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Sample records for north sikkim india

  1. Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Bharat K; Badola, Hemant K

    2008-01-01

    Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process of globalization, the immediate need was felt to document in details the under-explored ethnomedicinal practices of Lepchas of Dzongu valley. This paper reports 118 species, belonging to 71 families and 108 genera, under ethnomedicinal utility by the Lepchas for curing approximately 66 ailments, which could be grouped under 14 broad categories. Zingiberaceae appeared as the most used family (8 species and 5 genera). As per use pattern, maximum of 30.50% species are to cure stomach related disorders/ailments, followed by 19.49% for curing cut, wounds, inflammation, sprains and joint pains. Administration of medicine orally is recorded in 75% cases. Root and rhizome harvesting targeted 30 species. The changing scenario over time both at socio-cultural front and passing traditional knowledge interests from older to younger generation and rich ethnomicinal wealth of the oldest tribe of Sikkim are discussed in the light of conservation strategies and techniques to adopt. PMID:18826658

  2. Socioeconomic characteristics of alcohol and other substance users, seeking treatment in Sikkim, North East India

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sunil Kumar; Datta, Debranjan; Dutta, Sanjiba; Verma, Yogesh; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to generate information for better understanding of socioeconomic and CAGE characteristics of alcohol and other substance users who were undergoing treatment in Sikkim. Subjects and Methods: Socioeconomic and CAGE questionnaire was administered to alcohol and other substance abusers of Sikkim (n = 241) who were undergoing treatment in different treatment centers of Sikkim. Information was collected on printed instrument after taking participant's consent and data was statistically analyzed. Results: Male participants (93.8%) outnumbered female (6.2%). Majority of the sample were either in the school dropout group or school completed (36.1%) group. Most of the samples were occupationally unemployed, urban residents, Nepali by ethnicity, single, and Hindu (48.5%) by religion. Minimum age for starting of alcohol and drug was 5 years and 7 years respectively. Knowledge about AIDS and its transmission was satisfactory. All the four CAGE characteristics were present in majority of samples. Conclusions: Climate, geographical location, wide and easy availability of alcohol in Sikkim make this state vulnerable for alcohol abuse. Alcohol drinking among parents, sibling and friends found to be important risk factor. Outreach to the community for better acceptability of treatment is an important area to fill the gap of treatment demand and treatment supply. PMID:25883520

  3. Vulnerability assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods using Remote Sensing and GIS in North Sikkim (India), Eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Suruchi; Probha Devi, Juna; Thakur, Praveen Kumar; Rai, Suresh Chand

    2016-04-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) occur when glacier melt water dammed by a moraine is released in short time. Such floods may lead to disastrous events posing, therefore, a huge threat to human lives and infrastructure. A devastating GLOF in Uttarakhand, India, on 17 July 2013 has led to the loss of all villages in a stretch of 18 km downstream the lake and the loss of more than 5000 lives. The present study evaluates all 16 glacial lakes (with an area >0.1 km²) in the Thangu valley, northern Sikkim (India), eastern Himalaya, with respect to potential threats for the downstream areas. The hazard criteria for the study include slope, aspect and distance of the respective parent glacier, change in the lake area, dam characteristics and lake depth. For the most hazardous lakes, the socio-economic conditions in the downstream areas (settlements and infrastructure) are analysed regarding the impact of potential GLOFs. For the vulnerability analysis, we used various satellite products including LANDSAT, RESOUCESAT-1 and 2, RISAT-1 imageries and ASTER GDEM covering the period from 1977 to 2014. For lake mapping, we applied the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). A Land Use Land Cover (LULC) map of the study area showing in-situ observations is serving as driving factor for the vulnerability analysis. The results of the study show that almost all evaluated glacial lakes were expanding during the study period (1977-2014). Combining the hazard criteria for the lakes, 5 of the 16 studied glacial lakes are identified as highly hazardous. In the downstream area, there are two villages with 200 inhabitants and an army camp within the zone of highest vulnerability. The identified vulnerability zones may be used by the local authorities to take caution of the threatened villages and infrastructure and for risk analysis for planned future hydropower plants.

  4. Descriptive epidemiology and high risk behavior of male prescription opioid abusers: Cross-sectional study from Sikkim, North East India

    PubMed Central

    Datta, D.; Pandey, S.; Dutta, S.; Verma, Y.; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sikkim is emerging as an important area for prescription opioid abuse with frequent news of seizures and arrests due to possession of prescription opioids. However, till date there is a little information on descriptive epidemiology and high risk behavior of prescription opioid abusers from Sikkim. Aims: The aim was to describe demographic (age, sex, religion, marital status, community, occupation, etc.); socioeconomic (income, education, family information etc.); and high risk behavior (e.g., injection sharing, visit to commercial sex workers [CSWs], homosexuality etc.) among treatment-seeking prescription opioid abusers in Sikkim. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological data were collected by administering predevised questionnaires from n = 223 prescription opioid abusers (main problem prescription opioids) reporting for treatment at five different drug abuse treatment centers across Sikkim. Results: The mean age of prescription opioid abusers in Sikkim was 27 years; all were male, of Nepalese ethnicity and single/never married, school dropout and/or illiterate, earning < Rs. 10,000/month with most spending almost Rs. 5000 a month on prescription opioids. Most (57.4%) prescription opioid abusers belonged to the urban community. Commonly abused prescription opioids were dextropropoxyphene and codeine. Injection sharing was more in urban areas whereas syringe exchange was observed equally among rural and urban prescription opioid abusers. Among urban injectors visits to CSWs, and multiple sex partners were also common in spite of knowledge about AIDS. Limited condom use was observed among rural respondents. Incidences of arrests, public intoxication, and violence under the influence of prescription opioids were also reported. Conclusion: Both the rural and urban areas of Sikkim show increasing rates of prescription opioid abuse among males. It is more prevalent among school dropouts and unemployed youth. Trends of injection drug use, unsafe injection

  5. Epidemiology of endemic cretinism in Sikkim, India.

    PubMed

    Sankar, R; Pulger, T; Rai, B; Gomathi, S; Gyatso, T R; Pandav, C S

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Sikkim to determine the prevalence of endemic cretinism in the state. A household was the basic sampling unit. Villages were selected randomly in the state and from these households were selected randomly using the electoral lists. All members of the households were studied. Total of 17,837 individuals from 3,197 households from 249 villages were studied. There were 8,953 males and 8,884 females. A total of 617 endemic cretins were identified: 316 males and 301 females. The overall prevalence of endemic cretinism was 3.46%: (males 3.53% and females 3.39%). Endemic cretinism was observed in 194 (77.9%) villages studied. Neurological cretinism was the predominant form (98.7%). Deaf-mutism was the most salient neurological feature seen in 472 (76.5%) subjects. Motor system examination revealed proximal spasticity and brisk reflexes, both more marked in the lower limbs. Recording of daily life activities revealed 14.1% of the cretins to be totally dependent and another 23% to be requiring considerable assistance for their daily routine activities. The overall prevalence of goitre found in this survey was 54%. Urinary iodine concentration was estimated from a representative sample of the population; mean 4 micrograms/dl (SD 2.68). This survey shows the existence of severe iodine deficiency in Sikkim. PMID:10771977

  6. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol. PMID:25800078

  7. Acute stress-related psychological impact in children following devastating natural disaster, the Sikkim earthquake (2011), India

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Rakesh; Sarkar, Sumantra; Banerjee, Indira; Hazra, Avijit; Majumder, Debabrata; Sabui, Tapas; Dutta, Sudip; Saren, Abhisek; Pan, Partha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychological stress following natural disaster is common. Despite several earthquakes in India, data on evaluation of acute stress among the child victims in the early postdisaster period is scarce. Immediately following a devastating earthquake (6.9 Richter) at Sikkim on September, 18 2011, many children attended North Bengal Medical College, the nearest government tertiary care institution, with unusual stress symptoms. Objective: Evaluation of acute stress symptoms in children in the immediate postearthquake period. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done over 4 weeks and includes all the children from 1 to 12 years presenting with unusual physical or behavioral symptoms. Those with major injuries requiring admission were excluded. They were divided into two age groups. For older children (8-12 years) the 8-item Children Impact of Event Scale (CIES) was used for screening of stress. Unusual symptoms were recorded in younger children (1-8 years) as CIES is not validated < 8 years. Result: A total of 84 children (2.66%) out of 3154 had stress symptoms. Maximum attendance was noted in first 3 days (65.47%) and declined gradually. In children ≥ 8 years, 48.78% had psychological stress, which was statistically significant on CIES scores without any gender predilection. Static posturing (41.86%), sleeplessness (32.55%), anorexia (9.30%), recurrent vomiting (13.95%), excessive crying (13.95%), or night-awakenings (4.65%) were found in younger children (n = 43) and three required admission. Conclusion: This study represent the first Indian data showing statistically significant psychological impact in older children (8-12 years) and various forms of physical stress symptoms in young children (1-8 years) following earthquake. PMID:24174793

  8. The Tista Megafan, a ~50 kyr Record of Drainage Development, Erosion and Weathering in the Sikkim Himalayas (Eastern India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahami, R.; Huyghe, P.; Van Der Beek, P.; Lowick, S.; Garzanti, E.; Revillon, S.; Carcaillet, J.; Chakraborty, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Tista River, a major tributary of the Brahmaputra drainage system (Eastern Himalaya) has built a fluvial deposit which extents over 16500 km2. The Tista megafan stands out because of (1) its disproportionate size compared to that of the upstream Tista River catchment (8000 km2), and (2) it has been incised about 50m by the river at the topographic front of the mountain range. Neither the timing of deposition/incision of the megafan sediments, and their potential tectonic or climatic controls have yet been investigated. We use both IRSL and 10Be cosmogenic data to respectively constrain the date of deposition and abandonment of the different lobes of the megafan. We suggest that two distal lobes developed successively downstream from a common proximal lobe. Deposition took place since ~50 ka and incision began at 4.0 +0.6/-0.4 ka at an average rate of 10.5 +0.6/-1.8 mm yr-1. In addition, petrology, isotope geochemistry (ɛNd, 87Sr/86Sr) and chemical composition performed on modern river sands and late-Quaternary megafan sediments allows characterizing (1) provenance variations through time of megafan deposits and their implication for drainage development (2) the weathering history of Sikkim recorded by the megafan deposits. Results show that the Tista fan deposits are mainly sourced from the High Himalayan Crystalline domain and the Tethyan Sedimentary Series, (consistent with high erosion rates identified in north Sikkim at millennial timescale). Variations in provenance and weathering through time recorded by the Tista megafan deposits can be linked to climatic variations with strong monsoonal precipitations penetrating further northward into the southern Tibetan plateau. Tectonic processes seem to play a minor role. Otherwise, we propose as a first hypothesis that the Kosi River has recently (at ~4 ka) captured the upper part of the Tista catchment. That could explain the particular isotopic signature of the Tista megafan deposits, its recent incision, its

  9. Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): A Potential Bioresource for Commercialization in Sikkim Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Bharat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis has a long history of use in Tibetan traditional medicine and traditional Chinese medicine as a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac. The species is inextricably linked to the trade of medicinal and aromatic plants in East Asia. Its demand has increased substantially in the international market, and its collection and trade have significantly improved the socioeconomic status of the people in some regions. Nonetheless, in Sikkim this resource is still untapped formally, but it is traded illegally. Formal legalization and the community's involvement will ensure the conservation and sustainability of the species, as well as proper management of harvesting areas and monitoring of pressure on Yartsa Gunbu to exploit it. PMID:27481300

  10. Decoupling of long-term exhumation and short-term erosion rates in the Sikkim Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahami, Rachel; van der Beek, Peter; Huyghe, Pascale; Hardwick, Elisabeth; Carcaillet, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relative strengths of tectonic and climatic forcing on erosion at different spatial and temporal scales is important to understand the evolution of orogenic topography. To address this question, we quantified exhumation rates at geological timescales and erosion rates at millennial timescales in modern river sands from 10 sub-catchments of the Tista River drainage basin in the Sikkim Himalaya (northeast India) using detrital apatite fission-track thermochronology and cosmogenic 10Be analyses, respectively. We compare these rates to several potential geomorphic or climatic forcing parameters. Our results show that millennial erosion rates are generally higher and spatially more variable than long-term exhumation rates in Sikkim. They also show strongly contrasting spatial patterns, suggesting that the processes controlling these rates are decoupled. At geological timescales, exhumation rates decrease from south to north, with rates up to 1.2 ± 0.6 mm/yr recorded in southwest Sikkim and as low as 0.5 ± 0.2 mm/yr in the northernmost catchment. Long-term exhumation rates do not correlate with any geomorphic or climatic parameter. We suggest they are tectonically controlled: high rates in southwest Sikkim may be linked to the building of the Lesser Himalaya Rangit Duplex, whereas low rates in north Sikkim are consistent with cessation of extensional exhumation along the South Tibetan Detachment after 13 Ma. The highest apparent erosion rates recorded by cosmogenic nuclides (˜5 mm/yr) occur in catchments spanning the Main Central Thrust Zone, but these appear to be strongly influenced by recent landsliding. High millennial erosion rates (1-2 mm/yr) also occur in north Sikkim and may be climatically driven through strong glacial inheritance of the landscape, as attested by high channel-steepness values close to the maximum extent of glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum. In contrast, variations in rainfall rate do not seem to strongly influence

  11. Geometry and kinematics of the fold-thrust belt and structural evolution of the major Himalayan fault zones in the Darjeeling -- Sikkim Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kathakali

    The Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya lies in the eastern part of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt (FTB) in a zone of high arc-perpendicular convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates. In this region two distinct faults form the Main Central thrust (MCT), the structurally higher MCT1 and the lower MCT2; both these faults have translated the Greater Himalayan hanging wall rocks farther towards the foreland than in the western Himalaya. The width of the sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan rocks progressively decreases from the western Himalaya to this part of the eastern Himalaya, and as a result, the width of the FTB is narrower in this region compared to the western Himalaya. Our structural analysis shows that in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya the sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan duplex is composed of two duplex systems and has a more complex geometry than in the rest of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. The structurally higher Dating duplex is a hinterland-dipping duplex; the structurally lower Rangit duplex varies in geometry from a hinterland-dipping duplex in the north to an antiformal stack in the middle and a foreland-dipping duplex in the south. The MCT2 is the roof thrust of the Daling duplex and the Ramgarh thrust is the roof thrust of the Rangit duplex. In this region, the Ramgarh thrust has a complex structural history with continued reactivation during footwall imbrication. The foreland-dipping component of the Rangit duplex, along with the large displacement associated with the reactivation of the Ramgarh thrust accounts for the large translation of the MCT sheets in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. The growth of the Lesser Himalayan duplex modified the final geometry of the overlying MCT sheets, resulting in a plunge culmination that manifests itself as a broad N-S trending "anticline" in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. This is not a "river anticline" as its trace lies west of the Teesta river. A transport parallel balanced cross section across this region has accommodated

  12. Forecasting climate change impacts and evaluation of adaptation options for maize cropping in the hilly terrain of Himalayas: Sikkim, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Proloy; Shrestha, Sangam; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the climate change impacts on rainfed maize yield using AquaCrop and CERES-maize crop simulation models, and evaluation of adaptation measures were performed for Sikkim state of India. Data related to crop phenology retrieved from the field experiments were used to calibrate and validate the crop models for three representative sites. Climate projections of six global circulation models (ECHAM5, CCSM, HadCM3, CSIRO-MK3.0, CGCM3.1, and MIROC3.2) for scenarios A2 and B2 were bias-corrected at station scale by power law transformation. Simulation results by the two crop models indicate a significant declination in the yield of NLD-White variety of maize ranging from 4.7 ± 1.4 to 20.4 ± 7.2 % for the future time windows under A2 scenario and 2.5 ± 0.9 to 15.8 ± 5.7 % under B2 scenario relative to the yield simulated for the baseline period of 1991-2000. It is also observed that, for a particular temperature, yield remarkably increases with escalated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. On contrary, increase in temperature reduces the yield at a particular CO2 concentration. The overall decline in the yield under future climate scenarios can be alleviated by early planting, appropriate nutrient management, introducing supplementary irrigation, and shifting to heat-tolerant varieties.

  13. A study on knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among college students in Sikkim, India

    PubMed Central

    Renjhen, Prachi; Kumar, Ashwini; Pattanshetty, Sanjay; Sagir, Afrin; Samarasinghe, Charmaine Minoli

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the college students. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in the Government College, Gangtok, Sikkim, during the month of April 2009 to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among 156 students enrolled in the first year bachelor course. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Results 98% (153/156) of the students had knowledge about family planning and 86% (134/156) of them had heard about contraceptives. Most of them knew about condoms (85%) and contraceptive pills (40%) but knowledge about permanent methods and Cu-T was poor (average 12%). Most students thought contraceptives were to be used to prevent unwanted pregnancy (35%) and for birth spacing (30%). 11% of students had used some form of contraceptive in the past and 7% were currently users. The most commonly used contraceptives were condoms, followed by combined use of OCP and condom. Conclusion The study highlights the need to motivate the youth for effective and appropriate use of contraceptives when required and arrest the trend towards unwanted pregnancy. PMID:24591903

  14. Seedling growth and survival of selected wild edible fruit species of the Sikkim Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundriyal, Manju; Sundriyal, R. C.

