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Sample records for north sea fulmar

  1. Fulmar, the first North Sea SALM/VLCC storage system. [Single Ankle Leg Mooring tanker ship

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, R.C.; Wolfram, W.R. Jr.; Gunderson, R.H.; Lunde, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the general configuration of the Fulmar Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM), now under construction in the North Sea, and the operations of the SALM/Storage Tanker/Offloading System. The authors briefly describe the design process, including the design conditions, and some of the analyses performed. Selected structural and mechanical components are discussed in some detail. In addition, details are provided on the fabrication of the SALM and the storage tanker converson. The offloading system and the general operations are further discussed.

  2. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Sea of Okhotsk.

    PubMed

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N

    2016-09-15

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (α-, β-, and γ-), DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) were detected in five individuals of Northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis Linnaeus, 1761 from the Sea of Okhotsk. The average amount of HCHs in the organs of fulmars ranged from 608±177ng/g lipids in the total homogenate of the organs to 2093±264ng/g lipids in the feathers with skin. The average range of the amounts of DDTs was from 3606±333ng/g lipids in the feathers with skin to 4076±1624ng/g lipids in the feathers. The bioaccumulation of DDTs by seabirds of the Sea of Okhotsk is approximately equal to that of birds from other regions of the world's oceans, while the HCHs concentration is significantly higher. PMID:27357915

  3. [RELATIONSHIPS IN THE "NORTHERN FULMAR (FULMAR US GLACIALIS)--TETRABOTHRIUS MINOR (CESTODA: TETRABOTHRIIDAE)" SYSTEM: PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS].

    PubMed

    Kuklina, M M

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis L., 1761) and cestodes Tetrabothrius minor Loennberg, 1893 (Cestoda: Tetrabothriidae) were studied. The results of calculation of the number of tapeworms in different parts (proximal, medial and distal) of bird intestines are represented. Parameters of protein metabolism in the northern fulmar and cestodes T. minor were investigated. Activity of proteases in different parts of northern fulmar intestine and in the strobila of T. minor was determined. Digestion processes occurring on digestive-absorptive surfaces of the intestine of the northern fulmar and of cestodes were studied. Biochemical indices of blood plasma of the northern fulmar were analyzed in relation to the intensity of invasion and the stage parasite maturation. The highest indices of the invasion of the northern fulmar with T. minor were recorded in the proximal part if the intestine. It was shown that the preferred localization of tapeworms in the proximal department of the intestine was determined by abundance of food and high activity of digestive enzymes in this place. Active hydrolysis of proteins in the intestine of the northern fulmar and on tegument surfaces of T. minor occurred mainly during the process of cavernous digestion. To a greater extent, the physiological state of the northern fulmar depended on the intensity of invasion and on the maturation stage of tapeworms. PMID:27055330

  4. North Sea development activity surges

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that operators in the North Sea have reported a burst of upstream activity. Off the U.K.: Amoco (U.K.) Exploration Co. installed three jackets in its North Everest and Lomond fields. It also completed laying the Central Area Transmission System (CATS) pipeline, which will carry the fields' gas to shore. BP Exploration Operating Co. Ltd. installed the jacket for it Unity riser platform 5 {1/2} km from its Forties Charlie platform. Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. tested a successful appraisal well in Britannia field in Block 15/30, about 130 miles northeast of Aberdeen. In the Norwegian North Sea, Saga Petroleum AS placed Snorre oil and gas field on production 6 weeks ahead of schedule and 1.5 billion kroner under budget at a cost of 16.6 billion kroner; and downstream off the U.K., Phillips Petroleum Co. (U.K.) Ltd. awarded Allseas Marine Contractors SA, Essen, Belgium, a pipelay and trenching contract for its Ann field development project in Block 49/6a.

  5. Health status of seabirds and coastal birds found at the German North Sea coast

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systematic pathological investigations to assess the health status of seabirds and coastal birds in Germany were performed. The investigation was conducted to obtain data on possible causes of decline in seabird and coastal bird populations. Methods 48 individuals of 11 different species of seabirds and coastal birds were collected by the stranding network along the entire German North Sea coast from 1997 to 2008, including mainly waders such as Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and red knots (Calidris canutus) as well as seabirds such as northern fulmars (Fulmaris glacialis) and common scoters (Melanitta nigra). For most birds (n = 31) found dead along the shore no obvious cause of death was evident, while 17 individuals were killed by collisions with lighthouses. Results Overall, the nutritional status of the investigated birds was very poor, and the body mass in most cases was significantly lower compared to masses of living birds caught during the same periods of the year. This is partly linked to chronic parasitic or bacterial infections in different organs or to septicaemia. In some cases infections with zoonotic tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. were found. Avian influenza was not found in any of the collected birds. Conclusion The presented data contribute to the evaluation of the health status of birds in the German North Sea. Moreover, they present an important tool for the assessment of potential pathogens with an impact on the health status of seabirds and coastal birds. PMID:22812640

  6. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested

  7. Hotspots in cold seas: The composition, distribution, and abundance of marine birds in the North American Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sarah N. P.; Gjerdrum, Carina; Morgan, Ken H.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2014-03-01

    The distribution and thickness of sea ice in the Arctic is changing rapidly, resulting in changes to Arctic marine ecosystems. Seabirds are widely regarded as indicators of marine environmental change, and understanding their distribution patterns can serve as a tool to monitor and elucidate biological changes in the Arctic seas. We examined the at-sea distribution of seabirds in the North American Arctic in July and August, 2007-2012, and marine areas of high density were identified based on bird densities for four foraging guilds. Short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) were the most abundant species observed. Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia), and dovekies (Alle alle) were also sighted in large numbers. Few birds were sighted between Dolphin and Union Strait and King William Island. Areas of high density over multiple years were found throughout the entire western portion of the study area (Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and Chukchi Sea), Lancaster Sound, Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, and the low Arctic waters off Newfoundland. These waters are characterized by high primary productivity. This study is the first to document the marine distribution of seabirds across the entire North American Arctic within the same time period, providing a critical baseline for monitoring the distribution and abundance of Arctic seabirds in a changing Arctic seascape.

  8. Introduction to the petroleum geology of the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Glennie, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on North Sea oil and gas deposits. Topics considered include North Sea exploration from 1964-1983, the structural framework and the pre-Permian history of the North Sea area, the late Permian period, the Triassic period, the Jurasic period, the Cretaceous period, the Cenozoic era, source rocks of the North Sea, and North Sea hydrocarbon plays.

  9. Applications of high resolution sequence stratigraphy in North Sea syn-rift reservoir correlation and development

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, H.; Flint, S.

    1995-08-01

    Tectonically active basins may host a spectrum of sequence stratigraphic expressions previously considered to be spatially mutually exclusive. In low accommodation areas with high sediment supply, fourth order eustatic cyclicity results in high frequency sequence sets while within rapidly subsiding areas, time-equivalent Type-2 sequences are expressed by highly asymmetrical coarsening upward successions, resembling large parasequences. In the shallow marine Fulmar Formation, of the U.K. North Sea Central Graben a sequence boundary and overlying lowstand deposits, which illustrate the effects of laterally variable subsidence rate and intrabasinal topography on the expression of a eustatic sea-level fall, lie between the Glosense and Serratum (J54a and J54b) maximum flooding surfaces. The syn-rift physiography comprises major tilted fault blocks, with the Central Graben dipping parallel to the major faults, simulating a ramp setting. Where the throw of the faults were greatest (SE), the structure acted as a local shelf-slope break. Adjacent to the basin margin, incised valley were cut at fluvial input points (structural transfer zones) and laterally, interfluvial sequence boundaries developed. During early lowstand, sand bypassed the footwall shelf and was deposited as lowstand fan sediments within the deepest part of the hangingwall, with the fault zone acting as a local shelf slope break. Within the shallower water areas of the hangingwall a localised ramp geometry existed parallel to the fault zone. Forced regression deposits developed here were coeval but not physically related to the deep water lowstand turbidite fan deposits.

  10. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to

  11. SeaWiFS: North Pacific Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An extratropical storm can be seen swirling over the North Pacific just south of Alaska. This SeaWiFS image was collected yesterday at 23:20 GMT. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Spatial and temporal diet segregation in northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis breeding in Alaska: Insights from fatty acid signatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, S.W.; Iverson, S.J.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, Shyla A.

    2009-01-01

    Northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Pacific Ocean are opportunistic, generalist predators, yet their diets are poorly described; thus, relationships of fulmars to supporting food webs, their utility as indicators of variability in forage fish abundances, and their sensitivity to ecosystem change are not known. We employed fatty acid (FA) signature analysis of adipose tissue from adults (n = 235) and chicks (n = 33) to compare spatial, temporal, and age-related variation in diets of fulmars breeding at 3 colonies in Alaska. FA signatures of adult fulmars differed between colonies within years, and between seasons at individual colonies. Seasonal and spatial differences in signatures were greater than interannual differences at all colonies. Differences in FA signatures reflect differences in diets, probably because the breeding colonies are located in distinct ecoregions which create unique habitats for prey assemblages, and because interannual variation in the physical environment affects the availability of forage species. Differences between FA signatures of adults and chicks in 2003 and 2004 suggest that adults fed chicks different prey than they consumed themselves. Alternatively, if adults relied on the same prey as those fed to chicks, the differences in signatures could have resulted from partial digestion of prey items by adults before chicks were fed, or direct metabolism of FAs by chicks for tissue synthesis before FAs could be deposited into adipose tissue. ?? Inter-Research 2009.

  13. CZCS imagery of the North Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarup, T.; Holligan, P. M.; Groom, S.

    1989-01-01

    A major series of CZCS satellite images of the North Sea has been processed to obtain information on the distribution of optical properties of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and coccolithophore blooms. The atmospheric correction of the scenes has been carried out after the method suggested by Gordon et al. (1983) and also by the interactive aerosol removal technique suggested by Arnone and LaViolette (1984). The processing techniques are described in relation to problems encountered in a case II water area such as the North Sea. Examples of atmospherically corrected CZCS images are presented and compared with available in situ chlorophyll.

  14. Cenozoic stratigraphic evolution, North Sea and Labrador Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Gradstein, F.M.; Grant, A.C.; Mudford, B.S. ); Berggren, W.A. ); Kaminski, M.A. ); D'Lorio, M.A. ); Cloetingh, S. ); Griffiths, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors are studying Cenozoic correlation patterns, burial trends, and subsidence history of the Central North Sea, Labrador, and Orphan basins. The authors objectives are (1) to detail intraregional mid-high latitude biozonations using noise filtering and probabilistic zonation techniques; (2) to detail paleobathymetric trends from basin margins to centers; (3) to apply this knowledge to model basin evolution, in the perspective of the evolving North Atlantic Ocean; (4) to evaluate causes for the occurrence of major hiatuses and rapid changes of subsidence; and (5) to relate rapid changes in sedimentation in the last few millions of years to model observed undercompaction trends. Cenozoic microfossil assemblages in these basins are similar, related to similarities in sedimentary and paleoeceanographic conditions. In more basinal wells, flysch-type agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages occur, also known from Carpathians, Trinidad, and Moroccan foredeeps. Over 90% of agglutinated taxa are common between these basins, although local stratigraphic ranges vary sufficiently to rely on the concept of average ranges, rather than total ones for correlations. Cenozoic stratigraphic resolution in the North Sea and Labrador basins generally is in 3-5-Ma units. and paleobathymetric zonations define a minimum of five niches, from inner shelf to middle slope regimes. Significant hiatuses occurred in the late Eocene through the Miocene, particularly in northern Labrador and northern North Sea. Subsidence in the Labrador/Grand Banks passive margin half grabens was strongly influenced by Labrador Sea opening between anomalies 34 (Campanian) and 13 (early Oligocene), when subsidence exceeded sedimentation and bathyal conditions prevailed along the margin. Thermally induced subsidence in the central North Sea grabens was considerable in the late Paleocene, when the Norwegian Sea started to open.

  15. No slowdown yet for busy North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, R

    1989-08-01

    This article reports on oil and gas operations in the North Sea. Current offshore licensing rounds for both the United Kingdom and Norwegian sides are described. Developmental projects are detailed, including the installation of a tank barrier to protect a Norwegian drilling complex from seafloor subsidence. Dutch and Danish exploration is also discussed.

  16. Red algal exotics on North Sea coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, Christine A.; Stegenga, Herre

    1998-09-01

    A total of ten red seaweed species are recognized as introduced into the North Sea from other parts of the world. These are Asparagopsis armata and Bonnemaisonia hamifera (Bonnemaisoniales), Grateloupia doryphora (Halymeniales), Antithamnionella spirographidis, Antithamnionella ternifolia, Anotrichium furcellatum, Dasya baillouviana, ?Dasysiphonia sp., Polysiphonia harveyi and Polysiphonia senticulosa (Ceramiales). The oldest of these is B. hamifera, introduced prior to 1890, while the most recent, ?Dasysiphonia sp., was first found in 1994 and still requires taxonomic investigation. A variety of distribution patterns is seen, with geographical ranges varying from general within the North Sea to very restricted. The diversity of introduced red algae on eastern coasts of the North Sea is much greater than in the west. The most likely explanation for this pattern is that French coasts were the initial site of introduction for many of the seaweeds, which were then distributed northwards by the residual surface currents. Their increasing success in the Netherlands has probably been promoted by the drastically changed local hydrodynamic conditions which have also permitted the recent introduction of many native European species. Of the biological features of species that may favour their success as introductions, clonal vegetative propagation, often with specialized propagules or fragmentation mechanisms, is almost ubiquitous. Low-temperature tolerances can be inferred, but data are sparse. Many of the alien red algae in the North Sea contain anti-grazing compounds such as bromophenols, which may contribute to their invasive potential by deterring grazing sufficiently to permit establishment of an inoculum.

  17. Habitats of North American sea ducks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. Even following a 15-year-long effort through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and U.S. and Canadian Endangered/Threatened Species programs to fund research focused on sea duck habitats there are still important gaps in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Importantly, many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered, largely as a result of anthropogenic effects. Our goal here is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups (e.g., eiders) within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, this chapter will examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Finally, we will evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for

  18. Bioavailability of lead in North Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, M.; Kröncke, I.

    1991-12-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary research programme, lead contents were measured in the polychaete Nephtys spp. and in the sea-urchin Echinocardium cordatum as well as in the respective sediment fractions <20 μm taken from the Dogger Bank proper and the eastern coastal North Sea. A lower lead content was generally observed in the organisms taken from the German Bight than in those from the Dogger Bank, especially from its northeastern part. It is possible to divide both areas according to the slope found in the linear regression of lead versus total organic carbon contents in sediments, which is twice as steep for the Dogger Bank as for the eastern North Sea. This criterium points to a difference in sediment quality with regard to toxic metal contamination. The sediment quality of the Dogger Bank seems to be twice as bad compared with that of the eastern North Sea. This is in good agreement with the differences found in lead contamination of the sediment-dwelling polychaetes from both areas. The results indicate that lead is primarily accumulated by food ingestion.

  19. The Big Flood: North Sea storm surge.

    PubMed

    McRobie, Allan; Spencer, Tom; Gerritsen, Herman

    2005-06-15

    In the 50 years since the catastrophic southern North Sea storm surge of 31 January-1 February 1953, there have been technological advances in the engineering of flood protection, increased understanding of physical processes in shallow seas and estuaries, and developments in the mathematical statistics of extreme events. This introductory paper reviews how the scientific understanding of surge events, their impacts and the human responses to them is evolving on many fronts, often across disciplinary boundaries. The question of how the long-term nature of the problem itself will be influenced by possible climate, land use and policy changes is addressed, along with their associated uncertainties. PMID:16191649

  20. The secondary porosity trick: Arkose to quartzite in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Haszeldine, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Darby, D. )

    1996-01-01

    Observations of mineralogy, texture, poroperm, stratigraphy and overpressure compiled from major reservoirs of the North Sea at different burial, structural and pressure settings, indicate to us that secondary porosity has continued to form at depths of 10-18,000ft (3-6km). This has resulted in strata-bound economic improvements to reservoir quality by as much as 8% and 2,000mD. The Brent Sandstone Group shows a decrease of feldspar with depth from 20% to 5%; clay content does not increase; identifiable secondary porosity does not increase. The HPHT Fulmar Sandstone shows a decrease of feldspar from 40% to 10%; aluminum (clay) content decreases; identifiable secondary porosity does not increase. Differences within these two sandstone Groups can not be explained by depositional variations. The Brea Formation shows loss of feldspar and calcite from 10% to 5%; only minimal clay is present; secondary porosity is often present, and is strata-bound. In this last case, an adjacent oilfield contains oil leaked up-dip from the deeper sandstones. This West Brae oilfield contains up to 13% kaolin clay, a big excess over the usual 2% expected for its present depth. The deep sand has lost clay, the shallow sand has imported clay. We conclude that feldspars continue to dissolve below 10,000ft. The liberated aluminum is not precipitated locally, but can be transported for distances of at least 5 miles (7km) to form clay. Poroperm in the deeper sandstones is improved selectively along routes of overpressured fluid expulsion; these can become quartzites. Secondary porosity must also compact during burial to trick petrographers into textural mis-identification.

  1. The secondary porosity trick: Arkose to quartzite in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Haszeldine, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Darby, D.

    1996-12-31

    Observations of mineralogy, texture, poroperm, stratigraphy and overpressure compiled from major reservoirs of the North Sea at different burial, structural and pressure settings, indicate to us that secondary porosity has continued to form at depths of 10-18,000ft (3-6km). This has resulted in strata-bound economic improvements to reservoir quality by as much as 8% and 2,000mD. The Brent Sandstone Group shows a decrease of feldspar with depth from 20% to 5%; clay content does not increase; identifiable secondary porosity does not increase. The HPHT Fulmar Sandstone shows a decrease of feldspar from 40% to 10%; aluminum (clay) content decreases; identifiable secondary porosity does not increase. Differences within these two sandstone Groups can not be explained by depositional variations. The Brea Formation shows loss of feldspar and calcite from 10% to 5%; only minimal clay is present; secondary porosity is often present, and is strata-bound. In this last case, an adjacent oilfield contains oil leaked up-dip from the deeper sandstones. This West Brae oilfield contains up to 13% kaolin clay, a big excess over the usual 2% expected for its present depth. The deep sand has lost clay, the shallow sand has imported clay. We conclude that feldspars continue to dissolve below 10,000ft. The liberated aluminum is not precipitated locally, but can be transported for distances of at least 5 miles (7km) to form clay. Poroperm in the deeper sandstones is improved selectively along routes of overpressured fluid expulsion; these can become quartzites. Secondary porosity must also compact during burial to trick petrographers into textural mis-identification.

  2. Seabird ecology in the north sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunnet, G. M.; Furness, R. W.; Tasker, M. L.; Becker, P. H.

    The numbers of all species of seabirds regularly occurring in the North Sea are presented and a brief account is given of the main processes affecting their population dynamics. Monitoring of breeding numbers and known trends, distribution at sea, and the patterns of movement of both breeding and non-breeding birds are described. Feeding methods and foraging behaviour are discussed and methods for determining the diet of seabirds are critically examined. Quantitative methods for determining the amount of food taken, and the ecological energetics of seabirds are dealt with in some detail, including the problem of the availability of food to birds. Physical factors such as tide, weather and sea-state affect several aspects of seabird biology. The relationship between seabird population and fish stocks and fisheries is of increasing importance and the major aspects of these are described and discussed in detail. Other impacts of man such as pollution by oil, chemicals and rubbish are also important. Predation by introduced mammals and also by the native larger gulls, and unintentional disturbance resulting from human recreation, can have serious effects on breeding colonies. In the south-eastern North Sea low-lying coasts are vulnerable to flooding and affected by land reclamation and coastal management.

  3. Extreme Storm Surges in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goennert, G.; Buß, Th.; Mueller, O.; Thumm, S.

    2009-04-01

    Extreme Storm Surges in the North Sea Gabriele Gönnert, Olaf Müller, Thomas Buß and Sigrid Thumm Climate Change will cause a rise of the sea level and probably more frequent and more violent storm surges. This has serious consequences for the safety of people as well as for their values and assets behind the dikes. It is therefore inevitable to first assess how sea level rise and an extreme storm surge event designes. In a second step it is possible to determine the risk for specific locations and develop strategies. The Project XtremRisk - Extreme Storm Surges at the North Sea Coast and in Estuaries. Risk calculation and risk strategies, funded by the German Federal Government will help answering these questions. The „Source-Pathway-Receptor" Concept will be used as a basis for risk analysis and development of new strategies. The Project offers methods to assess the development of extreme events under the conditions of today. Under conditions reflecting the climate change it will be tried to design an extreme event. For these three main points will be considered: a) Analysis and calculation of each factor, which produce a storm surge and its maximum level occurring in the last 100 years. These are: - maximum surge level: surge (due to the wind), - influence of the tide and the interaction between surge and tide, - influence of external surges , b) The hydrodynamics of a storm surge cause nonlinear effects in the interaction of the named factors. These factors and effects will both be taken into account to calculate the magnitude of the extreme storm surge. This step is very complex and need additional examination by numerical models. c) Analysis of the different scenarios to mean sea level rise and to the increase of wind speed due to the climate change. The presentation will introduce methods and show first results of the analysis of extreme events and the mean sea level rise.

  4. Negligible Impact of Ingested Microplastics on Tissue Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Northern Fulmars off Coastal Norway.

    PubMed

    Herzke, Dorte; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Götsch, Arntraut; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Langset, Magdalene; Fangel, Kirstin; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-02-16

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is defined as an indicator species of plastic pollution by the Oslo-Paris Convention for the North-East Atlantic, but few data exist for fulmars from Norway. Moreover, the relationship between uptake of plastic and pollutants in seabirds is poorly understood. We analyzed samples of fulmars from Norwegian waters and compared the POP concentrations in their liver and muscle tissue with the corresponding concentrations in the loads of ingested plastic in their stomachs, grouped as "no", "medium" (0.01-0.21 g; 1-14 pieces of plastic), or "high" (0.11-0.59 g; 15-106 pieces of plastic). POP concentrations in the plastic did not differ significantly between the high and medium plastic ingestion group for sumPCBs, sumDDTs, and sumPBDEs. By combining correlations among POP concentrations, differences in tissue concentrations of POPs between plastic ingestion subgroups, fugacity calculations, and bioaccumulation modeling, we showed that plastic is more likely to act as a passive sampler than as a vector of POPs, thus reflecting the POP profiles of simultaneously ingested prey. PMID:26694206

  5. Phytoplankton Bloom in North Sea off Scotland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The northern and western highlands of Scotland were still winter-brown and even dusted with snow in places, but the waters of the North Sea were blooming with phytoplankton on May 8, 2008, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the region and captured this image. The tiny, plant-like organisms swirled in the waters off the country's east coast, coloring the shallow coastal waters shades of bright blue and green. Phytoplankton are tiny organisms--many are just a single cell--that use chlorophyll and other pigments to capture light for photosynthesis. Because these pigments absorb sunlight, they change the color of the light reflected from the sea surface back to the satellite. Scientists have used observations of 'ocean color' from satellites for more than 20 years to track worldwide patterns in phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton are important to the Earth system for a host of reasons, including their status as the base of the ocean food web. In the North Sea, they are the base of the food web that supports Scotland's commercial fisheries, including monkfish and herring. As photosynthesizers, they also play a crucial role in the carbon cycle, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Some oceanographers are concerned that rising ocean temperatures will slow phytoplankton growth rates, harming marine ecosystems and causing carbon dioxide to accumulate more rapidly in the atmosphere.

  6. The North Sea: Satellite colour atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holligan, P. M.; Aarup, T.; Groom, S. B.

    Satellite imagery of the North Sea from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) shows complex seasonal changes in the optical and biological properties of surface waters, features which have not been resolved, hitherto, through direct observations from ships. Selected scenes for the period 1979-1986, presented as single band (channel 3), colour composite (channels 1 + 2 + 3) and chlorophyll (channels 1/3 or 2/3) images, are used to demonstrate the relative surface distributions between February and October of suspended sediments, coccolithophores and plant pigments. Comparison are made also with sea surface temperature images from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Quantitative evaluation of the CZCS data is restricted by a lack of contemporary in situ optical and biological measurements. However, chlorophyll and Secchi disc distributions, determined by measurements from research ships have been compared qualitatively with images from the Southern Bight (13 May 1986) and for the east central North Sea (24 August 1984 and 24 October 1985). Mini series of CZCS images are presented to show the annual coccolithophore blooms, the development of the spring bloom in the Skagerrak, June 1983 and summer chlorophyl distributions in the German Bight.

  7. Mesozoic Rifting in the German North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R.; Jähne, F.; Arfai, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Graben is the southernmost expressions of the Mesozoic North Sea rift system that includes the Viking Graben, Moray Firth-Witch Ground grabens and the Horda-Egersund half graben. In the southern North Sea the Central Graben extends across the Dutch and the German exclusive economic zones. The structure of the Central Graben in German territorial waters was mapped in great detail in 2D and 3D seismic data and the stratigraphy has been constraint by borehole data. We provide a detailed review of the rifting activity in the German North Sea sector both in time and space and the link between rifting and salt movement. Major rifting activity started in the Central Graben during the Late Triassic and peaked during the Late Jurassic when extensive rift grabens formed, further influenced by halokinetic movements. First subsidence in the Central Graben area appears in the Early Triassic. This is documented by thickness variations in the sedimentary strata from the Triassic to the Jurassic. Remarkably thick sediments were deposited during the Late Triassic along the eastern border fault of the Central Graben and in the Late Jurassic sediments accumulated along graben-wide extensional faults and in rim-synclines of salt-structures. A basin inversion commenced in the Late Cretaceous resulting in an erosion of wide portions of Lower Cretaceous rocks or even complete removal in some parts. The area to the east of the Central Graben faced a completely different evolution. In this area major rifting activity initiated already in the Early to Middle Triassic. This is evident from huge packages of Middle Buntsandstein to Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) sediments in the Horn Graben. Jurassic doming, forming the Mid-North Sea High, resulted in almost complete erosion of Lower and Middle Jurassic sediments in the central German North Sea. Sedimentation continued during the Early and Late Cretaceous. The Glückstadt Graben, which is a structure located farther east has a

  8. West Germany's first North Sea production due

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1986-05-01

    Deutsche Texaco A.G. will be the first operator on behalf of itself and Wintershall A.G. to produce oil from the German sector of the North Sea, with its first oil due end of 1986 from the Mittelplate pilot project. Texaco also was the first to produce oil from the Baltic Sea when Schwedeneck-See field, near Kiel Bay, went on production last year. The pilot project at Mittelplate will yield more data on the reservoirs confirmed by four wells drilled in 1980-1981, and will be carried out in spite of adverse operating conditions. Problems facing Texaco engineers in their project design include: A mud-flat location dry at low tide but submerged at high tide. Efforts to convince environmental groups that no permanent harm would result from company activities. Shipment of low-gravity crude containing asphaltenes. Logistics of transporting equipment and supplies on a schedule dictated by tides.

  9. Membranes solve North Sea waterflood sulfate problems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Lomax, I.; Plummer, M.

    1996-11-25

    To prevent barium sulfate scale from forming in the North Sea Brae field producing wells, Marathon Oil Co. UK Ltd. is successfully employing thin-film composite (nanofiltration) membranes for removing sulfate from injected seawater. In the early 1980s, FilmTec Corp., a Dow Chemical Co. subsidiary, first developed these composite membranes, which now are in their third generation. Marathon Oil Co. holds the patent for the specific nanofiltration membrane process for mitigating scale formation and deleterious reservoir effects. This first article in a three-part series describes membrane technology. The remaining articles detail specific membrane performance characteristics and field experiences in the Brae fields.

  10. North Sea HPHT wells require changes in drilling procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Baller, H.

    1991-03-11

    Such equipment as casing, drillstrings, mud, logging, and rigs that were adequate to drill most of the North Sea wells to date will require modifications to drill the high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) formations in the Central Graben of the North Sea. HPHT exploration wells are slowly becoming part of the drilling scenario in the North Sea Central Graben. Predominantly drilled in the U.K., an increasing number are now planned for the Norwegian sector during 1991.

  11. Another look at North Sea pole tide dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.; Preisig, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism proposed by Wunsch (1974) to explain pole tide observations in the North Sea is evaluated. Wunsch's equations governing pole tide in the North Sea are presented, and solutions for correcting the depth, stream function, and deviation of the tidal height from the equilibrium values are described. The similarity between the Stokes paradox and the tidal equations of the North Sea, and the need for inclusion of inertial terms in the tidal equations are discussed.

  12. North Sea difficult but prime area for applications

    SciTech Connect

    Skattum, K.S. )

    1990-04-02

    The Norwegian North Sea sector has been considered a very expensive area for subsea developments compared to the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil, where, the cost of a completed subsea well is several times less. An analysis of these large differences shows how the costs for North Sea projects can be reduced.

  13. Propagation prediction for the North Sea environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieth, R.

    1989-09-01

    Evaporation ducting can have an important influence on the propagation of electromagnetic waves. The dependence of those ducting conditions on geographic location requires an estimate of occurrence and effects of ducting in various areas. Duct height statistics using long term statistical meteorological data in combination with propagation models are used for this purpose. Jeske's propagation measurements during 1961 at the German coast of the North Sea were taken and compared with the calculated results from the combination of the statistical weather data base and the propagation models, as well as another measurement program performed in Greece. A brief description of the models is followed by an example of the results of the Greek measurements. The German experimental data and duct height distributions for that region are described. Finally the results of measurements and calculations are discussed. A good agreement was found between measured propagation data and predictions based on climatological averages.

  14. Compaction of North-sea chalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszthelyi, Dániel; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The Ekofisk field is the largest petroleum field in the Norwegian North Sea territory where oil is produced from chalk formations. Early stage of oil production caused considerable changes in pore fluid pressure which led to a reservoir compaction. Pore collapse mechanism caused by the dramatic increase of effective stress, which in turn was caused by the pressure reduction by hydrocarbon depletion, was early identified as a principal reason for the reservoir compaction (Sulak et al. 1991). There have been several attempts to model this compaction. They performed with variable success on predicting the Ekofisk subsidence. However, the most of these models are based on empirical relations and do not investigate in detail the phenomena involved in the compaction. In sake of predicting the Ekofisk subsidence while using only independently measurable variables we used a chalk compaction model valid on geological time-scales (Japsen et al. 2011) assuming plastic pore-collapse mechanism at a threshold effective stress level. We identified the phenomena involved in the pore collapse. By putting them in a sequential order we created a simple statistical analytical model. We also investigated the time-dependence of the phenomena involved and by assuming that one of the phenomena is rate-limiting we could make estimations of the compaction rate at smaller length-scales. By carefully investigating the nature of pressure propagation we could upscale our model to reservoir scale. We found that the predicted compaction rates are close enough to the measured rates. We believe that we could further increase accuracy by refining our model. Sulak, R. M., Thomas, L. K., Boade R. R. (1991) 3D reservoir simulation of Ekofisk compaction drive. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 43(10):1272-1278, 1991. Japsen, P., Dysthe, D. K., Hartz, E. H., Stipp, S. L. S., Yarushina, V. M., Jamtveit. (2011) A compaction front in North Sea chalk. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978

  15. Projected climate change impacts to the North Sea marine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrum, Corinna

    2015-04-01

    Future climate change impacts to the North Sea marine system are driven by a combination of changes induced by the globally forced oceanic boundary conditions and the regional atmospheric and terrestrial changes. We reviewed the recent progress and the projected future change of the North Sea marine system as part of the North Sea Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA) and focussed on three major aspects, namely the change of (i) sea level, the (ii) hydrographic and circulation changes of the North Sea and the (iii) changes in lower trophic level dynamics, biogeochemistry and ocean acidification. In recent years more and more regional climate change assessments became available for the North Sea and new developments contributed important understanding on regional processes mediating climate change impacts in the North Sea. Important new knowledge on regional future sea level change was gained by improved understanding of processes contributing to global sea level rise during the last decade. Assessment of climate change impacts to hydrography, circulation and biogeochemistry has benefited from new and advanced downscaling methods. The large number of regional studies enables now a critical review of the current knowledge on climate change impacts on the North Sea and allows the identification of challenges, robust changes, uncertainties and specific recommendations for future research. The long term trends in the climate conditions are superposed on the natural modes of variability and separating these to give a clear anthropogenic climate change signal is one of the 'grand challenges' of climate change impact studies in marine regions and of particular relevance for North Sea. The impact of natural variability on future annual average steric sea level, sea surface temperature and ocean acidification is less dominant compared to the climate change signal and their projected changes for the North Sea, namely rising future sea level, increasing surface temperature and

  16. North Pacific climate variability and Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkin, Megan E.

    Boreal winter North Pacific climate variability strongly influences North American hydroclimate and Arctic sea ice distribution in the marginal Arctic seas. Two modes of atmospheric variability explaining 53% of the variance in the Pacific Ocean sea level pressure (SLP) field are extracted and identified: the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection and the North Pacific Oscillation/West Pacific (NPO/WP) teleconnection. The NPO/WP, a dipole in North Pacific SLP and geopotential heights, is affiliated with latitudinal displacements of the Asian Pacific jet and an intensification of the Pacific stormtrack. The North American hydroclimate impacts of the NPO/WP are substantial; its impact on Alaska, Pacific Northwest and Great Plains precipitation is more influential than both the PNA and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The NPO/WP is also strongly associated with a contemporaneous extension of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the western Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk and MIZ retreat in the eastern Bering Sea. Wintertime climate variability also significantly impacts the distribution of Arctic sea ice during the subsequent summer months, due to the hysteretic nature of the ice cap. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is known for its effects on summer sea ice distribution; this study extends into the Pacific and finds that circulation anomalies related to Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability also strongly impact summer Arctic sea ice. The NAO and ENSO are related to sea ice decline in the Eastern Siberian Sea, where the linear trend since 1979 is 25% per decade. PDV affects sea ice in the eastern Arctic, a region which displays no linear trend since 1979. The low frequency of PDV variability and the persistent positive NAO during the 1980s and 1990s results in natural variability being aliased into the total linear trend in summer sea ice calculated from satellite-based sea ice concentration. Since 1979, natural variability accounts for 30% of

  17. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  18. The zooplankton of the north sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransz, H. G.; Colebrook, J. M.; Gamble, J. C.; Krause, M.

