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Sample records for north ramp area

  1. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  2. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rousseau, Joseph P., (Edited By); Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  3. 3. Cement and Plaster Warehouse, north facade. Loading ramp on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Cement and Plaster Warehouse, north facade. Loading ramp on the right. Utility building, intrusion, on the far right. - Curtis Wharf, Cement & Plaster Warehouse, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  4. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Overview of the area leading to beaching ramp, looking across ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the area leading to beaching ramp, looking across water of west loch. View facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Construction of the exploratory studies facility at Yucca Mountain - North Ramp

    SciTech Connect

    Kalia, H.N.; Repogle, J.M.; McNeely, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office of the US Department of Energy is constructing an Exploratory Studies Facility, approximately 160 km (100 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This facility will be used to gather geological, hydrological, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geochemical information to characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site to isolate High-Level Radioactive Waste from the accessible environment. The Exploratory Studies Facility, when completed shall consist of two ramps from the surface, a connecting drift, underground test areas and below ground operational support facilities. The ramps and connecting drift are being mined by a 7.62 m (25 ft) diameter Tunnel Boring Machine. This machine was fabricated for the Department of Energy by Construction Tunneling Services, Inc; of Kent, Washington. This paper describes the current status of the concentration of the North Ramp at Yucca Mountain. At the time of this writing, the North Ramp had advanced to a distance of about 517 m (1700 ft). With the exception of some minor problems through Bow Ridge fault, the excavation has progressed as expected.

  7. Thermal and seismic impacts on the North Ramp at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P.; Jung, J.

    1994-05-01

    The impacts of thermal and seismic loads on the stability of the Exploratory Studies Facility North Ramp at Yucca Mountain were assessed using both empirical and analytical approaches. This paper presents the methods and results of the analyses. Thermal loads were first calculated using the computer code STRES3D. This code calculates the conductive heat transfer through a semi-infinite elastic, isotropic, homogeneous solid and the rafts thermally-induced stresses. The calculated thermal loads, combined with simulated earthquake motion, were then modeled using UDEC and DYNA3D, numerical codes with dynamic simulation capabilities. The thermal- and seismic-induced yield zones were post-processed and presented for assessment of damage. Uncoupled bolt stress analysis was also conducted to evaluate the seismic impact on the ground support components.

  8. Integrated geology and preliminary cross section along the north ramp of the exploratory studies facility, Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Buesch, D.C.; Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M.; Spengler, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    The Exploratory Studies Facility is a major part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the north ramp is the first phase of construction. The N61W trending north ramp will transect the Bow Ridge and Drill Hole Wash faults and numerous minor faults, and traverses two thick welded tuffs and several nonwelded tuff units. A preliminary cross section along the north ramp was created by integration of geologic map relations, lithostratigraphic data from core collected from boreholes, and surface and borehole geophysical data. The Bow Ridge fault is a west-dipping normal fault with about 410 feet of dip-slip separation. East-dipping strata in the hanging wall adjacent to the fault is contrary to early structural interpretations. West of the Bow Ridge fault the ramp might traverse about 220 {+-} 65 feet of nonlithified tuffaceous material. Geometry of the Drill Hole Wash fault is not known, but is modeled in part as two strands that juxtapose different thicknesses and facies of formations with a complex sense of movement.

  9. Diesel emissions and ventilation exhaust sampling in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.T.

    1995-11-01

    A series of ventilation experiments have been performed to assess the potential retention of diesel exhaust constituents in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project`s Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Measurements were taken to help evaluate the potential impact of retained diesel exhaust constituents on future in-situ experiments and long-term waste isolation. Assessment of the diesel exhaust retention in the ESF North Ramp required the measurement of air velocities, meteorological measurements, quantification of exhaust constituents within the ventilation air stream, multiple gas sample collections, and on-line diesel exhaust measurements. In order to assess variability within specific measurements, the experiment was divided into three separate sampling events. Although somewhat variable from event to event, collected data appear to support pre-test assumptions of high retention rates for exhaust constituents within the tunnel. The results also show that complete air exchange in the ESF does not occur within the estimated 16 to 20 minutes derived from the ventilation flowrate measurements. Because the scope of work for these activities covered only measurement and acquisition of data, no judgment is offered by the author as to the implications of this work. Final analyses and decisions based upon the entire compendium of data associated with this investigation is being undertaken by the Repository and ESF Ventilation Design Groups of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project.

  10. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  11. Impact of Balancing Area Size, Obligation Sharing, and Energy Markets on Mitigating Ramping Requirements in Systems with Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Balancing area reserve sharing holds the promise of significantly reducing wind integration costs. In a companion paper we examine wind integration costs as a function of balancing area size to determine if the larger system size helps mitigate wind integration cost increases. In this paper we turn to an examination of the NYISO sub-hourly energy market to understand how it incentivizes generators to respond to ramping signals without having to explicitly pay for the service. Because markets appear to have the ability of bringing out supply response in sub-hourly energy markets, and because existing thermal resources appear to have significant untapped ramping capability, we believe that a combination of fast energy markets and combined balancing area operations can increase the grid's ability to absorb higher wind penetrations without experiencing significant operational problems or costs.

  12. Evaluation of geotechnical monitoring data from the ESF North Ramp Starter Tunnel, April 1994 to June 1995. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the results of instrumentation measurements and observations made during construction of the North Ramp Starter Tunnel (NRST) of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The information in this report was developed as part of the Design Verification Study, Section 8.3.1.15.1.8 of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988). The ESF is being constructed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The Design Verification Studies are performed to collect information during construction of the ESF that will be useful for design and construction of the potential repository. Four experiments make up the Design Verification Study: Evaluation of Mining Methods, Monitoring Drift Stability, Monitoring of Ground Support Systems, and The Air Quality and Ventilation Experiment. This report describes Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) efforts in the first three of these experiments in the NRST.

  13. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the potential to locate the national high-level nuclear waste repository on land within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan to Provide Soil and Rock Properties. This is volume 2 which contains NRG Corehole Data for each of the NRG Holes.

  14. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as "key areas." These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering North American herons. Within each area, we identify specific sites that are potentially important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  15. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  16. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  17. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  18. Tectonics vs. eustasy: Mid Pennsylvanian carbonate-ramp cycles, ancestral Rocky Mountains, north-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, T.L. . Dept. of Geology); Smith, G.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Detailed stratigraphic and sedimentologic analysis of measured sections within the Madera Limestone in the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico, characterize depositional environments and transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles across a west-dipping ramp, situated approximately 70 kilometers west of the Pedernal uplift, a tectonically active element of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. The ramp setting was separated from the Pedernal Uplift by the deep, clastic-filled Estancia Basin. T-R cycles are 2--12 meters thick and consist of asymmetric, shoaling-upward calcareous shales, thick skeletal wackestones, packstones-grainstones, and are capped by subaerial exposure surfaces or terrigenous clastics. The presence of subaerial exposure features upon subtidal carbonates argues for an allogenic control on cycle formation. 15 T-R cycles are interpreted to coincide with 3rd-order eustatic curves of Ross and Ross (1987). Following the convention of most workers, these 3rd-order cycles are herein referred to as 4th-order. No higher-order cycles have been recognized. Cycles exhibit a bundling of 4, 4th-order cycles into larger, asymmetric 3rd-order cycles, similar in pattern to those described by Ross and Ross (1987). Correlation of Madera Limestone cycles with those in other regions indicates that ancestral Rocky Mountains tectonism was less effective than eustasy in controlling the stratigraphy of Middle Pennsylvanian sediments. Using various time scales for the Desmoinesian, cycle periodicities range between 200,000--370,000 years. This average cycle periodicity is similar to other 4th-order cycles reported in the literature for the Pennsylvanian and suggests a Milankovitch orbital forcing mechanism.

  19. Sedimentology, diagenesis, clay mineralogy and sequential analysis model of Upper Paleocene evaporite-carbonate ramp succession from Tamerza area (Gafsa Basin: Southern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messadi, Abdel Majid; Mardassi, Besma; Ouali, Jamel Abdennaceur; Touir, Jamel

    2016-06-01

    Integrated sedimentological studies, diagenesis, sequential analysis and clay mineralogy on the Upper Paleocene rocks in Tamerza area provide important information on the reconstruction of the depositional basin, cyclicity, and paleoclimatic contexts. Facies analysis and petrographic studies have led to the recognition of nine facies that were deposited in three facies belts: Sebkha, inner ramp and outer ramp summarized in a carbonate ramp model: Homoclinal ramp under an arid climate. The upward and lateral changes in thickness and composition show a general regressive trend that records a transition from an outer ramp to Sebkha, creating different types of confinement. The facies stacking patterns constitute several kinds of meter-scale, shallowing-upward cycles. Nine different types of depositional cycles and several models of Sebkha sequences were defined. These different types of facies, characterized within the Thelja Formation, compose seven depositional sequences, mainly made of carbonates, marls and evaporates. Detailed multi approach analysis provides important information on evaporitic sequence stratigraphy. In carbonates beds, the diagenetic analysis provides an overview and chronology of diagenetic processes. A particular attention was paid to early stage cementation which enables us to characterize better the depositional environments. In addition to cementation, other features define the diagenetic history. X-ray diffraction reveals the presence of smectite suggesting an arid climate. Moreover, the clinoptilolite and the frequency of primary dolomite indicate different degrees of confinement. The seven depositional sequences showing a hierarchical organization of many cycles, as described above, suggested that eustatic sea level oscillations caused by cyclic perturbations of the Earth's orbit play a fundamental role in determining the formation of hierarchical cyclic rhythmicity.

  20. 2. CONCRETE PADDING AREA BETWEEN BERM MOUNDS, LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONCRETE PADDING AREA BETWEEN BERM MOUNDS, LOOKING NORTH FROM TOP OF BERM. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Acid Fueling Station, North of Launch Area Entrance Drive, eastern central portion of base, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  1. 5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF NORTH PARK AVENUE TRAILHEAD PARKING AREA FACING SOUTHEAST. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  2. North elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area No. 23 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation of Building No. 46. Parking Area No. 23 in foreground. Looking south - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 46, West side of South Twenty-eighth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. Airport ramp safety and crew performance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Roy; Drew, Charles; Patten, Marcia; Matchette, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This study examined 182 ramp operations incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, to determine which factors influence ramp operation incidents. It was found that incidents occurred more often during aircraft arrival operations than during departure operations; incidents occurred most often at the gate stop area, less so at the gate entry/exit areas, and least on the ramp fringe areas; and reporters cited fewer incidents when more ground crew were present. The authors offer suggestions for both airline management and flight crews to reduce the rate of ramp incidents.

  4. North American berry industries and research areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The farm gate value of small fruit crops in North America has increased significantly in the last 10 years. Much of this increase is due to increased consumption for health benefits. Small fruits are rich in antioxidants which help prevent adverse effects of aging, cancer, and heart diseases. Acc...

  5. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017,...

  6. NORTH FORK JOHN DAY RIVER ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Conyac, Martin D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the North Fork John Day River Roadless Area in Oregon indicates that a narrow belt along the river has a substantiated resource potential for placer gold, and several other drainages tributary to the North Fork a probable resource potential for placer or lode gold. Further study of the roadless area may reveal other areas with a potential for gold, and could help to delineate bedrock or additional placer resources, especially in drainages tributary to the North Fork. This work could also point to other mineral deposits near the roadless boundary.

  7. 26. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF ROOM 109 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF ROOM 109 AND THE RAMP TO THE LOWER LEVELS. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  8. 16. Detail view of the scale area at the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail view of the scale area at the north end of the 1937 main section, looking east-northeast; the original office is at th left, and the scale at the right - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  9. North Sea difficult but prime area for applications

    SciTech Connect

    Skattum, K.S. )

    1990-04-02

    The Norwegian North Sea sector has been considered a very expensive area for subsea developments compared to the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil, where, the cost of a completed subsea well is several times less. An analysis of these large differences shows how the costs for North Sea projects can be reduced.

  10. 8. View north from hallway, through administration area to front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from hallway, through administration area to front entrance. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  11. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. 1-9 - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW GLAZING REPLACEMENTS, AND RAILING FOR STAIRS TO BASEMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. 27. View in the Shagbark Hickory area looking north to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View in the Shagbark Hickory area looking north to the visitor's center (duplicate of HALS no. LA-1-2 (CT)) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  14. Looking north along the control console area towards the classified ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north along the control console area towards the classified storage room; projection stands at left - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  15. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN SHOP AREA. BUILDING 15 ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN SHOP AREA. BUILDING 15 ON RIGHT, BUILDING 22 ON LEFT, AND BUILDING 1 IN DISTANCE. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  16. 3. Detail of north loading dock area showing column, insulated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Detail of north loading dock area showing column, insulated doors, and detail of underside of canopy - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  17. Looking North into Lab Metallurgy Testing Area and Enrichment Motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking North into Lab Metallurgy Testing Area and Enrichment Motor within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  18. 5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  19. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  20. 43. VIEW OF THE RAMP ABOVE LOWER PORTAL AND RAMP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. VIEW OF THE RAMP ABOVE LOWER PORTAL AND RAMP, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE RAMP WAS USED TO GUIDE RUN-OFF FROM THUNDERSTORMS AWAY FROM THE PORTAL. - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  1. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH MOLTEN METAL BEING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, CUPOLA AREA WITH MOLTEN METAL BEING POURED OUT OF THE CUPOLA INTO THE POURING LADLE. FROM THE POURING LADLE, THE IRON IS LATER POURED INTO A TRANSFER LADLE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE CASTING MACHINES. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Late Tectonic history of Beaufort Sea - North Pacific area

    SciTech Connect

    McWhae, J.R.H.

    1985-02-01

    The Kaltag fault (and its northern associated splay, the Rapid fault array) is the sheared suture between the Eurasian-Alaskan plate and the North American plate in the area between the Mackenzie Delta and the Alaskan Border. This condition has been maintained throughout considerable additional phases of faulting and folding from mid-Cretaceous to the present. Previously, the Alaskan plate had been the northwestern nose of the North America plate. The interplate suture was deflected to the north as the Canadian Shield was approached. The Kaltag fault continued northeastward 2000 km seaward of the Sverdrup rim, northwest of the Canadian Arctic Island, and north of Greenland. The driving force was directed from the southwest by the Eurasian plate after its collision in Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) with the North American plate and the docking of north-moving exotic terranes from the Pacific. During the early Tertiary, perhaps in concert with the accretion of the Okhotsk block to the Asian plate north of Japan, the northern Pacific subduction zone jumped southward to the Aleutian Arc where it has persisted until today. A distance of 800 km separates the stable shelf of the Canadian craton, at the Alberta Foothills thrust belt, from the subduction zone off Vancouver Island. The foreland thrust belt and the accretion of exotic terranes in Mesozoic and Tertiary times extended the continental crust of the North American plate westward to the present active transform margin with the Pacific plate along the Queen Charlotte fault zone.

  3. NORTH FORK OF THE AMERICAN RIVER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.; Federspiel, Francis E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the North Fork of the American River Wilderness study area, California have identified a zone of substantiated resource potential for gold and silver. Zones of probable gold and silver potential occur in the eastern part of the area between the Wubbena and La Trinidad mines and locally around the Marrs mine. A zone with probable chromium potential occurs in the serpentinite belt along the western border of the area. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  4. Wind Plant Ramping Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kemper, J.

    2009-12-01

    With the increasing wind penetrations, utilities and operators (ISOs) are quickly trying to understand the impacts on system operations and planning. This report focuses on ramping imapcts within the Xcel service region.

  5. 34. VIEW TO EAST; DETAIL OF LAMP ON VEHICULAR RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW TO EAST; DETAIL OF LAMP ON VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 33. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; DETAIL OF VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; DETAIL OF VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops of individual vaults and vent housings - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible from left to right are the direct current breaker panel, battery bank, door to stairwell, and hanging tools. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. 15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. 12. OVERHEAD VIEW OF THE EVISCERATION AREA; LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OVERHEAD VIEW OF THE EVISCERATION AREA; LOOKING NORTH FROM THE VISITORS' GALLERY; NOTE THE RAISED CONCRETE PLATFORMS FOR WORKERS; VISCERA TABLE HAS BEEN REMOVED - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  11. 11. NORTH ACROSS PUMP REPAIR AREA ALONG EAST WALL INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH ACROSS PUMP REPAIR AREA ALONG EAST WALL INSIDE FACTORY. VIEW INCLUDES PARTS BINS AND BOXES ALONG WALL, MULTIPLE DRILL PRESS NEAR WALL, AND PUMP REPAIR WORK BENCH IN LEFT FOREGROUND. LEFT OF CENTER IN PHOTOGRAPH IS 1920S TURRET LATHE. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  12. View north from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area across a pile of removed gravestones along the subtle ridgeline to the Doughty-Beck monument. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. LOST COVE AND HARPER CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, NORTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Crandall, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation indicated that a part of the Lost Cove and Harper Creek Roadless Areas, North Carolina has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, niobium, and beryllium. The study areas lie within the Blue Ridge physiographic province and are predominantly underlain by Precambrian plutonic and metasedimentary rocks of low metamorphic grade. The uranium occurs in vein-type deposits and in supergene-enriched foliated rocks. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources.

  14. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W. Bruce; McNeilly, David R.; Thacker, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  15. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  16. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  17. 14 CFR 135.98 - Operations in the North Polar Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the North Polar Area. 135.98... Operations § 135.98 Operations in the North Polar Area. After August 13, 2008, no certificate holder may operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than...

  18. 14 CFR 135.98 - Operations in the North Polar Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operations in the North Polar Area. 135.98... Operations § 135.98 Operations in the North Polar Area. After August 13, 2008, no certificate holder may operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than...

  19. Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.

  20. Crescentic ramp turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Inventor); Tam, Anna (Inventor); Kirtley, Kevin Richard (Inventor); Lamson, Scott Henry (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A turbine stage includes a row of airfoils joined to corresponding platforms to define flow passages therebetween. Each airfoil includes opposite pressure and suction sides and extends in chord between opposite leading and trailing edges. Each platform includes a crescentic ramp increasing in height from the leading and trailing edges toward the midchord of the airfoil along the pressure side thereof.