    2005-07-01

    In the Sikkim Himalaya, an enormous variety of wild growing plants are exploited at large scale for collection of their edible parts, of which six most prominently utilized fruit species (viz., Baccaurea sapida, Diploknema butyracea, Elaeagnus latifolia, Eriolobus indica, Machilus edulis and Spondias axillaris) were investigated. The growth of nursery raised seedlings was measured at 3 month intervals until two years old in terms of absolute growth rate (AGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf weight ratio (LWR), stem weight ratio (SWR), root weight ratio (RWR) and root-shoot ratio (RSR). Spondias axillaris and Machilus edulis had the maximum AGR, RGR, LAR and SWR among all species. LWR was highest for B. sapida. RGR, LAR and LWR declined with the age of seedlings. RGR was negatively correlated with NAR, SWR, RWR and RSR, though it showed a positive relationship with LAR. For all species, seedlings attained significant sizes after one year of age, and showed reasonable survival after transplantation into the farmers' fields. It is expected that information on the growth behaviour of these species would be useful while they are adopted into agroforestry systems. It is suggested that these species should be multiplied at large scale and distributed to the local inhabitants to reduce pressure on them in natural stands as well as provide economic benefit to the subsistence farmers.

  15. Timing, duration and inversion of prograde Barrovian metamorphism constrained by high resolution Lu-Hf garnet dating: A case study from the Sikkim Himalaya, NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anczkiewicz, Robert; Chakraborty, Sumit; Dasgupta, Somnath; Mukhopadhyay, Dilip; Kołtonik, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    We investigated Lu-Hf isotopic systematics in garnets from gradually higher grade metamorphic rocks from the first appearance of garnet at c. 500 °C to biotite dehydration melting at c. 800 °C in the Sikkim Himalaya, India. Exceptionally precise Lu-Hf ages obtained for the Barrovian metasedimentary sequence in the Lesser Himalaya (LH) correspond to the time of early garnet formation on a prograde path and show remarkable correlation with increasing metamorphic grade and decreasing structural depth. The youngest age is reported for the garnet zone (10.6±0.2 Ma) and then the ages become progressively older in the staurolite (12.8±0.3 Ma), kyanite (13.7±0.2 Ma) and sillimanite (14.6±0.1 Ma) zones. The oldest age of 16.8±0.1 Ma was recorded at the top of the sequence in the zone marking the onset of muscovite dehydration melting, directly below the Main Central Thrust (MCT). These ages provide a tight constraint on the timing and duration of the Barrovian sequence formation which lasted about 6 Ma. The age pattern is clearly inverted with respect to structural depth but shows "normal" correlation with the metamorphic grade, i.e. earlier garnet growth in higher grade rocks. The timing of the peak metamorphic conditions estimated for the garnet and kyanite zones suggests that thermal climax occurred in all zones within a relatively short time span about 10-13 Ma ago. The metamorphic inversion in the Sikkim Himalaya must therefore have occurred after the metamorphic peak was attained in all grades. Lu-Hf garnet ages in the overthrust Higher Himalaya (HH) continue to be older but do not show a clear progression. There is about 6 Ma jump to 22.6±0.1 Ma within the MCT zone and even older ages of 26-28 Ma were obtained for migmatites from the lower part of the HH. The Lu-Hf system in garnets from the HH records the time of melting at or near the thermal peak rather than dates initial garnet growth as in the LH. The age pattern obtained in this study provides precise

  16. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A. K.; Pattanayak, A.; Harish, G. D.; Singh, S. K.; Ngachan, S. V.; Bansal, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur; and P3, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and quality rice

  17. Natural and human impact on the land use and soil properties of the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont in India.

    PubMed

    Prokop, P; Płoskonka, D

    2014-06-01

    Natural and human causes of change in land use and soil properties were studied in the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont over the last 150 years, with a special emphasis on the period 1930-2010. Analysis of historical reports, combined with the visual interpretation of topographic maps and satellite images, indicates that the land reforms related to the location of tea gardens caused rapid deforestation of the higher elevated terraces in the late 19th century. Continuous population growth between 1930 and 2010 caused a shift in the major land use changes from the terraces to the floodplains. As a consequence, a gradual extension of tea plantation and forestry development helped in stabilizing the land use of the terraces, while the parallel deforestation of mountain catchments and floodplains for rice cultivation intensified fluvial activity. The enlargement of river-channel area by about 42% between 1930 and 2010 excluded a large part of the floodplains from cultivation and increased risk of soil degradation. The replacement of natural forest by monocultural tea and rice cultivation influenced the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Statistically significant changes were observed only in some chemical properties of the topsoil. Tea cultivation reduced the total carbon content by 26% and total nitrogen content by 33% in the surface soil horizon. The influence of rice tillage on the soil properties is masked by the fluvial activity. The combined effect of flooding and rice cultivation is reflected in the lower content of total carbon and nitrogen in the surface of the soil, namely, 76% and 77% respectively. Taking into account the long-term nature of the plantation, the soil still has the capability to support tea production. The productivity of rice depends partly on fertilization levels and partly on the natural deposition of fresh sediment eroded from mountains. PMID:24560792

  18. Analysis and trends of precipitation lapse rate and extreme indices over north Sikkim eastern Himalayas under CMIP5ESM-2M RCPs experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishal; Goyal, Manish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws attention to highlight the spatial and temporal variability in precipitation lapse rate (PLR) and precipitation extreme indices (PEIs) through the mesoscale characterization of Teesta river catchment, which corresponds to north Sikkim eastern Himalayas. A PLR rate is an important variable for the snowmelt runoff models. In a mountainous region, the PLR could be varied from lower elevation parts to high elevation parts. In this study, a PLR was computed by accounting elevation differences, which varies from around 1500 m to 7000 m. A precipitation variability and extremity were analysed using multiple mathematical functions viz. quantile regression, spatial mean, spatial standard deviation, Mann-Kendall test and Sen's estimation. For this reason, a daily precipitation, in the historical (years 1980-2005) as measured/observed gridded points and projected experiments for the 21st century (years 2006-2100) simulated by CMIP5 ESM-2 M model (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 Earth System Model 2) employing three different radiative forcing scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways), utilized for the research work. The outcomes of this study suggest that a PLR is significantly varied from lower elevation to high elevation parts. The PEI based analysis showed that the extreme high intensity events have been increased significantly, especially after 2040s. The PEI based observations also showed that the numbers of wet days are increased for all the RCPs. The quantile regression plots showed significant increments in the upper and lower quantiles of the various extreme indices. The Mann-Kendall test and Sen's estimation tests clearly indicated significant changing patterns in the frequency and intensity of the precipitation indices across all the sub-basins and RCP scenario in an intra-decadal time series domain. The RCP8.5 showed extremity of the projected outcomes.

  19. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Swain, Kailash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended. PMID:21731381

  20. Earthquake induced Landslides in the Sikkim Himalaya - A Consequences of the 18th September 2011 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    On September 18, 2011 an earthquake of 6.8 magnitude on the Richter scale struck Sikkim at 18.11 hours IST. The epicenter of the quake was latidude 27.7o North and longitude 88.2o East about 64 km North-West of Gangtok along the junction point of Teesta lineament and Kanchenjunga fault in the North District of Sikkim. The high intensity tremor triggered various types of natural calamities in the form of landslides, road blocks, falling boulders, lake bursts, flash floods, falling of trees, etc. and caused severe damage to life and property of the people in Sikkim. As the earthquake occurred during the monsoon season, heavy rain and landslides rendered rescue operations extremely difficult. Almost all road connectivity and communication network were disrupted. Sikkim experiences landslides year after year, especially during the monsoons and periods of intense rain. This hazard affects the economy of the State very badly. But due to the earthquake, many new and a few reactivated landslides have occurred in the Sikkim Himalaya.

  1. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

    2010-01-01

    Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession. PMID:21547046

  2. STS-56 Earth observation of Karakorum Range of north India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation shows of some of the highest mountain peaks in the world taken from Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, as it passed over India and China. The top of the view shows one of the snow and ice-covered massifs in the great Karakorum Range of north India. A star-shaped peak at top left reaches 23,850 feet. Glaciers can be seen in valleys at these high elevations. The international border between India to the south (top) and China (bottom) snakes left to right along a river near the top of the scene, then veers into the muntains at top left. Larger valleys, despite their elevation (all in excess of 14,000 feet), are occupied by transport routes joining points in India, China and the southern republics of the CIS. The ancient Silk Route between China and the Middle East lies not far to the north (outside the bottom of the frame).

  3. Traditional healers in North India: a study.

    PubMed

    Kakar, D N

    1983-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the role of indigenous medicine practitioners in providing medical care to the people and to identify factors influencing continuity of their practice. 64 registered indigenous medicine practitioners were practicing in a Community Development Block in North India with a total population of 18,000. Only 9 or them were fully institutionally qualified, i.e., they possessed an ayurvedic degree like GAMS or BIMS. Of the remainder, only 10 were partially institutionally qualified, i.e., they had either a diploma or a certificate in ayurvedic or Unani medicine and the remaining 45 were all noninstitutionally qualified (RIMPS). The 45 had no formal training in indigenous medicine, but they all had served apprenticeships to established practitioners in different areas. The duration of apprenticeship had generally been 4-5 years. 44 of them were practicing both allopathic and ayurvedic systems of medicine. The value of the stock of drugs maintained by them ranged from Rs. 500-2500. Except for 3, all were engaged in full time practice. As most of the RIMPs had their clinics on the main roads, they were easily accessible to their clients. Nearly 3/4 of them had nonresidential clinics, and the rest practiced in their own homes. Most of them had only 1 room clinics. Furnishings usually included a wooden table and chair and a couple of benches for waiting clients. The following were among the study findings: cosmopolitan medicine was still favored by a majority of the rural people; the traditional healers were approached more for the treatment of chronic nonincapacitating dysfunctions rather than critical incapacitating dysfunctions; some traditional healers made claims of curing barrenness, impotency, veneral disease, and certain chronic diseases; the traditional healers moved from 1 place to another in the course of their training and practice; most of them stayed in touch with doctors practicing in towns to acquire knowledge of new remedies

  4. Temporal and spatial variations in erosion rate in the Sikkim Himalaya as a function of climate and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahami, R.; Van Der Beek, P.; Huyghe, P.; Carcaillet, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Tista River, a major tributary of the Brahmaputra drainage system (Eastern Himalaya -Sikkim) has recently incised its megafan at the topographic front of the mountain range by 30 meters. Neither the timing of deposition/incision of the megafan sediments, nor the erosion rates of the source areas have yet been investigated in detail. To constrain erosion rates in the hinterland at different temporal scales, we report cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and thermochronological (apatite fission-track) data on modern river sands and map the results to evidence spatial variations of erosion/exhumation rates in Sikkim. Millennial erosion rates are significantly higher than geological exhumation rates, display stronger spatial variability and a contrasting pattern, suggesting that the processes controlling these rates are decoupled. Strong exhumation rates at geological timescales in southwest Sikkim (1.2 mm.yr-1) may be structurally controlled by uplift of the Lesser Himalayan duplex, while strong erosion rates at millennial scales in north Sikkim (5-6 mm.yr-1) suggest a climatic control. Cosmogenic nuclides were also used to date the onset of incision of the megafan. In addition, isotope geochemistry (ɛNd, 87Sr/86Sr) on modern river sands and late-Quaternary megafan sediments allows characterizing the isotopic signature of the different source areas and constraining variations in provenance of the Tista megafan deposits through time. Results show that the Tista fan deposits are mainly sourced from the High Himalayan Crystalline domain with excursions more influenced by the Lesser Himalaya domain. These results are consistent with the higher erosion rates identified in north Sikkim at millennial timescale. These data provide a new comprehensive view on modern erosion and long-term exhumation of the Sikkim Himalaya. This study will help our knowledge and understanding of erosional processes and sediment fluxes in mountainous environments as a function of climate and tectonics.

  5. Duration of inverted metamorphic sequence formation across the Himalayan Main Central Thrust (MCT), Sikkim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioldi, Stefania; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajcmanová, Lucie; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates since the Eocene (50 Ma) caused the closure of the Neo-Tethys and the underthrusting of India beneath the Tibetan Plateau, generating the 2500 km extended Himalayan belt. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) marks the boundary of the underlying Midland Lower Himalaya metasediments zone (LH) in the south from the overlying high grade metamorphic Higher Himalaya (HH) in the north. Several models considering petrochronology, geothermobarometry and structural geology have been discussed to explain the inverted metamorphic gradient in the LH metasediments without reaching a common agreement. This study investigates the tectonic setting and the timescale of inverted isograds related to crustal-scale thrusting at the MCT in the Sikkim region, northeast India. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of the link between mechanical and thermal evolution of major thrust zones and to clarify the nature and the origin of orogenic heat applying garnet geospeedometry. Garnets provide a sensitive record of metamorphic conditions and are potential chronometer. Their compositional zoning is used as a gauge for rate estimates of element diffusion within the mineral and allows estimating the absolute time of the thermal evolution. Inverse-fitting numerical model considering FRactIonation and Diffusion in GarnEt (FRIDGE) calculates garnet composition profiles by introducing P-T-t paths and bulk-rock composition of a specific sample. P-T conditions were estimated by convectional geothermobarometry supported by phase equilibria modelling and measured garnet chemical compositions. Simulation were compared with measured garnet profiles. Simple step function and FRIDGE preliminary results of Fe-Mg - Ca - Mn garnet fractionation-diffusion modelling indicate very short timescale (between 3 and 6 Ma) for peak metamorphic conditions in the northeast Himalayan collisional system. This duration does not allow thermal re-equilibration. It is an

  6. Studying Tones in North East India: Tai, Singpho and Tangsa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…

  7. Surrendering a Colonial Domain: Educating North India, 1854-1890

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Postcolonial research has often assumed that colonial education fell victim to the forces of nationalism, like other areas of Raj governance in the early twentieth century. However, European-led education that aspired to reach the general population had already failed a generation earlier, at least in north India. This was after highly imaginative…

  8. Maternal mortality inquiry in a rural community of north India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, A K; Barik, S; Kumar, V

    1989-08-01

    Community inquiry on maternal mortality was conducted in a rural area of North India. Maternal deaths were identified by multiple informants and investigated by doctors. Amongst 257 deaths registered in women in the 15-44 year age group, 55(21.4%) were maternal deaths. Maternal mortality ratio was 230 per 100,000 live births. Major causes were antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage (18.2%), puerperal sepsis (16.4%), severe anemia (16.4%), abortion (9.1%) and obstructed labor (7.3%). This rapid, simple and low cost method is recommended for application in areas where vital registration system is unsatisfactory. PMID:2571532

  9. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India. Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram). Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the differences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test. Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60%) followed by pet (29.16%) and stray dogs (17.75%). Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. PMID:27047976

  10. Rubella outbreak in the union territory of Chandigarh, North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mini P; Kumar, Archit; Gautam, Neha; Khurana, Jasmine; Gupta, Madhu; Ratho, Radha Kanta

    2015-02-01

    Rubella virus outbreaks usually occur when a large numbers of susceptible individuals accumulate. The disease presents clinically with fever and maculopapular rash. The present study reports the investigation of rubella outbreak in a modern and well-planned village near Chandigarh, North India. The blood samples were collected from 39 cases with febrile rash and from 15 age and sex matched healthy controls residing in the same locality and subjected for the detection of Rubella IgM and IgG antibodies by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The throat swabs, urine and blood samples from acute cases were also collected and subjected to RT-PCR using the primers targeting the E1 region. The genetic characterization of the rubella virus was carried out to identify the circulating genotypes. In the present outbreak, 13 laboratory confirmed cases were reported. Rubella IgM antibodies were detected in 12/39 (30.7%) patients. Rubella RNA could be detected in 83.3% (5/6) of urine, 22.2% (2/9) of throat swabs, and 8.3% (1/12) of blood samples. The rubella genotype responsible for the present outbreak was identified as genotype 1a. This outbreak highlights the need for the introduction of rubella vaccine in the National Immunization Programme of India to prevent outbreaks and to aim towards the eradication of this disease. This study reports the presence of genotype 1a in North India for the first time and stresses the need for further molecular work to identify the circulating strains of the virus. PMID:25156964

  11. Individual and Contextual Determinants of Domestic Violence in North India

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Michael A.; Stephenson, Rob; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J.; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined individual- and community-level influences on domestic violence in Uttar Pradesh, North India. Methods. Multilevel modeling was used to explore domestic violence outcomes among a sample of 4520 married men. Results. Recent physical and sexual domestic violence was associated with the individual-level variables of childlessness, economic pressure, and intergenerational transmission of violence. A community environment of violent crime was associated with elevated risks of both physical and sexual violence. Community-level norms concerning wife beating were significantly related only to physical violence. Conclusions. Important similarities as well as differences were evident in risk factors for physical and sexual domestic violence. Higher socioeconomic status was found to be protective against physical but not sexual violence. Our results provide additional support for the importance of contextual factors in shaping women’s risks of physical and sexual violence. PMID:16317213

  12. Microbial evaluation of bottled water marketed in North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhawna; Kaur, Satinder

    2015-01-01

    Drinking unsafe and unhygienic water can cause waterborne diseases such as diarrhea and typhoid. The present study describes the microbial evaluation of bottled water sold in North India. The samples were analyzed for total viable count and coliforms and susceptibility to different antibiotics. Though free of coliforms, the samples had a total viable count ranging from 0.01 × 10 (1) cfu/mL to 2.40 × 10 (3) cfu/mL and in 17% of the samples, total viable count was much higher than specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Government of India. Among the samples, 6.5% also showed fungal growth. On checking the sensitivity of bacteria isolates to different antibiotics, most of the strains were found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. It can thus be concluded that the consumption of bottled water with a high viable count and that was bacteria-resistant to different antibiotics may have an effect on the health of the consumers, especially immune-compromised individuals. PMID:26584170

  13. Seasonal prediction skill of winter temperature over North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, P. R.; Kar, S. C.; Mohanty, U. C.; Dey, S.; Kumari, S.; Sinha, P.