    This review summarizes available knowledge on herbivorous and omnivorous zooplankton of the North Sea. After an introductory chapter on history and general approach of zooplankton studies, the four main contributions review distribution patterns, cycles and trends in temporal variation, trophic interactions and population dyamics and production. The distribution of zooplankton species in relation to hydrography and origin of watermasses is described for copepods. It highlights the influence of Atlantic Ocean influx from the northwest, which to a large extent dominates the species composition and its seasonal variation in the summer-stratified waters. In contrast, the more neritic communities in the southeast region mainly depend on the local populations of the species abundant in coastal mixed waters. The chapter on cycles and trends in temporal variation discusses the differences in seasonal variation with respect to species, area, and community structure in terms of herbivores, omnivores and carnivores. The year-to-year changes are considered as dependent on the overwintering stocks and strategies. Patterns in long-term variation appearing from long-term data series are related to climatic changes, leading to two hypotheses with respect to the effects of changes in wind regime. The chapter on trophic interactions deals with the utilization of primary particulate production by planktonic herbivores and its variation in time and space. Emphasis is put on differences between north and south, which are partly due to differences in species composition, community structure and seasonal variation already discussed in foregoing chapters. The various aspects of copepod grazing are reviewed, but also the role of microzooplankton as both grazers and food organisms is brought to attention. The last chapter deals with population dynamics and production of key species. Seasonal fluctuations in abundance and biomass are discussed and related to underlying population processes

  19. Sandwaves, upheaval buckling challenge North Sea project

    SciTech Connect

    Meijdam, L.; Lapidaire, P.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    About 120 seafloor sandwaves, ranging up to 23 ft high and 2,600 ft long at water depths to 90 ft, made upheaval buckling a key engineering concern during a recent pipe lay and gas production facilities installation project for Amoco Netherlands Petroleum Co.`s blocks P/15 and P/18 in the Dutch North Sea. The project involved about 68 mi of high-temperature, high-pressure lines ranging from 4 in. to 26 in. traversing seabed routes under the world`s busiest shipping lanes. Other facilities include control/instrumentation umbilicals, subsea completions, four wellhead protector platforms, a production platform, a water disposal system and an onshore metering station. Engineering dealt with a system operated at high pressure and high gas temperatures routed through busy shipping lanes in an area of substantial sand waves. Pipe line stability had to be ensured over its lifetime. Dutch authorities stipulate strict safety regulations which made burial inevitable. Burial can result in upheaval buckling. Therefore, cover depth and sandwave sectioning were the main issues in the engineering phase. This paper reviews these designs and installation procedures.

  20. The microbiome of North Sea copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdts, G.; Brandt, P.; Kreisel, K.; Boersma, M.; Schoo, K. L.; Wichels, A.

    2013-12-01

    Copepods can be associated with different kinds and different numbers of bacteria. This was already shown in the past with culture-dependent microbial methods or microscopy and more recently by using molecular tools. In our present study, we investigated the bacterial community of four frequently occurring copepod species, Acartia sp., Temora longicornis, Centropages sp. and Calanus helgolandicus from Helgoland Roads (North Sea) over a period of 2 years using DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and subsequent sequencing of 16S-rDNA fragments. To complement the PCR-DGGE analyses, clone libraries of copepod samples from June 2007 to 208 were generated. Based on the DGGE banding patterns of the two years survey, we found no significant differences between the communities of distinct copepod species, nor did we find any seasonality. Overall, we identified 67 phylotypes (>97 % similarity) falling into the bacterial phyla of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The most abundant phylotypes were affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. In comparison with PCR-DGGE and clone libraries, phylotypes of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the clone libraries, whereas Alphaproteobacteria were most abundant in the PCR-DGGE analyses.

  1. LEECHES OF NORTH AMERICA,CENTRAL AMERICA, AND CARIBBEAN SEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current(1999)alphabetical listing of the hierarchy, the taxonomy of freshwater leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) of North America, Central America, islands in the Caribbean Sea, and selected references. The list contains 10 Families, 52 Genera, and 148 Species of leeches.

  2. YEASTS FROM THE NORTH SEA AND AMOCO CADIZ OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The species and densities of yeasts isolated from North Sea waters before and after the production of oil were compared. Debaryomyces hansenii was the predominant species, but after oil production, Candida guillieromondii, a hydrocarbonoclastic yeast, was more commonly isolated a...

  3. Suspended particulate matter in the Southern North Sea: Application of a numerical model to extend NERC North Sea project data interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puls, Walter; Pohlmann, Thomas; Sündermann, Jürgen

    1997-09-01

    A numerical SPM (suspended particulate matter) transport model for the North Sea is used for supporting the interpretation of SPM data collected during the British NERC North Sea Project (NSP) in the southern North Sea. This interpretation applies to (i) the assessment of the spatial and temporal representativity of the measured data, (ii) the presentation of the SPM's origin in the southern North Sea and (iii) the estimation of SPM fluxes.

  4. First oilfields of the Central and Northern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Swarbrick, R.E. ); Martin, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Only 25 years ago the areas now termed the Central and Northern North Sea were the true frontier exploration basins. Stratigraphy and structure were essentially unknown, except inferences drawn from the Mesozoic outcrops of Britain and Denmark. At that time the majority of small British onshore oil fields were reservoired in Paleozoic strata. In the Central North Sea, oil was first discovered in Paleocene deep-water sandstone and Upper Cretaceous chalk reservoirs. The first commercial reserves were proven with the discovery of the Ekofisk field (Upper Cretaceous) in 1969 and Forties field (Paleocene) in 1970, both now classed as giants. Subsequently stratigraphically deeper reservoirs were established, including Jurassic sandstones (Piper field) and Permian carbonates and sandstones (Auk and Argyll fields). Diversity of trap type and reservoir age is now a hallmark of the Central North Sea basin. In the Northern North Sea, the first exploration well in 1971 on the Brent field structure, a true wildcat whose nearest UK well control was 320 mi to the south, found oil in Middle Jurassic deltaic sandstones. A spate of discoveries on similar tilted fault blocks with Middle Jurassic and underlying Triassic alluvial-fluvial sandstone targets followed. Later, Upper Jurassic deep-water sandstones became established as a further significant reservoir with the Brae field and Magnus field discoveries. Original seismic data, well prognoses, and structure maps tell the story of these early discoveries. Public response in Norway and the UK to the emergence of the North Sea oil province on their doorstep will be reviewed.

  5. North Atlantic sea-level variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Roland; Long, Antony; Saher, Margot; Barlow, Natasha; Blaauw, Maarten; Haigh, Ivan; Woodworth, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Climate modelling studies have demonstrated that spatial and temporal sea-level variability observed in North Atlantic tide-gauge records is controlled by a complex array of processes, including ice-ocean mass exchange, freshwater forcing, steric changes, changes in wind fields, and variations in the speed of the Gulf Stream. Longer records of sea-level change, also covering the pre-industrial period, are important as a 'natural' and long-term baseline against which to test model performance and to place recent and future sea-level changes and ice-sheet change into a long-term context. Such records can only be reliably and continuously reconstructed from proxy methods. Salt marshes are capable of recording decimetre-scale sea-level variations with high precision and accuracy. In this paper we present four new high-resolution proxy records of (sub-) decadal sea-level variability reconstructed from salt-marsh sediments in Iceland, Nova Scotia, Maine and Connecticut that span the past 400 to 900 years. Our records, based on more than 100 new radiocarbon analyses, Pb-210 and Cs-137 measurements as well as other biological and geochemical age markers, together with hundreds of new microfossil observations from contemporary and fossil salt marshes, capture not only the rapid 20th century sea-level rise, but also small-scale (decimetre, multi-decadal) sea-level fluctuations during preceding centuries. We show that in Iceland three periods of rapid sea-level rise are synchronous with the three largest positive shifts of the reconstructed North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Along the North American east coast we compare our data with salt-marsh records from New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida and observe a trend of increased pre-industrial sea-level variability from south to north (Florida to Nova Scotia). Mass changes and freshwater forcing cannot explain this pattern. Based on comparisons with instrumental sea-level data and modelling studies we hypothesise that

  6. Wind Stress Forcing of the North Sea "Pole Tide"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, William P.; Chao, Benjamin Fong; Zheng, Dawei; Au, Andrew Y.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted numerical simulations of the wind-forcing of the sea level variations in the North Sea using a barotropic ocean model with realistic geography, bathymetry, and boundary conditions, to examine the forcing of the 14-month "pole tide" which is known to be strong along the Denmark- Netherlands coast. The simulation input is the monthly-mean surface wind stress field from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis for the 40-year period 1958-1997. The output sea level response was then compared with 10 coastal tide gauge records from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). Besides the strong seasonal variations, several prominent quasi-periodicities exist at around 7 years, 3 years, 14 months, 9 months, and 6.5 months. Correlation and spectral analyses show remarkable agreement between the model output and the observations, particularly in the 14-month, or Chandler period band. The latter indicates that the enhanced pole tide found in the North Sea along the Denmark-Netherlands coast is actually the coastal setup response to wind stress forcing with a periodicity of 14 months. We find no need to invoke a geophysical explanation involving resonance-enhancement of pole tide in the North Sea to explain the observations.

  7. Wind stress forcing of the North Sea `pole tide'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, William P.; Chao, Benjamin Fong; Zheng, Dawei; Au, Andrew Y.

    2000-08-01

    We conduct numerical simulations of the wind forcing of sea level variations in the North Sea using a barotropic ocean model with realistic geography and bathymetry to examine the forcing of the 14 month `pole tide', which is known to be anomalously large along the Denmark-Netherlands coast. The simulation input is the monthly mean surface wind stress field from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis for the 40 year period 1958-1997. The ocean model output sea level response is then compared with 10 coastal tide gauge records from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) over the same period of time. Besides the strong seasonal variations, several prominent quasi-periodicities exist near 7 years, 3 years, 14 months, 9 months and 6.5 months. Correlations and spectral analyses show remarkable agreement between the model output and the observations, particularly in the 14 month, or Chandler, period band. The latter indicates that the enhanced pole tide found in the North Sea along the Denmark-Netherlands coast is actually the coastal set-up response to wind stress forcing with a periodicity of around 14 months. We find no need to invoke a geophysical explanation involving resonance enhancement of the pole tide in the North Sea to explain the observations.

  8. Regulation of CO2 Air Sea Fluxes by Sediments in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Hagens, Mathilde; Brenner, Heiko; Pätsch, Johannes; Clargo, Nicola; Salt, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    A multi-tracer approach is applied to assess the impact of boundary fluxes (e.g. benthic input from sediments or lateral inputs from the coastline) on the acid-base buffering capacity, and overall biogeochemistry, of the North Sea. Analyses of both basin-wide observations in the North Sea and transects through tidal basins at the North-Frisian coastline, reveal that surface distributions of the δ13C signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) are predominantly controlled by a balance between biological production and respiration. In particular, variability in metabolic DIC throughout stations in the well-mixed southern North Sea indicates the presence of an external carbon source, which is traced to the European continental coastline using naturally-occurring radium isotopes (224Ra and 228Ra). 228Ra is also shown to be a highly effective tracer of North Sea total alkalinity (AT) compared to the more conventional use of salinity. Coastal inputs of metabolic DIC and AT are calculated on a basin-wide scale, and ratios of these inputs suggest denitrification as a primary metabolic pathway for their formation. The AT input paralleling the metabolic DIC release prevents a significant decline in pH as compared to aerobic (i.e. unbuffered) release of metabolic DIC. Finally, long-term pH trends mimic those of riverine nitrate loading, highlighting the importance of coastal AT production via denitrification in regulating pH in the southern North Sea.

  9. Introduced marine species of the North Sea coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, K.; Gollasch, S.; Wolff, W. J.

    1998-09-01

    About 80 non-indigenous species are assumed to have been introduced into the North Sea by transoceanic shipping and aquaculture. The number is certainly underestimated as most small organisms received insufficient attention at the species level. Also, the seafaring tradition of the North Sea countries is much longer than our biological surveys are. Most exotic invertebrates originate from the western Atlantic and were introduced by shipping, while most algae stem from the Pacific and came with the introduced oysters. A peak of newcomers was observed in the 1970s. Most of the arrivals became established in brackish environments, at harbor sites and in the vicinity of oyster farms, fouling on hard substrates or living as epibionts. A few live in sediments, are holoplanktonic or are parasites. At the open coast, approximately 6% of the macrobenthic species are exotics, while in estuaries their share is up to 20%. Most exotics have been encountered in the southern North Sea first, and many did not spread further north. About 25% of the established non-natives are widespread and attain locally high abundances. As a consequence, some inshore habitats are entirely dominated by exotics. The overall effect on the ecosystem seems to be more additive than one of displacement. This suggests that the coastal biota of the North Sea are quite capable of accommodating newcomers. However, this is no guarantee that the next introduced species may not cause severe ecological change or economic harm. There is a need to minimize the risk of unintentional introductions by ballast water treatment and by adhering to quarantine procedures in aquaculture. Current research on exotics in the North Sea is regarded as inadequate for proper evaluation and management requirements.

  10. Pipeline incidents and emergency repair in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, G.D.

    1988-12-01

    The failures of submarine pipelines in the North Sea, and the response of pipeline operators are first discussed. Against this background, the methods currently available for submarine pipeline repairs are reviewed. The Emergency Pipeline Repair Services available are described, and some future developments in the field of submarine pipeline repair are briefly outlined.

  11. Sediment volume in the north polar sand seas of Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, N.; Greeley, R. )

    1990-07-10

    Data from studies of the cross-sectional area of terrestrial transverse dunes have been combined with maps of dune morphometry derived from Viking orbiter images to generate new estimates of sediment thickness and dune sediment volume in the north polar sand seas of Mars. A relationship between dune spacing and equivalent sediment thickness (EST) was developed from field data on Namibian and North American dunes and was applied to data on dune spacing and dune cover measured on Viking orbiter images to generate maps of dune sediment thickness for Martian north polar sand seas. There are four major sand seas in the north polar region of Mars, covering an area of 6.8 x 10{sup 5} km{sup 2}. Equivalent sediment thickness ranges between 0.5 and 6.1 m with a mean of 1.8 m. The sand seas contain a total of 1158 km{sup 3} of dune sediment, which may have been derived by erosion of polar layered deposits and concentrated in its present location by winds that change direction seasonally.

  12. [Evacuation of patients from the North Sea].

    PubMed

    Freund, K G

    1989-06-10

    In 1986 and 1987 the department of orthopaedic surgery at the Central Hospital of Esbjerg dealt with 135 medical problems by radio-telephone contacts to persons at sea. Of these, 28% needed a chartered helicopter. This eguals one third of all chartered helicopter evacuations from Danish waters. 77% of the evacuations were from fishing boats and the rest from offshore structures or other kinds of ships. The mechanism of trauma and the diagnosis agreed with the findings in an earlier Danish publication. PMID:2749648

  13. Recruitment success of different fish stocks in the North Sea in relation to climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    1997-09-01

    Long-term data of year class strengths of different commercially harvested fish stocks based on a virtual population analysis (VPA) are available from ICES. The anomalies of these long-term data sets of year class strength are analyzed using Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) and are related to climate variability: the anomalies of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the northern North Sea and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. A Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) between the leading eigenmodes is performed. The results suggest that the variability in the fish recruitment of western mackerel and three gadoids, namely North Sea cod, North Sea saithe, and North Sea whiting is highly correlated to the variability of the North Sea SST which is directly influenced by the NAO. For North Sea haddock and herring no meaningful correlation exists to North Sea SST and NAO. The results allow the conclusion that is seems possible to predict long-term changes in the fish recruitment from climate change scenarios for North Sea cod, North Sea saithe and western mackerel. Furthermore, the results indicate the possibility of recruitment failure for North Sea cod, North Sea whiting, and western mackerel in the case of global warming.

  14. Review of the physical oceanography of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, L.; Zimmerman, J. T. F.; Furnes, G. K.; Mork, M.; Saetre, R.; Becker, G.

    After a general consideration of the physical factors that are of special interest to ecology, the typical character of the North Sea is discussed. The emphasis is on the processes that are responsible for the physical environment. The dominant feature is the tidal motion. This is not only a mechanism for vertical and horizontal mixing. The tidal residuals also contribute to a basic circulation pattern that together with the long-term net effects of the wind-driven circulation and the baroclinic effects results in an overall transport that determines the major features of the distribution of the water properties. Superimposed on this there are variations (mainly wind-induced) and regional differences in a wide range of time- and length-scales. Some typical features of both the southern and northern part of the North Sea are discussed. The review is concluded with a discussion on the long-term variations in the physical conditions of the North Sea. These are mainly to changes in temperature, salinity and sea-level.

  15. Dynamics of the North Sea pole tide reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous tide in the North Sea, driven by the Chandler wobble, is here re-examined. A previously published solution in which these 'pole tide' observations were explained as a forced co-oscillation from the deep water tide is shown to be untenable, because it is very unlikely that the deep ocean tide is anything but equilibrium. Using the same physics as in the previous solution (viscous, linear, quasi-geostrophic dynamics), it is now suggested that the only plausible explanation is that there is a coincidental resonance between the long-wavelength branch topographic Rossby wave of the North Sea and the direct driving by the pole tide potential. This resonance is not a basin-resonance, but that of a free wave driven by a travelling forcing function. Simplified models reproduce the observations in qualitative fashion. If this explanation is the correct one, then the Arctic seas north of Asia and North America appear to be likely candidates as other regions where there may be a large pole tide response and, hence, a locus of wobble dissipation. Given the difficulties of observation, the long times required, and the general instability of the dissipation calculation with the simplified analytical model, probably a numerical model will be required for further progress.

  16. Mechanisms of long-term mean sea level variability in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Calafat, Francisco; Øie Nilsen, Jan Even; Richter, Kristin; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    We examine mean sea level (MSL) variations in the North Sea on timescales ranging from months to decades under the consideration of different forcing factors since the late 19th century. We use multiple linear regression models, which are validated for the second half of the 20th century against the output of a state-of-the-art tide+surge model (HAMSOM), to determine the barotropic response of the ocean to fluctuations in atmospheric forcing. We demonstrate that local atmospheric forcing mainly triggers MSL variability on timescales up to a few years, with the inverted barometric effect dominating the variability along the UK and Norwegian coastlines and wind (piling up the water along the coast) controlling the MSL variability in the south from Belgium up to Denmark. However, in addition to the large inter-annual sea level variability there is also a considerable fraction of decadal scale variability. We show that on decadal timescales MSL variability in the North Sea mainly reflects steric changes, which are mostly remotely forced. A spatial correlation analysis of altimetry observations and baroclinic ocean model outputs suggests evidence for a coherent signal extending from the Norwegian shelf down to the Canary Islands. This supports the theory of longshore wind forcing along the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic causing coastally trapped waves to propagate along the continental slope. With a combination of oceanographic and meteorological measurements we demonstrate that ~80% of the decadal sea level variability in the North Sea can be explained as response of the ocean to longshore wind forcing, including boundary wave propagation in the Northeast Atlantic. These findings have important implications for (i) detecting significant accelerations in North Sea MSL, (ii) the conceptual set up of regional ocean models in terms of resolution and boundary conditions, and (iii) the development of adequate and realistic regional climate change projections.

  17. Revisiting sea level changes in the North Sea during the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Jürgen; Dangendorf, Sönke; Wahl, Thomas; Niehüser, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the best instrumented ocean basins in the world. Here we revisit sea level changes in the North Sea region from tide gauges, satellite altimetry, hydrographic profiles and ocean reanalysis data from the beginning of the 19th century to present. This includes an overview of the sea level chapter of the North Sea Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA) complemented by results from more recent investigations. The estimates of long-term changes from tide gauge records are significantly affected by vertical land motion (VLM), which is related to both the large-scale viscoelastic response of the solid earth to ice melting since the last deglaciation and local effects. Removing VLM (estimated from various data sources such as GPS, tide gauge minus altimetry and GIA) significantly reduces the spatial variability of long-term trends in the basin. VLM corrected tide gauge records suggest a transition from relatively moderate changes in the 19th century towards modern trends of roughly 1.5 mm/yr during the 20th century. Superimposed on the long-term changes there is a considerable inter-annual to multi-decadal variability. On inter-annual timescales this variability mainly reflects the barotropic response of the ocean to atmospheric forcing with the inverted barometer effect dominating along the UK and Norwegian coastlines and wind forcing controlling the southeastern part of the basin. The decadal variability is mostly remotely forced and dynamically linked to the North Atlantic via boundary waves in response to long-shore winds along the continental slope. These findings give valuable information about the required horizontal resolution of ocean models and the necessary boundary conditions and are therefore important for the dynamical downscaling of sea level projections for the North Sea coastlines.

  18. North Sea wind climate in changing weather regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Ivonne; Rockel, Burkhardt

    2015-04-01

    Results from regional climate models (RCMs) are getting more and more important in future wind climate assessment. From RCMs often only the daily wind speed is available, but no information on prevailing wind direction of each day. Weather regime classification can close this gap and models ability of simulating surface wind speed can be analysed in detail. Several objective regime classifications have been investigated to be a sufficient diagnostic tool to evaluate the present wind climate at the German and Dutch coastal area of the North Sea. The classification by Jenkinson and Collison (1977) uses values for mean sea level pressure at 16 locations centered over the North Sea. Beside the predefined 8 prevailed wind directions and the two possibilities on cyclonic or anticyclonic turbulence, 2x8 hybrid weather types can be defined. In this way 27 different regimes can be distinguished including a class of non-classifiable cases. The 27 regimes could be reduced to a number of 11 by allotting the hybrid types to the directional or the centered types. As the classification is carried out for the North Sea based on ERA40 mean sea level pressure the different regimes clearly reflect the mean wind characteristics at the stations. Comparing the wind roses for the individual observations leads to the assumption that the regime classification described before fits the requirements to carry out the regime dependent evaluation of the RCMs with a focus on the German and Dutch coast. Trends in the occurrence of the regimes in the winter period of 1961 to 2000 show an increase of the regimes with Western and Southwestern wind directions and a decrease of wind events from Eastern directions in the North Sea. The trend is dominated by the strong positive phase of the NAO especially in the months January to March starting in the beginning of the 1980s. Due to the applied method ERA40 and the RCMs do not necessarily show the same regime at each day. The agreement among the RCM

  19. Phytoplankton of the North Sea and its dynamics: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, P. C.; Lancelot, C.; Gieskes, W. W. C.; Hagmeier, E.; Weichart, G.

    Phytoplankton is the major contributor to algal biomass and primary production of the North Sea, although crops of macroalgae can locally be up to 2000 g C.m -2 along the coast of the U.K. and Norway, and microphytobenthos dominates production in the shallow tidal flat areas bordering the coasts of England, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. Data collected since 1932 during the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey show consistent patterns of geographical, seasonal and annual variation in the distribution of phytoplankton and its major taxonomic components. There is a trend of increased colouration in Recorder silks in the southern North Sea until approximately 1975 since when Colour levels (assumed to be indicative of algal biomass) have declined. In the eutrophic Dutch Wadden Sea the algal crop continued to increase; in Dutch coastal North Sea waters a trend of biomass increase reversed since 1984, apparently due to a reduction in Rhine river outflow. Long-term observations made at Helgoland since the 60's also show trends of increasing nutrients and phytoplankton biomass only to 1984. Adverse effects such as deoxygenation, foam formation and toxin production have been linked to mass concentrations of algae known as blooms. There is no evidence from existing reports for an increase in their frequency, although some years stand out with larger numbers. Occurrence of blooms can partly be explained by hydrographic conditions. More than 30 taxa are recognised as occurring in bloom proportions in the North Sea, approximately one third of which can be toxic. The crop of Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) is not likely to increase with eutrophication due to silicate limitation. An extensive subsurface maximum of armoured dinoflagellates, its abundance gouverned by hydrographic conditions, is the most characteristic feature of the central and northern North Sea in the summer months. Abundance, sometimes dominance, of picoplankton and of species that are not readily detected by

  20. Wind Forcing of the North Sea Pole Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, W.; Chao, B. F.; Zheng, D. W.; Au, Z. Y.

    1998-01-01

    The Chandler wobble of the earth's rotation has a period near 14 months and sets up the 0.5 cm amplitude pole tide in the deep oceans, However, the pole tide is anomalously large in the North Sea, where the amplitude increases sharply up to 3 cm along the continental coast. It is shown here that the sea levels are well correlated with winds at the pole tide frequency. The Princeton Ocean Model is used to investigate the response of the North Sea to wind forcing. The barotropic numerical ocean model depicts realistic coastlines and bathymetry at 5 ft x 5 ft resolution, with 97 x 73 grid points. The monthly mean wind fields for the 40-year period (1958-1997) from the National Centers for Atmospheric Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis were used to force the model. The winds were converted to stress with a neutral drag coefficient that varied linearly with windspeed (instead of using the NCEP windstress). A 5-day simulation was made for each month until the resulting flow regime came into equilibrium, and model water levels at various station locations were saved for comparison with tidal-gauge observed sea levels from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL). The comparison is made for 10 North Sea stations with high quality tide gauge data. We find: (1) good agreement in annual and semi-annual phases and in the trend of amplitude w.r.t. latitude; (2) more importantly for this study, the model-predicted and observed non-seasonal sea level variations show a very significant temporal correlation as well as spectral coherence. However, a large amplitude difference exists between the two sets -- the overall amplitude variability of the observed is generally a factor of 2-3 larger than the model prediction (this same phenomenon has been reported in ocean circulation studies, although the cause is not yet clear.) Our results indicate that the wind forcing is the main cause of the observed large pole tide in the North Sea.

  1. Spatial sensitivity of inorganic carbon to model setup: North Sea and Baltic Sea with ECOSMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castano Primo, Rocio; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute

    2015-04-01

    In ocean biogeochemical models it is critical to capture the key processes adequately so they do not only reproduce the observations but that those processes are reproduced correctly. One key issue is the choice of parameters, which in most cases are estimates with large uncertainties. This can be the product of actual lack of detailed knowledge of the process, or the manner the processes are implemented, more or less complex. In addition, the model sensitivity is not necessarily homogenous across the spatial domain modelled, which adds another layer of complexity to biogeochemical modelling. In the particular case of the inorganic carbon cycle, there are several sets of carbonate constants that can be chosen. The calculated air-sea CO2 flux is largely dependent on the parametrization chosen. In addition, the different parametrizations all the underlying processes that in some way impact the carbon cycle beyond the carbonate dissociation and fluxes give results that can be significantly different. Examples of these processes are phytoplankton growth rates or remineralization rates. Despite their geographical proximity, the North and Baltic Seas exhibit very different dynamics. The North Sea receives important inflows of Atlantic waters, while the Baltic Sea is an almost enclosed system, with very little exchange from the North Sea. Wind, tides, and freshwater supply act very differently, but dominantly structure the ecosystem dynamics on spatial and temporal scales. The biological community is also different. Cyanobacteria, which are important due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, and they are only present in the Baltic Sea. These differentiating features have a strong impact in the biogeochemical cycles and ultimately shape the variations in the carbonate chemistry. Here the ECOSMO model was employed on the North Sea and Baltic Sea. The model is set so both are modelled at the same time, instead of having them run separately. ECOSMO is a 3-D coupled

  2. Norway eclipses U. K. in North Sea oil flow

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports that despite new internal rankings, the North Sea has maintained its position as the world's fourth largest oil producing province behind the Middle East, the Soviet Union, and the U.S. Average production remains 3.7-4 million b/d. During 1991, however, sources of production within the total have shifted significantly. Britain no longer tops the North Sea production table. Early this year, major offshore shutdowns required for installation of mandatory safety equipment slashed production. At the same time, Norwegian output remained just below 1.95 million b/d, exceeding flow from neighboring U.K. waters for the first time since the mid- 1970s.

  3. North Sea platform cathodic protection -- A performance vs design review

    SciTech Connect

    Ridd, B.R.; Queen, D.M.E.; Osvoll, H.; Bjornaas, F.

    1999-07-01

    Modern day cathodic protection (CP) design codes are typically highly conservative when compared with early CP system designs. Review of historical survey data from platforms in service for approximately 25 to 30 years illustrates the conservatism now employed when constructing new structures for installation in the North Sea. This paper illustrates this level of conservatism by reviewing the CP system performance of a gas gathering platform complex in the Southern North Sea and comparing the results of that review with present day design codes. The paper details the findings of a CP design review and ROV validation inspection to determine the present system status. The effect of combined impressed current and sacrificial anode systems is also illustrated. Finally a discussion on the definition and optimization of additional CP system requirements and future survey strategy to ensure protection is maintained to the anticipated end of field life is provided highlighting the cost benefits of basing retrofit designs on system performance rather than design theory.

  4. Ecology of the North Sea: Problems, successes, failures, future needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinne, O.

    1995-03-01

    After defining ‘ecology’, outlining the basic categories of ecological research and listing examples of modern ecological investigations, this introductory paper focusses on basic considerations; it is, in essence, a programmatic contribution. Research details on the ecology of the North Sea are the subject of the following papers. The problems of ecological North Sea research are formidable. Hydrological and biological fluctuations and variabilities are pronounced. Exchange patterns with the Atlantic are complex, and the inputs of rivers and rain defy exact measurement and prediction. Season, weather, climate—and as yet insufficiently known and controlled human-caused impacts—further complicate the situation. All this results in an unusually high degree of uncertainty. New questions and problems arise before the old ones can be answered or solved. Nevertheless, ecological North Sea research has achieved many successes. The North Sea is the most intensively investigated sea area on our planet. Generations of zoologists, botanists and hydrographers — and more recently microbiologists, meteorologists, climatologists, chemists, pathologists and toxicologists — have produced an impressive body of knowledge. Slowly we are beginning to understand the forces that govern energy budgets and balances, material fluxes, and the factors that control and direct ecosystem dynamics. Essential driving forces of ecosystem dynamics result from microbial, especially bacterial, activities. Ecological modelling has paved the way for new theories and insights, and holds promise for progress towards a predictive ecology. Failures and shortcomings include insufficient long-term research, inadequately designed experiments, and misconceptions in environmental protection. Net changes in ecological processes of an heterogeneous and intensely varying environment such as the North Sea can only be comprehended adequately against the background of sustained measurements over decades

  5. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar

    2013-04-01

    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  6. Report on ICDP workshop CONOSC (COring the NOrth Sea Cenozoic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, Wim; Donders, Timme; Luthi, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    ICDP workshop COring the NOrth Sea Cenozoic focused on the scientific objectives and the technical aspects of drilling and sampling. Some 55 participants attended the meeting, ranging from climate scientists, drilling engineers, and geophysicists to stratigraphers and public outreach experts. Discussion on the proposed research sharpened the main research lines and led to working groups and the necessary technical details to compile a full proposal that was submitted in January 2016.

  7. Offshore safety management - in the North Sea and worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, D.R. )

    1993-11-01

    The development of hydrocarbon resources in the North Sea began in the mid-1960s. Our world was a very different place then. In the early 1970s, security of oil supply was a national priority of the North Sea coastal states, as with most other Western nations with hydrocarbon potential. A high priority was assigned to realizing rapid results from exploitable reserves to insulate these countries from the economic shock that a disruption in supply would cause. The world is much less politically adversarial now than during the 1970s. In the North Sea coastal states, there is no longer a headlong rush to develop secure supplies, partly because the threat of disruption has lessened, but also because there exist large proven reserves in the area. Movements highlighting human rights and the environment have heightened the concern for occupational safety and health of people at work. This paper will examine and contrast two of the primary agents of this change--the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) of the United Kingdom. Some aspects of their development will be examined for insight to the present state of regulatory affairs. Also they will look into the future to see what choices exist for regulators in other countries, keeping in mind developments form bodies like the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO).

  8. Rogue run-up events at the North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Blossier, Brice; Daly, Christopher; Herbst, Gabriel; Senichev, Dmitry; Winter, Christian

    2015-04-01

    On the 1st of January, 1995, the Statoil-operated "Draupner" platform located in the North Sea recorded the so-called "New Year wave". Since then, rogue waves have been the topic of active scientific discussions and investigations. Waves of extreme height appearing randomly at the sea surface have been measured in both deep and shallow waters and have been involved in a number of ship accidents. Nowadays rogue waves are frequently recorded all over the world with several different instruments (range finders installed on offshore platforms, deployed buoys, radars including SAR, etc.). Rogue wave also occur at the coast, where they appear as either sudden flooding of coastal areas or high splashes over steep banks or sea walls. These waves are especially dangerous for beach users and lead regularly to human injuries and fatalities. Despite numerous reports of human accidents, coastal rogue waves have not yet been recorded experimentally. In this paper we discuss the recording of rogue wave events at German North Sea coasts by using high-resolution beach cameras. The recorded rogue waves are observed during different tide levels and different weather conditions. Possible mechanisms of their generation are discussed.

  9. First report of the planktonic copepod Oithona davisae in the northern Wadden Sea (North Sea): Evidence for recent invasion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornils, Astrid; Wend-Heckmann, Britta

    2015-06-01

    In October 2010, specimens of Oithona were taken from the List Tidal Basin in the northern Wadden Sea (North Sea) for a biogeographic study on Oithona similis. These specimens could not be assigned to O. similis or any of the other Oithona species known from the North Sea genetically. These specimens were identified as Oithona davisae Ferrari and Orsi 1984, a Northwest Pacific species, known as an invasive species from the Black Sea and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Recent sampling provided evidence that O. davisae is still present in the northern Wadden Sea and may thus now be a permanent plankton species.

  10. Local and remote response of the North Sea dynamics to morphodynamic changes in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Benjamin; Stanev, Emil Vassilev; Zhang, Yinglong Joseph

    2016-05-01

    The response of the tidal system in the southern North Sea to morphodynamic changes was investigated in a modelling study using fine resolution bathymetric observations available for 1982-2011. The Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM) was set up for the different sets of bathymetries. One set of bathymetry was compiled from a large number of bathymetric measurements over many years, while the other two reflected bathymetry state in the area of Wadden Sea during 2000 and 2011, respectively. The temporal and spatial evolution of bathymetry was dominated by migration of tidal channels. The M4 tide showed larger sensitivity to bathymetric change in the Wadden Sea than the M2 tide, whereas the structure of the latter remained rather robust. The largest change of the tidal wave due to the differences in bathymetries was located off the North Frisian Wadden Sea. Traces of changes were also found far away from the regions of their origin because the tidal waves in the North Sea propagate the local disturbances basin-wide. This illustrated an efficient physical mechanism of teleconnectivity, i.e. effecting the local responses to the larger-scale or remote change of ocean bottom caused by erosion and deposition. The tidal distortion resulting from the relatively small bathymetric changes was substantial, particularly in the coastal zone. This is a manifestation of the nonlinear tidal transformation in shallow oceans and is crucial for the sediment transport and the morphodynamic feedback, because of the altered tidal asymmetry.