  1. Investigating Ramps and Sliders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a series of hands-on activities for introducing students to concepts of energy transfer and conversion. Describes how simple devices as marbles, ramps, and sliders can be used to gauge the transfer of energy and assist in the development of investigative skills. (ML)

  2. Fold patterns, lateral ramps and seismicity in central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohn, H.A.; Coleman, J.L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Susquehanna lateral ramp crosses the entire length of Pennsylvania in a NNE direction and extends into southern New York State. Its presence was first suspected because of a dramatic change in fold wavelength across the Susquehanna River, seen on both side-looking airborne radar (SLAR *) data and the geologic map of Pennsylvania. Seismic reflection profiles confirm the presence of a ramp and show the detailed nature of structures associated with it. These structures include antiformal stacks, juxtaposed anticlines and synclines, and folds beheaded by thrust faults. The change in the fold pattern, which led to recognizing the lateral ramp, occurs above a rapid dropoff in depth to the basement suggesting that the ramp and the basement configuration may somehow be related. In plan view, eleven earthquakes are spatially related to the Susquehanna lateral ramp, although they are in the basement rocks rather than in the cover rocks which contain the lateral ramp itself. The earthquakes are, therefore, not likely directly associated with the ramp, though they may be affiliated with strike-slip faulting in the basement which, itself, appears to be partly responsible for the formation of the ramp. The initial age of the faulting along, and in the vicinity of, the Susquehanna lateral ramp is presumably Early to Middle Paleozoic. However, the presence of a surficially-exposed Mesozoic dike along the ramp and modern seismicity suggest that the Susquehanna lateral ramp may be a zone of protracted, and perhaps repeated, tectonism which is currently being reactivated. A preliminary evaluation of the distribution of modern earthquakes in the Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge and Appalachian Plateau shows that nearly half of the earthquakes are located under lateral ramps. If this observation is true, the presence of ramps may be a useful geological indicator of areas susceptible to seismicity. ?? 1991.

  3. Aerial view looking northwest showing location of seaplane ramps 2,3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view looking northwest showing location of seaplane ramps 2,3, and 4. Ramps lead from buildings 1 and 2, bayside left center, into San Diego Bay. - Naval Air Station North Island, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  4. 40. NORTH ACROSS WOODWORKING AREA IN NORTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF FACTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. NORTH ACROSS WOODWORKING AREA IN NORTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF FACTORY ACROSS STACKED LUMBER ON SAWHORSES TOWARD CIRCA 1900 THICKNESS PLANER, SHOP-MADE BELT GUARD, AND BELOW THE SKYLIGHT OVERHEAD LINE SHAFT, BELTS, AND PULLEYS. BEYOND THE LUMBER ON A WHEELED WORK STATION ARE CIRCA 1900 ROLLS FOR BENDING PROPER CURVATURE IN STEEL WINDMILL BLADES AND CIRCA 1900 BEADING MACHINE FOR FORMING CREASES IN THE EDGES OF SHEET METAL PARTS SUCH AS WHEEL BLADES. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  5. 46. NORTH THROUGH SHEET METAL AND ASSEMBLY AREA IN SOUTHWESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. NORTH THROUGH SHEET METAL AND ASSEMBLY AREA IN SOUTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF FACTORY AS SEEN FROM DOORWAY IN SOUTH FRONT WALL. ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL ARE SHELVES BEARING WATER PUMPS, PARTS FOR PUMPS AND WATER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT, AND NEW OLD STOCK MERCHANDISE. IN FRONT OF THE WALL ARE THE CIRCA 1900 SHEET METAL SHEAR AND CIRCA 1900 SHEET METAL BRAKE. AT THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE ALONGSIDE VERTICAL CEILING SUPPORTS IS METAL-COVERED BENCH FOR SHEET METAL WORK. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  6. Exterior direct detail view of revised entry handicap ramp at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior direct detail view of revised entry handicap ramp at east side of Building 7 (including 3-story trash dump tower), looking north - North Beach Place, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  8. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  9. Geology of the Plumtree area, Spruce Pine district, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brobst, Donald Albert

    1953-01-01

    This report describes the results of study and geologic mapping (1:12,000) in the 70-square-mile Plumtree area in the northeastern part of the Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine and includes parts of Mitchell and Avery Counties shown on the portions of the 7.5-minute Spruce Pine, Linville Falls, Newland, North Carolina, and Carvers Gap, North Carolina and Tennessee quadrangle. The topography varies from rugged mountains to rounded or flat topped hills near the entrenched, meandering master streams. Old erosion surfaces are approximately 600,1,100, 1,500, and 2,500 feet above the present master stream level. The area is in late youth or early maturity after rejuvenation.. The regionally metamorphosed rocks of the amophibolite facies form three mappable units: mica gneiss, mica schist, and hornblende rock. These rocks, perhaps of Precambrian age, are intimately interlayered with thicknesses of the individual layers ranging from less than one inch to several tons of feet. Field relationships and chemical data suggest that the mica (Carolina-type) rocks were derived from sandstones, graywackes, and shales and that the hornblende-rich (Roan-type) layers were derived from impure carbonate rocks. The igneous rocks include alaskite and associated pegmatite of early Paleozoic age (?), dunite and associated soapstone of a prepegmatite age, and a few diabasic

  10. 39. NORTH TOWARD GENERAL VIEW OF WOODWORKING SHOP AREA IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. NORTH TOWARD GENERAL VIEW OF WOODWORKING SHOP AREA IN THE NORTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF THE FACTORY. THE LINE SHAFT, BELTS, AND PULLEYS WHICH OPERATED MACHINERY ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE BENEATH THE SKYLIGHT IN THE CEILING. A SHOP-MADE BELT GUARD MADE FROM SAWED LUMBER AND HARDWARE CLOTH IS SEEN NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH, BENEATH WHICH ARE A CIRCA 1900 TABLE SAW AND A SMALL WHEELED WORK STATION WITH A BELT-ACTUATED PAINT PIGMENT GRINDER. IN THE RIGHT AREA OF THE IMAGE ARE A TIRE BENDER AND A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. SAWHORSES AT THE LEFT SIDE SUPPORT STACKED LUMBER IN FRONT OF A CIRCA 1900 THICKNESS PLANER. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  11. Downslope-migrating large dunes in the Chattian carbonate ramp of the Majella Mountains (Central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandano, M.; Lipparini, L.; Campagnoni, V.; Tomassetti, L.

    2012-05-01

    This work is the result of detailed geological mapping and stratigraphic analysis of the Lepidocyclina Limestone in the northern sector of the Majella Mountains (Central Apennines). The Lepidocyclina Limestone represents an informal member of the Bolognano Formation (Chattian to Messinian in age). Four main lithofacies have been recognized: planar cross-bedded grainstone (FA); moderate-angle, cross-bedded grainstone to packstone (FB); sigmoidal cross-bedded grainstone (FC); and bioturbated marly packstone to wackestone (FD). A detailed description of the recognized lithofacies and facies association of the Lepidocyclina Limestone is given in this work, together with an interpretation of the corresponding depositional setting and a discussion of the related larger-scale processes. In summary, the depositional profile of the Lepidocyclina Limestone is consistent with a carbonate ramp, where most of the sediments appear to be parautochthonous in the middle ramp environment and autochthonous-dominated in the outer ramp environment. Palaeocurrent patterns indicate a strong, generally north-west basin-ward direction that affected the middle ramp environment and developed a wide, down-slope migrating dune field. Considering that the warm Oligocene climate of the Mediterranean area was favorable to tropical cyclone development, both in terms of frequency and intensity, it is suggested that return currents generated by strong winds or storms were common on the "Lepidocyclina" carbonate ramp, thus favoring the development of the observed dune field.

  12. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

  13. Identifying Wind and Solar Ramping Events: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Wind and solar power are playing an increasing role in the electrical grid, but their inherent power variability can augment uncertainties in power system operations. One solution to help mitigate the impacts and provide more flexibility is enhanced wind and solar power forecasting; however, its relative utility is also uncertain. Within the variability of solar and wind power, repercussions from large ramping events are of primary concern. At the same time, there is no clear definition of what constitutes a ramping event, with various criteria used in different operational areas. Here the Swinging Door Algorithm, originally used for data compression in trend logging, is applied to identify variable generation ramping events from historic operational data. The identification of ramps in a simple and automated fashion is a critical task that feeds into a larger work of 1) defining novel metrics for wind and solar power forecasting that attempt to capture the true impact of forecast errors on system operations and economics, and 2) informing various power system models in a data-driven manner for superior exploratory simulation research. Both allow inference on sensitivities and meaningful correlations, as well as the ability to quantify the value of probabilistic approaches for future use in practice.

  14. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  15. SR-71 on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's SR-71A, used for high-speed, high-altitude aeronautical research, is seen here on the ramp outside its main building hangar at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. NASA operated two of these unique aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer during the decade of the 1990s. The SR-71 was designed and built by the Lockheed Skunk Works, now Lockheed Martin. Studies have shown that less than 20 percent of the total thrust used to fly at Mach 3 is produced by the basic engine itself. The balance of the total thrust is produced by the unique design of the engine inlet and 'moveable spike' system at the front of the engine nacelles, and by the ejector nozzles at the exhaust. Data from the SR-71 high speed research program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic/hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that

  16. Trunk Highway 169: Dynamic ramp metering evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Peak period travel demand has exceed unmanaged road capacity on most of Twin Cities metropolitan area freeways for more than two decades. During this time, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MN/DOT) has developed and implemented its freeway traffic management system (FTMS). MN/DOT continues to expand the FTMS, which includes ramp metering as one component. This report documents the impact of dynamic ramp metering on Trunk Highway 169 (TH 16) from Minnetonka Boulevard in Minnetonka to 77th Avenue in Brooklyn Park. The study examines changes in traffic performance with regard to traffic flow, congestion levels, travel times, and accident rates before and after implementation of dynamic ramp metering.

  17. A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area. Camera facing north. Fourrail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area. Camera facing north. Four-rail track leads to south end (front door) of TAN-647. Dolly is loaded with transport cask and liner. To its right, view shows back end of TAN-648, which is accessed by road on its north side. Photographer: M. Holmes. Date: December 21, 1959. INEEL negative no. 59-6080. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. View of Corto Square. Access ramp in foreground to Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Corto Square. Access ramp in foreground to Building No. 30. Buildings No. 25, 26, 34, and 32 left to right at rear, looking north - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  20. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  1. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. 334.865 Section 334.865 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The...

  2. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The area... designee. (6) When security conditions dictate, Naval security forces may impose strict enforcement...

  3. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Air Station North Island... REGULATIONS § 334.865 Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area. (a) The area... designee. (6) When security conditions dictate, Naval security forces may impose strict enforcement...

  4. Analytical model for ramp compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Quanxi; Jiang, Shaoen; Wang, Zhebin; Wang, Feng; Hu, Yun; Ding, Yongkun

    2016-08-01

    An analytical ramp compression model for condensed matter, which can provide explicit solutions for isentropic compression flow fields, is reported. A ramp compression experiment can be easily designed according to the capability of the loading source using this model. Specifically, important parameters, such as the maximum isentropic region width, material properties, profile of the pressure pulse, and the pressure pulse duration can be reasonably allocated or chosen. To demonstrate and study this model, laser-direct-driven ramp compression experiments and code simulation are performed successively, and the factors influencing the accuracy of the model are studied. The application and simulation show that this model can be used as guidance in the design of a ramp compression experiment. However, it is verified that further optimization work is required for a precise experimental design.

  5. Geochemical map of the North Fork John Day River Roadless Area, Grant County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.

    1986-01-01

    The North Fork John Day River Roadless Area comprised 21,210 acres in the Umatilla and Wallowa-Whitman National Forests, Grant County, Oregon, about 30 miles northwest of Baker, Oregon. The irregularly shaped area extends for about 1 mile on both sides of a 25-mile segment of the North Fork John Day River from Big Creek on the west to North Fork John Day Campground on the east. Most of the roadless area is in the northern half of the Desolation Butte 15-minute quadrangle. The eastern end of the area is in parts of the Granite and Trout Meadows 7½-minute quadrangles.

  6. Simulating Ramp Compression of Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwal, B. K.; Gonzàlez-Cataldo, F. J.; Jeanloz, R.

    2014-12-01

    We model ramp compression, shock-free dynamic loading, intended to generate a well-defined equation of state that achieves higher densities and lower temperatures than the corresponding shock Hugoniot. Ramp loading ideally approaches isentropic compression for a fluid sample, so is useful for simulating the states deep inside convecting planets. Our model explicitly evaluates the deviation of ramp from "quasi-isentropic" compression. Motivated by recent ramp-compression experiments to 5 TPa (50 Mbar), we calculate the room-temperature isotherm of diamond using first-principles density functional theory and molecular dynamics, from which we derive a principal isentrope and Hugoniot by way of the Mie-Grüneisen formulation and the Hugoniot conservation relations. We simulate ramp compression by imposing a uniaxial strain that then relaxes to an isotropic state, evaluating the change in internal energy and stress components as the sample relaxes toward isotropic strain at constant volume; temperature is well defined for the resulting hydrostatic state. Finally, we evaluate multiple shock- and ramp-loading steps to compare with single-step loading to a given final compression. Temperatures calculated for single-step ramp compression are less than Hugoniot temperatures only above 500 GPa, the two being close to each other at lower pressures. We obtain temperatures of 5095 K and 6815 K for single-step ramp loading to 600 and 800 GPa, for example, which compares well with values of ~5100 K and ~6300 K estimated from previous experiments [PRL,102, 075503, 2009]. At 800 GPa, diamond is calculated to have a temperature of 500 K along the isentrope; 900 K under multi-shock compression (asymptotic result after 8-10 steps); and 3400 K under 3-step ramp loading (200-400-800 GPa). Asymptotic multi-step shock and ramp loading are indistinguishable from the isentrope, within present uncertainties. Our simulations quantify the manner in which current experiments can simulate the

  7. Mineral resources of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.S.U.; Yeend, W.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Gese, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), California Desert Conservation Area, Imperial County, California. The potential for undiscovered base and precious metals, and sand and gravel within the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area is low. The study area has a moderate potential for geothermal energy. One small sand-free area between the Coachella Canal and the west edge of the dune field would probably be the only feasible exploration site for geothermal energy. The study area has a moderate to high potential for the occurrence of undiscovered gas/condensate within the underlying rocks. 21 refs.

  8. 20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE ACCESS RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE ACCESS RAMP TO THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA FROM THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. Mineral resources of the Kofa Unit 4 North Wilderness Study Area, Yuma County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, D.B.; Kleinkopf, M.D.; Gese, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kofa Unit 4 North Wilderness Study Area (AZ-050-033) is located in Yuma County, southwestern Arizona. At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 1,380 acres of the Kofa Unit 4 North Wilderness Study Area were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered). Throughout the report, reference to the Kofa Unit 4 North Wilderness Study Area or to the study area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which mineral surveys were requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Low resource potential for geothermal energy exists northwest of the range-bounding faults of the study area. The study area has no resource potential for oil or gas.

  10. 42. SAR2, OVERVIEW OF POWERHOUSE AND HOUSING AREA, LOOKING NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. SAR-2, OVERVIEW OF POWERHOUSE AND HOUSING AREA, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING HORSE-DRAWN BUGGY. SCE negative no. 3, no date. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 12. OVERVIEW FROM FORMER RESIDENTIAL AREA NORTH OF SAR2, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OVERVIEW FROM FORMER RESIDENTIAL AREA NORTH OF SAR-2, SHOWING TRAIL UP TO FOREBAY, RETAINING WALL, PEPPER TREES, AND SAR-2 IN DISTANCE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

  13. Early Callovian ingression in southwestern Gondwana. Palaeoenvironmental evolution of the carbonate ramp (Calabozo Formation) in southwestern Mendoza, Neuquen basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armella, Claudia; Cabaleri, Nora G.; Cagnoni, Mariana C.; Panarello, Héctor O.

    2013-08-01

    The carbonatic sequence of the Calabozo Formation (Lower Callovian) developed in southwestern Gondwana, within the northern area of the Neuquén basin, and is widespread in thin isolated outcrops in southwestern Mendoza province, Argentina. This paper describes the facies, microfacies and geochemical-isotopic analysis carried out in five studied localities, which allowed to define the paleoenvironmental conditions of a homoclinal shallow ramp model, highly influenced by sea level fluctuations, where outer, mid and inner ramp subenvironments were identified. The outer ramp subenvironment was only recognized in the south of the depocenter and is characterized by proximal outer ramp facies with shale levels and interbedded mudstone and packstone layers. The mid ramp subenvironment is formed by low energy facies (wackestone) affected by storms (packstones, grainstones and floatstones). The inner ramp subenvironment is the most predominant and is characterized by tidal flat facies (wackestones, packstones and grainstones) over which a complex of shoals (grainstones and packstones) dissected by tidal channels (packstone, grainstones and floatstones) developed. In the north area, protected environment facies were recorded (bioturbated wackestones and packstones). The vertical distribution of facies indicates that the paleoenvironmental evolution of the Calabozo Formation results from a highstand stage in the depocenter, culminating in a supratidal environment, with stromatolitic levels interbedded with anhydrite originated under restricted water circulation conditions due to a progressive isolation of the basin. δ13C and δ18O values of the carbonates of the Calabozo Formation suggest an isotopic signature influenced by local palaeoenvironmental parameters and diagenetic overprints. The δ13C and δ18O oscillations between the carbonates of the different studied sections are related with lateral facies variations within the carbonate ramp accompanied with dissimilar

  14. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous. PMID:24380893

  15. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  16. Model for RHIC ramp controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch, J.; Mane, V.; Clifford, T.; Hartmann, H.; Kahn, T.; Oerter, B.; Peggs, S.

    1994-08-01

    This paper introduces the hardware and software concepts for the implementation of the ramp controls. The hardware part of the ramp controls consists of a number of multi-purpose Wave Form Generators (WFGS) which control the settings of accelerator hardware directly or indirectly by controlling their WFG. A Real Time Data Link (RTDL) data transfer system connects the WFGs in a three layer architecture. To the usual two layers which generate an independent timing signal and dependent set points, respectively, an intermediate layer is added which produces accelerator parameters such as the magnet strength. The task of the bottom layer is therefore reduced to the function of implementing those parameters. This architecture de-couples two independent functions which axe normally folded together. The function of the hardware becomes modular and easily maintainable. The ramp control software is layered in the same way. Between the top layer (the ramp procedure application program) and the bottom layer (the hardware interface) an additional layer of ``manager`` programs allow operation of accelerator subsystems.

  17. Vectoring Single Expansion Ramp Nozzle (VSERN) static model test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eames, D. J. H.; Mason, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    A variable throat-area, side-vectoring single expansion ramp nozzle (VSERN) concept's internal performance characteristics are studied with a view to controlling the bypass flow of an unmixed turbofan engine. Static tests have been conducted on VSERN at NASA-Langley using a variety of parametric models giving attention to the effects of upstream bend angle, ramp geometry, area ratio, and nozzle pressure ratio on static thrust and flow performance. Advantages of VSERN over the conventional vectoring axisymmetric convergent side-nozzles typified by those of the Harrier's Pegasus engine.