    2016-04-01

    The climatology, amplitude error, phase error, and mean square skill score (MSSS) of temperature predictions from five different state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) have been examined for the winter (December-January-February) seasons over North India. In this region, temperature variability affects the phenological development processes of wheat crops and the grain yield. The GCM forecasts of temperature for a whole season issued in November from various organizations are compared with observed gridded temperature data obtained from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) for the period 1982-2009. The MSSS indicates that the models have skills of varying degrees. Predictions of maximum and minimum temperature obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climate forecast system model (NCEP_CFSv2) are compared with station level observations from the Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE). It has been found that when the model temperatures are corrected to account the bias in the model and actual orography, the predictions are able to delineate the observed trend compared to the trend without orography correction.

  14. Characterization of smallholder pig production system: productive and reproductive performances of local and crossbred pigs in Sikkim Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Nath, B G; Pathak, P K; Ngachan, S V; Tripathi, A K; Mohanty, A K

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the smallholder pig production system in tribal areas of Sikkim State, India. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected randomly from the North and East District of the state. Information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers (gender, occupation, educational status, and farming experience), management practices, disease prevalence, and economics in pig production was collected. The study recorded the mean land holding as 1.2 ± 0.8 ha, and the number of pigs per farm was 5.0 ± 0.28. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income, and 70 % of farmers reared crossbreed pigs. Ninety percent (90 %) of respondents practiced the intensive system of management whereby kitchen wastes along with cooked mixture comprising maize bhusa, mustard oil cake, pseudostem of banana, tuber, stem, and plant leaves were used to feed their animals. About 40.5 % of farmers procured their breeding stock from government farms that had good records and utilized veterinary services like timely vaccination and deworming. The diseases prevalent in the study area were swine fever, diarrhea, helminthoses, sarcoptic mange, pneumonia, etc. The litter sizes at birth (local, 4.3 ± 0.45; crossbreed, 7.2 ± 0.33), at weaning (local, 2.79 ± 0.24; crossbreed, 6.1 ± 0.21), and age at first farrowing (local, 365.39 ± 7.96 days; crossbreed, 337.24 ± 8.79 days) were recorded. Production costs of meat extracted from local and crossbred pigs were 1.08 $/kg and 0.86 $/kg, respectively. PMID:23636408

  15. Pseudotachylite Breccia Veins from Dhala Impact Structure, North Central India: Texture, Mineralogy and Geochemical Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, J. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Greshake, A.; Koeberl, C. K.; Pati, P.

    2013-08-01

    This is the first report of pseudotachylitic breccia veins (PTB)in basement granitoids from the Dhala structure, north central India.The host granitoids and PTB show similar REE pattern despite extensive alteration and major element concentration.

  16. Informal rural healthcare providers in North and South India.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs' performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds-more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features. PMID:25012795

  17. Informal rural healthcare providers in North and South India

    PubMed Central

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs’ performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds—more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features. PMID:25012795

  18. Scrub Typhus in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Navneet; Biswal, Manisha; Kumar, Abhay; Zaman, Kamran; Jain, Sanjay; Bhalla, Ashish

    2016-08-01

    Scrub typhus, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, has become endemic in many parts of India. We studied the clinical profile of this infection in 228 patients that reported to this tertiary care center from July 2013 to December 2014. The median age of patients was 35 years (interquartile range = 24.5-48.5 years), and 111 were males and 117 females. A high-grade fever occurred in 85%, breathlessness in 42%, jaundice in 32%, abdominal pain in 28%, renal failure in 11%, diarrhea in 10%, rashes in 9%, and seizures in 7%. Common laboratory abnormalities at presentation were a deranged hepatic function in 61%, anemia in 54%, leukopenia in 15%, and thrombocytopenia in 90% of our patients. Acute kidney injury (32%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (25%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (16%) were the commonest complications. A hepatorenal syndrome was seen in 38% and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in 20% patients. The overall case fatality rate was 13.6%. In univariate analysis, ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis, hypotension requiring inotropic support, central nervous system dysfunction at presentation, and MODS were inversely associated with survival. Survival was significantly higher in patients that presented with a duration of fever < 10 days compared with those that presented ≥ 12 days (P < 0.05) after onset. In conclusion, scrub typhus has become a leading infectious disease in north India and an important cause of infectious fever. An increasing awareness of this disease coupled with prompt management will go a long way in reducing both morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:27296391

  19. Genetic assessment of ornamental fish species from North East India.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-01-25

    Ornamental fishes are traded with multiple names from various parts around the world, including North East India. Most are collected from the wild, due to lack of species-specific culture or breeding, and therefore, such unmanaged collection of the wild and endemic species could lead to severe threats to biodiversity. Despite many regulatory policies, trade of threatened species, including the IUCN listed species have been largely uncontrolled, due to species identification problems arising from the utilization of multiple trade names. So, the development of species-specific DNA marker is indispensable where DNA Barcoding is proved to be helpful in species identification. Here, we investigated, through DNA Barcoding and morphological assessment, the identification of 128 ornamental fish specimens exported from NE India from different exporters. The generated sequences were subjected to similarity match in BOLD-IDS as well as BLASTN, and analysed using MEGA5.2 for species identification through Neighbour-Joining (NJ) clustering, and K2P distance based approach. The analysis revealed straightforward identification of 84 specimens into 35 species, while 44 specimens were difficult to distinguish based on CO1 barcode alone. However, these cases were resolved through morphology, NJ and distanced based method and found to be belonging to 16 species. Among the 51 identified species, 14 species represented multiple trade names; 17 species belonged to threatened category. Species-level identification through DNA Barcoding along with traditional morphotaxonomy reflects its efficacy in regulating ornamental fish trade and therefore, appeals for their conservation in nature. The use of trade names rather than the zoological name created the passage for trafficking of the threatened species and demands immediate attention for sustaining wildlife conservation. PMID:25447914

  20. Spatial patterns in glacier characteristics and area changes from 1962 to 2006 in the Kanchenjunga-Sikkim area, eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racoviteanu, A. E.; Arnaud, Y.; Williams, M. W.; Manley, W. F.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates spatial patterns in glacier characteristics and area changes at decadal scales in the eastern Himalaya - Nepal (Arun and Tamor basins), India (Teesta basin in Sikkim) and parts of China and Bhutan - based on various satellite imagery: Corona KH4 imagery, Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER), QuickBird (QB) and WorldView-2 (WV2). We compare and contrast glacier surface area changes over the period of 1962-2000/2006 and their dependency on glacier topography (elevation, slope, aspect, percent debris cover) and climate (solar radiation, precipitation) on the eastern side of the topographic barrier (Sikkim) versus the western side (Nepal). Glacier mapping from 2000 Landsat ASTER yielded 1463 ± 88 km2 total glacierized area, of which 569 ± 34 km2 was located in Sikkim and 488 ± 29 km2 in eastern Nepal. Supraglacial debris covered 11% of the total glacierized area, and supraglacial lakes covered about 5.8% of the debris-covered glacier area alone. Glacier area loss (1962 to 2000) was 0.50 ± 0.2% yr-1, with little difference between Nepal (0.53 ± 0.2% yr-1) and Sikkim (0.44 ± 0.2% yr-1. Glacier area change was controlled mostly by glacier area, elevation, altitudinal range and, to a smaller extent, slope and aspect. In the Kanchenjunga-Sikkim area, we estimated a glacier area loss of 0.23 ± 0.08% yr-1 from 1962 to 2006 based on high-resolution imagery. On a glacier-by-glacier basis, clean glaciers exhibit more area loss on average from 1962 to 2006 (34%) compared to debris-covered glaciers (22%). Glaciers in this region of the Himalaya are shrinking at similar rates to those reported for the last decades in other parts of the Himalaya, but individual glacier rates of change vary across the study area with respect to local topography, percent debris cover or glacier elevations.

  1. Identifying predictors of childhood anaemia in north-east India.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanku; Goswami, Sankar; Dey, Tanujit

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the occurrence of childhood anaemia in North-East India by exploring dataset of the Reproductive and Child Health-II Survey (RCH-II). The study population consisted of 10,137 children in the age-group of 0-6 year(s) from North-East India to explore the predictors of childhood anaemia by means of different background characteristics, such as place of residence, religion, household standard of living, literacy of mother, total children ever born to a mother, age of mother at marriage. Prevalence of anaemia among children was taken as a polytomous variable. The predicted probabilities of anaemia were established via multinomial logistic regression model. These probabilities provided the degree of assessment of the contribution of predictors in the prevalence of childhood anaemia. The mean haemoglobin concentration in children aged 0-6 year(s) was found to be 11.85 g/dL, with a standard deviation of 5.61 g/dL. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that rural children were at greater risk of severe (OR = 2.035; p = 0.003) and moderate (OR = 1.23; p = 0.003) anaemia. All types of anaemia (severe, moderate, and mild) were more prevalent among Hindu children (OR = 2.971; p = 0.000), (OR = 1.195; p = 0.010), and (OR = 1.201; p = 0.011) than among children of other religions whereas moderate (OR = 1.406; p = 0.001) and mild (OR = 1.857; p=0.000) anaemia were more prevalent among Muslim children. The fecundity of the mother was found to have significant effect on anaemia. Women with multiple children were prone to greater risk of anaemia. The multiple logistic regression analysis also confirmed that children of literate mothers were comparatively at lesser risk of severe anaemia. Mother's age at marriage had a significant effect on anaemia of their children as well. PMID:24592587

  2. Identifying Predictors of Childhood Anaemia in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sankar; Dey, Tanujit

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the occurrence of childhood anaemia in North-East India by exploring dataset of the Reproductive and Child Health-II Survey (RCH-II). The study population consisted of 10,137 children in the age-group of 0-6 year(s) from North-East India to explore the predictors of childhood anaemia by means of different background characteristics, such as place of residence, religion, household standard of living, literacy of mother, total children ever born to a mother, age of mother at marriage. Prevalence of anaemia among children was taken as a polytomous variable. The predicted probabilities of anaemia were established via multinomial logistic regression model. These probabilities provided the degree of assessment of the contribution of predictors in the prevalence of childhood anaemia. The mean haemoglobin concentration in children aged 0-6 year(s) was found to be 11.85 g/dL, with a standard deviation of 5.61 g/dL. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that rural children were at greater risk of severe (OR=2.035; p=0.003) and moderate (OR=1.23; p=0.003) anaemia. All types of anaemia (severe, moderate, and mild) were more prevalent among Hindu children (OR=2.971; p=0.000), (OR=1.195; p=0.010), and (OR=1.201; p=0.011) than among children of other religions whereas moderate (OR=1.406; p=0.001) and mild (OR=1.857; p=0.000) anaemia were more prevalent among Muslim children. The fecundity of the mother was found to have significant effect on anaemia. Women with multiple children were prone to greater risk of anaemia. The multiple logistic regression analysis also confirmed that children of literate mothers were comparatively at lesser risk of severe anaemia. Mother's age at marriage had a significant effect on anaemia of their children as well. PMID:24592587

  3. Leprosy Continues to Occur in Hilly Areas of North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of present study was to describe the profile of leprosy patients attending the outpatient department of dermatology in tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, Uttarakhand, North India. Methodology. This descriptive retrospective study. Patient data at the time of diagnosis were retrieved onto a predesigned proforma, which concerned the following variables at the time of registration: age, sex, and residence. Newly registered outpatients leprosy cases between 2009 and 2014 were included in the study. Results. It was found that 65 were multibacillary leprosy cases. Males constituted 62.8% of all leprosy cases. The majority (83.7%) belonged to the age group of 18–60 years. Of the total 48.8% of the new leprosy cases were from the Pauri district. The leprosy incidence rate in this population was 2.71 per 1000 patients. Conclusion. Leprosy still continues to be a communicable disease of concern. The lower incidence in women and children provokes the need to strengthen contact screening, early case detection, and referral activities in the population to sustain elimination. PMID:26904107

  4. Occupational stress among tunnel workers in Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Pragyan; Gurung, Shoyeta; Pal, Ranabir; Kar, Sumit; Bharati, Dharamvir Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Job stress has been linked to a wide range of adverse effects on mental, physical and organizational health. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of job stress on mental, physical and social health of the underground construction workers in Sikkim. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of tunnel workers and a comparable group of controls. Using the interview technique, data was collected using the SF-36 General Health Survey Questionnaire. Results: The study population comprised of individuals of whom more than half were below 40 years of age and was comparable to the group of controls. Majority reported good health, while poor health was reported by 22 % of the subjects under study Compared to their health status last year, 52% rated their health as somewhat worse. Majority reported that their physical health problems limited them in activities of daily life, viz., running, lifting heavy objects, participation in strenuous sports, climbing several flights of stairs, bending, stooping or kneeling and walking more than a mile, during the past four weeks. More than half of them had severe body ache in the past four weeks that interfered with both work outside home and housework. This was true for emotional problems also, which interfered with their normal social activities involving family, friends, neighbors or groups. The associations of occupational stress with physical, emotional and social life and with limitation of day-to-day activities among tunnel workers were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The results emphasize the importance of assessment of the effects of job stress and of fulfilling the need of underground workers for optimum preventive measures. PMID:21694786

  5. Antenatal care: provision and inequality in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Foss, Mary; Stones, R William

    2004-09-01

    The objectives of this paper are to examine factors associated with use of antenatal care in rural areas of north India, to investigate access to specific critical components of care and to study differences in the pattern of services received via health facilities versus home visits. We used the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey of ever-married women in the reproductive age group and analysed data from the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh (n = 11,369). Overall, about three-fifths of rural women did not receive any antenatal check-up during their last pregnancy. Services actually received were predominantly provision of tetanus toxoid vaccination and supply of iron and folic acid tablets. Only about 13% of pregnant women had their blood pressure checked and a blood test done at least once. Women visited by health workers received fewer services compared to women who visited a health facility. Home visits were biased towards households with a better standard of living. There was significant under-utilisation of nurse/midwives in the provision of antenatal services and doctors were often the lead providers. The average number of antenatal visits reported in this study was 2.4 and most visits were in the second trimester. Higher social and economic status was associated with increased chances of receiving an antenatal check-up, and of receiving specific components including blood pressure measurement, a blood test and urine testing but not the obstetric physical examination, which was however linked to ever-use of family planning and the education of women and their husbands. Thus, pregnant women from poor and uneducated backgrounds with at least one child were the least likely to receive antenatal check-ups and services in the four large north Indian states. Basic antenatal care components are effective means to prevent a range of pregnancy complications and reduce maternal mortality. The findings indicate substantial

  6. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  7. Temporal and spatial variations in erosion rate in the Sikkim Himalaya as a function of climate and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahami, Rachel; Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Carcaillet, Julien

    2014-05-01

    The Tista River is a major tributary of the Brahmaputra drainage system (Eastern Himalaya). Its headwaters are located in the glaciated northernmost parts of the Sikkim and its catchment area amounts to more than 12,000 km2 including a depositional megafan (extending mostly in Bangladesh and West Bengal-India). The Tista has recently incised its megafan at the topographic front of the mountain range by about 30 meters. Neither the timing of deposition/incision of the megafan sediments, nor the erosion rates of the source areas as well as their potential relationships, have been investigated in detail. Comparing these data is essential to distinguish between a climatic and/or tectonic control of the evolution of the Sikkim Himalaya and piedmont. To constrain erosion rates in the hinterland at different temporal scales (respectively millenial and geological timescales), we report cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) and thermochronological (apatite fission-tracks) data on modern river sands. Results were mapped to evidence spatial variations of erosion/exhumation rates in the Tista catchment. Cosmogenic nuclides were also used to date the onset of incision of the megafan and relate it to potential changes in hinterland erosion. In addition, isotope geochemistry (ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr) performed on modern river sands and Late-Quaternary megafan sediments allows characterizing the isotopic signature of the different source areas and constraining variations in provenance of the Tista megafan deposits through time in response to changing climatic conditions. Results show that the Tista fan deposits are mainly sourced from the High Himalayan Crystalline domain with excursions more influenced by the Lesser Himalaya domain. These data provide a new comprehensive view on modern erosion and long-term exhumation of the Sikkim Himalaya. This study of a "closed system" will help our knowledge and understanding of erosional processes and sediment fluxes in mountainous environments as a

  8. Attenuation character of seismic waves in Sikkim Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazarika, Pinki; Kumar, M. Ravi; Kumar, Dinesh

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the seismic wave attenuation beneath Sikkim Himalaya using P, S and coda waves from 68 local earthquakes registered by eight broad-band stations of the SIKKIM network. The attenuation quality factor (Q) depends on frequency as well as lapse time and depth. The value of Q varies from (i) 141 to 639 for P waves, (ii) 143 to 1108 for S waves and (iii) 274 to 1678 for coda waves, at central frequencies of 1.5 Hz and 9 Hz, respectively. The relations that govern the attenuation versus frequency dependence are Qα = (96 ± 0.9) f (0.94 ± 0.01), Qβ = (100 ± 1.4) f (1.16 ± 0.01) and Qc = (189 ± 1.5) f (1.2 ± 0.01) for P, S and coda waves, respectively. The ratio between Qβ and Qα is larger than unity, implying larger attenuation of P compared to S waves. Also, the values of Qc are higher than Qβ. Estimation of the relative contribution of intrinsic (Qi) and scattering (Qs) attenuation reveals that the former mechanism is dominant in Sikkim Himalaya. We note that the estimates of Qc lie in between Qi and Qs and are very close to Qi at lower frequencies. This is in agreement with the theoretical and laboratory experiments. The strong frequency and depth dependence of the attenuation quality factor suggests a highly heterogeneous crust in the Sikkim Himalaya. Also, the high Q values estimated for this region compared to the other segments of Himalaya can be reconciled in terms of moderate seismic activity, unlike rest of the Himalaya, which is seismically more active.