  11. Unstable Air-Sea Interaction in the Extratropical North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of coupled modes in the extratropical North Atlantic has fascinated the climate community since 1960's. A significant aspect of such modes is an unstable air-sea interaction, also called positive feedback, where disturbances between the atmosphere and ocean grow unbound. If a delayed response exists before the negative feedback takes effect, an oscillatory behaviour will develop. Here we explore the relationship between heat flux (positive upward) and sea surface temperature (SST). Positive feedback is characterized by a cross-correlation between the two where correlation maintains a negative sign whether SST or heat flux leads. We use model results and observations to argue that in the North Atlantic there exist regions with positive feedback. The two main locations coincide with the well-known north-south SST dipole where anomalies of opposite sign occupy areas east of Florida and north-east of Newfoundland. We show that oceanic dynamics, wave propagation and advection, give rise to oceanic anomalies in these regions. Subsequently these anomalies are amplified by atmosphere- ocean interaction: thus a positive feedback.

  12. Intrusion of radioactive industrially polluted water from North Sea into central Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskiy, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1985-02-01

    The problem of penetration of radioactive industrially polluted water into the central Baltic Sea was studied. The content of Cs-134 as determined in water near the bottom of deep water trenches along the path traveled by North Sea water entering the Baltic. Samples were taken at 5 locations, with Cs-134 concentrated from samples of several thousands of liters. It was found that radioactive pollution caused by the entry of water from the North Sea extends through the system of deep water depressions into the Baltic as far as the Gotland trench. The greatest degree of contamination is found in the Arkona depression adjacent to the straits. The concentration of Cs-134 in the Gdansk trench is one-half as great and in the Gotland trench one-third as great as in the Arkona depression. Radioactive contamination in the Baltic is attributed to discharge of radioactive wastes by plants at Windscale.

  13. Role of bacteria in the North Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, Gilles; Joiris, Claude; Meyer-Reil, Lutz; Linderboom, Han

    Since about 15 years methods available to assess the role of bacteria in organic matter cycling of aquatic ecosystems have been considerably improved. Their application to the North Sea deeply modified the vision of the ecological structure of this ecosystem which prevailed in the early seventies, as summarized e.g. by STEELE (1974). A critical examination of the methodology utilized for measuring standing stock and activities of bacteria in the water column and the sediments of the North Sea is presented and the results of these measurements summarized. Measurements of planktonic bacterial biomass show important seasonal and geographical variations, related, with a delay of about 10 days, to phytoplanktonic development. Assessment of the standing stock and turnover rate of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter and monomeric substrates provides data consistent with the view that extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of polymers is limiting the rate of organic matter utilization, while uptake of direct substrates is rapid and maintains their concentration at a near constant level. The flux of organic matter flowing through the planktonic bacterial compartment is evaluated to about 110gC/m 2.yr in the coastal continental zone, i.e. 57% of net primary production. Bacterial production rates show a growth yield in the range 0.1 to 0.4. In the Central North Sea data are lacking to allow accurate estimation of planktonic bacterial activity on annual basis. The available information suggests that a lower percentage of primary production is used by bacteria there. Data concerning bacterial biomass and activity in the benthos are even less numerous than for the planktonic phase. A crude estimate of the flux of organic matter sedimentation based on sediment traps measurements on the one hand, and of organic matter utilization rates by benthic organisms (including both bacteria and meiofauna) derived from oxidant or nutrient budgets on the other hand, yield values in the

  14. Variability patterns of the general circulation and sea water temperature in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, M.; Elizalde, A.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Pohlmann, T.

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates patterns of spatio-temporal variability in the North Sea and their major driving mechanisms. Leading variability modes of the general circulation and sea water temperature are extracted from model results by means of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis. The model results originate from an uncoupled simulation with the global ocean model MPIOM, forced with ERA40 reanalysis data at the air-sea interface. For this regional model study, MPIOM has been run with a stretched grid configuration enabling higher horizontal resolution in the Northwest European Shelf and North Atlantic ocean. The analysis is applied to interannual variabilities of winter and summer separately. The results indicate that on seasonal scales the leading variability mode of the general circulation affects the entire North Sea, accompanied by significant inflow anomalies through the Fair-Isle Passage. Correlations of the corresponding Principal Component (PC) with wind density functions reveal the circulation anomalies to coincide with westerly and south-westerly wind anomalies. The second mode describes circulation anomalies along the Norwegian Trench and English Channel, which correlate with north-westerly wind anomalies caused by variations in large-scale atmospheric pressure areas centered over the British Isles. For sea water temperature, distinct variability patterns are induced by variable surface heat fluxes, vertical mixing, and variable advective heat fluxes. The first mode of both the general circulation and water temperature in winter mainly represents the response to atmospheric variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). However, the higher modes account for such variabilities that cannot be explained by the NAO. As a consequence of the integrated effects of the different variability modes on the circulation system and heat content, local correlations of the NAO with volume transports and water temperature are weakened in the regions of

  15. Vertical material flux under seasonal sea ice in the Okhotsk Sea north of Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiwatari, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Kunio; Fukamachi, Yasushi; Nagata, Ryuichi; Koizumi, Tomoyoshi; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Kohata, Kunio

    Downward material fluxes under seasonal sea ice were measured using a time-series sediment trap installed at an offshore site in the Okhotsk Sea north of Hokkaido, Japan, from 13 January to 23 March 2005. The maximum fluxes of lithogenic material (753 mg m -2 day -1) and organic matter (mainly detritus; 333 mg m -2 day -1) were recorded during the period in which sea ice drifted ashore and increased in extent, from 13 January to 9 February. Organic matter as fecal pellets (81-93 mg m -2 day -1) and opal as biosilica (51-67 mg m -2 day -1), representing diatom fluxes, were abundant in sediment trap samples obtained during the period of full sea ice coverage from 10 February to 9 March. Microscopic observations revealed that fecal pellets were largely diatom frustules, suggesting that zooplankton actively grazed on ice algae during the period of full sea ice coverage. During the period of retreating sea ice, from 10 to 23 March, the phytoplankton flux showed a rapid increase (from 9.5 to 22.5 × 10 6 cells m -2 day -1), reflecting their release into the water column as the sea ice melted. Our results demonstrate that the quantity and quality of sinking biogenic and lithogenic materials vary with the seasonal extent of sea ice in mid-winter.

  16. Inter-annual variability of North Sea plaice spawning habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loots, C.; Vaz, S.; Koubbi, P.; Planque, B.; Coppin, F.; Verin, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Potential spawning habitat is defined as the area where environmental conditions are suitable for spawning to occur. Spawning adult data from the first quarter (January-March) of the International Bottom Trawl Survey have been used to study the inter-annual variability of the potential spawning habitat of North Sea plaice from 1980 to 2007. Generalised additive models (GAM) were used to create a model that related five environmental variables (depth, bottom temperature and salinity, seabed stress and sediment type) to presence-absence and abundance of spawning adults. Then, the habitat model was applied each year from 1970 to 2007 to predict inter-annual variability of the potential spawning habitat. Predicted responses obtained by GAM for each year were mapped using kriging. A hierarchical classification associated with a correspondence analysis was performed to cluster spawning suitable areas and to determine how they evolved across years. The potential spawning habitat was consistent with historical spawning ground locations described in the literature from eggs surveys. It was also found that the potential spawning habitat varied across years. Suitable areas were located in the southern part of the North Sea and along the eastern coast of England and Scotland in the eighties; they expanded further north from the nineties. Annual survey distributions did not show such northward expansion and remained located in the southern North Sea. This suggests that this species' actual spatial distribution remains stable against changing environmental conditions, and that the potential spawning habitat is not fully occupied. Changes in environmental conditions appear to remain within plaice environmental ranges, meaning that other factors may control the spatial distribution of plaice spawning habitat.

  17. Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea interaction: influence of the North Aegean dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androulidakis, Yannis; Krestenitis, Yannis; Kourafalou, Vassiliki

    2013-04-01

    The brackish Black Sea Waters outflow to the Aegean Sea, through the Dardanelles Straits, affects and determines significantly the hydrodynamic and physical characteristics of the Aegean Sea. At the same time, it affects several biological parameters, like chl-a concentrations, and, therefore, the general quality of the marine environment. The investigation and mathematical simulation of the North Aegean's physical oceanography contributes to the knowledge and understanding of the buoyant waters' circulation initial conditions in the wider East Mediterranean region. The implementation and adaptation of the 3-d hydrodynamic mathematical model HYCOM (Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model) in the North Aegean Sea (1/50οx1/50o), significantly contributes to the investigation of the area's hydrodynamic circulation. HYCOM, due to its hybrid coordinate operation, can describe at a satisfactory level, all the different topography and mixing cases of the complicated N. Aegean region. In addition, the high resolution atmospheric forcing and the nesting with a data assimilated broader Mediterranean HYCOM model along the southern open boundary of the North Aegean model, benefit the quality of the results and constitutes an important tool on the description and understanding of the Black Sea influence to the region's dynamics. A fundamental objective is the application and comparison of different Dardanelles outflow parameterizations based a) on the Black Sea water budget, b) on current measurements from a telemetric station in Limnos Island, and c) on historical time series. The Black Sea Waters plume evolution and the circulation patterns are dependant on the outflow rate magnitude, the flow distribution inside the straits and the prevailing winds. The long-term simulation covers the period of the last 20 years (1990-2010), investigating several physical characteristics of the North Aegean Sea, such as the deep water masses evolution, the major Black Sea waters circulation patterns

  18. Sea state projections for the North Sea: Impact of climate change on very high waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Jens; Groll, Nikolaus; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    The research program KLIWAS of the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and urban Development investigates the impacts of climate change on waterways and navigation and provides options for adaptations. One aspect of the research task is to analyse climate scenarios for the sea state, eg. Sea wave height (SWH), wave direction and wave periods for the North Sea. Of particular importance for the safety on waterways is the potential change of frequence and magnitude from severe waves. The scenarios together with the wave climate of the recent years will give an approximation of projected changes of the sea state in coastal and open sea areas. Here we show the results for projected changes of medium, high and very high waves in the North Sea for the period 2000-2100 in comparison to 1961-2000, based on the wave model WAM4.5.3 The wave model is driven with wind data from two different regional atmosphere-ocean-models (DMI-HIRHAM and MPI-REMO) in the scenario A1B. The wind data are delivered in a horizontal resolution of about 20 km and a time resolution of one hour, while the wave model provides data of the calculated sea state with a horizontal grid of 5 km and the time resolution of one hour. It is seen, that in the eastern North Sea and especially in the German Bight there is a trend to a increasing of the 99th percentile of SWH, while in the western part the 99th percentile of SWH decreases in the future. These changes are mainly caused by changing wind directions in the future, while the wind speed will be mostly unaltered. Supplementary, it was carried out an extrem value analysis with the same data. Although the very high waves (eg. waves with a return period of 1-, 5-, 10-, up to 100 years) displays a similar behavior as the median or 99th percentile, there are regions in the North Sea (eg. the German Bight) with stronger changes of the higher waves. For all wave heights a strong decadal variability is detected which superimposes the calculated trends.

  19. Not normally manned compression platforms for the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaran, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Gas turbine driven gas compressors have been widely used on manned offshore facilities. Similarly unmanned gas turbine driven compressor stations have been in operation onshore with major gas transmission companies in Europe, North America and elsewhere. This paper summarizes a recent joint industry study to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of Not Normally Manned (NNM) Offshore Compression Facilities in terms of reliability, availability and maintainability. Classification of not normally manned (or unmanned) offshore facilities in the UK North Sea is in accordance with HSE Operations Notice 8. ON8 specifies criteria for offshore visits, visit hours and number of personnel on board for the operation of NNM platforms. This paper describes a typical Southern North Sea gas platform being considered for NNM compressor application. The conclusions from the study was that NNM compression is technically feasible with the facilities being able to provide an availability in excess of 98%. Life cycle costs were of the order of 70% of manned facilities thus significantly improving field development economics.

  20. Illicit drugs and their metabolites in 36 rivers that drain into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea, north China.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Gao; Zheng, Qiu-Da; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Du, Juan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Wang, Zhuang; Ge, Lin-Ke

    2016-08-01

    Illicit drugs and their metabolites have recently been recognized as an emerging group of contaminants due to their potential ecotoxicological impact in aquatic ecosystems. To date, information on the occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment of China remains limited. In this study, we collected surface water samples from 36 rivers in north China that discharge into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea and measured the concentrations of amphetamine-like compounds, ketamines, cocainics, and opioids. The occurrence and spatial patterns of these substances show significant differences between the rivers and regions. Two designer drugs, methamphetamine (METH) and ketamine (KET), were the most abundant compounds detected in the entire set of samples (detection frequency of 92 and 69 %). The concentrations of METH and KET ranged from <0.1 to 42.0 ng L(-1) (mean = 4.53 ng L(-1)) and <0.05 to 4.50 ng L(-1) (mean = 0.49 ng L(-1)), respectively. The high detection frequencies of METH and KET are consistent with the fact that they are the main illicit drugs consumed in China. The high concentrations of these illicit drugs and their metabolites were found in areas that have a high population density. The riverine input of total illicit drugs into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea was estimated to be in the range of 684 to 1160 kg per year. PMID:27167374

  1. Physical processes in the transition zone between North Sea and Baltic Sea. Numerical simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Lu, Xi; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics in the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea are analyzed here using data from a 22-year-long climatic simulation with a focus on the periods 1992-1994 and 2001-2003 when two recent major inflow events occurred. Observations from gauges and in situ measurements are used to validate the model. Parameters, which cannot be easily measured, such as water and salt transports through straits, have been compared against similar previous estimates. The good performance of simulations is attributed to the finer resolution of the model compared to earlier set ups. The outflow in the Kattegat, which is an analogue of the tidal outflows, tends to propagate to the North over the shallows without showing a substantial deflection to the right due to the Earth's rotation. The inflow follows the topography. The different inflow and outflow pathways are explained as a consequence of the specific combination of bathymetry, axial and lateral processes. The circulation in Kattegat is persistently clockwise with an eastern intensification during inflow and a western one during outflow regimes. The tidal wave there propagates as Kelvin wave, keeping the coast on its right. The flows in the two main straits reveal very different responses to tides, which are also highly asymmetric during inflow and outflow conditions. The circulation has a typical two-layer structure, the correlation between salinity and velocity tends to increase the salt transport in the salinity conveyor belt. The transversal circulation in the entrance of the Sound enhances the vertical mixing of the saltier North Sea water. The long-term averaged ratio of the water transports through the Great Belt and the Sound is ∼2.6-2.7 but this number changes reaching lower values during the major inflow in 1993. The transports in the straits are asymmetric. During inflow events the repartition of water penetrating the Baltic Sea is strongly in favor of the pathway through the Sound, which provides

  2. Phytoplankton of the North Sea and its dynamics: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, P. C.; Lancelot, C.; Gieskes, W. W. C.; Hagmeier, E.; Weichart, G.

    Phytoplankton is the major contributor to algal biomass and primary production of the North Sea, although crops of macroalgae can locally be up to 2000 g C.m -2 along the coast of the U.K. and Norway, and microphytobenthos dominates production in the shallow tidal flat areas bordering the coasts of England, the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. Data collected since 1932 during the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey show consistent patterns of geographical, seasonal and annual variation in the distribution of phytoplankton and its major taxonomic components. There is a trend of increased colouration in Recorder silks in the southern North Sea until approximately 1975 since when Colour levels (assumed to be indicative of algal biomass) have declined. In the eutrophic Dutch Wadden Sea the algal crop continued to increase; in Dutch coastal North Sea waters a trend of biomass increase reversed since 1984, apparently due to a reduction in Rhine river outflow. Long-term observations made at Helgoland since the 60's also show trends of increasing nutrients and phytoplankton biomass only to 1984. Adverse effects such as deoxygenation, foam formation and toxin production have been linked to mass concentrations of algae known as blooms. There is no evidence from existing reports for an increase in their frequency, although some years stand out with larger numbers. Occurrence of blooms can partly be explained by hydrographic conditions. More than 30 taxa are recognised as occurring in bloom proportions in the North Sea, approximately one third of which can be toxic. The crop of Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) is not likely to increase with eutrophication due to silicate limitation. An extensive subsurface maximum of armoured dinoflagellates, its abundance gouverned by hydrographic conditions, is the most characteristic feature of the central and northern North Sea in the summer months. Abundance, sometimes dominance, of picoplankton and of species that are not readily detected by

  3. The North Sea Andrea storm and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitner-Gregersen, E. M.; Fernandez, L.; Lefèvre, J. M.; Monbaliu, J.; Toffoli, A.

    2014-06-01

    A coupling of a spectral wave model with a nonlinear phase-resolving model is used to reconstruct the evolution of wave statistics during a storm crossing the North Sea on 8-9 November 2007. During this storm a rogue wave (named the Andrea wave) was recorded at the Ekofisk field. The wave has characteristics comparable to the well-known New Year wave measured by Statoil at the Draupner platform 1 January 1995. Hindcast data of the storm at the nearest grid point to the Ekofisk field are here applied as input to calculate the evolution of random realizations of the sea surface and its statistical properties. Numerical simulations are carried out using the Euler equations with a higher-order spectral method (HOSM). Results are compared with some characteristics of the Andrea wave record measured by the down-looking lasers at Ekofisk.

  4. Marine litter ensemble transport simulations in the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Daniel; Callies, Ulrich; Matthies, Michael

    2014-09-15

    The drift of marine litter in the southern North Sea was simulated with the offline Lagrangian transport model PELETS-2D. Assuming different source regions, passive tracer particles were released every 28 h within a nine-year period. Based on pre-calculated hourly wind and ocean current data, drift simulations were carried out forward and backward in time with and without the assumption of extra wind forces influencing particle movement. Due to strong variability of currents, backward simulations did not allow for the identification of particular source regions influencing given monitoring sites. Neither accumulation regions at open sea could be identified by forward simulations. A seasonal signal, however, could be identified in the number of tracer particles that reached the coastal areas. Both particle drift velocity and variability of drift paths further increased when an extra wind drift was assumed. PMID:25125287

  5. Fishing effects on energy use by North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Simon; van Hal, Ralf; Hiddink, Jan G.; Maxwell, Tracy A. D.

    Fishing affects patterns of energy use in fish populations, as demonstrated by changes in population energy consumption and the size and age when energy demands are greatest. We compare theoretical predictions and observed patterns of energy use (expressed as the primary production required to support fish production) by North Sea fish, based on simple and widely applicable theory that links life history parameters, fishing mortality ( F), trophic transfer efficiency and relationships between size and trophic level (as determined using nitrogen stable isotope analysis). For the demersal species that dominate total biomass, relationships between size and trophic level were quite consistent among years. There were large decreases in relative energy requirements of all exploited demersal populations except plaice Pleuronectes platessa during the last 3 to 4 decades. Relative energy requirements of plaice were more stable because smaller plaice, which now dominate the exploited population, feed at higher trophic levels than larger plaice. The sizes and ages when population energy demands were greatest fell with increasing fishing mortality and differences between the predicted ( F = 0) and observed ages at maximum energy demand were greater in larger species. Currently, the energy demands of most species peak early in life (1-3 years) and largely reflect patterns of recruitment, leading to a homogenisation of the trophodynamics of the fish community. The fate of energy that is no longer used by commercially exploited species is not clear, partly because of the infrequent and untargeted monitoring of species that are more resilient to fishing. However, we conducted a preliminary assessment of the energy demands of solenette Buglossidium luteum, a very abundant small flatfish in the central North Sea that has increased in abundance in recent years. The solenette's high abundance and resilience to fishing, suggests that it now requires 35% of primary production in part of

  6. Wasp-Waist Interactions in the North Sea Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Fauchald, Per; Skov, Henrik; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Johns, David; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-01-01

    Background In a “wasp-waist” ecosystem, an intermediate trophic level is expected to control the abundance of predators through a bottom-up interaction and the abundance of prey through a top-down interaction. Previous studies suggest that the North Sea is mainly governed by bottom-up interactions driven by climate perturbations. However, few studies have investigated the importance of the intermediate trophic level occupied by small pelagic fishes. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the numeric interactions among 10 species of seabirds, two species of pelagic fish and four groups of zooplankton in the North Sea using decadal-scale databases. Linear models were used to relate the time series of zooplankton and seabirds to the time series of pelagic fish. Seabirds were positively related to herring (Clupea harengus), suggesting a bottom-up interaction. Two groups of zooplankton; Calanus helgolandicus and krill were negatively related to sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring respectively, suggesting top-down interactions. In addition, we found positive relationships among the zooplankton groups. Para/pseudocalanus was positively related to C. helgolandicus and C. finmarchicus was positively related to krill. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that herring was important in regulating the abundance of seabirds through a bottom-up interaction and that herring and sprat were important in regulating zooplankton through top-down interactions. We suggest that the positive relationships among zooplankton groups were due to selective foraging and switching in the two clupeid fishes. Our results suggest that “wasp-waist” interactions might be more important in the North Sea than previously anticipated. Fluctuations in the populations of pelagic fish due to harvesting and depletion of their predators might accordingly have profound consequences for ecosystem dynamics through trophic cascades. PMID:21829494

  7. Sea Ice and Hydrographic Variability in the Northwest North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenty, I. G.; Heimbach, P.; Wunsch, C. I.

    2010-12-01

    Sea ice anomalies in the Northwest North Atlantic's Labrador Sea are of climatic interest because of known and hypothesized feedbacks with hydrographic anomalies, deep convection/mode water formation, and Northern Hemisphere atmospheric patterns. As greenhouse gas concentrations increase, hydrographic anomalies formed in the Arctic Ocean associated with warming will propagate into the Labrador Sea via the Fram Strait/West Greenland Current and the Canadian Archipelago/Baffin Island Current. Therefore, understanding the dynamical response of sea ice in the basin to hydrographic anomalies is essential for the prediction and interpretation of future high-latitude climate change. Historically, efforts to quantify the link between the observed sea ice and hydrographic variability in the region has been limited due to in situ observation paucity and technical challenges associated with synthesizing ocean and sea ice observations with numerical models. To elaborate the relationship between sea ice and ocean variability, we create three one-year (1992-1993, 1996-1997, 2003-2004) three-dimensional time-varying reconstructions of the ocean and sea ice state in Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The reconstructions are syntheses of a regional coupled 32 km ocean-sea ice model with a suite of contemporary in situ and satellite hydrographic and ice data using the adjoint method. The model and data are made consistent, in a least-squares sense, by iteratively adjusting several model control variables (e.g., ocean initial and lateral boundary conditions and the atmospheric state) to minimize an uncertainty-weighted model-data misfit cost function. The reconstructions reveal that the ice pack attains a state of quasi-equilibrium in mid-March (the annual sea ice maximum) in which the total ice-covered area reaches a steady state -ice production and dynamical divergence along the coasts balances dynamical convergence and melt along the pack’s seaward edge. Sea ice advected to the

  8. Drivers of summer oxygen depletion in the central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queste, B. Y.; Fernand, L.; Jickells, T. D.; Heywood, K. J.; Hind, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    In stratified shelf seas, oxygen depletion beneath the thermocline is a result of a greater rate of biological oxygen demand than the rate of supply of oxygenated water. Suitably equipped gliders are uniquely placed to observe both the supply through the thermocline and the consumption of oxygen in the bottom layers. A Seaglider was deployed in the shallow (≈ 100 m) stratified North Sea in a region of known low oxygen during August 2011 to investigate the processes regulating supply and consumption of dissolved oxygen below the pycnocline. The first deployment of such a device in this area, it provided extremely high resolution observations, 316 profiles (every 16 min, vertical resolution of 1 m) of CTD, dissolved oxygen concentrations, backscatter and fluorescence during a three day deployment. The high temporal resolution observations revealed occasional small scale events that supply oxygenated water into the bottom layer at a rate of 2±1 μmol dm-3 day-1. Benthic and pelagic oxygen sinks, quantified through glider observations and past studies, indicate more gradual background consumption rates of 2.5±1 μmol dm-3 day-1. This budget revealed that the balance of oxygen supply and demand is in agreement with previous studies of the North Sea. However, the glider data show a net oxygen consumption rate of 2.8±0.3 μmol dm-3 day-1 indicating a localised or short-lived increase in oxygen consumption rates. This high rate of oxygen consumption is indicative of an unidentified oxygen sink. We propose that this elevated oxygen consumption is linked to localised depocentres and rapid remineralisation of resuspensded organic matter. The glider proved to be an excellent tool for monitoring shelf sea processes despite challenges to glider flight posed by high tidal velocities, shallow bathymetry, and very strong density gradients. The direct observation of these processes allows more up to date rates to be used in the development of ecosystem models.

  9. A simulation of the Southern North Sea in comparison with measurements from the North Sea Project. Part 1: Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason T.; James, Ian D.

    1999-06-01

    The accurate simulation of the annual cycle and vertical structure of temperature is crucial to biological and water quality modelling in shelf-seas. As a precursor to these applications, we present a three-dimensional baroclinic simulation of the southern North Sea at the time of the North Sea Project (NSP), with density controlled by a prognostically evolving temperature field forced by surface heat fluxes from bulk formulae. The model results are compared, on a point for point basis, with CTD data from the NSP. The annual cycles in mean temperature, mean surface to bed temperature difference and mean thermocline depth, and the extent of the summer stratification are found to be in good agreement. Overall, the correlation between modelled and observed temperature is r2=0.95 for the depth mean component and r2=0.64 for the depth varying component. The rms deviation is about 1 degree. We assess the sources of these errors and the performance of the Mellor-Yamada level 2.5 turbulence closure as implemented in this model.

  10. Simulation and Prediction of North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienert, Fabian

    The first part of this thesis is an assessment of the ability of global climate models to reproduce observed features of the leading Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) mode of North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies known as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). My results are that 1) the models as group produce a realistic pattern of the PDO. The simulated variance of the PDO index is overestimated by roughly 30%. 2) The tropical influence on North Pacific SSTs is biased systematically in these models. The simulated response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forcing is delayed compared to the observed response. This tendency is consistent with model biases toward deeper oceanic mixed layers in winter and spring and weaker air-sea feedbacks in the winter half-year. Model biases in mixed layer depths and air-sea feedbacks are also associated with a model mean ENSO-related signal in the North Pacific whose amplitude is overestimated by roughly 30%. Finally, model power spectra of the PDO signal and its ENSO-forced component are "redder" than observed due to errors originating in the tropics and extratropics. 3) The models are quite successful at capturing the influence of both the tropical Pacific related and the extratropical part of the PDO on North American surface temperature. 4) The models capture some of the influence of the PDO on North American precipitation mainly due to its tropical Pacific related part. In the second part of this thesis, I investigate the ability of one such coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model, carefully initialized with observations, to dynamically predict the future evolution of the PDO on seasonal to decadal time scales. I find that 1) CHFP2 is successful at predicting the PDO at the seasonal time scale measured by mean-square skill score and correlation skill. Weather "noise" unpredictable at the seasonal time scale generated by substantial North Pacific storm track activity that coincides with a shallow oceanic

  11. Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus Isolated from North Sea Oil Field Reservoir Water

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, R. K.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-01-01

    Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus ST22 was isolated from produced water of a North Sea oil field, on mineral medium with H(inf2)-CO(inf2) as the sole source of carbon and energy. The isolate grew at 17 to 62(deg)C, with an optimum at 60(deg)C. The pH range was 4.9 to 9.8, with optimal growth at pH 5.1 to 5.9; these characteristics reflected its habitat. Strain ST22 was quickly identified and distinguished from the type strain by immunoblotting. PMID:16535247

  12. Quantifying the importance of sediment resuspension for the North Sea and Baltic Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Cara; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute; Fennel, Katja; Castaño Primo, Rocío

    2014-05-01

    Including sedimentary processes such as resuspension in marine coupled bio-physical models is crucial to realistically simulate the dynamics of biologically important chemical variables (e.g oxygen and the macro-nutrients nitrate, phosphate and silicate). These comprise diffusive release of dissolved nutrients and resuspension of particulate organic material, which occurs when a critical bottom shear stress (τcrit) acting on the sediment particles is exceeded. In global and regional modelling approaches sediment-water exchange is often parametrized by sedimentation and constant release rates and dynamic resuspension resolving the tidal cycle is often neglected in coupled physical-biological ecosystem models. During resuspension, sediment particles get transported back into the water column. Thereby, both the turbidity of the water and nutrient availability by releasing dissolved nutrients from the pore-water are changed. Since both light and nutrients are limiting factors in primary production, it is near by hand to suspect resuspension to play an important role in the growth of phytoplankton. Here, we assess the role of resuspension and its dynamic consideration for the modelled productivity and CO2 air-sea exchange in the North Sea and Baltic Sea using the coupled 3D physical-biological model ECOSMO. ECOSMO is a coupled hydrodynamic-sea ice-NPZD-carbonate-system model and is implemented for the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Its ecosystem module includes interactions between three functional groups of phytoplankton, two of zooplankton, detritus, oxygen, three nutrient cycles (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate) and sediment pools. In the North Sea, wind forcing and strong tides lead to a frequent exceedance of the critical bottom shear stress and therefore, resuspension events take place regularly, especially in the shallow coastal areas where the tidal range is largest. Here, the model results indicate a clear increase in estimated primary production when dynamical

  13. Recent trends in Sea ice in the southern and western Baltic and the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holfort, Jürgen; Schmelzer, Natalija; Schwegmann, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed sea ice charts and observations of a 50 year long period starting in 1961 to produce two climatological ice atlases, one for the western and southern Baltic and one for the German Bight and Limfjord. As the year to year variability is large we subdivided the 50 year into three overlapping 30 year periods (1961-1990, 1971-2000 and 1981-2010) to look for trends in the sea ice. In the southern and western Baltic as well as in the North Sea there was a clear decrease in the total frequency of ice occurrence. Other parameters like begin and end of the ice season, ice thickness, etc. did not show such clear signal and also showed larger regional differences. The ice conditions mainly changed in accordance with the changes in air temperature in the same period, although some more regional changes in some parameters were most probably also influenced by other factors like the deepening of fairways.

  14. The influence of Black Sea Water inflow and its synoptic time-scale variability in the North Aegean Sea hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavropoulou, Apostolia-Maria; Mantziafou, Anneta; Jarosz, Ewa; Sofianos, Sarantis

    2016-02-01

    The exchange water fluxes between the Black Sea and the North Aegean Sea through the Dardanelles Strait constitute an essential factor for the general circulation of the region. The Black Sea Water (BSW) inflow to the Aegean plays an important role in the hydrography and circulation of the basin and can affect the North Aegean deep water formation processes. Numerical experiments evaluating the influence of the time-scale variability (synoptic and seasonal) and the seasonality (period of maximum/minimum) of the Black Sea Water inflow on the dynamics of the North Aegean basin were performed. The experiments were carried out for the period from August 2008 to October 2009, using observed upper and lower-layer fluxes from the Dardanelles Strait, high-resolution atmospheric forcing, and boundary conditions derived from an operational system (ALERMO). The large-scale spatial patterns of the circulation and the seasonal variability of the North Aegean circulation show that dynamics of the basin can effectively absorb most of the Black Sea Water inflow variability. The overall cyclonic circulation of the North Aegean Sea and the predominant cyclonic and anti-cyclonic features are robust and are little affected by the different lateral fluxes. However, differences in the seasonality of the BSW inflow have an important impact in the North Aegean water column structure, while the synoptic variability observed in the Black Sea Water inflow affects the kinetic energy of the basin and the pathway of the Black Sea Water plume.

  15. Seasonality of floc strength in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Zande, Dimitry; Eynde, Dries; Joon Lee, Byung

    2014-03-01

    The suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration in the high turbidity zones of the southern North Sea is inversely correlated with chlorophyll (Chl) concentration. During winter, SPM concentration is high and Chl concentration is low and vice versa during summer. This seasonality has often been associated with the seasonal pattern in wind forcing. However, the decrease in SPM concentration corresponds well with the spring algal bloom. Does the decrease of SPM concentration caused by changing wind conditions cause the start of algae bloom, or does the algae bloom decrease SPM concentrations through enhanced flocculation and deposition? To answer the question, measurements from 2011 of particle size distribution (PSD), SPM, and Chl concentrations from the southern North Sea have been analyzed. The results indicate that the frequency of occurrence of macroflocs has a seasonal signal, while seasonality has little impact upon floc size. The data from a highly turbid coastal zone suggest that the maximum size of the macroflocs is controlled by turbulence and the available flocculation time during a tidal cycle, but the strength of the macroflocs is controlled by the availability of sticky organic substances associated with enhanced primary production during spring and summer. The results highlight the shift from mainly microflocs and flocculi in winter toward more muddy marine snow with larger amounts of macroflocs in spring and summer. The macroflocs will reduce the SPM concentrations in the turbidity maximum area as they settle faster. Consequently, the SPM concentration decreases and the light condition increases in the surface layer enhancing algae growth further.

  16. Reevaluation of mid-Pliocene North Atlantic sea surface temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dwyer, Gary S.; Lawrence, Kira T.

    2008-01-01

    Multiproxy temperature estimation requires careful attention to biological, chemical, physical, temporal, and calibration differences of each proxy and paleothermometry method. We evaluated mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from multiple proxies at Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes 552A, 609B, 607, and 606, transecting the North Atlantic Drift. SST estimates derived from faunal assemblages, foraminifer Mg/Ca, and alkenone unsaturation indices showed strong agreement at Holes 552A, 607, and 606 once differences in calibration, depth, and seasonality were addressed. Abundant extinct species and/or an unrecognized productivity signal in the faunal assemblage at Hole 609B resulted in exaggerated faunal-based SST estimates but did not affect alkenone-derived or Mg/Ca–derived estimates. Multiproxy mid-Pliocene North Atlantic SST estimates corroborate previous studies documenting high-latitude mid-Pliocene warmth and refine previous faunal-based estimates affected by environmental factors other than temperature. Multiproxy investigations will aid SST estimation in high-latitude areas sensitive to climate change and currently underrepresented in SST reconstructions.