  18. Leprosy Continues to Occur in Hilly Areas of North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of present study was to describe the profile of leprosy patients attending the outpatient department of dermatology in tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, Uttarakhand, North India. Methodology. This descriptive retrospective study. Patient data at the time of diagnosis were retrieved onto a predesigned proforma, which concerned the following variables at the time of registration: age, sex, and residence. Newly registered outpatients leprosy cases between 2009 and 2014 were included in the study. Results. It was found that 65 were multibacillary leprosy cases. Males constituted 62.8% of all leprosy cases. The majority (83.7%) belonged to the age group of 18–60 years. Of the total 48.8% of the new leprosy cases were from the Pauri district. The leprosy incidence rate in this population was 2.71 per 1000 patients. Conclusion. Leprosy still continues to be a communicable disease of concern. The lower incidence in women and children provokes the need to strengthen contact screening, early case detection, and referral activities in the population to sustain elimination. PMID:26904107

  19. Static internal performance of convergent single-expansion-ramp nozzles with various combinations of internal geometric parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bare, E. Ann; Capone, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of five geometric design parameters on the internal performance of convergent single expansion ramp nozzles. The effects of ramp chordal angle, initial ramp angle, flap angle, flap length, and ramp length were determined. All nozzles tested has a nominally constant throat area and aspect ratio. Static pressure distributions along the centerlines of the ramp and flap were also obtained for each configuration. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10.0 for all configurations.

  20. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING NORTH, WITH 10TON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING NORTH, WITH 10-TON LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO 20-TON LADLE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  1. 94. ARAIV. Aerial view of ML1 area. Camera facing north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. ARA-IV. Aerial view of ML-1 area. Camera facing north. Reactor test building is in center of view. Walking path and utility lines connect test building. Berm lies between. Road curves to left and continues to GCRE complex. Ineel photo no. 79-4707. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. MTR, TRA603. NORTH ELEVATION. PLUG STORAGE AREA WITH ROLLING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. NORTH ELEVATION. PLUG STORAGE AREA WITH ROLLING STEEL DOOR. PIPE TUNNEL IN SUB-BASEMENT. FIXED SASH WINDOWS IN BALCONY SECTION. DOOR DETAILS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-7, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100566, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... acquire conservation easements is from the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, as amended (16 U... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South... Conservation Area, the 554th unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Service established the...

  4. Hydrology of the dunes area north of Coos Bay, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.

    1973-01-01

    Hydrology of a 20-square-mile area of dunes along the central Oregon coast was studied. The area is underlain by 80 to 150 feet of Quaternary dune and marine sand which overlies Tertiary marine clay and shale. Ground water for industrial and municipal use is being withdrawn at a rate of 4 million gallons per day. Original plans to withdraw as much as 30 million gallons per day are evidently limited by the prospect of excessive lowering of levels in shallow lakes near the wells, and possibly sea-water intrusion, if water-level gradients are reversed. At the present stage of development there are 18 production wells, each capable of producing 200-300 gallons per minute from the lower part of the sand deposits. Except for thin layers of silt, clay, and organic matter, the deposits of sand are clean and uniform; horizontal permeability is two orders of magnitude times the vertical permeability. Because of the low vertical permeability, drawdown cones are not evident in the upper part of the aquifer adjacent to the wells. However, present pumping lowers general water levels in the lakes and the shallow ground-water zone as much as several feet. A two-layer electric analog model was built to analyze effects of present and projected development as well as any alternate plans. Model results were used to develop curves for short-term prediction of water levels.

  5. Recent metalliferous sediment in the North Pacific manganese nodule area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Quaternary sediments cored in the northeast Pacific nodule area (DOMES site C, 14??N, 126??W) contain a significant amount of hydrothermal metalliferous mud. Water content, color, mineralogy, and chemical composition are analogous to metalliferous sediments of the subequatorial East Pacific Rise. Correction for contribution of pelagic clay indicates the metalliferous fraction to be about 40% of the sediment. SiO2 and Mg are major components in the corrected composition, as they are for other metalliferous sediments similarly corrected from a variety of East Pacific Rise and DSDP metalliferous sediments. A correlation between Mg and SiO2 for these corrected sediments could indicate a hydrothermal origin for a significant portion of the SiO2. Results from DSDP in the nodule area suggest that metalliferous globules are a ubiquitous minor component of the Clipperton Oceanic Formation, which underlies much of the Pacific ferromanganese nodule belt. This indicates that deposition of hydrothermal precipitates is not confined to spreading centers. ?? 1977.

  6. CABLE DESIGN FOR FAST RAMPED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS (COS-0 DESIGN).

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.

    2004-03-22

    The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 300 T-m and 100 T-m. Fast ramp times are needed, which can cause significant problems for the magnets, particularly in the areas of ac loss and magnetic field distortion. The development of the low loss Rutherford cable that can be used is described, together with a novel insulation scheme designed to promote efficient cooling. Measurements of contact resistance in the cable are presented and the results of these measurements are used to predict the ac losses, in the magnets during fast ramp operation. For the high energy ring, a lm model dipole magnet was built, based on the RHIC dipole design. This magnet was tested under boiling liquid helium in a vertical cryostat. The quench current showed very little dependence on ramp rate. The ac losses, measured by an electrical method, were fitted to straight line plots of loss/cycle versus ramp rate, thereby separating the eddy current and hysteresis components. These results were compared with calculated values, using parameters which had previously been measured on short samples of cable. Reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment was found, although the measured hysteresis loss is higher than expected in ramps to the highest field levels.

  7. Perseus A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  8. 36 CFR 7.50 - Chickasaw Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... speed in the following locations: (i) The Guy Sandy arm north of the east/west buoy line located near..., boat launch ramps, vessels at anchor, vessels from which people are fishing, and shoreline areas near... prohibited on the water surface. Fueling is allowed only while the PWC is away from the water surface and...

  9. 36 CFR 7.50 - Chickasaw Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... speed in the following locations: (i) The Guy Sandy arm north of the east/west buoy line located near..., boat launch ramps, vessels at anchor, vessels from which people are fishing, and shoreline areas near... prohibited on the water surface. Fueling is allowed only while the PWC is away from the water surface and...

  10. Ramp response estimation and spectrum extrapolation for ultrasonic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G. A.

    1984-08-01

    A combined application of digital signal processing, estimation theory, and scattering theory is used to attack the important problem of target identification. The basic problem is that of examining an object with an ultrasonic pulse and using the reflected signal to determine various properties of the object. Typically, an impulse reponse h(t) can be calculated from knowledge of the (input x(t)) signal and the reflected (output y(t)) signal. If the impulse response can be found, it can sometimes contain important information about the object. We have studied some new algorithms for impulse response estimation. It is also well-known that the ramp response contains information about the cross-sectional area of the scatterer. The ramp response can be calculated directly from the impulse response, but the estimate of cross-sectional area is degraded by the fact that the ultrasonic transducer severely bandlimits the data. Algorithms have been produced for extrapolating the ramp response spectrum to improve the cross-sectional area estimates from the ramp response technique. Experimental results demonstrating the estimation of properties of a known flaw (created by a saw cut) in a block of aluminum are presented.

  11. Using Species-Area Relationships to Inform Baseline Conservation Targets for the Deep North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Nicola L.; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic’s deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

  12. Using species-area relationships to inform baseline conservation targets for the deep North East Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Foster, Nicola L; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L

    2013-01-01

    Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200-1100 m and 1100-1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic's deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200-1100 m and 1100-1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

  13. Display area, looking north towards the classified storage rooms, D.M. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Display area, looking north towards the classified storage rooms, D.M. Logistics and D.O. Offices in northwest corner. Viewing bridge is at upper left, and alert status display at upper right - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. Geology and ground-water resources of the Grand Rapids area, north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakes, Edward L.

    1970-01-01

    This report is one of a series of studies of geology and ground-water availability conducted in and near selected communities on the Mesabi Iron Range, north-central and northeastern Minnesota. This report describes the geology and ground-water conditions in the 303 square-mile Grand Rapids area.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF LAND USE IN RIPARIAN AREAS WITHIN THE CONTENTNEA WATERSHED OF NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of land use in riparian areas within the Contentnea watershed of North Carolina.

    Wright, C.J.,1 and S.W. Alberty.2 1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA 30605 USA; 2OAO Corporation, Athens, GA 30605 USA.

    Legislation mandating riparian bu...

  16. Near East and North Africa: A Question Syllabus. Center for Area and Country Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Harry N.

    This study syllabus on the Near East and North Africa is divided into twelve units. Designed to familiarize government personnel assigned to the area with the region and people, each unit consists of a statement of the main objectives to be studied, questions for consideration, and a list of suggested readings from books and periodicals. Units…

  17. Acid deposition and air quality related values in north central Colorado wilderness areas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hidy, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem response to atmospheric acid, sulfur, and nitrate deposition has been studied only in a very limited way in Colorado wilderness areas. However, the observed deposition rates in north central Colorado remain low relative to affected areas in the eastern United States and well within a range where no adverse ecological effects are expected. This report presents a survey of scientific information describing acid deposition and air quality related values, which may have implications for utility plant operations.

  18. Analyzing Ramp Compression Wave Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, D. B.

    2007-12-01

    Isentropic compression of a solid to 100's of GPa by a ramped, planar compression wave allows measurement of material properties at high strain and at modest temperature. Introduction of a measurement plane disturbs the flow, requiring special analysis techniques. If the measurement interface is windowed, the unsteady nature of the wave in the window requires special treatment. When the flow is hyperbolic the equations of motion can be integrated backward in space in the sample to a region undisturbed by the interface interactions, fully accounting for the untoward interactions. For more complex materials like hysteretic elastic/plastic solids or phase changing material, hybrid analysis techniques are required.

  19. JF-102A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Convair JF-102A (54-1374) on the ramp at NACA High-Speed Flight Station , Edwards, California in 1956. The most prominent new feature distinguishing the JF-102A from the YF-102 was a longer fuselage with a pinched or 'coke-bottle' waist. Note wing-fences on both wings. The JF-102A Characteristics are: Wing Span, ft. 38.1 Fuselage length, ft. 63.4 Vertical Tail height, ft. 21.2 Power Plant: Pratt & Whitney J57-P-23 turbojet

  20. Centurion on Ramp with Onlookers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Onlookers are dwarfed by the 206-foot wingspan of the Centurion flying wing on a hangar ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Centurion demonstrated its flying qualities during three battery-powered flights under control of a ground-based pilot at Dryden in late 1998. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds

  1. Calculation of Area and Volume for the North Part of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, Fire, and State Lands, collected bathymetric data for the north part of Great Salt Lake during the spring and early summer of 2006 using a single-beam, high-definition fathometer and real-time differential global positioning system. About 5.2 million depth measurements were collected along more than 765 miles (1,230 kilometers) of survey transects. Sound-velocity profiles were obtained in conjunction with the bathymetric data to provide time-of-travel corrections to the depth calculations. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into geographic information system (GIS) software for mapping and calculation of area and volume. Area and volume calculations show a maximum area of about 385,000 acres (1,560 square kilometers) and a maximum volume of about 5,693,000 acre-feet (about 7 cubic kilometers) at a water-surface altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters). Minimum natural water-surface altitude of the north part of Great Salt Lake is just below 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) in the area just north of the Union Pacific railroad causeway halfway between Saline and the western edge of the lake. The north part of Great Salt Lake generally grades gradually to the west and north and is bounded by steep scarps along its eastern border. Calculations for area and volume are based on a low altitude of 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) to a high altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters).

  2. Launch of a Vehicle from a Ramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    A vehicle proceeding up an inclined ramp will become airborne if the ramp comes to a sudden end and if the vehicle fails to stop before it reaches the end of the ramp. A vehicle may also become airborne if it passes over the top of a hill at sufficient speed. In both cases, the vehicle becomes airborne if the point of support underneath the…

  3. A high voltage programmable ramp generator

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, J.; Joshi, M. J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, a ramp generator with programmable slope is presented. It consists of a high voltage step generator, followed by integrator. The capacitor and inductor in the integrator are designed such that they can be varied by a microcontroller. This circuit generates two bipolar ramps with fastest speed <1 ns and provides continuous speed variation from 6 to 30 ns for a ramp of 500 V. This is being developed as a part of automated streak camera for deflection of electron beam.

  4. A survey for elevated levels of uranium north of the 300 Area on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1990-04-01

    A comprehensive survey of soil uranium (U) concentrations in a study area due north of the 300 Area on the Hanford site has been conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The objective of the study was to determine the spatial distribution of uranium in the study area and to ascertain if background levels of uranium have been increased by Hanford operations. Based on the spatial distribution of {sup 238}U, the highest concentrations of uranium are located in the southern portion of the study area adjacent to the 300 Area complex and in the most eastern zone of the study site bordering the Columbia River. Uranium-236, an isotopic marker of fuel processing activities in the 300 Area, was detected in all eight samples selected from the study. A significant and positive regression was demonstrated between the ratios of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U in these eight samples and proximity to the 300 Area. 9 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Performance of a Blunt-lip Side Inlet with Ramp Bleed, Bypass, and a Long Constant-area Duct Ahead of the Engine : Mach Numbers 0.66 and 1.5 to 2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John L

    1956-01-01

    Unsteady shock-induced separation of the ramp boundary layer was reduced and stabilized more effectively by external perforations than by external or internal slots. At Mach 2.0 peak total-pressure recovery was increased from 0.802 to 0.89 and stable mass-flow range was increased 185 percent over that for the solid ramp. Peak pressure recovery occurred just before instability. The 7 and one-third-diameter duct ahead of the engine reduced large total-pressure distortions but was not as successful for small distortions as obtained with throat bleed. By removing boundary-layer air the bypass nearly recovered the total-pressure loss due to the long duct.

  6. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  7. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  8. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  9. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  10. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  11. Timber resource statistics for the north interior resource area of California. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Interior Resource Area of California, which includes Lassen, Modoc, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Lassen, Mendocino, Modoc, Six Rivers, Plumas, Shasta-Trinity, Rogue River, and Toiyabe National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality , and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  12. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for north Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sroor, A; Afifi, S Y; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Salman, A B; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th, 40K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary. PMID:12201151

  13. Radionuclides in shallow groundwater at Solid Waste Storage Area 5 North, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a compilation of groundwater monitoring data from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between November 1989 and September 1993. Monitoring data were collected as part of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program that was implemented in 1989 in response to DOE Order 5820.2A. SWSA 5 North was established for the retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in 1970. Four types of storage have been used within SWSA 5 North: bunkers, vaults, wells, and trenches. The fenced portion of SWSA 5 North covers about 3.7 ha (9 acres) in the White Oak Creek watershed south of ORNL. The area is bounded by White Oak Creek and two ephemeral tributaries of White Oak Creek. Since 1989, groundwater has been monitored in wells around SWSA 5 North. During that time, elevated gross alpha contamination (reaching as high as 210 Bq/L) has consistently been detected in well 516. This well is adjacent to burial trenches in the southwest corner of the area. Water level measurements in wells 516 and 518 suggest that water periodically inundates the bottom of some of those trenches. Virtually all of the gross alpha contamination is generated by Curium 244 and Americium 241. A special geochemical investigation of well 516 suggests that nearly all of the Curium 44 and Americium 241 is dissolved or associated with dissolved organic matter. These are being transported at the rate of about 2 m/year from the burial trenches, through well 516, to White Oak Creek, where Curium 244 has been detected in a few bank seeps. Concentrations at these seeps are near detection levels (<1 Bq/L).

  14. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  15. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later

  16. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the vehicle, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  17. Forecasting petroleum discoveries in sparsely drilled areas: Nigeria and the North Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Decline function methods for projecting future discoveries generally capture the crowding effects of wildcat wells on the discovery rate. However, these methods do not accommodate easily situations where exploration areas and horizons are expanding. In this paper, a method is presented that uses a mapping algorithm for separating these often countervailing influences. The method is applied to Nigeria and the North Sea. For an amount of future drilling equivalent to past drilling (825 wildcat wells), future discoveries (in resources found) for Nigeria are expected to decline by 68% per well but still amount to 8.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). Similarly, for the total North Sea for an equivalent amount and mix among areas of past drilling (1322 wildcat wells), future discoveries are expected to amount to 17.9 billion BOE, whereas the average discovery rate per well is expected to decline by 71%. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  18. Forecasting petroleum discoveries in sparsely drilled areas: Nigeria and the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    Decline function methods for projecting future discoveries generally capture the crowding effects of wildcat wells on the discovery rate. However, these methods do not accommodate easily situations where exploration areas and horizons are expanding. In this paper, a method is presented that uses a mapping algorithm for separating these often countervailing influences. The method is applied to Nigeria and the North Sea. For an amount of future drilling equivalent to past drilling (825 wildcat wells), future discoveries (in resources found) for Nigeria are expected to decline by 68% per well but still amount to 8.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). Similarly, for the total North Sea for an equivalent amount and mix among areas of past drilling (1322 wildcat wells), future discoveries are expected to amount to 17.9 billion BOE, whereas the average discovery rate per well is expected to decline by 71%.

  19. [Fuzzy decision system for ecological distribution of citrus in north-cultivated-marginal area].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liwu; Li, Shaowen; Kong, Juanjuan; Jia, Bing

    2003-04-01

    The fuzzy decision system for ecological distribution of citrus in north-cultivated-marginal area was established by using the data of mean extreme low temperature, accumulated active temperature (> or = 12.5 degrees C), mean temperature in coldest month, annual mean temperature integrated with annual precipitation, days with mean extreme low temperature below -9 degrees C, physiognomy, elevation, inland water body, cold air barrier, and soil nutrition and pH value. The complex reasoning model with imprecision was used in the decision system by introduction of L-R fuzzy number and recognition formula, which made the decision system have a wide range of application in practice. An example of applying the decision system was tested in Anhui province. The result showed that the development of the decision system would provide a useful tool for the decision of the ecological distribution of citrus in north-cultivated-marginal area. PMID:12920889

  20. Single expansion ramp nozzle simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruffin, Stephen M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Lee, Seung-Ho; Keener, Earl R.; Spaid, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    The single-expansion-ramp-nozzle (SERN) experiment underway at NASA Ames Research Center simulates the National Aerospace Plane propulsive jet-plume flow. Recently, limited experimental data has become available from an experiment with a generic nozzle/afterbody model in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The present paper presents full three-dimensional solutions obtained with the implicit Navier-Stokes solver, FL3D, for the baseline model and a version of the model with side extensions. Analysis of the computed flow clearly shows the complex 3-D nature of the flow, critical flow features, and the effect of side extensions on the plume flow development. Flow schematics appropriate for the conditions tested are presented for the baseline model and the model with side extensions. The computed results show excellent agreement with experimental shadowgraph and with surface pressure measurements. The computed and experimental surface oil-flows show the same features but may be improved by appropriate turbulence modeling.