  9. A Tangled Weave: Tracing Outcomes of Education in Rural Women's Lives in North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for…

  10. School and "Madrasah" Education: Gender and the Strategies of Muslim Young Men in Rural North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Craig; Jeffery, Roger; Jeffery, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural and economic strategies of educated but un/under-employed young Muslim men aged between 20 and 34 in a village in western Uttar Pradesh, north India. Drawing on Connell's gender theory, the paper demonstrates how economic and political forces shape Muslim young men's strategies. The paper distinguishes between…

  11. Changes in age at marriage of women in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1992-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in age at marriage for women in a rural area of north India. Age at marriage rose from under 12 years before 1930 to about 19 years in 1988, mainly as a result of socioeconomic development and advances in education of women. PMID:1737808

  12. The Effect of Early Childhood Developmental Program Attendance on Future School Enrollment in Rural North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazarika, Gautam; Viren, Vejoya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of prior participation in early childhood developmental programs, considered endogenous, upon 7-18 years olds' school enrollment in rural North India. Analyses by age group of data from the World Bank's 1997-98 Survey of Living Conditions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar reveal that 7-10 year olds, 11-14 year olds, and…

  13. Educational Research in North-East India: A Source Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Nirmal; Mittal, Pratibha

    The Northeast region of India has a distinct geophysical structure and concomitant socio-economic development. New educational development initiatives for Northeastern states include bridging gaps in basic minimum services, enhancing teachers training facilities, and preparing state specific holistic plans. This annotated bibliography represents…

  14. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII) gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP) in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be confirmed and its

  15. Late Neogene tectonically driven crustal exhumation of the Sikkim Himalaya: Insights from inversion of multithermochronologic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Kyle R.; Coutand, Isabelle; Whipp, David M.; Grujic, Djordje; Hourigan, Jeremy K.

    2016-03-01

    Apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He data are reported for 34 bedrock samples distributed between the foothills and the topographic crest of the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. The pattern of observed cooling ages does not correlate with topography, rainfall distribution, and the deeply incised high-relief Tista window, indicating that tectonic processes are mainly responsible for their spatial distribution. Inversion of this thermochronometric data set using 3-D thermokinematic modeling constrained by independent geological and geophysical observations was performed to evaluate the contribution of slip partitioning, duplex development, and relief growth on the evolution of the thermal structure of the Himalaya during the last 12 Ma. Models involving significant relief growth do not show a substantial influence of topography evolution on the cooling age distribution, while models involving duplex growth demonstrate that tectonic processes exert a dominant influence on their distribution. In concert with equivalent studies in Bhutan, central Nepal, and NW India, our results attest that the lateral variation of the geometry and kinematics of the Himalayan basal décollement locally associated with duplex formation exert a leading influence on lateral variations of middle to upper crustal long-term exhumation rates documented along the strike of the Himalaya.

  16. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous. PMID:24380893

  17. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Shuchismita; Parande, Mahantesh V.; Parande, Aisha M.; Lakkannavar, S.L.; Rathore, Poonam K.; Mantur, B.G.; Kholkute, Sanjiva D.; Roy, Subarna

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian State of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Methods: Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. Results: While 101 people (0.38%) were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94%) were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies. PMID:25366211

  18. Neonatal outcomes at a subdistrict hospital in north India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Paul, V K; Kapoor, S K; Anand, K; Deoraria, A K

    2002-02-01

    Subdistrict hospitals form the first referral level facilities for essential newborn care services. However, there is a paucity of information on the pattern of neonatal admission and outcomes at this level. The objective of this study was to describe the spectrum of neonatal mortality at a subdistrict hospital. The study was conducted at a 50-bed hospital at Ballabgarh in northern India. The data of the neonates born in this hospital (inborns) and those admitted with sickness after being delivered at home (outborns) were separately analysed for the period 1994-1999. The main outcomes of interests were incidence, distribution, and primary causes of neonatal mortality. Of 6746 inborns and 385 outborns admitted (total 7,137) there were 56 deaths (0.8 per cent) and 38 (0.6 per cent) referrals among inborn and 70 deaths (18.2 per cent) and 37 (9.6 per cent) referrals among outborns. The deaths or referral rates among inborn for different weight groups were 27.7 per cent for < 1,500 g, 7.2 per cent for 1500-1999 g, 1.2 per cent for 2,000-2,499 g, and 0.6 per cent for weight > or = 2,500 g. Most deaths under 7 days of age were related to prematurity [41 per cent (28/69)] and birth asphyxia [38 per cent (26/68)], while those aged between 7 and 27 days were mostly due to sepsis [91 per cent (42/46)]. The results of this study indicate that babies with a birthweight above 1,500 g have a good outcome at this level. Deaths under 7 days of age were mostly due to birth asphyxia and prematurity, while those after 7 days were almost entirely due to sepsis. Referral is an important outcome at this level of service. PMID:11866336

  19. Teacher Education in Northeast India--Status, Weaknesses and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Northeast India comprises of a cluster of eight states--Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. The region is usually stereotyped as underdeveloped. Geographically, the region is surrounded by international border with part of Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Prevalence of insurgency and…

  20. An evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Supratim; Sengupta, Shramana

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Spontaneous voluntary adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting is paramount to the success of the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India. There has however been minimal and sporadic voluntary reporting of ADR's at the ADR Monitoring Centre (AMC) Gangtok, Sikkim. Knowledge, perception, attitude, and awareness of health professionals are determinants of reporting practices. This questionnaire study aims at evaluating these indicators in the teaching hospital attached to the Medical Institute and find out methods to improve existing reporting practices. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based observational study carried out in the Medical, Surgical and Pathology Departments of the Teaching Hospital, Gangtok, Sikkim over a period of 2 months. The questionnaires were filled by the respondents and returned back to us within the next 24 h. Data obtained from filled questionnaires were thereby analyzed. Results: The overall correct response rate to the knowledge-based questions was 56.3%. While 97% of respondents were of the view that ADR reporting was necessary, 35% of the respondents felt that the difficulty in deciding the causality of an ADR discouraged them from reporting. 79% of the respondents were not aware of the presence of an AMC affiliated to the hospital, and 87% of the respondents admitted that they were not sending filled ADR forms to the AMC. Conclusions: The study indicates that the respondents have an average knowledge and positive attitude toward ADR reporting and pharmacovigilance. There is however a lack of awareness and poor ADR reporting practices. Efforts are required to enhance awareness and attitude toward pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting. PMID:26623391

  1. Tonal hierarchies in the music of north India.

    PubMed

    Castellano, M A; Bharucha, J J; Krumhansl, C L

    1984-09-01

    Cross-culturally, most music is tonal in the sense that one particular tone, called the tonic, provides a focus around which the other tones are organized. The specific organizational structures around the tonic show considerable diversity. Previous studies of the perceptual response to Western tonal music have shown that listeners familiar with this musical tradition have internalized a great deal about its underlying organization. Krumhansl and Shepard (1979) developed a probe tone method for quantifying the perceived hierarchy of stability of tones. When applied to Western tonal contexts, the measured hierarchies were found to be consistent with music-theoretic accounts. In the present study, the probe tone method was used to quantify the perceived hierarchy of tones of North Indian music. Indian music is tonal and has many features in common with Western music. One of the most significant differences is that the primary means of expressing tonality in Indian music is through melody, whereas in Western music it is through harmony (the use of chords). Indian music is based on a standard set of melodic forms (called rags), which are themselves built on a large set of scales (thats). The tones within a rag are thought to be organized in a hierarchy of importance. Probe tone ratings were given by Indian and Western listeners in the context of 10 North Indian rags. These ratings confirmed the predicted hierarchical ordering. Both groups of listeners gave the highest ratings to the tonic and the fifth degree of the scale. These tones are considered by Indian music theorists to be structurally significant, as they are immovable tones around which the scale system is constructed, and they are sounded continuously in the drone. Relatively high ratings were also given to the vadi tone, which is designated for each rag and is given emphasis in the melody. The ratings of both groups of listeners generally reflected the pattern of tone durations in the musical contexts. This

  2. Gender inequality and the risk of HIV among married couples in North India.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Shelah S; Agrawal, Alpna; Singh, Kaushalendra K; Suchindran, Chirayath M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution and determinants of HIV risks among married couples in North India. Gender inequality emerged as a potential driver of HIV risks in this region. Data collection took place in 2003 in a probability survey of 3385 couples living in India's most populous state - Uttar Pradesh - and Uttaranchal. Couples' analyses utilizing generalized estimating equations showed that compared with husbands, wives were less knowledgeable about HIV (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.27-0.36), more likely to consider themselves at risk for infection (OR = 6.86, 95% CI = 4.65-10.13), and less likely to feel that a wife had the right to refuse sex with her husband (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.44-0.58). The proportion of husbands reporting non-marital sex in the past year was 7.1% and transactional sex in the past year, 2.2%. Among their wives, 73.4% were unaware of their husbands' non-marital sexual behaviors and only 28.9% of husbands reported condom use during their last non-marital sexual encounter. Logistic regression analyses showed that husbands' alcohol use, husbands' mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with husbands' non-marital sexual behaviors adjusting for other covariates. The data demonstrate that HIV prevention programs among couples in North India should consider both sexual risks and gender inequalities which potentially fuel HIV spread in this region. PMID:25562412

  3. White grain mycetoma caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in North India: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Munesh Kumar; Banerjee, Tuhina; Kumar, Dhirendra; Rastogi, Amit; Tilak, Ragini

    2013-12-01

    Mycetoma is chronic granulomatous infection of skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by both bacteria and fungi. We report a case of mycetoma caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in the right foot of a 45-year-old farmer in north India. The patient had a history of trauma in the sole of the right foot followed by discharge of white granules along with proximal progression. Scedosporium apiospermum was identified based on colony characteristics and microscopic features on slide culture. Mycetoma is a progressive disease. Foot is commonly affected in persons who walk barefoot, especially in south India. Untreated mycetoma progress and involve the underlying fasciae and tissues along with bones often resulting in loss of limb. By prompt and reliable diagnosis with corresponding antimicrobial administration, we can prevent further progression and limb disability. PMID:24356247

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients in North India.

    PubMed

    Gehlot, Valentina; Mahant, Shweta; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Das, Kunal; De, Ronita; Kar, Premashis; Das, Rajashree

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal diseases are very common in India. Antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics against H. pylori is increasing very rapidly. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of H. pylori strains from India against commonly used antibiotics in H. pylori treatment. Helicobacter pylori were cultured from 68 patients suffering from various gastroduodenal diseases in North India. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to different antibiotics were determined by agar dilution. The clinical diagnosis of the 68 patients who were H. pylori culture-positive were gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (n=23), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (n=22), non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (n=13), antral gastritis (n=3), duodenal ulcer (n=2) and others (n=5). Of the 68 H. pylori isolates, 20 (29.4%) showed no resistance. The prevalence of drug resistance was 70.6%, including resistance to metronidazole (48.5%), furazolidone (22.1%), amoxicillin (17.6%), tetracycline (16.2%) and clarithromycin (11.8%). Dual and multiple drug resistance were found in 26.5% and 8.8% of cases, respectively. In conclusion, more than two-thirds of the isolated H. pylori strains showed resistance to at least one of the antibiotics for H. pylori treatment. Metronidazole resistance was most prevalent amongst the isolates tested. Emergence of dual and multidrug resistance is of great concern and there is an urgent need for regular antibiotic resistance surveillance studies. Amoxicillin- and clarithromycin-based anti-H. pylori regimens commonly prescribed for triple therapy in India show least resistance and hence are appropriate for anti-H. pylori management in India. PMID:27436467

  5. Genetic diversity within ITS-1 region of Eimeria species infecting chickens of north India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Sunil; Mandal, M

    2015-12-01

    Coccidiosis, caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria, inflicts severe economic losses to the poultry industry around the globe. In the present study, ITS-1 based species specific nested PCR revealed prevalence of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. praecox, E. necatrix and E. tenella in 79.2%, 12.5%, 64.6%, 89.6%, 60.4%, 64.6% and 97.9% poultry farms of north India, respectively. The ITS-1 sequences of different Eimeria spp. from north India were generated and analyzed to establish their phylogenetic relationship. The sequence identity with available sequences ranged from 80 to 100% in E. tenella, 95 to 100% in E. acervulina, 64 to 97% in E. necatrix, 96 to 99% in E. brunetti and 97 to 98% in E. mitis. Only long ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima could be generated in the present study and it had 80-100% identity with published sequences. Two out of the four ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima had mismatches in the published nested primer sequences from Australia, while one sequence of E. necatrix had a mismatch near 3' end of both forward and reverse published nested primer sequences, warranting for the need of designing new set of degenerate primers for these two species of Eimeria. In the phylogenetic tree, all isolates of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. mitis, E. tenella and E. necatrix clustered in separate clades with high bootstrap value. E. maxima sequences of north Indian isolates grouped in a long form of E. maxima clade. Complete ITS-1 sequences of E. necatrix and E. mitis are reported for the first time from India. Further studies are required with more number of isolates to verify whether these differences are unique to geographical locations. PMID:26423669

  6. Aerosol Radiative Forcing over North India during Pre-Monsoon Season using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A.; Kumar, K.; Michael, M.; Tripathi, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    Study of aerosols is important for a fair understanding of the Earth climate system. This requires knowledge of the physical, chemical, optical, and morphological properties of aerosols. Aerosol radiative forcing provides information on the effect of aerosols on the Earth radiation budget. Radiative forcing estimates using model data provide an opportunity to examine the contribution of individual aerosol species to overall radiative forcing. We have used Weather Research and Forecast with Online Chemistry (WRF-Chem) derived aerosol concentration data to compute aerosol radiative forcing over north India during pre-monsoon season of 2008, 2009, and 2010. WRF-Chem derived mass concentrations are converted to number concentrations using standard procedure. Optical Properties of Aerosol and Cloud (OPAC) software package is used to compute extinction and scattering coefficients, and asymmetry parameter. Computations are performed at different altitudes and the obtained values are integrated to get the column optical properties. Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model is used to calculate the radiative forcing at surface and top-of-atmosphere. Higher values of aerosol radiative forcing are observed over desert region in western Indian state of Rajasthan, and Punjab of Pakistan. Contribution of individual aerosol species to atmospheric radiative forcing is also assessed. Dust radiative forcing is high over western India. Radiative forcing due to BC and water-soluble (WASO) aerosols are higher over north-west Indian states of Punjab and Haryana, and the Indo-Gangetic Basin. A pool of high WASO optical depth and radiative forcing is observed over the Indo-Bangladesh border. The findings of aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing are consistent with the geography and prevailing aerosol climatology of various regions. Heating rate profiles due to total aerosols and only due to BC have been evaluated at selected stations in north India. They show

  7. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in Saraswat Brahmin Community of North India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bhuvnesh; Raina, Anupuma; Dogra, Tirath Das

    2011-06-01

    In this study, 17 Y-specific STR loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y_GATA_H4) were analyzed in 181 unrelated male individuals from three North Indian states. A total of 157 different 17-loci haplotypes were identified, 145 of which were unique. The most frequent haplotype was detected in nine instances, occurring with a frequency of 4.97%. These results, including the haplotype data at 17 Y-STR loci in the present study, provide useful information for forensic practice in the Saraswat Brahmin population in North India. PMID:20971692

  8. Unprecedented hailstorms over north peninsular India during February-March 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, J. R.; Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Padmakumari, B.; Sunitha Devi, S.; Rajeevan, M.

