 16 separate locations, involving 25 different schools. A total of 727 students had participated (out of a target population of 992 pupils) and a total of 259 contact…

  2. Things Are Crook in the Bush: Report on a Needs Analysis Survey on a Selected Region, the Central Western Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabrook, J.

    The rural Australian recession resulting from lower commodity prices and poor weather conditions raised concerns about how people were coping in the bush. A survey was distributed to all grazing properties in 10 shires of central western Queensland. Of 1,050 surveys distributed, 223 were returned representing 284 families and 914 individuals.…

  3. The Students At Risk Program (STAR) and Queensland Secondary Schools within the Priority Country Areas Program (PCAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Paul

    This paper describes two programs that work together to meet the educational needs of at-risk secondary students in small rural schools in Queensland, Australia. The goal of the Students At Risk program (STAR) is to increase retention rates of identified at-risk students. The Priority Country Areas Program (PCAP) assists schools and community…

  4. Infection and pathology in Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), caused by exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae via different routes.

    PubMed

    Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Bowater, R; Condon, K; Reynolds, A; Fisk, A; Aviles, F; Barnes, A C

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae. PMID:25117665

  5. Embedding EfS in Teacher Education through a Multi-Level Systems Approach: Lessons from Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Neus; Ferreira, Jo-Anne; Davis, Julie; Stevenson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the fourth stage of an evolving study to develop a systems model for embedding education for sustainability (EfS) into preservice teacher education. The fourth stage trialled the extension of the model to a comprehensive state-wide systems approach involving representatives from all eight Queensland teacher education…

  6. Report on Home Visits Provided by PCAP Primary Itinerant Teachers. Priority Country Area Program, Queensland Project Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saide, Tom

    The Queensland Primary Itinerant Teacher Service assists home tutors with the education of primary school children on correspondence education, supplementing the efforts of the Primary Correspondence School (PCS) and the Schools of the Air (SOTA). Primary means of service delivery is the home visit. The role of the itinerant teacher encompasses…

  7. Earliest known Carboniferous shallow-water reefs, Gudman Formation (Tn1b), Queensland, Australia: Implications for Late Devonian reef collapse and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. E.

    1998-10-01

    The Phanerozoic history of reefs extensively has been considered a direct reflection of the history of skeletal reef-building organisms. However, such a relationship does not characterize global mid-Paleozoic reef history. The extinction of most reef-building stromatoporoids and corals at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary correlates with the collapse of North American and European stromatoporoid-dominated reefs, but Western Australian, Russian, and Chinese reefs were much less severely affected until the late Famennian, when algae, calcimicrobes, and nonskeletal microbialites (i.e., stromatolites, thrombolites) declined globally. Additionally, reef recovery was more rapid than previously thought. Small, early Tournaisian (Tn1b) shallow-water reefs in the Gudman Formation of eastern-central Queensland substantially reduce the duration of the “reefless lag time” following Late Devonian reef decline, essentially confining it to the Strunian. Gudman reefs are dominated by microbialite, but contain a diverse, although volumetrically insignificant, skeletal fauna and flora, including large colonial corals, bryozoans, crinoids, brachiopods, and calcareous algae. Hence, mid-Paleozoic reef collapse and recovery reflect an amalgam of more-or-less independent histories of skeletal organisms, calcimicrobes, and nonskeletal microbialites, in response to regional and global environmental parameters. A better understanding of mid-Paleozoic reef history will require detailed local- and regional-scale studies to isolate global from nonglobal signals.

  8. Surface structure determines dynamic wetting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayu; Do-Quang, Minh; Cannon, James J.; Yue, Feng; Suzuki, Yuji; Amberg, Gustav; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Liquid wetting of a surface is omnipresent in nature and the advance of micro-fabrication and assembly techniques in recent years offers increasing ability to control this phenomenon. Here, we identify how surface roughness influences the initial dynamic spreading of a partially wetting droplet by studying the spreading on a solid substrate patterned with microstructures just a few micrometers in size. We reveal that the roughness influence can be quantified in terms of a line friction coefficient for the energy dissipation rate at the contact line, and that this can be described in a simple formula in terms of the geometrical parameters of the roughness and the line-friction coefficient of the planar surface. We further identify a criterion to predict if the spreading will be controlled by this surface roughness or by liquid inertia. Our results point to the possibility of selectively controlling the wetting behavior by engineering the surface structure. PMID:25683872

  9. Wetting phenomena on rough substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Kardar, Mehran

    1990-10-01

    We consider wetting phenomena in the vicinity of rough substrates. The quenched random geometry of the substrate is assumed to be a self-affine fractal with a roughness exponent of ζS. Asymptotic critical properties on approaching complete and critical wetting transitions are studied by combining the replica method with scaling and renormalization-group arguments. We find new critical behavior, controlled by a zero-temperature fixed point, when ζS exceeds the thermal roughness exponent of the emerging wetting layer. The possibility of an effective dimensional reduction due to randomness is considered. In two dimensions a number of exact results are obtained by using a many-body transfer-matrix technique.

  10. Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids.

    PubMed

    Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    2004-01-22

    We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n-->n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application. PMID:15268334

  11. Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilov, V. N.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n→n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application.

  12. Queensland Pastures

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging ... for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar ...

  13. Queensland Seasons

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-27

    ... near-infrared spectral band. In the lower left, the Warrego River flows southward through grassland areas toward the Murray-Darling river system. In several areas, particularly along the right-hand portion of ...

  14. Non-river flood barium signals in the skeletons of corals from coastal Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Daniel J.

    2005-09-01

    Two corals from coastal Queensland (Cow and Calf Islands, and Orpheus Island) have been analysed for a suite of trace elements by laser-ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS). Barium signals in these two corals are 'anomalous' in comparison with Ba behaviour seen in other near-shore corals from this region. The two corals display large sharp peaks in spring which do not correlate with markers of river discharge (Y/Ca and fluorescence). This Ba pattern contrasts with 'normal' behaviour—characterised here by the patterns previously published for two other coastal Queensland corals (King Reef and Pandora Reef), which display Ba peaks in summer associated with flooding of nearby rivers [1] [D.J. Sinclair, M.T. McCulloch, Corals record low mobile barium concentrations in the Burdekin River during the 1974 flood: evidence for limited Ba supply to rivers?, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 214 (1-2) (2004) 155-174]. Similarities are observed between the anomalous Ba in the Queensland corals and other published patterns of Ba behaviour in corals from South Africa and the Arabian Sea. This non-river flood Ba behaviour is characterized by large sharp spikes of Ba which are resistant to oxidative cleaning and form a continuous horizon within the coral. Curiously, not all corals from a region display anomalous Ba behaviour despite being in similar environments. The timing of anomalous Ba is consistent within a coral, but may vary from one location to the next. Anomalous Ba spikes are too large to be caused by Ba-rich upwelling, and no single environmental forcing function seems to be able to account for their timing. This combination of observations argues against an exogenous abiotic source for the anomalous Ba signal; instead, it may result from a biological event triggered by a combination of environmental parameters. Three hypotheses are presented, and critically tested against the observations: barite inclusion following phytoplankton blooms, decaying blooms of the blue

  15. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  16. 29. DETAIL OF CLASSIFIER, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. THIS MACHINE WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF CLASSIFIER, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. THIS MACHINE WAS USED TO SEPARATE SLIMES FROM SANDS TO PREPARE THE WET ORE PULP FOR CYANIDE PROCESSING. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  18. ACID PRECIPITATION IN NORTH AMERICA: 1984 ANNUAL DATA SUMMARY FROM ACID DEPOSITION SYSTEM DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a summary of 1984 wet deposition precipitation chemistry data collected in North America and available in the Acid Deposition System (ADS) data base. North American wet deposition monitoring networks with data in ADS are NADP/NTN, CANSAP, APN, UAPSP, MAP3S/PCN, W...

  19. ACID PRECIPITATION IN NORTH AMERICA: 1983 ANNUAL DATA SUMMARY FROM ACID DEPOSITION SYSTEM DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a summary of 1983 wet deposition precipitation chemistry data collected in North America and available in the Acid Deposition System (ADS) data base. North American wet deposition monitoring networks with data in ADS are NADP/NTN, CANSAP, APN, UAPSP, MAP3S/PCN, W...

  20. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. PMID:25440195

  1. Characterisation of Australian Verdelho wines from the Queensland Granite Belt region.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Francesca; Moore, Evan G; Chinnici, Fabio; Riponi, Claudio; Smyth, Heather E

    2016-04-01

    Verdelho is a white-grape-vine, growing well in the Granite Belt region of Queensland. Despite its traditional use in Madeira wine production, there is scant literature on the flavour characteristics of this variety as a dry wine. In this work, for the first time, volatile compounds of Verdelho wines from the Granite Belt have been isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A corresponding sensory characterisation of this distinctive wine style has also been investigated, using sensory descriptive analysis. Chemical compounds that mostly contribute to the flavour of these wines were related to fruity sweet notes (ethyl esters and acetates), grassy notes (3-hexenol), floral aromas (2-phenylethanol and β-linalool) and cheesy aromas (fatty acids). Sensory analysis confirmed that the Verdelho wines were characterised by fruity aroma attributes, especially "tree-fruit" and "rockmelon", together with "herbaceous", while significant differences in the other attributes were found. PMID:26593603

  2. Net primary productivity (NPP) of a biological soil crust (BSC) in northwestern Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, B.; Reichenberger, H.; Williams, W.

    2012-04-01

    In the tropical savanna of northwestern Queensland, BSCs are mainly composed of cyanobacteria, liverworts and more rarely, lichens. These BSCs cover up to 30% of the soil, thus stabilizing the soil surface against erosion. One of the major BSC types there is almost completely formed by the filamentous cyanobacterium Symplocastrum sp., with scattered occurrence of different species of the liverwort genus Riccia. Because of the local dominance of these crust type, we selected it for the determination of its NPP over a period of 18 months by setting up a semi-continuous and semi-automatic CO2 - gas exchange measuring device in the natural environment at Boodjamulla National Park. We found astonishingly high CO2-fixation rates of the Sympolcastrum sp. dominated crust type and also could show the crust was adapted to extremely high temperatures (47°C), at which time considerable positive net photosynthetic rates were still gained.

  3. Continuation of the New England Orogen, Australia, beneath the Queensland Plateau and Lord Howe rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Hauff, F.; Calvert, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Greywacke, argillite, greyschist and hypabyssal igneous rocks have been obtained from an Ocean Drilling Program core on the Queensland Plateau and from xenoliths in a volcanic breccia dredged from the crest of the Lord Howe Rise. Low to intermediate detrital quartz contents, 260-240 Ma K-Ar ages, and only moderately radiogenic Sr and Nd isotope compositions, suggest a correlation with the New England Orogen of eastern Australia, rather than with Australia's Lachlan Orogen or other adjacent geological provinces. Our results indicate that the New England Orogen terranes continue towards New Zealand at least as far as the southern Lord Howe Rise. The projected offshore boundaries of the major east Australian orogens are now known with more confidence, and do not appear to require any major cross-orogen offsets.

  4. Nursing and the nursing workplace in Queensland, 2001-2010: what the nurses think.

    PubMed

    Eley, Robert; Francis, Karen; Hegney, Desley

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to inform policy for reform in nursing. A survey mailed to members of the Queensland Nurses' Union four times between 2001 and 2010 elicited views on their employment and working conditions, professional development and career opportunities. Results across years and sectors of nursing consistently showed dissatisfaction in many aspects of employment, particularly by nurses working in aged care. However, views on staffing numbers, skill mix, workload, work stress, pay and staff morale all showed significant improvements over the decade. For example in 2001, 48.8% of nurses believed that their pay was poor, whereas in 2010, this had reduced to 35.2%. Furthermore, there was a significant rise throughout the decade in the opinion of the value of nursing as a good career. In light of the need to address nurse workforce shortages, the trends are encouraging; however, more improvements are required in order to support recruitment and retention. PMID:25157941

  5. Mental disorders and communication of intent to die in indigenous suicide cases, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Sveticic, Jerneja

    2012-04-01

    In comparing Indigenous to non-Indigenous suicide in Australia, this study focussed on the frequency of the association between some psychiatric conditions, such as depression and alcohol abuse, and some aspect of suicidality, in particular communication of suicide intent. Logistic regression was implemented to analyze cases of Indigenous (n = 471) versus non-Indigenous suicides (n = 6,655), using the Queensland Suicide Register as a data source. Compared to non-Indigenous suicides, Indigenous cases had lower odds of being diagnosed with unipolar depression, seeking treatment for psychiatric conditions or leaving a suicide note. Indigenous suicides had greater odds of verbally communicating suicide intent and having a history of alcohol and substance use. The magnitude of these differences is remarkable, underscoring the need for culturally sensitive suicide prevention efforts. PMID:22324735

  6. Groundwater salt accessions to land in the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Andrew J. W.

    2011-05-01

    Salt accessions from artesian and sub-artesian bores have been calculated for the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin (QMDB), Australia, using available water chemistry, licensing data and a number of assumptions. The majority (~90%) of the salt accessions come from sub-artesian bores used for irrigation (including intensive livestock) purposes. Historically, free-flowing artesian bores in the west of the basin have contributed large quantities of salt, but their contributions have declined with capping and piping of these bores. The highest salt yields (t/km2) are in the Condamine catchment, which also contains 70% of the bores in the region. Groundwater salt accessions are considerably less than atmospheric (rainfall) accessions in all catchments except the Condamine. Further expansion of the coal seam gas industry may substantially increase non-cyclic groundwater accessions, further reducing catchment salt export/import ratios.

  7. Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) from western Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rodrigues, Taissa; Costa, Fabiana R

    2011-03-01

    Flying reptiles from Australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Toolebuc Formation, which crops out in western Queensland. Among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian) of England. It was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes or Anhanguera. Here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of Pteranodontoid (sensu Kellner 2003), here named Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. It is the second named pterosaur from Australia and confirms that the Toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country. PMID:21437387

  8. A survey of the pattern of private general dental practice in Queensland, 1992.

    PubMed

    Spratley, M H; Coyne, L N

    1995-12-01

    In 1987 all non-specialist ADA member private practitioners in Queensland were invited to participate in a survey to determine the number of the various types of permanent restorations placed in one week and the percentage breakdown of the time they devoted to the various areas of dentistry. Results of that survey were published in 1989. The survey with a few minor changes was repeated in 1992. Results show that there has been little change in the pattern of practice over the five years with restorative dentistry still taking a very large proportion of respondents' time and similar materials being used. The dental workforce appears to be relatively stable with low rates of overseas and interstate migration. There is evidence of an increasing number of women dentists in the workforce and this is emphasized by a breakdown of the current undergraduate enrolment. PMID:8615746

  9. Lifetime ultraviolet exposure estimates for selected population groups in south-east Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, A. V.; Meldrum, L. R.; Wong, J. C. F.; Aitken, J.; Fleming, R. A.

    1999-12-01

    The lifetime erythemal UV exposures received by selected population groups in south-east Queensland from birth up to an age of 55 years have been quantitatively estimated. A representative sample of teachers and other school workers received (64±22) × 105 J m-2 to the neck compared with (4.1±1.4) × 105 J m-2 to the upper leg. A sample of indoor workers (bank officers, solicitors and psychologists) received approximately 2% less and a sample of outdoor workers (carpenters, tilers, electricians and labourers) received approximately 10% more to the neck than the school workers. These differences in erythemal UV exposures may influence the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer.

  10. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay. PMID:25537749

  11. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  12. Inhibiting Wet Oxidation of Ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onisko, D. B. L.

    1985-01-01

    Simple modification of wet-oxidation process for treating organicwaste reduces loss of fixed nitrogen, potentially valuable byproduct of process. Addition of sufficient sulfuric acid to maintain reaction pH below 3 greatly reduces oxidation of ammonia to free nitrogen. No equipment modification required.

  13. Solidification of underwater wet welds

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, A.M.; Medeiros, R.C. de; Liu, S.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the shape of a weld pool can influence the microstructure and segregation pattern of the final solidified weld metal. Mechanical properties and susceptibility to defects are consequently affected by the solidification mode of the weld. In this work the solidification behavior of weld beads deposited in air and underwater wet welding using rutile electrodes were compared. The welds were deposited by gravity feed, on low carbon, manganese steel plates using similar welding conditions. Macroscopic observation of the weld craters showed that welds deposited in air presented an elliptical weld pool. The underwater wet welds, on the other hand, solidified with a tear drop shape. Although the welds differed in shape, their lengths were approximately the same. Microscopic examinations carried out on transverse, normal and longitudinal sections revealed a coarser columnar grain structure in the underwater welds. These results suggest that the tear-drop shaped pool induced solidification in a preferred orientation with segregation more likely in welds deposited under wet conditions. This change in weld pool geometry can be explained by the surface heat loss conditions that occur in a wet weld: slower when covered by the steam bubble and faster in the region in contact with water behind the pool.

  14. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

  15. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  16. Antibacterial hydroxycinnamic esters from Piper caninum from Paluma, north Queensland, Australia. The crystal and molecular structure of (+)-bornyl coumarate.

    PubMed

    Setzer, W N; Setzer, M C; Bates, R B; Nakkiew, P; Jackes, B R; Chen, L; McFerrin, M B; Meehan, E J

    1999-12-01

    The crude chloroform bark extract of Piper caninum (Piperaceae) exhibits antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The antibacterial agents in this extract have been isolated using bioactivity-directed chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy as (+)-bornyl p-coumarate and bornyl caffeate. A single-crystal X-ray structure has been carried out on (+)-bornyl p-coumarate. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) (#19) with a = 12.659(4), b = 13.281(4), and c = 10.177(3) A. Fullmatrix least-squares refinement converged at R = 0.047, and Rw = 0.058. PMID:10630119

  17. The significance of E-W structural trends for the Alice Springs Orogeny in the Charters Towers Province, North Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quentin de Gromard, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    E-W structural and igneous trends in the Charters Towers Province are highly anomalous within the overall N-S trending Tasman orogen of eastern Australia and resulted from a sequence of N-S shortening events. A succession of ~ E-W trending FIAs (Foliation Intersection/Inflexion Axis preserved within porphyroblasts) dated at 474.7 ± 7.2, 413 ± 13 and 381.1 ± 8.1 Ma correspond with adjacent granite crystallization ages and E-W trending FIA ages in the Greenvale Province to the NW. The magnetic anomaly map of Australia reveals that this E-W trending portion of the Tasman orogen links with and truncates several earlier formed orogens. The E-W trend of the Charters Towers Province resulted from overprinting of early Palaeozoic N-S trending structures in the Tasman Orogen by younger E-W ones during the Alice Springs Orogeny (450-300 Ma) resolving the E-W pluton shape and distribution of Cambrian to Devonian magmatic activity plus the truncational nature of aeromagnetic data from Central Australia to the East coast.

  18. Seeking a Pedagogy of Difference: What Aboriginal Students and Their Parents in North Queensland Say about Teaching and Their Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Osborne, Barry; Lloyd, Natalie; Llewellyn, Linda; Boon, Helen; Webber, Tammi; Laffin, Gail; Kemp, Codie; Day, Cathy; Wills, Jennifer; Harrison, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the outcomes of the first phase of a three phase research initiative which begins by identifying through the voices of Aboriginal students and community members the teaching practices that influence Aboriginal student engagement and learning. The study occurs within the Diocese of Townsville Catholic Education schools in North…

  19. North Carolina

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... (Terra orbit 4344) captures the intricate system of barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries comprising the coastal environments of North ... formats available at JPL October 11, 2000 - Barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries of coastal North Carolina and ...

  20. Connecting landscape function to hyperspectral reflectance in a dry sub-humid native grassland in southern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wendy; Apan, Armando; Alchin, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Native grasslands cover over 80% of significant ecosystems in Australia, stretching across arid, semi-arid, tropical, sub-tropical and savannah landscapes. Scales of pastoral operations in Australia range from hundreds of hectares to thousands of square kilometres and are predominately found in regions with highly variable rainfall. Land use is governed by the need to cope with droughts, floods and fires. Resilience to climatic extremes can be attained through effective soil management. Connecting landscape function on the fine scale to broad land management objectives is a critical step in evaluation and requires an understanding of the relevant spectral properties in remotely sensed images. The aim of this study was to assess key landscape function indices across spatial scales in order to examine their correlation with hyperspectral reflectance measurements. The results from this study could be applied as a model for land management centred on remote sensing. The study site is located at Stonehenge (southern Queensland) on a moderately deep texture contrast soil with hard setting gravelly topsoil. Mean annual rainfall of 667 mm supports open forest and native perennial pastures with a diverse biocrust dominated by N-fixing cyanobacteria. Land use history is continuous grazing however; it had been destocked for several years prior to our study. There was some evidence of cattle, kangaroos and feral herbivores (rabbits, deer and goats) although impacts appeared to be minimal. We established four land cover types: native pasture - NP1 (~100% FPC - foliage projective cover), native pasture - NP2 (~50% FPC, 50% biocrust), natural bare soil - BC (>80% biocrust), bare and eroded soil - BE (<1% biocrust). Duplicate 0.25 m2 quadrats of each land cover type were selected contiguous with a 100 m transect across the slope. The quadrats were analysed as five micro-transects with each row consisting of five sub-cells. Stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling indices were

  1. Alkali burns from wet cement.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    When water is added to the dry materials of Portland cement calcium hydroxide is formed; the wet cement is caustic (with a pH as high as 12.9) and can produce third-degree alkali burns after 2 hours of contact. Unlike professional cement workers, amateurs are usually not aware of any danger and may stand or kneel in the cement for long periods. As illustrated in a case report, general physicians may recognize neither the seriousness of the injury in its early stages nor the significance of a history of prolonged contact with wet cement. All people working with cement should be warned about its dangers and advised to immediately wash and dry the skin if contact does occur. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6561052

  2. Competitive Wetting in Active Brazes

    SciTech Connect

    Chandross, Michael Evan

    2014-05-01

    We found that the wetting and spreading of molten filler materials (pure Al, pure Ag, and AgAl alloys) on a Kovar ™ (001) substrate was studied with molecular dynamics simulations. A suite of different simulations was used to understand the effects on spreading rates due to alloying as well as reactions with the substrate. Moreover, the important conclusion is that the presence of Al in the alloy enhances the spreading of Ag, while the Ag inhibits the spreading of Al.