  1. B-47A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Boeing B-47A (NACA 150) shown on the ramp near NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station at South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1953. The B-47A Stratojet's wing is mounted high on the fuselage with a sweep back of 36 degrees and a span of 116 feet, with wing vortex generators installed. A two engine pod under each wing, and an additional engine pod at each wing tip using General Electric J-47-GE-23 turbojets. The airplane is fitted with a nose boom for measuring airspeed, altitude, angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip, and an optigraph for measuring the movements of target lights on the wing and tail.

  2. GLOBAL DECOUPLING ON THE RHIC RAMP.

    SciTech Connect

    LUO, Y.; CAMERON, P.; DELLA PENNA, A.; FISCHER, W.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), especially in the RHIC polarized proton (pp) run. To avoid the major betatron and spin resonances on the ramp, the betatron tunes are constrained. And the rms value of the vertical closed orbit should be smaller than 0.5mm. Both require the global coupling on the ramp to be well corrected. Several ramp decoupling schemes were found and tested at RHIC, like N-turn map decoupling, three-ramp correction, coupling amplitude modulation, and coupling phase modulation. In this article, the principles of these methods are shortly reviewed and compared. Among them, coupling angle modulation is a robust and fast one. It has been applied to the global decoupling in the routine RHIC operation.

  3. Ramp Compression Experiments - a Sensitivity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, M; Reisman, D

    2007-02-26

    We present the first sensitivity study of the material isentropes extracted from ramp compression experiments. We perform hydrodynamic simulations of representative experimental geometries associated with ramp compression experiments and discuss the major factors determining the accuracy of the equation of state information extracted from such data. In conclusion, we analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively the major experimental factors that determine the accuracy of equations of state extracted from ramp compression experiments. Since in actual experiments essentially all the effects discussed here will compound, factoring out individual signatures and magnitudes, as done in the present work, is especially important. This study should provide some guidance for the effective design and analysis of ramp compression experiments, as well as for further improvements of ramp generators performance.

  4. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies that were collected during 1983 include water-surface temperature, sediment temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperature, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short-and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  5. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies, including: water-surface temperature, sediment temperature dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data were collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  6. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  7. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  8. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  9. Detecting and characterising ramp events in wind power time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Cristóbal; Cuerva, Álvaro; Costa, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    In order to implement accurate models for wind power ramp forecasting, ramps need to be previously characterised. This issue has been typically addressed by performing binary ramp/non-ramp classifications based on ad-hoc assessed thresholds. However, recent works question this approach. This paper presents the ramp function, an innovative wavelet- based tool which detects and characterises ramp events in wind power time series. The underlying idea is to assess a continuous index related to the ramp intensity at each time step, which is obtained by considering large power output gradients evaluated under different time scales (up to typical ramp durations). The ramp function overcomes some of the drawbacks shown by the aforementioned binary classification and permits forecasters to easily reveal specific features of the ramp behaviour observed at a wind farm. As an example, the daily profile of the ramp-up and ramp-down intensities are obtained for the case of a wind farm located in Spain.

  10. Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R

    2011-03-28

    Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

  11. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  12. [Prediction and influence factors of the ramp's noise of the entrance or exit of garages].

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Bang-Jun

    2005-09-01

    Some typical entrances/exits of the underground garages are chosen in urban residential areas. On the basis of the optimization of the positions of the noise sampling points and the groupings of the synchronous sampling points, by means of the acoustical analysis of the noise samples, the relation of the correlative factors, among the ramps' noise of the entrances or exits of the garages, the structure, grade, shape of the ramps, upgrade and downgrade, is studied. The prediction model of the ramp's noise influence of the entrance or exit of the garage is established through amending the noise influence of the entrance or exit of the even concrete road. PMID:16366500

  13. Ramp initiation in a thrust wedge.

    PubMed

    Panian, John; Wiltschko, David

    2004-02-12

    Collisional mountain belts are characterized by fold and thrust belts that grow through sequential stacking of thrust sheets from the interior (hinterland) to the exterior (foreland) of the mountain belt. Each of these sheets rides on a fault that cuts up through the stratigraphic section on inclined ramps that join a flat basal fault at depth. Although this stair-step or ramp-flat geometry is well known, there is no consensus on why a particular ramp forms where it does. Perturbations in fault shape, stratigraphy, fluid pressure, folding, and surface slope have all been suggested as possible mechanisms. Here we show that such pre-existing inhomogeneities, though feasible causes, are not required. Our computer simulations show that a broad foreland-dipping plastic strain band forms at the surface near the topographic inflection produced by the previous ramp. This strain band then migrates towards the rigid base, where the plastic strain is preferentially concentrated in a thrust ramp. Subsequent ramps develop toward the foreland in a similar fashion. Syntectonic erosion and deposition may strongly control the location of thrust ramps by enhancing or removing the surface point of initiation. PMID:14961118

  14. Sequence development of a latest Devonian-Tournaisian distally-steepened mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp, Canning Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedmehdi, Zahra; George, Annette D.; Tucker, Maurice E.

    2016-03-01

    The sequence development and evolution of latest Devonian-earliest Carboniferous Fairfield Group in the Canning Basin have been established through integration of detailed sedimentological analysis of core, petrophysical data, existing biostratigraphic data and new seismic interpretations. The Fairfield Group on the Lennard Shelf was deposited on a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic distally-steepened ramp with a broad inner ramp, narrow mid ramp and steepened outer ramp. The majority of facies associations (FA1-FA8) were formed in intertidal-shallow subtidal conditions in proximal to distal inner ramp including siliciclastic tidal flats (FA1), carbonate intertidal flats (FA2), tidal flats and channels (FA3), lagoons (FA4-FA5), and shallow subtidal (FA6), backshoal (FA7) and fore-shoal areas (FA8). Bioclastic muddy sandstone (FA9) and bioclastic mudstone (FA10) are the dominant mid-ramp facies. Recognition of turbiditic facies of middle to lower slope of the outer ramp (FA11-FA13) led to the identification of a distally-steepened ramp. Antecedent topography exerted a significant control on platform morphology and the development of the widespread inner-ramp facies on the Lennard Shelf. A sequence-stratigraphic analysis reveals that the Fairfield Group ramp deposits consists of four third-order sequences (S1-S4) that were largely deposited during sea-level highstands (HST) characterized by progradational trends and dominant shallow subtidal inner-ramp facies associations. Transgressive systems tracts (TST) are well developed in S1 and S3 and have a retrogradational facies pattern with dominant deep subtidal mid-outer ramp facies associations. Lowstand systems tracts, characterized by lowstand wedges and turbiditic facies, are identified in the lower parts of S2 and S3. Coarse and fine-grained siliciclastic facies are mixed with carbonate facies as a result of coeval deposition on the inner and mid ramp, and reciprocal deposition on the outer ramp. A temporal variation in

  15. IMPROVEMENTS OF THE RHIC RAMP EFFICIENCY.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; PTITSYN,V.; FISCHER,W.; AHRENS,L.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; HAYES,T.; PILAT,F.; ROSER,T.; ET AL

    2002-06-02

    The last nms in both gold-gold and polarized proton-proton required necessary corrections in the ramp as the intensities in the two rings were rising towards design values. Corrections were made with respect to the beam-beam effects, transverse and longitudinal instabilities, transition crossing (for the gold-gold ramps), transverse tune resonances, local and global coupliug problems, aperture restrictions, chromatic effects. Along the ramps we had to use the beam separation, ''Landau'' cavities, chromatic and tune control, orbit correction, special gamma-t quadrupole system for the transition crossing in the gold run, correction octupole circuits, beam position monitor system decoupling etc.

  16. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  17. Mesoscale Simulations of a Wind Ramping Event for Wind Energy Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M; Lundquist, J K

    2011-09-21

    Ramping events, or rapid changes of wind speed and wind direction over a short period of time, present challenges to power grid operators in regions with significant penetrations of wind energy in the power grid portfolio. Improved predictions of wind power availability require adequate predictions of the timing of ramping events. For the ramping event investigated here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run at three horizontal resolutions in 'mesoscale' mode: 8100m, 2700m, and 900m. Two Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes, the Yonsei University (YSU) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) schemes, were run at each resolution as well. Simulations were not 'tuned' with nuanced choices of vertical resolution or tuning parameters so that these simulations may be considered 'out-of-the-box' tests of a numerical weather prediction code. Simulations are compared with sodar observations during a wind ramping event at a 'West Coast North America' wind farm. Despite differences in the boundary-layer schemes, no significant differences were observed in the abilities of the schemes to capture the timing of the ramping event. As collaborators have identified, the boundary conditions of these simulations probably dominate the physics of the simulations. They suggest that future investigations into characterization of ramping events employ ensembles of simulations, and that the ensembles include variations of boundary conditions. Furthermore, the failure of these simulations to capture not only the timing of the ramping event but the shape of the wind profile during the ramping event (regardless of its timing) indicates that the set-up and execution of such simulations for wind power forecasting requires skill and tuning of the simulations for a specific site.

  18. Primary Analysis of Shear-Wave Splitting Aroundbohai Sea Area in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, L.; Gao, Y.; Shi, Y.; Sun, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bohai Sea area locates at eastern China, including 3 provinces ( Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong ) and 2 metropolitan cities ( Beijing and Tianjin ). There are 5 tectonic units (Yanshan uplift, Taihang uplift, Liaodong uplift, Luxi uplift and Jizhong depression), where is within North China (in short, NC). Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, an important seismotectonic zone in eastern China and Tanlu fault, the largest fault in eastern China, intersect in this zone, so that the tectonics are complicated. Earthquake activity is very strong in this zone, which is famous of earthquakes with large magnitude and high frequency. This study used a system analysis method of shear-wave splitting, namely SAM method (GAO et al, 2004). It includes mainly three aspects, i.e., calculation of cross-correlation function, elimination of time delay and check of polarization analysis. Preliminarily, we obtained the 378 seismic data within shear-wave window recorded by 27 stations around Bohai Sea area. The polarizations of fast shear-waves show different local features so that we divide the studied zone into 3 different areas, west of Bohai Sea gulf (including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province), north of Bohai Sea gulf (Liaoning province) and south of Bohai Sea gulf (Shandong province). In the west of Bohai Sea gulf, we divided the area into 3 parts. In south of Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, the predominant polarizations of fast shear-waves are a little scattered, lots of stations strike to nearly E-W, consistent with the direction of the in situ principal stress, consistent with the direction of regional tectonic stress in north part of NC, which strikes to nearly WNW or E-W, while some stations strike to NNE or NW, different from the direction of the regional principal stress field. It may be influenced by local tectonics or shallow crust structure. Within Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, the predominant polarizations of fast shear-waves are in direction of nearly E-W, consistent with

  19. Geologic Map of the Upper Wolf Island Creek Watershed, Reidsville Area, Rockingham County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, J. Wright, Jr.; Geddes, Donald J., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This geologic map provides a foundation for hydrogeologic investigations in the Reidsville area of Rockingham County, north-central North Carolina. The 16-mi2 area within the Southeast Eden and Reidsville 7.5-min quadrangles includes the watershed of Wolf Island Creek and its tributary, Carroll Creek, upstream of their confluence. Layered metamorphic rocks in this area of the Milton terrane, here informally named the Chinqua-Penn metamorphic suite, include a heterogeneous mica gneiss and schist unit that contains interlayers and lenses of white-mica schist, felsic gneiss, amphibolite, and ultramafic rock; a felsic gneiss that contains interlayers of amphibolite, white-mica schist, and minor ultramafic lenses; and a migmatitic biotite gneiss. Crushed stone is produced from an active quarry in the felsic gneiss. Igneous intrusive rocks include a mafic-ultramafic assemblage that may have originated as mafic intrusive bodies containing ultramafic cumulates, a foliated two-mica granite informally named the granite of Reidsville, and unmetamorphosed Jurassic diabase dikes. The newly recognized Carroll Creek shear zone strikes roughly east-west and separates heterogeneous mica gneiss and schist to the north from structurally overlying felsic gneiss to the south. Regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism accompanied polyphase ductile deformation in the metamorphic rocks. Two phases of isoclinal to tight folding and related penetrative deformation, described as D1 and D2, were followed by phases of high-strain mylonitic deformation in shear zones and late gentle to open folding. Later brittle deformation produced minor faults, steep joints, foliation-parallel parting, and sheeting joints. The metamorphic and igneous rocks are mantled by saprolite and residual soil derived from weathering of the underlying bedrock, and unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium occupies the flood plains of Wolf Island Creek and its tributaries. The geologic map delineates lithologic and structural

  20. Landsat classification of the barren hydrolittoral areas of Lake Yli-Kitka, north-eastern Finland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, J.; Jantunen, H.; Lampinen, J.

    1987-01-01

    As a part of the project 'Landsat-studies for Mapping the Variables within Water Areas' this study deals with the classification possibilities of evaluating and mapping depth relations and bottom materials within the barren and clear-watered shores of Lake Yli-Kitka, North-Eastern Finland. It has been discovered that it is possible to distinguish open water areas with a water depth of more than about half of the Secchi disk depth from those of shallower hydrolittoral areas. The morainic, sandy and only slightly vegetated subareas of the shallow shores and shoals can possibly be identified by using a simple classification procedure. The data used were recorded by the coarse-resolution Landsat MSS imagery system, and better results are expected after the experiences of the Landsat TM data and the availability of the SPOT material.

  1. An oilspill risk analysis for the North Atlantic outer continental shelf lease area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard Allmon; Slack, James Richard; Davis, Robert K.

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to lease 1,172,795 acres of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands on Georges Bank off the New England Coast for oil and gas development. Estimated recoverable petroleum resources for the proposed 206 tract sale area range from 180 to 650 million barrels. Contingent upon actual discovery of this quantity of oil, production is expected to span a period of about 20 years. An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine relative environmental hazards of developing oil in the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed probability of spill occurrence, likely path of pollutants from spills, and locations in space and time of recreational and biological resources likely to be vulnerable. These results are combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the lease area. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model

  3. Validation of the 2008 Landsat Burned Area Ecv Product for North America Using Stratified Random Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, N. M.; Mladinich, C. S.; Caldwell, M. K.; Beal, Y. J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) products, as defined by the Global Climate Observing System, from the Landsat data archive. Validation protocols for these products are being established, incorporating the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Land Product Validation Subgroup's best practice guidelines and validation hierarchy stages. The sampling design and accuracy measures follow the methodology developed by the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Fire Disturbance (fire_cci) project (Padilla and others, 2014). A rigorous validation was performed on the 2008 Burned Area ECV (BAECV) prototype product, using a stratified random sample of 48 Thiessen scene areas overlaying Landsat path/rows distributed across several terrestrial biomes throughout North America. The validation reference data consisted of fourteen sample sites acquired from the fire_cci project and the remaining new samples sites generated from a densification of the stratified sampling for North America. The reference burned area polygons were generated using the ABAMS (Automatic Burned Area Mapping) software (Bastarrika and others, 2011; Izagirre, 2014). Accuracy results will be presented indicating strengths and weaknesses of the BAECV algorithm.Bastarrika, A., Chuvieco, E., and Martín, M.P., 2011, Mapping burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ data with a two-phase algorithm: Balancing omission and commission errors: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 115, no. 4, p. 1003-1012.Izagirre, A.B., 2014, Automatic Burned Area Mapping Software (ABAMS), Preliminary Documentation, Version 10 v4,: Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, University of Basque Country, p. 27.Padilla, M., Chuvieco, E., Hantson, S., Theis, R., and Sandow, C., 2014, D2.1 - Product Validation Plan: UAH - University of Alcalá de Henares (Spain), 37 p.

  4. Ramp technique for dc partial discharge testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    The partial discharge (PD) data presently obtained by means of a stepwise ramp technique, for the cases of high voltage (HV) components and such resin-packaged HV devices as the Space Telescope's Faint Object Camera, is acquired separately on part-way ramps to rated voltage and on the intermediate voltage plateaus. For test specimens intended for dc service, this ramp method yields more data on insulation integrity than quiescent dc measurements, especially in the case of specimens of high resistivity which causes the discharge frequency to be deceptively low at constant dc voltage. During upward ramping the voltage distribution is capacitive, and the PD behavior resembles that of an ac test. Many more pulses are obtained in the voids without the heat otherwise generated by the application of 60-Hz ac. PD histograms are presented for various materials, with and without intentional defects.

  5. Waterspout outbreaks over areas of Europe and North America: Environment and predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioutas, Michalis; Szilagyi, Wade; Keul, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Waterspout outbreak occurrences are examined for the areas of the Aegean and Ionian Seas, Eastern Mediterranean, the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe and the Great Lakes of North America. Notable outbreaks included a series of 13 waterspouts on September 5, 2002, and 25 plus waterspouts on September 21, 2006 off the Cretan north coast in the Aegean Sea. Two outbreak days with 10 waterspouts each, occurred on August 11 and 13, 2006 over the Baltic Sea. During the fall of 2003 an outbreak produced about 66 waterspouts during a week over the Great Lakes of North America. A preliminary climatology of waterspout outbreak occurrences showed August as the most active month for the Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes and September for the Aegean and Ionian Seas; a feature primary related to the warmest sea surface temperatures during these months. Synoptic data indicated that a closed low (CLOSED) type pattern prevailed during waterspout outbreaks over the Baltic and the Aegean and Ionian Seas and a longwave (LW) type over the Great Lakes. Thermodynamic, wind and moisture data indicated a marginally unstable environment for most waterspout outbreaks. A steep thermal gradient between the water surface and lowest layers proved to be a primary factor for Great Lakes waterspout outbreak occurrences. For the Baltic Sea, the primary factors were balanced between the thermal contrast in the lowest layers and the total positive buoyancy. For the Aegean and Ionian Seas, positive buoyancy was the dominant factor. Selected waterspout outbreak case studies are investigated in order to present specific synoptic, thermodynamic features and predictability for the three areas. The Szilagyi waterspout nomogram, which is used as a forecasting tool, was applied together with the Szilagyi waterspout index (SWI) and found to be strongly correlated with outbreak occurrences for the three geographical areas.

  6. [Social factors and their effect on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Far North areas].