    2015-04-01

    Unprecedented, widespread, and devastating hailstorms occurred during February and March 2014 over north peninsular India (study area). A diagnostic study has been carried out to understand the causes for the same. Over the study area the atmosphere was convectively unstable due to the incursion of warm and moist air from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea which was overlaid by cold and dry midlatitude westerlies caused due to the unusual upper oceanic heat content of the Pacific Ocean. At the surface and lower levels, anticyclonic flow over the central India produced easterly winds and cyclonic circulation over Arabian Sea at 850 hPa level produced westerly winds over the peninsular India. Meeting of these winds caused convergence of moist air in the lower levels. The troughs in the upper level westerlies provided the divergence in the upper levels. As a consequence of this convergence/divergence structure, synoptic-scale slow rising motion occurred over the study region. This released the convective instability to cause deep and wide convection with cloud bases at ~1500 m above mean sea level and tops well above the freezing level. Release of latent heat of deposition of water vapor provided extra buoyancy and produced strong updrafts causing explosive growth of the clouds reaching to very high levels and formation of large hails in the clouds. This atmospheric setup was a result of combined effect of planetary and synoptic forcings which persisted for ~3 weeks.

  9. Fertility and mortality differentials among selected tribal population groups of north-western and eastern India.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, A K; Kshatriya, G K

    2000-04-01

    Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for six tribal groups inhabiting different geo-climatic conditions, namely: Sahariya, Mina and Bhil of the State of Rajasthan, north-western India, and Munda, Santal and Lodha of the State of West Bengal, eastern India. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among Lodhas (0.668), followed by Sahariyas (0.524), Santals (0.462), Bhils (0.386), Mundas (0.353) and Minas (0.334). Incidentally, Lodha and Sahariya are two of the seventy-four notified primitive tribal groups of India, and these two study populations show the highest index of total selection, mainly because of a higher embryonic and postnatal mortality. The relative contribution of the fertility component to the index of total selection is higher than the corresponding mortality component in all tribal groups. The analysis of postnatal mortality components indicates that childhood mortality constitutes the bulk of postnatal mortality, suggesting that children under 5 years need better health care in these tribal groups. PMID:10765614

  10. Role of Libraries in Disaster Management: Experience from North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satpathy, K. C.

    2007-10-01

    India is a large country and prone to a number of natural hazards. Among all the natural hazards that that country faces, river floods are the most frequent and devastating. A shortfall in rainfall causes droughts or drought-like situations in various parts of the country. The country has suffered some severe earthquakes causing widespread damage to life and property. India has a coastline of about 8000 km which is prone to very severe cyclonic formations in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Another major problem faced by the country takes the form of landslides and avalanches. All the major disasters directly or indirectly affect libraries. With an increasing interest in spreading a culture of prevention in the field of disaster management, considerable emphasis is now being placed on research and development activities in the area of information technology for disaster preparedness and prevention. This has brought a significant positive change even through the number and frequency of disasters in this country has increased. The library can play a significant role in spreading awareness of disaster management. Keeping the above facts in mind the author describes a disaster and the role of Information technology in reducing its impact. The paper also describes the role of libraries in the management of the disaster. The author shares his personal experience of how North East India deals with disaster management. Finally, the future vision of disaster management is outlined.

  11. Disjunctive Grade Variation from Greenschist to Granulite Facies, Siyom Valley, Eastern Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, G. L.; Bhowmik, S. K.; Aitchison, J. C.; Ireland, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Siyom Valley section in eastern Arunachal Pradesh exposes an inverted metamorphic succession (Nandini & Thakur, 2011), metapelitic assemblages increasing in grade northwards from chlorite, through biotite, garnet-staurolite and kyanite-bearing schist to kyanite-sillimanite migmatite. Grade changes are mostly controlled by shallowly north, and northwest-dipping fault structures. Two textural stages of garnet growth can be identified in the ilmenite-bearing amphibolite facies rocks, staurolite having formed late in, or after, deformation responsible for the main penetrative foliation (S2). Kyanite and rutile inclusions in garnet indicate that their growth in migmatite preceded that of matrix sillimanite, ilmenite and cordierite, though unrecrystallized kyanite is also common in the feldspathic matrix. Preliminary data indicate the pronounced tectonic thinning of metasedimentary protoliths during exhumation, and the probability of a pronounced step in grade in the middle part of the river section. Similarities with sections in the Sikkim (Dasgupta et al., 2004) and western Arunachal Pradesh (Goswami et al., 2009) Himalaya reflect the lateral continuity of the south-vergent thrusts that controlled the exhumation of the high-grade rocks, with debate concerning the location and significance of the Main Central Thrust zone begging protolith and metamorphic age data. Dasgupta, S.,Ganguly, J. & Neogi, S., 2004. Inverted metamorphic sequence in the Sikkim Himalayas: crystallization history, P-T gradient and implications. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 22, 395-412. Goswami, S., Bhowmik, S.K. & Dasgupta, S., 2009. Petrology of a non-classical Barrovian inverted metamorphic sequence from the western Arunachal Himalaya, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36, 390-406. Nandini, P. & Thakur, S.S., 2011. Metamorphic evolution of the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence, Siyom Valley, NE Himalaya, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 40, 1089-1100

  12. Morphological and morphometric features of scaphoid bone in north eastern population, India.

    PubMed

    Purushothama, C; Sarda, R K; Konuri, A; Tamang, B K; Gupta, C; Murlimanju, B V

    2011-03-01

    A study was performed to analyse the morphometry and morphological variants of adult scaphoid bone in Sikkimese population of North Eastern India. The study included 100 dry human scaphoid bones. The bones which had previous signs of fracture were excluded. The morphometric parameters were measured with vernier caliper of 0.02 mm accuracy; the circumferences were measured by placing a thread around them and measuring its length. A magnifying lens was used to observe the number of foramina. From our observations, 22 (44%) of the left scaphoid were having conical shape and 28 (56%) were pyramidal in shape. On the right side, 36 (72%) had conical shape and 14 (28%) were pyramidal. All the bones had waist, except one right sided scaphoid (2%) in which the waist was absent. The scaphoid had main dorsal sulcus in 63% of cases, 29% had two dorsal sulci and 6% had Y shaped sulci. The dorsal sulcus was absent in 3 cases (1 on left side and 2 on the right side). All the scaphoids had a minimum of one foramen in the main dorsal sulcus and 92% had more than one foramen. The present study has provided the additional information on morphology and morphometry of adult human scaphoid bones in north eastern population, India. We believe that the data obtained from the present study are important for the hand surgeons and radiologists. The details obtained will also be helpful for the morphologists and clinical anatomists. PMID:21991695

  13. Gender bias in cardiovascular healthcare of a tertiary care centre of North India

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Shibba Takkar; Masson, Sarbjit; Kaur, Tripat; Gupta, Rajiv; Sharma, Sarit; Goyal, Abishek; Singh, Bhupinder; Tandon, Rohit; Aslam, Naved; Mohan, Bishav; Wander, Gurpreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the gender bias in paediatric patients referred for free cardiac treatment as part of School Health Programme at a tertiary care centre in North India. Methods A total of 537 children were referred for further management of congenital heart disease or rheumatic heart disease. Of these, 519 underwent cardiac intervention, and the data from their records were analysed retrospectively to determine any gender disparity in the utilisation of cardiac surgery. Results Of the 519 children studied, only 195 (37.6%) were girls, while the remaining 324 (62.4%) were boys (male-to-female ratio of 1.66:1, p<0.0001), indicating a large gender divide. Gender bias was found to be prevalent across all the age groups irrespective of the type of cardiac ailment. Moreover, no statistically significant difference was found between the urban and rural populations (male-to-female ratio of 1.64:1 in rural and 1.71:1 in urban populations; p=0.823) in terms of gender disparity. Conclusions Significant gender discrepancies exist in healthcare-seeking behaviour of patients in North India despite the provision of free cardiac treatment. An equal prevalence of gender bias in urban and rural communities points towards deep-rooted social norms beyond just the economic constraints. Healthcare policies ensuring equal treatment of male and female children should be promulgated to ensure a complete eradication of this social evil. PMID:27326231

  14. Economic analysis of risk of gastrointestinal parasitic infection in cattle in North Eastern States of India.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Mandal, S; Datta, K K; Devi, P; De, S; Bera, A K; Bhattacharya, D

    2010-10-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in the North Eastern States (NEH) of India and accounted for significant economic losses across various livestock species. Productivity of cattle in terms of milk yield was estimated to be considerably higher (3,715, 3,590, and 3,154 L) due to strategic anthelmintic treatment as compare to control group (2,928 L). Based on the probability of occurrence of parasitic infection as well as increase in value of milk production, the possible economic gain at state level has been estimated to be Rs. 46 million, Rs. 35 million, and Rs. 14 million, depending upon the different strategic treatment. The government may take up the program to educate the cattle farmers on strategic management against parasitic infection and simultaneously making available various anthelmintic medicines. This public responsibility of the government to minimize the risk and economic loss due to gastrointestinal parasite infection may reduce the private cost and thereby would increase the social benefits in North Eastern states of India. PMID:20411327

  15. e-Agriculture Prototype for Knowledge Facilitation among Tribal Farmers of North-East India: Innovations, Impact and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This case study deals with the implementation methodology, innovations and lessons of the ICT initiative in providing agricultural extension services to the rural tribal farming community of North-East India. Methodology: This study documents the ICT project implementation challenges, impact among farmers and briefly indicates lessons of…

  16. Sero-Epidemiological Survey of Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Kashmir, North India

    PubMed Central

    Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Khan, Asiya; Thokar, Manzoor Ahmad; Malik, Ajaz Ahmad; Fazili, Anjum; Dar, Rayees Ahmad; Sharma, Monika; Malla, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis is a human and animal health problem in many endemic areas worldwide. There are numerous reports and hospital-based studies from Kashmir, North India, yet there has been no epidemiological study conducted in Kashmir, the apparently endemic area for human hydatidosis. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of hydatid infection in Kashmir Valley and to find out association of risk factors for acquisition of this infection. Methodology Fourteen hundred and twenty-nine samples were collected from different districts in the Kashmir region (North India) using systematic random sampling. The 130 control samples included were from apparently healthy blood donors (100), patients with other parasitic infections (20), surgically confirmed hydatidosis patients (5), and apparently healthy subjects excluded for hydatidosis and intestinal parasitic infections (5). Hydatid-specific IgG antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and seropositive samples were analysed further by Western blotting. Results Out of 1,429 samples, 72 (5.03%) were IgG positive by ELISA. The percentage occurrence of the highly immunoreactive antigenic fractions in IgG ELISA positive samples was 57 kDa (72.2%) followed by 70 kDa (66.7%) and 39kDa (58.3%) by immunoblotting. Samples with other parasitic infections were reactive with the cluster of 54-59 kDa antigenic fractions. Age <15 years, male gender, contact with dog, and rural residence were the most significant factors associated with the seropositivity. Conclusion The study revealed that 72 (5.03%) out of 1,429 subjects asymptomatic for hydatidosis were seropositve to E.granulosus antigen by ELISA. Western blot analysis of 72 ELISA seropositive samples showed that 66.7% and 58.3% of samples were immunoreactive with 70 and 39kDa specific antigenic fractions, respectively. The seropositivity was significantly higher (5.79%) in the younger age group (<15 years) as compared to the 16-55 years (4

  17. 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake engineering seismoscope recordings and Eastern North America ground-motion attenuation relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.H.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering seismoscope data collected at distances less than 300 km for the M 7.7 Bhuj, India, mainshock are compatible with ground-motion attenuation in eastern North America (ENA). The mainshock ground-motion data have been corrected to a common geological site condition using the factors of Joyner and Boore (2000) and a classification scheme of Quaternary or Tertiary sediments or rock. We then compare these data to ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. Despite uncertainties in recording method, geological site corrections, common tectonic setting, and the amount of regional seismic attenuation, the corrected Bhuj dataset agrees with the collective predictions by ENA ground-motion attenuation relations within a factor of 2. This level of agreement is within the dataset uncertainties and the normal variance for recorded earthquake ground motions.

  18. Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of CTC black tea of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Baruah, Binoti Devi; Bordoloi, Cinmoy; Gogoi, Ramen; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2013-12-15

    Sixty black tea samples from different agro climatic zones of northeast India were assessed for biochemical constituents that determine quality and also influence organoleptic perception. The antioxidant activities such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, nitrite scavenging and super oxide scavenging, of the collected samples were analysed. Out of the four antioxidant activities, the super oxide scavenging activity was lowest and nitrite scavenging activity was highest. Theaflavin was significantly and positively correlated with nitrite scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. Thearubigins showed a significant positive correlation only with nitrite scavenging activity. Correlations between relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) and TF, TR and tasters' quality were positive and significant. Tea tasters' parameters were significantly and positively correlated with each other. Principal component analysis showed that Upper Assam, North Bank and South Bank produced better quality tea than other regions with respect to TF, TR, RACI and tasters' quality. PMID:23993544

  19. Adult non Hodgkin's lymphoma patients: experience from a tertiary care cancer centre in north east India.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Munlima; Iqbal, Asif; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Bhuyan, Chidananda; Saikia, Bhargab Jyoti; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Das, Rashmi; Nandy, Pintu; Kataki, Amal Chandra

    2015-01-01

    There is paucity of data on non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) from our population in North-East India. In this retrospective study, patients were consecutively followed-up to see the clinic-pathological pattern of NHL, various responses, and pattern of relapses to first line treatment with chemotherapy. All patients in the present study received standard regimen of cyclophosphamde, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone (CHOP) with or without rituximab (R-CHOP) as per our institutional protocol as first line therapy. Our study has shown that, in our adult population, the majority of NHL cases present with stage II and stage III disease and extra nodal involvement, B-cell lymphomas and diffuse large cell lymphomas being the most common subtypes. International prognostic index was a significant factor for varied responses to treatment. The majority of relapses after complete remission occurred in the first year. PMID:25854376

  20. Molecular and morphological diversity in locally grown non-commercial (heirloom) mango varieties of North India.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anju; Muthukumar, M; Ahmad, Israr; Ravishankar, K V; Parthasarthy, V A; Sthapit, Bhuwon; Rao, Ramanatha; Verma, J P; Rajan, S

    2016-03-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) has been cultivated and conserved in different agro-ecologies including Malihabad region in northern part of India, that is well known for housing diverse types (heirloom and commercial varieties). In the present study, 37 mango types comprising of 27 heirloom varieties from Malihabad region and 10 commercial varieties grown in North and Eastern India were assessed for morphological attributes and molecular diversity. The employed SSR markers amplified 2-13 alleles individually, cumulatively amplifying 124 alleles. These were studied for allelic diversity and genetic dissimilarity ranged from 0.035 to 0.892 arranging the varieties in three major clusters. The results revealed that majority of unique heirloom mangoes from Malihabad were different from the eastern part of the country. It is interesting to note Dashehari, a commercial variety from Malihabad was not aligned with heirloom varieties. Commercial varieties like Gulabkhas and Langra were placed in a separate group including Bombay Green, Himsagar, Dashehari, etc., indicating their dissimilarity with heirloom varieties at molecular level and thus, indicating importance for later from conservation point of view. Furthermore, the hierarchical clustering of varieties based on fruit morphology, assembled these into four groups largely influenced by fruit size. The maximum agreement subtree indicated seemingly good fit as thirteen varieties were arrayed in common grouping pattern. Appreciable dissimilarity among the heirloom varieties demonstrated by molecular analysis, underlines the importance for their on-farm conservation. PMID:27097441

  1. Explanatory models in patients with first episode depression: a study from north India.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Kumar, Vineet; Chakrabarti, Subho; Hollikatti, Prabhakar; Singh, Pritpal; Tyagi, Shikha; Kulhara, Parmanand; Avasthi, Ajit

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the explanatory models of patients with first episode depression presenting to a tertiary care hospital located in North-western India. One hundred sixty four consecutive patients with diagnosis of first episode depression (except severe depression with psychotic symptoms) according to the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10) and ≥18 years of age were evaluated for their explanatory models using the causal models section of Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). The most common explanations given were categorized into Karma-deed-heredity category (77.4%), followed by psychological explanations (62.2%), weakness (50%) and social causes (40.2%). Among the various specific causes the commonly reported explanations by at least one-fourth of the sample in decreasing order were: will of god (51.2%), fate/chance (40.9%), weakness of nerves (37.8%), general weakness (34.7%), bad deeds (26.2%), evil eye (24.4%) and family problems (21.9%). There was some influence of sociodemographic features on the explanations given by the patients. From the study, it can be concluded that patients with first episode depression have multiple explanatory models for their symptoms of depression which are slightly different than those reported in previous studies done from other parts of India. Understanding the multiple explanatory models for their symptoms of depression can have important treatment implications. PMID:22981054

  2. Spatial Correlations of Malaria Incidence Hotspots with Environmental Factors in Assam, North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handique, Bijoy K.; Khan, Siraj A.; Dutta, Prafulla; Nath, Manash J.; Qadir, Abdul; Raju, P. L. N.