  3. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Wetting hysteresis induced by nanodefects.

    PubMed

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried

    2016-01-19

    Wetting of actual surfaces involves diverse hysteretic phenomena stemming from ever-present imperfections. Here, we clarify the origin of wetting hysteresis for a liquid front advancing or receding across an isolated defect of nanometric size. Various kinds of chemical and topographical nanodefects, which represent salient features of actual heterogeneous surfaces, are investigated. The most probable wetting path across surface heterogeneities is identified by combining, within an innovative approach, microscopic classical density functional theory and the string method devised for the study of rare events. The computed rugged free-energy landscape demonstrates that hysteresis emerges as a consequence of metastable pinning of the liquid front at the defects; the barriers for thermally activated defect crossing, the pinning force, and hysteresis are quantified and related to the geometry and chemistry of the defects allowing for the occurrence of nanoscopic effects. The main result of our calculations is that even weak nanoscale defects, which are difficult to characterize in generic microfluidic experiments, can be the source of a plethora of hysteretical phenomena, including the pinning of nanobubbles. PMID:26721395

  5. Wetting hysteresis induced by nanodefects

    PubMed Central

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Wetting of actual surfaces involves diverse hysteretic phenomena stemming from ever-present imperfections. Here, we clarify the origin of wetting hysteresis for a liquid front advancing or receding across an isolated defect of nanometric size. Various kinds of chemical and topographical nanodefects, which represent salient features of actual heterogeneous surfaces, are investigated. The most probable wetting path across surface heterogeneities is identified by combining, within an innovative approach, microscopic classical density functional theory and the string method devised for the study of rare events. The computed rugged free-energy landscape demonstrates that hysteresis emerges as a consequence of metastable pinning of the liquid front at the defects; the barriers for thermally activated defect crossing, the pinning force, and hysteresis are quantified and related to the geometry and chemistry of the defects allowing for the occurrence of nanoscopic effects. The main result of our calculations is that even weak nanoscale defects, which are difficult to characterize in generic microfluidic experiments, can be the source of a plethora of hysteretical phenomena, including the pinning of nanobubbles. PMID:26721395

  6. Different regimes of dynamic wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustav, Amberg; Wang, Jiayu; Do-Quang, Minh; Shiomi, Junichiro; Physiochemical fluid mechanics Team; Maruyama-Chiashi Laboratory Team

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic wetting, as observed when a droplet contacts a dry solid surface, is important in various engineering processes, such as printing, coating, and lubrication. Our overall aim is to investigate if and how the detailed properties of the solid surface influence the dynamics of wetting. Here we discuss how surface roughness influences the initial dynamic spreading of a partially wetting droplet by studying the spreading on a solid substrate patterned with microstructures just a few micrometers in size. This is complemented by matching numerical simulations. We present a parameter map, based on the properties of the liquid and the solid surface, which identifies qualitatively different spreading regimes, where the spreading speed is limited by either the liquid viscosity, the surface properties, or the liquid inertia. The peculiarities of the different spreading regimes are studied by detailed numerical simulations, in conjuction with experiments. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (J.W. and J.S) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (M.D.-Q. and G.A).

  7. Inhaled antibiotics: dry or wet?

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Bos, Aukje C; Mouton, Johan W; Devadason, Sunalene; Janssens, Hettie M

    2014-11-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) delivering antibiotics for the suppressive treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients were developed recently and are now increasingly replacing time-consuming nebuliser therapy. Noninferiority studies have shown that the efficacy of inhaled tobramycin delivered by DPI was similar to that of wet nebulisation. However, there are many differences between inhaled antibiotic therapy delivered by DPI and by nebuliser. The question is whether and to what extent inhalation technique and other patient-related factors affect the efficacy of antibiotics delivered by DPI compared with nebulisers. Health professionals should be aware of the differences between dry and wet aerosols, and of patient-related factors that can influence efficacy, in order to personalise treatment, to give appropriate instructions to patients and to better understand the response to the treatment after switching. In this review, key issues of aerosol therapy are discussed in relation to inhaled antibiotic therapy with the aim of optimising the use of both nebulised and DPI antibiotics by patients. An example of these issues is the relationship between airway generation, structural lung changes and local concentrations of the inhaled antibiotics. The pros and cons of dry and wet modes of delivery for inhaled antibiotics are discussed. PMID:25323242

  8. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  9. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  10. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  11. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  12. Eight new species of Australian stiletto flies in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart (Diptera: Therevidae) from South East Queensland.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Lambkin, Christine L; Yeates, David K

    2014-01-01

    We describe, diagnose and illustrate eight new species in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart, 1848 as follows: Anabarhynchus cretatus sp. n., Anabarhynchus darembal sp. n., Anabarhynchus iancommoni sp. n., Anabarhynchus longiseta sp. n. Anabarhynchus lyncurium sp. n., Anabarhynchus moretonensis sp. n., Anabarhynchus neboensis sp. n. and Anabarhynchus wintertoni sp. n. These represent all new species in collections from south east Queensland. These new species bring the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 112. PMID:24871028

  13. Comparative laboratory and field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and lemon eucalyptus oil against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Rigby, L M; Chow, W K

    2014-03-01

    A field trial comparing a formulation containing 40% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide) in ethanol (Bushman) and 32% lemon eucalyptus oil (LEO; Mosi-guard) as protection against mosquitoes at Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia, was conducted in February 2012 and February 2013. The 40% deet formulation provided 100% protection against mosquitoes for 7 h, while the 32% LEO provided >95% protection for 3 h. PMID:24772681

  14. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R. Lesley; Gynther, Ian C.; Leung, Luke K-P.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species’ range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population’s size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline. PMID:26789521

  15. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R Lesley; Gynther, Ian C; Leung, Luke K-P; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline. PMID:26789521

  16. Precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote wet savanna site in West Africa: Djougou (Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpo, A. B.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Laouali, D.; Delon, C.; Liousse, C.; Adon, M.; Gardrat, E.; Mariscal, A.; Darakpa, C.

    2015-08-01

    , biomass burning and biofuel combustions. The second highest contribution is the calcium ion (13.3 μeq·L-1), characteristic of dust aerosols from terrigenous sources, Calcium contributes up to 46% of the precipitation chemistry in Djougou. Finally, these results are compared to those obtained for other selected African sites representative of other main natural ecosystems: dry savanna and forest. The study of the African ecosystem transect indicates a pH gradient with more acidic pH in the forested ecosystem. Nitrogenous contribution to the chemical composition of rain in Lamto, wet savanna, (24%) is equivalent to the one estimated in Djougou (24%). The last contribution concerns organic acidity, which represents 7% of total ionic content of precipitation at Djougou. The relative particulate contribution PC and the relative gaseous contribution GC are calculated using the mean chemical composition measured in Djougou for the studied period. The comparison with other African sites gives 40% and 43% PC in wet savannas of Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire) and Djougou (Benin) respectively, 20% PC in the equatorial forest of Zoetele (Cameroon) and 80% PC in dry savanna of Banizoumbou (Niger). The results shown here indicate the existence of a North-South gradients of organic, marine, terrigenous and nitrogenous contributions along the transect in West and Central Africa.

  17. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  18. Wet Work and Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, Manigé

    2016-01-01

    Wet work defined as unprotected exposure to humid environments/water; high frequencies of hand washing procedures or prolonged glove occlusion is believed to cause irritant contact dermatitis in a variety of occupations. This review considers the recent studies on wet-work exposure and focuses on its influence on barrier function. There are different methods to study the effect of wet work on barrier function. On the one hand, occupational cohorts at risk can be monitored prospectively by skin bioengineering technology and clinical visual scoring systems; on the other hand, experimental test procedures with defined application of water, occlusion and detergents are performed in healthy volunteers. Both epidemiological studies and the results of experimental procedures are compared and discussed. A variety of epidemiological studies analyze occupational cohorts at risk. The measurement of transepidermal water loss, an indicator of the integrity of the epidermal barrier, and clinical inspection of the skin have shown that especially the frequencies of hand washing and water contact/contact to aqueous mixtures seem to be the main factors for the occurrence of barrier alterations. On the other hand, in a single cross-sectional study, prolonged glove wearing (e.g. occlusion for 6 h per shift in clean-room workers) without exposure to additional hazardous substances seemed not to affect the skin negatively. But regarding the effect of occlusion, there is experimental evidence that previously occluded skin challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate leads to an increased susceptibility to the irritant with an aggravation of the irritant reaction. These findings might have relevance for the real-life situation in so far as after occupational glove wearing, the skin is more susceptible to potential hazards to the skin even during leisure hours. PMID:26844906

  19. Wet/Dry Vacuum Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold; Andampour, Jay; Kunitser, Craig; Thomas, Ike

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum cleaner collects and retains dust, wet debris, and liquids. Designed for housekeeping on Space Station Freedom, it functions equally well in normal Earth Gravity or in microgravity. Generates acoustic noise at comfortably low levels and includes circuitry that reduces electromagnetic interference to other electronic equipment. Draws materials into bag made of hydrophobic sheet with layers of hydrophilic super-absorbing pads at downstream end material. Hydrophilic material can gel many times its own weight of liquid. Blower also provides secondary airflow to cool its electronic components.

  20. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa) in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christopher M; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  2. ACID PRECIPITATION IN NORTH AMERICA: 1985 ANNUAL AND SEASONAL DATA SUMMARIES FROM ACID DEPOSITION SYSTEM DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a summary of 1985 wet deposition precipitation chemistry data collected in North America and available in the Acid Deposition System (ADS) data base. North American wet deposition monitoring networks with data in ADS are NADP/NTN, CANSAP, APN, UAPSP, MAP3S/PCN, W...

  3. High-resolution record of Early to Middle Miocene climate variability from Site 1195, Marion Plateau, NE Queensland margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowery, C.; Browning, E.; Leckie, R. M.; John, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Constraining and quantifying eustatic variations has been a priority for stratigraphers since the publication of the first global sea level curves by the Exxon research group in the late 1970s. Quantifying the glacio-eustatic component of sea level signals has become a greater focus as more recent work has demonstrated that far-field effects like ice-sheet gravitation and isostasy imprint on the "true" eustatic signal of waxing and waning ice sheets so that coeval signals from disparate sites may show significantly different local sea level variations. To this end, the Miocene sediments on the Marion Plateau, a drowned carbonate platform on the Queensland margin of Australia, were drilled by ODP Leg 194 to provide an independent, southern hemisphere test of the sea level record of the New Jersey Margin of North America, the most complete and oft-cited record of Cenozoic sea level variability. A high-resolution record is critical to compare sea level variations across hemispheres. Natural Gamma Ray (NGR) logs of core holes can provide a complete, high-resolution record independent of any problems with core recovery or sampling interval. We here present a NGR record of ODP Site 1195 tied to recently completed nannofossil assemblage data, planktic/benthic foraminiferal ratios, sedimentary particle counts, and benthic foraminifera stable isotopes. Peaks in glauconite and clay content correspond to peaks in NGR. The largest of these peaks correspond to sequence boundaries (lowstands), as glauconite accumulates during periods of low sedimentation along this carbonate-dominated margin. These sequence boundaries, in turn, are each associated with marine oxygen isotope events ("Mi Events") and correlate to sequences on the New Jersey margin, the Gulf of Papua, Great Australian Bight, and McMurdo Sound, indicating that these sequences are eustatically controlled. Although sedimentary particle counts only show strong peaks of glauconite at sequence boundaries, the NGR record

  4. Naturally occurring radionuclides in materials derived from urban water treatment plants in southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Ross; Akber, Riaz

    2008-04-01

    An assessment of radiologically enhanced residual materials generated during treatment of domestic water supplies in southeast Queensland, Australia, was conducted. Radioactivity concentrations of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Rn-222, and Po-210 in water, sourced from both surface water catchments and groundwater resources were examined both pre- and post-treatment under typical water treatment operations. Surface water treatment processes included sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation and filtration, while the groundwater was treated using cation exchange, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal or methods similar to surface water treatment. Waste products generated as a result of treatment included sediments and sludges, filtration media, exhausted ion exchange resin, backwash and wastewaters. Elevated residual concentrations of radionuclides were identified in these waste products. The waste product activity concentrations were used to model the radiological impact of the materials when either utilised for beneficial purposes, or upon disposal. The results indicate that, under current water resource exploitation programs, reuse or disposal of the treatment wastes from large scale urban water treatment plants in Australia do not pose a significant radiological risk. PMID:17980468

  5. Diagenesis and reservoir potential of volcanogenic sandstones - Cretaceous of the Surat Basin, Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hawlader, H.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The sandstones of the Lower Cretaceous succession of the Surat basin are characterized by abundant volcanogenic detritus in the form of rock-fragments and feldspars derived from an andesitic magmatic arc coincident with the present Great Barrier Reef in offshore Queensland. These compositionally immature sandstones are not regarded as favorable exploration targets because of their labile nature, their shallow burial depths, and hence the low thermal maturity of the intercalated mudrocks that might have constituted hydrocarbon source rocks. However, petrographic and petrophysical examinations show that significant primary and early diagenetic secondary dissolution porosity and permeability exist in some of these stratigraphic units that under certain circumstances could be the host for hydrocarbons and may become the future exploration targets. Flushing by CO{sub 2}-charged meteoric water after the inception of the Great Artesian basin (of which the Surat basin is a component) in the Tertiary is likely to have been the principal agent of secondary porosity development in these sandstones. Additionally, products of microbial degradation of organic matter (in the intercalated mudstones) and/or maturation products from the deeply buried part of the basin might have assisted in the dissolution of framework grains and previously deposited cement.

  6. The costs and potential savings of a novel telepaediatric service in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anthony C; Scuffham, Paul; Wootton, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background There are few cost-minimisation studies in telemedicine. We have compared the actual costs of providing a telepaediatric service to the potential costs if patients had travelled to see the specialist in person. Methods In November 2000, we established a novel telepaediatric service for selected regional hospitals in Queensland. Instead of transferring patients to Brisbane, the majority of referrals to specialists in Brisbane were dealt with via videoconference. Since the service began, 1499 consultations have been conducted for a broad range of paediatric sub-specialities including burns, cardiology, child development, dermatology, diabetes, endocrinology, gastroenterology, nephrology, neurology, oncology, orthopaedics, paediatric surgery and psychiatry. Results During a five year period, the total cost of providing 1499 consultations through the telepaediatric service was A$955,996. The estimated potential cost of providing an outpatient service to the same number of patients at the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane was A$1,553,264; thus, telepaediatric services resulted in a net saving of approximately A$600,000 to the health service provider. Conclusion Telepaediatrics was a cheaper method for the delivery of outpatient services when the workload exceeded 774 consultations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the threshold point was most sensitive to changes related to patient travel costs, coordinator salaries and videoconference equipment costs. The study showed substantial savings for the health department, mainly due to reduced costs associated with patient travel. PMID:17331259

  7. Clay mineralogy of the Greenvale Ore Body, Queensland, Australia: Implications for the interpretation of paleoclimate

    SciTech Connect

    Lev, S.; Anderson, K.; Ramirez, B.; Sun, H.; Swank, R.; Yost, D.; Huff, W.; Maynard, J.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    A 3--5% nickel enriched laterite in the Greenvale Ore Body of Queensland, Australia, is the result of weathering a serpentinized ultramafic intrusion. Variations in solubilities and drainage, typical of laterite deposits, resulted in the formation of three primary zones: (1) the Saprolite zone, (2) the Intermediate zone, and (3) the Limonite zone. Within these zones, clay mineral species with distinct chemistries and/or mineralogies have been identified, including: Ni-rich Smectite, Halloysite, and Palygorskite. Clay minerals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction and SEM. Bulk chemistry was determined by X-ray fluorescence in an attempt to better constrain the chemical conditions at the time of formation of the clay minerals. Results indicate a complex drainage system and history for the Greenvale Ore Body. Based on the distribution of ore grade material, it is apparent that the deposit was initially characterized by fracture controlled drainage. Owing to precipitation of Ni-rich smectite, halloysite, and palygorskite, subsequent alteration of the ore body drainage network and/or local climate can be inferred.

  8. The coronial system in Queensland: the effects of new legislation on decision-making.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Belinda; Barnes, Michael; Adkins, Glenda; Naylor, Charles; Tait, Gordon; Begum, Nelufa

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to detail research completed in 2007 which investigated the way in which coroners made decisions in a death investigation, with a particular focus on their autopsy decision-making. The data were gathered during the first year of operation of a new Coroners Act in Queensland, Australia, which required a greater amount of information to be gathered at the scene by police, and this included a thorough investigation of the circumstances of the death, including statements from witnesses, friends and family, as well as evidence-gathering at the scene. This article addresses the outcomes of that increased information on coronial decision-making in three ways: first, whether or not the greater amount of information offered to coroners enabled them to be less reliant on full internal autopsies to establish cause of death; secondly whether certain factors were more influential in decision-making; and thirdly, whether the information gathered at the scene negates the need for full internal autopsies in many situations, irrespective of the decision-making by coroners. PMID:19205308

  9. Analysis of local spread of equine influenza in the Park Ridge region of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Davis, J; Garner, M G; East, I J

    2009-03-01

    In 2007, an incursion of equine influenza (EI) occurred in Australia. Accurate maps of property boundaries were used to examine the pattern and mechanism of local spread of EI. This study focussed on a cluster of infected premises (IPs) at Park Ridge, a peri-urban suburb 26 km south of Brisbane, Queensland. The cluster recorded 437 IPs and 81% of these were not contiguous to a previously IP. The mean distance from each new IP to the closest previous IP was 0.85 +/- 1.50 km with a range of 0.01-12.94 km. Eighty-two percent of new IPs were within 1 km of a previous IP. The spatial mean for each week's new IPs showed a consistent trend of movement from east to west throughout the epizootic consistent with the predominant wind patterns. The findings were consistent with the conclusion that EI will routinely spread over 1-2 km via wind-borne aerosol. PMID:19200296

  10. Queensland general practitioners' applications of the "mature minor" principle: the role of patient age and gender.

    PubMed

    Teoludzka, Anna; Bartholomew, Terence P

    2010-12-01

    Most Australian jurisdictions do not have legislation that stipulates an age by which a minor can make their own medical treatment decisions. Instead, they rely on Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority [1986] AC 112, an English common law decision that recommends individual assessments of "maturity". This study explores how medical practitioners in the State of Queensland understand and apply this legal authority when faced with a young person wishing to make a contentious medical treatment decision. Almost 200 doctors made decisions about a hypothetical patient's competence and confidentiality, and detailed their reasoning in an open-ended format. The data indicate that the vagaries of existing legal criteria allow for a range of philosophical perspectives and idiosyncratic heuristics to play a role in assessment practices, and that particular combinations of patient age and gender made these cognitive shortcuts more likely to occur. A notable proportion of such processes are not consistent with legal guidelines, and this has implications for general practitioners' vulnerability to litigation as well as young patients' treatment trajectories. PMID:21355438

  11. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    PubMed

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly. PMID:26922349

  12. Quantification of particle number and mass emission factors from combustion of Queensland trees.

    PubMed

    Wardoyo, Arinto Y P; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D; Marsh, Jack

    2006-09-15

    The quantification of particle emission factors under controlled laboratory conditions for burning of the following five common tree species found in South East Queensland forests has been studied: Spotted Gum (Corymbia citriodora), Blue Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis), Bloodwood (Eucalyptus intermedia), Iron Bark (Eucalyptus crebra), and Stringybark (Eucalyptus umbra). The results of the study show that the particle number emission factors and PM2.5 mass emission factors depend on the type of tree and the burning rate. For fast burning conditions, the average particle number emission factors are in the range of 3.3-5.7 x 10(15) particles/kg for woods and 0.5-6.9 x 10(15) particles/kg for leaves and branches, and the PM2.5 emission factors are in the range of 140-210 mg/kg for woods and 450-4700 mg/kg for leaves and branches. For slow burning conditions, the average particle number emission factors are in the range of 2.8-44.8 x 10(13) particles/kg for woods and 0.5-9.3 x 10(13) particles/kg for leaves and branches, and the PM2.5 emissions factors are in the range of 120-480 mg/kg for woods and 3300-4900 mg/kg for leaves and branches. PMID:17007128

  13. The Development of an Ecosystem Services Framework for South East Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Simone; James, David; Davidson, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Extensive research has been conducted globally into conceptual frameworks for ecosystem services, the most notable being the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Millennium ecosystem assessment: ecosystems and human well-being; a framework for assessment. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, pp 51, 53-55, 2005). The South East Queensland (SEQ) Ecosystem Services Framework (Australia) aims to provide the tools to enable government, industry, business, researchers, non-government organizations and land managers to apply the concept of ecosystem services in their planning and management practices. This article describes the Framework and the process that has produced matrices and maps that identify and illustrate the linkages between ecosystems, ecosystem functions, ecosystem services and the community’s well-being. The matrices and maps derived can identify areas in the region where the most ecosystem services are generated. This allows areas to be considered as valuable natural assets of the region, deserving appropriate protection measures or significant offsets if they are diminished or degraded in any way. Although the Framework requires further refinement and ongoing development, the process applied and the products produced has enabled decision makers to turn the concept of ecosystem services into practical application in SEQ.