    PubMed

    Tyryltin, M A

    1990-01-01

    Though in the Far North areas there is a decrease in the epidemic causes of tuberculosis, one can observe a greater role of negative social and sanitary factors influencing its morbidity. In the pattern of factors predisposing to newly diagnosed cases of the disease, unsatisfactory housing and living conditions as well as unqualified physical labour performed under unfavourable production and extreme climatic conditions, which are often combined with hazardous habits and concomitant diseases, are becoming more common. Higher tuberculosis morbidity among the aboriginal population with lower rates of their contamination are directly related to the level of their social and sanitary conditions, traditional way of life, occupational activities and disadvantages in the social development of the areas of their preferential habitation. In this connection, while taking further steps against tuberculosis in the Far North areas, it seems necessary to intensify social and preventive measures as well as antituberculous care of the groups which are influenced by clearly negative social and sanitary factors. PMID:2139971

  7. Investigation of ramp injectors for supersonic mixing enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimovitch, Y.; Gartenberg, E.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study of wall mounted swept ramp injectors fitted with injector nozzles of different shape has been conducted in a constant area duct to explore mixing enhancement techniques for scramjet combustors. Six different injector nozzle inserts, all having equal exit and throat areas, were tested to explore the interaction between the preconditioned fuel jet and the vortical flowfield produced by the ramp: circular nozzle (baseline), nozzle with three downstream facing steps, nozzle with four vortex generators, elliptical nozzle, tapered-slot nozzle, and trapezoidal nozzle. The main flow was air at Mach 2, and the fuel was simulated by air injected at Mach 1.63 or by helium injected at Mach 1.7. Pressure and temperature surveys, combined with Mie and Rayleigh scattering visualization, were used to investigate the flow field. The experiments were compared with three dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The results indicate that the mixing process is dominated by the streamwise vorticity generated by the ramp, the injectors' inner geometry having a minor effect. It was also found that the injectant/air mixing in the far-field is nearly independent of the injector geometry, molecular weight of the injectant, and the initial convective Mach number.

  8. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Moreno, Heidi; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas-Soto, Octavio

    2016-04-01

    Long-distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North America present climatic preferences during arrival to and departure from their wintering areas. We used ecological niche modeling to generate monthly potential climatic distributions for 13 migratory bird species during the winter season by combining the locations recorded per month with four environmental layers. We calculated monthly coefficients of climate variation and then compared two GLM (generalized linear models), evaluated with the AIC (Akaike information criterion), to describe how these coefficients varied over the course of the season, as a measure of the patterns of establishment in the wintering areas. For 11 species, the sites show nonlinear patterns of variation in climatic preferences, with low coefficients of variation at the beginning and end of the season and higher values found in the intermediate months. The remaining two species analyzed showed a different climatic pattern of selective establishment of wintering areas, probably due to taxonomic discrepancy, which would affect their modeled winter distribution. Patterns of establishment of wintering areas in the species showed a climatic preference at the macroscale, suggesting that individuals of several species actively select wintering areas that meet specific climatic conditions. This probably gives them an advantage over the winter and during the return to breeding areas. As these areas become full of migrants, alternative suboptimal sites are occupied. Nonrandom winter area selection may also have

  9. Introductions and developments of oysters in the North Sea area: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwaard, A. C.

    1998-09-01

    To replenish the exploited native stocks of Ostrea edulis, imports from almost all European coasts have arrived in the North Sea, particularly in the Dutch Oosterschelde estuary. The American oyster Crassostrea virginica and the Portuguese oyster C. angulata have also been imported into the North Sea several times. However, only the introductions of various genetic strains of the Pacific oyster C. gigas have been of lasting success. Spat from British Columbia (Canada) was first imported to the Oosterschelde in 1964. First spatfalls in this area took place in the warm summers of 1975 and 1976. Further larval outbursts occurred in 1982 and 1989, and good settlements took place on culture plots as well as along the dikes of the Oosterschelde. Since 1977 no more cupped oysters have been imported from overseas. The population maintained itself and was able to spread in a northern direction along the Dutch North Sea coast. In Britain, hatchery-produced C. gigas were transferred to several sites, in the 1970s including the British North Sea coast. Here, occurrence in the wild seems to be rather limited up to now. Into the German Wadden Sea, C. gigas larvae and spat from a Scottish hatchery have been introduced since 1971, as were medium-sized oysters from a variety of European sources in the 1980s. Strong spatfalls on intertidal mussel beds in the northern German Wadden Sea occured in 1991 and 1994. For the introductions of C. gigas along the west European coasts, precautionary measures to minimize unintentional transfers of associated organisms, as recommended by the ICES Code of Practice in 1994, came too late.

  10. Area-wide seafloor mapping in the SE North Sea using hydroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, Finn; Hass, H. Christian

    2013-04-01

    Mapping seafloor properties has become increasingly important for understanding marine ecosystems and providing basic data for sustainable management. However, the knowledge regarding the distribution of seabed environments in the German part of the North Sea is still fragmentary. It is mainly derived from single case studies and from a 1:250,000 scale map based on grab samples published in 1981. In recent years, hydroacoustic devices became a powerful tool to quickly obtain reliable information of the seafloor. In the years 2007-2012 various hydroacoustic surveys were performed in order to map the seafloor in the coastal zone of the NE German Bight comprising an area of approximately 1,500 km². Measurements were carried out with a sidescan sonar (Imagenex YellowFin, 330 kHz) at a resolution of 25 cm. For ground truthing several hundred sediment samples were taken. The seafloor in the investigation area is mainly characterized by fine and medium sand. West off Sylt relics of former Pleistocene moraines stretch perpendicular to the coast in westerly directions. These relics consist of wide bands of coarse to medium sand and are basically linked to the morphological structures such as ridges and channels. The truncated push moraines from the Saalian glacial represent the seaward extension of the recent moraine core ('Geest') of Sylt. In addition a great number of smaller scaled structures, generally known as sorted bedforms were detected. Sidescan sonography of the same area carried out in two consecutive years reveals that these bedforms are dynamic and therefore subject to flow-directed movement across the seafloor. They are linked with large-scale sediment transport that occurs in this highly dynamic area as a result of vigorous tidal currents. Ongoing investigations aim at relating the occurrence of different bedforms to current speed and net sediment transport direction to calculate sediment budget. These govern erosion and accumulation processes that are

  11. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. E, Table 2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for...

  12. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. E, Table 2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for...

  13. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. E, Table 2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for...

  14. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Subpart E Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. E, Table 2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for...

  15. B-57B on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A converted Martin B-57B Canberra medium bomber sits on the ramp at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California. The rugged NASA aircraft was flown by Dryden in the early 1970s to learn more about the atmosphere. Instrumented with a data acquisition system, Dryden pilots measured atmospheric conditions and clear-air turbulence at various altitudes and sampled the upper atmosphere for various aerosols. The research - to give scientists a better understanding of mountain waves, jet streams, convective turbulence, clear-air turbulence, and atmospheric contaminants - was sponsored by NASA's Langley Research Center, the University of Wyoming, and the Department of Transportation. The aircraft was retired from flight status in 1987. In the early 1970s, a Martin B-57B Canberra light bomber was used in several NASA joint flight test programs at the NASA Flight Research Center (now Dryden Flight Research Center) located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The early 1970s showed a growing interest in continuing atmospheric research. The B-57B was at the NASA Flight Research Center for a joint program with NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia and was having a special set of instrumentation installed. Delays in completing the instruments provided an opportunity to support the NASA space program. The B-57B was used in proof-of-concept testing of the Viking Mars landers. The deceleration drop testing part of the program took place at the Joint Parachute Test Facility, El Centro, California. With completion of the Viking parachute tests, the B-57B was flown for measuring and analysis of atmospheric turbulence research in 1974-75 as part of a joint NASA program between the Flight Research Center and Langley Research Center. Additional atmospheric testing provided samples of aerosols for the University of Wyoming and clear-air turbulence data for the Department of Transportation. The aircraft was tested over a span of many years at Edwards Air

  16. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  17. Miocene structural features of north and south Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ghamdi, A.M.; Watkins, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Integration of 2-D seismic reflection data, paleontological reports, velocity analysis, and well logs has provided a new structural model for North and South Padre Island OCS areas. The Clemente-Tomas fault system (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene) is located above overpressured shale ridges. Sediment loading initiated the faulting over the compacted shale. The Corsair fault system (Early-Middle Miocene) is located seaward of Clemente-Tomas and was formed due to a huge sediment influx that forced the salt to withdraw basinward. The Wanda fault system formed during the Late Miocene because of the further salt withdrawal. Study area is dominated by shale ridges and the salt are only formed beneath the present shelf edge as salt diapirs. Overpressured shale was mapped throughout the study area. Well logs show overpressured shale between 8,800 to 12,000 feet. Berg and Avery suggested that growth faults can seal the faults sheared zones which may cause a structural hydrocarbon trap. We examined most of the responses of the dip logs in the study area and we found that the seal general trend is the drag (non seal) type.

  18. Circulation of influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses in waterfowl originating from two different areas of North America

    PubMed Central

    Hinshaw, V. S.; Wood, J. M.; Webster, R. G.; Deibel, R.; Turner, B.

    1985-01-01

    Migratory waterfowl and shore birds harbour a wide range of influenza viruses, some of which have been implicated in influenza outbreaks in mammals and domestic birds. In the present study, a comparison was made of two marshalling areas for different migratory flyways of waterfowl in North America over a 6-8-year period. Virtually all known influenza subtypes were isolated and the predominant subtype changed from year to year. A marked difference between the two locations was that the predominant subtypes circulating were never the same, even though in both areas, most virus isolations were made from the same duck species (mallard duck). Isolations of paramyxovirus were characterized mainly as avian PMV-1. Viruses isolated from ducks included those antigenically related to viruses causing disease in birds and mammals, although the viruses did not necessarily appear in ducks immediately before they appeared in other species. For example, H5N2 isolates antigenically related to the virus causing severe disease outbreaks in chickens in the USA in 1983, were detected in ducks from both areas at different times (1976, 1980 and 1982). These studies indicate that ducks in different areas represent a continual source of orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses of potential disease significance to other species. PMID:3878741

  19. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  20. Spring and summer contrast in new particle formation over nine forest areas in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Luo, G.; Pryor, S. C.; Pillai, P. R.; Lee, S. H.; Ortega, J.; Schwab, J. J.; Hallar, A. G.; Leaitch, W. R.; Aneja, V. P.; Smith, J. N.; Walker, J. T.; Hogrefe, O.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2015-08-01

    Recent laboratory chamber studies indicate a significant role for highly oxidized low volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF) but the actual role of these highly oxidized low volatility organics in atmospheric NPF remains uncertain. Here, particle size distributions (PSDs) measured in nine forest areas in North America are used to characterize the occurrence and intensity of NPF and to evaluate model simulations using an empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low volatility organics from alpha-pinene oxidation (Nucl-Org), and using an ion-mediated nucleation mechanism (excluding organics; Nucl-IMN). On average, NPF occurred on ~ 70 % of days during March for the four forest sites with springtime PSD measurements, while NPF occurred on only ~ 10 % of days in July for all nine forest sites. Both Nucl-Org and Nucl-IMN schemes capture the observed high frequency of NPF in spring, but the Nucl-Org scheme significantly over-predicts while the Nucl-IMN scheme slightly under-predicts NPF and particle number concentrations in summer. Statistical analyses of observed and simulated ultrafine particle number concentrations and frequency of NPF events indicate that the scheme without organics agrees better overall with observations. The two schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America, highlighting the need to reduce NPF uncertainties in regional and global earth system models.

  1. 3-D Seismic Tomographic Modelling of the North-Western Spitsbergen Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuba, W.

    2015-12-01

    Deep seismic sounding measurements were performed in the continent-ocean transition zone of the north-western Svalbard continental margin in 1976 - 1999 in an international co-operation. Seismic energy (airgun and TNT shots) was recorded by land (onshore) seismic stations, ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), and ocean bottom hydrophone systems (OBH). Data from archival and modern seismic profiles were altogether used for 3-D tomographic inversion using JIVE3D software. The modelling area was chosen to be a rectangle of 420 x 330 km (Fig.). The results are similar to the earlier 2-D modelling, supplemented by off-line information from the profiles and the SPITS permanent station, giving a 3-D image of the crustal structure and Moho interface shape. The continental crust thins to the west and north. A minimum depth of about 6 km to the Moho discontinuity was found east of the Molloy Deep and in the Knipovich Ridge. The Moho interface deepens to about 30 km beneath the continental crust of Spitsbergen.

  2. Spring and summer contrast in new particle formation over nine forest areas in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Luo, G.; Pryor, S. C.; Pillai, P. R.; Lee, S. H.; Ortega, J.; Schwab, J. J.; Hallar, A. G.; Leaitch, W. R.; Aneja, V. P.; Smith, J. N.; Walker, J. T.; Hogrefe, O.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Recent laboratory chamber studies indicate a significant role for highly oxidized low-volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF), but the actual role of these highly oxidized low-volatility organics in atmospheric NPF remains uncertain. Here, particle size distributions (PSDs) measured in nine forest areas in North America are used to characterize the occurrence and intensity of NPF and to evaluate model simulations using an empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low-volatility organics from alpha-pinene oxidation (Nucl-Org), and using an ion-mediated nucleation mechanism (excluding organics) (Nucl-IMN). On average, NPF occurred on ~ 70 % of days during March for the four forest sites with springtime PSD measurements, while NPF occurred on only ~ 10 % of days in July for all nine forest sites. Both Nucl-Org and Nucl-IMN schemes capture the observed high frequency of NPF in spring, but the Nucl-Org scheme significantly overpredicts while the Nucl-IMN scheme slightly underpredicts NPF and particle number concentrations in summer. Statistical analyses of observed and simulated ultrafine particle number concentrations and frequency of NPF events indicate that the scheme without organics agrees better overall with observations. The two schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America, highlighting the need to reduce NPF uncertainties in regional and global earth system models.

  3. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  4. Downstream Effect of Ramping Neuronal Activity through Synapses with Short-Term Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-04-01

    Ramping neuronal activity refers to spiking activity with a rate that increases quasi-linearly over time. It has been observed in multiple cortical areas and is correlated with evidence accumulation processes or timing. In this work, we investigated the downstream effect of ramping neuronal activity through synapses that display short-term facilitation (STF) or depression (STD). We obtained an analytical result for a synapse driven by deterministic linear ramping input that exhibits pure STF or STD and numerically investigated the general case when a synapse displays both STF and STD. We show that the analytical deterministic solution gives an accurate description of the averaging synaptic activation of many inputs converging onto a postsynaptic neuron, even when fluctuations in the ramping input are strong. Activation of a synapse with STF shows an initial cubical increase with time, followed by a linear ramping similar to a synapse without STF. Activation of a synapse with STD grows in time to a maximum before falling and reaching a plateau, and this steady state is independent of the slope of the ramping input. For a synapse displaying both STF and STD, an increase in the depression time constant from a value much smaller than the facilitation time constant τ(F) to a value much larger than τ(F) leads to a transition from facilitation dominance to depression dominance. Therefore, our work provides insights into the impact of ramping neuronal activity on downstream neurons through synapses that display short-term plasticity. In a perceptual decision-making process, ramping activity has been observed in the parietal and prefrontal cortices, with a slope that decreases with task difficulty. Our work predicts that neurons downstream from such a decision circuit could instead display a firing plateau independent of the task difficulty, provided that the synaptic connection is endowed with short-term depression. PMID:26890350

  5. Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

  6. R4D on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    This Photograph taken in 1956 shows the first of three R4D Skytrain aircraft on the ramp behind the NACA High-Speed Flight Station. Note the designation 'United States NACA' on the side of the aircraft. NACA stood for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, which evolved into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958. The R4D Skytrain was one of the early workhorses for NACA and NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from 1952 to 1984. Designated the R4D by the U.S. Navy, the aircraft was called the C-47 by the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force and the DC-3 by its builder, Douglas Aircraft. Nearly everyone called it the 'Gooney Bird.' In 1962, Congress consolidated the military-service designations and called all of them the C-47. After that date, the R4D at NASA's Flight Research Center (itself redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1976) was properly called a C-47. Over the 32 years it was used at Edwards, three different R4D/C-47s were used to shuttle personnel and equipment between NACA/NASA Centers and test locations throughout the country and for other purposes. One purpose was landing on 'dry' lakebeds used as alternate landing sites for the X-15, to determine whether their surfaces were hard (dry) enough for the X-15 to land on in case an emergency occurred after its launch and before it could reach Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base. The R4D/C-47 served a variety of needs, including serving as the first air-tow vehicle for the M2-F1 lifting body (which was built of mahogany plywood). The C-47 (as it was then called) was used for 77 tows before the M2-F1 was retired for more advanced lifting bodies that were dropped from the NASA B-52 'Mothership.' The R4D also served as a research aircraft. It was used to conduct early research on wing-tip-vortex flow visualization as well as checking out the NASA Uplink Control System. The first Gooney Bird was at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station (now the Dryden

  7. YF-12C on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The so-called YF-12C on the NASA Flight Research Center ramp. Following the loss of a YF-12A in a non-fatal accident in June 1971, NASA acquired the second production SR-71A (61-7951) from the Air Force. Because the SR-71 program was shrouded in the highest secrecy, the Air Force restricted NASA to using the aircraft solely for propulsion testing with YF-12A inlets and engines. It was designated the YF-12C, and given a bogus tail number (06937). The two YF-12As in the program had actual tail numbers 06935 and 06936. The first NASA flight of the YF-12C took place on 24 May 1972. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 606936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made

  8. Seismicity and Deep Structure of the Joint Area of Eurasian, North American and Okhotomorsk Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, V. M.; Seleznev, V. S.; Salnikov, A. S.; Timofeev, V. Y.; Shibaev, S. V.; Petrov, A.; Liseikin, A. V.; Shenmayer, A. E.

    2013-05-01

    Modern geodynamics and seismicity of Far-Eastern region is mostly determined by interaction of Eurasian, Pacific, North American and supposed Amur and Okhotomorsk plates. The paper presents materials on seismicity, deep structure and space geodesy. These materials are used as a base for research the joint region of the plates. All earthquakes of this zone are aroused in the middle and in the bottom parts of the Earth`s crust at the depth of 7-30km. Seismic investigations and DSS observations materials show that seismic process is proceeding at pressure conditions. According to the DSS materials at the regional geotransect 2-DV (Magadan - Vrangel island) there is registered significant decrease of boundary velocity values (to 7.5-7.7 km/sec) along the Moho in the joint zone and local raise of the Moho. At the deep seismographic section in this zone we can see extremely heterogeneous middle crust, reduction of reflection contrast in the bottom of the crust and in the Moho section. In this zone we can also see reduction of average (effective) velocity in all stratum of the Earth`s crust, it can be an evidence of high fragmentation of the Earth`s crust structures. These materials, along with high seismicity at great depths up to 30 km, show appearance of the joint region of Okhotomorsk and North American plates not only in the upper part of the Earth`s crust, but also in the middle and in the bottom parts of the crust and in the Moho section. Along with the profile data of the geotransect 2-DV there are presented modern materials of areal seismological investigations for a section of joint of three big plates: earthquakes quantity distribution, total dedicated seismic energy and K- parameter, connected with velocities of P- and S-waves within seismic active layer of the Earth`s crust. By these data, the boundary of North American plate with Eurasian plate in the north and with Okhotomorsk plate in the south is more contrasting. The most severe earthquakes are also

  9. Serious BTEX pollution in rural area of the North China Plain during winter season.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kankan; Zhang, Chenglong; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhang, Gen; Sun, Xu; Mu, Yujing

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a rural site of the North China Plain (NCP) were preliminarily investigated in winter, and the outdoor concentrations (25.8-236.0 μg/m3) were found to be much higher than those reported in urban regions. The pollution of BTEX inside a farmer's house was even more serious, with combined concentrations of 254.5-1552.9 μg/m3. Based on the ratio of benzene to toluene (1.17±0.34) measured, the serious BTEX pollution in the rural site was mainly ascribed to domestic coal combustion for heating during the winter season. With the enhancement of farmers' incomes in recent years, coal consumption by farmers in the NCP is rapidly increasing to keep their houses warm, and hence the serious air pollution in rural areas of the NCP during winter, including BTEX, should be paid great attention. PMID:25872726

  10. Hydrodynamic trapping in the Cretaceous Nahr Umr lower sand of the North Area, Offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.R.A.