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is endemic and a major public health problem in north east (NE) region of India and contributes about 8-12 % of India's malaria positives cases. Historical morbidity pattern of malaria in terms of API (Annual Parasite Incidence) in the state of Assam has been used for delineating the malaria incidence hotspots at health sub centre (HSC) level. Strong spatial autocorrelation (p < 0.01) among the HSCs have been observed in terms of API (Annual Parasite Incidence). Malaria incidence hot spots in the state could be identified based on General G statistics and tested for statistical significance. Spatial correlation of malaria incidence hotspots with physiographic and climatic parameters across 6 agro-climatic zones of the state reveals the types of land cover pattern and the range of elevation contributing to the malaria outbreaks. Analysis shows that villages under malaria hotspots are having more agricultural land, evergreen/semi-evergreen forests with abundant waterbodies. Statistical and spatial analyses of malaria incidence showed a significant positive correlation with malaria incidence hotspots and the elevation (p < 0.05) with villages under malaria hotspots are having average elevation ranging between 17 to 240 MSL. This conforms to the characteristics of two dominant mosquito species in the state Anopheles minimus and An. baimai that prefers the habitat of slow flowing streams in the foot hills and in forest ecosystems respectively.

  3. Comparison of Archean and Phanerozoic granulites: Southern India and North American Appalachians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Kittleson, Roger C.

    1988-01-01

    Archean granulites at the southern end of the Dharwar craton of India and Phanerozoic granulites in the southern Appalachians of North America share an important characteristic: both show continuous transitions from amphibolite facies rocks to higher grade. This property is highly unusual for granulite terranes, which commonly are bounded by major shears or thrusts. These two terranes thus offer an ideal opportunity to compare petrogenetic models for deep crustal rocks formed in different time periods, which conventional wisdom suggests may have had different thermal profiles. The salient features of the Archean amphibolite-to-granulite transition in southern India have been recently summarized. The observed metamorphic progression reflects increasing temperature and pressure. Conditions for the Phanerozoic amphibolite-to-granulite transition in the southern Appalachians were documented. The following sequence of prograde reactions was observed: kyanite = sillimanite, muscovite = sillimanite + K-feldspar, partial melting of pelites, and hornblende = orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + garnet. The mineral compositions of low-variance assemblages in mafic and intermediate rocks are almost identical for the two granulite facies assemblages. In light of their different fluid regimes and possible mechanisms for heat flow augmentation, it seems surprising that these Archean and Phanerozoic granulite terranes were apparently metamorphosed under such similar conditions of pressure and temperature. Comparison with other terrains containing continuous amphibolite-to-granulite facies transitions will be necessary before this problem can be addressed.

  4. Gender inequality and the risk of HIV among married couples in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Shelah S.; Agrawal, Alpna; Singh, Kaushalendra K.; Suchindran, Chirayath M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution and determinants of HIV risks among married couples in North India. Gender inequality emerged as a potential driver of HIV risks in this region. Data collection took place in 2003 in a probability survey of 3,385 couples living in India’s most populous state – Uttar Pradesh – and Uttaranchal. Couples’ analyses utilizing generalized estimating equations showed that compared with husbands, wives were less knowledgeable about HIV (OR=0.31, 95% CI= 0.27–0.36), more likely to consider themselves at risk for infection (OR=6.86, 95% CI= 4.65–10.13), and less likely to feel that a wife had the right to refuse sex with her husband (OR=0.50, 95% CI= 0.44–0.58). The proportion of husbands reporting non-marital sex in the past year was 7.1% and transactional sex in the past year, 2.2%. Among their wives, 73.4% were unaware of their husbands’ non-marital sexual behaviors and only 28.9% of husbands reported condom use during their last non-marital sexual encounter. Logistic regression analyses showed that husbands’ alcohol use, husbands’ mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with husbands’ non-marital sexual behaviors adjusting for other covariates. The data demonstrate that HIV prevention programs among couples in North India should consider both sexual risks and gender inequalities which potentially fuel HIV spread in this region. PMID:25562412

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder and alternative medicine therapies among dentists of North India: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Mathur, Amit; Patil, Gaurav I.; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Jain, Ankita; Jaggi, Namita; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Garg, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Health professionals especially the dental professional are the frequent targets of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) can be of some help in managing these MSD especially in. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CAM therapies as a treatment modality for MSD management among dental professionals of north India. Materials and Methods: Registered dentist of North Indian origin, India (n = 3598) were included in the study. The questionnaire was sent to all the dentists which consisted of the demographic profile, MSD in the past year, CAM therapies utilization and opinion about CAM therapies. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21 and data were presented in tabular and graphic form. Test of significance was done using chi-square statistics with P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: A response rate of 80% (n = 2879) was obtained, and all complained of MDS in some or the other part of their life. The use of CAM was reported among 70% (n = 2015) of the dentist who suffered from MSD. Other dentists either used conventional treatment or did not use anything. Conclusion: As the name implies, alternative medical systems is a category that extends beyond a single modality and refers to an entire system of theory and practice that developed separately from conventional medicine. CAM should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that work are systematically distinguished from those that do not. In addition, the use of CAM treatments should be based on evidence of effectiveness and safety as demonstrated in randomized clinical trials. PMID:26692749

  6. Study of Support Services for Children with Special Needs in the State of Sikkim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the status of integrated education for children with special needs in the State of Sikkim, to study the various support services required for children with special needs for their successful completion of primary education, to ascertain the academic support provided to children with special needs in the…

  7. Determination of Causative fault for 2011 Sikkim-Nepal border earthquake using GPS baseline observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, S. K.; Pradhan, R.; Kumar, A.; Chopra, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 6.9 Sikkim earthquake occurred on Sikkim-Nepal border at 12:40:48 UTC (epicenter 27.72°N, 88.06°E, depth 20.7 km. ~68 km NW of the Capital city Gangtok) on September 18th 2011. The recent earthquake that struck in Sikkim Himalaya is the strongest earthquake since the instrumentally recorded history. As a result, it is a good opportunity to study the earthquake. The fault plane solution of the earthquake indicates a strike-slip fault motion on either NE-SW or NW-SE nodal plane. The seismological and geological studies so far carried out after Sikkim earthquake could not confirm the causative fault plane. In present study GPS observation are used to ascertain the role of tectonics structure in the generation of the earthquake and its correlation with the seismicity of the region. The coseismic displacements recorded by GPS show maximal displacement of about 1 cm at Tapeljung, near the epicenter. We employ a simple rigid cross fault model with GPS baseline observations to figure out the causative source fault and seismological behavior of the earthquake. It has been observed that the movement represents of the kinematic adjustment of the subsidiary fault as a result of the displacement along the principal fault. In addition, a significant part of the measured deformation across the surface fault zone for this earthquake can be attributed to postseismic creep.

  8. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  9. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  10. Coda Q Attenuation and Source Parameters Analysis in North East India Using Local Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, W. K.; Earthquake Seismology

    2010-12-01

    and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) : Qc= 301 f 0.87, Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc=126 fo 0.85. It indicates Northeastern India is seismically active but comparing of all zones in the study region the Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc= 126 f 0.85 is seismically most active. Where as the Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) are less active and out of three the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ)is intermediate active. This study may be useful for the seismic hazard assessment. The estimated seismic moments (Mo), range from 5.98×1020 to 3.88×1023 dyne-cm. The source radii(r) are confined between 152 to 1750 meter, the stress drop ranges between 0.0003×103 bar to 1.04×103 bar, the average radiant energy is 82.57×1018 ergs and the strain drop for the earthquake ranges from 0.00602×10-9 to 2.48×10-9 respectively. The estimated stress drop values for NE India depicts scattered nature of the larger seismic moment value whereas, they show a more systematic nature for smaller seismic moment values. The estimated source parameters are in agreement to previous works in this type of tectonic set up. Key words: Coda wave, Seismic source parameters, Lapse time, single back scattering model, Brune's model, Stress drop and North East India.

  11. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Narwade, Sujit; Kalra, Mohit; Jagdish, Rajkumar; Varier, Divya; Satpute, Sagar; Khan, Noor; Talukdar, Gautam; Mathur, V. B.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Pundir, Dinesh Singh; Chavan, Vishwas; Sood, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven states of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS). The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula. PMID:22207820

  12. Identification of new cytotypes of Valeriana jatamansi Jones, 1970 (Valerianaceae) from North-Western Himalayan region of India.

    PubMed

    Rani, Savita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Kapila, Rakesh; Chahota, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Valeriana jatamansi, a medicinally important species of the family Valerianaceae, has been cytologically studied in different geographical areas of North-Western Himalayan region of India. The tetraploid cytotype with chromosome numbers 2n=32 is in conformity with the earlier reports of the species from different parts of the world. An octoploid cytotype (2n=64) makes a new addition for the species on a worldwide basis, whereas the diploid cytotype (2n=16) is new to India have been reported for the first time in India. These cytotypes (2n=16, 32, 64) show significant variations with respect to morphology as well as geographical distribution in the Western Indian Himalayas. Further, anomalous populations have been marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges resulting in abnormal microsporogenesis, and production of heterogeneous-sized fertile pollen grains along with reduced pollen fertility. PMID:26753070

  13. Identification of new cytotypes of Valeriana jatamansi Jones, 1970 (Valerianaceae) from North-Western Himalayan region of India

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Savita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Kapila, Rakesh; Chahota, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Valeriana jatamansi, a medicinally important species of the family Valerianaceae, has been cytologically studied in different geographical areas of North-Western Himalayan region of India. The tetraploid cytotype with chromosome numbers 2n=32 is in conformity with the earlier reports of the species from different parts of the world. An octoploid cytotype (2n=64) makes a new addition for the species on a worldwide basis, whereas the diploid cytotype (2n=16) is new to India have been reported for the first time in India. These cytotypes (2n=16, 32, 64) show significant variations with respect to morphology as well as geographical distribution in the Western Indian Himalayas. Further, anomalous populations have been marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges resulting in abnormal microsporogenesis, and production of heterogeneous-sized fertile pollen grains along with reduced pollen fertility. PMID:26753070

  14. Complex routes into HIV care for migrant workers: a qualitative study from north India

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Tanvi; Lambert, Helen S.; Ward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Migrant workers are designated a bridge population in the spread of HIV and therefore if infected, should be diagnosed and treated early. This study examined pathways to HIV diagnosis and access to care for rural-to-urban circular migrant workers and partners of migrants in northern India, identifying structural, social and individual level factors that shaped their journeys into care. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with HIV-positive men (n = 20) and women (n = 13) with a history of circular migration, recruited from an antiretroviral therapy centre in one district of Uttar Pradesh, north India. Migrants and partners of migrants faced a complex series of obstacles to accessing HIV testing and care. Employment insecurity, lack of entitlement to sick pay or subsidised healthcare at destination and the household's economic reliance on their migration-based livelihood led many men to continue working until they became incapacitated by HIV-related morbidity. During periods of deteriorating health they often exhausted their savings on private treatments focused on symptom management, and sought HIV testing and treatment at a public hospital only following a medical or financial emergency. Wives of migrants had generally been diagnosed following their husbands' diagnosis or death, with access to testing and treatment mediated via family members. For some, a delay in disclosure of husband's HIV status led to delays in their own testing. Diagnosing and treating HIV infection early is important in slowing down the spread of the epidemic and targeting those at greatest risk should be a priority. However, despite targeted campaigns, circumstances associated with migration may prevent migrant workers and their partners from accessing testing and treatment until they become sick. The insecurity of migrant work, the dominance of private healthcare and gender differences in health-seeking behaviour delay early diagnosis and treatment

  15. Quality of anticoagulation therapy in neurological patients in a tertiary care hospital in north India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhat; Kalita, J.; Misra, U.K.

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is paucity of studies on the quality of anticoagulation in neurological patients from India. This study evaluates the quality of oral anticoagulation therapy in neurology patients. Methods: Consecutive patients attending a tertiary care neurology service in north India who were prescribed oral anticoagulant (OAC), were included. Their international normalized ratio (INR) values were prospectively monitored and the earlier INR values of the patients who were already on OAC were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with multi-organ dysfunction, pregnancy and those below 18 yr of age were excluded. The therapeutic INR range was defined as per standard recommendations. The level of anticoagulation, factors interfering with OAC and complications were noted. Results: The results were based on 77 patients with median age 40 yr. Fifty one patients received OAC for secondary stroke prevention, 23 for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) and three for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A total 167.9 person-years of follow up was done with a median of 1.2 (0.3-9.3) years. Of the 1287 INR reports, 505 (39.3%) reports were in the therapeutic range, 496 (38.5%) were below and 282 (21.91%) were above the therapeutic level. Stable INR was obtained in 33 (42.86%) patients only. INR level was improved by dose adjustment in 20 (26%), drug modification in two (2.6%), and dietary adjustment in six (7.8%) patients. Three patients were sensitive and five were resistant to OAC. Complications were noted in 28 instances; thromboembolic in 16 and haemorrhagic stroke in 12. The overall complication rate was 16.7 per 100 person-years. Interpretation & conclusions: It may be concluded that stable therapeutic INR is difficult to maintain in neurological patients. Optimal modification of diet, drug and dose of oral anticoagulant may help in stabilization of INR. PMID:27377498

  16. In Silico Studies of Medicinal Compounds Against Hepatitis C Capsid Protein from North India

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Shilu; Faheem, Muhammad; Archunan, Govindaraju; Ilyas, Muhammad; Begum, Nargis; Jahangir, Syed; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Qahtani, Mohammad Al; Mathew, Shiny

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Over one million people are estimated to be persistently infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. As capsid core protein is the key element in spreading HCV; hence, it is considered to be the superlative target of antiviral compounds. Novel drug inhibitors of HCV are in need to complement or replace the current treatments such as pegylated interferon’s and ribavirin as they are partially booming and beset with various side effects. Our study was conducted to predict 3D structure of capsid core protein of HCV from northern part of India. Core, the capsid protein of HCV, handles the assembly and packaging of HCV RNA genome and is the least variable of all the ten HCV proteins among the six HCV genotypes. Therefore, we screened four phytochemicals inhibitors that are known to disrupt the interactions of core and other HCV proteins such as (a) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (b) ladanein, (c) naringenin, and (d) silybin extracted from medicinal plants; targeted against active site of residues of HCV-genotype 3 (G3) (Q68867) and its subtypes 3b (Q68861) and 3g (Q68865) from north India. To study the inhibitory activity of the recruited flavonoids, we conducted a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR). Furthermore, docking interaction suggests that EGCG showed a maximum number of hydrogen bond (H-bond) interactions with all the three modeled capsid proteins with high interaction energy followed by naringenin and silybin. Thus, our results strongly correlate the inhibitory activity of the selected bioflavonoid. Finally, the dynamic predicted capsid protein molecule of HCV virion provides a general avenue to target structure-based antiviral compounds that support the hypothesis that the screened inhibitors for viral capsid might constitute new class of potent agents but further confirmation is necessary using in vitro and in vivo

  17. Temperature and precipitation changes in the north-east India and their future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S. K.; Sharma, Neha; Pattnayak, K. C.; Gao, X. J.; Shi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North East India (NEI), which comprise eight states, is very vulnerable to global changes and yet it was least studied so far. In this study, the present-day climatic conditions prevailing in NEI are examined based on actual observations at the meteorological stations of India Meteorological Department (IMD) in the region and on the gridded data. Further, Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) is also used to examine the projected changes in climatic parameters of temperature and precipitation in NEI under the IPCC A1B scenario. First of all, the model simulations in the present era spanning 1971-2005 are compared with the IMD gridded datasets to validate the model performance. It is found that RegCM3 is able to simulate the trends in annual mean temperature for the period 1971-2005 correctly. However, there is overestimation of rainfall simulated by the model. Major parts of NEI show a wet bias in the model precipitation. The simulated annual mean temperatures for the region show a good correlation with the gridded temperature values. Based on the IMD gridded datasets, the extreme temperature events of daily maximum and minimum temperatures are also examined in this study. Results indicate that during the years 1971-2005, the occurrence of warm nights in summer months was more frequent than the warm days. The simulations to the future years indicate rise in the annual mean temperature as well as mean rainfall. Projections based on RegCM3 simulations further indicate more frequent warm events than the cold events.