  14. Two new species of fossil Leggadina (Rodentia: Muridae) from Northwestern Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Godthelp, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Only three species of fossil murine have been described to date in Australia even though they are often found in fossil deposits and can be highly useful in understanding environmental change over time. Until now the genus Leggadina, a group of short-tailed mice that is particularly well adapted to an arid environment, was only known from two extant species: L. forresti and L. lakedownensis. Here two new fossil species of the genus are described from sites in northwestern Queensland. Leggadina gregoriensis sp. nov. comes from the Early Pleistocene Rackham’s Roost Site in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area and Leggadina macrodonta sp. nov. is from the Plio-Pleistocene Site 5C at Floraville Station. The evolution of the genus Leggadina and the lineage’s response to palaeoecological factors is considered. Taphonomy of the two fossil deposits is examined and shows marked differences in both faunal composition of the assemblages and preservation. Description of L. gregoriensis and L. macrodonta extends the known temporal range of the Leggadina lineage by over 2 million years. PMID:26207193

  15. Assessing the effect of the Queensland "Summer of Disasters" on perceptions of collective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Fay-Ramirez, Suzanna; Antrobus, Emma; Piquero, Alex R

    2015-11-01

    The collective efficacy literature suggests that neighborhoods with higher collective efficacy have fewer problems of disorder, increased volunteerism, and higher levels of life satisfaction and wellbeing, along with the increased potential for resilience in the face of a disaster. Although perceptions of collective efficacy typically remain stable over time, rapid or sudden social change, such as experiencing a natural disaster, has the potential to disrupt the neighborhood and the individuals within - including their perceptions of the regulatory mechanisms of collective efficacy. Still, the effect of a major disaster on perceptions of collective efficacy remains relatively unexamined. Longitudinal survey data collected before and after the Queensland flood and cyclone disasters permit a unique investigation of the impact of the disaster on perceptions of social control and social cohesion before and after the disaster. Results show that after this major natural disaster, respondents who were proximately affected reported decreased levels of collective efficacy. Also, persons who experienced the biggest decrease in perceived collective efficacy were those that had lower levels of collective efficacy prior to the disaster. We discuss the mechanisms surrounding disaster preparedness, response, and recovery that may contribute to changing perceptions of collective efficacy. PMID:26463532

  16. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species. PMID:25096127

  17. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Belinda; Undery, Rebecca; Ahmed, Humza

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs), brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant's sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual. PMID:24526901

  18. New U/Th ages for Pleistocene megafauna deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Hocknull, Scott A.

    2009-02-01

    Arguments over the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna have become particularly polarised in recent years. Causes for the extinctions are widely debated with climate change, human hunting and/or habitat modification, or a combination of those factors, being the dominant hypotheses. However, a lack of a spatially constrained chronology for many megafauna renders most hypotheses difficult to test. Here, we present several new U/Th dates for a series of previously undated, megafauna-bearing localities from southeastern Queensland, Australia. The sites were previously used to argue for or against various megafauna extinction hypotheses, and are the type localities for two now-extinct Pleistocene marsupials (including the giant koala, Phascolarctos stirtoni). The new dating allows the deposits to be placed in a spatially- and temporally constrained context relevant to the understanding of Australian megafaunal extinctions. The results indicate that The Joint (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is middle Pleistocene or older (>292 ky); the Cement Mills (Gore) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene or older (>53 ky); and the Russenden Cave Bone Chamber (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene (˜55 ky). Importantly, the new results broadly show that the sites date prior to the hypothesised megafaunal extinction 'window' (i.e., ˜30-50 ky), and therefore, cannot be used to argue exclusively for or against human/climate change extinction models, without first exploring their palaeoecological significance on wider temporal and spatial scales.

  19. Monitoring temporal changes in use of two cathinones in a large urban catchment in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; Lai, Foon Yin; Edirisinghe, Methsiri; Hall, Wayne; Bruno, Raimondo; O'Brien, Jake W; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater analysis was used to examine prevalence and temporal trends in the use of two cathinones, methylone and mephedrone, in an urban population (>200,000 people) in South East Queensland, Australia. Wastewater samples were collected from the inlet of the sewage treatment plant that serviced the catchment from 2011 to 2013. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure mephedrone and methylone in wastewater sample using direct injection mode. Mephedrone was not detected in any samples while methylone was detected in 45% of the samples. Daily mass loads of methylone were normalized to the population and used to evaluate methylone use in the catchment. Methylone mass loads peaked in 2012 but there was no clear temporal trend over the monitoring period. The prevalence of methylone use in the catchment was associated with the use of MDMA, the more popular analogue of methylone, as indicated by other complementary sources. Methylone use was stable in the study catchment during the monitoring period whereas mephedrone use has been declining after its peak in 2010. More research is needed on the pharmacokinetics of emerging illicit drugs to improve the applicability of wastewater analysis in monitoring their use in the population. PMID:26747989

  20. N-nitrosodimethylamine and trihalomethane formation and minimisation in Southeast Queensland drinking water.

    PubMed

    Knight, Nicole; Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Shaw, Glen

    2012-07-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors in some Southeast Queensland drinking water sources by conducting formation potential experiments for the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs), and the potent carcinogen, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). NDMA formation potentials were consistently low (<5-21 ng/L), and total THM (tTHM) formation potentials were consistently below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline (250 μg/L). NDMA concentration of finished drinking waters was also monitored and found to be <5 ng/L in all cases. The effect of coagulation and advanced oxidation on the formation of NDMA and THMs is also reported. UV/H(2)O(2) pre-treatment was effective in producing water with very low THMs concentrations, and UV irradiation was an effective method for NDMA degradation. H(2)O(2) was not required for the observed NDMA degradation to occur. Coagulation using alum, ferric chloride or poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) was ineffective in removing DBPs precursors from the source water studied, irrespective of the low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) attained. Rather, coagulation with polyDADMAC caused an increase in NDMA formation potential upon chloramination, and all coagulants led to an increased tTHM formation potential upon chlorination due to the high bromide concentration of the source water studied. PMID:21792515

  1. Perceptions of air pollution during the work-related commute by adults in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badland, Hannah M.; Duncan, Mitch J.

    2009-12-01

    BackgroundThis study examines perceived health effect risks from air pollution during the work-related commute by socio-demographic and travel mode variables. MethodsPopulation-representative survey data were collected by telephone from 745 adults from Queensland, Australia. Variables assessed included socio-demographics, usual work travel mode, commute perceptions, and perceived health effects associated with air pollution during the work-related commute. ResultsApproximately 45% of the sample perceived air pollution negatively affected health outcomes when commuting to/from work, yet only 13% recognised air pollution as a major barrier to walking or cycling to/from work. No relationships existed between usual travel mode to/from work and perceived health risks associated with air pollution. Those higher educated or living in major cities were more likely to recognise air pollution harmed their health during their work-related commute when compared to respective referent categories ( p ≤ 0.05). ConclusionsRecognition of health risks from air pollution during the work-related commute was high, and awareness did not differ by travel mode. For the majority, air pollution was not a primary barrier for walking or cycling to/from work.

  2. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  3. Pathogen presence in feral pigs and their movement around two commercial piggeries in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, H E; Toribio, J-A L M L; Hernandez-Jover, M; Marshall, D; Lapidge, S J

    2014-03-29

    Feral pigs are wild animal reservoirs of infectious pathogens transmissible to other species, all of which are transmissible to domestic pigs. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of harmful production-limiting pathogens; Brucella suis, Leptospira species, Lawsonia intracellularis, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a feral pig population within a 10 km radius of two large-scale commercial piggeries in Southern Queensland, Australia. The movement pattern of six pigs within the feral population was also investigated using geographic positioning system collars. All pathogens were present in the feral pig population except for A pleuropneumoniae. The true seroprevalence (TP) from 83 serum samples was 10.5 per cent for B suis, 48.6 per cent for Leptospira species, 100 per cent for L intracellularis and 42.1 per cent for M hyopneumoniae. Of 72 lung samples, 27.6 per cent were positive for M hyopneumoniae. Serum samples from 86 domestic sows within the study region were positive for Leptospira species (TP 2.1 per cent), L intracellularis (TP 100 per cent) and M hyopneumoniae (TP 100 per cent). The majority of feral pig movement was within 5 km of the piggeries, with one approaching to 100 m of the free-range piggery. The presence of pathogens in feral pigs in such close proximity to commercial piggeries could pose a biosecurity risk. PMID:24572722

  4. Cohort Profile Update: The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP).

    PubMed

    Najman, Jake M; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William; Clavarino, Alexandra; Mamun, Abdullah; McGrath, John J; McIntyre, David; O'Callaghan, Michael; Scott, James; Shuttlewood, Greg; Williams, Gail M; Wray, Naomi

    2015-02-01

    The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes began in 1981 with data collected on 7223 pregnant woman-child pairs (6753 mothers, of whom 520 had 2 study children, less 50 who had multiple births). These women, and their children, were initially followed for up to 21 years. Since then there have been additional follow-ups of the mothers (27 years) and their children (30 years). There has also been a substantial increase in the breadth of topics addressed, with the collection of biological samples, the administration of structured clinical assessments of mental health and cognitive capacity, and markers of physical health such as lung function and blood pressure. MUSP was originally developed as a birth cohort study. It has become a longitudinal study of growth, development and ageing with an emphasis on the generational transmission of a wide range of factors impacting on adult health outcomes. We welcome interest in our study; for study background and publications visit [www.socialscience.uq.edu.au/musp] or contact [j.najman@uq.edu.au]. PMID:25519422

  5. Perkinsus sp. infections and in vitro isolates from Anadara trapezia (mud arks) of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Dungan, Christopher F; Scott, Gail P; Reece, Kimberly S

    2015-02-10

    Perkinsus sp. protists were found infecting Anadara trapezia mud ark cockles at 6 sites in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, at prevalences of 4 to 100% during 2011 as determined by surveys using Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium. Perkinsus sp. lesions were found among gill and visceral connective tissues in histological samples from several cockles, where basophilic, eccentrically vacuolated Perkinsus sp. signet ring trophozoites and proliferating, Perkinsus sp. schizont cells were documented. Two Perkinsus sp. isolates were propagated in vitro during August 2013 from gill tissues of a single infected A. trapezia cockle from Wynnum in Moreton Bay. DNA from those isolate cells amplified universally by a Perkinsus genus-specific PCR assay, and rDNA-internal transcribed spacer sequences respectively grouped them with P. olseni and P. chesapeaki in phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of P. chesapeaki in Australia, and the first report of a P. chesapeaki in vitro isolate from an Australian mollusc host. Although P. olseni was originally described in 1981 as a pathogen of abalone in South Australia, and has subsequently been identified as a prevalent pathogen of numerous other molluscs worldwide, this is also the first report of a P. olseni-like in vitro isolate from an Australian mollusc host. PMID:25667336

  6. Heavy metal distribution and controlling factors within coastal plain sediments, Bells Creek catchment, southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Liaghati, Tania; Preda, Micaela; Cox, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    Bells Creek catchment in southeast Queensland (Australia) is a non-industrialised coastal plain limited to small settlements and agricultural land. A study was initiated to examine elevated metal concentrations and to assess horizontal and vertical distribution of those elements. Ninety-nine samples were analysed for Cr, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Mn and Al. Total organic carbon, sulfur content and mineralogy of samples along with land-use practices across the catchment were used to identify processes which influence metal distribution. A comparison between metal concentration within the study area and mean heavy metal content of standard sandstone showed that except for Mn, all other metals showed elevated levels throughout the catchment. When metal concentrations were compared to parent bedrock, however, it was concluded that elevated levels are likely to be natural. A normalisation procedure was applied to the data set and this analysis validated that elevated trace metal concentrations in most samples are not due to artificial contamination. While surficial estuarine sediments were only enriched in V, soils were dominantly enriched in Cr, Zn and V. Overall, geochemistry and mineralogy of the samples show the effect of both natural and anthropogenic inputs to the catchment, however, natural processes are more dominant than anthropogenic inputs in concentrating metals. PMID:14592571

  7. Anastomosing channels and arroyo development on the Nogoa River, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, B. L.; Brizga, S. O.

    1993-05-01

    It is widely accepted that European settlement in Australia has had a major impact on river channels. For many parts of Australia records are available which permit the history of channel changes to be reconstructed over most of the post-settlement period. In this paper the history of changes on part of the Nogoa River in Central Queensland is described from the first European contact until the present. The river channel at this site has changed from an anastomosing pattern to a single large channel (arroyo). There is evidence to suggest that such changes have occurred also in the past but an unusual feature of the present incision phase is that incision is synchronous throughout the region. This may have been triggered by the introduction of cattle which naturally congregate in the moister valley bottoms in this otherwise dry environment. The changes observed here reflect those reported for the semiarid regions of the USA. A linking factor appears to be hydrological behaviour characterised by high levels of variability in the annual flood series, which appears to render such streams more sensitive to disturbance than those with less variable flood behaviour.

  8. Effect of childhood and adolescent ultraviolet exposures on cumulative exposure in South East Queensland schools.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Meldrum, L R; Wong, J C; Aitken, J; Fleming, R A

    2000-02-01

    Quantitative estimates of the childhood and adolescent erythemal ultraviolet (UV) exposure received in South East Queensland schools are provided in this paper for age groups 0 to 6, 7 to 12 and 13 to 19 years. For the neck, hand and lower arm, sites of high UV exposure that are generally not covered by clothing, 13 to 19 year olds received the highest exposure of the three age groups, followed by 7 to 12 year olds. Exposure for 13 to 19 year olds contributed up to 44% of cumulative exposure to 20 years of age, and exposures for the 7 to 12 year olds contributed up to 31%. If the annual UV exposure for these two age groups were reduced to the average of all the age groups, cumulative erythemal UV exposure from 0 to 20 years would be reduced by up to 16%. On the other hand, if mothers can protect their babies by reducing the level of annual exposure to 30% of the annual UV exposure of the 7 to 12 year olds for the first four years then cumulative exposure to UV to age 20 would be reduced by up to 19%. These data confirm the importance of targeting young age groups in public campaigns for sun protection. PMID:10721860

  9. The isolation of a field strain of Haemonchus contortus in Queensland showing multiple anthelmintic resistance.

    PubMed

    Green, P E; Forsyth, B A; Rowan, K J; Payne, G

    1981-02-01

    Following the apparent failure of levamisole to control infections of Haemonchus contortus in sheep at Lawes in south eastern Queensland, a strain of this parasite was isolated at the Animal Research Institute, Yeerongpilly. This strain was used to infect sheep at Yeerongpilly and the Merrindale Research Station, Victoria where four experiments to classify the resistance pattern of the parasite were carried out. Resistance to thiabendazole was first suspected in 1969, and these experiments confirmed that resistance to this drug was still present. They also showed that a strong degree of resistance had been developed to both levamisole and morantel tartrate. Other benzimidazole anthelmintics and also the organophosphorus compound naphthalophos were only moderately effective against the original isolate but rafoxanide, nitroxynil and phenothiazine were almost 100% effective. Other highly effective chemicals were disophenol and closantel. After passaging the strain for four generations with both levamisole and albendazole, resistance to both naphthalophos and the newer benzimidazole anthelmintics increased dramatically. This is the first report of a field strain of H. contortus exhibiting resistance to benzimidazole, non-benzimidazole and organophosphorus anthelmintics. PMID:7259650

  10. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Elucidating the mysteries of wetting.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Sackinger, Philip A.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Emerson, John Allen; Ash, Benjamin Jesse; Heine, David R.; Brooks, Carlton, F.; Gorby, Allen D.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly every manufacturing and many technologies central to Sandia's business involve physical processes controlled by interfacial wetting. Interfacial forces, e.g. conjoining/disjoining pressure, electrostatics, and capillary condensation, are ubiquitous and can surpass and even dominate bulk inertial or viscous effects on a continuum level. Moreover, the statics and dynamics of three-phase contact lines exhibit a wide range of complex behavior, such as contact angle hysteresis due to surface roughness, surface reaction, or compositional heterogeneities. These thermodynamically and kinetically driven interactions are essential to the development of new materials and processes. A detailed understanding was developed for the factors controlling wettability in multicomponent systems from computational modeling tools, and experimental diagnostics for systems, and processes dominated by interfacial effects. Wettability probed by dynamic advancing and receding contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and direct determination of the capillary and disjoining forces. Molecular scale experiments determined the relationships between the fundamental interactions between molecular species and with the substrate. Atomistic simulations studied the equilibrium concentration profiles near the solid and vapor interfaces and tested the basic assumptions used in the continuum approaches. These simulations provide guidance in developing constitutive equations, which more accurately take into account the effects of surface induced phase separation and concentration gradients near the three-phase contact line. The development of these accurate models for dynamic multicomponent wetting allows improvement in science based engineering of manufacturing processes previously developed through costly trial and error by varying material formulation and geometry modification.

  12. This technology is all wet

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The wet oxidation technology developed by Conor Pacific Environmental Technologies Inc. (CPET; Vancouver, British Columbia) is designed to eliminate hazardous and nonhazardous organic contaminants from liquid effluent. The technology, which originated in Denmark, uses oxygen homogeneously dissolved in water to treat organic contaminants. According to the company, the process eliminates hazardous and nonhazardous contaminants without generating pollutant emissions, making it relatively easy to permit. CPET says wet oxidation eliminates some inorganic compounds, such as cyanides, and all hazardous and nonhazardous organic pollutants, including those found in petroleum products, aromatic solvents, tar compounds, pesticides and plasticizers. The process also handles relatively high concentrations of such contaminants as phenol, oil, and coal, tar and wood preservatives. The technology can achieve up to 99.9999% destruction efficiencies. The process is exothermic, generating its own heat, and allows energy to be recovered and recycled. Some heating is required at start-up, and heat exchangers are used to overcome heat build-up later in the process.

  13. Mars: Always Cold, Sometimes Wet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; McKay, Christoper P.

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis of a diverse suite of observations of H2O-related landforms that are possible Mars analogs from terrestrial polar regions (Devon Island in the Arctic; the Dry Valleys of Antarctica) put into question any requirement for extended episode(s) of warm and wet climate in Mars past. Geologically transient episodes of localized H2O cycling, forced by exogenic impacts, enhanced endogenic heat flow, and/or orbit-driven short-term local environmental change under an otherwise cold, low pressure (=10(exp 2) mbar) global climate, may be sufficient to account for the martian surface's exposed record of aqueous activity. A Mars that was only sometimes locally warm and wet while remaining climatically cold throughout its history is consistent with results (difficulties) encountered in modeling efforts attempting to support warm martian climate hypotheses. Possible analogs from terrestrial cold climate regions for the recent gully features on Mars also illustrate how transient localized aqueous activity might, under specific circumstances, also occur on Mars under the present frigid global climatic regime.

  14. Wet and dry deposition of mercury in Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gichuki, Susan W.; Mason, Robert P.

    2014-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) in fish from around Bermuda and fish consumers promoted a study of the atmospheric inputs of Hg to the ocean in the region. The average concentrations of total mercury in rain (THg; volume weighted mean 4.7 ng L-1) and in aerosols (particulate Hg; HgP; 9.5 pg m-3) were found to be comparable to other coastal locations removed from local sources at similar latitudes in North America. The estimated wet and dry deposition fluxes of Hg suggest that Bermuda is impacted by anthropogenic sources. A mass balance for Hg across the air-sea interface for the region around Bermuda also suggests that atmospheric wet plus dry deposition is less than estimated gas evasion of elemental Hg, indicating that the ocean is a net source in the region. This likely reflects historic elevated deposition of Hg to the North Atlantic, as has been suggested by historic water column data and from Hg biogeochemical modeling.

  15. Some Central Asian observatories for the WET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meistas, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Mt. Maidanak Observatory, one of several observatories in the former Soviet Central Asia, is located at an important longitude to fill in the gap in the WET (Whole Earth Telescope) network. The Lithuanian astronomical station on Mt. Maidanak was successfully tested in May 1992 for future WET campaigns. In the September 1992 campaign it provided some useful data for the WET. In February 1993 the observatory was nationalized by the Uzbekistan government, and almost all astronomical activities there have stopped. The future use of this observatory for the WET campaigns is uncertain, but there are some signs that the situation is improving. We have examined the possibility of using other Central Asian observatories for the WET. A contact was established with the Fesenkov Astronomical Institute in Alma-Ata, and in October 1993 WET observations were made at the Assy-Turgen Observatory in Kazakhstan.

  16. Wet melting along the Tonga Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. B.; Plank, T.; Arculus, R. J.; Hauri, E. H.; Hall, P.