    1988-03-01

    A hydrodynamic model is described to account for oil and gas occurrences in the Cretaceous of offshore Qatar, in the Arabian Gulf. Variable and inconsistent fluid levels and variable formation water potentials and salinities cannot be explained by combinations of stratigraphic and structural trapping. Indeed, there is no structural closure to the southwest of the oil and gas accumulations. The water-potential and salinity data and oil distribution are consistent with this model and indicate that a vigorous hydrodynamic system pervades the Cretaceous of the Arabian Gulf region. Extensive upward cross-formational discharge is taking place in the North Area. This cross-formation water flow could be partly responsible for localized leaching and reservoir enhancement in the chalky limestones.

  11. Relative impacts of vegetation coverage and leaf area index on climate change in a greener north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Walsh, John E.

    2007-08-01

    To identify relative impacts of vegetation coverage and leaf area index (LAI) on climate in a greener north, a set of climate model sensitivity experiments was conducted in which vegetation coverage and/or LAI were increased over the land poleward of 60°N. The simulation results indicate that an increase in vegetation coverage makes a significant contribution to surface warming, while increasing LAI does not. The increased vegetation coverage reduces both background (snow-free) and snow-covered surface albedos and results in a maximum surface warming (>2°C) during spring and early summer. The increase in vegetation coverage also alters the partitioning between soil evaporation and vegetation evapotranspiration, and consequently reduces soil moisture loss from surface soil. Increased LAI leads to an enhancement of both convective and large scale components of precipitation, while the increase in vegetation coverage primarily increases the ratio of convective to large-scale precipitation.

  12. Natural groundwater recharge in an upland area of central North Dakota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehm, B.W.; Moran, S.R.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    The magnitude of groundwater recharge to coal aquifers in a 150-km2 area in west-central North Dakota was determined using three separate approaches: (1) the net water level rise in water-table wells; (2) calculations of the fluid flux between nested piezometers, using the Darcy equation and measured values of hydraulic conductivity and vertical gradients; and (3) evaluation of the inputs to and outputs from the coal aquifer, using a steady-state control volume approach in which the aquifer was divided into semi-rectangular cells bounded by equipotential lines and flow lines. Measurements of potential gradients and hydraulic conductivity permitted indirect determination of all components of flow into and out of the cell except the recharge input, which was determined by difference. All methods yielded consistent results on the order of 0.04-0.01 m yr.-1 These values, which represent 2-9% of the annual precipitation, are consistent with results of other studies on recharge throughout the prairies of North America. Evaluation of site hydrology and stable-isotope data indicates that recharge is restricted in both time and place. Most recharge occurs in late spring and in the fall following heavy rainfall events. During these seasons the ground is not frozen and vegetation is not transpiring large amounts of water. Some recharge may occur during very heavy localized summer storms, but it is not considered volumetrically significant. Major permanent depressions on the site are a source of significant recharge. In addition, the extensive area of ephemeral standing water bodies that result from snowmelt can produce significant amounts of infiltration over the entire site. ?? 1982.

  13. Impact of Heat Waves on Urban Areas in the North Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Li, D.; Bou-Zeid, E.

    2014-12-01

    We utilize high-resolution numerical simulations to understand the interaction between heat waves and urban heat islands in the North Eastern United States. Urban areas, due to their dense built-surface cover that efficiently stores and dissipate heat and reduced evapotranspiration, experience elevated near surface temperatures compared to surrounding rural areas. This difference between urban and nearby rural temperature is commonly known as the Urban Heat island Intensity (UHI), which amplifies the effects of heat waves in cities. In this work, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is significantly modified in two major ways to study two heat wave episodes in the North East during the Summer of 2006. First, the single layer urban canopy model in WRF is replaced by the Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM), which includes representation for sub-facet scale heterogeneity. Second, the dominant land use approach used in the default land surface scheme is substituted with a tile-based approach to suitably capture the variability in the urban surface cover. Our preliminary results show that the magnitude of the UHI increased in New York City by more than 1°C during both the nighttime and daytime periods during the heat wave episodes. In Baltimore and Washington D. C, while the UHI increased during the nighttime period, the daytime UHI was mostly unchanged. This ongoing work will further focus on the role played by moisture availability, available energy, wind direction and magnitude and urban characteristics like population density and urban cover in modulating the UHI during these intense heat wave periods.

  14. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  15. Geologic map of the Sasquatch Steps area, north flank of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausback, Brian P.

    2000-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens resulted in both new volcanic deposits and deeply incised exposures into pre-1980 deposits. These exposures were produced by excavation of the crater by the 1980 landslides and lateral explosion as well as the subsequent erosion of Step and Loowit creeks by northerly stream flow out of the horseshoe-shaped crater. The map covers the area known as the Sasquatch Steps (commonly called the Steps), which lies between the Pumice Plain on the north and the lowermost portion of the crater on the south. Rapid alluvial aggradation at the base of the Steps is presently burying some of the lowest exposures, and erosion is stripping many of the upland deposits. The stratigraphic sequence exposed in the map area includes deposits from the eruptive periods listed in table 1 (Crandell, 1987). Assignment of deposits to the various eruptive periods is based on lithology and ferromagnesian-mineral suites typical for each of the eruptive periods (Mullineaux and Crandell, 1981; Mullineaux, 1986), as well as three 14 C dates from wood found in the deposits. Faults displayed on the map are largely confined to the older part of the stratigraphic section. These older units are highly shattered, with an extremely complicated fracture pattern, and it is only possible to show the largest and most distinctive of these structures at the map scale. Interpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of this area is given in Hausback and Swanson (1990).

  16. The Characteristic and Classification of Thermal Spring in Ramsar area, North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedsoltan, Farnaz; Ansari, Mohammad Reza; Gafari, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Ramsar area is located across and between Alborze Mountain and Caspine Sea in North of Iran. About 30 spas are located south of the Ramsar and Sadatshar town. They are almost in between 20 to 70 m elevation. Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks and alluvial deposit are exposed around the Ramsar area. In tertiary, acidic Plutonism was active and intrusion into the Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations. Quaternary and Alluvium deposits are exposed and extending on the Jurassic formations in Ramsar plain and have thickness lower than 10 m in show springs. The annual precipitation in the Ramsar region is 976 mm. There has not any proper Thermal spring management in Ramsar area yet. This could post some serious problem on improper management of Thermal spring sites, where its environment has been put into jeopardy. This study aims to provide a way to classify the Thermal springs in Ramsar area. The result of this study help in the classification of Thermal spring sites for official planning improvement of administration and sustainable development of natural resources of the area. The study makes use of the Department Applied Geosciences in Islamic Azad University and GIS data of a total of 9 Thermal springs in the attempt to set up a classification system of Thermal springs in Ramsar area. These data include surface temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, TDS, pH values, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, SiO2, SO4 contents, their locations, usages and other relevant information. The surface temperature of Thermal springs are between 19oC - 65oC and SiO2 geothermometer shows estimated reservoir temperature range from 86 o C - 96 o C. Most of the water from these Thermal springs is relatively turbidness and their composition is sodium choloride. The Thermal springs in this area generally exhibit high SiO2 and Na content; strong smell of sulfur. In addition, there are 30 Thermal springs located in Ramsar area and that show high concentration of Cl, Ca, Na, K and Mg. There

  17. Mars pathfinder Rover egress deployable ramp assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian R.; Sword, Lee F.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Program is a NASA Discovery Mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to launch and place a small planetary Rover for exploration on the Martian surface. To enable safe and successful egress of the Rover vehicle from the spacecraft, a pair of flight-qualified, deployable ramp assemblies have been developed. This paper focuses on the unique, lightweight deployable ramp assemblies. A brief mission overview and key design requirements are discussed. Design and development activities leading to qualification and flight systems are presented.

  18. Programmable Multiple-Ramped-Voltage Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Howell, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Ramp waveforms range up to 2,000 V. Laboratory high-voltage power-supply system puts out variety of stable voltages programmed to remain fixed with respect to ground or float with respect to ramp waveform. Measures voltages it produces with high resolution; automatically calibrates, zeroes, and configures itself; and produces variety of input/output signals for use with other instruments. Developed for use with ultraviolet spectrometer. Also applicable to control of electron guns in general and to operation of such diverse equipment used in measuring scattering cross sections of subatomic particles and in industrial electron-beam welders.

  19. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  20. Magnetostratigraphic Study of Chengde Basin, Yanshan Area and its Restriction on the Peaking Age of North China Craton Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; He, H.; Zhu, R.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of North China Craton destruction has been contineous paid attention to. There have already been plenty of research from Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry. However, the exact destruction age of North China Craton is still controversial. In this paper, we try to put forward geomagnetic evidence of the peaking destruction age of North China Craton. Yanshan orogen is located at the north edge of North China Craton and affected significantly by its destruction. Chengde Basin is located at the middle section of Yanshan orogen, which makes it an ideal area for studying the basin record of North China Craton destruction. Oriented core samples are collected from Yuanjiazhuang section of Chengde Basin for magnetostratigraphic and rock-magnetic study. Fresh massive volcanic samples are also collected for radiometric dating. The rock-magnetic results show that magnetic minerals of volcanics are complex, including magnetite, maghemite and hematite while sedimentary magnetic minerals are mainly magnetite, possibly including small amount of maghemite and hematite. An age of 128~129Ma is obtained from the radiometric dating result. Magnetostratigraphic result shows three polarity sections: the lower normal section(N2), the reversal section(R1) and the upper normal section(N1). Comparing with the Geologic Time Scale 2004 and combining the radiometric result, it is believed that the N2 section is related to M3n, R1 related to M1r and N1 related to M1n. Therefore, the start age of lacustrine sediment at Yuanjiazhuang section is ~128Ma. According to the magnetostratigraphic study and radiometric dating of Chengde Basin in Yanshan area, the peak destruction age of North China Craton is confirmed to be no later than 128Ma. It is believed that North China Craton destruction is the primary element leading to Mesozoic basin at the Yanshan area changed from Late Triassic-Late Jurassic flexural basin to rift basin. One of the shallow responses accompanying with the peak age of

  1. Methane emission and consumption at a North Sea gas seep (Tommeliten area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, H.; Elvert, M.; Hovland, M.; Orcutt, B.; Judd, A.; Suck, I.; Gutt, J.; Joye, S.; Damm, E.; Finster, K.; Boetius, A.

    2005-11-01

    The North Sea hosts large coal, oil and gas reservoirs of commercial value. Natural leakage pathways of subsurface gas to the hydrosphere have been recognized during geological surveys (Hovland and Judd, 1988). The Tommeliten seepage area is part of the Greater Ekofisk area, which is situated above the Tommeliten Delta salt diapir in the central North Sea. In this study, we report of an active seep site (56°29.90'N, 2°59.80'E) located in the Tommeliten area, Norwegian Block 1/9, at 75 m water depth. Here, cracks in a buried marl horizon allow methane to migrate into overlying clay-silt and sandy sediments. Hydroacoustic sediment echosounding showed several venting spots coinciding with the apex of marl domes where methane is released into the water column and potentially to the atmosphere during deep mixing situations. In the vicinity of the gas seeps, sea floor observations showed small mats of giant sulphide-oxidizing bacteria above patches of black sediments and carbonate crusts, which are exposed 10 to 50 cm above seafloor forming small reefs. These Methane-Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDACs) contain 13C-depleted, archaeal lipids indicating previous gas seepage and AOM activity. High amounts of sn2-hydroxyarchaeol relative to archaeol and low abundances of biphytanes in the crusts give evidence that ANaerobic MEthane-oxidising archaea (ANME) of the phylogenetic cluster ANME-2 were the potential mediators of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) at the time of carbonate formation. Small pieces of MDACs were also found subsurface at about 1.7 m sediment depth, associated with the Sulphate-Methane Transition Zone (SMTZ). The SMTZ of Tommeliten is characterized by elevated AOM and Sulphate Reduction (SR) rates, increased concentrations of 13C-depleted tetraether derived biphytanes, and specific bacterial Fatty Acids (FA). Further biomarker and 16S rDNA based analyses give evidence that AOM at the Tommeliten SMTZ is mediated by archaea belonging to the ANME-1b

  2. Contribution of Gulf Area natural sulfur to the North American sulfur budget

    SciTech Connect

    Luria, M.; Van Valin, C.C.; Wellman, D.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of natural sulfur compounds from the Gulf of Mexico to the overall North American sulfur budget two series of air sampling flights were performed over the gulf area. Total aerosol mass load and sulfate concentration data indicate, in agreement with our previous findings on gas-phase products, that these observations can be divided into two categories. One group of measurements was taken under offshore airflow and the other under onshore flow conditions. From the measurements performed under clean (onshore) flow, average inside boundary layer SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentrations were evaluated. Using these data, together with our previously reported dimethyl sulfide levels, a simple model was developed to estimate the sulfur flux transported northward from the gulf area. Upper and lower limits of this contribution are estimated at 0.25 and 0.04 Tg (S) year/sup -1/, respectively. Although this quantity is relatively low compared with the national US anthropogenic emission, it has significance for the global sulfur cycle, and it can cause a significant acidification of cloud water. 24 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Styles of trap development in Caddo limestone in Bend Arch area, north-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, J.L. )

    1987-02-01

    The Lower Pennsylvanian Caddo limestone has been a prolific hydrocarbon producer in the Bend arch area of north-central Texas since the early 1900s and continues to be a major exploration target although it is in a mature province. Early explorationists understood the Caddo's large potential when the James pool was discovered in Young County in 1917. Initial flows were greater than 1,000 BOPD in some wells, and field development with additional infill drilling and waterfloods continued into the early 1980s. James pool has produced more than 2 million bbl of oil as of December 1985. Fields in jack, Throckmorton, and Archer Counties had recorded similar successes by the 1940s. The early caddo discoveries were made before singlefold seismic mapping was available, and were based on sparse subsurface control. By the 1950s and 1960s, seismic and subsurface data were more commonly used in the hunt for Caddo reservoirs. Most exploration concepts held that all Caddo traps were structural. Recent studies showed that structural, stratigraphic, and combination traps are common in the Caddo. This study presents examples of each trap type in the Bend arch area, where 49 million bbl of oil has been discovered in the Caddo, and focuses on the current exploration methods.

  4. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    PubMed

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. PMID:27605767

  5. Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Takeshi; White, Paul A; DeMarini, David M

    2003-01-10

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not having to bring large volumes of water back to the laboratory for extraction of organic materials. Therefore, for the same effort the hanging blue rayon technique allows for the analysis of more samples from remote sites, although it has a disadvantage of not allowing quantitative analysis. In this study, the blue rayon hanging technique was used to collect organic mutagens in river waters that flow through metropolitan areas in northeastern North America. Monitoring was performed at a total of 21 sites: the Providence River system (4 sites), the Charles River (2 sites), the Potomac River (6 sites), the St. Lawrence River (5 sites), the Hudson River (3 sites), and the East River (1 site). Mutagenicity was evaluated using the Salmonella assay with strains TA98, TA100, YG1024, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without metabolic activation. The results demonstrated that strains YG1041 and YG1024 were much more sensitive than TA98 with S9 mix. Fifteen samples out of 21 were positive in YG1041 with S9 mix. Six samples gave 5000-18,400 revertants/g blue rayon equivalent. YG1042 was also much more sensitive than TA100. Eight samples were positive in YG1042 with S9 mix. The highest activity was 10,200 revertants/g blue rayon equivalent. The overall results showed that rivers flowing through major cities in North America contain frameshift-type, aromatic amine-like mutagenic activity. However, the levels of mutagenic activity in these rivers were much lower than expected based on prior analyses and calculated population-to-discharge ratios. Further research, such as detailed chemical analyses and/or simultaneous comparisons of several different adsorbents (e.g. XAD and blue rayon), will be needed to clarify the observed differences between North American blue rayon values and published values for European and

  6. Spring and summer contrast in new particle formation over nine forest areas in North America

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, F.; Luo, G.; Pryor, S. C.; Pillai, P. R.; Lee, S. H.; Ortega, J.; Schwab, J. J.; Hallar, A. G.; Leaitch, W. R.; Aneja, V. P.; et al

    2015-12-18

    Recent laboratory chamber studies indicate a significant role for highly oxidized low-volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF), but the actual role of these highly oxidized low-volatility organics in atmospheric NPF remains uncertain. Here, particle size distributions (PSDs) measured in nine forest areas in North America are used to characterize the occurrence and intensity of NPF and to evaluate model simulations using an empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low-volatility organics from alpha-pinene oxidation (Nucl-Org), and using an ion-mediated nucleation mechanism (excluding organics) (Nucl-IMN). On average, NPF occurred on ~more » 70 % of days during March for the four forest sites with springtime PSD measurements, while NPF occurred on only ~ 10 % of days in July for all nine forest sites. Both Nucl-Org and Nucl-IMN schemes capture the observed high frequency of NPF in spring, but the Nucl-Org scheme significantly overpredicts while the Nucl-IMN scheme slightly underpredicts NPF and particle number concentrations in summer. Statistical analyses of observed and simulated ultrafine particle number concentrations and frequency of NPF events indicate that the scheme without organics agrees better overall with observations. The two schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America, highlighting the need to reduce NPF uncertainties in regional and global earth system models.« less

  7. Detectable Warning Surfaces at Curb Ramps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauger, J. S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four tests evaluated the need for and effectiveness of detectable warning surfaces at curb ramps for pedestrians with blindness. Results found that the effectiveness of the detectable warning surfaces depended on other aspects of the design of the intersections and on factors such as the density of traffic and the traveler's skills. (CR)

  8. High power fast ramping power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris,I.; Bajon, E.; Bonati, R.; Sandberg, J.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    Hundred megawatt level fast ramping power converters to drive proton and heavy ion machines are under research and development at accelerator facilities in the world. This is a leading edge technology. There are several topologies to achieve this power level. Their advantages and related issues will be discussed.