  18. Health care inequities in north India: Role of public sector in universalizing health care

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Kanavos, Panos; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Income inequality is associated with poor health. Inequities exist in service utilization and financing for health care. Health care costs push high number of households into poverty in India. We undertook this study to ascertain inequities in health status, service utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures in two States in north India namely, Haryana and Punjab, and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Methods: Data from National Sample Survey 60th Round on Morbidity and Health Care were analyzed by mean consumption expenditure quintiles. Indicators were devised to document inequities in the dimensions of horizontal and vertical inequity; and redistribution of public subsidy. Concentration index (CI), and equity ratio in conjunction with concentration curve were computed to measure inequity. Results: Reporting of morbidity and hospitalization rate had a pro-rich distribution in all three States indicating poor utilization of health services by low income households. Nearly 57 and 60 per cent households from poorest income quintile in Haryana and Punjab, respectively faced catastrophic OOP hospitalization expenditure at 10 per cent threshold. Lower prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was recorded in higher income groups. Public sector also incurred high costs for hospitalization in selected three States. Medicines constituted 19 to 47 per cent of hospitalization expenditure and 59 to 86 per cent OPD expenditure borne OOP by households in public sector. Public sector hospitalizations had a pro-poor distribution in Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. Interpretation & conclusions: Our analysis indicates that public sector health service utilization needs to be improved. OOP health care expenditures at public sector institutions should to be curtailed to improve utilization of poorer segments of population. Greater availability of medicines in public sector and regulation of their prices provide a unique opportunity to reduce public

  19. Complex routes into HIV care for migrant workers: a qualitative study from north India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tanvi; Lambert, Helen S; Ward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Migrant workers are designated a bridge population in the spread of HIV and therefore if infected, should be diagnosed and treated early. This study examined pathways to HIV diagnosis and access to care for rural-to-urban circular migrant workers and partners of migrants in northern India, identifying structural, social and individual level factors that shaped their journeys into care. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with HIV-positive men (n = 20) and women (n = 13) with a history of circular migration, recruited from an antiretroviral therapy centre in one district of Uttar Pradesh, north India. Migrants and partners of migrants faced a complex series of obstacles to accessing HIV testing and care. Employment insecurity, lack of entitlement to sick pay or subsidised healthcare at destination and the household's economic reliance on their migration-based livelihood led many men to continue working until they became incapacitated by HIV-related morbidity. During periods of deteriorating health they often exhausted their savings on private treatments focused on symptom management, and sought HIV testing and treatment at a public hospital only following a medical or financial emergency. Wives of migrants had generally been diagnosed following their husbands' diagnosis or death, with access to testing and treatment mediated via family members. For some, a delay in disclosure of husband's HIV status led to delays in their own testing. Diagnosing and treating HIV infection early is important in slowing down the spread of the epidemic and targeting those at greatest risk should be a priority. However, despite targeted campaigns, circumstances associated with migration may prevent migrant workers and their partners from accessing testing and treatment until they become sick. The insecurity of migrant work, the dominance of private healthcare and gender differences in health-seeking behaviour delay early diagnosis and treatment initiation

  20. Declining Groundwater Levels in North India: Understanding Sources of Irrigation Inefficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.; Brozovic, N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last half century, the green revolution has transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country, into the world's third largest grain producer and one of the most intensely irrigated regions on the planet. This is in no small part due to the country's vast water resources along with an increase in tubewells and more advanced abstraction methods. While agricultural intensification has had undeniable benefits, it has, and continues to have a significant impact on water resources. Unless solutions which take into consideration the ever evolving socio-economic, hydrological and climatic conditions are found, India's agricultural future looks bleak.This research examines the irrigation behaviour of farmers, using data collected during field work in the State of Uttar Pradesh within the Ganges Basin of North India. Significant differences in farmer behaviour and irrigation practices are highlighted, not only between State districts but between individual farmers. This includes the volume of irrigation water applied and the price paid, as well as differences in the yields of crops produced. Analyses of results suggest that this is due to a number of factors, particularly the source of irrigation water. Study areas which had access to cheaper, but crucially less reliable, canal water were found to invest in more efficient water saving technologies in order to reduce the overall cost of irrigation during periods where less expensive canal water is not available. As a result, overall water use and irrigation cost is lower and yields are higher despite very similar climatic conditions. While cheap canal water is not an option for all farmers, the results show that the introduction of more efficient water saving technologies, despite the significant capital expenditure is a viable option for many farmers and costs can be recovered in a relatively short space of time. In addition, the reduction of declining water levels mean that water is abstracted from

  1. Statistical analysis of annual maximum rainfall in North-East India: an application of LH-moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Surobhi; Borah, Munindra; Kakaty, Sarat Chandra

    2011-05-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the best fitting distribution to describe the annual series of maximum daily rainfall data for the period 1966 to 2007 of nine distantly located stations in North East India. The LH-moments of order zero (L) to order four (L4) are used to estimate the parameters of three extreme value distributions viz. generalized extreme value distribution (GEV), generalized logistic distribution (GLD), and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD). The performances of the distributions are assessed by evaluating the relative bias (RBIAS) and relative root mean square error (RRMSE) of quantile estimates through Monte Carlo simulations. Then, the boxplot is used to show the location of the median and the associated dispersion of the data. Finally, it can be revealed from the results of boxplots that zero level of LH-moments of the generalized Pareto distribution would be appropriate to the majority of the stations for describing the annual maximum rainfall series in North East India.

  2. Burden Among Caregivers of Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in North India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Kant, Shashi; Lodha, Rakesh; Kumar, Nand; Singh, Neelima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to wider access to and free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program, the number of children dying due to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related causes has declined and the nature and duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS caregiving has also dramatically altered. The care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHA) places a significant additional burden on the caregivers. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the perceived burden among caregivers of children living with HIV in North India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among 156 CLHA-caregiver dyads in North India was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Data were collected by using a pretested structured interview schedule. The caregiver burden was measured with a 36-item scale adapted from Burden Assessment Schedule of Schizophrenia Research Foundation (BASS). Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, the knowledge of caregivers, and issues related to health care, nutrition, education, and psychological aspects were studied. Results: Caregivers had a mean age of 35.9 ± 10.2 years. Women accounted for over three-fourth (76.9%) of the caregivers. Nearly two-third of them (65.4%) reported as living with HIV. The mean caregiver burden score was 68.7 ± 2.9. A majority of the caregivers reported either low or moderate burden. Standardized percentage score was high in the domains of physical and mental health, external support, patients’ behavior, and caregivers’ strategy and seemed to be comparatively less in the other domains such as support of the patient and taking responsibility. Conclusions: Caring of children is a universal practice but there is a need of special care for children living with HIV. The majority of caregivers who were usually the mothers perceived the burden and need to be assisted in caring for the child. Stigma and discrimination with HIV infection further increased the burden as caregivers did

  3. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. PMID:25780854

  4. Liquefaction record of the great 1934 earthquake predecessors from the north Bihar alluvial plains of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Rajendran, Kusala; Sanwal, Jaishri

    2016-01-01

    The great 1934 Himalayan earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 8.1 generated a large zone of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar, India, in addition to the earthquakes of 1833 (Mw ~7.7) and 1988 (Mw 6.7) that have also impacted this region. Here, we present the results of paleoliquefaction investigations from four sites in the plains of north Bihar and one in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The liquefaction features generated by successive earthquakes were dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, 907-1181, 1130-1376, 1112-1572, 1492-1672, 1733-1839, and 1814-1854. One of the liquefaction events dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, and 907-1181 may correlate with the great earthquake of AD ~1100, recognized in an earlier study from the sections across the frontal thrust in central eastern Nepal. Two late medieval liquefaction episodes of AD 1130-1376 and 1492-1672 were also exposed in our sites. The sedimentary sections also revealed sandblows that can be attributed to the 1833 earthquake, a lesser magnitude event compared to the 1934. Liquefactions triggered by the 1934 and 1988 earthquakes were evident within the topmost level in some sections. The available data lead us to conjecture that a series of temporally close spaced earthquakes of both strong and large types, not including the infrequent great earthquakes like the 1934, have affected the Bihar Plains during the last 1500 years with a combined recurrence interval of 124 ± 63 years.

  5. Liquefaction record of the great 1934 earthquake predecessors from the north Bihar alluvial plains of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Rajendran, Kusala; Sanwal, Jaishri

    2016-07-01

    The great 1934 Himalayan earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 8.1 generated a large zone of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar, India, in addition to the earthquakes of 1833 (Mw ~7.7) and 1988 (Mw 6.7) that have also impacted this region. Here, we present the results of paleoliquefaction investigations from four sites in the plains of north Bihar and one in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The liquefaction features generated by successive earthquakes were dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, 907-1181, 1130-1376, 1112-1572, 1492-1672, 1733-1839, and 1814-1854. One of the liquefaction events dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, and 907-1181 may correlate with the great earthquake of AD ~1100, recognized in an earlier study from the sections across the frontal thrust in central eastern Nepal. Two late medieval liquefaction episodes of AD 1130-1376 and 1492-1672 were also exposed in our sites. The sedimentary sections also revealed sandblows that can be attributed to the 1833 earthquake, a lesser magnitude event compared to the 1934. Liquefactions triggered by the 1934 and 1988 earthquakes were evident within the topmost level in some sections. The available data lead us to conjecture that a series of temporally close spaced earthquakes of both strong and large types, not including the infrequent great earthquakes like the 1934, have affected the Bihar Plains during the last 1500 years with a combined recurrence interval of 124 ± 63 years.

  6. Sexual Behavior of Married Young Women: A Preliminary Study from North India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kaur, Rajinder; Prakash, Om; Banerjee, Anindya; Kumar, Lata; Kulhara, P

    2008-01-01

    Background: There are significant gaps in the scientific literature concerning female sexual behavior and attitudes surrounding sexuality, which have definitive implications on public health and clinical work. Aim: To study the sexual behavior of young married Indian women. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 100 consecutive women attending the Department of Pediatrics for the care of noncritical children in a multispecialty, tertiary care teaching hospital setting in North India. Current levels of sexual functioning and satisfaction were assessed by using the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women (BISF-W). All participants were also administered a translated and culturally adapted instrument called Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire-II (SKAQ-II). Results: Peno-vaginal sex continues to be considered the most desired and actually performed sexual activity for arousal and orgasm, followed by kissing and foreplay. Difficulties while performing sexual activity, in the form of physical problems, were faced by 17% of the participants. The participants displayed adequate sexual knowledge and favorable attitude towards sexuality as measured by SKAQ-II. Conclusion: The present study is a preliminary effort to understand the contemporary female sexual behavior, knowledge and attitude by employing standard instruments. Still further studies are required in this area. PMID:19876477

  7. Only when the boat has started sinking: a maternal death in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Patricia; Jeffery, Roger

    2010-11-01

    This paper uses a close reading of villagers' responses to the death in childbirth of a Muslim woman to raise questions about India's current policy emphasis on institutional delivery as a means of reducing maternal mortality. After introducing the context and methods of our research, we describe recent policy interventions related to maternal health, including the National Rural Health Mission established in 2005. We then outline villagers' commentaries on the specific maternal death, focusing on the costs to women's health (and sometimes life) of high fertility; the lack of care available from rural government facilities and staff and the preference for delivering at home with the aid of local practitioners; the financial constraints that make people hesitate to seek medical treatment; and the high costs of private treatment and the poor treatment experienced in government facilities. Our core argument is that government health care provision in rural Uttar Pradesh is embedded in a moral universe characterised by widespread and long-term mistrust of state services and that encouraging institutional deliveries without addressing the perceptions of potential service users is a seriously flawed approach to reducing maternal mortality. The paper draws primarily on ethnographic research funded by the Wellcome Trust during 2002-2005, in a Muslim village in rural Bijnor district (in north-western Uttar Pradesh). PMID:20561728

  8. Geological mapping of the Schuppen belt of north-east India using geospatial technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tanaya; Basu, Surajit; Hazra, Sugata

    2014-01-01

    A revised geologic map of the Schuppen belt of northeast India has been prepared based on interpretation of digitally enhanced satellite images. The satellite image interpretation is supported by limited field work and existing geologic maps. Available geological maps of this fold thrust belt are discontinuous and multi-scaled. The authors are of multiple opinions regarding the trajectory of formation boundaries and fault contacts. Digital image processing of satellite images and limited field surveys have been used to reinterpret and modify the existing geological maps of this fold thrust belt. Optical data of Landsat Thematic Mapper, Enhanced Thematic Mapper and elevation data of ASTER have been used to prepare this revised geological map. The study area extends from Hajadisa in south to Digboi oilfield in north, bounded by Naga thrust in the west and Disang thrust in the east. PCA, Image fusion, Linear Contrast stretch, Histogram Equalization and Painted relief algorithms have been used for the delineation of major geological lineaments like lithological boundary, thrust and strike slip faults. Digital elevation maps have enabled in the discrimination between thrust contacts and lithological boundaries, with the former being located mostly in the valleys. Textural enhancements of PCA, colour composites and Painted relief algorithm have been used to discriminate between different rock types. Few geological concepts about the terrain have been revisited and modified. It is assumed that this revised map should be of practical use as this terrain promises unexploited hydrocarbon reserves.

  9. Antagonistic Potential of Native Trichoderma viride Strain against Potent Tea Fungal Pathogens in North East India.

    PubMed

    Naglot, A; Goswami, S; Rahman, I; Shrimali, D D; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Gupta, Vikas K; Rabha, Aprana Jyoti; Gogoi, H K; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous strains of Trichoderma species isolated from rhizosphere soils of Tea gardens of Assam, north eastern state of India were assessed for in vitro antagonism against two important tea fungal pathogens namely Pestalotia theae and Fusarium solani. A potent antagonist against both tea pathogenic fungi, designated as SDRLIN1, was selected and identified as Trichoderma viride. The strain also showed substantial antifungal activity against five standard phytopathogenic fungi. Culture filtrate collected from stationary growth phase of the antagonist demonstrated a significantly higher degree of inhibitory activity against all the test fungi, demonstrating the presence of an optimal blend of extracellular antifungal metabolites. Moreover, quantitative enzyme assay of exponential and stationary culture filtrates revealed that the activity of cellulase, β-1,3-glucanase, pectinase, and amylase was highest in the exponential phase, whereas the activity of proteases and chitinase was noted highest in the stationary phase. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and distortion were also observed in the fungal pathogen grown on potato dextrose agar containing stationary phase culture filtrate. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the filtrate was significantly reduced but not entirely after heat or proteinase K treatment, demonstrating substantial role of certain unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s) in the inhibitory activity. PMID:26361476

  10. Exposure profiles of mercury in human hair at a terai belt of North India.

    PubMed

    Masih, Amit; Taneja, Ajay; Singhvi, Raj

    2016-02-01

    Human hair is frequently used as a bioindicator of mercury exposure. Mercury (Hg) has for centuries been a useful metal in a variety of applications. Unfortunately, this usefulness is counterbalanced by its neurotoxicological health impact. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends keeping the hair Hg level <1.0 µg/g. Therefore, an investigation has been performed in order to ascertain the hair Hg levels among the people living at the terai belt of North India. Hair samples were collected from 111 individuals and were placed in an identified plastic bag, stapled to prevent the shift of the hair strand. Samples were analyzed by combustion, gold amalgamation, atomic absorption spectrometry (C-GA-AAS). The mean Hg level in hair was 0.28 µg/g for the whole group ranging from 0.0012 to 1.9091 µg/g. The mean hair Hg levels were 0.16 µg/g for men and 0.12 µg/g for women, indicating that men had higher hair Hg levels than women. Total hair Hg was found to be significantly associated with age, gender and fish consumption frequency. 98 % of the total sample had hair Hg concentrations less than 1.0 µg/g, i.e, within safe dose, whereas only 2 % had Hg concentrations greater than 1.0 µg/g, thereby exceeding the safe dose. PMID:25837822

  11. A tangled weave: Tracing outcomes of education in rural women's lives in North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-06-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for them, or not. While most of the women were indeed able to transform several areas in their lives, this study illustrates that empowering outcomes cannot be assumed or articulated in categorical terms and that bringing about change requires the negotiation of power at various levels. The women's narratives stand in contrast to the prevalent discourses around women's literacy and empowerment, which highlight the importance of literacy only in terms of its positive impact on attaining development goals. Despite the vigorously discussed de-politicisation of the concept of empowerment, the authors show in this paper that empowerment, when informed by a critical feminist understanding, continues to provide a useful framework to analyse women's experiences related to education, as a process enabling women to understand and negotiate structures of power - which are neither static nor wholly dominating - and to find spaces to exercise agency. There are few longitudinal studies which trace the long-term impact of educational programmes on adult women, and most studies are in the nature of impact assessments of programmes. Through this paper the authors argue for the need to analyse the complexities around the relationship between women's education and empowerment.