    2010-12-01

    Melting in the mantle at convergent margins is driven by water from the subducting slab. Previous work has found a strong role for water-fluxed melting from correlations between the concentration of water in the mantle source, (H2O)o, and the extent of melting beneath backarcs, Fba. Here we explore how wet melting beneath the Lau Backarc Basin relates to that beneath the Tonga Arc, Farc, by providing the first systematic study of water contents in Tonga arc magmas. We have measured volatiles and major and trace elements in melt inclusions, glasses, and whole rocks obtained from recently sampled submarine and subaerial Tonga arc volcanoes. The compositions are varied and range mostly between andesite and basalt/boninite, and least-degassed water contents range from 2 to 5 wt%. We estimate (H2O)o and Farc independently by combining pressure (P) and temperature (T) estimates from an olivine-orthopyroxene-melt thermobarometer with a wet melting productivity model. When P, T, and (H2O)o are known, Farc is uniquely constrained. Results for the volcanoes in the Tonga Arc are bimodal with respect to T: volcanoes located near active backarc spreading centers reflect cooler melting (~1275°C) than those located far from active spreading centers (~1365°C). The cooler primary T’s may result from removal of the heat of fusion during prior melting beneath the Lau backarc, Fba. In the northern portion of the arc, the warmest primary T’s may be due to proximity to the Samoan mantle plume. Farc varies non-systematically along-strike, indicating that Fba is the primary driver of along-arc variability in primary melt compositions. Farc can also be used to calculate the TiO2 concentration of the arc mantle source, (TiO2)o (a proxy for source depletion), which varies monotonically along the Tonga Arc. Arc volcanoes adjacent to the Southern Lau Rifts and Valu Fa Ridge melt mantle with a fertile N-MORB TiO2, while those adjacent to the northern extent of the Eastern Lau Spreading

  17. Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

  18. Thunderstorms Increase Mercury Wet Deposition.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher D; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth P; Caffrey, Jane M; Landing, William M; Edgerton, Eric S; Knapp, Kenneth R; Nair, Udaysankar S

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) wet deposition, transfer from the atmosphere to Earth's surface by precipitation, in the United States is highest in locations and seasons with frequent deep convective thunderstorms, but it has never been demonstrated whether the connection is causal or simple coincidence. We use rainwater samples from over 800 individual precipitation events to show that thunderstorms increase Hg concentrations by 50% relative to weak convective or stratiform events of equal precipitation depth. Radar and satellite observations reveal that strong convection reaching the upper troposphere (where high atmospheric concentrations of soluble, oxidized mercury species (Hg(II)) are known to reside) produces the highest Hg concentrations in rain. As a result, precipitation meteorology, especially thunderstorm frequency and total rainfall, explains differences in Hg deposition between study sites located in the eastern United States. Assessing the fate of atmospheric mercury thus requires bridging the scales of global transport and convective precipitation. PMID:27464305

  19. Wet comet model: Rosetta redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Robert B.

    2015-09-01

    The wet-comet model (WCM) of the structure and composition of comets was developed in 2005 to replace the "dirty-snowball" model (DSM) of Fred Whipple, because the first comet flybys of P/Halley "armada" revealed a very different landscape. Subsequent flybys of P/Borrelly, P/Wild-2, P/Hartley, P/Tempel-1 have confirmed and refined the model, so that we confidently predicted that the Rosetta mission would encounter a prolate, tumbling, concrete-encrusted, black comet: P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Unfortunately, the Philae lander team was preparing for a DSM and the anchors bounced off the concrete surface, but the orbiter has returned spec- tacular pictures of every crevice, which confirm and extend the WCM yet a sixth time. We report of what we predicted, what was observed, and several unexpected results from the ROSETTA mission.

  20. Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy. PMID:24941308

  1. A mesoscopic model for (de)wetting.

    PubMed

    Merabia, S; Pagonabarraga, I

    2006-06-01

    We present a mesoscopic model for simulating the dynamics of a non-volatile liquid on a solid substrate. The wetting properties of the solid can be tuned from complete wetting to total non-wetting. This model opens the way to study the dynamics of drops and liquid thin films at mesoscopic length scales of the order of the nanometer. As particular applications, we analyze the kinetics of spreading of a liquid drop wetting a solid substrate and the dewetting of a liquid film on a hydrophobic substrate. In all these cases, very good agreement is found between simulations and theoretical predictions. PMID:16775662

  2. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  3. Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10μgm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32μgm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois

  4. Defrosting North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 June 2004 Spring is upon the martian northern hemisphere, and the north polar cap is shrinking. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired on 12 June 2004, shows the retreating edge of the seasonal north polar cap near 70oN, 209oW. Low clouds and fogs stream away from the cap edge as it sublimes away. North is approximately up and the image covers an area roughly 500 km (311 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. The crater containing a thick mound of material near the right-center of the image is Korolev.

  5. Building of tropical beach ridges, northeastern Queensland, Australia: Cyclone inundation and aeolian decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Toru; Nicholas, William; Brooke, Brendan; Oliver, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Processes associated with tropical cyclones are thought responsible for building coarse sand beach ridges along the northeastern Queensland coast, Australia. While these ridges are expected to be geological records of the past cyclone, they question the general consensus of the aeolian genesis of sandy beach ridges. To explore the ridge-forming process, we carried out the GPR survey, auger drilling, pit excavation, grain-size analysis, and OSL dating for coarse sand beach ridges at the Cowley Beach, northeastern Queensland. The Cowley Beach is a mesotidal beach characterized by a low-tide terrace and steep beach face. Ten beach ridges are recognized along the survey transect that extends 700 m inland from the shore. 37 OSL ages are younger seawards, indicating the seaward accretion of the ridge sequence over the last 2700 years. The highest ridge is +5.1 m high above AHD (Australian Height Datum). Two GPR units are bounded by a groundwater surface at c. +1.5 m AHD. The upper unit is characterized by horizontal to hummocky reflectors punctuated by seaward dipping truncation surfaces. These reflectors in places form dome-like structure that appears to be the nucleus of a beach ridge. The shape and level (+2.5 m AHD) of the dome are similar to those of the present swash berm. The lower unit shows a sequence of reflectors that dip at an angle of present beach face. The sequence is dissected by truncation surfaces, some of which are continuous to those in the upper unit. Coarse sand mainly forms beach ridge deposits below +4.0 m AHD, while a few higher ridges have an upward fining layer composed of medium sand above +4.0 m, which is finer than aeolian ripples found on the backshore during the survey. In addition, pumice gravel horizons underlie the examined ridge crests. The sequence of seaward dipping reflectors indicates that the Cowley Beach, like other many sandy beaches, has prograded during onshore sand accretion by fairweather waves and has been eroded by storms

  6. Prevalence of maternal red cell alloimmunisation: a population study from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pal, Manika; Williams, Bronwyn

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current prevalence of red cell antigen alloimmunisation in Australia. Blood group (ABO and RhD) and red cell antibody screen results of pregnant women who presented at public hospitals in Queensland between the period of January 2011 and June 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Antibody prevalence in pregnancy was compared to other published studies. A total of 482 positive antibody screens from 66,354 samples (0.73%) were identified. The prevalence of antibodies was: anti-E 27.6%; anti-D 10.4%; anti-Kell 9.5%; anti-c 8.7%; anti-Duffy 3.1%, including Fy and Fy; anti-MNS 7.9%, including M, N, S and s; anti-Lewis 6%, including Le and Le; and multiple antibodies (16%, including anti-D). Compared to other studies, including one from Australia in 1977, the anti-D alloimmunisation rate had dropped significantly, with little change in anti-c and some increase in anti-E and anti-Kell cases. Continued vigilance is required to ensure eligible RhD negative women receive prophylaxis according to the current RhD immunoprophylaxis guidelines, especially those who have a fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH). RhD positive women that are at risk of developing an antibody during pregnancy should have their pregnancy monitored according to published guidelines. Once antibodies are identified, consideration should be given to paternal antigen status in an attempt to identify the pregnancy that will be at risk of alloimmunisation. PMID:25551305

  7. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Microchip identification has become an important tool to reunite stray dogs and cats with their owners, and is now compulsory in most states of Australia. Improvement of the microchipping system in Australia is limited by a lack of published Australian data documenting the problems experienced by shelter staff when using microchip data to contact the owner of a stray animal. In this study we determine the character and frequency of inaccurate microchip data to identify weaknesses in the current microchipping system. This information could be used to develop strategies that increase the accuracy of microchip data that will increase the reclaiming of stray animals. Abstract A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of

  8. A statewide outbreak of Salmonella bovismorbificans phage type 32 infection in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Russell J; McCall, Bradley J; Neill, Annette S; Leon, Dallas S; Dorricott, Gregory J; Towner, Christopher D; Micalizzi, Gino R

    2002-01-01

    Between 30 May and 1 June 2001, 10 cases of Salmonella Bovismorbificans infection were reported to Public Health Services, Queensland Health. Investigations included enhanced surveillance, case interviews, a matched case control study, environmental audit and microbiological testing of faecal isolates (phage typing) and implicated food products. Forty-one cases of S. Bovismorbificans infection were detected, 36 cases were phage type 32. A matched case control study identified that illness was associated with consumption of food from 15 outlets of a fast food chain, Company A (matched odds ratio [MOR] 17.5, 95% CI 2.0-657.3, p = 0.004) and consumption of a particular product, Product X (MOR undefined, p < 0.001) in the week before onset of illness. Manufacturers of Product X ingredients were audited. Deficiencies were identified in equipment cleansing at the salad mixture processing plant (Manufacturer M). A swab of food residue behind the cutting wheel rim of the lettuce shredder was positive for S. Bovismorbificans phage type 32. This appears to be the first reported Australian outbreak of salmonellosis associated with a lettuce product. The investigations suggest that inadequate maintenance of cutting equipment to prepare lettuce ingredients for Product X by Manufacturer M was a key factor in this statewide outbreak. The statewide nature of this outbreak demonstrates the role of timely serovar identification of Salmonella isolates by a reference laboratory as an aid to outbreak identification, and the importance of adherence to appropriate food safety procedures in the manufacture and preparation of mass produced food items for the public. PMID:12549525

  9. Catchment salt balances in the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Andrew J. W.; Silburn, D. Mark; Power, R. Edward

    2013-09-01

    Catchment salt mass balances and export/import ratios were calculated for 55 gauging stations in nine major catchments across the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin (QMDB), Australia. Salt inputs were comprised of atmospheric, groundwater and inter-basin transfer contributions, while exports were derived from model runs calibrated to streamflow data and flow-salt relationships. Catchment atmospheric salt inputs were larger than groundwater inputs in the major catchments, with the exception of the Condamine catchment. Across the whole QMDB, the magnitude of atmospheric and groundwater inputs is potentially equal. Average annual streamflow salt export is generally much less than salt input, even when atmospheric inputs alone are considered, and is strongly influenced by episodic, large events. The exceptions to this are some smaller salt-affected upland catchments in the eastern QMDB where flow is more continual (i.e. baseflow occurs) and stream salinity is higher - a result of long-term land use change impacts. Variability in catchment salt export/import ratio (E/I) as a result of different calculation methods for both inputs and outputs creates a wide range in possible E/I for some sites, but trends remain the same. Losses of stream water to floodplains, seepage and extractions in lower portions of catchments leads to significant reductions in E/I with distance downstream. It appears that in general, the natural status of the QMDB is one of salt accumulation and significant hydrologic changes - as represented through salt mass balance calculations - are largely confined to the eastern half of the Basin, although further change may yet express in the landscape.

  10. Validation of satellite-based operational flood monitoring in Southern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouweleeuw, Ben; Ticehurst, Catherine; Lerat, Julien; Thew, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The integration of remote sensing observations with stage data and flood modeling has the potential to provide improved support to a number of disciplines, such as flood warning emergency response and operational water resources management. The ability of remote sensing technology to monitor the dynamics of hydrological events lies in its capacity to map surface water. For flood monitoring, remote sensing imagery needs to be available sufficiently frequently to capture subsequent inundation stages. MODIS optical data are available at a moderately high spatial and temporal resolution (250m-1km, twice daily), but are affected by cloud cover. AMSR-E passive microwave observations are available at comparable temporal resolution, but coarse spatial resolution (5-70km), where the smaller footprints corresponds with the higher frequency bands, which are affected by precipitating clouds. A novel operational technique to monitor flood extent combines MODIS reflectance and AMSR-E passive microwave imagery to optimize data continuity. Flood extent is subsequently combined with a DEM to obtain total flood water volume. The flood extent and volume product is operational for the lower-Balonne floodplain in Southern Queensland, Australia. For validation purposes, two moderate flood events coinciding with the MODIS and AMSR-E sensor lifetime are evaluated. The flood volume estimated from MODIS/AMSR-E images gives an accurate indication of both the timing and the magnitude of the flood peak compared to the net volume from recorded flow. In the flood recession, however, satellite-derived water volume declines rapidly, while the net flow volume remains level. This may be explained by a combination of ungauged outflows, soil infiltration, evaporation and diversion of flood water into many large open reservoirs for irrigation purposes. The open water storage extent unchanged, the water volume product is not sensitive enough to capture the change in storage water level. Additional

  11. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  12. Habitat and biodiversity of on-farm water storages: a case study in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Markwell, Kim A; Fellows, Christine S

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners' motivations in making farm pond management decisions.The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover.The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds across

  13. Petrogenesis of peralkaline rhyolites in an intra-plate setting: Glass House Mountains, southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fengli; Niu, Yaoling; Regelous, Marcel; Zhu, Di-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    We report petrological and geochemical data on coeval trachybasalts, syenites with enclaves, trachytes, peralkaline rhyolites and peraluminous rhyolites from the Glass House Mountains-Maleny-Noosa area, southeast Queensland, Australia. This rock association and the unique characteristics of the peralkaline rhyolites offer convincing lines of evidence that the petrogenesis of the peralkaline rhyolites is a straightforward consequence of protracted fractional crystallization from basaltic melts of alkali-rich composition. Compared to the common peraluminous rhyolites elsewhere, the peralkaline rhyolites here are characterized by elevated abundances of most incompatible elements, especially the very high Nb (vs. Th) and Ta (vs. U), the very low Ba, Sr and Eu and the extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratio. The high Nb and Ta are inherited from the parental alkali basaltic melts. The low Ba, Sr and Eu result from removal of plagioclase during the protracted fractional crystallization. These rocks altogether define a Rb-Sr isochron of ~ 28 Ma, which is similar to Ar-Ar age data on these rocks in the literature. The extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the peralkaline rhyolites (up to 1.88) is actually characteristic of peralkaline rhyolites because of extreme Sr (also Eu and Ba) depletion and thus the very high Rb/Sr ratio. That is, the Sr in these rocks is essentially radiogenic 87Sr accumulated from the 87Rb decay since the volcanism. We suggest that the petrogenesis of the peralkaline rhyolites from the Glass House Mountain area may be of general significance globally. The coeval peraluminous rhyolites apparently result from crustal anatexis in response to the basaltic magma underplating. The small "Daly Gap" exhibited in this rock association is anticipated during the protracted fractional crystallization from basaltic parent to the more evolved felsic varieties.

  14. Morphological and historical resilience to catastrophic flooding: The case of Lockyer Creek, SE Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryirs, Kirstie; Lisenby, Peyton; Croke, Jacky

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of geomorphic change resulting from the catastrophic flood of 2011 in the Lockyer Valley in southeast Queensland and to place these impacts within a history of geomorphic adjustment. Aerial photographs dated from 1933 to 2011 and parish maps and historical on-ground photographs dating from 1865 to 1966 were examined for evidence of geomorphic adjustment since European settlement in the first half of the nineteenth century. Eleven forms of geomorphic adjustment were identified in three categories; erosional, depositional, and reorganisational. Only 26% of the Lockyer Creek channel length has been affected by some form of geomorphic adjustment since European settlement. Most of this adjustment was localised and dominated by reorganisation of geomorphic unit assemblages within the macrochannel and sediment deposition on floodplains. No wholesale river change in the form of lateral migration or avulsion has occurred, and the river's morphology has remained relatively characteristic over time (i.e., morphology remains relatively uniform in a reach-averaged sense). Geomorphic responses to extreme flooding have been minor, and the geomorphic effectiveness of floods in this system (including the 2011 flood) has been limited over the last several hundred years. The system is likely still adjusting to past flooding events that 'set' the morphology of the current system (i.e., the macrochannel). A form of event resilience has resulted in this system such that it is less prone to geomorphic adjustment during events than would normally be considered geomorphically effective. As a result, antecedent controls on macrochannel presence and capacity are considered to be first-order controls on contemporary forms and processes in this system. Work is required to test whether the resilience of this system will hold in the future, with more extreme episodes of flooding predicted to occur in this region under future climate change.

  15. Revision of the Scytinopteridae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Scytinopteroidea) of the Queensland Triassic.

    PubMed

    Lambkin, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    The extinct hemipteran family Scytinopteridae, the presumed ancestors of the Heteroptera, was a small but widely distributed element of the Triassic insect fauna of Queensland. A total of 28 tegmina have been collected at six sites (Gayndah, Esk, Mount Crosby, Riverview, Denmark Hill and Dinmore) in five Middle or Late Triassic Formations. The specimens are remarkably uniform in both wing shape and basic venation, and the generally weakly developed venation of the apical area of the tegmen is rarely clearly preserved. Some consistent variations in tegmen size and in minor venational characters, however, have enabled the identification of six and possibly seven species in three genera, acknowledging of course, the somewhat artificial nature of fossil insect species based solely on isolated wings. Mesoscytina Tillyard, 1919 (= Triassoscarta Tillyard, 1919, syn. nov.), comprising Mesoscytina australis Tillyard, 1919 (= Mesoscytina affinis Tillyard, 1919, syn. nov., = Triassoscarta subcostalis Tillyard, 1919, syn. nov.) (Denmark Hill, Esk), Mesoscytina fistulae sp. nov. (Mount Crosby, Gayndah), Mesoscytina woodsi sp. nov. (Gayndah), and Mesoscytina magna sp. nov. (Dinmore), is distinguished by the combination of the R more or less straight distally and M with three apical branches. The monotypic Eurymelidium Tillyard, 1919, with type species Eurymelidium australe Tillyard, 1919 (Denmark Hill, Dinmore), has R sinuous and M with two apical branches, and the monotypic Apheloscyta Tillyard, 1922, with type species Apheloscyta mesocampta Tillyard, 1922 (Denmark Hill, Riverview) has R more or less straight and M with two apical branches. Three poorly preserved and thus unidentifiable scytinopterid tegmina from Esk, similar in size to Mesoscytina fistulae, are designated as Esk species A. PMID:27395195

  16. Bacteria isolated from dugongs (Dugong dugon) submitted for postmortem examination in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristen A; Owen, Helen C; Mills, Paul C; Flint, Mark; Gibson, Justine S

    2013-03-01

    Microbial infection may contribute to disease in a significant proportion of marine mammal mortalities, but little is known about infectious bacterial species and their prevalence in dugongs (Dugong dugon). This study represents a survey of the species of bacteria and fungi isolated from dugongs submitted to the University of Queensland's School of Veterinary Science for postmortem examination. Thirty-six dugongs were included in the survey, with 23 species of bacteria and four species of fungus cultured from lesions that were suspected of contributing to local infection, systemic infection, or both. The most abundant bacteria included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas spp. In six cases, the microorganism(s) cultured were considered to have been associated with disease. Mixed infections containing Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp.; Morganella morganii, Pasteurella multocida, and Serratia marcescens; and Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. were associated with pneumonia or pleuritis, and Enterococcus faecalis was associated with a multisystemic infection in a neonate. Clostridium spp. was cultured from two animals with peritonitis and likely septicemia. The significance of many of the other isolates is uncertain because the samples were taken after death, and some of the species isolated may represent postmortem overgrowth. It is also difficult to fulfil Koch's postulates through experimental infection in marine mammals. Regardless, this information will assist clinicians working with dugongs to make treatment decisions and the baseline data on the prevalence of bacterial and fungal species is of value for monitoring coastal water habitat health and risks of zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:23505701

  17. Remating inhibition in female Queensland fruit flies: effects and correlates of sperm storage.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Aaron M T; Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Taylor, Phillip W

    2006-02-01

    Reproductive success of male insects commonly hinges both on their ability to secure copulations with many mates and also on their ability to inseminate and inhibit subsequent sexual receptivity of their mates to rival males. We here present the first investigation of sperm storage in Queensland fruit flies (Tephritidae: Bactrocera tryoni; a.k.a. 'Q-flies') and address the question of whether remating inhibition in females is directly influenced by or correlated with number of sperm stored from their first mates. We used irradiation to disrupt spermatogenesis and thereby experimentally reduce the number of sperm stored by some male's mates while leaving other aspects of male sexual performance (mating probability, latency until copulating, copula duration) unaffected. Females that mated with irradiated rather than normal males were less likely to store any sperm at all (50% vs. 89%) and, if some sperm were stored, the number was greatly reduced (median 11 vs. 120). Despite the considerable differences in sperm storage, females mated by normal males and irradiated males were similarly likely to remate at the next opportunity, indicating (1) number of sperm stored does not directly drive female remating inhibition and (2) factors actually responsible for remating inhibition are similarly expressed in normal and irradiated males. While overall levels of remating were similar for mates of normal and irradiated males, factors responsible for female remating inhibition were positively associated with presence and number of sperm stored by mates of normal but not irradiated males. We suggest seminal fluids as the most likely factor responsible for remating inhibition in female Q-flies, as these are likely to be transported in proportion to number of sperm in normal males, be uninfluenced by irradiation, and be transported without systematic relation to sperm number in irradiated males. PMID:16289534

  18. Global change and the mulga woodlands of southwest Queensland: greenhouse gas emissions, impacts, and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Howden, S M; Moore, J L; McKeon, G M; Carter, J O

    2001-09-01

    The possibility of trading greenhouse gas emission permits as a result of the Kyoto Protocol has spurred interest in developing land-based sinks for greenhouse gases. Extensive grazing lands that have the potential to develop substantial woody biomass are one obvious candidate for such activities. However, such activities need to consider the possible impacts on existing grazing and the possible impacts of continuing CO2 buildup in the atmosphere and resultant climate change. We used simulation models to investigate these issues in the mulga (Acacia aneura) woodlands of southwest Queensland. The simulation results suggest that this system can be managed to act as either a net source or a net sink of greenhouse gases under current climate and CO2 and under a range of global change scenarios. The key component in determining source or sink status is the management of the woody mulga. The most effective means of permanently increasing carbon stores and hence reducing net emissions is to exclude both burning and grazing. There are combinations of management regimes, such as excluding fire with light grazing, which, on average, allows productive grazing but transient carbon storage. The effects of increased CO2 on ecosystem carbon stores were unexpected. Carbon stores increased (7-17%) with doubling of CO2 only in those simulations where burning did not occur, but decreased when burnt. This occurred because the substantial increases in grass growth with doubling of CO2 (34-56%) enabled more fires, killing off the establishing cohorts needed to ensure continued carbon accumulation. On average, the doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration increased grass growth by 44%, which is identical with mean literature values, suggesting that this result may be applicable in other ecosystems where fire has a similar function. A sensitivity analysis of the CO2 response of mulga showed only minor impacts. We discuss additional uncertainties and shortcomings. PMID:11697664

  19. Screening for drugs in oral fluid: illicit drug use and drug driving in a sample of Queensland motorists.

    PubMed

    Davey, J; Leal, N; Freeman, J

    2007-05-01

    Police Services in a number of Australian states have indicated random roadside drug testing will be implemented to target drug driving. This paper outlines research conducted to provide an estimate of the prevalence of drug driving in a sample of Queensland drivers. Oral fluid samples were collected from 781 drivers who volunteered to participate at Random Breath Testing (RBT) sites in a large Queensland regional area. Illicit substances tested for included cannabis (delta 9 tetrahydrocannibinol [THC]), amphetamine type substances, heroin and cocaine. Drivers also completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their drug-related driving behaviour. Samples that were drug-positive at initial screening were sent to a government laboratory for confirmation. Oral fluid samples from 27 participants (3.5%) were confirmed positive for at least one illicit substance. The most common drugs detected in oral fluid were cannabis (delta 9 THC) (n = 13) followed by amphetamine type substances (n = 11). A key finding was that cannabis was also confirmed as the most common self-reported drug combined with driving and that individuals who tested positive to any drug through oral fluid analysis were also more likely to report the highest frequency of drug driving. Furthermore, a comparison between drug vs drink driving detection rates for the study period revealed a higher detection rate for drug driving (3.5%) vs drink driving (0.8%). This research provides evidence that drug driving is relatively prevalent on Queensland Roads. The paper will further outline the study findings and present possible directions for future drug driving research. PMID:17454020

  20. Mangrove distribution and mosquito control: transport of Avicennia marina propagules by mosquito-control runnels in southeast Queensland saltmarshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfuss, M. J.; Connolly, R. M.; Dale, P. E. R.