  17. Seasonal oxygen depletion in the North Sea, a review.

    PubMed

    Topcu, H D; Brockmann, U H

    2015-10-15

    Seasonal mean oxygen depletion in offshore and coastal North Sea bottom waters was shown to range between 0.9 and 1.8 mg/L, corresponding to 95-83% saturation, between July and October over a 30-year assessment period (1980-2010). The magnitude of oxygen depletion was controlled by thermal stratification, modulated by water depth and nitrogen availability. Analyses were based on about 19,000 combined data sets. Eutrophication problem areas were identified mainly in coastal waters by oxygen minima, the lower 10th percentile of oxygen concentrations, and deviations of oxygen depletion from correlated stratification values. Connections between oxygen consumption and nitrogen sources and conversion, including denitrification, were indicated by correlations. Mean oxygen consumption reflected a minimum seasonal turnover of 3.1 g N/m(2) in the south-eastern North Sea, including denitrification of 1 g N/m(2). Oxygen depletion was underestimated in shallow coastal waters due to repeated erosion of stratification as indicated by local high variability. PMID:26234616

  18. Freespan analysis, correction method saves time on North Sea project

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, D.; Ingram, J. ); Galbraith, D.N.; Davies, R. )

    1994-02-21

    A new procedure for assessing and rectifying subsea pipeline free-spans was successfully used in 1992 in Mobil North Sea Ltd.'s Beryl field and the Scottish Areas Gas Evacuation (SAGE) pipeline. The span-assessment methods is in two parts, each part having two stages, and consists of preliminary stress and vibration-frequency checks followed by detailed strain and fatigue-life checks where appropriate. Comprehensive software, automatically linked to an inspection data base, has been written to allow efficient use of the methodology. Results from the freespan assessment indicate that the assessment procedure, and in particular the strain-based and fatigue analyses, gave significant savings in terms of reduced number of free-spans for rectification. Critical freespans were stabilized by grout bags positioned by an ROV. The ROV-based system enabled both risks and costs to be reduced in a normally hazardous and costly environment, and utilized technology already on board a pipeline-inspection vessel. The overall freespan assessment and rectification program represents a significant step forward for Mobil North Sea in terms of reducing costs, while simultaneously improving the speed and simplicity of free-span assessment.

  19. New 67-year long wave hindcast for the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groll, Nikolaus; Teich, Tobias; Grabemann, Iris; Weisse, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    The knowledge of long-term changes and statistics of the wave climate is not only important for climate studies but also for a variety of marine applications, such as off-shore wind farms, operational shipping and coastal infrastructures. For analysing long-term wave climate variability long consistent wave datasets are necessary. Observations normally cannot provide long enough time series and are spatially too heterogeneous to investigate long-term climate variability. Numerical simulations forced by consistent atmospheric conditions are able to provide such information. Here we present a new high spatial (3-by-3 NM) and temporal (hourly) resolved wave hindcast for the entire North Sea for the period 1948-2014 performed within the framework of coastDat. This wave simulation is based on a regional atmospheric hindcast driven by the NCEP1 reanalysis with a spectral nudging of the large-scale wind fields. A comparison of the wave hindcast with buoy and satellite data indicate a relatively good agreement. First analysis of the decadal variability of mean and extreme wave conditions of the North Sea show an increase of the significant wave height with the largest increase during the 1990s and a small decline afterwards.

  20. Sources of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Norwegian Sea: Evidence from their spatial distribution in surface water.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Gerwinski, Wolfgang; Theobald, Norbert; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    The spatial distribution of 15 polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in surface water was investigated in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Norwegian Sea. In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the sampling techniques and analysis was conducted. Highest concentration in the North Sea was found near the coast, whereas the summation operatorPFC concentration decreased rapidly from 18.4 to 0.07 ng l(-1) towards the open North Sea. The river Elbe could identify as a local input source for PFCs into the North Sea, whereas perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was transported into the sampling area with the easterly current. In contrast to the North Sea, the distribution of PFCs in the Baltic Sea was relatively homogenous, where diffuse sources dominated. In general, the composition profile was influenced from local sources caused by human activities, whereas atmospheric depositions of here analysed PFCs were negligible, but it could have possibly an influence on low contaminated sites like the open North Sea or Norwegian Sea. PMID:19818459

  1. The Interrelation between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the mean sea level at the Baltic Sea-North Sea coastlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassal Mahmood, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Large changes in the wintertime atmospheric circulation had occurred since the mid of 1970s over the Atlantic Ocean basin of the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The variations over the North Atlantic were related to changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), in which, the (NAO) has accompanied by a northeast shift between the continents 40 oN - 70 oN and tended to remain in one extreme positive phase over Europe and downstream over Eurasia. These changes have pronounced effects on the regional distributions of the mean sea level at Baltic Sea - North Sea coastlines. Detecting the impacts of the (NAO) on the mean sea levels, have done by correlation coefficient. The relative mean sea level trends have estimated before and after removing the average seasonal cycle with correction for all series residuals. In this respect, Pearson correlation and standard ordinary univariate linear regression models have applied on 86 data stations series of the mean sea level in boreal winter months (December, January, February) and season DJF (average of December, January, February months) time scales over the period (1960 - 2010). The changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation over the periods (1977-1994, 1981-1994) in boreal winter season DJF condition have detected in the mean sea level anomalies. Each of the mean sea level anomalies is linked to the behavior of the (NAO) anomaly by using the standard ordinary bivariate linear regression models. Where, the averages of the mean sea level anomalies are the residual of strong regional patterns of changes, and the anomalies average for each data series have recomputed linearly related to the variations in (NAO+) indices. The formal regression models have estimated strictly by using high accurately methods for satisfying all regression assumptions absolutely, (i.e., for univariate regression: - the observed values of the dependent variable are subject to errors which have zero mean such: normality (if violated, the nonparametric method

  2. The internal consistency of the North Sea carbonate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Bozec, Yann; Borges, Alberto V.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2016-05-01

    In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were measured on two re-occupations of the entire North Sea basin, with three parameters (AT, DIC, pCO2) measured on four additional re-occupations, covering all four seasons, allowing an assessment of the internal consistency of the carbonate system. For most of the year, there is a similar level of internal consistency, with AT being calculated to within ± 6 μmol kg- 1 using DIC and pH, DIC to ± 6 μmol kg- 1 using AT and pH, pH to ± 0.008 using AT and pCO2, and pCO2 to ± 8 μatm using DIC and pH, with the dissociation constants of Millero et al. (2006). In spring, however, we observe a significant decline in the ability to accurately calculate the carbonate system. Lower consistency is observed with an increasing fraction of Baltic Sea water, caused by the high contribution of organic alkalinity in this water mass, not accounted for in the carbonate system calculations. Attempts to improve the internal consistency by accounting for the unconventional salinity-borate relationships in freshwater and the Baltic Sea, and through application of the new North Atlantic salinity-boron relationship (Lee et al., 2010), resulted in no significant difference in the internal consistency.

  3. Modelling the impact of Black Sea water inflow on the North Aegean Sea hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzali, Margarita; Sofianos, Sarantis; Mantziafou, Anneta; Skliris, Nikolaos

    2010-06-01

    The impact of the Black Sea Water (BSW) inflow on the circulation and the water mass characteristics of the North Aegean Sea is investigated using a high-resolution 3D numerical model. Four climatological numerical experiments are performed exploring the effects of the exchange amplitude at the Dardanelles Straits in terms of the mean annual volume exchanged and the amplitude of its seasonal cycle. Larger inflow of low salinity BSW influences the water characteristics of the whole basin. The largest salinity reduction is encountered in the upper layers of the water column, and the most affected region is the northeastern part of the basin. The winter insulation character of the BSW layer (low-salinity layer) is reduced by the seasonal cycle of the inflow (minimum during winter). The maximum atmospheric cooling coincides with the minimum BSW inflow rate, weakening the vertical density gradients close to the surface and thus facilitating the vertical mixing. The inflow rate of BSW into the North Aegean Sea constitutes an essential factor for the circulation in the basin. Increased inflow rate results into considerably higher kinetic energy, stronger circulation and reinforcement of the mesoscale circulation features. Although the position of the front between BSW and waters of Levantine origin does not vary significantly with the intensity of the BSW inflow rate, the flow along the front becomes stronger and more unstable as the inflow rate increases, forming meanders and rings. The changes in the intensity of BSW inflow rate overpower the wind and thermohaline forcing and largely determine the general circulation of the North Aegean Sea.

  4. Estimating decadal variability in sea level from tide gauge records: An application to the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo; Slobbe, Cornelis; Broerse, Taco; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-03-01

    One of the primary observational data sets of sea level is represented by the tide gauge record. We propose a new method to estimate variability on decadal time scales from tide gauge data by using a state space formulation, which couples the direct observations to a predefined state space model by using a Kalman filter. The model consists of a time-varying trend and seasonal cycle, and variability induced by several physical processes, such as wind, atmospheric pressure changes and teleconnection patterns. This model has two advantages over the classical least-squares method that uses regression to explain variations due to known processes: a seasonal cycle with time-varying phase and amplitude can be estimated, and the trend is allowed to vary over time. This time-varying trend consists of a secular trend and low-frequency variability that is not explained by any other term in the model. As a test case, we have used tide gauge data from stations around the North Sea over the period 1980-2013. We compare a model that only estimates a trend with two models that also remove intra-annual variability: one by means of time series of wind stress and sea level pressure, and one by using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The last two models explain a large part of the variability, which significantly improves the accuracy of the estimated time-varying trend. The best results are obtained with the hydrodynamic model. We find a consistent low-frequency sea level signal in the North Sea, which can be linked to a steric signal over the northeastern part of the Atlantic.

  5. Brief: Offshore North Sea case histories of the environmentally friendly testing vessel, the Crystal Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Tjelta, O.; Ashwell, C.; Hilmarsen, G.; Taylor, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    One problem during offshore well-test operations, stimulations, and routine workovers are discharges into the air and sea while flaring. These procedures are usually performed by mobile drilling rigs with no storage capacity, and thus, hydrocarbons sequestered must be burned off from the rig flare booms. Another major problem has been the inability of the flare to operate at high flow rates. Because the burning process slows the pace of a test, restricting full flow testing, valuable well information is lost. Flaring of hydrocarbons also represents an economic loss. In the case of oil rigs, for example, flaring not only emits CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere but also burns off usable oil. The Crystal Sea well-test vessel was designed to address the problems inherent to flaring and, at the same time, provide cost efficiency by salvaging usable oil during well testing. The success of her initial two jobs on the Statfjord North satellite field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea confirms that sale of the salvaged oil normally lost during the flaring process could generate sufficient economic return to pay for the vessel. In addition, with its capability to receive products at twice the flow rate of conventional methods, the increased accuracy of the technical information obtained from the well test further enhances its value for improved reservoir management.

  6. Drivers of summer oxygen depletion in the central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queste, Bastien Y.; Fernand, Liam; Jickells, Timothy D.; Heywood, Karen J.; Hind, Andrew J.

    2016-02-01

    In stratified shelf seas, oxygen depletion beneath the thermocline is a result of a greater rate of biological oxygen demand than the rate of supply of oxygenated water. Suitably equipped gliders are uniquely placed to observe both the supply through the thermocline and the consumption of oxygen in the bottom layers. A Seaglider was deployed in the shallow (≍ 100 m) stratified North Sea in a region of known low oxygen during August 2011 to investigate the processes regulating supply and consumption of dissolved oxygen below the pycnocline. The first deployment of such a device in this area, it provided extremely high-resolution observations, 316 profiles (every 16 min, vertical resolution of 1 m) of conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD), dissolved oxygen concentrations, backscatter, and fluorescence during a 3-day deployment.The high temporal resolution observations revealed occasional small-scale events (< 200 m or 6 h) that supply oxygenated water to the bottom layer at a rate of 2 ± 1 µmol dm-3 day-1. Benthic and pelagic oxygen sinks, quantified through glider observations and past studies, indicate more gradual background consumption rates of 2.5 ± 1 µmol dm-3 day-1. This budget revealed that the balance of oxygen supply and demand is in agreement with previous studies of the North Sea. However, the glider data show a net oxygen consumption rate of 2.8 ± 0.3 µmol dm-3 day-1, indicating a localized or short-lived (< 200 m or 6 h) increase in oxygen consumption rates. This high rate of oxygen consumption is indicative of an unidentified oxygen sink. We propose that this elevated oxygen consumption is linked to localized depocentres and rapid remineralization of resuspended organic matter.The glider proved to be an excellent tool for monitoring shelf sea processes despite challenges to glider flight posed by high tidal velocities, shallow bathymetry, and very strong density gradients. The direct observation of these processes allows more up to date

  7. Impact of spatial resolution of ocean models in depicting climate change patterns of the North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Nikesh; Klein, Birgit; Mathis, Moritz; Klein, Holger; Mikolajewicz, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The impact of enhanced spatial resolution of models in simulating large scale climate change has been of interest for the modeling community for quite some time. It has been noticed in previous studies that the pattern of Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are better captured by higher resolution models. Significant changes in simulating sea-ice loss associated with global warming was also noticed when the spatial resolution of climate models were enhanced. Spatial resolution is a particular important issue in climate change scenarios of shelf seas such as the North Sea. The North Sea is strongly influenced by its water mass exchanges with North Atlantic to the west and north and Baltic Sea to east. Furthermore, local forcing and changes in advected water masses significantly affect the thermodynamics and stratification patterns in the North Sea, making it a challenging area to study. Under the newly started RACE2 project we are looking at global simulations of Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 at lower and higher resolutions, performed using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPIESM). The model resolution is non uniform and achieves the highest resolution over the European Seas by shifting the model poles over Chicago and Central Europe. In the high resolution run, the grid reaches up to a spatial resolution of up to 4 km in part of the German Bight and close to 20 km in the Northern part of North Sea. The placement of model poles at specific locations enables the global model to obtain higher resolution at regional scales (North Sea), without the inherent complications of open boundary conditions. High and low resolution simulations will be compared to determine differences in spatial and temporal pattern of temperature anomalies, fresh water intrusion from the Baltic Sea to North Sea etc. Also taken into consideration will be the changes in simulating local sea level change and response to basin scale oscillations like NAO.

  8. Shoreline responses to storm impacts: North Norfolk coast, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Sue; Spencer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Recent phases of enhanced mid-latitude storminess (e.g. NW European winter of 2013 - 14) have led to a growing awareness of the considerable impacts of storms on coastal landscapes and their communities. Using aerial photography, bi-annual cross-shore profiles, detailed alongshore ground survey, and offshore/inshore wave buoy and regional tide gauge datasets, this paper considers storm impacts on the barrier coastline of North Norfolk, UK. Firstly, at Scolt Head Island, we show that the barrier dune crest has been progressively set back landwards since 2006 in three storm-related phases, with each shoreline translation being of the order of 5-8 m. However, a fourth storm produced no significant shoreline change, demonstrating that the threshold for morphological change is a function of the combined effects of still water level and wave height at the shore, the magnitude and duration of these components, and the timing of their interaction. Secondly, we consider recovery times in the system against periods of quiescence and heightened storm activity on this coast. Thirdly, it has been argued that future changes in extreme water level will be governed by mean sea level rise. Long-term rates of North Norfolk barrier retreat (1.15 m a-1, 1891-2013) have occurred under a regional rate of relative sea level rise over the 20th century of 2.7 ± 0.4 mm a-1 (Lowestoft tide gauge, 1900-2014). If there is a broad correlation between rates of barrier retreat and sea level rise, then recent increases in the rate of regional sea level rise (4.4 ± 1.1 mm a-1, 1993-2011) imply a considerable acceleration in the rate of barrier migration over the remainder of the 21st century.

  9. Design approaches for avoiding PWHT of North Sea offshore platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, A.K.; Barraclough, C.H.T.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a review of the application of fracture mechanics to offshore platforms designed for the British sector North Sea. Since the earliest days post weld heat treatment (PWHT) has been extensively applied, in order to ensure adequate resistance to brittle fracture. The alternative approach, permitted by the regulations, of justifying leaving joints as-welded by the use of fracture mechanics, is also extensively practiced. This paper describes one design approach which is considered to account for the real behavior of engineering materials and which takes account of the reality of low toughness found in heat affected zones, the uncertainties of NDT practice and defect sizing and the pattern of residual stresses and fatigue crack growth behavior. The difficulties which arise are presented and the paper illustrates the dilemma that modern weight efficient structures are more likely to require PWHT than heavier structures with lower design stresses and longer fatigue lives.

  10. The 14 month wind stressed residual circulation (pole tide) in the North Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnor, W. P.

    1986-01-01

    From published research it is known that a quasi-periodic 14 month atmospheric pressure oscillation of a few tenths of a millibar exists in the region of the North and Baltic Seas. At some time in the cycle the associated wind stress has a westerly component that drives a circulation in the North Sea. The results of a dynamical model and comparisons with several North Sea residual circulation studies show that a large sea level gradient results along the Dutch coast. It is this feature that has been referred to as the enhanced pole tide. The dynamical similarity of this pole tide in the North and Baltic Seas to the annual and seasonal wind forced circulations is considered. It is inferred that the large deviations of the pole tide from equilibrium at coastal stations are the result of this sea level set up forces by the 14 month wind stress cycle.

  11. Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Jeffrey R; Merckelbach, Lucas; Callies, Ulrich; Clark, Suzanna; Gaslikova, Lidia; Baschek, Burkard

    2016-01-01

    Advances in offshore wind farm (OWF) technology have recently led to their construction in coastal waters that are deep enough to be seasonally stratified. As tidal currents move past the OWF foundation structures they generate a turbulent wake that will contribute to a mixing of the stratified water column. In this study we show that the mixing generated in this way may have a significant impact on the large-scale stratification of the German Bight region of the North Sea. This region is chosen as the focus of this study since the planning of OWFs is particularly widespread. Using a combination of idealised modelling and in situ measurements, we provide order-of-magnitude estimates of two important time scales that are key to understanding the impacts of OWFs: (i) a mixing time scale, describing how long a complete mixing of the stratification takes, and (ii) an advective time scale, quantifying for how long a water parcel is expected to undergo enhanced wind farm mixing. The results are especially sensitive to both the drag coefficient and type of foundation structure, as well as the evolution of the pycnocline under enhanced mixing conditions-both of which are not well known. With these limitations in mind, the results show that OWFs could impact the large-scale stratification, but only when they occupy extensive shelf regions. They are expected to have very little impact on large-scale stratification at the current capacity in the North Sea, but the impact could be significant in future large-scale development scenarios. PMID:27513754

  12. Archaeoglobus fulgidus Isolated from Hot North Sea Oil Field Waters

    PubMed Central

    Beeder, Janiche; Nilsen, Roald Kåre; Rosnes, Jan Thomas; Torsvik, Terje; Lien, Torleiv

    1994-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75°C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 μm wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85°C with an optimum of 76°C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H2 were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO2. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that lactate was oxidized to CO2 via the acetyl coenzyme A/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F420 was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil field waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85°C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment. Images PMID:16349231

  13. Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Jeffrey R.; Merckelbach, Lucas; Callies, Ulrich; Clark, Suzanna; Gaslikova, Lidia; Baschek, Burkard

    2016-01-01

    Advances in offshore wind farm (OWF) technology have recently led to their construction in coastal waters that are deep enough to be seasonally stratified. As tidal currents move past the OWF foundation structures they generate a turbulent wake that will contribute to a mixing of the stratified water column. In this study we show that the mixing generated in this way may have a significant impact on the large-scale stratification of the German Bight region of the North Sea. This region is chosen as the focus of this study since the planning of OWFs is particularly widespread. Using a combination of idealised modelling and in situ measurements, we provide order-of-magnitude estimates of two important time scales that are key to understanding the impacts of OWFs: (i) a mixing time scale, describing how long a complete mixing of the stratification takes, and (ii) an advective time scale, quantifying for how long a water parcel is expected to undergo enhanced wind farm mixing. The results are especially sensitive to both the drag coefficient and type of foundation structure, as well as the evolution of the pycnocline under enhanced mixing conditions—both of which are not well known. With these limitations in mind, the results show that OWFs could impact the large-scale stratification, but only when they occupy extensive shelf regions. They are expected to have very little impact on large-scale stratification at the current capacity in the North Sea, but the impact could be significant in future large-scale development scenarios. PMID:27513754

  14. Denitrification and nitrous oxide in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, C. S.; Owens, N. J. P.

    In situ sediment denitrification rates were determined in the major areas of deposition of the North Sea, using the acetylene block technique. In addition, nitrous oxide profiles of the water column were determined. Nitrous oxide production generally occurred in the photic zone possibly due to nitrification; and throughout the water column in the German Bight region. Consumption at depth was possibly due to reduction in the anoxic microzones of faecal pellets, concentrated at the thermocline. Saturation of surface waters was 102.2% compared to 130.3% in the German Bight region. Calculated flux of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere was 9.5 × 10 6 kg yr -1, over half of which was produced in the German Bight. Sediment denitrification rates varied through three orders of magnitude; the highest value of 150 μmol m -2 d -1 was recorded in the Norwegian Trench. Nitrous oxide production by the sediments was low (1.1 μmol m -2 d -1 max.), and was undetectable at half of the sites. Sediment nutrient profiles exhibited porewater nitrate concentrations exceeding that of the overlying water suggesting that denitrification was fuelled by nitrification, which, in turn was related to other environmental variables. A significant positive relationship existed between in situ denitrification rate and the nitrate content of the upper sediment. Extrapolation of the rate to the total area of deposition in the North Sea suggests that denitrification is responsible for a minimum loss of 7.5-12% of the total annual nitrogen contaminant input.

  15. Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation on sea ice breeding habitats of harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus) across the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Halpin, Patrick N.

    2010-07-01

    Harp seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus) are an abundant and commercially exploited species of phocid seal in the North Atlantic. Harp seals are entirely dependent on annual sea ice for breeding purposes and the distribution, abundance, and constitution of sea ice in this region are subject to tremendous interannual variability. As such, harp seal population dynamics are likely intimately tied to climate variability and global change. We used satellite-derived images of sea ice cover to determine trends in available habitat at the four major harp seal breeding areas in the North Atlantic, and assessed linkages amongst sea ice conditions and variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during 1978-2006. The White Sea breeding area had the highest annual ice concentrations, while the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Front regions were the most variable over time. We confirmed a consistent positive correlation between the NAO index and the amount of sea ice cover in Western North Atlantic breeding areas off Canada. Furthermore, we found an opposite and consistent negative correlation between the NAO and sea ice cover in the eastern-most breeding areas, leading to an out-of-phase signal between the Western and Eastern (particularly the White Sea) North Atlantic. These results indicate that sea ice dynamics in the breeding regions of harp seals are controlled, to some extent, by the phase of the NAO and its effects on weather across the North Atlantic. Previous studies indicate that poor ice conditions can have negative effects on harp seal survival and the consistent relationships between breeding habitat and NAO conditions that are described here have implications for both the biology and management of harp seal populations.

  16. General circulation model simulations of winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J., Jr.; Legates, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, observed sea-level pressures were used to evaluate winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America simulated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation models. The objective of the study is to determine how similar the spatial and temporal distributions of GCM-simulated daily sea-level pressures over North America are to observed distributions. Overall, both models are better at reproducing observed within-season variance of winter and summer sea-level pressures than they are at simulating the magnitude of mean winter and summer sea-level pressures. -from Authors

  17. Influence of the arrival of radioactive industrially contaminated North Sea water upon the radiation conditions in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskii, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.; Chumichev, V.B.

    1987-08-01

    The authors present and evaluate data from a four-year period of monitoring the movement of radioactive effluents from the radiochemical plants of Western Europe from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea and determine the concentrations at various regions along this pathway for cesium 134 and 137 and strontium 90 isotopes.

  18. Past and ongoing changes in the North Sea and its interface regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huthnance, John M.; Weisse, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    This study is part of the North Sea Climate Change Assessment to be published in 2015. The presentation concerns the North Sea itself, for: temperature, salinity and stratification; currents and circulation; mean sea level, extreme sea levels (contributions from wind generated waves and storm surges); CO2, pH, nutrients and oxygen; suspended matter and turbidity; sedimentation, morphology and coastal erosion; sea ice; the Wadden Sea. "Past and ongoing" in principle covers a period of 200 years up to the present. For each variable, as appropriate, there will be an outline history, an assessment of evidence and a description of state and trends. Some conclusions are: - strong evidence of warming, especially since the 1980s, despite temperature variability on all time-scales; the largest rises have been in the south-east - shorter-term variations in salinity exceed any climate-related changes - northern inflow to the North Sea correlates with the North Atlantic Oscillation; otherwise currents are very variable on various timescales of forcing (by tides, winds, seasonal density) - mean sea level in the North Sea rose by about 1.6 mm/year over the past 100-120 years - extreme sea levels rose primarily as a result of the rise in mean sea level - there is net CO2 uptake from atmosphere - the North Sea is a net nitrogen sink for the Atlantic - suspended matter and turbidity are very variable, influenced by river inputs, seasons, tidal resuspension and advection (spring-neap modulation), waves and stratification - coastal erosion is extensive but irregular; however, some sectors accrete. Studies attempting to attribute changes to, for example, anthropogenic forcing, are still needed for the North Sea, to assess consistency between observed changes and our expectations and so to inform our level of confidence in projections of expected future.

  19. Dynamics and development of the last North Sea ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygård, A.; Sejrup, H. P.; Haflidason, H.

    2008-12-01

    The last decade there has been an increasing attention on the dynamics and history of the marine based parts of the large Pleistocene ice sheets. This interest has grown both from the potential influence the stability of these features could have on ocean circulation through rapid meltwater delivery and from the understanding of the critical role these parts have in terms of the dynamics of the large ice sheets. During the last glacial stage the northern North Sea has experienced a number of glacial advances of ice from UK and Fennoscandia. Acoustic data and core data from two contrasting areas are presented. The Norwegian Channel represents the highly dynamic ice stream system draining large parts of the southern Fennoscandian ice sheet. The adjacent Witch Ground basin shows in contrast evidence of smaller scale tidewater glaciers active in a shallow environment, which constituted the eastern limit of the north-eastern British Ice sheet during the deglaciation. Seabed imagery (Olex data) reveals fresh glacial morphology inside (west of) the interpreted ice limits, while the seabed outside (east of) the interpreted ice limits shows very few features, due to a thick cover of glacimarine sediments. The seabed imprint of these systems as well as geometry, genesis and chronology of the sediments from this region will be discussed and their implications for our understanding of the glacial development of the region will be explored.

  20. Mars - The north polar sand sea and related wind patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoar, H.; Greeley, R.; Peterfreund, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Viking Orbiter 2 images of the north polar region reveal an enormous sand sea (erg) covering an area of greater than 500,000 sq km around the perennial ice cap. All dunes are either transverse or barchan. The various dune morphologies and modifications of primary dune types reflect a wind regime having more than one wind direction. In the summer, two major wind directions prevail: (1) off-pole winds that become easterly due to coriolis forces and (2) on-pole winds that become westerly. During the winter and/or spring, only the on-pole winds exist. Strong winds greater than 75 m/s are required for sand accumulation to form the thick transverse dunes. The strongest winds in the north polar region are thought to exist during summer over the transverse dune field between 110 deg and 220 deg W; this area is a relatively warm belt (temperature greater than 230 K) between two ice zones (temperature less than 220 K). The lack of well-developed longitudinal dunes implies that the dune field is young. The relationship of the present dune field to the perennial ice indicates that the dunes began to form after the formation of the present ice cap.

  1. Unravelling dispersal patterns in an expanding population of a highly mobile seabird, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis).

    PubMed Central

    Burg, T M; Lomax, J; Almond, R; Brooke, M De L; Amos, W

    2003-01-01

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is an abundant seabird whose Northeast Atlantic population has expanded dramatically over the past 100 years. Archaeological evidence suggests that Iceland and St Kilda were the ancestral populations from which essentially all other colonies in the region were derived. We collected samples from seven breeding colonies around the North Atlantic and used mitochondrial DNA analysis to ask whether population structure was present and, if so, where there was evidence about which colony was the dominant source population. Our data reveal a pattern consistent with isolation by distance, suggesting that, even though capable of flying great distances, most birds return to breed either at their own or neighbouring colonies. Interestingly, although most colonizers appear to have come originally from Iceland, our analysis also identifies St Kilda as a possible source. However, this secondary pattern appears to be largely an artefact, and can be attributed to the low haplotype diversity on St Kilda which yields a much clearer isolation by distance signal than that generated by birds dispersing from Iceland, where haplotype diversity is extremely high. Consequently, we urge caution when interpreting patterns in which populations vary greatly in the genetic diversity they harbour. PMID:12803914

  2. Coherent decadal sea level variations across gyre boundaries in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P. R.; Mitchum, G. T.

    2010-12-01

    Tide gauge sea level variability in the western Atlantic at periods greater than about 18 months is in phase and highly coherent from Texas to Nova Scotia. A simple mean over the gauges analyzed in this region explained more than 50% of the total variance in the gauges and has a primary time-scale of variation in the decadal band. Decadal sea level variability in the western Atlantic is most often attributed to open ocean wind forcing and long Rossby waves, which act to spin up or spin down the subtropical gyre. However, this explanation is not sufficient to explain why sea levels along the coastal edge of the Gulf Stream are in phase and highly correlated with sea levels in the Gulf of Mexico and subpolar gyre. Furthermore, there is evidence that decadal variations in North American sea levels are coherent and of opposite phase with respect to gauges along the European coast of the subtropical gyre, which is not expected from a mechanism requiring westward propagation. A linear regression of North Atlantic sea surface temperature onto the composite low-passed sea level signal from around the North Atlantic showed a basin-wide pattern of sea surface temperature similar to the North Atlantic Tripole (NAT) identified in various studies of decadal climate variability in the North Atlantic. The emergence of the NAT pattern from tide gauge sea levels suggested the low-frequency coherence of sea level is indicative of a basin-scale decadal climate mode and that the steric contribution to decadal sea level variability in the Gulf Stream region is as important as the dynamic contribution from open ocean wind forcing. We explored the relative roles of dynamic and steric sea level change in the coherent nature of decadal sea level signals around the North Atlantic basin, and we propose basin-scale mechanisms to link decadal sea level change between the gyres and zonally across the Atlantic.

  3. Changes in size and trends of North American sea duck populations associated with North Pacific oceanic regime shifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Broad-scale multi-species declines in populations of North American sea ducks for unknown reasons is cause for management concern. Oceanic regime shifts have been associated with rapid changes in ecosystem structure of the North Pacific and Bering Sea. However, relatively little is known about potential effects of these changes in oceanic conditions on marine bird populations at broad scales. I examined changes in North American breeding populations of sea ducks from 1957 to 2011 in relation to potential oceanic regime shifts in the North Pacific in 1977, 1989, and 1998. There was strong support for population-level effects of regime shifts in 1977 and 1989, but little support for an effect of the 1998 shift. The continental-level effects of these regime shifts differed across species groups and time. Based on patterns of sea duck population dynamics associated with regime shifts, it is unclear if the mechanism of change relates to survival or reproduction. Results of this analysis support the hypothesis that population size and trends of North American sea ducks are strongly influenced by oceanic conditions. The perceived population declines appear to have halted >20 years ago, and populations have been relatively stable or increasing since that time. Given these results, we should reasonably expect dramatic changes in sea duck population status and trends with future oceanic regime shifts.

  4. Delimiting shades of gray: phylogeography of the Northern Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Kevin C R; Dove, Carla J

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is a common tube-nosed seabird with a disjunct Holarctic range. Taxonomic divisions within the Northern Fulmar have historically been muddled by geographical variation notably including highly polymorphic plumage. Recent molecular analyses (i.e., DNA barcoding) have suggested that genetic divergence between Atlantic and Pacific populations could be on par with those typically observed between species. We employ a multigene phylogenetic analysis to better explore the level of genetic divergence between these populations and to test an old hypothesis on the origin of the modern distribution of color morphs across their range. Additionally, we test whether mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R) are associated with dark plumage in the Northern Fulmar. We confirmed that mitochondrial lineages in the Atlantic and Pacific populations are highly divergent, but nuclear markers revealed incomplete lineage sorting. Genetic divergence between these populations is consistent with that observed between many species of Procellariiformes and we recommend elevating these two forms to separate species. We also find that MC1R variation is not associated with color morph but rather is better explained by geographical divergence. PMID:23919139

  5. A hydrographic time series station in the Wadden Sea (southern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Rainer; Badewien, Thomas H.; Bartholomä, Alexander; Braun, Axel; Lübben, Andrea; Rullkötter, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    In the tidal inlet between the East Frisian islands of Langeoog and Spiekeroog, southern North Sea, a time-series station was set up in autumn 2002 as part of the research programme BioGeoChemistry of Tidal Flats run by the University of Oldenburg. The purpose of the station is to provide continuous data on physical, biological and chemical parameters. In addition to instruments recording basic hydrographic and meteorological parameters, the time-series station is equipped with acoustic Doppler profilers for measuring surface waves and current profiles. Compact optical spectrometers are being used for spectral measurements of seawater transmission and for daylight reflectance. Additional sensors were installed for measuring oxygen, nutrients and methane in the seawater. The data shall help to quantify the flux of dissolved and suspended matter between the backbarrier tidal flat and the open sea and to characterise the material transformation in the tidal flat area by biogeochemical processes over the tidal cycle. Due to its novel design, operation of the station is also possible during winter and under extreme weather conditions (gales, storm surges, and sea ice) when data sampling with conventional platforms such as research vessels, buoys, or smaller poles could not be performed in the past. In this way, time series of data are obtained, which include events that are most relevant to the evolution of this coastal area. The performance of the station and its equipment are presented with data covering 6 years of operation. Time series of air and water temperature as well as seawater salinity demonstrate the multiyear dynamics of these parameters in the East Frisian Wadden Sea. Hydrographic data collected under specific meteorological conditions such as gales and storm surges exemplify the all-weather capabilities of the station and its value for studying hydrographic processes in the Wadden Sea.

  6. What Causes the North Sea Level to Rise Faster over the Last Decade ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpytchev, Mikhail; Letetrel, Camille

    2013-04-01

    We combined tide gauge records (PSMSL) and satellite altimetry data (TOPEX/POSEIDON-JASON 1-2) to reconstruct the mean level of the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea Shelf (NS-NSS) over 1950-2012. The reconstructed NS-NSS mean sea level fluctuations reveal a pronounced interannual variability and a strong sea level acceleration since the mid-1990's. In order to understand the causes of this acceleration, the NS-NSS mean sea level was cross-correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation indices. While the interannual variability of the mean sea level correlates well with the NAO/AO indices, the observed acceleration in the NS-NSS mean level is not linked linearly to the NAO/AO fluctuations. On the other hand, the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis of steric sea level variations in the eastern North Atlantic gives a dominant EOF pattern (55% of variance explained) that varies on a decadal scale very closely to the NS-NSS mean level flcutuations. Also, the amplification in the temporal amplitude of the dominant steric sea level EOF corresponds to the acceleration observed in the NS-NSS mean sea level signal. This suggests that decadal variations in the mean level of the North Sea - the Norwegian Sea Shelf reflect changes in the Subpolar Front currents (Rossby, 1996).