  9. Human-Modified Permafrost Complexes in Urbanized Areas of the Russian North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenets, V. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    ) are formed in the urban territories, which are characterized by modified permafrost characteristics, by the new set of cryogenic processes, and by modified temperature trends. NTGC classification depends on initial natural settings and on type, intensity and duration of technogenic pressure. For instance, field reconnaissance of permafrost and geological conditions resulted in characterization of 17 NTGC types in Norilsk industrial area, 11 types in Yamburg Gas Condensate Field, Tazovsky Peninsula, and 32 types along gas and oil pipelines in the north of Western Siberia. Particular interest presents the dynamics of NTGC depending on the scale of urban system, on the set of its elements and on duration of technogenic impacts on permafrost. Important aspect is assessment of climate change impacts on structures and environment in various areas on permafrost

  10. Modeling four occurred debris flow events in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino

    2016-04-01

    Four occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps) are modeled by back-analysis. The four debris flows events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006, at Rovina di Cancia (Belluno) on the 18th of July 2009 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. In all the events, runoff entrained sediments present on natural channels and formed a solid-liquid wave that routed downstream. The first event concerns the routing of debris flow on an inhabited fan. The second event the deviation of debris flow from the usual path due to an obstruction with the excavation of a channel in the scree and the downstream spreading in a wood. The third event concerns the routing of debris flow in a channel with an ending the reservoir, its overtopping and final spreading in the inhabited area. The fourth event concerns the routing of debris flow along the main channel downstream the initiation area until spreading just upstream a village. All the four occurred debris flows are simulated by modeling runoff that entrained debris flow for determining the solid-liquid hydrograph. The routing of the solid-liquid hydrograph is simulated by a bi-phase cell model based on the kinematic approach. The comparison between simulated and measured erosion and deposition depths is satisfactory. Nearly the same parameters for computing erosion and deposition were used for all the four occurred events. The maps of erosion and deposition depths are obtained by comparing the results of post-event surveys with the pre-event DEM. The post-event surveys were conducted by using different instruments (LiDAR and GPS) or the combination photos-single points depth measurements (in this last case it is possible obtaining the deposition/erosion depths by means of stereoscopy techniques).

  11. Seasonal prediction of typhoon genesis frequency and track patterns in the North West Pacific area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyoun, Yoosun; Kang, Kiryong; Shin, Do-Shick

    2014-05-01

    This study is to investigate the performance of the typhoon seasonal predictability using a dynamical model. The check items are the monthly statistics for total number of typhoon genesis in Western North Pacific (WNP) area and possible threat to Korean peninsula among them, and the probability of each categorized track pattern. As the dynamical model the Florida State University/Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (FSU/COAPS) was used, and it uses five ensemble members including control run are generated using time-lagged methods and the resolution of T126L27 (a Gaussian grid spacing of 0.94º). The model initial conditions are obtained from the National Center for Enviromental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP GFS) and the SST from Climate Forecast System with bias correction was used for ocean surface boundary condition. The summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) season prediction is made one month prior to target season. The detection of tropical cyclone used in this system is based on six criteria. First, the isolated vortex type minimum sea level pressure should be below 1008hPa. Second, the maximum wind speed is larger than 17m s-1. Third, the magnitude of the maximum relative vorticity at 850hPa exceeds 3.5x10-5s-1. Fourth, the average temperature difference from the area mean of surrounding region at 300hPa, 500hPa, 700hPa exceeds 2.5K. Fifth, the maximum wind speed at 850hPa is larger than that at 300hPa. Sixth, this identified vortex should last more than two days. These criteria were chosen after close examination from model-observation comparison. In this study, we will focus on performance of the system typhoon frequency and track pattern in the WNP area during 2004-2013.

  12. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp...

  13. Resource and potential reclamation evaluation of Rattlesnake Butte study area, Dickinson coalfield, North Dakota: summary. Final report 1978-82

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, G.H.; Parish, L.M.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to collect baseline data for establishing reclamation objectives and lease stipulations. The report includes data on climate, physiography, geology, coal resources, and overburden. The study area, located in Southwestern North Dakota, lies within the unglaciated portion of the Great Plains Physiographic Province.

  14. 77 FR 5568 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area North Hilight Field Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... notice announcing the Final EIS was publicly available on July 30, 2010 (75 FR 44951). This decision is... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area North Hilight Field Coal Lease-by-Application and Environmental Impact Statement, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of...

  15. Stratified and nonstratified areas in the North Sea: Long-term variability and biological and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Sonja; Tett, Paul; Mills, David; van der Molen, Johan

    2015-07-01

    The European Unions' Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to limit anthropogenic influences in the marine environment. But marine ecosystems are characterized by high variability, and it is not trivial to define its natural state. Here, we use the physical environment as a basis for marine classification, as it determines the conditions in which organisms must operate to survive and thrive locally. We present a delineation of the North Sea into five distinct regimes, based on multidecadal stratification characteristics. Results are based on a 51 year simulation of the region using the coupled hydrobiogeochemical model GETM-ERSEM-BFM. The five identified regimes are: permanently stratified, seasonally stratified, intermittently stratified, permanently mixed, and Region Of Freshwater Influence (ROFI). The areas characterized by these regimes show some interannual variation in geographical coverage, but are overall remarkable stable features within the North Sea. Results also show that 29% of North Sea waters fail to classify as one of the defined stratification regimes, due to high interannual variability. Biological characteristics of these regimes differ from diatom-based food webs in areas with prolonged stratification to Phaeocystis-dominated food webs in areas experiencing short-lived or no stratification. The spatial stability of the identified regimes indicates that carefully selected monitoring locations can be used to represent a substantive area of the North Sea.

  16. Pleistocene pollen stratigraphy from borehole 81/34, devil's hole area, central north sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekman, Sten R.

    1998-09-01

    Twelve pollen assemblage zones are identified in a 229 m deep borehole (BH 81/34) from the Devil's Hole area in the central North Sea (British sector). The sediment from this borehole is Early to Late Pleistocene in age and the observation of massulae from Azolla filiculoides in sediment with reversed polarity indicates an age younger than the Olduvai geomagnetic event for the entire sequence. The Early Pleistocene sediments were at least partly deposited in the vicinity of a river outlet and can be correlated either with the Eburonian or the Menapian cold stage and with the Bavel interglacial and the Linge glacial within the Bavelian stage in the Dutch stratigraphy. The Middle Pleistocene sequence contains an interval rich in Abies, Picea and Pinus, probably deposited during the end of either Cromerian Complex interglacial IV (Noordbergum) or possibly the Holsteinian. The uppermost 80 m of the core contains high frequencies of pre-Quaternary and deteriorated palynomorphs indicating extensive glacial or glaciofluvially reworked sediment.

  17. Legacy data for a northern prairie grassland: Woodworth Study Area, North Dakota, 1963-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shelby H.; Austin, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data commonly become more valuable through time. Such legacy data provide baseline records of past biological, physical, and social information that provide historical perspective and are necessary for assessment of stasis or change. Legacy data collected at the Woodworth Study Area (WSA), a contiguous block of grasslands, croplands, and wetlands covering more than 1,000 hectares of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, are cataloged and summarized in this study. The WSA is one of the longest researched grassland sites in the Upper Midwest. It has an extensive history of settlement, land use, and management that provides a deeper context for future research. The WSA data include long-term vegetation transect records, land use history, habitat management records, geologic information, wetland hydrology and chemistry information, and spatial images. Substantial parts of these data have not been previously reported. The WSA is representative of many other lands purchased by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the Prairie Pothole Region from the 1930s to the 1970s; therefore, synthesized data from the WSA are broadly applicable to topics of concern in northern grasslands, such as increases in non-native plants, managing for biodiversity, and long-term effects of habitat management. New techniques are also described that were used to preserve these data for future analyses. The data preservation techniques are applicable to any project with data that should be preserved for 100 years or more.

  18. Effects of the catastrophic flood of December 1966, north rim area, eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.; Aldridge, B.N.; Euler, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Precipitation from the unusual storm of December 1966 was concentrated on highlands in northern Arizona, southwestern Utah , southern Nevada, and south-central California and caused widely scattered major floods in the four States. In Arizona the largest amount of precipitation was in the north rim area of eastern Grand Canyon, where about 14 inches was measured. The largest flows occurred along Bright Angel Creek and the MilK Creek-Dragon Creek part of the Crystal Creek drainage basin. The maximum effects of the flood were along Milk Creek-Dragon Creek, where a mudflow caused extensive channel modification. Floods that occurred in the Bright Angel and Crystal Creek basins have a recurrence interval of only once in several centuries. The streamflow that resulted from the storm on the Kaibab Plateau caused considerable local scouring and deepening of channels, including some renewed arroyo cutting. The most catastrophic effects of the 1966 floods were caused by two mudflows that extended from the edge of the Kaibab Plateau along Dragon Creek in the Crystal Creek basin and Lava Creek in the Chuar Creek basin to the Colorado River. More than 10 other large mudflows occurred in Nankoweap, Kwagunt, Crystal, and Shinumo Creek basins. About 80 large debris slides left conspicuous scars in the amphitheaters at the heads of the side gorges, and at least 10 small slides occurred on the Kaibab Plateau. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Emergency Mosquito Control on a Selected Area in Eastern North Carolina After Hurricane Irene

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jonathan W; Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters such as hurricanes may contribute to mosquito abundance and, consequently, arbovirus transmission risk. In 2011, flooding from Hurricane Irene in eastern North Carolina (NC) resulted in increased mosquito populations that hindered recovery efforts. Budget shortfalls in NC have reduced the functionality of long-term mosquito surveillance and control programs; hence, many counties rely on the Federal Emergency Management Agency for post-disaster mosquito control. This pilot study examines mosquito abundance pre- and post-aerial insecticide spraying at eight study sites in Washington and Tyrrell Counties in rural eastern NC after Hurricane Irene. Percent change was calculated and compared for traps in areas that received aerial pesticide application and those that did not. Traps in spray zones show decreases in mosquito abundance when compared to control traps (treatment: −52.93%; control: 3.55%), although no significant differences (P = 0.286) were found in mosquito abundance between groups. Implications of reactive rather than proactive mosquito control responses are discussed. PMID:25574141

  20. Holocene Environmental Change in the Skallingen Area, Eastern North Greenland, Based on a Lacustrine Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Bennike, O.

    2014-12-01

    Although lakes are known to provide excellent high-resolution records of climate and environmental change over long periods, only few records exist from the high arctic regions. For example, only very few records exist from northernmost Greenland (> 80°N). Some of the existing records are chronologically poorly constrained or cover only the latest part of the Holocene. A new lacustrine record from a small lake (80°01'N, 22°39'W) in the Skallingen area in northeastern Greenland indicates that the region was deglaciated prior to 8000 cal. a BP. Deglaciation was probably triggered by high temperatures, but it took more than 1000 years for the lake and the catchment to stabilise. Chironomids were amongst the first invertebrates to colonize the lake. The fossil chironomid assemblage is fairly rich and comparable to other records from further south in Greenland. The pioneer vegetation in the area consisted of mosses and herbaceous plants. The only woody plants recorded comprise Salix arctica and Dryas integrifolia, which appear at around 7700 cal. a BP and 6700 cal. a BP, respectively. Maximum concentrations of chironomids, maximum occurrence of ephippia of the water flea Daphnia pulex, highest organic matter contents and lowest minerogenic input from c. 7700 to 4400 cal. a BP probably reflect the Holocene thermal maximum (HTM). A maximum of Salix arctica, which is considered a warmth-loving plant, indicates that the highest temperatures during the HTM are recorded around 7000 cal. a BP. However, the occurrence of several warmth-demanding species particularly in the early Holocene sediments indicates redeposition and implies that temperatures in the past, most likely during an interglacial period, were significantly higher than during the HTM. Comparisons with Holocene records from East and North Greenland show similar immigration histories and similar trends, with the Little Ice Age as the coldest period during the Holocene culminating about 150 year ago. Subsequent

  1. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    PubMed

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation. PMID:25897728

  2. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... County. ] Alternatives Analysis and Results The North Corridor Transit Project Alternatives Analysis (AA... for transit projects seeking New Starts funding (Title 49 United States Code 5309.) The AA report also... Supplemental EIS on the Regional Transit Long-Range Plan (June 2005). The North Corridor AA considered...

  3. Flow control of an oblique shock wave reflection with micro-ramp vortex generators: Effects of location and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giepman, R. H. M.; Schrijer, F. F. J.; van Oudheusden, B. W.

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the influences of micro-ramp size and location on its effectiveness as a flow control device for oblique shock wave reflections. The effectiveness is measured in terms of the size of the shock-induced separation bubble and the reflected shock unsteadiness. Particle image velocimetry measurements were carried out on the interaction region and the mixing region between micro-ramp and interaction. The separation bubble is shown to be most sensitive to the momentum flux contained in the lower 43% of the incoming boundary layer. The momentum flux added to this region scales linearly with micro-ramp height and larger micro-ramps are shown to be more effective in stabilizing the interaction. Full boundary layer mixing is attained 5.7δ downstream of the micro-ramp and this forms a lower limit on the required distance between micro-ramp and the start of the interaction region. Typical reductions in the average separated area and the shock unsteadiness of 87% and 51%, respectively, were recorded. Results, however, depend strongly upon the spanwise location, with the micro-ramp being most effective along its centerline.

  4. Engineering Analysis of Characterization Ramps and Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    The calculations in Appendix A and B determine the adequacy of the ramps and platforms to accomplish two tasks: (1) Core sampling using the modifications imposed by the use of a FDNW foundation at PFP; and (2) Core sampling within the 200E and 200W Tank Farms without the imposed modifications. The calculations in this document determined that the ramps and platforms are adequate for use with core sampling equipment when sampling either tank 241-2-361 or within 200E or 200W Tank Farms. When sampling tank 241-2-361 the modifications made by ECN 651132 must be implemented. These modifications are the addition of diagonal cross bracing on both the lateral and longitudinal sides. Also, a 1 1/4 inch tie rod must connect both bases of each longitudinal side.

  5. XF-92A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1952-01-01

    This NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station photograph of the XF-92A was taken at the South Base of Edwards Air Force Base. The photograph shows the large Xs painted on the nose and tail of the aircraft. These were used to aid when tracking the aircraft was done by optical methods. The Convair XF-92A aircraft was powered by a Allison J33-A turbojet engine with an afterburner, and was unique in having America's first delta wing. The delta wing's large area, thin airfoil cross section, low weight, and structural strength made this design a promising combination for a supersonic airplane. The Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation (Convair) XF-92A Dart was America's first delta wing aircraft. It was built as a test bed for a proposed interceptor that never materialized. The XF-92A was then continued to test the delta-wing concept. The delta wing's large area (425 square feet), thin airfoil cross section, low weight, and structural strength made a great combination for a supersonic aircraft. The aircraft was powered by an Allison J33-A-29 turbojet engine with an afterburner. Convair and the U.S. Air Force flew the XF-92A from 1948 to 1953. After the Air Force's plans for an interceptor failed to materialize, the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, which had supplied engineering, instrumentation, and operational assistance to the Air Force during its flights, took over the flight test program in 1953. A. Scott Crossfield flew all 25 NACA flights of the NACA's XF-92A program over a six-month test period. The original XF-92A ship had a severe pitch-up problem but was tested with different wing-fence combinations to gather data on their contribution to solving that problem. The pilot also reported that the aircraft was sluggish and underpowered. Besides validating the thin delta wing principle, the XF-92A played a major role in supporting the development of the Convair F-102A interceptor, the Air Force's first attempt at an all-weather, supersonic interceptor. In

  6. Analysis of geophysical logs, at North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), collected borehole geophysical log data in 34 industrial, commercial, and public supply wells and 28 monitor wells at the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, in Lansdale, Pa., from August 22, 1995, through August 29, 1997. The wells range in depth from 50 to 1,027 feet below land surface and are drilled in Triassic-age shales and siltstones of the Brunswick Group and Lockatong Formation. The geophysical log data were collected to help describe the hydrogeologic framework in the area and to provide guidance in the reconstruction of the 28 monitor wells drilled during summer 1997. At the time of logging, all wells had open-hole construction. The geophysical logs, caliper, fluid-resistivity, and fluid-temperature, and borehole video logs were used to determine the vertical distribution of water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to determine vertical borehole flow under pumping and nonpumping conditions. The most productive fractures generally could be determined from heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under pumping conditions. Vertical borehole flow was measured under nonpumping conditions in most wells that had more than one water-bearing fracture. Upward flow was measured in 35 wells and probably is a result of natural head differences between fractures in the local ground-water-flow system. Downward flow was measured in 11 wells and commonly indicated differences in hydraulic heads of the fractures caused by nearby pumping. Both upward and downward flow was measured in three wells. No flow was detected in eight wells. Natural-gamma-ray logs were used to estimate the attitude of bedding. Thin shale marker beds, shown as spikes of elevated radioactivity in the natural-gamma logs of some wells throughout the area, enable the determination of bedding-plane orientation from three-point correlations. Generally, the marker beds in

  7. A survey on wind power ramp forecasting.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Matias, L.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.

    2011-02-23

    The increasing use of wind power as a source of electricity poses new challenges with regard to both power production and load balance in the electricity grid. This new source of energy is volatile and highly variable. The only way to integrate such power into the grid is to develop reliable and accurate wind power forecasting systems. Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: sub-hourly, hourly, daily, and seasonally. Wind energy, like other electricity sources, must be scheduled. Although wind power forecasting methods are used, the ability to predict wind plant output remains relatively low for short-term operation. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability, wind power's variability can present substantial challenges when large amounts of wind power are incorporated into a grid system. A critical issue is ramp events, which are sudden and large changes (increases or decreases) in wind power. This report presents an overview of current ramp definitions and state-of-the-art approaches in ramp event forecasting.

  8. Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP).