    2003-03-01

    The saltmarsh-mangrove interface generally constitutes the landward boundary for the grey mangrove Avicennia marina var. australasica, the most widespread species on southeast Queensland shores. A. marina produces buoyant propagules, which are dispersed by tidal waters, only infrequently transported to saltmarsh by the highest spring tides. We predicted that runnelling, a form of habitat modification for mosquito control, transports and deposits mangrove propagules to saltmarsh because the runnels carry low-amplitude tides that would not normally inundate higher regions of the marsh. To test this, groups of marked A. marina propagules were released at three runnelled saltmarshes in southeast Queensland during high-amplitude, flooding and low-amplitude, non-flooding tidal events. The distance propagules were transported from their original starting positions on the saltmarsh-mangrove interface was measured and analysed to detect differences among groups at different distances from runnels. Groups of propagules released within 10 m of a runnel were always transported significantly further from the starting position and further up the saltmarsh shore after both flooding and non-flooding tides than any other groups. In addition, the pattern of stranding on saltmarsh for significantly different groups was closely associated with the path of runnel construction so that propagules were located either in the runnel or in depressions linked to the runnel that had been isolated mosquito-breeding pools prior to runnelling. Observations of A. marina plants at other runnelled sites suggest that propagules transported by runnels can establish and develop to maturity, at least in depressions and runnels, in saltmarsh. The fact that runnels transport propagules to regions of the saltmarsh beyond their normal limits of dispersion suggests a possible advantage for landward extension of the intertidal distribution of A. marina at runnelled sites and should be considered in saltmarsh

  1. Late Quaternary stream sedimentation in the humid tropics: a review with new data from NE Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Michael F.; Nott, Jonathan; Price, David M.

    2001-07-01

    There is now a wide agreement that temperature depression in the humid tropics during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was at least 5°C. Most estimates of precipitation reduction at the LGM range from 25-30% to 50-65%, based on proxy data, but the recent CCM1 model envisages only around 12%. Dates obtained from river sediments indicate major changes to fluvial activity in the late Quaternary. Isotope Zone 3 sediments (58-28 ka BP) are widespread and possibly indicate cooler conditions. Post-28 ka BP, and certainly post-21 ka BP, river regimes altered radically towards fan building, braiding or major reduction in all activity. This paper reports on fan formation in NE Queensland between 26 and 14 ka BP and reviews evidence for comparable changes in humid tropical areas of S America, W Africa and SE Asia, including records of Holocene sedimentation. Within a global rhythm of major changes to river regimes in the humid tropics during the late Quaternary, it is now possible to detect regional variations in stream response to climatic change. At the LGM, reductions in stream power may have led to fan formation in NE Queensland, while vegetation changes may have contributed to increased sediment loads and braiding in some forest marginal areas. But, in W Africa, greater aridity may have been responsible for enfeebled streams leaving few records. Channel cutting, then deposition of coarse sediment in braided rivers marked the transition to the early Holocene in W Africa, and fans became entrenched in NE Queensland. This regime persisted until forest recovery was complete by 9.5-8.5 ka BP, when widespread overbank deposition occurred and a change towards meandering channels took place widely across the humid tropical zone, followed by several cut-and-fill episodes in the middle and late Holocene.

  2. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Corrie S; Hugall, Andrew F; McDonald, Keith R; Jamieson, Barrie G M; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT) are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalkerius) from the region. Using DEC and DIVA historical biogeography methods we find a strong signal of vicariance among known biogeographical sub-regions across the whole phylogeny, congruent with the phylogeography of less diverse vertebrate groups. Absolute dating estimates, in conjunction with relative ages of major biogeographic disjunctions across Australia, indicate that diversification in Terrisswalkerius dates back before the mid-Miocene shift towards aridification, into the Paleogene era of isolation of mesothermal Gondwanan Australia. For the Queensland endemic Terrisswalkerius earthworms, the AWT have acted as both a museum of biological diversity and as the setting for continuing geographically structured diversification. These results suggest that past events affecting organismal diversification can be concordant across phylogeographic to phylogenetic levels and emphasize the value of multi-scale analysis, from intra- to interspecies, for understanding the broad-scale processes that have shaped geographic diversity. PMID:26366862

  3. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Corrie S.; Hugall, Andrew F.; McDonald, Keith R.; Jamieson, Barrie G. M.; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT) are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalkerius) from the region. Using DEC and DIVA historical biogeography methods we find a strong signal of vicariance among known biogeographical sub-regions across the whole phylogeny, congruent with the phylogeography of less diverse vertebrate groups. Absolute dating estimates, in conjunction with relative ages of major biogeographic disjunctions across Australia, indicate that diversification in Terrisswalkerius dates back before the mid-Miocene shift towards aridification, into the Paleogene era of isolation of mesothermal Gondwanan Australia. For the Queensland endemic Terrisswalkerius earthworms, the AWT have acted as both a museum of biological diversity and as the setting for continuing geographically structured diversification. These results suggest that past events affecting organismal diversification can be concordant across phylogeographic to phylogenetic levels and emphasize the value of multi-scale analysis, from intra- to interspecies, for understanding the broad-scale processes that have shaped geographic diversity. PMID:26366862

  4. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  5. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and paracetamol use in Queensland and in the whole of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Barozzi, Nadia; Tett, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    Background Cross national drug utilization studies can provide information about different influences on physician prescribing. This is important for medicines with issues around safety and quality of use, like non selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ns-NSAIDs) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. To enable comparison of prescription medicine use across different jurisdictions with a range of population sizes, data first need to be compared within Australia to understand whether use in a smaller sub-population may be considered as representative of the total use within Australia. The aim of this study was to compare the utilization of non selective NSAID, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol between Queensland and Australia. Method Dispensing data were obtained for concession beneficiaries for Australia for ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol subsidized by the PBS over the period 1997–2003. The same data were purchased for Queensland. Data were converted to Defined Daily Dose (DDD)/1000 beneficiaries/day (World Health Organization anatomical therapeutic chemical classification, 2005). Results Total NSAID and paracetamol consumption were similar in Australia and Queensland. Ns-NSAID use decreased sharply with the introduction of COX-2 inhibitors (from approximately 80 to 40 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day). Paracetamol was constant (approximately 45 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day). COX-2 inhibitors consumption was initially higher in Queensland than in the whole of Australia. Conclusion Despite initial divergence in celecoxib use between Queensland and Australia, the use of ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol overall, in concession beneficiaries, was comparable in Australia and Queensland. PMID:18816393

  6. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  7. 7 CFR 29.2316 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2316 Section 29.2316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2316 Wet...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3567 Section 29.3567 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2570 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2570 Section 29.2570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2570 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1083 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.1083 Section 29.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1083 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3077 Section 29.3077 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3077 Section 29.3077 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3567 Section 29.3567 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3077 Section 29.3077 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3077 Section 29.3077 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2316 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2316 Section 29.2316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2316 Wet...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2316 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2316 Section 29.2316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2316 Wet...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2570 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2570 Section 29.2570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2570 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2316 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2316 Section 29.2316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2316 Wet...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3077 Section 29.3077 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2316 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2316 Section 29.2316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2316 Wet...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3567 Section 29.3567 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  3. 7 CFR 29.1083 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.1083 Section 29.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1083 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3567 Section 29.3567 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1083 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.1083 Section 29.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1083 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1083 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.1083 Section 29.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1083 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2570 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2570 Section 29.2570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2570 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3567 Section 29.3567 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1083 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.1083 Section 29.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1083 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2570 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2570 Section 29.2570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2570 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2570 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2570 Section 29.2570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2570 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  12. The van Niel International Prize for Studies in Bacterial Systematics, awarded by The University of Queensland Awarded in 2011 to George M. Garrity.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The Senate of The University of Queensland, on the recommendation of a panel of experts of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, is pleased to present the van Niel International Prize for Studies in Bacterial Systematics for the triennium 2009-2011 to Professor George M. Garrity in recognition of his contribution made to the field of bacterial systematics. The award, established in 1986 by Professor V. B. D. Skerman of The University of Queensland, honours the contribution of scholarship in the field of microbiology by Professor Cornelis Bernardus van Niel. PMID:21900697

  13. Thin wetting film lensless imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allier, C. P.; Poher, V.; Coutard, J. G.; Hiernard, G.; Dinten, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Lensless imaging has recently attracted a lot of attention as a compact, easy-to-use method to image or detect biological objects like cells, but failed at detecting micron size objects like bacteria that often do not scatter enough light. In order to detect single bacterium, we have developed a method based on a thin wetting film that produces a micro-lens effect. Compared with previously reported results, a large improvement in signal to noise ratio is obtained due to the presence of a micro-lens on top of each bacterium. In these conditions, standard CMOS sensors are able to detect single bacterium, e.g. E.coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis, with a large signal to noise ratio. This paper presents our sensor optimization to enhance the SNR; improve the detection of sub-micron objects; and increase the imaging FOV, from 4.3 mm2 to 12 mm2 to 24 mm2, which allows the detection of bacteria contained in 0.5μl to 4μl to 10μl, respectively.

  14. Precursor films in wetting phenomena.

    PubMed

    Popescu, M N; Oshanin, G; Dietrich, S; Cazabat, A-M

    2012-06-20

    The spontaneous spreading of non-volatile liquid droplets on solid substrates poses a classic problem in the context of wetting phenomena. It is well known that the spreading of a macroscopic droplet is in many cases accompanied by a thin film of macroscopic lateral extent, the so-called precursor film, which emanates from the three-phase contact line region and spreads ahead of the latter with a much higher speed. Such films have been usually associated with liquid-on-solid systems, but in the last decade similar films have been reported to occur in solid-on-solid systems. While the situations in which the thickness of such films is of mesoscopic size are fairly well understood, an intriguing and yet to be fully understood aspect is the spreading of microscopic, i.e. molecularly thin, films. Here we review the available experimental observations of such films in various liquid-on-solid and solid-on-solid systems, as well as the corresponding theoretical models and studies aimed at understanding their formation and spreading dynamics. Recent developments and perspectives for future research are discussed. PMID:22627067

  15. Dynamic wetting at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amberg, Gustav; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Carlson, Andreas; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2013-11-01

    Although the capillary spreading of a drop on a dry substrate is well studied, the physical mechanisms that govern the dynamics remain challenging. Here we study the dynamics of spreading of partially wetting nano-droplets, by combining molecular dynamics and continuum simulations. The latter accounts for all the relevant hydrodynamics, i.e. capillarity, inertia and viscous stresses. By coordinated continuum and molecular dynamics simulations, the macroscopic model parameters are extracted. For a Lennard-Jones fluid spreading on a planar surface, the liquid slip on the substrate is found to be crucial for the motion of the contact line. Evaluation of the different contributions to the energy transfer shows that the liquid slip generates dissipation of the same order as the bulk viscous dissipation or the energy transfer to kinetic energy. We also study the dynamics of spreading on a substrate with a periodic nanostructure. Here it is found that a nanostructure with a length scale commensurate with molecular size completely inhibits the liquid slip. This reduces the spreading speed by about 30%. This work is partially supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, the Swedish Research Council, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and the Sasakawa foundation.

  16. Multivariate genetic analysis of academic skills of the Queensland core skills test and IQ highlight the importance of genetic g.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Mark A; Wright, Margaret J; Luciano, Michelle; Geffen, Gina M; Martin, Nicholas G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the genetic and environmental relationships among 5 academic achievement skills of a standardized test of academic achievement, the Queensland Core Skills Test (QCST; Queensland Studies Authority, 2003a). QCST participants included 182 monozygotic pairs and 208 dizygotic pairs (mean 17 years +/- 0.4 standard deviation). IQ data were included in the analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. A genetic general factor explained virtually all genetic variance in the component academic skills scores, and accounted for 32% to 73% of their phenotypic variances. It also explained 56% and 42% of variation in Verbal IQ and Performance IQ respectively, suggesting that this factor is genetic g. Modest specific genetic effects were evident for achievement in mathematical problem solving and written expression. A single common factor adequately explained common environmental effects, which were also modest, and possibly due to assortative mating. The results suggest that general academic ability, derived from genetic influences and to a lesser extent common environmental influences, is the primary source of variation in component skills of the QCST. PMID:16354502

  17. At the Heart of the Industrial Boom: Australian Snubfin Dolphins in the Capricorn Coast, Queensland, Need Urgent Conservation Action

    PubMed Central

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Parra, Guido J.; Westley, Shane; Harrison, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The recent industrial boom along the Australian coastline has increased concerns about the long term conservation of snubfin dolphins along the Queensland coast. National assessment of the conservation status and management of the Australian snubfin dolphin is currently hindered by the lack of adequate biological and ecological information throughout most of its range. In response to the issue of determining the conservation status of species with broad ranges, the IUCN has provided a framework for assessing the threatened status of regional populations. In this study we assessed the conservation status of a small geographically isolated population of snubfin dolphins living in the Fitzroy River region, Queensland, Australia, against the IUCN criteria for regional populations. A review of all available sightings data and stranding information indicates that this is the southernmost resident population of snubfin dolphins in Australian waters. The Fitzroy River snubfin dolphin population is composed of less than 100 individuals, with a representative range and core area of less than 400 and 300 km2 respectively. The area most often used by snubfin dolphins within the representative range and core area was estimated to be about 292 and 191 km2, respectively. A decrease in representative range, core area and preferred habitat between 14 and 25% is projected to occur if a planned industrial port development were to occur. These results are robust to uncertainty and considering the low level of formal protection and future threats, a classification of this subpopulation under the IUCN Red List as “Endangered” is appropriate. PMID:23437225

  18. Cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine residues in wastewater: Consumption trends (2009-2015) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Hall, Wayne; Chan, Gary; Bruno, Raimondo; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Carter, Steve; Anuj, Shalona; Kirkbride, K Paul; Gartner, Coral; Humphries, Melissa; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater analysis, or wastewater-based epidemiology, has become a common tool to monitor trends of illicit drug consumption around the world. In this study, we examined trends in cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine consumption by measuring their residues in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Australia (specifically, an urban and a rural catchment, both in South East Queensland) between 2009 and 2015. With direct injection of the samples, target analytes were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine and MDMA residues and metabolites were mainly quantifiable in the urban catchment while methamphetamine residues were consistently detected in both urban and rural catchments. There was no consistent trend in the population normalised mass loads observed for cocaine and MDMA at the urban site between 2009 and 2015. In contrast, there was a five-fold increase in methamphetamine consumption over this period in this catchment. For methamphetamine consumption, the rural area showed a very similar trend as the urban catchment starting at a lower baseline. The observed increase in per capita loads of methamphetamine via wastewater analysis over the past six years in South East Queensland provides objective evidence for increased methamphetamine consumption in the Australian population while the use of other illicit stimulants remained relatively stable. PMID:27325011

  19. Landsat Based Woody Vegetation Loss Detection in Queensland, Australia Using the Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, K.; Phinn, S. R.; Taylor, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land clearing detection and woody Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) monitoring at the state and national level in Australia has mainly been undertaken by state governments and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) because of the considerable expense, expertise, sustained duration of activities and staffing levels needed. Only recently have services become available, providing low budget, generalized access to change detection tools suited to this task. The objective of this research was to examine if a globally available service, Google Earth Engine Beta, could be used to predict woody vegetation loss with accuracies approaching the methods used by TERN and the government of the state of Queensland, Australia. Two change detection approaches were investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper time series and the Google Earth Engine Application Programming Interface: (1) CART and Random Forest classifiers; and (2) a normalized time series of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) and NDVI combined with a spectral index. The CART and Random Forest classifiers produced high user's and producer's mapping accuracies of clearing (77-92% and 54-77%, respectively) when detecting change within epochs for which training data were available, but extrapolation to epochs without training data reduced the mapping accuracies. The use of FPC and NDVI time series provided a more robust approach for calculation of a clearing probability, as it did not rely on training data but instead on the difference of the normalized FPC / NDVI mean and standard deviation of a single year at the change point in relation to the remaining time series. However, the FPC and NDVI time series approach represented a trade-off between user's and producer's accuracies. Both change detection approaches explored in this research were sensitive to ephemeral greening and drying of the landscape. However, the developed normalized FPC and NDVI time series approach can be tuned to provide automated alerts for large

  20. Spatiotemporal modelling of groundwater extraction in semi-arid central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keir, Greg; Bulovic, Nevenka; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid Surat Basin in central Queensland, Australia, forms part of the Great Artesian Basin, a groundwater resource of national significance. While this area relies heavily on groundwater supply bores to sustain agricultural industries and rural life in general, measurement of groundwater extraction rates is very limited. Consequently, regional groundwater extraction rates are not well known, which may have implications for regional numerical groundwater modelling. However, flows from a small number of bores are metered, and less precise anecdotal estimates of extraction are increasingly available. There is also an increasing number of other spatiotemporal datasets which may help predict extraction rates (e.g. rainfall, temperature, soils, stocking rates etc.). These can be used to construct spatial multivariate regression models to estimate extraction. The data exhibit complicated statistical features, such as zero-valued observations, non-Gaussianity, and non-stationarity, which limit the use of many classical estimation techniques, such as kriging. As well, water extraction histories may exhibit temporal autocorrelation. To account for these features, we employ a separable space-time model to predict bore extraction rates using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference. A joint approach is used to model both the probability (using a binomial likelihood) and magnitude (using a gamma likelihood) of extraction. The correlation between extraction rates in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model. To reduce computational burden, we allow the GMRF to be evaluated at a relatively coarse temporal resolution, while still allowing predictions to be made at arbitrarily small time scales. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, and present some

  1. Thermal History of Drummond Basin, Queensland (Australia) from Apatite and Zircon (U-Th)/He Thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Min, K. K.; Bryan, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal history of the Drummond Basin in central Queensland (Australia) has only been partly investigated. Inverse thermal modeling of apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He data can reveal the complex thermal history of sedimentary basins. We performed (U-Th)/He dating for detrital apatite and zircon grains extracted from five sandstone samples from the Campaspe DDH-1 drill hole. Mean apatite helium ages generally increase from 65.9 Ma (depth = 538 m) to 83.8 Ma (depth = 263 m). The deeper four samples yielded mean zircon helium (ZHe) ages of 289.7 - 278.2 Ma, with a systematic increase of the ZHe ages from deep to shallow samples. The shallowest sample (depth = 117 m) yielded a mean ZHe age of 263.6 Ma. Our inverse thermal modeling suggests five thermal events since burial: (1) rapid heating to the maximum temperature of 180~380 oC during ~320-290 Ma, (2) rapid cooling from ~260 oC to ~80 oC during ~290-240 Ma, (3) subdued cooling from ~80 oC to ~30 oC during ~240-200 Ma, (4) slow heating from ~30 oC to ~80 oC during ~200-80 Ma, followed by (5) rapid cooling from ~80 oC to ~35 oC at ~80 Ma. The timing and temperature conditions of the initial thermal event are consistent with K/Ar ages and temperatures deduced from illite. This period was characterized by voluminous regional magmatism and crustal extension preceding opening of the overlying Bowen Basin. Rapid cooling during ~290-240 Ma identified by our inverse thermal modeling roughly coincides with the thermal relaxation phase and foreland basin phase of the overlying Bowen Basin. This rapid cooling was probably a result of cessation of extension and subsequent contractional events to the east of Bowen Basin. Cooling slowed down during ~240-200 Ma. The Drummond Basin probably underwent serious erosion during this period, coeval with the peneplanation phase of the Bowen Basin. As is delineated by our modeling, the Drummond Basin was slowly heated from ~20 oC to ~90 oC during ~200-80 Ma, synchronous with development of

  2. What Makes Community Engagement Effective?: Lessons from the Eliminate Dengue Program in Queensland Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide, more than 40% of the population is at risk from dengue and recent estimates suggest that up to 390 million dengue infections are acquired every year. The Eliminate Dengue (ED) Program is investigating the use of Wolbachia-infected, transmission-compromised, mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission. Previous introductions of genetically-modified strategies for dengue vector control have generated controversy internationally by inadequately engaging host communities. Community Engagement (CE) was a key component of the ED Program’s initial open release trials in Queensland Australia. Their approach to CE was perceived as effective by the ED team’s senior leadership, members of its CE team, and by its funders, but if and why this was the case was unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study of the ED Program’s approach to CE to identify and critically examine its components, and to explain whether and how these efforts contributed to the support received by stakeholders. Methodology/Principal Findings In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants with a range of experiences and perspectives related to the ED Program’s CE activities. Our analytic approach combined techniques of grounded theory and qualitative description. The ED Program’s approach to CE reflected four foundational features: 1) enabling conditions; 2) leadership; 3) core commitments and guiding values; and 4) formative social science research. These foundations informed five key operational practices: 1) building the CE team; 2) integrating CE into management practices; 3) discerning the community of stakeholders; 4) establishing and maintaining a presence in the community; and 5) socializing the technology and research strategy. We also demonstrate how these practices contributed to stakeholders’ willingness to support the trials. Conclusions/Significance Our case study has identified, and explained the functional relationships among, the

  3. Fish community persistence in Eastern North and South Dakota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearer, J.S.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the James River in North and South Dakota has experienced records in minimum and maximum discharge. Our objectives were to compare: (1) the fish community in the main river after dry (1988-90) and wet (1993-2000) years, and (2) the fish community of both the main river and tributaries between dry (1975) and wet (1998-2000) years. In South Dakota in the main river, there were 10 families and 29 species after several dry years and 11 families and 35 species after several wet years. Percichthyidae was the additional family after the wet years. Basinwide, there were 41 species present after the dry 1970s and 50 species after the wet 1990s. Overall, 93% of the species collected in 1975 have persisted. Our results provide some support for the flood pulse concept, and the findings suggest that the fish community can be useful for biomonitoring of prairie streams.