  7. NOx Emissions from Oil and Gas Production in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. D.; Foulds, A.; Purvis, R.; Vaughan, A. R.; Carslaw, D.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea. As of January 2015, the North Sea is the world's most active offshore drilling region with 173 rigs drilling. During the summer of 2015, a series of survey flights took place on the UKs FAAM BAe 146 research aircraft with the primary aim to assess background methane (and other hydrocarbons) levels in the drilling areas of the North Sea. Also measured were Nitrogen Oxides (NO and NO2), which are emitted from almost all combustion processes and are a key air pollutant, both directly and as a precursor to ozone (O3). The oil and gas platforms in the North Sea are often manned and require significant power generation and support vessels for their continued operation, processes that potentially emit significant amounts of NOx into an otherwise relative clean environment. During these flights we were able to measure the NO­­­x (and any subsequently produced O3) emitted from specific rigs, as well as the NOx levels in the wider North Sea oil and gas production region (see figure for example). NOx mixing ratios of <10 ppbv were frequently observed in plumes, with significant perturbation to the wider North Sea background levels. NOx emissions from the rigs are point sources within the UKs National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) and the measurements taken in plumes from individual rigs are used to assess the accuracy of these estimates.

  8. Dynamical downscaling of warming scenarios with NEMO-Nordic setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Matthias; Almroth Rosell, Elin; Anderson, Helén; Axell, Lars; Dieterich, Christain; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Hieronymus, Jenny; Karlsson, Bengt; Liu, Ye; Meier, Markus; Pemberton, Per; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea and Baltic Sea constitute one of the most complex and challenging areas in the world. The oceanographic setting ranges from quasi open ocean conditions in the northern North Sea to more brackish conditions in the Baltic Sea which is also affected by sea ice in winter. The two seas are connected by narrow straits which sporadically allow the important inflow of salt and oxygen rich bottom waters into the Baltic Sea. For this, the high resolution regional model NEMO-Nordic has recently been developed. Here, the model is applied on hindcast simulations and used to downscale several climate warming scenarios. The model can be interactively coupled to the regional atmosphere model RCA4 by exchanging air sea fluxes of mass and energy (Wang et al., 2015). Comparison with well established models and newly compiled observational data sets (Bersch et al., 2013) indicates NEMO-Nordic performs well on climate relevant time scales. Emphasis is laid on thermal dynamics. Hindcast simulations demonstrate that simulated winter temperatures in the Baltic Sea can benefit from interactive air sea coupling by allowing interactive feedback loops to take place between the ocean and the atmosphere (Gröger et al. 2015). Likewise, a more realistic dynamical behaviour makes the interactive coupled model suitable for dynamic downscaling of climate warming scenarios. Depending on the driving global climate model and IPCC representative concentration pathway scenario NEMO-Nordic shows an average warming of the North Sea between 2 and 4 K at the end of the 21st century. However the warming pattern is spatially inhomogeneous showing strong east west gradients. Involved processes such as circulation changes and changes in radiative forcing will be discussed. Bersch, M., Gouretski, V., Sadikni, R., Hinrichs, I., 2013. Hydrographic climatology of the North Sea and surrounding regions. Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, University of Hamburg, www

  9. Unstructured-grid model for the North Sea and Baltic Sea: Validation against observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong J.; Stanev, E. V.; Grashorn, S.

    2016-01-01

    A new unstructured-grid model and its application to the North Sea and Baltic Sea are described. The research focus is on the dynamics in the two basins and in the multiple straits connecting them and more specifically on how the model replicates the temporal and spatial variability of physical processes. The comparison against observed data indicates the realism in the simulations of the exchange flows. The simulations demonstrated that in contrast to the tidal variability which decreases in the strait, the role of the barotropic forcing due to weather systems increases. In this zone reversal of transport is well manifested by the increased difference between the surface and bottom salinity values. Small sub-basins like Arkona and Bornholm play the role of reservoirs for denser water which under specific conditions cascades on its way to the Gotland Deep. Unlike the intermediate and deep water salinity in the Baltic Sea, which is strongly affected by fluxes in the straits, the simulated winter-refill and evolution of cold intermediate water are rather driven by surface cooling and processes in the upper mixed layer.

  10. Projected climate change impacts on North Sea and Baltic Sea: CMIP3 and CMIP5 model based scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpadas, D.; Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.

    2015-08-01

    Climate change impacts on the marine biogeochemistry and lower trophic level dynamics in the North Sea and Baltic Sea have been assessed using regional downscaling in a number of recent studies. However, most of these where only forced by physical conditions from Global Climate Models (GCMs) and regional downscaling considering the climate change impact on oceanic nutrient conditions from Global Earth System Models (ESMs) are rare and so far solely based on CMIP3-generation climate models. The few studies published show a large range in projected future primary production and hydrodynamic condition. With the addition of CMIP5 models and scenarios, the demand to explore the uncertainty in regional climate change projections increased. Moreover, the question arises how projections based on CMIP5-generation models compare to earlier projections and multi-model ensembles comprising both AR4 and AR5 generation forcing models. Here, we investigated the potential future climate change impacts to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea ecosystem using a coherent regional downscaling strategy based on the regional coupled bio-physical model ECOSMO. ECOSMO was forced by output from different ESMs from both CMIP3 and CMIP5 models. Multi-model ensembles using CMIP3/A1B and CMIP5/RCP4.5 scenarios are examined, where the selected CMIP5 models are the successors of the chosen CMIP3 models. Comparing projected changes with the present day reference condition, all these simulations predicted an increase in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in both North Sea and Baltic Sea, reduction in sea ice in the Baltic, decrease in primary production in the North Sea and an increase in primary production in the Baltic Sea. Despite these largely consistent results on the direction of the projected changes, our results revealed a broad range in the amplitude of projected climate change impacts. Our study strengthens the claim that the choice of the ESM is a major factor for regional climate projections

  11. Modelling transport and reproduction of the invasive comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Mnemiopsis leidyi is an invasive comb jelly fish species that originates from the Gulf of Mexico and the US east coast. It has high bloom potential, and can survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions. It was first introduced in Europe through ballast water discharges in the Black Sea, where it was associated with the anchovis stock collapse in the 1990's. From there, it has spread through the Mediterranean Sea. Since the mid 2000's it has been observed in ports and estuaries along the English Channel, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. In the North Sea, M. leidyi blooms occur in the Scheldt estuaries, the Wadden Sea, and in ports and canals. In winter, M. Leidyi has been observed at sea in the German Bight. A particle tracking model was modified to include a simple reproduction mechanism, using food fields from the coupled hydrodynamics-ecosystem model GETM-ERSEM. The model was used to study the potential spreading and bloom potential of M. Leidyi in the southern North Sea under present and increased temperature conditions. Under present conditions, the model suggested that M. Leidyi can survive in the North Sea, and can be transported over distances of several hundreds of km, enabling connectivity between estuarine populations. It could not, however, bloom at open sea because of temperature constraints. These constraints were lifted for increased temperature scenarios, suggesting increased bloom potential under climate change conditions.

  12. North Sea gas plants get process, scheduling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, A.

    1998-11-16

    Mobil North Sea Ltd. has installed an operator guidance tool at its SAGE gas-processing plant at St. Fergus, Scotland (SAGE: Scottish Area Gas Evacuation). The system, supplied by MDC Technology, Teesside, U.K., will aid process decision making at the plant under MDC Technology`s RTO+ software. In addition, Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Shell Expro) has installed a pipeline-scheduling system, also supplied by MDC Technology, at its Aberdeen control center. The system aids gas-movement scheduling through Shell Expro`s St. Fergus gas plant. The Northern Systems and Plant Scheduling (NSPS) system integrates MDC Technology`s RTO+ package with Microsoft Visual Basic and Excel. Mobil`s SAGE gas terminal at St. Fergus has two identical process trains (NGL recovery and acid-gas treatment), each with a capacity of 16.25 million std. cu m/day. The paper describes the guidance tool, the scheduling aid, and the installation of the NSPS.

  13. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations. PMID:9749937

  14. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Utvik, T.I.R. . Environmental Section); Johnsen, S. )

    1999-06-15

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were used to determine the bioavailable fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil field produced water in the North Sea. The SPMDs and mussels were deployed at 5, 10, and 50 m depth; 100 and 300 m downstream the discharge point; and at a reference site 16 km away. In both SPMDs and mussels, the concentration of PAHs increased significantly toward the discharge point, with the strongest contribution from the lower molecular weight compounds (naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and their C1-C3 alkyl homologues). The relative increase in PAH concentration from the reference site to the site at 100 m was higher for mussels than for the SPMDs. The SPMDs reflect the water-soluble fraction of the PAHs, which is probably the most important route of exposure for organisms at lower trophic levels and presumably also the fraction available for uptake by a respiratory route. Residues in the mussels represent both the water-soluble and particle-bound fraction and give information about bioavailability of the PAHs for organisms at higher trophic levels. The results of this study suggest that both techniques give important information about the bioavailability of PAHs to marine organisms.

  15. Cationic polymer mud solves gumbo problems in North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, O.; Lee, L.J. )

    1992-07-13

    This paper reports on a recently developed cationic polymer mud, compatible with conventional polymer additives and designed to meet environmental regulations, which significantly minimized the gumbo problems common to the water-sensitive shales in the North Sea. The cationic polymer mud was used to drill highly reactive Tertiary shale formations which have caused severe gumbo problems on nearby wells drilled with other inhibitive water-based muds. Although many citonic polymers are toxic, aquatic toxicity tests performed by the Norwegian Statens Forurensningstilsyn (SFT) at the end of the test wells showed results far exceeding the SFT limits on the three species tested. The mud system on these wells was a seawater-based 15.0-ppg mud enhanced with 3% NaCl. A low molecular weight quaternary polyamine and a high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide were used to suppress the swelling and dispersion of shales, respectively. Starch and polyanionic cellulose (PAC) polymers maintained fluid-loss control, and a lubricant reduced the torque and drag.

  16. Thermocline bulk shear analysis in the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2016-04-01

    Thermocline bulk shear is investigated in the northern North Sea using historical observations. The conventional bulk shear is modified to define a thermocline bulk shear (TBS), in order to better represent the shear across the thermocline. The TBS computed by observed currents is decomposed into components at different frequency bands. The near-inertial TBS is the largest component. Its dominance is significant during the period of high wind. It is formed by the wind-driven near-inertial current which has a distinct phase shift (˜180°) across the thermocline. A linear model is presented, which well simulates the observed near-inertial TBS, especially during the period of relatively strong wind. The semidiurnal TBS makes a secondary contribution to the total TBS. It is only slightly smaller than the near-inertial TBS when the wind is relatively weak. The large values of semidiurnal TBS are associated with semidiurnal currents which have a phase shift (˜30-40°) or a magnitude difference (˜5 cm/s) across the thermocline. The low-frequency (<0.7 cpd) TBS also makes an episodic contribution to the total. Its variation coincides with the Ekman transport during the period of relatively strong wind. The low-frequency TBS is mainly formed by an Ekman-like clockwise spiraling of velocity with depth or a distinct magnitude difference in velocities between upper and lower layers.

  17. Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls by north sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booij, Kees; van der Meer, Jaap; Kwast, Diana; de Boer, Joost L.

    1997-05-01

    The sediment-water partition coefficients ( Kd) of 32 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and penta- and hexachloro benzene were determined for 37 spiked sediment samples from the southern North Sea, the German Bight and the Norwegian Channel. Organic-carbon contents for these sediments were in the range 0.02-2.4%. Log( Kd) values were in the range 1.4 to 5.3. The largest difference between the organic-carbon normalised partition coefficients ( Koc) for individual components amounted to a factor of 10. Koc values for coarse sediments were generally lower than values for fine sediments. The solids concentration effect was evaluated using the Non-Settling Particles model, the Solute Complexation model, the Implicit Adsorbate model, and the Particle Interaction model. The latter three models could be rejected on the basis of the experimental evidence. The validity of ordinary least-squares regression for estimating slope and intercept of log( Koc)-log( KKow) relations is discussed. Differences in sediment characteristics cause changes in the intercept of log( Koc)-log( Kow) relations, but not in the slope. KKoc values of PCB isomers are inversely related to the number of chlorine atoms in the ortho position relative to the inter-ring bond. The validity of the data for estimating field values of sorption coefficients is discussed.

  18. Major deepwater pipelay vessel starts work in North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Heerema, E.P.

    1998-05-04

    Industry`s deepwater pipelaying capability has received a boost this year with the entry into the world`s fleet of Solitaire, a dynamically positioned pipelay vessel of about 350 m including stinger. The converted bulk carrier, formerly the Trentwood, will arrive on station in the North Sea and begin laying pipe this month on Statoil`s Europipe II project, a 600-km, 42-in. OD gas pipeline from Norway to Germany. Next year, the vessel will install pipe for the Exxon U.S.A.`s Gulf of Mexico South Diana development (East Breaks Block 945) in a water depth of 1,643 m and for Mobil Oil Canada as part of the Sable Island Offshore and Energy Project offshore Nova Scotia. Using the S-lay mode, Solitaire is particularly well-suited for laying large lines economically, including the deepwater projects anticipated for the US Gulf of Mexico. Table 1 presents Solitaire`s technical specifications. The design, construction, pipelaying, and justification for building vessels such as the Solitaire are discussed.

  19. Target-oriented Marchenko imaging of a North Sea field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravasi, Matteo; Vasconcelos, Ivan; Kritski, Alexander; Curtis, Andrew; Filho, Carlos Alberto da Costa; Meles, Giovanni Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Seismic imaging provides much of our information about the Earth's crustal structure. The principal source of imaging errors derives from simplicistically modeled predictions of the complex, scattered wavefields that interact with each subsurface point to be imaged. A new method of wavefield extrapolation based on inverse scattering theory produces accurate estimates of these subsurface scattered wavefields, while still using relatively little information about the Earth's properties. We use it for the first time to create real target-oriented seismic images of a North Sea field. We synthesize underside illumination from surface reflection data, and use it to reveal subsurface features that are not present in an image from conventional migration of surface data. To reconstruct underside reflections, we rely on the so-called downgoing focusing function, whose coda consists entirely of transmission-born multiple scattering. As such, we provide the first field data example of reconstructing underside reflections with contributions from transmitted multiples, without the need to first locate or image any reflectors in order to reconstruct multiple scattering effects.

  20. Plastic ingestion by pelagic and demersal fish from the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rummel, Christoph D; Löder, Martin G J; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lang, Thomas; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Janke, Michael; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-01-15

    Plastic ingestion by marine biota has been reported for a variety of different taxa. In this study, we investigated 290 gastrointestinal tracts of demersal (cod, dab and flounder) and pelagic fish species (herring and mackerel) from the North and Baltic Sea for the occurrence of plastic ingestion. In 5.5% of all investigated fishes, plastic particles were detected, with 74% of all particles being in the microplastic (<5mm) size range. The polymer types of all found particles were analysed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Almost 40% of the particles consisted of polyethylene (PE). In 3.4% of the demersal and 10.7% of the pelagic individuals, plastic ingestion was recorded, showing a significantly higher ingestion frequency in the pelagic feeders. The condition factor K was calculated to test differences in the fitness status between individuals with and without ingested plastic, but no direct effect was detected. PMID:26621577

  1. Visions for the North Sea: the societal dilemma behind specifying good environmental status.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Alison J; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail; Langmead, Olivia; Mee, Laurence; Vermaat, Jan

    2015-03-01

    We augment discussions about the Good Environmental Status of the North Sea by developing two extreme visions and assessing their societal benefits. One vision ('Then') assumes restoration of benthic functioning; we contend that trawling had already degraded the southern North Sea a century ago. Available information is used to speculate about benthic functioning in a relatively undisturbed southern North Sea. The second vision ('Now') draws on recent benthic functioning. The supply of five ecosystem services, supported by benthic functioning, is discussed. 'Then' offers confidence in the sustainable supply of diverse services but restoration of past function is uncertain and likely to be paired with costs, notably trawling restraints. 'Now' delivers known and valued services but sustained delivery is threatened by, for example, climate change. We do not advocate either vision. Our purpose is to stimulate debate about what society wants, and might receive, from the future southern North Sea. PMID:24859919

  2. Ra isotopes as a tracer of sediment-water column exchange in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, William; Thomas, Helmuth; Pätsch, Johannnes; Omar, Abdirahman; Schrum, Corinna; Daewel, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying the benthic flux of short-lived radium isotopes (224Ra and 223Ra) provides information regarding the extent, and the dominant processes governing sediment-water column exchange in the North Sea. For this purpose we employed three independent measurement techniques including sediment incubation chambers, water column inventories, and a surface mass-balance. Incubation results from 11 stations indicate significant spatial variability in Radium efflux throughout the North Sea, as well as a strong dependence on the stirring rate of the overlying water column. Both inventory and mass-balance methods yield consistently higher benthic fluxes for the Southern North Sea than incubation-based estimates due to the inability of the laboratory incubations to recreate the in-situ mixing conditions present in the well-mixed Southern North Sea. Furthermore, fluxes in the Southern North Sea are higher than those previously reported in other regions, likely due to high rates of sediment irrigation induced by strong tidal and wind mixing near the interface of permeable sandy sediments. The seasonality of distributions and the magnitudes of both benthic and coastal Ra fluxes are further examined by applying Ra as a passive tracer in the 3-dimensional hydrodynamics of the ECOSMO model. Finally, flux estimates combined with direct measurements of porewater Ra activities yield volume fluxes [L m-2 d-1], which when further applied to porewater concentrations of carbon or nutrient species, can provide important information regarding the role of sediments in North Sea biogeochemistry.

  3. Artificial radionuclides in the surface waters of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea in the fall of 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Kadzhene, G.I.; Kleiza, I.V.; Korotkov, V.P.; Lukinskene, M.V.; Mironov, V.K.; Styro, D.B.

    1987-10-01

    The authors compare data from the literature with data taken in the fall of 1984 on the concentrations of cesium 137, strontium 90, cesium 144, and tritium in the waters of the Baltic and North seas. Sampling was conducted along the coastal regions as well as offshore and the consequent concentration and distribution profiles are mapped. They attempt to assess the weight of meteorological and water current as well as seasonal factors on the determined levels and also point to possible sources of the isotopes, including nuclear power plants situated along Baltic and North Sea shorelines and an atmospheric test of a thermonuclear bomb carried out by China.

  4. The response of southern North Sea elevations to oceanographical and meteorological forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. R.

    1981-09-01

    Relationships between the daily mean sea levels, air pressure, wind, density and currents of the southern North Sea are examined, using data recorded during September and October 1973 as part of the Joint North Sea Data Acquisition Programme. The sea level fluctuations are highly coherent through space. Principal component analysis shows that 88% of the variance can be accounted for by changes in the overall level of the southern North Sea. Seven per cent of the variance can be accounted for by an east-west tilting of sea level. Variations of the overall level are negatively correlated with air pressure changes. Cross-spectral analysis shows that the response of Southend sea level (i) lags the inverted barometer effect by 14 h and (ii) depends on the frequency of air pressure forcing. A qualitative explanation for these results is given. Wind stress is the most important influence on the daily mean surface topography of the southern North Sea, causing slopes in excess of 80 cm (100 km) -1. The largest slopes due to bottom stress, Coriolis acceleration and advection are 59 cm (100 km) -1, 34 cm (100 km) -1 and 13 cm (100 km) -1 respectively. The contributions of the equilibrium tide, local acceleration density and air pressure are small. It is shown that the sea surface topography, computed for a quiet period of several days, may be used to define accurately an equipotential surface at the tide gauge sites. A procedure for the estimation of depth-mean currents from sea level, air pressure and wind data is described. Reasonable agreement is obtained between observed and estimated currents at one position in the southern North Sea.

  5. Processes relevant for decadal changes in primary production of the North Sea and Baltic Sea: hindcast and scenario modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daewel, Ute; Schrum, Corinna; Pushpadas, Dhanya

    2016-04-01

    Despite their geographical vicinity, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea ecosystems exhibit very different characteristics in both physical and biological parameters. Nonetheless, since both ecosystems are characterized by the same general functional groups in phytoplankton and zooplankton and, their geographical distribution indicates comparable thermal adaptation of the plankton groups, we propose that the same ecosystem parameterization can be utilized to simulate the dynamics in both ecosystems simultaneously. Here we present results from an updated version of the 3d coupled ecosystem model ECOSMO valid for both areas. The model allows both multi-decadal hind cast simulation of primary production and specific process studies under controlled environmental conditions. Our results from a long-term hind-cast (1948-2008) indicate incoherent "regime shifts" in the primary productivity (PP) between the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Correlation analysis between atmospheric forcing and PP indicates significant correlations for both solar radiation and wind but cannot serve to identify causal relationship. Therefore additional scenario tests with perturbations in individual atmospheric condition where accomplished emphasizing specifically the role of solar radiation, wind and eutrophication. The results revealed that, although all parameters are relevant for the PP in North Sea and Baltic Sea, the dominant impact on long term variability was introduced by modulations of the wind fields.

  6. Identification of North Sea molluscs with DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Barco, Andrea; Raupach, Michael J; Laakmann, Silke; Neumann, Hermann; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-based specimen identification, known as DNA barcoding, is a common method complementing traditional morphology-based taxonomic assignments. The fundamental resource in DNA barcoding is the availability of a taxonomically reliable sequence database to use as a reference for sequence comparisons. Here, we provide a reference library including 579 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I for 113 North Sea mollusc species. We tested the efficacy of this library by simulating a sequence-based specimen identification scenario using Best Match, Best Close Match (BCM) and All Species Barcode (ASB) criteria with three different threshold values. Each identification result was compared with our prior morphology-based taxonomic assignments. Our simulation resulted in 87.7% congruent identifications (93.8% when excluding singletons). The highest number of congruent identifications was obtained with BCM and ASB and a 0.05 threshold. We also compared identifications with genetic clustering (Barcode Index Numbers, BINs) computed by the Barcode of Life Datasystem (BOLD). About 68% of our morphological identifications were congruent with BINs created by BOLD. Forty-nine sequences were clustered in 16 discordant BINs, and these were divided in two classes: sequences from different species clustered in a single BIN and conspecific sequences divided in more BINs. Whereas former incongruences were probably caused by BOLD entries in need of a taxonomic update, the latter incongruences regarded taxa requiring further investigations. These include species with amphi-Atlantic distribution, whose genetic structure should be evaluated over their entire range to produce a reliable sequence-based identification system. PMID:26095230

  7. Estrogenic Evaluation and Organochlorine Identification in Blubber of North Sea Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Stranded on the North Sea Coast

    PubMed Central

    Brose, François; Jauniaux, Thierry; Das, Krishna; Muller, Marc; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen individual organochlorine compounds at 3 concentrations (80, 400, and 2000 ng/mL culture medium), as well as mixtures, were assayed for the estrogen receptor (ER) activation or inhibition, using a luciferase reporter gene assay (RGA). None of the PCB 138, 153, or 180 or their mixture induced a response in the RGA. o,p′-DDT was the most potent xenoestrogen from the DDT group, inducing a response already at 80 ng/mL. From the HCH and HCB group, only β-HCH (at 400 and 2000 ng/mL) and δ-HCH (at 2000 ng/mL) displayed estrogenic activities. These 13 organochlorines were determined by GC-MS in 12 samples of North Sea harbor porpoise blubber. The PCBs were the main contaminants. Within each group, PCB 153 (6.0 × 102~4.2 × 104 μg/kg), p,p′-DDE (5.1 × 102~8.6 × 103 μg/kg), and HCB (7.6 × 101~1.5 × 103 μg/kg) were the compounds found in highest concentrations. The hormonal activity of the porpoise blubber samples was also assayed in RGA, where two samples showed estrogenic activity, seven samples showed antiestrogenic activity, and one sample showed both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Our results suggest that the 13 POPs measured by GC-MS in the samples cannot explain alone the estrogenicity of the extracts. PMID:26075240

  8. An overview of wet deposition of micropollutants to the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struyf, H.; Van Grieken, R.

    An overview of the wet deposition of micropollutants (trace metals—Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn— and organic compounds—PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) to the North Sea and adjacent areas is presented. The results of (in)direct measurements of the wet flux are compared to modelling results. Attention is given to specific problems like revolatilization, sea-spray, contamination, gas-to-particle ratios in wet deposition of Hg and the organic substances. Also, the importance of wet deposition is weighted to that of dry deposition and non-atmospheric input routes to the North Sea. It is concluded that—especially for organic micropollutants—current knowledge is insufficient to yield an accurate and detailed image of the impact and importance of wet deposition to the North Sea.

  9. Sea surface height variability in the North East Atlantic from satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterlini, Paul; de Vries, Hylke; Katsman, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Data from 21 years of satellite altimeter measurements are used to identify and understand the major contributing components of sea surface height variability (SSV) on monthly time-scales in the North East Atlantic. A number of SSV drivers is considered, which are categorised into two groups; local (wind and sea surface temperature) and remote (sea level pressure and the North Atlantic oscillation index). A multiple linear regression model is constructed to model the SSV for a specific target area in the North Sea basin. Cross-correlations between candidate regressors potentially lead to ambiguity in the interpretation of the results. We therefore use an objective hierarchical selection method based on variance inflation factors to select the optimal number of regressors for the target area and accept these into the regression model if they can be associated to SSV through a direct underlying physical forcing mechanism. Results show that a region of high SSV exists off the west coast of Denmark and that it can be represented well with a regression model that uses local wind, sea surface temperature and sea level pressure as primary regressors. The regression model developed here helps to understand sea level change in the North East Atlantic. The methodology is generalised and easily applied to other regions.

  10. Upper carboniferous gas indications and Zechstein features in southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Jenyon, M.K.

    1984-05-14

    Seismograph Service's recent nonproprietary marine survey in the Southern basin of the North Sea indicates the possible presence of gas in the Upper Carboniferous region. At the southern margin of the Northern Salt basin, north of the Mid North Sea High, hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in fractured and vuggy Zechstein carbonates in the Auk and Argyll fields. To date, no hydrocarbon accumulations of any importance have been produced from either shelf Zechstein or Upper Carboniferous to the south of these fields, although gas and condensate shows have been logged in wells in the southern part. Certain structural features seen in the Zechstein interval, which lies unconformably upon the Upper Carboniferous, make this North Sea basin a very promising area for more detailed study. These Zechstein features may include porous carbonate intervals containing gas.

  11. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Daniel; Matthias, Volker; Bieser, Johannes; Aulinger, Armin; Quante, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- and a decrease in NO3- concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 + NH4+ and HNO3 + NO3- concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is underestimated by the model at most

  12. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bier, Nadja; Jäckel, Claudia; Dieckmann, Ralf; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone I; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types) and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26694432

  13. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bier, Nadja; Jäckel, Claudia; Dieckmann, Ralf; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone I.; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types) and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26694432

  14. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species to variations in sea salt emissions in the North and Baltic Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, D.; Matthias, V.; Bieser, J.; Aulinger, A.; Quante, M.

    2015-10-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the oceans' surfaces by wave breaking and bubble bursting processes. These particles impact atmospheric chemistry by affecting condensation of gas-phase species and nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with high air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North and Baltic Sea regions, Northwestern Europe, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and evaluated against European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. As model extension, sea salt emissions are scaled by water salinity because of low salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea and in certain river estuaries. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is separately considered. Additionally, the impact of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate, ammonium and sulfate concentrations is evaluated. The comparisons show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated when going inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. Dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to a minor increase of NH4+ and NO3- and a minor decrease of SO42- concentrations. However, the overall effect is very low and lower than the deviation from measurements. Size resolved measurements of Na+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- are needed for a more detailed analysis on the impact of sea salt particles.

  15. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology. PMID:26677841

  16. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  17. Seismic geomorphology of the Danish Chalks, offshore, North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Florian; van Buchem, Frans; Schmidt, Ingelise

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Cretaceous and Lowermost Paleocene chalk deposits of the North Sea Basin constitute a unique phase in the evolution of carbonate facies, through the rock-forming dominance of fine grained calcareous plankton, particularly coccolithophorids. These planktonic organisms were deposited over extensive areas and very often laid down as laterally extensive, regular dm-scale bedded packages, that locally may reach a thickness of up to 1250 m. In the Danish Graben, the depositional conditions for the chalk sedimentation changed dramatically during the middle of the Upper Cretaceous. At this time the basin topography was inverted, radically changing the position of the depocenters and the ocean floor morphology. In uplifted areas local erosion and long phases of non-deposition occurred, whereas in areas of subsidence thick packages of chalk accumulated. Along the newly created highs, mass waste deposition took place at the deca-kilometre scale. In this presentation we will document evidence for the tectonic inversion, and pay particular attention to the rich pallet of geomorphological features that characterise this tectonically active period. This study benefitted from a recently re-processed 3D seismic dataset (6000 km²), and a regional well-log and biostratigraphic dataset. In addition, the seismic interpretation applied advanced seismic interpretation software (PaleoScan™), which uses a patented model grid that links up seismic points and honours interpreted horizon constraints resulting in a seismic Relative Geological Time model. Standard seismic attributes, displayed upon horizons from a 3D RGT model of the chalk package, have shown to be very effective in the illustration and interpretation of complex chalk depositional features. Special attention has been focussed on mass waste deposits around inverted structures and salt diapirs. Several different mass waste complexes have been documented in 3D, illustrating a number of typical features such as

  18. Radiocaesium (137Cs) in marine mammals from Svalbard, the Barents Sea and the North Greenland Sea.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Magnus; Gwynn, Justin P; Dowdall, Mark; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2006-06-15

    Specific activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide, 137Cs, were determined in marine mammals from Svalbard and the Barents and North Greenland Seas. Muscle samples were collected from 12 polar bears, 15 ringed seals, 10 hooded seals, 7 bearded seals, 14 harp seals, one walrus, one white whale and one blue whale in the period 2000-2003. The mean concentrations (+/-SD) of 137Cs were: 0.72+/-0.62 Bq/kg wet weight (w.w.) for polar bears; 0.49+/-0.07 Bq/kg w.w. for ringed seals; 0.25+/-0.10 Bq/kg w.w. for hooded seals; 0.22+/-0.11 Bq/kg w.w. for bearded seals; 0.36+/-0.13 Bq/kg w.w. for harp seals; 0.67 Bq/kg w.w. for the white whale sample; 0.24 Bq/kg w.w. for the blue whale; and below detection limit for the walrus. Significant differences in 137Cs specific activities between some of the species were found. Ringed seals had higher specific activities than the other seal species in the study. Bearded seals and hooded seals had similar values, which were both significantly lower than the harp seal values. The results in the present study are consistent with previous reported results, indicating low specific activities of 137Cs in Arctic marine mammals in the Barents Sea and Greenland Sea region during the last 20 years. The species specific differences found may be explained by varying diet or movement and distribution patterns between species. No age related patterns were found in specific activities for the two species (polar bears and hooded seals) for which sufficient data was available. Concentration factors (CF) of 137Cs from seawater were determined for polar bears, ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals. Mean CF values ranged from 79+/-32 (SD) for bearded seals sampled in 2002 to 244+/-36 (SD) for ringed seals sampled in 2003 these CF values are higher than those reported for fish and benthic organisms in the literature, suggesting bioaccumulation of 137Cs in the marine ecosystem. PMID:16154620

  19. Influence of the North Atlantic on climate change in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glok, Natalia; Alekseev, Genrikh; Smirnov, Aleksander; Vyasilova, Anastasia

    2015-04-01

    This study is based on the observations taken from the meteorological archives, satellite and historic visual observations of sea ice, global SST, data of water temperature in the upper layer on the section in the Barents Sea. For processing data was used factor analysis, calculation of correlation matrices with different delay between the Barents Sea and selected areas in North Atlantic. It is shown that the inflow of Atlantic water into the Barents Sea has a major influence on the climate of the region and its changes affect the variations of all climate characteristics. Decadal and interannual changes of air temperature in the Barents Sea are closely related (correlation over 0.8) with temperature of water, coming from the Norwegian Sea. The effect of these changes is seen in the air temperature in the Kara Sea. Atlantic water inflow especially impact on winter sea ice in the Barents Sea. The correlation between the average water temperature at section along the Kola meridian and sea ice extent in the Barents Sea in May reaches values of -0.86. To enhance the predictive capability established dependence, the study was extended to the area of the North Atlantic, where temperature anomalies are formed. In the North Atlantic from the equator to 80 ° N were identified 6 areas where the average annual SST anomalies are associated with SST anomalies and sea ice extent (SIE) in the Barents Sea. Detailed analysis with monthly SST from HadISST for 1951 - 2013 identified two areas with the greatest influence on the Barents Sea. One area is the northern region of the Gulf Stream and other is the equatorial region. The corresponding delays amounted to 26 months and 4-5 years. The relationship between changes AMO index, averaged over August-October, and SIE in the Barents Sea in January is evaluated. Correlation coefficient between them with 3 year delay is -0.54. Implemented study revealed the importance of teleconnection between SST anomalies in the North Atlantic and SST

  20. Sea Surface Temperature Seesaw between the Subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea during the Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, A.; Divine, D.; Koc, N.; Godtliebsen, F.; Hall, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    August sea surface temperature (aSST) record based on fossil diatom assemblages is generated from a 2800-year-long marine sediment core Rapid 21-COM from the Iceland Basin, in the northern subpolar North Atlantic. The record has a resolution of 2-10 years for interval 800-2004 AD representing the highest-resolution diatom SST reconstruction from the subpolar North Atlantic for this period, and 40 years for interval 800 BC-800 AD. The record is compared with the high-resolution aSST record from core CR948/2011 from the Vøring Plateau, in the Norwegian Sea, to explore the variability of the aSST gradient between these areas during the late Holocene. The aSST records show persistent opposite climate trends toward warming in the subpolar North Atlantic and cooling in the Norwegian Sea during the late Holocene. An apparent tendency to coherent antiphased aSST variations between the sites is also revealed for the shorter time scales implying an aSST seesaw between the northern subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea to operate during the late Holocene. At the multicentennial scale of aSST variability of 600-900 years, the records are nearly in antiphase with warmer (colder) periods in the subpolar North Atlantic corresponding to the colder (warmer) periods in the Norwegian Sea. At the shorter time scale of 200-450 years, the records display a phase-locked behaviour with a tendency for the positive aSST anomalies in the Norwegian Sea to lead by ca. 30 years the negative aSST anomalies in the subpolar North Atlantic. This aSST seesaw might have had a strong effect on two major climate anomalies in the northwest Europe during the past Millennium: Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). During the MWP warming of the sea surface in the Norwegian Sea occurred in parallel with cooling in the northern subpolar North Atlantic, whereas the opposite pattern emerged during the LIA. Coupled changes in aSST between the northern subpolar North Atlantic and the

  1. Review Article: Storm Britta in 2006: offshore damage and large waves in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    The Britta storm of 31 October-1 November 2006 was a severe autumn storm that was particularly damaging for shipping and coastal flooding from storm surge effects along the southern North Sea. The main low pressure of the storm propagated from Scotland to southern Norway on 31 October, leading to a system of strong north winds that moved southward across North Sea over an 18 h period. A progression of ship and offshore platform difficulties were registered from the northern part of the North Sea from late on 31 October and culminated near the coasts of Germany and the Netherlands early on 1 November with a series of ship emergencies linked with large waves. In two separate incidents, unusually high waves broke the bridge windows of ships and necessitated emergency rescues, and a Dutch motor lifeboat experienced a triple capsize. In the southern North Sea, several gas production and research platforms experienced wave impact damage. The FINO1 offshore research platform, near the Dutch-German border, experienced some of the worst storm conditions with some structural damage. Its meteorological and oceanographic instrumentation give a unique profile of the severe met-ocean conditions during the storm. Two Waverider buoys at FINO1 and the nearby Dutch coastal site of Schiermonnikoog recorded groups of large waves at different times during the storm. These reports give insight into a little-reported rogue wave phenomenon that sometimes accompanies the "ground sea" conditions of the worst storms of the area.