    PubMed

    Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael H

    2006-01-01

    RAMP embraces the integrated use of methods for the rapid measurement, assessment and access to information on the nature, sources and influences of coastal environmental change. It embraces approaches held in the literature, research and programs of RAMP (Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution) and the emerging work described as RASE (Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators). To protect coastal ecosystems and the health of communities effectively, management infrastructure requires the tools and resources necessary to detect damage to coastal ecosystems and their components, identify causative agents, impose remedial action, and demonstrate that measures have been effective. Pragmatic monitoring and prediction capabilities must also be built to provide further confidence that human impacts are being minimized and that threats to human health have been contained. For most of the world, however, the ability to build such capability is a technical challenge and often cost prohibitive. These constraints point to the need to develop and expand the integrated use of simple, robust, cost-effective environmental assessment procedures. This paper suggests that a system built around the Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP) and the Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators (RASE) can, should and in some cases already has been effective in meeting such informational and management needs. PMID:17070861

  9. Leaching tendencies of uranium and regulated trace metals from the Hanford Site 300 Area North Process Pond sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented that address the leaching tendencies and the total chemical composition of metals in feed materials and soil-washed fines generated by Alternative Remediation Technology, Inc. during a pilot-scale soil physical separation test performed at the 300 Area North Process Pond (Facility 316-2) on the Hanford Site in the spring of 1994. Four 300 Area North Process Pond sediments and one sediment from outside the pond`s fenced area were leach-tested using the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) and other modified US Environmental Protection Agency and American Society for Testing and Materials protocols. Finally, leachate from the most contaminated sediment was used to load the Hanford sediment obtained outside the facility to evaluate the potential for contaminant adsorption onto natural sediments. The sediment characterization, leach, and adsorption results will be used in the evaluation of remedial alternatives in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study.

  10. Lateral ramps in the folded Appalachians and in overthrust belts worldwide; a fundamental element of thrust-belt architecture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohn, Howard A.

    2000-01-01

    Lateral ramps are zones where decollements change stratigraphic level along strike; they differ from frontal ramps, which are zones where decollements change stratigraphic level perpendicular to strike. In the Appalachian Mountains, the surface criteria for recognizing the subsurface presence of lateral ramps include (1) an abrupt change in wavelength or a termination of folds along strike, (2) a conspicuous change in the frequency of mapped faults or disturbed zones (extremely disrupted duplexes) at the surface, (3) long, straight river trends emerging onto the coastal plain or into the Appalachian Plateaus province, (4) major geomorphic discontinuities in the trend of the Blue Ridge province, (5) interruption of Mesozoic basins by cross-strike border faults, and (6) zones of modern and probable ancient seismic activity. Additional features related to lateral ramps include tectonic windows, cross-strike igneous intrusions, areas of giant landslides, and abrupt changes in Paleozoic sedimentation along strike. Proprietary strike-line seismic-reflection profiles cross three of the lateral ramps that were identified by using the surface criteria. The profiles confirm their presence and show their detailed nature in the subsurface. Like frontal ramps, lateral ramps are one of two possible consequences of fold-and-thrust-belt tectonics and are common elements in the Appalachian fold-and-thrust belt. A survey of other thrust belts in the United States and elsewhere strongly suggests that lateral ramps at depth can be identified by their surface effects. Lateral ramps probably are the result of thrust sheet motion caused by continued activation of ancient cratonic fracture systems. Such fractures localized the transform faults along which the continental segments adjusted during episodes of sea-floor spreading.

  11. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  12. Geologic framework of the Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation the Alabama coastal waters area

    SciTech Connect

    Tew, B.H.; Mancini, E.A. ); Mink R.M.; Mann, S.D. ); Mancini, E.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation is a prolific hydrocarbon-producing geologic unit in the onshore Gulf of Mexico area, including southwest Alabama. However, no Smackover strata containing commercial accumulations of oil or gas have thus far been discovered in the Alabama state coastal waters area (ACW). This study of the regional geologic framework of the Smackover Formation was done to characterize the unit in the ACW and to compare strata in the ACW with productive Smackover intervals in the onshore area. In the study area, the Smackover Formation was deposited on a highly modified carbonate associated with pre-Smackover topographic features. In the onshore Alabama, north of the Wiggins arch complex, an inner ramp developed in the area of the Mississippi interior salt basin and the Manila and Conecuh embayments. South of the Wiggins arch complex in extreme southern onshore Alabama and in the ACW, an outer ramp formed that was characterized by a much thicker Smackover section. In the outer ramp setting, four lithofacies associations are recognized: lower, middle, and upper outer ramp lithofacies (ORL) and the coastal dolostone lithofacies. The coastal dolostone lithofacies accounts for most of the reservoir-grade porosity in the outer ramp setting. The lower, middle, and upper ORL, for the most part, are nonporous. Volumetrically, intercrystalline porosity is the most important pore type in the coastal dolostone lithofacies. Numerous data in the ACW area indicate that halokinesis has created structural conditions favorable for accumulation and entrapment of oil and gas in the outer ramp lithofacies of the Smackover. Prolific hydrocarbon source rocks are present in the ACW, as evidenced by the significant natural gas accumulations in the Norphlet Formation. To date, however, reservoir quality rocks of the coastal dolostone lithofacies coincident with favorable structural conditions have not been encountered in the ACW.

  13. The groundwater system of Livigno area (north Lombardy - Italy):first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambillara, R.; Terrana, S.; Carugati, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the last few years, a progressive impoverishment of water resources took place in the mountain; this is due to the increase of antropic activity and to the change in the precipitation regime. In this context, the preservation of every aquifer will acquire great importance. In particular, the mountain fissured aquifers could play a relevant role in the water supply for the mountain people, although they have a limited productivity. These aquifers, in fact, represent the main alimentation source for mountain people. However, they are made vulnerable by external factors such as the climate change and the pollution, because these springs are near to their recharge areas, therefore their circuits are short and swift. A good knowledge of the mountain hydro-geological circuits allows either their safeguard or a better exploitation. In the mountain environment, for a better reconstruction of groundwater system is suggested the multidisciplinary approach, because it permit to maximize the merit of both methods. The Livigno area represents a good test for the groundwater system reconstruction in the mountain environment because it has a complex geological and tectonical setting and because, in this area, the density of population varies greatly during the year and this generate a shortage of water in some seasons. In order to characterize this aquifer, a multidisciplinary approach, based on lithological, geochemical, hydro-geological and geo-structural methods, has been adopted. Mostly, the geo-structural methods allow to determinate the rock permeability and the hydraulic conductivity tensor, whereas the geochemical method permit to reconstruction of groundwater system. The Livigno area is located at 1800 m s.l.m. in the central Alps (northern Lombardy - Italy). For the tectonic setting this area is comprise between the Err Bernina system (Lower Australpine) and the Ortles-Quatervals system (Upper Austroalpine). The most important regional fault is represented by Zebr

  14. Predictability of wind ramps in the Columbia River Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Wind generation capacity in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system, which stands at 4,500 MW currently, can at time account for 70% of total electricity demand. With 2,500 additional MW of wind generation capacity expected by 2015, increasingly accurate forecasts are required to avoid water quality issues associated with hydropower dam overspill. Wind ramps, or large increases or decreases in wind generation over a short period of time, are particularly difficult to accurately forecast in the Columbia River Gorge area. Industry standard computational resources, combined with turbulence grey-zone issues associated with planetary boundary (PBL) schemes, suggest a leveling off of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill score with respect to increasing grid resolution until eddy resolving scales are resolved. However, we show that dispersion errors, which associated with wind ramps, continue to decrease for locations and seasons in which meso-scale and topographically forced diurnal motions account for a significant portion of the power spectral density of hub-height wind speeds.

  15. 77 FR 30320 - General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ...) described in the Final EIS. The NPS will recommend legislation to change the name of this unit to North... abatement procedures, (3) limited expansion of overnight facilities and concessions, and (4) conversion of...

  16. Agricultural impacts on ecosystem functioning in temperate areas of North and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerschman, Juan Pablo; Paruelo, José María

    2005-07-01

    Land use has a large impact on ecosystem functioning, though evidences of these impacts at the regional scale are scarce. The objective of this paper was to analyze the impacts of agricultural land use on ecosystem functioning (radiation interception and carbon uptake) in temperate areas of North and South America. From land cover maps generated using high-resolution satellite images we selected sites dominated by row crops (RC), small grain crops (SG), pastures (PA), and rangelands (RA) in the Central Plains of USA and the Pampas of Argentina. These two regions share climatic characteristics and the agricultural conditions (crop types) are also very similar. Both areas were originally dominated by temperate grasslands. In these sites we extracted the temporal series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the NOAA satellites for the period 1989-1998 and calculated the mean seasonal NDVI curve for each site. Additionally, we calculated the mean annual NDVI, the maximum NDVI, the date of the year when the max NDVI was recorded and the interannual variability of these three attributes. We compared the mean values of each NDVI-derived attribute between land cover types and between continents. The NDVI seasonal patterns for each land cover type were roughly similar between the Central Plains and the Pampas during the growing season. The largest differences were observed during the winter and spring, when the NDVI of all land cover types in the Central Plains remained at lower values than in the Pampas. This was probably caused by the high annual thermal amplitude in the Central Plains that results in a much more restricted growing season. As a result of these differences in the shape of the NDVI curve, the mean annual NDVI in the Central Plains was lower than in the Pampas for all land cover types but the maximum NDVI did not differ importantly. In both regions, row crops delayed the date of the NDVI peak, small grain crops advanced it and pastures

  17. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools. Methods Epidemiological, parasitological and serological data were collected from 2,667 individuals in three settlements of Bellavista district, in May 2010. Parasite infection was detected using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-119 (PvMSP119) and to Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein (PfGLURP) were detected by ELISA. Risk factors for exposure to malaria (seropositivity) were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. Age-specific antibody prevalence of both P. falciparum and P. vivax were analysed using a previously published catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood for generating seroconversion rates (SCR). Results The overall parasite prevalence by microscopy and PCR were extremely low: 0.3 and 0.9%, respectively for P. vivax, and 0 and 0.04%, respectively for P. falciparum, while seroprevalence was much higher, 13.6% for P. vivax and 9.8% for P. falciparum. Settlement, age and occupation as moto-taxi driver during previous year were significantly associated with P. falciparum exposure, while age and distance to the water drain were associated with P. vivax exposure. Likelihood ratio tests supported age seroprevalence curves with two SCR for both P. vivax and P. falciparum indicating significant changes in the MTI over time. The SCR for PfGLURP was 19-fold lower after 2002 as compared to before (λ1 = 0.022 versus λ2 = 0.431), and the SCR for PvMSP119 was four-fold higher after 2006 as compared to before (λ1 = 0.024 versus λ2 = 0.006). Conclusion Combining molecular and serological tools

  18. "Fast pedogenesis" on proglacial areas: examples from the north-western Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Michele; Freppaz, Michele; Zanini, Ermanno

    2013-04-01

    Climate changes have huge impacts on alpine ecosystems. One of the most visible effects is glacial retreat since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA: 190-190 years ago), which caused the exposure of previously glaciated surfaces. These surfaces are open-air laboratories, verifying theories regarding ecosystem and soil development. In order to increase our knowledge on the effect of time and vegetation primary succession on soil development in proglacial areas, we sampled soils and surveyed plant communities on stable points on the proglacial areas of the Lys and Verra Grande glaciers, in the Italian north-western Alps (Valle d'Aosta). Sampling sites were located on dated sites (6-260 years), on the basis of literature or historical photographs). Glacial till is attacked by weathering processes immediately after deposition and stabilization, such as loss of soluble compounds, acidification, primary mineral weathering. The speed of these processes are largely increased after the establishment of a continuous vegetation cover, thanks to surface stabilization, organic matter accumulation caused by litter input and root decomposition below the soil surface. On sialic glacial tills (Lys forefield), below timberline and under a larch - Rhododendron forest, a fast and steady decrease in pH values, increase in organic matter content and horizon differentiation were observed. In particular, genetic eluvial horizons formed in just 60 years, while diagnostic albic horizons were developed after ca. 90 years, evidencing an early start of the podzolization processes. Cheluviation of Fe and, secondarily, Al were analytically verified. However, illuviation of Fe, Al and organic matter in incipient B horizons was not sufficient to obtain diagnostic spodic horizons on LIA materials. Under grazed grassland below timberline and alpine prairie above timberline, acidification and weathering were slightly slower, and no redistribution with depth of Fe and Al oxi-hydroxides was observed. A

  19. New estimates of area and mass for the North American tektite strewn field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, C.

    1989-01-01

    A revised estimate is given for the total mass of the North American tektite material, which is based on a concept of patches or rays of distribution rather than on a continuous tektite and microtektite blanket. This concept yields a total mass of about 3 x 10 to the 14th g, which is less than a third of previous estimates. The shape of the North American tektite strewn field is in agreement with other tektite strewn fields.

  20. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. (a) The danger zones—(1) Westerly small-arms range. The waters within...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. (a) The danger zones—(1) Westerly small-arms range. The waters within...

  5. Patterns of river width and surface area newly revealed by the satellite-derived North American River Width (NARWidth) dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.

    2014-12-01

    The total surface area of rivers and streams is a key quantity for estimating gaseous emissions from fluvial networks to the atmosphere. Presently, the most sophisticated evaluations of continental-scale river surface area rely on: 1) calculating river width from digital elevation models (DEMs) by scaling width to upstream drainage area via downstream hydraulic geometry (DHG) relationships; 2) extrapolating river width and length from large to small river basins using Horton ratios; and 3) extrapolating empirical relationships between climate and percentage water cover to from low- to high-latitude basins where hydrologically conditioned topographic data does not exist. Here we use the recently developed North American River Width (NARWidth) dataset to estimate the total surface area of North American rivers and streams. NARWidth is the first fine-resolution, continental-scale river centerline and width database. The database is derived from Landsat satellite imagery and contains measurements of >2.4×105 km of rivers wider than 30 m at mean annual discharge. We find that datasets that estimate river width by applying DHG relationships to DEMs underestimate the abundance of wide rivers and do not capture the widest rivers observed by NARWidth. We attribute these differences to: 1) the tendency of stream gauges to be located at stable, single channel sites, leading to a potential bias of measured river width relative to the representative river width throughout a river's entire length; and 2) physiographic conditions that are not captured by DHG and can cause substantial deviation from strict width-discharge relationships. We then calculate the total surface area of North American rivers by extrapolating the strong observed relationship between total river surface area and width at different widths (r2>0.996 for 100-2000 m widths) to narrow rivers and streams. We find that the total surface area of North American rivers is ~1.38×105 km2 for all rivers wider than 1

  6. The recognition of a duplex with imbricate thrusting in the Furrial-Tejero Trend, North Mongas Area (VE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bischke, R.E.; Morales, M.; Ascanio, B.A.; Metzner, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    Two and three dimensional seismic surveys taken across the El Furrial-Carito-Tejero fields of the North Monagas Area, Venezuela, support the existence of several large southeast verging thrust plates that involve the Oligocene-Cretaceous reservoir sequence. The shallow thrust plate is folded by a deeper plate. These plates moved parallel with and terminate in the west at the Urica Fault. Well data, when integrated with seismic data, indicate that most of the wells drilled in the fields bottomed in an upper plate. Some wells penetrated a lower second plate and additional thrusting may exist below the lower plate. The seismic interpretation is supported by structural and fault surface maps, well correlations, dipmeter analysis and by a series of balanced cross sections constructed across and along the duplex. Our reinterpretation, using advanced structural methods, indicates that the North Monagas Area contains considerable additional hydrocarbon potential.

  7. Evaluation of hydrologic data collected at the North Penn Area 12 Superfund Site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Grazul, Kevin E.; Wood, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The North Penn Area 12 Superfund Site is underlain by the Lockatong Formation, which consists of interbedded gray to black siltstone and shale. The beds of the Lockatong Formation strike northeast and dip about 10d to 20d to the northwest in the vicinity of the site. Ground water moves through fractures that are nearly vertical and horizontal in the shale and siltstone. Permeability and storage are very low. Borehole-geophysical logs were obtained from eight wells to determine the location of fractures, water-producing and water-receiving intervals, and intervals of borehole flow. The logs also were used to quantify fluid movement in the borehole, to characterize the lithology, and to obtain data on well construction. The logs indicate fractures at depths less than 100 feet are more frequent and generally are more productive than fractures at depths greater than 100 feet. The fluid resistivity of water in shallow intervals usually was greater than that in deeper intervals. The rate and direction of fluid movement under nonpumping conditions differs in the boreholes logged. In the northwest part of the site, no vertical flow was detected in three wells and very small amounts of flow were measured in two wells. In the southwest part of the site, downward flow was measured in two wells. Aquifer-isolation tests in three wells provided information on hydraulic heads and specific capacities in discrete vertical intervals and allowed collection of water samples form discrete water-bearing intervals. Natural annual fluctuations of water levels in 11 wells ranged form 11.4 to 28.3 feet. Seven of the 11 wells gave very similar water-level hydrographs. The four southernmost wells on the site show rises in water levels after precipitation much sooner than the other seven wells. Two other wells show daily fluctuations caused by pumping. A potentiometric-surface map of the site and vicinity was prepared from water-level measurements made in late July 1995. The map can be used to

  8. Patterns of river width and surface area revealed by the satellite-derived North American River Width data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, George H.; Pavelsky, Tamlin M.

    2015-01-01

    hydraulic, hydrologic, and biogeochemical models evolve toward greater spatial resolution and larger extent, robust morphometric data sets are essential to constrain their results. Here we present the Landsat-derived North American River Width (NARWidth) data set, the first fine-resolution, continental scale river centerline and width database. NARWidth contains measurements of >2.4 × 105 km of rivers wider than 30 m at mean annual discharge. We find that conventional digital elevation model-derived width data sets underestimate the abundance of wide rivers. To calculate the total surface area of North American rivers, we extrapolate the strong observed relationship between river width and total surface area at different river widths (r2 > 0.99 for 100-2000 m widths) to narrower rivers and streams. We conservatively estimate the total surface area of North American rivers as 1.24-0.15+0.39 × 105 km2 (1σ confidence intervals), values 20-15+38% greater than previous estimates used to evaluate greenhouse gas efflux from rivers to the atmosphere.

  9. Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins (RAMPs): New Insights and Roles.

    PubMed

    Hay, Debbie L; Pioszak, Augen A

    2016-01-01

    It is now recognized that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), once considered largely independent functional units, have a far more diverse molecular architecture. Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) provide an important example of proteins that interact with GPCRs to modify their function. RAMPs are able to act as pharmacological switches and chaperones, and they can regulate signaling and/or trafficking in a receptor-dependent manner. This review covers recent discoveries in the RAMP field and summarizes the known GPCR partners and functions of RAMPs. We also discuss the first peptide-bound structures of RAMP-GPCR complexes, which give insight into the molecular mechanisms that enable RAMPs to alter the pharmacology and signaling of GPCRs. PMID:26514202

  10. NASA #801 and NASA 7 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA N801NA and NASA 7 together on the NASA Dryden ramp. The Beechcraft Beech 200 Super KingAir aircraft N7NA, known as NASA 7, has been a support aircraft for many years, flying 'shuttle' missions to Ames Research Center. It once flew from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and back each day but now (2001) flies between the Dryden Flight Research Center and Ames. A second Beechcraft Beech 200 Super King Air, N701NA, redesignated N801NA, transferred to Dryden on 3 Oct. 1997 and is used for research missions but substitutes for NASA 7 on shuttle missions when NASA 7 is not available.