  4. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    The 100 m Drop Tower at NASA-Marshall was used to provide the step change in acceleration from 1.0 to 0.0005 g. An inter-fluid meniscus oscillates vertically within a cylindrical container when suddenly released from earth's gravity and taken into a microgravity environment. Oscillations damp out from energy dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity and interfacial friction. Damping of the oscillations by the later mechanism is affected by the nature of the interfacial junction between the fluid-fluid interface and the container wall. In earlier stages of the project, the meniscus shape which developed during microgravity conditions was applied to evaluations of wetting phenomena near the critical temperature. Variations in equilibrium contact angle against the container wall were expected to occur under critical wetting conditions. However, it became apparent that the meaningful phenomenon was the damping of interfacial oscillations. This latter concept makes up the bulk of this report. Perfluoromethyl cyclohexane and isopropanol in glass were the materials used for the experiment. The wetting condition of the fluids against the wall changes at the critical wetting transition temperature. This change in wetting causes a change in the damping characteristics of the interfacial excursions during oscillation and no measurable change in contact angle. The effect of contact line friction measured above and below the wetting transition temperature was to increase the period of vertical oscillation for the vapor-liquid interface when below the wetting transition temperature.

  5. 84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, BRONZE DOUBLE DOORS (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Wetting reversal in colloid-polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Blokhuis, Edgar M; Kuipers, Joris

    2010-05-01

    The wetting of a phase-separated colloid-polymer mixture in contact with a hard wall is analyzed using free volume theory in a Nakanishi-Fisher-type approach. We present results for the wetting phase diagram for several model approximations. Our analysis is compared with a previous analysis by Aarts [J. Chem. Phys. 120, 1973 (2004)]. We find that there is a crossover from wetting to drying at a threshold value for the colloid-polymer size ratio and that the transitions are close to the critical point and of second order in nature. PMID:20866234

  7. Effect of surface ionization on wetting layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    A surface ionization model due to Langmuir is generalized to liquid mixtures of polar and nonpolar components in contact with ionizable substrates. When a predominantly nonpolar mixture is near a miscibility gap, thick wetting layers of the conjugate polar phase form on the substrate. Such charged layers can be much thicker than similar wetting layers stabilized by dispersion forces. This model may explain the 0.4- to 0.6-micron-thick wetting layers formed in stirred mixtures of nitromethane and carbon disulfide in contact with glass.

  8. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  9. True North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jo-Anne Mary

    2007-01-01

    For Americans wanting to explore beyond their frontiers, their neighbor to the north is an ideal destination. Much of Canada's population is concentrated near the shared border, mostly in Ontario and Quebec. While nature is an obvious draw, Canada's dynamic urban centers present their own sophisticated enticements, and the country's ten provinces…

  10. Student Focus: Project Report of a Student-Centered Study of University Services at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenders, David A.; Hope, Peter; Ninnan, Abraham

    This study assessed student perceptions of service at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane (Australia). Data were based on open-ended discussions with 48 undergraduate focus groups during which participants were asked what they perceived to be the good and bad aspects of university life, what they did to cope with obstacles, and how…

  11. Mapping of Assessment Procedures in Schools: A Study of Assessment Procedures in Three Subject Areas at Year 12 Level in Queensland State Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBryde, Bruce; Lamont, Ann

    In the light of recommendations for future directions in secondary education made by the Review of School Based Assessment in Queensland Secondary Schools, this study aimed to systematically map current internal assessment practices for grade 12, and to determine the degree of satisfaction in schools with these practices. The study was performed…

  12. PEARLs, Problems and Politics: Exploring Findings from Two Teaching and Learning Projects in Indigenous Australian Studies at the University of Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of PEARL (Political, Embodied, Active, and Reflective Learning) in two courses at The University of Queensland: a first-year introductory Indigenous Studies course and a second year Indigenous Education course. We draw on findings from a 2-year (2010-2011) Office for Learning and Teaching (then ALTC) funded…

  13. Germ-line transformation of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a piggyBac vector in the presence of endogenous piggyBac elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the stable genetic transformation of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using a piggyBac vector marked with either the fluorescent protein DsRed or EGFP.A transformation frequency of 5–10% was obtained.Inheritance of the transgenes has remained stable over eight generations despite...

  14. The Role of Integrative Taxonomy in the Conservation Management of Cryptic Species: The Taxonomic Status of Endangered Earless Dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the Grasslands of Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered ‘species’ of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available. PMID:25076129

  15. The Development of a White Water Rafting Code of Practice in Response to Multiple Fatalities in Queensland: How Will It Impact the Commercial and Educational Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In this article I review lessons to be learned from five commercial rafting participant fatalities in Northern Queensland between 2007 and 2009, and examine some implications of the coroner's recommendations from an outdoor education perspective. I aim both to help prevent future fatalities and to contribute to discussion about how best to achieve…

  16. School Leavers in Country Areas. A Study of School Leavers in Selected Rural Areas of Western Australia, Queensland and Tasmania. Research Study No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoessiger, Rex

    Two or three selected rural regions in Western Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania were surveyed to find out what happens to school leavers in rural areas of Australia and how their perceived options and actual opportunities can be enhanced. The three-phase survey began with a questionnaire being administered to all Year 9-12 students in Western…

  17. Megadrymus brigalow n.sp. (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae: Drymini), a diminutive new species of seed bug from semi-evergreen vine thicket of the Queensland Brigalow Belt.

    PubMed

    Cassis, Gerasimos; Symonds, Celia L

    2014-01-01

    Megadrymus brigalow n. sp., a new species of seed bug, is described from semi-evergreen vine thicket in the Brigalow Belt region of Queensland, Australia. This species has the smallest body in the genus Megadrymus Gross and has a number of vestigial characters. PMID:24871525

  18. Promoting and Disseminating Good Practice in the Planning and Management of Educational Facilities: Capital Investment Strategic Planning - A Case Study, Gold Coast Institute of TAFE, Queensland, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Kelvin

    This paper presents a case study of the process of capital investment strategic planning at the Gold Coast Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE), Queensland, Australia. Capital investment strategic planning is a means of contributing to success by providing strategies to ensure that assets are managed efficiently, effectively, and…

  19. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available. PMID:25076129

  20. Dodgy Data, Language Invisibility and the Implications for Social Inclusion: A Critical Analysis of Indigenous Student Language Data in Queensland Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Sally; Angelo, Denise

    2014-01-01

    As part of the "Bridging the Language Gap" project undertaken with 86 State and Catholic schools across Queensland, the language competencies of Indigenous students have been found to be "invisible" in several key and self-reinforcing ways in school system data. A proliferation of inaccurate, illogical and incomplete data…

  1. Astronomical forcing of an exceptionally long Sahel wet phase during Marine Isotope Stage 11c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prange, Matthias; Rachmayani, Rima; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Increased rainfall and expanded vegetation over North Africa during the early-to-mid Holocene was related to an intensified West African monsoon and a northward displacement of the monsoon trough triggered by astronomical forcing. Similar wet phases are evidenced for earlier interglacials including Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11c (ca. 425-395 ka before present). We performed a series of time slice simulations using the comprehensive coupled climate model CCSM3 including a dynamic vegetation module in order to examine the dynamics of the MIS 11c humid period. Proxy records from a marine sediment core site off Northwest Africa suggest an extremely long Sahel/Sahara wet phase during MIS 11c between ca. 420 and 405 ka ago, revealing that North African rainfall changes did not simply follow local summer insolation. Instead, the climate model simulations suggest an important role of the obliquity-driven intra-hemispheric insolation gradient in forcing Sahelian rainfall changes. The specific phasing between precession and obliquity during the MIS 11c interglacial resulted in the exceptionally long wet phase in the Sahel region. The early part of this wet phase was primarily induced by northern-hemispheric differential warming in response to maximum obliquity around 416 ka before present. As such, this interval may well serve as an analog for potential future Sahel rainfall increase induced by strong northern hemisphere extratropical warming.

  2. Photoresponsive superhydrophobic surfaces for effective wetting control.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shuaijun; Guo, Rui; Xu, Weijian

    2014-12-01

    Dynamically tuning the surface wettability has long been a scientific challenge, but of great importance in surface science. Robust superhydrophobic surfaces, displaying switchable and tunable extreme wetting behaviors, are successfully developed by spraying photoresponsive hydrophobic nanoparticles onto various substrates. The surface wettability can be intelligently adjusted by applying irradiation with UV or visible light, which is assumed to initiate large conformation changes of azobenzene units at the coating surface, resulting in distinct surface energy change and thus controlled wetting behaviors. The underlying wetting mechanism about the resulting surfaces is systematically investigated and supported by the estimation of water contact angles using newly rewritten Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel relations and also by the evaluation of solid surface free energy adopting the Owens-Wendt approach. The methodology proposed may provide a novel way of tuning surface wettability and investigating the wetting transition mechanism and also promote applications in self-cleaning and smart fluid control. PMID:25322263

  3. Snow wetness measurements for melt forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.; Clapp, F. D.; Meier, M. F.; Smith, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A microwave technique for directly measuring snow pack wetness in remote installations is described. The technique, which uses satellite telemetry for data gathering, is based on the attenuation of a microwave beam in transmission through snow.

  4. Wetting transparency of graphene in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driskill, Joshua; Vanzo, Davide; Bratko, Dusan; Luzar, Alenka

    2014-11-01

    Measurements of contact angle on graphene sheets show a notable dependence on the nature of the underlying substrate, a phenomenon termed wetting transparency. Our molecular modeling studies reveal analogous transparency in case of submerged graphene fragments in water. A combined effect of attractive dispersion forces, angle correlations between aqueous dipoles, and repulsion due to the hydrogen-bond-induced orientation bias in polarized hydration layers acting across graphene sheet, enhances apparent adhesion of water to graphene. We show wetting free energy of a fully wetted graphene platelet to be about 8 mNm-1 lower than for graphene wetted only on one side, which gives close to 10° reduction in contact angle. This difference has potential implications for predictions of water absorption vs. desorption, phase behavior of water in aqueous nanoconfinements, solvent-induced interactions among graphitic nanoparticle and concomitant stability in aqueous dispersions, and can influence permeability of porous materials such as carbon nanotubes by water and aqueous solutions.

  5. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  6. ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...

  7. Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov

    2009-05-15

    Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

  8. Chlorine Disinfection of Wet Weather Managed Flows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to deal with wet weather events when the hydraulic capacity of the treatment facility could be compromised. Blending consists of primary wastewater treatment plant effluent, partially bypassing secondary treatment, and then ...

  9. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  10. Wetting of a chemically heterogeneous surface

    SciTech Connect

    Frink, L.J.; Salinger, A.G.

    1999-03-01

    Theories for inhomogeneous fluids have focused in recent years on wetting, capillary condensation, and solvation forces for model systems where the surface(s) is(are) smooth homogeneous parallel plates, cylinders, or spherical drops. Unfortunately natural systems are more likely to be heterogeneous both in surface shape and surface chemistry. In this paper we discuss the consequences of chemical heterogeneity on wetting. Specifically, a two-dimensional (2D) implementation of a nonlocal density-functional theory is solved for a striped surface model. Both the strength and range of the heterogeneity are varied. Contact angles are calculated, and phase transitions (both the wetting transition and a local layering transition) are located. The wetting properties of the surface are shown to be strongly dependent on the nature of the surface heterogeneity. In addition highly ordered nanoscopic phases are found, and the operational limits for formation of ordered or crystalline phases of nanoscopic extent are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... time of packing in which the stem scar is abnormally large, excessively wet and slippery, yields to slight pressure, and is frequently accompanied by fresh radial growth cracks at the edge of the stem scar....

  12. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  13. Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

    1993-07-01

    Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

  14. Complete wetting of graphene by biological lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Binquan; Huynh, Tien; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-03-01

    Graphene nanosheets have been demonstrated to extract large amounts of lipid molecules directly out of the cell membrane of bacteria and thus cause serious damage to the cell's integrity. This interesting phenomenon, however, is so far not well understood theoretically. Here through extensive molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical analyses, we show that this phenomenon can be categorized as a complete wetting of graphene by membrane lipids in water. A wetting-based theory was utilized to associate the free energy change during the microscopic extraction of a lipid with the spreading parameter for the macroscopic wetting. With a customized thermodynamic cycle for detailed energetics, we show that the dispersive adhesion between graphene and lipids plays a dominant role during this extraction as manifested by the curved graphene. Our simulation results suggest that biological lipids can completely wet the concave, flat or even convex (with a small curvature) surface of a graphene sheet.Graphene nanosheets have been demonstrated to extract large amounts of lipid molecules directly out of the cell membrane of bacteria and thus cause serious damage to the cell's integrity. This interesting phenomenon, however, is so far not well understood theoretically. Here through extensive molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical analyses, we show that this phenomenon can be categorized as a complete wetting of graphene by membrane lipids in water. A wetting-based theory was utilized to associate the free energy change during the microscopic extraction of a lipid with the spreading parameter for the macroscopic wetting. With a customized thermodynamic cycle for detailed energetics, we show that the dispersive adhesion between graphene and lipids plays a dominant role during this extraction as manifested by the curved graphene. Our simulation results suggest that biological lipids can completely wet the concave, flat or even convex (with a small curvature) surface of a

  15. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  16. Teachers' Duration of Placement in Three Queensland Regions: A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Paul

    This paper examines the tenure of teachers in the South Western, North Western, and Sunshine Coast regions of Australia. These regions provide contrasts of isolation, climate, and apparent attractiveness. Research indicates that rapid teacher turnover in rural areas is a significant concern. Data collected since 1975 suggest that the average days…

  17. Benchmarking Teacher Practice in Queensland Transition Programs for Youth with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamish, Wendi; Meadows, Denis; Davies, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Extensive work has been done in North America to examine practices recommended to facilitate postschool transitions for youth with disabilities. Few studies in Australia, however, have investigated these practices. This study drew on the Taxonomy for Transition Programming developed by Kohler to benchmark practice at government and nongovernment…

  18. A qualitative study of pharmacy nurse providers of community based post-birth care in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced length of hospital stay following childbirth has placed increasing demands on community-based post-birth care services in Australia. Queensland is one of several states in Australia in which nurses are employed privately by pharmacies to provide maternal and child health care, yet little is known about their prevalence, attributes or role. The aims of this paper are to (1) explore the experiences and perspectives of a sample of pharmacy nurses and GPs who provide maternal and child health services in Queensland, Australia (2) describe the professional qualifications of the sample of pharmacy nurses, and (3) describe and analyze the location of pharmacy nurse clinics in relation to publicly provided services. Methods As part of a state-wide evaluation of post-birth care in Queensland, Australia, case studies were conducted in six regional and metropolitan areas which included interviews with 47 key informants involved in postnatal care provision. We report on the prevalence of pharmacy nurses in the case study sites, and on the key informant interviews with 19 pharmacy nurses and six General Practitioners (GPs). The interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Results The prevalence of pharmacy nurses appears to be highest where public services are least well integrated, coordinated and/or accessible. Pharmacy nurses report high levels of demand for their services, which they argue fill a number of gaps in the public provision of maternal and child health care including accessibility, continuity of carer, flexibility and convenient location. The concerns of pharmacy nurses include lack of privacy for consultations, limited capacity for client record keeping and follow up, and little opportunity for professional development, while GPs expressed concerns about inadequate public care and about the lack of regulation of pharmacy based care. Conclusions Pharmacy based clinics are a market-driven response to gaps in the public provision of

  19. Temporal variations of mineral character of acid-producing pyritic coastal sediments, Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Preda, Micaela; Cox, Malcolm E

    2004-06-29

    The lower Pimpama River catchment possesses many features of morphology, geology and landuse, typical for Southeast Queensland. Pimpama River and its main tributary Hotham Creek meander over a coastal plain which developed during the last several thousand years as a result of sea level fluctuations and changing fluvial and estuarine regimes which provided ideal conditions for the formation of sedimentary pyrite. A complex mixture of natural and human factors triggers and controls the oxidation and hydrolysis of this pyrite. The consequent production of sulfuric acid and leaching of metals from the pyrite-rich sediments represent main environmental issues of this coastal setting. This study aimed to determine the lithological character of the coastal unconsolidated sediments, and identify changes produced by acidity over a long period of time in a natural system and over a short period of time in a laboratory system. The mineral composition of the estuarine sediments of the coastal plain reflects the lithology of their source, the geological basement, and also the enhanced weathering rate due to acid production. The primary minerals present in the sediments consist of quartz and feldspars (primarily albite, K-feldspars to a lesser extent and minor anorthite) the product of physical weathering of bedrock material, mainly sandstone. Kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral and represents the product of intense leaching of feldspars promoted by acid conditions. Kaolinite is fairly ordered in structure in fresh and weathered bedrock and it becomes disordered in the estuarine sediments. Illite is mainly present in bedrock-related samples and the highest amounts are associated with muscovite. In the tidal sediments, illite is present to a lesser extent and is not found in the lower estuary. The distribution of mixed layers of smectite-illite is highly variable and their deposition is mainly controlled by the hydrodynamic conditions of the environment. Only low energy tidal

  20. Olfaction in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni. I: Identification of olfactory receptor neuron types responding to environmental odors.