  2. Clay mineral associations in fine-grained surface sediments of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irion, Georg; Zöllmer, Volker

    1999-03-01

    With the help of about 500 samples of surface sediments from the North Sea crude maps of the distributions of the clay minerals illite, chlorite, smectite and kaolinite were constructed. Illite, with 51%, is the dominant clay mineral, followed by smectite (27%), chlorite (12%), and kaolinite (10%). There are well-distinguished areas of different concentrations of the individual clay mineral associations. Illite and chlorite show highest values in the north, kaolinite concentrations are high in a corridor a few hundred kilometres wide between the east coast of the UK and the Danish/south Norwegian coast. Smectite is high in the German Bight and in the southwestern North Sea. The distribution patterns of the clay mineral associations are mainly explained by late Quaternary history and by recent to sub-recent sedimentary processes. During the Pleistocene cold periods illite- and chlorite-rich sediments from the Fennoscandian Shield were transported by the great inland ice-masses in a southward direction. The present high sea-level erosion on the east coast of Great Britain provides the North Sea with kaolinite-rich fine-grained sediments. Smectites inherited from Elsterian deposits in the southeast corner and probably from sub-recent Elbe sediments are responsible for their higher values in the German Bight. The high values of smectite in the southwest may have originated from Cretaceous sediments eroded on the banks of the Strait of Dover. The present contribution of riverine suspended load to the North Sea appears to be low.

  3. Impacts of the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean on the Antarctic Peninsula and sea ice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xichen; Holland, David M; Gerber, Edwin P; Yoo, Changhyun

    2014-01-23

    In recent decades, Antarctica has experienced pronounced climate changes. The Antarctic Peninsula exhibited the strongest warming of any region on the planet, causing rapid changes in land ice. Additionally, in contrast to the sea-ice decline over the Arctic, Antarctic sea ice has not declined, but has instead undergone a perplexing redistribution. Antarctic climate is influenced by, among other factors, changes in radiative forcing and remote Pacific climate variability, but none explains the observed Antarctic Peninsula warming or the sea-ice redistribution in austral winter. However, in the north and tropical Atlantic Ocean, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (a leading mode of sea surface temperature variability) has been overlooked in this context. Here we show that sea surface warming related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation reduces the surface pressure in the Amundsen Sea and contributes to the observed dipole-like sea-ice redistribution between the Ross and Amundsen-Bellingshausen-Weddell seas and to the Antarctic Peninsula warming. Support for these findings comes from analysis of observational and reanalysis data, and independently from both comprehensive and idealized atmospheric model simulations. We suggest that the north and tropical Atlantic is important for projections of future climate change in Antarctica, and has the potential to affect the global thermohaline circulation and sea-level change. PMID:24451542

  4. Hyperpigmentation in North Sea dab Limanda limanda. I. Spatial and temporal patterns and host effects.

    PubMed

    Grütjen, F; Lang, T; Feist, S; Bruno, D; Noguera, P; Wosniok, W

    2013-03-13

    Hyperpigmentation is a term describing a specific pigment anomaly affecting common dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and, less frequently, in adjacent areas, e.g. the English Channel, Irish and Celtic Seas, western Baltic Sea and Icelandic waters. Other North Sea flatfish species are also affected, but at a markedly lower prevalence. The condition is characterised by the occurrence of varying degrees of green to black patchy pigment spots in the skin of the upper (ocular) body side and pearly-white pigment spots in the skin of the lower (abocular) body side. In the course of fish disease monitoring programmes carried out by Germany and the UK (England and Scotland), a pronounced spatial pattern of hyperpigmentation has been detected in the North Sea. An increase in prevalence has been recorded in almost all North Sea areas studied in the past 2 decades. The prevalence recorded in hot spot areas of the condition increased from 5 to >40% between 1988 and 2009. Analysis of the German data indicates that the prevalence and intensity (degree of discolouration) of hyperpigmentation increase with size and age, indicating a temporal progression of the condition with size and age. Intense hyperpigmentation is associated with increased growth (length) and decreased condition factor. Potential causes of the condition (UV-B radiation nutrition, water temperature increase, demographic changes) and, in particular, of the spatial/temporal patterns recorded as well as the relationship to host-specific factors (sex, age, length, growth, condition factor) are discussed. PMID:23482381

  5. Pliocene pre-glacial North Atlantic: A coupled sea surface-deep ocean circulation climate response

    SciTech Connect

    Ishman, S.E.; Dowsett, H.J. . National Center)

    1992-01-01

    A latitudinal transect of North Atlantic Deep Sea Drilling Project Holes from the equatorial region to 56 N in the 2,300- to 3,000-meter depth range was designed for a high-resolution study of coupled sea surface and deep ocean response to climate change. Precise age control was provided using magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from the cores to identify the 4.0 to 2.2 Ma interval, a period of warm-to-cool climatic transitions in the North Atlantic. The objective is to evaluate incremental (10 kyr) changes in sea surface temperatures (SST) and deep North Atlantic circulation patterns between 4.0 and 2.2 Ma to develop a coupled sea surface-deep ocean circulation response model. Sea surface temperature (SST) estimates are based on planktic foraminifer-based factor-analytic transfer functions. Oxygen isotopic data from paired samples provide tests of the estimated temperature gradients between localities. Benthic foraminifer assemblage data and [partial derivative]O-18 and [partial derivative]C-13 Isotopic data are used to quantitatively determine changes in deep North Atlantic circulation. These data are used to determine changes in source area (North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) or Antarctic Bottom Water) and (or) in the components of NADW that were present (Upper or Lower NADW). These paired paleoceanographic sea surface and deep circulation interpretations over a 1.8 my interval form the basis for a coupled sea surface-deep circulation response model for the Pliocene North Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Comparison of nematode communities in Baltic and North Sea sublittoral, permeable sands Diversity and environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Hedtkamp, Stefanie I. C.; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Wiktor, Józef; Węsławski, Jan Marcin

    2006-10-01

    The structure of free-living nematode communities was investigated seasonally at two sandy locations representing typical shallow sublittoral, permeable environments of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. At the Baltic study site the chlorophyll and organic carbon concentrations in the sediment were, on average, four times lower than at the North Sea. Highest nematode densities (1674-4100 ind. 10 cm -2) and a higher number of free-living nematode genera (66) were recorded in the North Sea (Baltic: 206-1227 ind. 10 cm -2, 30 genera). Despite lower salinity and lower food availability the less dense and less diverse Baltic nematode community was similar in generic composition to the North Sea community. At the North Sea site, all trophic groups according to Wieser's classification were present with omnivores/predators, dominated by Viscosia, prevailing and followed by epistrate-feeders. In the food-limited Baltic community, non-selective deposit feeders (mainly Ascolaimus, Axonolaimus and Daptonema) and omnivores/predators dominated by Enoplolaimus were the most abundant trophic groups while selective deposit feeders were absent or their contribution was negligible. An analysis of the vertical generic distribution revealed highest diversity of the Baltic community in deeper sediment layers, below the sediment surface affected by ripple migration and near the interface of oxic and anoxic conditions. The diversity pattern in the North Sea sediment was more variable but generally showed high diversity in the upper centimetre of the sediment. These observations suggest that food supply and sediment oxygenation are the most important factors influencing the vertical pattern of nematode generic diversity in sublittoral, permeable sands.

  7. Late Tectonic history of Beaufort Sea - North Pacific area

    SciTech Connect

    McWhae, J.R.H.

    1985-02-01

    The Kaltag fault (and its northern associated splay, the Rapid fault array) is the sheared suture between the Eurasian-Alaskan plate and the North American plate in the area between the Mackenzie Delta and the Alaskan Border. This condition has been maintained throughout considerable additional phases of faulting and folding from mid-Cretaceous to the present. Previously, the Alaskan plate had been the northwestern nose of the North America plate. The interplate suture was deflected to the north as the Canadian Shield was approached. The Kaltag fault continued northeastward 2000 km seaward of the Sverdrup rim, northwest of the Canadian Arctic Island, and north of Greenland. The driving force was directed from the southwest by the Eurasian plate after its collision in Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) with the North American plate and the docking of north-moving exotic terranes from the Pacific. During the early Tertiary, perhaps in concert with the accretion of the Okhotsk block to the Asian plate north of Japan, the northern Pacific subduction zone jumped southward to the Aleutian Arc where it has persisted until today. A distance of 800 km separates the stable shelf of the Canadian craton, at the Alberta Foothills thrust belt, from the subduction zone off Vancouver Island. The foreland thrust belt and the accretion of exotic terranes in Mesozoic and Tertiary times extended the continental crust of the North American plate westward to the present active transform margin with the Pacific plate along the Queen Charlotte fault zone.

  8. The Holocene palaeogeography and relative sea level for two tidal basins of the German North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bungenstock, Friederike; Wartenberg, Wolfram; Mauz, Barbara; Freund, Holger; Frechen, Manfred; Weerts, Henk J. T.; Berner, Heinrich

    2014-05-01

    The response of coasts to global sea-level rise is highly variable. Knowledge of driving coastal parameters alongside the regional sea-level history is therefore indispensable when the response to global sea-level rise is to be assessed. Here, we study the Holocene relative sea-level of the south coast of the North Sea which is controlled by a number of very local parameters, as well as by regional glacio-isostatic adjustments. It is therefore crucial to restrict the data acquisition and evaluation to small coastal sections, ideally to single tidal basins, to minimize the sources of uncertainties (Bungenstock & Weerts 2010, 2012). We present data from two tidal basins, Langeoog and Jade Bay. For Langeoog a database derived from 600 cores, 68 km of Boomer seismic data, 33 radiocarbon ages and 8 OSL dates is available. (Bungenstock & Schäfer 2009, Mauz & Bungenstock 2007). For the Jade bay, the database comprises sedimentary markers, pollen and macro remains derived from 68 cores. The sedentary chronology is based on 54 radiocarbon ages and pollen constraints (Wartenberg & Freund 2011, Wartenberg et al. 2013). For both tidal basins the sedimentological record was interpreted in terms of the local paleogeographical development since about 7000 cal BP and its influence on the local relative sea-level curve. While the trend of the relative sea level is similar for both tidal basins, it shows a different altitude. The timing of the main marine transgression within the Langeoog area takes place ~3000 cal. BP whereas the sedimentological record of the Jade Bay shows two prominent transgressions, one for ~5000 cal. BP and one for ~3000 cal. BP. The Langeoog palaeo-environment is continuously characterised by marine influence. Within the Jade Bay two different palaeo-environments could be identified, documenting that from the West to the centre the landscape development in the Jade Bay was drainage driven feeding the associated fen peat with minerogenic water but being

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in mercury contamination of seabirds in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furness, R. W.; Thompson, D. R.; Becker, P. H.

    1995-03-01

    Once the moult patterns have been taken into account, feather methylmercury levels can be used to accurately measure the mercury burdens of seabirds. We used body feathers from live seabirds and from museum collections to examine geographical and temporal patterns of mercury contamination in the North Sea. This approach identifies an increase in mercury concentrations in seabirds of the German North Sea coast during the last 100 years, especially high levels during the 1940s, and reduced contamination in the last few years. Comparisons among populations suggest that some increases in mercury levels are predominantly due to local pollution inputs, as on the German coast, while in other areas deposition from jet stream circulation of global contamination may be the major contributor. Mercury levels are far higher in seabirds from the German North Sea coast than in populations from the north and west North Sea or from most areas of the North Atlantic. We advocate the use of museum collections of birds for studies of long-term changes in levels of mercury contamination.

  10. Eutrophication status of the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and the Baltic Sea in present and future climates: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skogen, Morten D.; Eilola, Kari; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.; Meier, H. E. Markus; Molchanov, Mikhail S.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.

    2014-04-01

    A method to combine observations and an ensemble of ecological models has been used to assess eutrophication. Using downscaled forcing from two GCMs under the A1B emission scenario, an assessment of the eutrophication status was made for a control (1970-2000) and a future climate (2070-2100) period. By using validation results from a hindcast to compute individual weights between the models, an assessment of eutrophication is done using a set of threshold values. The final classification distinguishes between three categories: problem area, potential problem area, and non-problem area, in accordance with current management practice as suggested by the Oslo and Paris Commissions (OSPAR) and the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). For the control run the assessment indicates that the Kattegat, the Danish Straits, the Gulf of Finland, the Gotland Basin as well as main parts of the Arkona Basin, the Bornholm Basin, and the Baltic proper may be classified as problem areas. The main part of the North Sea and also the Skagerrak are non-problem areas while the main parts of the Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Riga and the entire southeastern continental coast of the North Sea may be classified as potential problem areas. In the future climate scenarios most of the previous potential problem areas in the Baltic Sea have become problem areas, except for the Bothnian Bay where the situation remain fairly unchanged. In the North Sea there seems to be no obvious changes in eutrophication status in the projected future climate.

  11. Effects of North Sea oil and alkylphenols on biomarker responses in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Sturve, Joachim; Hasselberg, Linda; Fälth, Herman; Celander, Malin; Förlin, Lars

    2006-06-01

    A consequence of oil drilling at sea is the release of produced water contaminated with e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylphenols. In the present study, juvenile Atlantic cod were exposed to North Sea oil, nonylphenol and a combination of the North Sea oil and an alkylphenol mixture in a flow-through system. A suite of hepatic biomarkers were analysed. Exposure to North Sea oil resulted in strong induction of CYP1A protein levels and EROD activities. Exposure to nonylphenol, on the other hand, resulted in decreased CYP1A levels and EROD activities. Thus, nonylphenol appears to down-regulate CYP1A expression in Atlantic cod. Combined exposure to North Sea oil with an alkylphenol mixture resulted in lower EROD induction, compared to that in fish exposed to North Sea oil alone. This difference was not statistically significant, but still we believe that the alkylphenols have inhibited CYP1A activities in the fish which may have compromised CYP1A mediated metabolism of other xenobiotics, including PAH. CYP3A protein levels were lower, compared to controls, in fish exposed to nonylphenol and the combination of North Sea oil and alkylphenol mixture. In contrast, the oil alone had no effect on CYP3A protein content. North Sea oil exposure, alone or in combination with alkylphenols, caused oxidative stress observed as elevated levels of GSSG content and GR and CAT activities. Interestingly, exposure to nonylphenol resulted in a marked depletion of total glutathione levels. This apparent depletion may be a consequence of increased conjugation of glutathione to nonylphenol followed by excretion. An increase in conjugation enzyme GST activity was observed in the nonylphenol exposed group, although the difference was not significant. No sign of oxidative damage, measured as lipid peroxidation, was observed in any of the exposures experiments. This study suggests that North Sea oil may lead to oxidative stress and altered CYP1A and CYP3A expression

  12. Difference of mercury bioaccumulation in red mullets from the north-western Mediterranean and Black seas.

    PubMed

    Harmelin-Vivien, M; Cossa, D; Crochet, S; Bănaru, D; Letourneur, Y; Mellon-Duval, C

    2009-05-01

    The relationships between total mercury (Hg) concentration and stable nitrogen isotope ratio (delta(15)N) were evaluated in Mullus barbatus barbatus and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea and M. barbatus ponticus from the Black Sea. Mercury concentration in fish muscle was six times higher in the two Mediterranean species than in the Black Sea one for similar sized animals. A positive correlation between Hg concentration and delta(15)N occurred in all species. Increase in Hg concentration with delta(15)N was high and similar in the two Mediterranean fishes and much lower in the Black Sea species. Since this was neither related to trophic level difference between species nor to methylmercury (MeHg) concentration differences between the north-western Mediterranean and the Black Sea waters, we suggested that the higher primary production of the Black Sea induced a dilution of MeHg concentration at the base of the food webs. PMID:19201429

  13. Influence of Sea Ice on the Thermohaline Circulation in the Arctic-North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauritzen, Cecilie; Haekkinen, Sirpa

    1997-01-01

    A fully prognostic coupled ocean-ice model is used to study the sensitivity of the overturning cell of the Arctic-North-Atlantic system to sea ice forcing. The strength of the thermohaline cell will be shown to depend on the amount of sea ice transported from the Arctic to the Greenland Sea and further to the subpolar gyre. The model produces a 2-3 Sv increase of the meridional circulation cell at 25N (at the simulation year 15) corresponding to a decrease of 800 cu km in the sea ice export from the Arctic. Previous modeling studies suggest that interannual and decadal variability in sea ice export of this magnitude is realistic, implying that sea ice induced variability in the overturning cell can reach 5-6 Sv from peak to peak.

  14. North Sea operators look at every way possible to cut costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-29

    Offshore operators have embarked on a second revolution in North Sea technology. In the 1970s, concepts established in the Gulf of Mexico were adapted using massive injections of manpower and money to produce platforms and pipelines that could survive in the deeper water and harsher environment of the North Sea. Target for the late 1980s is a complete reappraisal of harsh environment technology so that small reservoirs can be exploited at a profit with crude prices at $15-18bbl. Even before the collapse in oil prices, companies were hoping to cut development costs by 15-20%. But goals are more ambitious now. Esso U.K. plc chairman Archie Forster said the Shell/Esso group was close to achieving a 50% reduction in costs and getting front end investment costs for North Sea projects down to $10/bbl.

  15. Phylogenetics, phylogeography and population genetics of North American sea ducks (tribe: Mergini)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Pearce, John M.; Scribner, Kim T.

    2015-01-01

    Many environments occupied by North American sea ducks are remote and difficult to access, and as a result, detailed information about life history characteristics that drive population dynamics within and across species is limited. Nevertheless, progress on this front during the past several decades has benefited by the application of genetic technologies, and for several species, these technologies have allowed for concomitant tracking of population trends and genetic diversity, delineation of populations, assessment of gene flow among metapopulations, and understanding of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering grounds. This chapter provides an overview of phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and population genetics studies of North American sea duck species, many of which have sought to understand the major and minor genetic divisions within and among sea duck species, and most of which have been conducted with the understanding that the maintenance of genetic variation in wild sea duck populations is fundamental to the group’s long-term persistence.

  16. Estimating uncertainty caused by ocean heat transport to the North Sea: experiments downscaling EC-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, T.; Su, J.; Boberg, F.; Yang, S.; Schmith, T.

    2016-01-01

    The heat content of the North Sea is determined by the surface heat flux and the ocean heat transport into the region. The uncertainty in the projected warming in the North Sea caused by ocean heat transport has rarely been quantified. The difference in the estimates using regional ocean models is known to arise from the poorly prescribed temperature boundary forcing, either provided by global models at coarse grid resolutions, or from anomaly correction (using difference of the simulation from observed climatology) without interannual variation. In this study, two marine downscaling experiments were performed using boundary temperature forcings prepared with the two above mentioned strategies: one interpolated from a global model simulation (MI: model incl. interannual variation), and the other from observed climatology with warming trends in the future ocean derived from the global model simulation (OT: observed climatol. plus trend). The comparative experiments allowed us to estimate the uncertainty caused by ocean heat transport to the North Sea. The global climate model EC-Earth CMIP5 simulations of historical and future scenarios were used to provide lateral boundary forcing for regional models. The OT boundary was found to affect deep water temperatures (below 50 m) in the North Sea because of reduced interannual variability. The difference of mean temperature changes by 2100 (MI - OT) was up to 0.5 °C near the bottom across 58°N. While the deep water temperature in the North Sea did not directly link to the large-scale atmospheric circulation, the Norwegian outflow was highly correlated with the NAO index and heat transport of the Atlantic inflow provided by EC-Earth. It was found that model uncertainty due to the choice of lateral boundary forcing could be significant in the interannual variation of thermal stratification in the northern North Sea in a long-term simulation.

  17. Bacterial and archaeal communities in sediments of the north Chinese marginal seas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiwen; Liu, Xiaoshou; Wang, Min; Qiao, Yanlu; Zheng, Yanfen; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Microbial communities of the Chinese marginal seas have rarely been reported. Here, bacterial and archaeal community structures and abundance in the surface sediment of four sea areas including the Bohai Sea (BS), North Yellow Sea (NYS), South Yellow Sea (SYS), and the north East China Sea (NECS) were surveyed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. The results showed that microbial communities of the four geographic areas were distinct from each other at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, whereas the microbial communities of the BS, NYS, and SYS were more similar to each other than to the NECS at higher taxonomic levels. Across all samples, Bacteria were numerically dominant relative to Archaea, and among them, Gammaproteobacteria and Euryarchaeota were predominant in the BS, NYS, and SYS, while Deltaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaeota were prevalent in the NECS. The most abundant bacterial genera were putative sulfur oxidizer and sulfate reducer, suggesting that sulfur cycle processes might prevail in these areas, and the high abundance of dsrB (10(7)-10(8) copies g(-1)) in all sites verified the dominance of sulfate reducer in the north Chinese marginal seas. The differences in sediment sources among the sampling areas were potential explanations for the observed microbial community variations. Furthermore, temperature and dissolved oxygen of bottom water were significant environmental factors in determining both bacterial and archaeal communities, whereas chlorophyll a in sediment was significant only in structuring archaeal community. This study presented an outline of benthic microbial communities and provided insights into understanding the biogeochemical cycles in sediments of the north Chinese marginal seas. PMID:25501892

  18. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR surveys, egg surveys and commercial landings from Danish coastal fisheries in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and inner Danish waters. The three independent sources of data all show that there is a significant relationship between the timing of spawning and sea surface temperature. Large mackerel are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management and monitoring. An increase in temperature is likely to affect the timing and magnitude of the growth, recruitment and migration of North Sea mackerel with subsequent impacts on its sustainable exploitation.

  19. Comparison of Late Ordovician epicontinental seas and their relative bathymetry in North American and China

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Fox, W.T. ); Jia-Yu, Rong )

    1989-02-01

    Six widely separated areas with Upper Ordovician strata in Canada and the United States are compared with six localities in southern China. Cyclic sedimentation, including evaporites, carbonates, and phosphatic black shales, occurred in relatively shallow epicontinental seas of North America. As many as three Ashgill cycles of regionally different styles may have been coeval throughout North America in response to modest changes in sea level. Environments in South China primarily included carbonates and black shales with a far more uniform distribution. Absence of comparable sedimentary cycles confirms that the platform bathymetry of South China was consistently deeper than in North America. The almost complete exposure of North China (Sino-Korean Plate) by Late Ordovician time underscores the fact that independent cratons have different bathymetric histories. By mid-Silurian time, South China also was fully exposed. Such hypsographic variation is critical to the intercontinental correlation of features related to eustasy, water chemistry, and even the patterns of extinctions.

  20. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the upcoming North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), we present a synthesis of current knowledge about past, present and possible future climate change in the North Sea region. A climate change assessment from published scientific work has been conducted as a kind of regional IPCC report, and a book has been produced that will be published by Springer in 2016. In the framework of the NOSCCA project, we examine past and present studies of variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period, roughly the past 200 years, based on observations and reanalyses. The variables addressed in this presentation are large-scale circulation, pressure and wind, surface air temperature, precipitation and radiative properties (clouds, solar radiation, and sunshine duration). While air temperature over land, not unexpectedly, has increased everywhere in the North Sea region, with strongest trends in spring and in the north of the region, a precipitation increase has been observed in the north and a decrease in the south of the region. This pattern goes along with a north-eastward shift of storm tracks and is in agreement with climate model projections under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. For other variables, it is not obvious which part of the observed changes may be due to anthropogenic activities and which is internally forced. It remains also unclear to what extent atmospheric circulation over the North Sea region is influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades. There are indications of an increase in the number of deep cyclones (but not in the total number of cyclones), while storminess since the late 19th century shows no robust trends. The persistence of circulation types appears to have increased over the last century, and consequently, there is an indication for 'more extreme' extreme events. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess

  1. Solar wind: A possible factor driving the interannual sea surface temperature tripolar mode over North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Li, Delin

    2016-06-01

    The effect of solar wind (SW) on the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in boreal winter is examined through an analysis of observational data during 1964-2013. The North Atlantic SSTs show a pronounced meridional tripolar pattern in response to solar wind speed (SWS) variations. This pattern is broadly similar to the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of interannual variations in the wintertime SSTs over North Atlantic. The time series of this leading EOF mode of SST shows a significant interannual period, which is the same as that of wintertime SWS. This response also appears as a compact north-south seesaw of sea level pressure and a vertical tripolar structure of zonal wind, which simultaneously resembles the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the overlying atmosphere. As compared with the typical low SWS winters, during the typical high SWS winters, the stratospheric polar night jet (PNJ) is evidently enhanced and extends from the stratosphere to the troposphere, even down to the North Atlantic Ocean surface. Notably, the North Atlantic Ocean is an exclusive region in which the SW signal spreads downward from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Thus, it seems that the SW is a possible factor for this North Atlantic SST tripolar mode. The dynamical process of stratosphere-troposphere coupling, together with the global atmospheric electric circuit-cloud microphysical process, probably accounts for the particular downward propagation of the SW signal.

  2. Identification of a novel papillomavirus in a Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) with viral production in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, A M; Fish, S; Duerr, R S; Cruz, F N Dela; Pesavento, P A

    2015-05-01

    We report the identification of a novel papillomavirus, Fulmarus glacialis papillomavirus 1 (FgPV1), present within an interdigital foot mass of a Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). The mass of interest was composed of normal stratified and keratinized epithelium and dense mesenchymal cells with central cartilaginous islands. Within the nuclei of many chondrocytes were loose aggregates or paracrystalline arrays of virions approximately 50 nm in size. Degenerate polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the virus as a putative papillomavirus, and the entire viral genome of 8132 base pairs was subsequently amplified and sequenced. Analysis revealed canonical papillomavirus architecture, including the early open reading frames E6, E7, E1, and E2 and the 2 late proteins L1 and L2. FgPV1 is most closely related to a cluster of avian and reptilian papillomaviruses as visualized by phylogenetic trees. This observation suggests that papillomavirus virion production can occur in mesenchymal cells. PMID:25034110

  3. Detecting storm surge loading deformations around the southern North Sea using subdaily GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianghui; Williams, Simon D. P.; Teferle, Felix N.; Dodson, Alan H.

    2012-09-01

    A large storm surge event occurred on 2007 November 2009 in the southern North Sea where strong winds caused the sea level to rise drastically by up to 3 m within several hours. Based on the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory storm surge model, the predicted loading displacements at coastal stations can reach a few centimetres in the vertical and several millimetres in the horizontal directions. In this study, we used two-hourly global positioning system (GPS) positions at 26 stations around the southern North Sea to identify the loading displacements caused by this storm surge event. We find that the mean rms of the differences between the estimated and predicted displacements are 4.9, 1.3 and 1.4 mm, which are insignificant compared to the one-sigma GPS positioning errors of 5.1, 2.0 and 2.4 mm for the Up, East and North components, respectively. More interestingly, in both vertical and horizontal directions, the estimated displacements successfully tracked the temporal evolution of the storm surge loading effects. In addition, within the whole of 2007 November, we used the predicted displacements to correct the two-hourly GPS positions, and consequently reduced the rms of the estimated displacements on average from 9.3, 3.0 and 2.9 mm to 7.8, 2.8 and 2.8 mm for Up, East and North components, respectively. Therefore, subdaily loading effects due to storm surges should be paid attention to in the GPS positioning that contributes to crustal-motion studies around shallow seas such as the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Analysis of Linear and Nonlinear Sea Level Trends in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Y.; Yan, X.

    2013-05-01

    Since the sea surface changes in response to many forcings occurring at different time scales, analysis of the interactions between the different scales of variation is important to understanding how sea level has varied in the past and how it will vary in the future. Geographically uneven sea level trends (SLT) in the North Atlantic were analyzed using the monthly mean altimetry sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) from January 1993 to December 2011. In order to understand the different time scales in SSHA variability, the data were decomposed into seasonal, annual, interannual, decadal and residual signals using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD). Using the EEMD residual the nonlinear SLT was determined, which shows the turning point of the SLT during either the rising or falling trend. While a downswinging inflection was the dominant pattern in the regions of sea level rise occurring after 2007 in the Subpolar Gyre, the Subtropical Gyre, and the Equatorial Current, a pattern of upswinging inflection was dominated in the regions where sea level was significantly decreasing after about 2000 close to the North Atlantic Current and Northern Recirculation Gyre. We may therefore understand whether sea level changes in different regions are in phase or out of phase, and with how much lag.

  5. North Sea Scyphomedusae; summer distribution, estimated biomass and significance particularly for 0-group Gadoid fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, S. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Shanks, A. M.

    Data on the by-catch of Scyphomedusae from pelagic trawls was collected during the routine ICES International 0-group Gadoid Surveys of the North Sea, in June and July of the years 1971-1986 (except 1984). These data are used to describe the distributions, abundances and biomasses of three common North Sea Scyphomedusae: Aurelia aurita (L.), Cyanea capillata (L.) and C. lamarckii (Péron & Lesuer). Information is also presented on inter-annual variability, size (umbrella diameter) frequencies and, for the Cyanea species, umbrella diameter: wet weight relationships. The general role and ecological significance of Scyphomedusae is discussed and, given the well known 'shelter' relationships between Scyphomedusae and certain 0-group fish, whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) and haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus), in particular. The data were examined for evidence of such relationships. Aurelia aurita, although fairly widespread in the northern North Sea was virtually absent from the central North Sea but very abundant in coastal waters. This species was particularly abundant off the Scottish east coast and especially in the Moray Firth. Cyanea lamerckii was most abundant in the southern and eastern North Sea. More widespread than Aurelia, this species was also most abundant in coastal regions, particularly off the Danish west coast. Cyanea capillata, with a more northern distribution was also more widely distributed and abundant offshore. This species was most abundant in the area between the Orkney/Shetland Isles and the Norwegian Deep and in shelf waters of the north west approaches to the North Sea. As with C. lamarckii it was also, in some years, abundant off the Scottish east coast and west of Denmark. The abundance and the size frequency of the jellyfish show considerable inter-annual variability, and variability between regions of the North Sea. It is considered that hydrographic variability and differences in food supply to both medusae and to their sessile

  6. The science and management of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea: natural history, present threats and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Ducrotoy, Jean-Paul; Elliott, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The review provides an overview of the features of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in their European geographical and socio-political context. To reach sustainability in the wider sense the common society has to meet the 7 tenets - that management actions have to be environmentally sustainable, economically viable, technologically feasible, socially desirable (or at least tolerable), legally permissible, administratively achievable and politically expedient. Each of these are explained and discussed using examples from the two seas including pollution control, physical resource exploitation (such as aggregates, habitat loss, renewable energy and oil and gas), and biological resources exploitation (fisheries and aquaculture). This paper discusses the similarities between the areas in terms of their management regimes, population in the catchment, history of anthropogenic changes, derivation of objectives against a wealth of information and understanding, and the history of management and control. In contrast, the differences between the areas centre on their differing hydrographic regimes, including residence and flushing times, biological features, nature of the pollutants discharged, dominant types of fishing and type of control indicated by a predominant Eastern Bloc for the Baltic as opposed to European Union control in the North Sea. The review ends with an assessment of future challenges and examples of the way in which environmental problems have been addressed in the two areas. In particular, it sets the features against a background of management designed to achieve the Ecosystem Approach within the prevailing European marine management framework. PMID:18533194

  7. Contrasting Marine Carbon Monoxide Budget in the North Pacific and the Amundsen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young Shin; Siek Rhee, Tae

    2016-04-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a trace gas that affects the global climate indirectly by participating in the atmospheric chemistry. Although in many studies it is estimated to be produced fast in the surface ocean from the photolysis of chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOM), also it decreases considerably by the microbial oxidation and the vertical mixing in water column. Therefore, the strength of oceanic source to the atmosphere is not so considerable. To investigate how the CO budget in the mixed layer governs the CO emission from sea to air, we conducted the underway measurements of CO, the dark incubation experiments, and the measurements of CDOM absorbance during two expeditions in the Amundsen Sea and the North Pacific in summer season of 2012. Dark incubation experiments revealed that microbial consumption rate in the North Pacific was 2.7 nM d‑1whilst 1.2 nM d‑1 in the Amundsen Sea, which is ca. 2.3 times smaller. However, CO production rate was as much as about 40 times higher in the North Pacific (1 nM d‑1) due mainly to sea-ice albedo in the Amundsen Sea. It seems that this different CO budget between the two regions causes different amplitude of diurnal variation of dissolved CO. That is, compared to the Amundsen Sea, CO is produced faster in daytime and removed faster all day in the North Pacific where the sinusoidal amplitude of CO is larger. In both regions, ˜97% of CO is estimated to be consumed by microbes, and sea-to-air flux density calculated from the underway measurements was insignificant in terms of the total atmospheric reservoir. Our observations indicate that the source strength of the ocean was evenly weak regardless of the scale of CO budget in the ocean. That is, marine biota can be thought as a main control of CO in the atmosphere, the important trace gas for the global climate change.

  8. Role of the North Pacific sea surface temperature in the East Asian winter monsoon decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianqi; Wu, Sha; Ao, Juan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a possible mechanism for the decadal variability in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is proposed. Specifically, the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) may play an important role. An analysis of the observations shows that the North Pacific SST has a remarkable decadal pattern whose phase shifted around the mid-1980s. This North Pacific SST decadal pattern can weaken the East Asian trough and enhance the North Pacific Oscillation through changing air-sea interactions over the North Pacific. The weak East Asian trough enhances the zonal circulation and weakens the meridional circulation over East Asia, consequently leading to a weaker southward cold surge and East Asia warming around the mid-1980s. The numerical experiment further confirms the pronounced physical processes. In addition, over the longer period of 1871-2012, the indices of the EAWM and North Pacific SST decadal pattern are also highly consistent on the decadal timescale, which further confirms the impact of the North Pacific SST decadal pattern on the EAWM decadal variability.