    PubMed

    Hull, C D; Cribb, B W

    2001-05-01

    The electroantennogram method was used to investigate the number of distinct olfactory receptor neuron types responding to a range of behaviorally active volatile chemicals in gravid Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni. Three receptor neuron types were identified. One type responds to methyl butyrate, 2-butanone, farnesene, and carbon dioxide; a second to ethanol; and a third to n-butyric acid and ammonia. The receptor neuron type responding to methyl butyrate, 2-butanone, farnesene, and carbon dioxide consists of three subtypes. The presence of a limited number of receptor neuron types responding to a diverse set of chemicals and the reception of carbon dioxide by a receptor neuron type that responds to other odorants are novel aspects of the peripheral olfactory discrimination process. PMID:11471941

  1. An empirical model of water quality for use in rapid management strategy evaluation in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    de la Mare, William; Ellis, Nick; Pascual, Ricardo; Tickell, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Simulation models have been widely adopted in fisheries for management strategy evaluation (MSE). However, in catchment management of water quality, MSE is hampered by the complexity of both decision space and the hydrological process models. Empirical models based on monitoring data provide a feasible alternative to process models; they run much faster and, by conditioning on data, they can simulate realistic responses to management actions. Using 10 years of water quality indicators from Queensland, Australia, we built an empirical model suitable for rapid MSE that reproduces the water quality variables' mean and covariance structure, adjusts the expected indicators through local management effects, and propagates effects downstream by capturing inter-site regression relationships. Empirical models enable managers to search the space of possible strategies using rapid assessment. They provide not only realistic responses in water quality indicators but also variability in those indicators, allowing managers to assess strategies in an uncertain world. PMID:22342574

  2. New evidence of reproductive organs of Glossopteris based on permineralized fossils from Queensland, Australia. I. Ovulate organ Homevaleia gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Harufumi; Pigg, Kathleen B; Kudo, Kensuke; Rigby, John F

    2007-07-01

    This study describes Homevaleia gouldii H. Nishida, Pigg, Kudo et Rigby gen. et sp. nov., an ovule-bearing glossopterid organ, based on a combination of recently collected permineralized specimens from the Late Permian Homevale Station locality in the Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia, and on previously studied material from the 1977 Gould and Delevoryas study. Homevaleia, which resembles the compression-impression genus Dictyopteridium, is an inrolled megasporophyll with a distinct keel that bears numerous (over 70) stalked ovules on its adaxial surface. Ovules are small, oval, with an elaborate mesh-like structure that is developed from the outermost integumentary layers. Specimens interpreted as representing different developmental stages show there is an apparent interrelationship between megagametophyte development and the opening of the surrounding fertile structure for pollination. Together, new information provided by this material enables better understanding of glossopterid reproductive structure and its function in one distinctive form. PMID:17534692

  3. Geographical patterns and temporal variations of regional dry and wet heatwave events in China during 1960-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ting; Qian, Weihong

    2011-03-01

    Daily maximum/minimum temperatures and relative humidity records from 510 stations in China for the period 1960-2008 were used to investigate geographical patterns and temporal variations of heatwave (HW) events. Dry and wet HW events were compared by different definitions. Regionally, both dry and wet HW events are commonly located in southeastern China in the monsoon area, with neither type occurring in the northeast part of Northeast China and Southwest China, while the north-northwest region of the country experiences dry HW events and a few wet HW events. In the southeast of the country, site dry HW events occurred from April to September and mostly in June, while site wet HW events occurred from April to October and mostly in September. In total, 163 regional wet HW events were identified. The ten longest regional wet HW events lasted for more than 20 days, while the mean duration for 163 events was about 11 days. For the top ten events, six occurred after the 1990s, compared with four before this time. Global surface warming was clear since 1979, but the frequency and severity of regional wet HW events were relatively low in the 1980s, increasing remarkably since the 1990s. Possible reasons for this might be the strong interdecadal and interannual variations in regional atmospheric circulations, as well as water transport related directly to temperature contrasts in different regions, rather than global-mean temperature changes.

  4. Identification of Radar Facies and Linked Process-Based Palaeo-environmental Interpretations, Cooloola Sand Mass, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontz, A. M.; McCallum, A. B.; Moss, P. T.; Shulmeister, J.

    2015-12-01

    During 2015 and 2014, nearly 60 km of high-resolution ground penetrating radar data were acquired on the Cooloola Sand Mass (CSM) in southeastern coastal Queensland. The CSM is part of the world's largest downdrift sand system. It contains three of the world's largest sand islands, several National Parks, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and covers 500 km of the eastern Australian coastline in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland. The large (>200 m) composite dunes of the CSM exhibit multiple activation phases, coastally eroding bluffs and dune development is not obvious from surficial exposures. This provides an ideal environment for ground penetrating radar. The dune sequences have been provisionally dated to the mid Quaternary through present and represent the potential for a large palaeo-environmental proxy dataset. GPR imagery was collected using a MALA GeoSciences Ground Explorer (GX) system with 160 and 450 MHz antennae from the numerous physiographic and ecological provinces as well as mapped surficial soil units at the CSM. These data were used to determine the subsurface architecture, identify radar facies and develop environmental interpretations. In the clean, aeolian quartz-rich sands, radar wave penetration exceeded 30 m (radar velocity = 0.07 m/ns) with the 160 MHz antenna. From the interpreted environmental units including palaeosol, dune slip face, dune stoss face, sand blow, beach, estuarine and fluvial, we are developing maps to relate the units and focus a detailed sampling regime that includes OSL, sediment geochemistry and sedimentology, The interpreted units, stratigraphic correlation and spatial distribution of the facies is the first step in a broader project to unravel the Quaternary environmental and climate records that are archived within the sediments of the CSM.

  5. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  6. Results of the Queensland 2007-2012 roadside drug testing program: The prevalence of three illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Martin, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to present an overview of roadside drug driving enforcement and detections in Queensland, Australia since the introduction of oral fluid screening. Drug driving is a problematic issue for road safety and investigations of the prevalence and impact of drug driving suggest that, in particular, the use of illicit drugs may increase a driver's involvement in a road crash when compared to a driver who is drug free. In response to the potential increased crash involvement of drug impaired drivers, Australian police agencies have adopted the use of oral fluid analysis to detect the presence of illicit drugs in drivers. This paper describes the results of roadside drug testing for over 80,000 drivers in Queensland, Australia, from December 2007 to June 2012. It provides unique data on the prevalence of methamphetamine, cannabis and ecstasy in the screened population for the period. When prevalence rates are examined over time, drug driving detection rates have almost doubled from around 2.0% at the introduction of roadside testing operations to just under 4.0% in the latter years. The most common drug type detected was methamphetamine (40.8%) followed by cannabis (29.8%) and methamphetamine/cannabis combination (22.5%). By comparison, the rate of ecstasy detection was very low (1.7%). The data revealed a number of regional, age and gender patterns and variations of drug driving across the state. Younger drivers were more likely to test positive for cannabis whilst older drivers were more likely to test positive for methamphetamine. The overall characteristics of drivers who tested positive to the presence of at least one of the target illicit drugs are they are likely to be male, aged 30-39 years, be driving a car on Friday, Saturday or Sunday between 6:00 pm and 6:00 am and to test positive for methamphetamine. PMID:24389088

  7. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury, scald, or other injury....

  8. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563....1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury....

  9. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury, scald, or other injury....

  10. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563....1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury....

  11. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print A A A Text Size Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  12. Design consideration for wet welded joints

    SciTech Connect

    Szelagowski, P.; Osthus, V.; Petershagen, H.; Pohl, R.; Lafaye, G.

    1996-12-01

    Wet welding has become a joining technique that under certain circumstances can provide results which cannot be distinguished between wet or dry production and the achievable mechanical quality is comparable to dry atmospheric welds. Wet welding is not a process which can be applied easily and which can be properly handled by untrained diver welders. Wet welding is more than any other kind of welding process or procedure a joining technique that requires the full job-concentration and -knowledge of an excellent trained and skilled diver welder throughout the whole production time, who is 100% identifying himself with his task. Furthermore he must be fully aware of the production requirements and possible metallurgical/environmental reactions and outcomes. He must be able to be fully concentrated on the process performance throughout his total work shift. In short: he must be an outstanding expert in his field. The following paper will highlight these subjects and show the necessity of their exact observation to achieve excellent quality in wet welding.

  13. Wetting and particle adsorption in nanoflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazer, German; Khusid, Boris; Koplik, Joel; Acrivos, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the behavior of closely fitting spherical and ellipsoidal particles moving through a fluid-filled cylinder at nanometer scales. The particle, the cylinder wall, and the fluid solvent are all treated as atomic systems, and special attention is given to the effects of varying the wetting properties of the fluid. Although the modification of the solid-fluid interaction leads to significant changes in the microstructure of the fluid, its transport properties are found to be the same as in bulk. Independently of the shape and the relative size of the particle, we find two distinct regimes as a function of the degree of wetting, with a sharp transition between them. In the case of a highly wetting suspending fluid, the particle moves through the cylinder with an average axial velocity in agreement with that obtained from the solution of the continuum Stokes equations. In contrast, in the case of less-wetting fluids, only the early time motion of the particle is consistent with continuum dynamics. At later times, the particle is eventually adsorbed onto the wall and subsequently executes an intermittent stick-slip motion. We show that van der Waals forces are the dominant contribution to the particle adsorption phenomenon and that depletion forces are weak enough to allow, in the highly wetting situation, an initially adsorbed particle to spontaneously desorb.

  14. Filling and wetting transitions at grooved substrates.

    PubMed

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2013-11-01

    The wetting and filling properties of a fluid adsorbed on a solid grooved substrate are studied by means of a microscopic density functional theory. The grooved substrates are modelled using a solid slab, interacting with the fluid particles via long-range dispersion forces, to which a one-dimensional array of infinitely long rectangular grooves is sculpted. By investigating the effect of the groove periodicity and the width of the grooves and the ridges, a rich variety of different wetting morphologies is found. In particular, we show that for a saturated ambient gas, the adsorbent can occur in one of four wetting states characterized by (i) empty grooves, (ii) filled grooves, (iii) a formation of mesoscopic hemispherical caps (iv) a macroscopically wet surface. The character of the transition between particular regimes, that also extend off-coexistence, sensitively depends on the model geometry. The temperature at which the system becomes completely wet is considerably higher than that for a flat wall. PMID:24067670

  15. Wetting films on chemically patterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Karakashev, Stoyan I; Stöckelhuber, Klaus W; Tsekov, Roumen

    2011-11-15

    The behavior of thin wetting films on chemically patterned surfaces was investigated. The patterning was performed by means of imprinting of micro-grid on methylated glass surface with UV-light (λ=184.8 nm). Thus imprinted image of the grid contained hydrophilic cells and hydrophobic bars on the glass surface. For this aim three different patterns of grids were utilized with small, medium and large size of cells. The experiment showed that the drainage of the wetting aqueous films was not affected by the type of surface patterning. However, after film rupturing in the cases of small and medium cells of the patterned grid the liquid from the wetting film underwent fast self-organization in form of regularly ordered droplets covering completely the cells of the grid. The droplets reduced significantly their size upon time due to evaporation. In the cases of the largest cell grid, a wet spot on the place of the imprinted grid was formed after film rupturing. This wet spot disassembled slowly in time. In addition, formation of a periodical zigzag three-phase contact line (TPCL) was observed. This is a first study from the planned series of studies on this topic. PMID:21875710

  16. Dynamic wetting on anisotropic patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do-Quang, Minh; Wang, Jiayu; Nita, Satoshi; Shiomi, Junichiro; Amberg, Gustav; Physiochemical fluid mechanics Team; Maruyama-Chiashi Laboratory Team

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic wetting, as occurs when a droplet of a wetting liquid is brought in contact with a dry solid, is important in various engineering processes, such as printing, coating, and lubrication. Our overall aim is to investigate if and how the detailed properties of the solid surface influence the dynamics of wetting. We have recently quantified the hindering effect of fairly isotropic micron-sized patterns on the substrate. Here we will study highly anisotropic surfaces, such as parallel grooves, either perpendicular or parallel to an advancing contact line. This is done by detailed phase field simulations and experiments on structured silicon surfaces. The dynamic wetting behavior of drops on the grooved surfaces is governed by the combined interplay of the wetting line friction and the internal viscous dissipation. Influence of roughness is quantified in terms of the energy dissipation rate at the contact line using the experiment-simulation combined analysis. The energy dissipation of the contact line at the different part of the groove will be discussed. The performance of the model is assessed by comparing its predictions with the experimental data. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (J.W., S.N., and J.S) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (M.D.-Q. and G.A).

  17. Membrane-based wet electrostatic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Bayless; Liming Shi; Gregory Kremer; Ben J. Stuart; James Reynolds; John Caine

    2005-06-01

    Emissions of fine particulate matter, PM2.5, in both primary and secondary form, are difficult to capture in typical dry electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Wet (or waterbased) ESPs are well suited for collection of acid aerosols and fine particulates because of greater corona power and virtually no re-entrainment. However, field disruptions because of spraying (misting) of water, formation of dry spots (channeling), and collector surface corrosion limit the applicability of current wet ESPs in the control of secondary PM2.5. Researchers at Ohio University have patented novel membrane collection surfaces to address these problems. Water-based cleaning in membrane collectors made of corrosion-resistant fibers is facilitated by capillary action between the fibers, maintaining an even distribution of water. This paper presents collection efficiency results of lab-scale and pilot-scale testing at First Energy's Bruce Mansfield Plant for the membrane-based wet ESP. The data indicate that a membrane wet ESP was more effective at collecting fine particulates, acid aerosols, and oxidized mercury than the metal-plate wet ESP, even with {approximately}15% less collecting area. 15 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. North America

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Christopher B.; Mortsch, Linda D.; Brklacich, Michael; Forbes, Donald L.; Kovacs, Paul; Patz, Jonathan A.; Running, Steven W.; Scott, Michael J.

    2007-08-06

    The United States (U.S.) and Canada will experience climate changes through direct effects of local changes (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events), as well as through indirect effects, transmitted among regions by interconnected economies and migrations of humans and other species. Variations in wealth and geography, however, lead to an uneven distribution of likely impacts, vulnerabilities, and capacities to adapt. This chapter reviews and synthesizes the state of knowledge on both direct and indirect impacts, vulnerability and adaptations for North America 9 (comprising Canada and the U.S).

  19. Next generation low cost wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingspor, J.S.; Bresowar, G.E.; Gray, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has been the dominating control technology since the introduction of the clean air act and is projected to be the preferred FGD technology for the foreseeable future. Following the introduction of wet FGD systems in the late `60s, the technology quickly reached maturity with only incremental improvements during recent years. However, deregulation, emission trading, and market forces have demanded significant improvements in capital and operating costs, performance, environmental impact, ease of retrofit and cycle time. In response to market demands, ABB has developed a new generation wet FGD system, named LS-2, based on the traditional open spray tower technology. The development of the LS-2 system has progressed methodically within the ABB R&D community within the last three years and is currently being demonstrated at Ohio Edison`s Niles station.

  20. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, L.G.

    1979-08-29

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  1. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, Louis G.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  2. Grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Shangshang; Faul, Ulrich H.

    2016-05-01

    Samples of Fo90 olivine and basaltic melt were annealed at a range of temperatures and a pressure of 1 GPa in a piston cylinder apparatus from 1 to 336 h. Post-run samples have melt contents from 0.3 to 6.8 % and mean grain sizes from 4.3 to 84.5 μm. Grain boundary wetness, a measure of the intergranular melt distribution, was determined by analyzing scanning electron microscope images with sufficiently high resolution to detect thin layers wetting grain boundaries, as well as small triple junctions. The measurements show that grain boundary wetness increases with increasing melt content to values well above those predicted by the idealized isotropic equilibrium model for a finite dihedral angle. Additionally, the melt geometry changes with grain size, with grain boundary wetness increasing with increasing grain size at fixed melt content. Grain boundary wetness and dihedral angle of samples annealed at a range of temperatures, but constant melt content does not depend on temperature. These observations emphasize that the dihedral angle alone is not adequate to characterize the melt distribution in partially molten rocks, as the idealized isotropic model does not account for the influence of grain growth. Diffusion creep viscosities calculated from the measured wetness reflect the grain size and melt content dependence. Accordingly, experimentally measured viscosities at small grain sizes underestimate the effect of melt to weaken partially molten rocks for coarser grain sizes. The presence of melt in the mantle may therefore enhance diffusion creep relative to dislocation creep.

  3. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  4. Quantifying denitrification losses from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia - use of the 15N gas flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, Johannes; Scheer, Clemens; Warner, Daniel; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification remains a major uncertainty in estimating N losses from soils, the magnitude of N2 losses and related N2:N2O ratios from soils are largely unknown due to difficulties measuring N2 against a high atmospheric background. In order to address this lack of data, this study investigated the influence of different soil moisture contents on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia using the 15N gas flux method. Intact soil cores were incubated over 14 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS). Gas samples were taken up to six times per day after application of 15N labelled nitrate, equivalent to 50 kg N ha-1 and analysed for N2 and N2O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fluxes were calculated assuming non-random 15N distribution in the headspace according to Mulvaney and Kurtz (1984) using the labelled pool of nitrate estimated from N2O measurements (Stevens and Laughlin 2001). The main product of denitrification in both treatments was N2. N2 emissions exceeded N2O emissions by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.3 at 80% WFPS and a factor of 3 ± 0.8 at 100% WFPS. The total amount of N-N2 lost over the incubation period was 13.5±1.0 kg N ha-1 at 80% WFPS and 21.8±1.8 kg ha-1 at 100% WFPS respectively. Over the entire incubation period, N2 emissions remained elevated at 100% WFPS, showing high variation between soil cores, while related N2O emissions decreased. At 80% WFPS, N2 emissions increased constantly over time showing significantly higher values after day five. At the same time, N2O fluxes declined. Consequently, N2:N2O ratios rose over the incubation period in both treatments. Overall denitrification rates and related N2:N2O ratios were higher at 100% WFPS compared to 80% WFPS, confirming WFPS as a major driver of

  5. An hypothesis for integrating climate, geomorphology, soils, and land use for interpreting runoff and erosion in catchment management studies, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, soil movement has been reported in the literature under processes of raindrop impact/splash, overland sheet flow, rills, gullies, and ephemeral and fluent streams and rivers. From the perspective of a land manager this information needs to be structured in a way that integrates these many strands of knowledge thus facilitating decision making about land use operations and conservation of the resource. This paper describes the interconnectedness of hydrologic and sedimentological processes of landscape elements and segments in the headwaters of the semi/arid - subhumid Fitzroy River, Central Queensland, Australia and options for managing severe erosion. The central notion of the hypothesis is that sediment has been pulsing through this landscape for thousands of years. Stratigraphy of valley alluvial fans indicates that the valleys have been filled and re-excavated many times. The pulsing of sediment through valleys where incision of alluvial fans and subsequent downstream deposition creates a sequence of similar landforms, but of a different scale, is largely driven by the morphology of the landforms themselves. The "noses" of alluvial fans exhibit a convex shape with the surface being characterised by finer sediments. Positive pore water pressures develop throughout the fan due to the highest infiltration occurring at the head of the fan where coarsest sediments are deposited. Strata of coarser materials are thus laid down progressively up-valley as the fans continue to grow. In the base of the "nose" of alluvial fans there are the remnants of the coarse material that were laid down initially and movement of water through fans is subsequently along the layers of coarse gravel and exfiltrated at the "nose" of the fan. A "pothole" in these locations is the first visible evidence of the impending rapid retreat of a new gully whereby sediment is pulsed down-valley and again deposited to form a new fan. Thus alluvial fans are destroyed and gullies are in

  6. Controllable underwater anisotropic oil-wetting

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng Yang, Qing; Farooq, Umar; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

    2014-08-18

    This Letter demonstrates a simple method to achieve underwater anisotropic oil-wetting using silicon surfaces with a microgroove array produced by femtosecond laser ablation. The oil contact angles along the direction perpendicular to the grooves are consistently larger than those parallel to the microgroove arrays in water because the oil droplet is restricted by the energy barrier that exists between the non-irradiated domain and the trapped water in the laser-ablated microgrooves. This underwater anisotropic oil-wetting is able to be controlled, and the anisotropy can be tuned from 0° to ∼20° by adjusting the period of the microgroove arrays.

  7. Equilibrating nanoparticle monolayers using wetting films.

    PubMed

    Pontoni, Diego; Alvine, Kyle J; Checco, Antonio; Gang, Oleg; Ocko, Benjamin M; Pershan, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    Monolayers of bimodal gold nanoparticles on silicon are investigated by a combination of microscopy (dry monolayers) and x-ray diffraction (dry and wet monolayers). In the presence of an excess of small particles, the nanoscale packing structure closely resembles the small-particle-rich scenario of the structural crossover transition that has been predicted and also observed with micron-scale hard-sphere colloids. Structural morphology is monitored in situ during monolayer dissolution and reassembly within the thin liquid wetting film. This approach allows investigation of size and solvent effects on nanoparticles in quasi-two-dimensional confinement. PMID:19257214

  8. Century-scale causal relationships between global dry/wet conditions and the state of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; AghaKouchak, Amir; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-06-01

    The Granger causality test is used to examine the effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on global dry/wet conditions. The results show robust relationships between dry/wet conditions and the ocean states, as assessed through a multi-index (standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index and standardized precipitation index) and multiscale (3 months and 12 months) evaluation. The influence of ENSO events is widespread, dominating about 38% of the global land surface (excluding Antarctica). Southern and western North America, northern South America, and eastern Russia are influenced by the PDO. The NAO influences not only dry/wet conditions in Europe but also dry/wet conditions in northern Africa. Similarly, climate variability in southern Europe and northern Africa may be due to the concurrence of the ENSO and the NAO. Knowledge of the spatial influence of ocean states on global dry/wet conditions is valuable for improving drought and flood forecasting.

  9. Using topographic lidar data to delineate the North Carolina Shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Limber, Patrick W.; List, Jeffrey H.; Warren, Jeffrey D.; Farris, Amy S.; Weber, Kathryn M.

    2007-01-01

    In North Carolina, shoreline change rates are an important component of the state's coastal management program. To enhance methods of measuring shoreline change, the NC Division of Coastal Management (DCM) is considering using mean high water (MHW) shorelines extracted from lidar data together with traditional wet/dry shorelines digitized from aerial photography. To test their compatibility, a wet/dry line and MHW shoreline derived from a concurrent 2004 oceanfront photography and lidar dataset were compared along a distance of 244 km. Results show that the MHW shoreline was seaward of the wet/dry shoreline by 2.82 m on average, and that this offset biased shoreline change rates by an average of 0.05 m/yr. The offset was greatest on low-sloping beaches experiencing higher water levels at the time of photography, but overall was small enough to suggest that the MHW shoreline can be a reliable substitute for the wet/dry shoreline.

  10. Turbulent flow over wetted and non-wetted superhydrophobic counterparts with random structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajdi Hokmabad, B.; Ghaemi, S.

    2016-01-01

    The turbulent structure of a channel flow over a non-wetted superhydrophobic (SHO) surface is experimentally investigated at Re = 9600 (based on channel width) at the region of y+ > 10 within the buffer and logarithmic layers. The SHO surface has a random pattern produced by spray coating and is compared with a wetted counterpart and also a smooth surface. Two planar particle image velocimetry measurements are carried out in the streamwise/spanwise and streamwise/wall-normal planes. The vector fields are obtained from both ensemble averaging and individual cross-correlations of double-frame images. The results showed a small increase (˜5%) of the mean velocity profile at y+ = 10 over the non-wetted surface in comparison with the wetted and the smooth surfaces. Up to 15% reduction of normal and shear Reynolds stresses is observed in the inner layer over the non-wetted SHO surface. The wetted SHO counterpart demonstrates no effect on the mean velocity and Reynolds stresses in comparison with the smooth surface. The result confirms the comment of Gad-el-Hak ["Experimental study of skin friction drag reduction on superhydrophobic flat plates in high Reynolds number boundary layer flow," Phys. Fluids 25, 025103 (2013)] that the wetted SHO is hydrodynamically smooth if the surface pores are smaller than the viscous sublayer thickness. A noticeable suppression of the sweep and ejection events, increase of the spanwise spacing of the low and high speed streaks, and attenuation of vortical structures are observed over the non-wetted SHO. These indicate attenuation of the turbulence regeneration cycle due to the slip boundary condition over the non-wetted SHO surfaces with random texture.

  11. Rhizoctonia seed, seedling, and wet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn can cause seed and seedling rot of both lentil and chickpea as well as many other agricultural crops worldwide. The pathogen is favored in cool, sandy soil with high organic matter under no-till or reduced-till soil management practices. Survival spor...

  12. MULTI-POLLUTANT WET SCRUBBER TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Implementation of fine PM standards, EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule, and Clean Air Mercury Rule are leading to a focus on future reductions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and mercury emissions from power plants. Wet scrubber-based technologies are capable of pro...

  13. Next generation low cost wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingspor, J.S.; Bresowar, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has been the dominating control technology since the introduction of the clean air act and is projected to be the preferred FGD technology for the foreseeable future. Following the introduction of wet FGD systems in the late `60s, the technology quickly reached maturity with only incremental improvements during recent years. However, deregulation, emission trading, and market forces have demanded significant improvements in capital and operating costs, performance, environmental impact, ease of retrofit and cycle time. In response to market demands, ABB has developed a new generation wet FGD system, named LS-2, based on the traditional open spray tower technology. The development of the LS-2 system has progressed methodically within the ABB R and D community within the last three years and is currently being demonstrated at Ohio Edison`s Niles station. The LS-2 system features cost savings and performance improvements never before demonstrated in wet FGD systems. The cost level of the LS-2 system will make it a clear alternative to fuel switching when applied in a manner similar to the installation at Niles. The economics of the LS-2 system is discussed in some detail.

  14. Wet oxidation of a spacecraft model waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1985-01-01

    Wet oxidation was used to oxidize a spacecraft model waste under different oxidation conditions. The variables studied were pressure, temperature, duration of oxidation, and the use of one homogeneous and three heterogeneous catalysts. Emphasis is placed on the final oxidation state of carbon and nitrogen since these are the two major components of the spacecraft model waste and two important plant nutrients.

  15. Calculation of wet deposition from radioactive plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Brenk, H.D.; Vogt, K.J.

    1981-05-01

    A reevaluation of the current wet deposition models for radioactive plumes of the Gaussian type is presented. The application of the methodology to routine and accidental activity releases from nuclear facilities is discussed. A set of washout parameters for a simplified model has been included.

  16. Project WET: Curriculum & Activity Guide. K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dennis; And Others

    Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a nonprofit water education program for educators and young people. This curriculum and activity guide for kindergarten through twelfth grades is a collection of innovative, water-related activities that are hands-on, easy to use, and fun. The activities incorporate a variety of formats such as large…

  17. Why most ``dry`` rocks should cool ``wet``

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, M.J.

    1999-04-01

    A new consideration of oxygen isotope resetting among metamorphic minerals is made accounting for (1) the possibility of f{sub H{sub 2}O}-buffering by typical mineral assemblages during cooling and (2) experimental data that show that high f{sub H{sub 2}O} correlates with high diffusion rates. Isotope closure temperatures in buffered rocks are intermediate between simpler predictions based on wet (1 kbar hydrothermal) and dry (P {le} 1 atm, H{sub 2}O-absent) diffusion experiments, but are typically within {approximately}50 C of closure temperature estimates that use wet diffusion rates, yet 200--300 C different from dry. Even though many rocks may be dry in that they lack a hydrous fluid that is physically present during cooling, buffering of f{sub H{sub 2}O} results in quasi-wet diffusion rates. Re-evaluation of published data shows that most rocks indeed exhibit substantial isotope resetting that is best matched by predictions of f{sub H{sub 2}O}-buffering models. Wet- and dry-diffusion models somewhat overestimate and greatly underestimate resetting respectively. Previous interpretations invoking dry diffusion rates may derive from erroneous fractionation factors or faster cooling rates than assumed. The rare preservation of isotope closure temperatures that are higher than predicted may reflect faster than expected cooling rates or extraordinarily los f{sub H{sub 2}O} in conjunction with anhydrous assemblages.

  18. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet slip. 51.491 Section 51.491 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND...

  19. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wet slip. 51.491 Section 51.491 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND...

  20. Wet sand flows better than dry sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Wet sand that does not contain too much water is known to be stiff enough to build sand castles or in physical words has a significant yield stress. However, we could recently show that there are quite a few conditions under which such wet sand opposes less resistant to flow than its dry counterpart. This effect might have been already known to the old Egyptians: The Ancient painting of El Bersheh at the tomb of Tehutihetep shows that there was liquid poured in front of the sledge that was used to transport heavy weight stones and statues. While archeologist have attributed this to a sacral ceremony, our data clearly show that wetting the sand ground drastically decreases the effective sliding friction coefficient. We first study the stress-strain behavior of sand with and without small amounts of liquid under steady and oscillatory shear. Using a technique to quasistatically push the sand through a tube with an enforced parabolic (Poiseuille-like) profile, we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We observe that the resistance against deformation of the wet (partially saturated) sand is much smaller than that of the dry sand, and that the latter dissipates more energy under flow. Second we show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some--but not too much--water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding.

  1. ESTIMATING URBAN WET WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads emanating from wet-weather flow discharge in urban watersheds. Equations are presented for: annual volume of litter and floatables; the quantity of sand from highway runoff; the quantity of dust-and-dirt accumulation ...

  2. Starch in the Wet-End

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Clerck, Peter

    Starch has been used in papermaking almost since the invention of paper. The global paper industry consumes almost 5 million tonnes of starch per year, making starch the third most important raw material in papermaking. Roughly 20% of this is used in the wet-end.

  3. [North] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic, also called North Yemen, is a small republic on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula facing the Red Sea. Yemen has a temperate interior suitable for agriculture. 8.7 million people of Semetic Arab origin are growing at a rate of 3.1% yearly. The infant mortality rate is 173/1000; the life expectancy is 44 years, and the per capita income is about $550. Yemen was once self-sufficient in food production, exporting fine coffee. Years of civil wars, emigration to Saudi Arabia for work, production of the cash crop "qat" for internal consumption, and the recent drought have contributed to the decline of agriculture. Yemen's economy is maintained by foreign aid from Saudi Arabia, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States. U.S. aid has centered around food, roads and other development projects and primary health care such as immunization and reduction of child mortality. PMID:12177954

  4. Equilibrium of wetting layers on rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuang-Yu

    The objective of this dissertation is to study physical adsorption on solids with complex surface geometry--especially on self-similar and self-affine fractal surfaces--in the context of three phase equilibria. Such studies will facilitate the prediction of the adsorbed film from known surface properties, e.g., topography or interactions (direct problem), and the inference of unknown surface properties from experimental data (inverse problem). These results will then be compared against wetting phenomena on planar surfaces and with other methods of probing complex surface geometries of solids. Chapter One offers the basic context, including wetting phenomena on planar surfaces, the cornerstone prediction of wetting transition on planar surfaces by Cahn, the concepts of fractal geometry, and the formation of fractal objects, for later comparison. The rest of this dissertation will be devoted to the study of multilayer adsorption on fractal surfaces. When a liquid film completely wets the surface, the number of adsorbed molecules as a function of the vapor pressure will depend strongly on the underlying surface geometry. The fractal structure leads to the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill type isotherms with the exponents in the corresponding power laws depending on the fractal dimension and on whether the dominant influence is from the substrate potential (van der Waals wetting) or from the film-vapor surface tension (capillary wetting). The transition between the two is the analog of Cahn's transition: The thermal disorder is replaced by the quenched disorder. This analogy is studied in Chapter Two for self-similar surfaces, and in Chapter Four for self-affine surfaces. In Chapter Two the derivation framework also automatically identifies well-defined coexistence lines in the pressure-dimension diagram. The effect of the repulsive part is examined there too. A simple analysis of adsorption/desorption hysteresis on self-similar surfaces in Chapter Three concludes that the

  5. A new genus and two new species of soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Chiromyzinae) from Australia, one found infesting sugarcane in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Metridius nov. gen. and types species M. robertsoni nov. sp. with winged males and apterous females is described from adults and larvae found infesting sugarcane stools from near Mackay, central Queensland. A second new species, M. mcalpinei nov. sp., based only on males from near Sydney, New South Wales is also described. Notes on the biology of both species and an identification key to the genera of the subfamily Chiromyzinae and to the species are also given. PMID:27394475

  6. MINErosion 3: A user friendly hillslope model for predicting erosion from steep post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hwat-Bing; Khalifa, Ashraf; Carroll, Chris; Yu, Bofu

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is around 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a reliable and accurate method is required to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. A user friendly hillslope computer package MINErosion 3, was developed to predict potential erosion to select suitable combinations of landscape design parameters (slope gradient, slope length and vegetation cover

  7. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

    2014-09-15

    Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (P{sub KA}), skin surface entrance dose (K{sub AR}), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the P{sub KA.} 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median K{sub AR} = 581 mGy (374–876). Median P{sub KA} = 3908 uGym{sup 2} (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym{sup 2}. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median K{sub AR} = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median P{sub KA} = 8736 uGym{sup 2} (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym{sup 2}. This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

  8. Stepwise approach to establishing an ophthalmology wet laboratory.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Bonnie An; Grimes, Kelly J; Fintelmann, Robert E; Oetting, Thomas A

    2009-06-01

    Wet laboratories (wet labs) play an increasingly important role in ophthalmology surgical residency training. We summarize the necessary components in establishing and maintaining a well-functioning wet lab and offer a stepwise guide for educators to improve the quality of the wet lab experience. We present 6 key factors in creating an ophthalmology wet lab; that is, setting up the physical space, establishing appropriate faculty and curriculum, obtaining the practice eye, stabilizing the eye, preparing the eye, and funding the wet lab. PMID:19465299

  9. Annual variations in wet-deposition chemistry related to changes in climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2016-02-01

    National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network precipitation type, snow-season duration, and annual timing of selected chemical wet-deposition maxima vary with latitude and longitude within a 35-year (1979-2013) data record for the contiguous United States and Alaska. From the NADP data collected within the region bounded by 35.6645°-48.782° north latitude and 124°-68° west longitude, similarities in latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of changing snow-season duration, fraction of annual precipitation recorded as snow, and the timing of chemical wet-deposition maxima, suggest that the chemical climate of the atmosphere is linked to physical changes in climate. Total annual precipitation depth has increased 4-6 % while snow season duration has decreased from approximately 7 to 21 days across most of the USA, except in higher elevation regions where it has increased by as much as 21 days. Snow-season precipitation is increasingly comprised of snow, but annually total precipitation is increasingly comprised of liquid precipitation. Meanwhile, maximum ammonium deposition occurs as much as 27 days earlier, and the maximum nitrate: sulfate concentration ratio in wet-deposition occurs approximately 10-21 days earlier in the year. The maximum crustal (calcium + magnesium + potassium) cation deposition occurs 2-35 days earlier in the year. The data suggest that these shifts in the timing of atmospheric wet deposition are linked to a warming climate, but the ecological consequences are uncertain.

  10. A land management history for central Queensland, Australia as determined from land-holder questionnaire and aerial photography.

    PubMed

    Fensham, Roderick J; Fairfax, Russell J

    2003-08-01

    Features of the land management history over a 125,755 km(2) area of central Queensland, Australia were determined from a variety of sources. A random sample of 205 site locations provided the basis for determining trends in land use. Trends in vegetation clearing were determined using sequential aerial photography for the sample sites, revealing a steady rate averaging nearly 1% of the region per annum over 41 years. This measure of sustained clearing over a large region is higher than recently published clearing rates from South America. Land types have been selectively cleared with over 90% of the Acacia on clay land type having been cleared. A land-holder questionnaire pertaining to the random sites yielded a response rate of 71% and provided information on vegetation clearing, ploughing, tree killing (ring-barking or tree poisoning), and fire frequency, season and intensity. The land-holder responses were compared with independent data sources where possible and revealed no mis-information. However, land-holders may have been marginally less likely to respond if the sample area had been cleared, although this effect was not statistically significant. Ploughing and tree killing are variable depending on land type, but the former has affected about 40% of the Acacia on clay land type, effectively eliminating options for natural regrowth. The proportion of decade-site combinations that were reported as having no fires increased from 22% in the 1950s to an average of 42% for subsequent decades, although the reporting of more than one fire per decade has been relatively constant through the study period. The reporting of at least one fire per decade varies from 46% for the Acacia on sand land type to 77% for the Eucalypt on sand land type for decade-site combinations. Fires are more intense when associated with clearing than in uncleared vegetation, but the proportion of cool and hot fires is relatively constant between land types in uncleared vegetation. Nearly

  11. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on Anti-Adhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  12. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995–2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20–69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. Outcome measures The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. Results There were 28 872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76 831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1 372 823 women (PSR n=1 374 401; QCR n=1955), and 5 062 118 records. Conclusions Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study

  13. AmeriFlux US-ICs Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bret-Harte, Syndonia [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Euskirchen, Eugenie [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Shaver, Gaius [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ICs Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra. Site Description - The Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra (Fen Station) is located near Imnavait Creek in Alaska, north of the Brooks Range in the Kuparuk basin near Lake Toolik and the Toolik Field Station. The Kuparuk River has its headwaters in the Brooks Range and drains through northern Alaska into the Arctic Ocean. Within these headwaters lies the Imnavait basin at an average elevation of 930 m. Water tracks run down the hill in parallel zones with a spacing of approximately 10 m. The Fen Station was deployed at the end of Summer 2007.

  14. Controlling Factors of Long-Term Trends in Mercury Wet Deposition and Precipitation Concentrations at Huntington Wildlife Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z.; Mao, H.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) at Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF) suggested that a significant decline (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.03) from 2000 to 2013 in volume weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in precipitation was linked to Hg emission decreases in the United States, especially in the Northeast and Midwest, and yet Hg wet deposition has remained fairly constant over the past two decades. The present study aimed to investigate the climatic, terrestrial, and anthropogenic factors that influenced the decadal pattern in Hg wet deposition in upstate NY. In spring and summer, when Hg wet deposition was the strongest, significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.89, p < 0.0001 in spring; r2 = 0.58, p = 0.002 in summer) of Hg wet deposition with precipitation was found. Increases in precipitation during these seasons could offset the decreasing of Hg concentration in precipitation. Besides, springtime positive correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.02) between precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index together with geopotential height and wind speed analysis indicated that large-scale dynamical forcing was likely an important factor influencing the long term trend in springtime Hg wet deposition at HWF. To further quantify the roles of meteorological and anthropogenic factors in Hg wet deposition, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was employed using an algorithm depicting state-of-the-art Hg chemistry mechanism and up-to-date Hg emission inventories evaluated with MDN and Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet) measurement data. CMAQ simulations with a constant vs. realistic meteorological conditions for multiple warm seasons (including spring and summer) were used to characterize and quantify the impacts of inter-annual variability of precipitation and atmospheric circulation on Hg wet deposition. In addition, contributions to Hg wet deposition from decreases in anthropogenic emissions in NYS and nation-wide were quantified from

  15. INNOVATIVE URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes innovative methods to improve wet weather flow (WWF) management systems, that provide drainage services at the same time as decreasing stormwater pollutant discharges, for urban developments of the 21st century. Traditionally, wet-weather collection systems...

  16. Growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae from fluctuating brackish and sea water locations in South East Queensland-Australia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Van Thang; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-01-01

    One challenge constraining the use of microalgae in the food and biofuels industry is growth and lipid accumulation. Microalgae with high growth characteristics are more likely to originate from the local environment. However, to be commercially effective, in addition to high growth microalgae must also have high lipid productivities and contain the desired fatty acids for their intended use. We isolated microalgae from intertidal locations in South East Queensland, Australia with adverse or fluctuating conditions, as these may harbor more opportunistic strains with high lipid accumulation potential. Screening was based on a standard protocol using growth rate and lipid accumulation as well as prioritizing fatty acid profiles suitable for biodiesel or nutraceuticals. Using these criteria, an initial selection of over 50 local microalgae strains from brackish and sea water was reduced to 16 strains considered suitable for further investigation. Among these 16 strains, the ones most likely to be effective for biodiesel feedstock were Nitzschia sp. CP3a, Tetraselmis sp. M8, Cymbella sp. CP2b, and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c, reaching growth rates of up to 0.53 day(-1) and lipid productivities of 5.62 μg mL(-1)day(-1). Omega-3 fatty acids were found in some strains such as Nitzschia sp. CP2a, Nitzschia sp. CP3a and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c. These strains have potential for further research as commercial food supplements. PMID:26042142

  17. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  18. Oviposition and larval habitat preferences of the saltwater mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in a subtropical mangrove forest in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat; Phinn, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical Queensland, Australia. Eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. Two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. The third class was in freely flushed mangroves that corresponded with more frequent tidal connections than the depression classes. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to analyze the data. The null hypotheses were rejected: the hummock class was a significant habitat based on both eggshell and larval data. The conclusion was that mosquito production in the mangrove system was distributed unevenly between habitat classes, and that the hummock class had conditions suited to the requirements of the immature stages of Ae. vigilax. This research has the potential to inform mosquito management strategies by focusing treatment on the problem habitats and underpinning habitat modifications including reducing water retention in the basins. PMID:22938052

  19. The Usefulness of a Threat and Disturbance Categorization Developed for Queensland Wetlands to Environmental Management, Monitoring, and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, A. J. J.

    2011-01-01

    There is no comprehensive system of describing threats and disturbances currently used in Australia, despite the widespread impacts of human activities on natural ecosystems. Yet a detailed categorization would facilitate the collation of threatening process information into information systems; enable standardized collection and availability of data; and enable comparative analyses of ecosystem condition between stakeholders, agencies, states, and nations, particularly for environmental reporting and evaluation mechanisms such as State of the Environment. As part of the Queensland Wetlands Programme (QWP), a threat and disturbance framework was developed, focused on the pressure and impacts components of the DPSIR (driver-pressure-state-impacts-response) framework. A wetland inventory database was developed also that included a detailed threat and disturbance categorization using the QWP framework. The categorization encompasses a broad range of anthropogenic and natural processes, and is hierarchical to accommodate varying levels of detail or knowledge. By incorporating detailed qualitative and quantitative information, a comprehensive threats and disturbances categorization can contribute to conceptual or spatially explicit knowledge and management assessments. The application of the framework and categorization to several threatening processes is demonstrated, and its relationship to current natural resource condition indicators is discussed. Threat evaluation is an essential component of ecological assessment and environmental management, and a standardized categorization enables consistency in attributing processes, impacts and their short- to long-term consequences. Such a systematic framework and categorization demonstrates the importance and usefulness of comprehensive approaches, and this approach can be readily adapted to management, monitoring and evaluation of other target ecosystems and biota.

  20. Floodplain dynamics in space and time: the case of the Lockyer Valley south-east Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croke, J.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-two lives were lost in the Lockyer Creek floods in southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia in the summer of 2011. The predicted average recurrence interval (ARI) for this event in the upper catchment was ~ 2000 yrs based on relatively short gauging station records (median 38 yrs in Eastern Australia). This study presents an assessment of the basin-scale (3000km2) spatial patterns of floodplain erosion, deposition, and net morphological change following the January 2011 using multitemporal Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) DEMs. Clear spatial patterns of floodplain deposition and erosion are evident reflecting high degrees of variability in channel capacity and floodplain inundation frequency. This data is then compared to a millennial-scale record of floodplain deposition from six key reaches of the Lockyer Valley determined using extensive stratigraphic and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. OSL samples were taken from both bedrock and alluvial reaches and from both floodplain and within-channel benches. This presentation discusses the resultant spatial and temporal dynamics of floodplain deposition in a catchment dominated by hydrological extremes. The results highlight some important considerations of preservation potential in floodplain reconstruction but also provide data to test key hypotheses with respect to flood reconstruction in south eastern Australia.