  9. Relation between liquid hydrocarbon reserves and geothermal gradients - Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Comparison of average geothermal gradients and initial liquid hydrocarbon reserves for 28 Norwegian North Sea fields indicates that gradients in the largest North Sea oil fields cluster around 2.1F/100 feet. No reserves are found where gradients are lower than 1.8F/100 feet or higher than 2.3F/100 feet. At 6.89 billion barrels, reserves for 14 fields falling between 2.05 and 2.15/100 feet total over four times the reserves for all other fields put together. Reserves for seven fields at gradients lower than 2.05F/100 feet and for seven higher than 2.15F/100 feet total 594 and 991 million barrels, respectively. The conclusion is that 2.1F/100 feet is the optimum gradient for generation of liquid hydrocarbons in the Norwegian North Sea, given the depth, kerogen type, and source rock potential of the Kimmeridge Clay, the primary source rock there. Gradients lower than this have not stimulated maximum generation from the source rock. At higher gradients, increasing gas production from source rocks and thermal cracking of previously generated liquid hydrocarbons to gas are effective in limiting liquid hydrocarbon reserves. The 2.1F/100 feet gradient should be a useful pathfinder in the search for new oil reserves in the Norwegian North Sea. Determination of the optimum gradient should be a useful pathfinder in other regions as well.

  10. Subsea template, pipeline anchor Troll-Oseberg gas-injection scheme in Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Weibye, B.S.

    1988-01-18

    The author discusses the subsea, gas production template and the 30-mile pipeline that are key elements in supplying as from the Troll field for injection into Oseberg field in the Norwegian North Sea by 1991. The author discusses the design basis and philosophies as well as the production system, template installation and control pods.

  11. Modelling survival and connectivity of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the southern North Sea and Scheldt estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, J.; van Beek, J.; Augustine, S.; Vansteenbrugge, L.; van Walraven, L.; Langenberg, V.; van der Veer, H. W.; Hostens, K.; Pitois, S.; Robbens, J.

    2014-06-01

    Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model coupled to a biogeochemical model, and a dynamic energy budget (DEB) model. The results of the models, each with its strengths and weaknesses, suggest the following conceptual situation: (i) the estuaries possess enough retention capability to keep an overwintering population, and enough exchange with coastal waters of the North Sea to seed offshore populations; (ii) M. leidyi can survive in the North Sea, and be transported over considerable distances, thus facilitating connectivity between coastal embayments; (iii) under current climatic conditions, M. leidyi may not be able to reproduce in large numbers in coastal and offshore waters of the North Sea, but this may change with global warming - however this result is subject to substantial uncertainty. Further quantitative observational work is needed on the effects of temperature, salinity and food availability on reproduction and on mortality at different life stages to improve models such as used here.

  12. Seamount physiography and biology in North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morato, T.; Kvile, K. Ø.; Taranto, G. H.; Tempera, F.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Hebbeln, D.; Menezes, G.; Wienberg, C.; Santos, R. S.; Pitcher, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in-situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (North-East Atlantic) and in Mediterranean Sea is large with around 1061 and 202 seamount-like features, respectively. Similarly, seamounts occupy large areas of about 1 116 000 km2 in the OSPAR region and of about 184 000 km2 in the Mediterranean Sea, which is much larger than previously thought. The presence of seamounts in the North-East Atlantic has been known since the late 19th Century but overall knowledge regarding seamount ecology and geology is still relatively poor. Only 37 seamounts in the OSPAR area (3.5% of all seamounts in the region), 22 in the Mediterranean Sea (9.2% of all seamounts in the region) and 25 in the North-East Atlantic south of the OSPAR have in-situ information. Seamounts mapped in both areas are in general very heterogeneous, showing diverse geophysical characteristics. These differences will likely affect the biological diversity and production of resident and associated organisms.

  13. Amphiura filiformis (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) in the North Sea. Distribution, present and former abundance and size composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duineveld, G. C. A.; Künitzer, A.; Heyman, R. P.

    During the North Sea Benthos Survey undertaken by the ICES Benthos Ecology Working Group in spring 1986, a synoptic inventory was made of the benthos in the southern, central and part of the northern North Sea. The present paper deals with the status of the population of the infaunal ophiuroid Amphiura filiformis on the basis of measurements from 150 stations. A. filiformis was found at all the offshore muddy stations, but densities were generally highest in the shallow area south of the Dogger Bank. Stations with more than 1000 ind·m -2 were mainly situated near the frontiers between turbid and summer-stratified water masses, viz. along the southern border of the Oyster Ground, the southern slope of the Dogger Bank and in the northern part of the Pleistocene Elbe river valley. The size-distributions of A. filiformis show that juveniles were generally scarce at stations with high numbers of adults, whereas highest numbers of juveniles occur at stations with few adults. An unequivocal relation between adults and juveniles was, however, absent. This stresses the importance of other factors involved in recruitment. Comparison between the present and former (1938 and 1950) density of A. filiformis suggests that density has increased in the shallower parts but has remained stable in the deeper northern North Sea. An increase of A. filiformis shallow part of the North Sea could point to an enhanced food supply for the benthos, which may have some relation to the eutrophication in nearshore areas.

  14. Importance of ocean circulation in ecological modeling: An example from the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skogen, Morten D.; Moll, Andreas

    2005-09-01

    There is an increasing number of ecological models for the North Sea around. Skogen and Moll (2000) [Skogen, M.D., Moll, A. 2000. Interannual variability of the North Sea primary production: comparison from two model studies. Continental Shelf Research 20 (2), 129-151] compared the interannual variability of the North Sea primary production using two state-of-the-art ecological models, NORWECOM and ECOHAM1. Their conclusion was that the two models agreed on an annual mean primary production, its variability and the timing and size of the peak production. On the other hand, there was a low (even negative dependent of area) correlation in the production in different years between the two models. In the present work, these conclusions are brought further. To try to better understand the observed differences between the two models, the two ecological models are run in an identical physical setting. With such a set-up also the interannual variability between the two models is in agreement, and it is concluded that the single most important factor for a reliable modeling of phytoplankton and nutrient distributions and transports within the North Sea is a proper physical model.

  15. Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains Isolated from Surface Waters of Kabeltonne, Offshore Helgoland, North Sea.

    PubMed

    Duhaime, Melissa B; Wichels, Antje; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Draft genomes are presented for 6 Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from surface waters at Kabeltonne, Helgoland, a long-term ecological research station in the North Sea. These strains contribute knowledge of the genomic underpinnings of a developing model system to study phage-host dynamics of a particle-associated ocean copiotroph. PMID:26868390

  16. Six Pseudoalteromonas Strains Isolated from Surface Waters of Kabeltonne, Offshore Helgoland, North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wichels, Antje; Sullivan, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Draft genomes are presented for 6 Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from surface waters at Kabeltonne, Helgoland, a long-term ecological research station in the North Sea. These strains contribute knowledge of the genomic underpinnings of a developing model system to study phage-host dynamics of a particle-associated ocean copiotroph. PMID:26868390

  17. Vortices generation mechanisms in North western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraunie, P.; Redondo, J. M.; Schaeffer, A.; Molcard, A.; Forget, P.; Garreau, P.

    2012-04-01

    Mesoscale eddies have been observed in Northwestern Mediterranean Sea from satellites, RV cruises and more recently using HF radars. Different non linear mechanisms have been identified and investigated using process oriented high resolution numerical modelling. In particular, wind induced inertial motion and baroclinic instability cases have been illustrated and documented. Statistics of vortices occurence allow a better accounting for coherent structures for pollutants and nutriments dispersion and retention. Acknowledgements : GIRAC project (FUI - CG83 -TPM), ESA, HYMEX programme

  18. Oil contamination of fish in the North Sea. Determination of levels and identification of sources

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsen, S.; Restucci, R.; Klungsoyr, J.

    1996-12-31

    Two fish species, cod and haddock have been sampled from five different regions in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, the Haltenbanken and the Barents Sea, Three of the five sampling areas were located in regions with no local oil or gas production, while the remaining two areas represented regions with high density of oil and gas production fields. A total of 25 specimen of each of the two fish species were collected, and liver (all samples) and muscle (10 samples from each group) were analyzed for the content of total hydrocarbons (THC), selected aromatic compounds (NPD and PAH) and bicyclic aliphatic decalines. The present paper outlines the results of liver samples analyses from four of the sampled regions, & northern North Sea region and the three reference regions Egersundbanken, Haltenbanken and the Barents Sea. In general, no significant difference was observed between the hydrocarbon levels within the sampled regions. The only observed exception was a moderate, but significant increase in decaline levels in haddock liver from the Northern North Sea region. The qualitative interpretation of the results showed that the sources of hydrocarbon contamination varied within the total sampling area. This observation indicates that the local discharge sources in areas with high petroleum production activity are the sources of hydrocarbons in fish from such areas. However, it was not possible to identify single discharges as a contamination source from the present results.

  19. Deriving long-term sea level variations at tide gauge stations in Atlantic North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, E. S.; Sideris, M. G.; Rangelova, E.

    2009-05-01

    Tide gauge recording is an indispensable geodetic tool to study local sea level variations in coastal areas and mean sea level trends on a global scale. Combined with satellite altimetry sea surface heights or GNSS- derived ellipsoidal heights, tide gauge records have been used for deriving estimates of vertical crustal motion elsewhere. The objective of our paper is to study the capabilities of the method of singular spectrum analysis, which is generically related to empirical orthogonal functions/principal component analysis technique, to derive local long-term and secular sea level trends. This method allows one to extract any anomalous sea level signals, which is difficult to achieve by the conventional harmonic analysis. We use a set of tide gauge stations in Atlantic Canada and the USA extracted from the monthly PSMSL data base. To create continuous time series, we fill all time gaps by interpolating the main periodic and trend components of the sea level signal using the least squares harmonic analysis. We analyze all tide gauge time series simultaneously through singular value decomposition of the time-lagged series combined in a data trajectory matrix. This enables us to extract and separate the main modes of variability of the local sea level and to study only the long-term spatio-temporal patterns in the sea level variations. Our preliminary results show that the length of the tide gauge time series and the relative contribution of the signals to the total sea level variance are the two crucial factors that may preclude the separation of the local secular sea level fall or rise from any decadal sea level variability. The outcome of our study will be useful for combined satellite altimetry/TG/GRACE studies of sea level changes in the coastal areas, studies of vertical crustal motion due to postglacial rebound in the region, as well as the definition and realization of a dynamic reference surface for orthometric heights in North America.

  20. Blending of satellite and tide gauge sea level observations and its assimilation in a storm surge model of the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Høyer, Jacob L.; Fu, Weiwei; Donlon, Craig

    2015-09-01

    Coastal storm surge forecasts are typically derived from dedicated hydrodynamic model systems, relying on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) inputs. Uncertainty in the NWP wind field affects both the preconditioning and the forecast of sea level. Traditionally, tide gauge data have been used to limit preconditioning errors, providing point information. Here we utilize coastal satellite altimetry sea level observations. Careful processing techniques allow data to be retrieved up to 3 km from the coast, combining 1 Hz and 20 Hz data. The use of satellite altimetry directly is limited to times when the satellite passes over the area of interest. Instead, we use a stationary blending method developed by Madsen et al. (2007) to relate the coastal satellite altimetry with corresponding tide gauge measurements, allowing generation of sea level maps whenever tide gauge data are available. We apply the method in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, including the coastal zone, and test it for operational nowcasting and hindcasting of the sea level. The feasibility to assimilate the blended product into a hydrodynamic model is assessed, using the ensemble optimal interpolation method. A 2 year test simulation shows decreased sea level root mean square error of 7-43% and improved correlation by 1-23% in all modeled areas, when validated against independent tide gauges, indicating the feasibility to limit preconditioning errors for storm surge forecasting, using a relatively cost effective assimilation scheme.

  1. Focal mechanism determinations of earthquakes along the North Anatolian fault, beneath the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Masaru; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doğan

    2015-09-01

    We determined the centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions of earthquakes that occurred along the North Anatolian fault (NAF) beneath the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea, using data obtained from Turkey's broad-band seismograph network. The CMT solution of the 2014 Aegean Sea earthquake ( Mw 6.9) represents a strike-slip fault, consistent with the geometry of the NAF, and the source-time function indicates that this event comprised several distinct subevents. Each subevent is considered to have ruptured a different fault segment. This observation indicates the existence of a mechanical barrier, namely a NAF segment boundary, at the hypocenter. CMT solutions of background seismicity beneath the Aegean Sea represent strike-slip or normal faulting along the NAF or its branch faults. The tensional axes of these events are oriented northeast-southwest, indicating a transtensional tectonic regime. Beneath the Sea of Marmara, the CMT solutions represent mostly strike-slip faulting, consistent with the motion of the NAF, but we identified a normal fault event with a tensional axis parallel to the strike of the NAF. This mechanism indicates that a pull-apart basin, marking a segment boundary of the NAF, is developing there. Because ruptures of a fault system and large earthquake magnitudes are strongly controlled by the fault system geometry and fault length, mapping fault segments along NAF can help to improve the accuracy of scenarios developed for future disastrous earthquakes in the Marmara region.

  2. On the relationship of sea ice thickness and sea ice classes in Fram Strait and north of Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, A.; Dumont, M.; Gerland, S.; Beckers, J.; Granskog, M.; Goodwin, H.; Haas, C.

    2011-12-01

    In this poster, we present results from sea ice thickness surveys conducted during several scientific cruises in 2010 and 2011 in the region north of Svalbard and along 79° N in Fram Strait using a helicopter-borne electromagnetic device (EM-bird) in combination with aerial photography. A camera was mounted in the helicopter looking downwards at the EM-bird and the sea ice underneath and photos were taken every five seconds. A method based on discriminant analysis was developed to retrieve the fractions of the different ice types from the aerial photos. These fractions of open water, ice, thin ice, melt ponds and submerged ice were then combined with the ice thickness simultaneously measured by the EM-bird. The combination of ice thickness and ice type information provides insight into the characteristics of the different ice regimes and changes within these regimes. For example in Fram Strait in late summer 2010, the modal ice thickness was 1.2 m with the exception of a flight over the fast ice off the east coast of Greenland. There, the modal thickness was 2.9 m for a wide section of heavily ridged ice in front of the smoother, 1 m thick, level fast ice. As usual for the season, the sea ice was largely covered by melt ponds. However, the photo analyses show no significant difference between the fraction of melt ponds over ridged and level fast ice for this summer. The ice was thinner than expected, indicating the export of younger ice from the inner Arctic Ocean than in previous years. While the sea ice in Fram Strait is dominated by ice exported from the north, the ice cover north of Svalbard consists mostly of first-year ice. In summer 2010, this was visible in a narrower thickness distribution than in Fram Strait and a different distribution of the ice class fractions from the photographs.

  3. Segregation of herring larvae from inshore and offshore spawning grounds in the north-western North Sea — Implications for stock structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, M.

    Herring larvae hatching from spawning sites around the Scottish coast are dispersed by water currents during the weeks following hatching. Hydrographic data, observations on the distribution of caesium-137 and measurements of current velocities by moored meters and drifting buoys, suggest that larvae from offshore spawning sites around the north of Scotland should be more rapidly dispersed than those hatching in inshore areas. This has been confirmed by direct observations on the advection of herring larvae in different regions of the north western North Sea. The conclusion is that larvae hatching in inshore areas, especially in the Moray Firth, are most likely to contribute to nearby juvenile populations, whereas larvae from offshore spawning sites should be widely dispersed over the North Sea. Tagging and parasitology investigations have shown that adult herring spawning in the north-western North Sea have been widely dispersed in the North Sea and adjacent waters as juveniles (six months — one and a half years old). However, a high proportion of adult fish caught at inshore spawning sites and in the Moray Firth were found to have been recruited from more local areas. Taken together with the observations on larval drift, these observations suggest that the stock structure of herring in the northern North Sea may in part be a consequence of the physical oceanography of the area.

  4. Numerical modelling of physical processes governing larval transport in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiessen, M. C. H.; Fernard, L.; Gerkema, T.; van der Molen, J.; Ruardij, P.; van der Veer, H. W.

    2014-05-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (GETM) was coupled with a particle tracking routine (GITM) to study the inter-annual variability in transport paths of particles in the North Sea and English Channel. For validation, a comparison with observed drifter trajectories is also presented here. This research investigated to what extent variability in the hydrodynamic conditions alone (reflecting passive particle transport) contributed to inter-annual variability in the transport of eggs and larvae. In this idealised study, no a priori selection of specific spawning grounds or periods was made and no active behaviour (vertical migration) or mortality was included. In this study, egg and larval development towards coastal nursery areas was based solely on sea water temperature, while settlement areas were defined by a threshold water depth. Results showed strong inter-annual variability in drift direction and distance, caused by a combination of wind speed and direction. Strong inter-annual variability was observed both in absolute amount of settlement in several coastal areas, and in the relative importance of the different areas. The effects of wind and temperature variability are minor for settlement along the western shores of the North Sea and in the English Channel, but have a very significant impact on settlement along the eastern shores of the North Sea. Years with strong south-westerly winds across the Dover Straight resulted in higher settlement figures along its eastern shores of the North Sea (standard deviation 37% of the mean annual settlement value). Settlement in the western Dutch Wadden Sea did not only show inter-annual variability, but patterns were also variable within each year and revealed seasonal changes in the origin of particles: during winter, stronger currents along with colder temperatures generally result in particles originating from further away.

  5. Introductions and developments of oysters in the North Sea area: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwaard, A. C.

    1998-09-01

    To replenish the exploited native stocks of Ostrea edulis, imports from almost all European coasts have arrived in the North Sea, particularly in the Dutch Oosterschelde estuary. The American oyster Crassostrea virginica and the Portuguese oyster C. angulata have also been imported into the North Sea several times. However, only the introductions of various genetic strains of the Pacific oyster C. gigas have been of lasting success. Spat from British Columbia (Canada) was first imported to the Oosterschelde in 1964. First spatfalls in this area took place in the warm summers of 1975 and 1976. Further larval outbursts occurred in 1982 and 1989, and good settlements took place on culture plots as well as along the dikes of the Oosterschelde. Since 1977 no more cupped oysters have been imported from overseas. The population maintained itself and was able to spread in a northern direction along the Dutch North Sea coast. In Britain, hatchery-produced C. gigas were transferred to several sites, in the 1970s including the British North Sea coast. Here, occurrence in the wild seems to be rather limited up to now. Into the German Wadden Sea, C. gigas larvae and spat from a Scottish hatchery have been introduced since 1971, as were medium-sized oysters from a variety of European sources in the 1980s. Strong spatfalls on intertidal mussel beds in the northern German Wadden Sea occured in 1991 and 1994. For the introductions of C. gigas along the west European coasts, precautionary measures to minimize unintentional transfers of associated organisms, as recommended by the ICES Code of Practice in 1994, came too late.

  6. Tilt of mean sea level along the Pacific coasts of North America and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hongyang; Thompson, Keith R.; Huang, Jianliang; Véronneau, Marc

    2015-10-01

    The tilt of coastal mean sea level with respect to an equipotential surface is estimated using two fundamentally different approaches. The geodetic approach is based on tide gauge and GPS observations, and a model of the geoid. The ocean approach uses a high-resolution, dynamically based ocean model to estimate mean dynamic topography. Along the Pacific coast of North America the two approaches give similar large-scale profiles with a minimum at about 40°N and a maximum in the northern part of the Gulf of Alaska. Along the Pacific coast of Japan the geodetically determined coastal sea levels indicate an eastward drop of about 20 cm along the south coast and a further northward drop across Tsugaru Strait. Both of these features are reproduced by the ocean models. An analysis of the alongshore momentum balance suggests that alongshore wind stress acting over the inner shelf is the primary driver of the mean sea level profile along the coast of North America. Several large-scale features are explained using arrested topographic wave theory. A similar momentum analysis, and an additional study of time variability of sea level and circulation, suggests that the Kuroshio is the main driver of the mean sea level tilt along the south coast of Japan. Discrepancies in the alongshore tilt of sea level estimated by the geodetic and ocean approaches along both coasts are discussed in terms of errors in the ocean and geoid models.

  7. Acceleration of sea-ice Melt Addition Into the Northern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, K. A.; Stanford, J. D.; McVicar, A. J.; Rohling, E. J.; Bacon, S.; Bolshaw, M.; de La Rosa, S.; Wilkinson, D.

    2008-12-01

    Observations over the last decade suggest both a thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover (Rothrock et al., 1999; Laxon et al., 2003) and a dramatic reduction in its spatial extent (Comiso, 2002; Stroeve et al., 2005). We detect a positive change of ~10 ‰ between 1998 and 2005 in the stable oxygen isotope composition of the net freshwater component in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and East Greenland Coastal Current (EGCC), key carriers of freshened surface waters out of the Arctic. This isotopic signal is unique in the context of oxygen isotope measurements in the northern North Atlantic region dating back to the early 1960s. We show that this signal reflects a remarkable increase in the sea-ice melt water transport within these currents, to the equivalent of a net minimum volumetric loss of multi-year ('permanent') Arctic sea-ice of 10 ± 3% per decade. This independent measurement therefore complements and corroborates the sea-ice reduction inferred from satellite data, and places it in a longer-term multi-decadal context. Our findings suggest that a large proportion of the sea-ice meltwater resulting from the rapid reduction of Arctic sea-ice between 1998 and 2005 is exported from the Arctic via the EGC/EGCC into the northern North Atlantic. Additionally it appears that this sea-ice meltwater export is not in phase with atmospheric circulation regimes such as the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation. These findings could have important ramifications for the global thermohaline circulation (e.g. Rahmstorf, 2005).

  8. Decadal wave power variability in the North-East Atlantic and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, H.; Taylor, P. H.; Woollings, T.; Poulson, S.

    2015-06-01

    Estimation of the long-term behavior of wave climate is crucial for harnessing wave energy in a cost-effective way. Previous studies have linked wave heights to the north-south atmospheric pressure anomalies in the North Atlantic, suggesting that the wave climate fluctuates as a response to changes in zonal circulation in the atmosphere. We identify changes in wave power in the North-East Atlantic that are strongly correlated to the dominant pressure anomalies, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and other modes. We present a reconstructed wave power climate for 1665-2005, using a combination of known and proxy indices for the NAO and other modes. Our reconstruction shows high interannual and multidecadal variability, which makes wave energy prediction challenging. This variability should be considered in any long-term reliability analysis for wave energy devices and in power scheme economics.

  9. Strain migration during multiphase extension: observations from the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Rebecca; Jackson, Christopher; Duffy, Oliver; Whipp, Paul; Clements, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Many rifts develop through multiphase extension; it can be difficult, however, to determine how strain is distributed during reactivation because structural and stratigraphic evidence associated with earlier rifting is often deeply buried. Using 2D and 3D seismic reflection and borehole data from the northern North Sea, we examine the style, magnitude and timing of reactivation of a pre-existing, Permian-Triassic (Rift Phase 1) fault array during a subsequent period of Middle Jurassic-to-Early Cretaceous (Rift Phase 2) extension. We show that Rift Phase 2 led to the formation of new N-S-striking faults close to the North Viking Graben, but did not initially reactivate pre-existing, seemingly optimally aligned Rift Phase 1 structures on the Horda Platform. We suggest that, at the beginning of Rift Phase 2, strain was focused in a zone of thermally weakened lithosphere associated with the Middle Jurassic North Sea thermal dome, rather than reactivating extant faults. Diachronous reactivation of the Permian-Triassic fault network did eventually occur, with those faults located closer to the Middle Jurassic-to-Early Cretaceous rift-axis reactivating earlier than those toward the eastern margin. In addition, faults on the southern Horda Platform reactive before those in the north, leading to both an eastward and northward migration in fault reactivation in this area through time. This diachroneity in the timing of fault reactivation may have been related to flexural down-bending as strain became focused within the North Viking Graben and/or the shifting of the locus of rifting from the North Sea to the proto-North Atlantic in the Early Cretaceous. Our study shows that the geometry and evolution of multiphase rifts is not only controlled by the orientation of the underlying fault network, but also by the thermal and rheological evolution of the lithosphere and variations in the regional stress field.

  10. Assimilating NOAA SST data into BSH operational circulation model for North and Baltic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losa, Svetlana; Schroeter, Jens; Nerger, Lars; Janjic, Tijana; Danilov, Sergey; Janssen, Frank

    A data assimilation (DA) system is developed for BSH operational circulation model in order to improve forecast of current velocities, sea surface height, temperature and salinity in the North and Baltic Seas. Assimilated data are NOAA sea surface temperature (SST) data for the following period: 01.10.07 -30.09.08. All data assimilation experiments are based on im-plementation of one of the so-called statistical DA methods -Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter, -with different ways of prescribing assumed model and data errors statis-tics. Results of the experiments will be shown and compared against each other. Hydrographic data from MARNET stations and sea level at series of tide gauges are used as independent information to validate the data assimilation system. Keywords: Operational Oceanography and forecasting

  11. NEMO-Nordic : A NEMO based ocean modelling configuration for Baltic & North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordoir, Robinson; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Gröger, Matthias; Dieterich, Christian; Liu, Ye; Höglund, Anders; Kuznetsov, Ivan; Ljungemyr, Patrik; Nygren, Petter; Jönsson, Anette; Meier, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Based on the NEMO ocean engine, three regional setups for the North Sea and Baltic Sea domain have been developed : the NEMO-Nordic configuration is declined in an operational setup, a stand-alone version used for climate and process studies, and a NEMO-Nordic-RCA4 atmosphere/ocean coupled configuration used for downscalling climate scenarios. We give a brief overview of the options chosen within the NEMO engine to design the configurations. Based on the results provided by each of the three configurations, we also provide an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of NEMO-Nordic. Finally, a validation of the configurations is provided based on an extensive comparison between in-situ measurements and model results for temperature, salinity, sea-ice extent, sea level and mean circulation.

  12. The recent arrival of the oceanic isopod Idotea metallica Bosc off Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea): an indication of a warming trend in the North Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, H.-D.; Gutow, L.; Janke, M.

    1998-09-01

    In 1988 a long-term study was started of the isopod fauna associated with surface drift material off Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea). In the summer of 1994 specimens of Idotea metallica Bosc were recorded for the first time. There is no evidence that this species has ever been present in the German Bight before. The samples contained males, both gravid and non-gravid females, and juveniles, indicating that the species reproduced successfully in the Helgoland region. Interbreeding of specimens from Helgoland and the western Mediterranean produced fertile off-spring. As a neustonic species, I. metallica shows a high natural capacity for dispersal. It thus seems unlikely that the arrival of the species in the North Sea resulted from an accidental introduction by man. We are probably witnessing an extension of the species’ geographical range by natural means of dispersal, as a response to recent changes in the ecological conditions of the German Bight. Temperature data measured by the Biologische Anstalt Helgoland since 1962 show that the last decade (except 1996) was characterized by unusually mild winters. Following the severe winter of 1996, I. metallica was again absent from the Helgoland region. After the subsequent mild winters (1997 and 1998), however, the species reappeared in the summer of 1998 with higher numbers than ever before. This suggests that the observed phenomena are closely connected with the recent temperature anomalies. I. metallica can be regarded as a potential immigrant to a warmer North Sea, and may be useful as a sensitive indicator of the predicted long-term warming trend.

  13. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  14. Regional and temporal changes in epizoobiontic bryozoan-communities of Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) and implications for North Sea ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitschofsky, F.; Forster, S.; Scholz, J.

    2011-02-01

    Until recently, bryozoans have not been used as indicators for changes in bottom communities or climate control in the North Sea Basin, despite a 200-year history of bryozoan collecting. The epizoobiontic bryozoan fauna of Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) was analysed on 51 sample stations kept in four German museums. The samples cover the entire North Sea and different time periods (1776-2008, mainly the period of 1904/1905 compared to 1980-87). Cluster analysis shows a differentiation into a northern and a southern North Sea assemblage. The northern assemblage is characterized by Amphiblestrum flemingii (Busk, 1854), Callopora dumerilii (Audouin, 1826) and Tricellaria ternata (Ellis & Solander, 1786), while the southern North Sea is characterized by Electra pilosa (Linnaeus, 1767), Crisia eburnea (Linnaeus, 1758) and Plagioecia patina (Lamarck, 1816). Spatial separation approximately follows the 50 m depth contour. The temporal distribution patterns of bryozoans are discussed in terms of NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and temperature variations.

  15. Dynamical Suppression of Sea Level Rise Along the Eastern Boundary of the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, P. D.; Miller, A. J.; Flick, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Long-term changes in global mean sea level (MSL) rise have important practical implications for shoreline and beach erosion, coastal wetlands inundation, storm-surge flooding, and coastal development. Altimetry since 1993 indicates that global MSL rise has increased about 50% above the 20th century rise rate, from 2 to 3 mm/yr. At the same time, both tide gauge measurements and altimetry indicate virtually no increase in mean sea level height (SLH) along the Pacific coast of North America during the satellite epoch. Analyses of wind stress patterns indicates that the dynamical steric response of North Pacific eastern boundary ocean circulation to a dramatic change in wind stress curl, that occurred after the mid-1970's regime shift, can account for the suppression of regional sea level rise along the U.S. West Coast since 1980, modulating the canonical SLH response expected along the eastern boundary during the warm phase of the PDO. Alarmingly, mean wind stress curl over the North Pacific recently reached levels not observed since before the mid-1970's regime shift. This change in wind stress patterns may be foreshadowing a PDO regime shift, causing an associated persistent change in wind stress curl that may result in a concomitant resumption of sea level rise along the West Coast to global rates.

  16. Atmospheric dry deposition flux of metallic species to the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottley, C. J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    Air sampling on a series of 10 research cruises on the North Sea (south of 56°N) has yielded detailed spatial distributions of atmospheric metal concentrations, Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Pb and Zn which closely parallel the results of earlier published models. Air mass back trajectory analysis demonstrates the strong influence which source region may have upon the elemental composition of the North Sea atmosphere. A cascade impactor designed to collect efficiently large as well as small aerosol has produced detailed size distributions from which mass weighted deposition velocity estimates have been produced (Al, 0.33; Cd, 0.24; Cu, 0.44; Fe, 0.30; Pb, 0.13; Zn, 0.30 cm s -1) enabling estimates for the dry deposition flux to the study area to be made. Extrapolation of these data to the whole of the North Sea yields dry deposition flux estimates (Cd, 33; Cu, 350; Pb, 370; Zn, 2640 tonnes yr -1) which are in some instances substantially lower than those previously reported, but nevertheless represent a significant pathway for metallic species to enter this marine environment. The size distributions show the clear dominance that large aerosol has upon the overall dry deposition flux. Flux estimates are thus highly sensitive to the sampling of this large aerosol component, and to assumptions made regarding the sea surface as a source of giant trace metal-enriched particles which act only as a means of recycling marine metals.

  17. Tracing back nutrients from Southern North Sea eutrophicated areas up to the watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulière, Valérie; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Luyten, Patrick; Lacroix, Geneviève

    2015-04-01

    The Southern North Sea faces eutrophication problems. They result from growing anthropogenic pressure in the river watersheds, and subsequent increase in nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) loading to the sea. Establishing the link between human activities and eutrophication problems requires the identification of the major nutrient sources and the ecological response of the coastal ecosystem to these nutrient alterations. This information is crucial to mitigate eutrophication in coastal zones by applying appropriate dual-nutrient reduction strategies, therefore achieving the Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020. The marine biogeochemical model (MIRO&CO) has been coupled to a newly developed generic watershed model (PyNuts) based on Riverstrahler model. A nutrient tracking approach has been adapted and implemented in MIRO&CO. The transboundary nutrient transport method has been used to track the nutrients in the sea, and trace back their sources (river, ocean, and atmosphere). Here, the relative contributions of the different nutrient sources will be presented. Results show that the nitrogen contribution from atmospheric deposition is not negligible and that the nutrients released by French rivers reach the Southern North Sea in significant proportions. This work has done in the framework of the EMoSEM EU project (http://www.odnature.be/emosem/) that aims at providing support to eutrophication management in the North Atlantic Ocean, using state-of-the-art modelling tools.

  18. Clay mineralogy of Lower Cretaceous deep-sea fan sediments, western North Atlantic basin

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, M.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Lower Cretaceous of the eastern North American continent was a time of extensive deltaic progradation. The effects of deltaic deposition on sedimentation in the western North Atlantic were unknown until May 1982, when, at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 603 off Cape Hatteras, over 260 m of micaceous, muddy turbidites were recovered that correlate with deltaic progradation on eastern North America. The results of clay mineral studies from onshore and offshore equivalents indicate that during the Cretaceous, some sorting of clay minerals by transport processes occurred. Kaolinite tends to accumulate in continental environments, illite in transitional to marine environments, and smectite in deep sea sediments as pelagic clay. In the sediments from the western North Atlantic, illite tended to be more abundant in thick bedded sandy muds, whereas kaolinite tended to be more abundant in thin bedded muddy sands. Although the occurrence of illite and kaolinite in pelagic sediments indicates a general increased terrigenous influence, the results of this study indicate that these two clays behave independently in these sediments. The presence of large amounts of kaolinite at certain levels in these sediments corresponds to phases of maximum deep-sea fan development, and so indicates a more direct input of continental material, with less sorting of sediments by continental and shelf processes (pericontinental fractionation) prior to redeposition.

  19. Climate drift of AMOC, North Atlantic salinity and arctic sea ice in CFSv2 decadal predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bohua; Zhu, Jieshun; Marx, Lawrence; Wu, Xingren; Kumar, Arun; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Zhang, Shaoqing; Lu, Jian; Schneider, Edwin K.; Kinter, James L., III

    2015-01-01

    There are potential advantages to extending operational seasonal forecast models to predict decadal variability but major efforts are required to assess the model fidelity for this task. In this study, we examine the North Atlantic climate simulated by the NCEP Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2), using a set of ensemble decadal hindcasts and several 30-year simulations initialized from realistic ocean-atmosphere states. It is found that a substantial climate drift occurs in the first few years of the CFSv2 hindcasts, which represents a major systematic bias and may seriously affect the model's fidelity for decadal prediction. In particular, it is noted that a major reduction of the upper ocean salinity in the northern North Atlantic weakens the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) significantly. This freshening is likely caused by the excessive freshwater transport from the Arctic Ocean and weakened subtropical water transport by the North Atlantic Current. A potential source of the excessive freshwater is the quick melting of sea ice, which also causes unrealistically thin ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. Our sensitivity experiments with adjusted sea ice albedo parameters produce a sustainable ice cover with realistic thickness distribution. It also leads to a moderate increase of the AMOC strength. This study suggests that a realistic freshwater balance, including a proper sea ice feedback, is crucial for simulating the North Atlantic climate and its variability.

  20. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Delphine; Rochette, Sébastien; Llope, Marcos; Licandro, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L.) stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature) and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey) effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST) from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability. PMID:24551103

  1. Regional High-resolution Coupled Atmosphere Ocean Modelling in the North Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumenil-Gates, Lydia; Bülow, Katharina; Ganske, Anette; Heinrich, Hartmut; Klein, Birgit; Klein, Holger; Möller, Jens; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schade, Nils; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Tinz, Birger

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of climate projections in the North Sea area is one of the research tasks of the research programme KLIWAS of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. A multi-model ensemble of three coupled regional atmosphere-ocean models was set up comprising very high resolution simulations for the German coastal regions of the North Sea and the Baltic to represent the complex land-sea-atmosphere conditions in the region. The ensemble consists of simulations made in cooperation with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, the Climate Service Centre and the Max-Planck-Institute for the period of 1950 to 2100. The KLIWAS project thereby adds coupled models to the band-width of possible future climate conditions in the atmosphere as given by the ENSEMBLES project, which were also analyzed. The coupled results are evaluated for present-day climate using a North Sea climatology of maritime conditions at a matching high resolution. In the future climate, while air and water temperatures will rise to the year 2100, the mean wind speed does not show a significant trend, but large decadal variability. The frequency of occurrence of westerly wind directions increases in the majority of simulations and results in an increase of significant wave height in the eastern parts of the North Sea. In an interdisciplinary approach, these results are used to provide regional to local information for the development of adaptation strategies for the estuary, and climate-proofing of infrastructure in the wider context of the project.

  2. Evolution and fluxes of 137Cs in the Black Sea/Turkish Straits System/North Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfanti, R.; Özsoy, E.; Kaberi, H.; Schirone, A.; Salvi, S.; Conte, F.; Tsabaris, C.; Papucci, C.

    2014-07-01

    The vertical profiles of 137Cs were determined in the North Aegean, Marmara and Black Seas, to assess inventories and fluxes of the radionuclide in these basins. The inventory of 137Cs in the Western Black Sea integrated from the surface down to 400 m water depth is 3.4 ± 0.1 kBq m- 2, which is surprisingly close to the amount determined in 1988, decay corrected to 2007 (2.9 ± 0.1 kBq m- 2). On the other hand, based on the comparison of profiles roughly 20 years apart, it is estimated that about 1 kBq m- 2 has been transferred from above the halocline to depths below the halocline, emphasizing the effective redistribution of tracers within the same period. We estimate that about 12 TBq y- 1 of 137Cs presently leaves the Black Sea with the upper layer flow through the Bosphorus and only 2 TBq y- 1 is returned with the lower layer inflow of Mediterranean water from the Marmara Sea. Accounting for river fluxes, estimated on the order of 2 TBq y- 1 few years after the Chernobyl accident, and possibly decreased by now, we can thus estimate a net rate of loss of about 8-10 TBq y- 1. Investigating the effective redistribution in the upper water column, the supply by the inflowing Mediterranean water alone does not explain the increase of 137Cs concentration and inventory at intermediate depths in the Western Black Sea. The most important mechanism transferring 137Cs and dissolved contaminants from the surface water to the sub-pycnocline layer appears to be the turbulent entrainment of a larger quantity of Black Sea water into the inflowing plume of Mediterranean water through mixing processes on the southwestern shelf and continental slope following its exit from the Bosphorus. This process produces an extra export of some10 TBq y- 1 of 137Cs from the surface to the sub-pycnocline depths of the Black Sea, a quantity comparable in magnitude to the total export out from the basin. It is the entrainment flux resulting from the mixing, and the further advection and

  3. Hierarchical modeling of bycatch rates of sea turtles in the western North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, B.; Sullivan, P.J.; Epperly, S.; Morreale, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the locations of the endangered loggerhead Caretta caretta and critically endangered leatherback Dermochelys coriacea sea turtles are influenced by water temperatures, and that incidental catch rates in the pelagic longline fishery vary by region. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model to examine the effects of environmental variables, including water temperature, on the number of sea turtles captured in the US pelagic longline fishery in the western North Atlantic. The modeling structure is highly flexible, utilizes a Bayesian model selection technique, and is fully implemented in the software program WinBUGS. The number of sea turtles captured is modeled as a zero-inflated Poisson distribution and the model incorporates fixed effects to examine region-specific differences in the parameter estimates. Results indicate that water temperature, region, bottom depth, and target species are all significant predictors of the number of loggerhead sea turtles captured. For leatherback sea turtles, the model with only target species had the most posterior model weight, though a re-parameterization of the model indicates that temperature influences the zero-inflation parameter. The relationship between the number of sea turtles captured and the variables of interest all varied by region. This suggests that management decisions aimed at reducing sea turtle bycatch may be more effective if they are spatially explicit. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  4. Certified reference material for radionuclides in fish flesh sample IAEA-414 (mixed fish from the Irish Sea and North Sea).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Povinec, P P; Arnold, D; Benmansour, M; Bojanowski, R; Carvalho, F P; Kim, C K; Esposito, M; Gastaud, J; Gascó, C L; Ham, G J; Hegde, A G; Holm, E; Jaskierowicz, D; Kanisch, G; Llaurado, M; La Rosa, J; Lee, S-H; Liong Wee Kwong, L; Le Petit, G; Maruo, Y; Nielsen, S P; Oh, J-S; Oregioni, B; Palomares, J; Pettersson, H B L; Rulik, P; Ryan, T P; Sato, K; Schikowski, J; Skwarzec, B; Smedley, P A; Tarján, S; Vajda, N; Wyse, E

    2006-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for radionuclides in fish sample IAEA-414 (mixed fish from the Irish Sea and North Seas) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Nine radionuclides (40K, 137Cs, 232Th, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am) were certified for this material. Information on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals is given for six other radionuclides (90Sr, 210Pb(210Po), 226Ra, 239Pu, 240Pu 241Pu). Less frequently reported radionuclides (99Tc, 129I, 228Th, 230Th and 237Np) and information on some activity and mass ratios are also included. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in fish sample, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available from IAEA, Vienna, in 100 g units. PMID:16549351

  5. Glacial North Atlantic: Sea-surface conditions reconstructed by GLAMAP 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflaumann, U.; Sarnthein, M.; Chapman, M.; D'Abreu, L.; Funnell, B.; Huels, M.; Kiefer, T.; Maslin, M.; Schulz, H.; Swallow, J.; van Kreveld, S.; Vautravers, M.; Vogelsang, E.; Weinelt, M.

    2003-09-01

    The response of the tropical ocean to global climate change and the extent of sea ice in the glacial nordic seas belong to the great controversies in paleoclimatology. Our new reconstruction of peak glacial sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Atlantic is based on census counts of planktic foraminifera, using the Maximum Similarity Technique Version 28 (SIMMAX-28) modern analog technique with 947 modern analog samples and 119 well-dated sediment cores. Our study compares two slightly different scenarios of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the Environmental Processes of the Ice Age: Land, Oceans, Glaciers (EPILOG), and Glacial Atlantic Ocean Mapping (GLAMAP 2000) time slices. The comparison shows that the maximum LGM cooling in the Southern Hemisphere slightly preceeded that in the north. In both time slices sea ice was restricted to the north western margin of the nordic seas during glacial northern summer, while the central and eastern parts were ice-free. During northern glacial winter, sea ice advanced to the south of Iceland and Faeroe. In the central northern North Atlantic an anticyclonic gyre formed between 45° and 60°N, with a cool water mass centered west of Ireland, where glacial cooling reached a maximum of >12°C. In the subtropical ocean gyres the new reconstruction supports the glacial-to-interglacial stability of SST as shown by () [1981]. The zonal belt of minimum SST seasonality between 2° and 6°N suggests that the LGM caloric equator occupied the same latitude as today. In contrast to the CLIMAP reconstruction, the glacial cooling of the tropical east Atlantic upwelling belt reached up to 6°-8°C during Northern Hemisphere summer. Differences between these SIMMAX-based and published U37k- and Mg/Ca-based equatorial SST records are ascribed to strong SST seasonalities and SST signals that were produced by different planktic species groups during different seasons.

  6. Latitudinal gradients of species richness in the deep-sea benthos of the North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Rex, Michael A.; Stuart, Carol T.; Coyne, Gina

    2000-01-01

    Latitudinal species diversity gradients (LSDGs) in the Northern Hemisphere are the most well established biogeographic patterns on Earth. Despite long-standing interest in LSDGs as a central problem in ecology, their explanation remains uncertain. In terrestrial as well as coastal and pelagic marine ecosystems, these poleward declines in diversity typically have been represented and interpreted in terms of species richness, the number of coexisting species. Newly discovered LSDGs in the bathyal (500–4,000 m) benthos of the North Atlantic may help to resolve the underlying causes of these large-scale trends because the deep sea is such a physically distinct environment. However, a major problem in comparing surface and deep-sea LSDGs is that the latter have been measured differently, by using species diversity indices that are affected by both species richness and the evenness of relative abundance. Here, we demonstrate that deep-sea isopods, gastropods, and bivalves in the North Atlantic do exhibit poleward decreases in species richness, just as those found in other environments. A comprehensive systematic revision of the largest deep-sea gastropod family (Turridae) has provided a unique database on geographic distributions that is directly comparable to those used to document LSDGs in surface biotas. This taxon also shows a poleward decline in the number of species. Seasonal organic enrichment from sinking phytodetritus is the most plausible ecological explanation for deep-sea LSDGs and is the environmental factor most consistently associated with depressed diversity in a variety of bathyal habitats. PMID:10759545

  7. Comparison of 3 coupled models in the North Sea region under todays and future climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Birgit; Bülow, Katharina; Dieterich, Christian; Heinrich, Hartmut; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Mayer, Bernhard; Meier, Markus; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Narayan, Nikesh; Pohlmann, Thomas; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Sein, Dmitry; Su, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Most of the common global climate models (coupled ocean/atmosphere ocean models) have too large spatial scales to be suitable in the North Sea area. Therefore either high-resolution global models have to be run or dynamical downscaling of the model-output has to be employed using regional models. Regionalized climate change simulations for the North and Baltic Sea are carried out with coupled ocean atmosphere models in the framework of the research program KLIWAS. The numerical simulations are performed by the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI), the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) and the Institute of Oceanography (IfM Hamburg). Output from the models is analyzed jointly with the Federal Maritime service (BSH) and the German weather service (DWD/SWA). Temperature and sea level evolution in all three models is much more similar than the predicted salinity changes. The spatial patterns of the salinity fields in the North Sea are the result of a complex balance of fresh water input from the rivers, discharge of low salinity waters from the Baltic, inflow of high salinity waters from the Atlantic and input from the atmosphere. The hindcast simulations for this parameter are similar at the basin scale in all three models but are showing different patterns at smaller scales. All models are predicting a salinity decrease towards the end of the 21 century (2070-2099) to (1970-1999), independent of these differences, but it is much more pronounced in the runs of MPIOM/REMO and NEMO/RCA compared to HAMSOM/REMO. All models agree on the fact of a major freshening of the Baltic Outflow, while the magnitude of the freshening and the affected area in the North Sea are represented differently. The models are showing a temperature increase in the order of 2 °C at the end of the 21 century. The areas affected by Atlantic inflow are showing smaller temperature increases due to the lesser warming in the Atlantic. The annual cycle is slightly perturbed

  8. Biweekly Sea Surface Temperature over the South China Sea and its association with the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaid, B. H.

    2015-10-01

    The association of the biweekly intraseasonal (BWI) oscillation in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the South China Sea (SCS) and the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon is authenticated using version 4 the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager data (SST and rain) and heat fluxes from Ocean Atmosphere Flux project data during 1998-2012. The results suggest that the SCS involves ocean-atmosphere coupling on biweekly timescales. The positive biweekly SST anomalies lead the rain anomalies over the SCS by 3 days, with a significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.6, at 99 % significance levels) between the SST-rain anomalies. It is evident from lead/lag correlation between biweekly SST and zonal wind shear that warm ocean surface induced by wind shear may contribute to a favorable condition of the convective activity over the SCS. The present study suggests that ocean-to-atmospheric processes induced by the BWI oscillation in the SCS SST results in enhanced sea level pressure and surface shortwave radiation flux during the summer monsoon. Besides, it is observed that the SCS BWI oscillation in the changes of SST causes a feedback in the atmosphere by modifying the atmospheric instability. This suggests that the active/break biweekly cycle of the SST over the SCS is related by sea level pressure, surface heat fluxes and atmospheric instability. The potential findings here indicate that the biweekly SST over the SCS play an important role in the eastward and the southward propagation of the biweekly anomalies in the Western North Pacific.

  9. Experience of cathodic protection, fabrication and installation of anodes for deep water pipelines in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Eliassen, S.; Pettersen, N.H.

    1996-08-01

    Statoil is the major operator of the oil and gas pipelines in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea. Different coating systems have been used for external corrosion protection of the pipelines. The paper presents the company`s experience regarding cathodic protection design and fabrication and installation of anodes for deep water pipelines.

  10. Strain migration during multiphase extension: Observations from the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Rebecca E.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Whipp, Paul S.; Clements, Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    Many rifts develop through multiphase extension; it can be difficult, however, to determine how strain is distributed during reactivation because structural and stratigraphic evidence associated with earlier rifting is often deeply buried. Using 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection and borehole data from the northern North Sea, we examine the style, magnitude, and timing of reactivation of a preexisting, Permian-Triassic (Rift Phase 1) fault array during a subsequent period of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (Rift Phase 2) extension. We show that Rift Phase 2 led to the formation of new N-S striking faults close to the North Viking Graben but did not initially reactivate preexisting Rift Phase 1 structures on the Horda Platform. We suggest that at the beginning of Rift Phase 2, strain was focused in a zone of thermally weakened lithosphere associated with the Middle Jurassic North Sea thermal dome, rather than reactivating extant faults. Diachronous reactivation of the Permian-Triassic fault network eventually occurred, with those faults located closer to the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rift axis reactivating earlier than those toward the eastern margin. This diachroneity may have been related to flexural down bending as strain became focused within the North Viking Graben, and/or the shifting of the locus of rifting from the North Sea to the proto-North Atlantic. Our study shows that the geometry and evolution of multiphase rifts is not only controlled by the orientation of the underlying fault network but also by the thermal and rheological evolution of the lithosphere and variations in the regional stress field.

  11. The influence of Arctic sea ice variability on the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linderholm, H. W.; Folland, C. K.; Ou, T.; Jeong, J. H.; Wilson, R.; Rydval, M.; Chen, D.; Kim, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO), which is strongly related to changes in Atlantic and European summer storm tracks and the latitudinal position of the jet stream, exerts a strong influence on rainfall, temperature, and cloudiness and is related to summer extremes, such as droughts and floods, mainly in Europe. Reconstructions suggest that the SNAO was mainly negative during the last several centuries until the mid-twentieth century when it entered a positive phase, and climate model projections have suggested a predominantly positive SNAO under future global warming. However, during the recent decade, the SNAO has mainly been in a negative phase, along with a southerly shift in the jet stream, accompanied by wet and cool summers in northwest Europe. Sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic (related to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, AMO) strongly influence the SNAO, and the current positive phase of the AMO has likely played some role in the recent downturn of the SNAO. Additionally, we found a consistent association between winter/spring Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC), particularly in the Labrador and Nordic seas, and the SNAO over the last decades based on observations. However, since the 1990s the strength of the correlations with the regional SIC has changed, weakening over the Labrador Sea and strengthening over Barents Sea. This is particularly evident during the last decade. Possibly this is a response to the rapid changes in Arctic sea ice. To test this, a new tree-ring based reconstruction of the SNAO as well as CMIP5 model runs are used to examine the influence of Arctic sea ice on the summer atmospheric circulation over northwestern Europe in a long-term context.

  12. Correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity biases in the Kiel Climate Model: influences on ocean circulation and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing problem in climate models is the large sea surface salinity (SSS) biases in the North Atlantic. In this study, we describe the influences of correcting these SSS biases on the circulation of the North Atlantic as well as on North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal to multidecadal variability. We performed integrations of the Kiel Climate Model (KCM) with and without applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  13. Impacts of Sea Surface Salinity Bias Correction on North Atlantic Ocean Circulation and Climate Variability in the Kiel Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taewook; Park, Wonsun; Latif, Mojib

    2016-04-01

    We investigated impacts of correcting North Atlantic sea surface salinity (SSS) biases on the ocean circulation of the North Atlantic and on North Atlantic sector mean climate and climate variability in the Kiel Climate Model (KCM). Bias reduction was achieved by applying a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic to the model. The quality of simulating the mean circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability is greatly enhanced in the freshwater flux-corrected integration which, by definition, depicts relatively small North Atlantic SSS biases. In particular, a large reduction in the North Atlantic cold sea surface temperature (SST) bias is observed and a more realistic Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) simulated. Improvements relative to the non-flux corrected integration also comprise a more realistic representation of deep convection sites, sea ice, gyre circulation and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The results suggest that simulations of North Atlantic sector mean climate and decadal variability could strongly benefit from alleviating sea surface salinity biases in the North Atlantic, which may enhance the skill of decadal predictions in that region.

  14. Investigating Sea-Level Acceleration Along the East Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    A number of researchers have reported on accelerated sea level along the east coast of North America, particularly in the northeast. We have previously modeled sea-level rates and accelerations from the last half of the 20th and early 21st centuries inferred from tide gauges in this region using steric sea-level changes, gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes that includes self-attraction and loading (SAL), and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We have found that, whereas the spatial variability of sea-level rates is dominated by GIA, the observed accelerations are not explained by these processes. In this talk, we first further investigate the observed accelerations, which we took to be constant during the study period. We have found, however, some evidence that the accelerations began in the timeframe 1990-2000. For example, the figure below shows the root-mean-square (rms) residual after removing a best-fit model wherein the acceleration was zero before the indicated year, for the Boston tide gauge, having one of the longest tide-gauge records. The minimimum rms residual occurs in the year 2000. A Monte Carlo simulation (red curve) shows that no time-dependence is expected from white noise. Evaluation of the statistical significance of these results has been difficult, since the postfit residuals are dominated by interannual variability. We will utilize time-dependent models for dynamic sea-level changes (including steric changes), GIA. For the Greenland ice mass, we will combine estimates of Greenland ice-mass variability obtained from recent analyses of GRACE data with long-term climate models for Greenland (from, e.g., RACMO) to calculate long-term sea-level impact. Comparing these models with tide-gauge data will yield insights into the nature and timing of accelerated sea level in this region. We will also discuss the implciations of these models for long-term global sea-level change.

  15. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program. PMID:25421712

  16. Late Holocene sea surface temperature seesaw between the subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea inferred from two marine sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Arto; Divine, Dmitry; Koç, Nalan; Godtliebsen, Fred; Hall, Ian R.

    2013-04-01

    A 2800-yr-long August sea surface temperature (aSST) record based on fossil diatom assemblages is generated from a marine sediment core Rapid 21-COM recovered in the Iceland Basin (northern subpolar North Atlantic). The record has a resolution of 2-10 years for interval 800-2004 AD representing the best resolved diatom SST reconstruction from the subpolar North Atlantic for this period, and 40 years for interval 800 BC-800 AD. The record is compared with the high-resolution (4-20 years) aSST record from core CR948/2011 from the Vøring Plateau, in the Norwegian Sea, to explore the variability of the aSST gradient between these areas during the late Holocene. The two aSST records show persistent opposite climate trends toward warming in the subpolar North Atlantic and cooling in the Norwegian Sea throughout the late Holocene. The wavelet analysis reveals an apparent tendency to coherent antiphased aSST variations between the sites for the shorter time scales too, implying a possible aSST seesaw between the northern subpolar North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea to operate during the late Holocene. At the multicentennial scale of aSST variability of 600-900 years, the records are nearly in antiphase with warmer (colder) periods in the subpolar North Atlantic corresponding to the colder (warmer) periods in the Norwegian Sea. At the shorter time scale of 200-450 years the records display a nearly phase-locked behaviour with a tendency for the positive aSST anomalies in the Norwegian Sea to lead by ca. 30 years the negative aSST anomalies in the subpolar North Atlantic. This aSST seesaw might have had a strong effect, or be associated, with the two major climate anomalies in the northwest Europe during the past Millennium: Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). During the MWP warming of the sea surface in the Norwegian Sea occurred in parallel with cooling in the northern subpolar North Atlantic, whereas the opposite pattern emerged during the LIA

  17. Primary Analysis of Shear-Wave Splitting Aroundbohai Sea Area in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, L.; Gao, Y.; Shi, Y.; Sun, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bohai Sea area locates at eastern China, including 3 provinces ( Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong ) and 2 metropolitan cities ( Beijing and Tianjin ). There are 5 tectonic units (Yanshan uplift, Taihang uplift, Liaodong uplift, Luxi uplift and Jizhong depression), where is within North China (in short, NC). Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, an important seismotectonic zone in eastern China and Tanlu fault, the largest fault in eastern China, intersect in this zone, so that the tectonics are complicated. Earthquake activity is very strong in this zone, which is famous of earthquakes with large magnitude and high frequency. This study used a system analysis method of shear-wave splitting, namely SAM method (GAO et al, 2004). It includes mainly three aspects, i.e., calculation of cross-correlation function, elimination of time delay and check of polarization analysis. Preliminarily, we obtained the 378 seismic data within shear-wave window recorded by 27 stations around Bohai Sea area. The polarizations of fast shear-waves show different local features so that we divide the studied zone into 3 different areas, west of Bohai Sea gulf (including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province), north of Bohai Sea gulf (Liaoning province) and south of Bohai Sea gulf (Shandong province). In the west of Bohai Sea gulf, we divided the area into 3 parts. In south of Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, the predominant polarizations of fast shear-waves are a little scattered, lots of stations strike to nearly E-W, consistent with the direction of the in situ principal stress, consistent with the direction of regional tectonic stress in north part of NC, which strikes to nearly WNW or E-W, while some stations strike to NNE or NW, different from the direction of the regional principal stress field. It may be influenced by local tectonics or shallow crust structure. Within Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, the predominant polarizations of fast shear-waves are in direction of nearly E-W, consistent with

  18. Distribution of Thermophilic Marine Sulfate Reducers in North Sea Oil Field Waters and Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, R. K.; Beeder, J.; Thorstenson, T.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in produced oil reservoir waters from the Gullfaks oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was investigated by using enrichment cultures and genus-specific fluorescent antibodies produced against the genera Archaeoglobus, Desulfotomaculum, and Thermodesulforhabdus. The thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in this environment could mainly be classified as species belonging to the genera Archaeoglobus and Thermodesulforhabdus. In addition, some unidentified sulfate reducers were present. Culturable thermophilic Desulfotomaculum strains were not detected. Specific strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers inhabited different parts of the oil reservoir. No correlation between the duration of seawater injection and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers in the produced waters was observed. Neither was there any correlation between the concentration of hydrogen sulfide and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers. The results indicate that thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sulfate reducers are indigenous to North Sea oil field reservoirs and that they belong to a deep subterranean biosphere. PMID:16535321

  19. Forecasting petroleum discoveries in sparsely drilled areas: Nigeria and the North Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Decline function methods for projecting future discoveries generally capture the crowding effects of wildcat wells on the discovery rate. However, these methods do not accommodate easily situations where exploration areas and horizons are expanding. In this paper, a method is presented that uses a mapping algorithm for separating these often countervailing influences. The method is applied to Nigeria and the North Sea. For an amount of future drilling equivalent to past drilling (825 wildcat wells), future discoveries (in resources found) for Nigeria are expected to decline by 68% per well but still amount to 8.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). Similarly, for the total North Sea for an equivalent amount and mix among areas of past drilling (1322 wildcat wells), future discoveries are expected to amount to 17.9 billion BOE, whereas the average discovery rate per well is expected to decline by 71%. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  20. Forecasting petroleum discoveries in sparsely drilled areas: Nigeria and the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    Decline function methods for projecting future discoveries generally capture the crowding effects of wildcat wells on the discovery rate. However, these methods do not accommodate easily situations where exploration areas and horizons are expanding. In this paper, a method is presented that uses a mapping algorithm for separating these often countervailing influences. The method is applied to Nigeria and the North Sea. For an amount of future drilling equivalent to past drilling (825 wildcat wells), future discoveries (in resources found) for Nigeria are expected to decline by 68% per well but still amount to 8.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). Similarly, for the total North Sea for an equivalent amount and mix among areas of past drilling (1322 wildcat wells), future discoveries are expected to amount to 17.9 billion BOE, whereas the average discovery rate per well is expected to decline by 71%.

  1. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cell quota of key Southern North Sea spring diatoms and Phaeocystis globosa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane; Borges, Alberto V.

    2015-04-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the ocean results of complex transformations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) produced by phytoplankton under different controls, including microbial transformation pathways. The phytoplankton composition is an important factor of variability due to the species dependence of the DMSP production and conversion to DMS. To better appraise the link between phytoplankton diversity and the DMS(P) cycling in the Southern North Sea we present measurements of the DMSP cell quota of key spring phytoplankton species (Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira rotula, Rhizosolenia delicatula, Asterionella glacialis, Nitzschia closterium, Chaetoceros debilis, Chaetoceros socialis and Phaeocystis globosa) isolated from the North Sea and maintained in non-limiting and axenic laboratory culture conditions. Results are discussed with regards to literature data and hypothesis currently used in DMS(P) biogeochemical models.

  2. Lost and found: The identification process of human bodies recovered from the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Duijst, Wilma; Passier, Charlotte; Oude Grotebevelsborg, Bernice; de Kat, Dorothee; van Daalen, Marjolijn; Oostra, Roelof Jan

    2016-07-01

    Files of the Dutch bureau of missing persons at the North Sea (BVPN) were investigated to analyse the process that led to identification of human bodies recovered from the North Sea between 1980 and 2013. Of the 94 cases that were analysed 41.5% was identified by the family, 23.4% by the use of DNA and 17% by the use of the dental status. The linking pin for the identification was the place where the body was found (14.9%), the general appearance (12.8%), jewellery (11.6%) and media attention (9.6%). In only a few cases the DNA or fingerprint database was used for identification. When a person is not reported missing the identification is problematic because of the lack of antemortem data. National and international databases of people who have gone missing, can help solve this problem. PMID:27107563

  3. Pliocene sea surface temperatures of the north atlantic ocean at 3.0 Ma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Poore, R.Z.

    1991-01-01

    Sea-surface temperature (SST) estimates based on quantitative analysis of planktic foraminifer faunas in North Atlantic deep sea cores suggest that high-frequency, low-amplitude variability related to orbital forcing was superimposed on long-term changes that delineate intervals within the Pliocene that were both warmer and cooler than today. SST estimates from several DSDP and ODP sites, as well as land sections, have been combined into a synoptic view of SST during a Pliocene warm interval centered at about 3.0 Ma. The Pliocene North Atlantic warm interval SST estimates show little evidence for warming in tropical regions whereas mid- to high-latitude areas show moderate to strong warming. SST estimates for the last interglacial (Isotope Stage 5e) show a similar pattern, but warming during the last interglacial was not as pronounced as the Middle Pliocene warming. The regional distribution of SST estimates during these past warm events suggests an increase in ocean circulation. ?? 1991.

  4. Management and protection protocols for nesting sea turtles on Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary 1. The southeast U.S. population of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) has increased since the species was listed as federally threatened in 1978. Since standardized monitoring began in North Carolina in 1995, the number of nests at Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) fluctuated from year to year, and was lowest in 1996 and 1997 (39 nests) and highest in 2003 (101 nests). Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) have nested in small numbers at CAHA, sporadically over time. 2. Hatching success of sea turtle nests typically approaches 80%. At CAHA hatching success from 1999-2003 was low when hurricanes hit during the nesting season (30%-38%), and ranged from 52%-70% otherwise. Hatching success at CAHA is usually correlated with hatching success in the surrounding subpopulation (north Florida to North Carolina). 3. Inclement weather, predation, and human recreation can negatively impact nesting rate and hatching success. 4. Currently there is little protection from recreation at CAHA for nesting females and nests that have not been found by monitors. We propose three management options to provide such protection, and to increase protection for known nests and hatchlings. We propose an adaptive management framework for assessing the effectiveness of these management options in improving sea turtle nesting rate and nest and hatchling survival. 5. We recommend continued efforts to trap and remove mammalian predators from all sea turtle habitat. We further recommend intensive monitoring and surveillance of protected areas to determine the extent and timing of threats to nests and broods, including nest overwash, predation, and disturbance or vandalism by humans. 6. Continue to relocate nests and assist stranded turtles according to North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission guidelines. 7. Artificial light sources pose a serious threat to sea turtles in some parts of CAHA, which must be remedied immediately

  5. Geological and operational summary, North Aleutian Shelf Coast No. 1 well, Bering Sea, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.F.

    1988-11-01

    Discusses the first continental offshore stratigraphic test well drilled in the North Aleutian Basin Planning Area, Bering Sea, Alaska. The well was drilled to determine the hydrocarbon potential of the area. The report covers drilling operations; lithology and core data; velocity analysis; geologic setting and tectonic framework; seismic stratigraphy; well-log interpretation and lithostratigraphy; paleontology and biostratigraphy; geothermal gradient; organic geochemistry; abnormal formation pressure; geologic hazards and shallow geology; and environmental considerations.

  6. A comparison of two finite element models of tidal hydrodynamics using a North Sea data set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, R.A.; Werner, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    Using the region of the English Channel and the southern bight of the North Sea, we systematically compare the results of two independent finite element models of tidal hydrodynamics. The model intercomparison provides a means for increasing our understanding of the relevant physical processes in the region in question as well as a means for the evaluation of certain algorithmic procedures of the two models. ?? 1989.

  7. Modelling climate change effects on benthos: Distributional shifts in the North Sea from 2001 to 2099

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Michael; Mathis, Moritz; Kröncke, Ingrid; Neumann, Hermann; Pohlmann, Thomas; Reiss, Henning

    2016-06-01

    In the marine realm, climate change can affect a variety of physico-chemical properties with wide-ranging biological effects, but the knowledge of how climate change affects benthic distributions is limited and mainly restricted to coastal environments. To project the response of benthic species of a shelf sea (North Sea) to the expected climate change, the distributions of 75 marine benthic species were modelled and the spatial changes in distribution were projected for 2099 based on modelled bottom temperature and salinity changes using the IPCC scenario A1B. Mean bottom temperature was projected to increase between 0.15 and 5.4 °C, while mean bottom salinity was projected to moderately increase by 1.7. The spatial changes in species distribution were modelled with Maxent and the direction and extent of these changes were assessed. The results showed a latitudinal northward shift for 64% of the species (maximum 109 km; brittle star Ophiothrix fragilis) and a southward shift for 36% (maximum 101 km; hermit crab Pagurus prideaux and the associated cloak anemone Adamsia carciniopados; 105 km). The relatively low rates of distributional shifts compared to fish or plankton species were probably influenced by the regional topography. The environmental gradients in the central North Sea along the 50 m depth contour might act as a 'barrier', possibly resulting in a compression of distribution range and hampering further shifts to the north. For 49 species this resulted in a habitat loss up to 100%, while only 11 species could benefit from the warming in terms of habitat gain. Particularly the benthic communities of the southern North Sea, where the strongest temperature increase was projected, would be strongly affected by the distributional changes, since key species showed northward shifts and high rates of habitat loss, with potential ramifications for the functioning of the ecosystem.

  8. In situ stress and natural fracture distribution in the Ekofisk Field, North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Teufel, L W; Farrell, H E

    1990-01-01

    In situ stress and natural fractures have been mapped across the structural dome that forms the Ekofisk field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The reservoir rock is chalk and a natural fracture system forms the primary conductive path for produced hydrocarbons and injected fluids. In situ stress measurements have been made using hydraulic fractures and anelastic strain recovery measurements of oriented core. 36 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Modelling climate change effects on benthos: Distributional shifts in the North Sea from 2001 to 2099

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Michael; Mathis, Moritz; Kröncke, Ingrid; Neumann, Hermann; Pohlmann, Thomas; Reiss, Henning

    2016-06-01

    In the marine realm, climate change can affect a variety of physico-chemical properties with wide-ranging biological effects, but the knowledge of how climate change affects benthic distributions is limited and mainly restricted to coastal environments. To project the response of benthic species of a shelf sea (North Sea) to the expected climate change, the distributions of 75 marine benthic species were modelled and the spatial changes in distribution were projected for 2099 based on modelled bottom temperature and salinity changes using the IPCC scenario A1B. Mean bottom temperature was projected to increase between 0.15 and 5.4 °C, while mean bottom salinity was projected to moderately increase by 1.7. The spatial changes in species distribution were modelled with Maxent and the direction and extent of these changes were assessed. The results showed a latitudinal northward shift for 64% of the species (maximum 109 km; brittle star Ophiothrix fragilis) and a southward shift for 36% (maximum 101 km; hermit crab Pagurus prideaux and the associated cloak anemone Adamsia carciniopados; 105 km). The relatively low rates of distributional shifts compared to fish or plankton species were probably influenced by the regional topography. The environmental gradients in the central North Sea along the 50 m depth contour might act as a 'barrier', possibly resulting in a compression of distribution range and hampering further shifts to the north. For 49 species this resulted in a habitat loss up to 100%, while only 11 species could benefit from the warming in terms of habitat gain. Particularly the benthic communities of the southern North Sea, where the strongest temperature increase was projected, would be strongly affected by the distributional changes, since key species showed northward shifts and high rates of habitat loss, with potential ramifications for the functioning of the ecosystem.

  10. High-resolution IP25-based reconstruction of sea-ice variability in the western North Pacific and Bering Sea during the past 18,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méheust, Marie; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Max, Lars; Riethdorf, Jan-Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Due to its strong influence on heat and moisture exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, sea ice is an essential component of the global climate system. In the context of its alarming decrease in terms of concentration, thickness and duration, understanding the processes controlling sea-ice variability and reconstructing paleo-sea-ice extent in polar regions have become of great interest for the scientific community. In this study, for the first time, IP25, a recently developed biomarker sea-ice proxy, was used for a high-resolution reconstruction of the sea-ice extent and its variability in the western North Pacific and western Bering Sea during the past 18,000 years. To identify mechanisms controlling the sea-ice variability, IP25 data were associated with published sea-surface temperature as well as diatom and biogenic opal data. The results indicate that a seasonal sea-ice cover existed during cold periods (Heinrich Stadial 1 and Younger Dryas), whereas during warmer intervals (Bølling-Allerød and Holocene) reduced sea ice or ice-free conditions prevailed in the study area. The variability in sea-ice extent seems to be linked to climate anomalies and sea-level changes controlling the oceanographic circulation between the subarctic Pacific and the Bering Sea, especially the Alaskan Stream injection though the Aleutian passes.