  12. Antagonistic Potential of Native Trichoderma viride Strain against Potent Tea Fungal Pathogens in North East India

    PubMed Central

    Naglot, A.; Goswami, S.; Rahman, I.; Shrimali, D. D.; Yadav, Kamlesh K.; Gupta, Vikas K.; Rabha, Aprana Jyoti; Gogoi, H. K.; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous strains of Trichoderma species isolated from rhizosphere soils of Tea gardens of Assam, north eastern state of India were assessed for in vitro antagonism against two important tea fungal pathogens namely Pestalotia theae and Fusarium solani. A potent antagonist against both tea pathogenic fungi, designated as SDRLIN1, was selected and identified as Trichoderma viride. The strain also showed substantial antifungal activity against five standard phytopathogenic fungi. Culture filtrate collected from stationary growth phase of the antagonist demonstrated a significantly higher degree of inhibitory activity against all the test fungi, demonstrating the presence of an optimal blend of extracellular antifungal metabolites. Moreover, quantitative enzyme assay of exponential and stationary culture filtrates revealed that the activity of cellulase, β-1,3-glucanase, pectinase, and amylase was highest in the exponential phase, whereas the activity of proteases and chitinase was noted highest in the stationary phase. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and distortion were also observed in the fungal pathogen grown on potato dextrose agar containing stationary phase culture filtrate. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the filtrate was significantly reduced but not entirely after heat or proteinase K treatment, demonstrating substantial role of certain unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s) in the inhibitory activity. PMID:26361476

  13. Assessment of phytochemical composition and antioxidant potential in some indigenous chilli genotypes from North East India.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Rakesh Kr; Singh, Vikas; Upadhyay, Garima; Pandey, A K; Prakash, Dhan

    2015-12-01

    Twenty five chilli genotypes from North East region of India evaluated showed variation for capsaicin from 0.27% (CHF-CA-1) to 3.03% (CHF-CA-21), oleoresin content from 2.49% (CHF-CA-5) to 9.26% (CHF-CA-18) with high to moderate ascorbic acid. Total phenolics ranged from 5.1 (CHF-CA-8) to 26.8 (CHF-CA-23) mg GAE/g and total carotenoids from 0.09 (CHF-CA-16) to 7.72 (CHF-CA-17) mg/g dry weight. The antioxidant activity varied from 15.3% (CHF-CA-4) to 60.7% (CHF-CA-21). Free radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay showed low IC50 ranging from 0.021 to 0.041 mg/mg, low EC50 from 0.92 to 1.78 mg/mg DPPH, high ARP values (56.17-109.52) in CHF-CA-6, CHF-CA-7, CHF-CA-17, CHF-CA-21, CHF-CA-22 and CHF-CA-23 genotypes. The reducing power ranged from 0.92 to 4.10 ASE/ml and specific phenolic composition showed presence of gallic acid with other hydroxycinnamic acid. Among the flavonoids, presence of catechin was maximum followed by quercetin and rutin. PMID:26041173

  14. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease: A cross-sectional observational study from North India

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Anita; Mehta, Anurag; Sharma, Mamta; Salhan, Sudha; Kalaivani, Mani; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Juneja, Rajnish

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the birth prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease (CHD) using echocardiography in babies born in a community hospital of North India. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study conducted over a period of 3 years. Newborns born over a specific 8-h period of the day were recruited in the study. They underwent routine clinical examination and pulse oximetry, followed by screening echocardiography for diagnosing a CHD. Results: A total of 20,307 newborns were screened, among which 874 had abnormal echocardiograms; 687 had insignificant CHDs, 164 had significant CHDs, and 24 had other abnormal cardiac findings. The birth prevalence of significant CHDs was 8.07 per 1000 live births; 131 newborns had an acyanotic CHD (79.9%) and 33 a cyanotic CHD (20.1%). Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was the most common acyanotic CHD, present in 116 newborns, giving a prevalence of 5.7/1000 live births. Among the cyanotic CHD, transposition of great arteries was most common (prevalence 0.34/1000 live births). Conclusion: The CHD birth prevalence in our study is similar to the reported worldwide birth prevalence. Acyanotic CHD (mostly VSD) is seen in about three-fourths of babies born with CHD. The more sinister cyanotic CHD is present in remaining 25%. PMID:27625516

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of rice landraces from Eastern and North Eastern States of India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptations to different habitats across the globe and consequent genetic variation within rice have resulted in more than 120,000 diverse accessions including landraces, which are vital genetic resources for agronomic and quality traits. In India the rice landraces of the states West Bengal, Assam, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland are worthy candidates for genetic assessment. Keeping the above in view, the present study was conducted with the aim to (i) calculate the genetic distances among the accessions of 83 landraces collected from these states along with 8 check accessions (total 91 accessions) using 23 previously mapped SSR markers and (ii) examine the population structure among the accessions using model-based clustering approach. Results Among the 91 accessions, 182 alleles were identified which included 51 rare and 27 null alleles. The average PIC value was 0.7467/marker. The non-aromatic landraces from West Bengal was most diverse with 154 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.8005/marker, followed by the aromatic landraces from West Bengal with 118 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.6524/marker, while the landraces from North East ranked third with 113 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.5745/marker. In the dendrogram distinct clusters consisting of predominantly aromatic landraces and predominantly North East Indian landraces were observed. The non-aromatic landraces from West Bengal were interspersed within these two clusters. The accessions were moderately structured, showing four sub-populations (A-D) with an Fst value of 0.398, 0.364, 0.206 and 0.281, respectively. The assigned clustering of accessions was well in agreement in both distance-based and model-based approaches. Conclusions Each of the accessions could be identified unequivocally by the SSR profiles. Genetically the non aromatic landraces from West Bengal were most diverse followed by the aromatic landraces from the same state. The North Eastern accessions ranked third

  16. Beneficial role of D allele in controlling ACE levels: a study among Brahmins of north India.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Shobha; Sharma, Nidhi; Thakur, Sunil; Mondal, Prakash R; Saraswathy, Kallur N

    2016-06-01

    India being a country with vast diversity is expected to have different dietary and life style patterns which in turn may lead to population-specific environmental risk factors. Further, the interaction of these risk factors with the genetic makeup of population makes it either susceptible or resistant to cardiovascular disease. One such candidate gene is angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) for various cardiovascular mechanisms. ACE is the key enzyme of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system pathway which maintains homeostasis blood pressure in the body and any variation in the levels is reported to be associated with various complex diseases. The DD genotype is found to increase ACE levels, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases and decrease in ACE levels are associated with kidney diseases. The aim of this study was to understand the distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism and ACE levels among Brahmins of National Capital Region (NCR) north India, with respect to age and sex ratio distribution. In this study, 136 subjects of which 50 males and 86 females, who were unrelated up to first cousin, aged 25 to70 years were studied. ACE gene was found to be polymorphic with high frequency of heterozygote (ID) followed by II and DD genotypes. The studied population was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to ACE I/D polymorphism (P = 0.55). I allele frequency was found to be higher (0.560) than the D allele (0.44). The median level of ACE was found to be 65.96 ng/mL (48.12-86.24) which is towards lower side of the normal range. ACE levels were found to be increased among individual having either of the homozygotes that is II or DD and higher frequency of heterozygote (ID) is indicative of advantage in the population by maintaining lower ACE levels. The limitation of the present study is low sample size, however, the merit is that the subjects belonged to a Mendalian population with a common gene pool. PMID:27350671

  17. Profile of inhalant users seeking treatment at a de-addiction centre in north India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sunil; Nebhinani, Naresh; Basu, Debasish; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Inhalants are substances whose chemical vapors are inhaled to produce euphoric, disinhibiting, and exciting effects. Data on inhalant abuse in India are relatively scarce. We report the demographic and clinical profile of inhalant users among the treatment seekers at a Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre in north India. Methods: The records of treatment seekers at the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, over 10 years (2002-2011) were scanned to identify 92 cases reporting inhalant use. Of these 92 cases, the complete record files were available for 87 (94.6%) cases. These case files were reviewed and the relevant data were collected and analyzed. Results: Over the study period of 10 years, the number of cases with inhalant abuse per year rose steadily to peak at 20 cases (4.08% of new cases) in 2006 and then stabilized at 1-3 per cent of new cases annually. Of the 87 cases studied, all were males with a mean age of 18.9±4.12 yr, mean education of 9.8±3.42 yr and mean family income of 7676±7343.15 (median: 5000). Majority of subjects were unmarried (89.7%), urban resident (79.3%), and from a nuclear family (78.2%). About half of the subjects were students (50.6%). The most common inhalant used was typewriter correction fluid (73.6%) followed by typewriter diluent fluid (19.5%) and glue (6.9%). The most common reason for initiation was curiosity. The mean age of onset of inhalant use was 16.3±4.22 yr. Most subjects fulfilled the criteria for inhalant dependence (85.1%). Psychiatric co-morbidity and the family history of substance dependence were present in 26.4 and 32.9 per cent subjects, respectively. Majority of the subjects reported drug related problems, occupation and finance being the worst affected. Interpretations & conclusions: Our results showed that the inhalant users were mostly urban youth belonging to middle socio-economic class families. The principal sources of inhalant abuse were the commonly available substances

  18. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology. PMID:12177992

  19. Crop Burning in the North and Northwestern Parts in India and Its Impact on Air Quality and Aerosol Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Crop burning in the North and Northwestern parts of India started sometime in 1986 when the farmers started using mechanized forming. During October-November and April-May crop residues are burnt which is a serious health threat to people living in the areas and also it impacts climate of the northern parts of India including Himalayan region. Detailed analysis of satellite data, MODIS, AIRS and OMI AURA have been carried out to study aerosol and meteorological parameters near the source of biomass burning and also at far region. During crop burning period, pronounced changes in the aerosol and meteorological parameters are observed at different pressure levels. The emissions from the crop burning are spread in the Indo-Gangetic plains from west-east, over the Himalayan region and over the central parts of India depending upon the wind direction and wind speed. The air quality changes anomalously affecting the visibility and aerosol parameters. The emissions from crop burning mixes with the local emissions (vehicular and industrial sources) affecting the trace gas concentrations and aerosol optical parameters as a result dense haze fog and smog are observed during burning period. Long range transport of emissions from crop burning over India and its various climatic and health consequences will be presented.

  20. Scrub Typhus in Children at a Tertiary Hospital in North India: Clinical Profile and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Bhat, Nowneet; Dhar, Minakshi; Mittal, Garima; Shirazi, Nadia; Rawat, Anil; Prakash Kalra, Bram; Chandar, Vipan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical profile and complications of childhood scrub typhus. Methods: Prospective observational study of 66 children with scrub typhus, admitted to a tertiary hospital in north India, during the period between January 2011 and December 2012. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology. Findings : All children presented with fever. Other common symptoms were vomiting (56%), facial swelling (52%), cough (35%), abdominal pain (33%), breathlessness (29%) and decreased urine output (29%). High grade fever (>101 oF) was recorded in 91% of children. Other common signs were hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, edema, tender lymphadenopathy and hypotension, observed in 82%, 59%, 39%, 38% and 36% of cases, respectively. An eschar and a maculopapular rash each were observed in 20% of patients. Meningoencephalitis (30.3%), severe thrombocytopenia (27.2%), shock (25.8%), acute kidney injury (16.7%) and hepatitis (13.6%) were the most common complications observed in these children. Other common complications were acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure requiring ventilation, bronchopneumonia and myocarditis. Ninety percent of children became afebrile within 48 hours of initiating an appropriate antibiotic. Median time to defervescence was 22 hours. The overall mortality rate was 7.5%. Causes of death were refractory shock, meningoencephalitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopneumonia, acute kidney injury and myocarditis. Conclusion: Pediatricians should keep a high index of suspicion for scrub typhus in any febrile child having a maculopapular rash, hepatosplenomegaly, tender lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia and features suggestive of capillary leak. Pending serological confirmation, empirical therapy with doxycycline or azithromycin should be started, as delay in treatment would result in life threatening complications. PMID:25755859

  1. Aerosol characteristics in the UTLS region: A satellite-based study over north India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Misra, A.; Kanawade, Vijay P.; Devara, P. C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient and depolarization ratio, obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, were studied in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region over North India (21-30° N and 72-90° E), covering the highly polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) for one-year period from December 2011 to November 2012. An enhanced aerosol layer was observed between 15 and 18 km altitude, in the vicinity of tropopause, with a broad layer depth of about 2 km. The aerosol layer showed strong seasonal, monthly as well as day and night time variability, with a peak value of backscatter coefficient during monsoon season (˜5.54 × 10-3 sr-1 in September). The corresponding depolarization ratio indicates anisotropic (non-spherical) nature of particles. The aerosol layer was found to be highly linked with the variability in tropopause height, showing a positive correlation between tropopause height and the height of maximum backscatter coefficient (correlation coefficient of 0.8). However, it was found to be negatively correlated with the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), with a correlation coefficient of 0.3. We further analyzed outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) data during the study period to investigate the link between the observed enhanced aerosol layer in the UTLS region and prevailing deep convective activities over the study region. Low values of OLR during monsoon (about 214 W m-2) indicate the occurrence of deep convection over this region, which may cause a large-scale circulation-driven vertical transport of boundary-layer pollution into the atmosphere of UTLS region. Results may have potential implications for better understanding and assessing the chemical and radiative impacts of these aerosols in the tropical UTLS region.

  2. Cross-sectional study of depression and help-seeking in Uttarakhand, North India

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Kaaren; Goicolea, Isabel; Kermode, Michelle; Singh, Lawrence; Shidhaye, Rahul; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to use a population-based cross-sectional survey to describe depression prevalence, healthcare seeking and associations with socioeconomic determinants in a district in North India. Setting This study was conducted in Sahaspur and Raipur, administrative blocks of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, in July 2014. Participants A population-based sample of 960 people over the age of 18 years was selected in 30 randomised clusters after being stratified by rural:urban census ratios. Primary outcome measures The survey used a validated screening tool, Patient Health Questionnaire, to identify people with depression, and collected information regarding socioeconomic variables and help-seeking behaviours. Depression prevalence and health seeking behaviours were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between risk factors and depression. Results Prevalence of depression was 6% (58/960), with a further 3.9% (37/960) describing a depressive episode of over 2 weeks in the past 12 months. Statistically significant adjusted OR for depression of more than 2 were found for people who were illiterate, classified as Scheduled Caste/Tribe or Other Backward Castes, living in temporary material housing and who had recently taken a loan. While over three quarters of people with depression (79%) had attended a private or government general medical practitioner in the past 3 months, none had received talking therapy (100% treatment gap) and two people (3.3%) had been prescribed antidepressants. Conclusions There are clear associations between social, educational and economic disadvantage and depression in this population. Strategies that address the social determinants of depression, such as education, social exclusion, financial protection and affordable housing for all are indicated. To address the large treatment gap in Uttarakhand, we must ensure access to primary and secondary mental health providers who can

  3. Genotoxicity and oxidative stress in chromium-exposed tannery workers in North India.

    PubMed

    Ambreen, Khushboo; Khan, Faizan Haider; Bhadauria, Smrati; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-06-01

    Trivalent chromium (Cr) is an environmental contaminant, which is extensively used in tanning industries throughout the world and causes various forms of health hazards in tannery workers. Therefore, a cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate the DNA damage and oxidative stress condition in tannery workers exposed to Cr in North India. The study population comprised 100 male tanners in the exposed group and 100 healthy males (no history of Cr exposure) in the comparable control group. Baseline characteristics including age, smoking, alcohol consumption habits and duration of exposure were recorded via interviewing the subjects. Blood Cr level (measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry), DNA damage (measured by comet assay) and oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were estimated in both the groups. As a result of statistical analysis, exposed group showed significantly higher level of Cr (p < 0.0001), DNA damage (p < 0.0001), MDA (p < 0.0001), SOD (p < 0.05) and lower level of GSH (p < 0.001) when compared with controls. Smoking, alcohol consumption habits and age had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters in both the groups. In simple and multiple correlation analysis, DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters showed significant correlation with Cr level and duration of exposure in exposed group. The findings of the present study revealed that chronic occupational exposure to trivalent Cr may cause DNA damage and oxidative stress in tannery workers. PMID:22933550

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Vespa affinis L., a Traditional Edible Insect Species of North East India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Prachurjya; Dey, Tapan; Manna, Prasenjit; Kalita, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of health disorders, like arthritis. Traditionally, Vespa affinis L., a common edible insect among many tribes in North-East India, is believed to have a beneficial role in extenuating health disorders, such as arthritis. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying medicinal benefit of the Aqueous Extract of Vespa affinis L. (AEVA) against oxidative stress pathophysiology. Methods The free radical scavenging activities of AEVA were examined against DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals and the effect on the activities of antioxidant enzyme (GST and CAT) was determined using both recombinant proteins and human plasma. The antioxidant potential of AEVA was again investigated using THP-1 monocytes. Results AEVA possesses a significant free radical scavenging activity as evident from the DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Incubation of AEVA (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) with the recombinant antioxidant enzymes, rGST and rCAT significantly increased the enzyme activities compared to those observed in corresponding enzyme alone or AEVA itself. AEVA supplementation (5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) also stimulates the activities of GST and CAT when incubated with human plasma. A cell culture study also confirmed the beneficial role of AEVA (0.8 and 1.2 μg/μL) which enhances the activities of GST and CAT, and also reduces the intercellular ROS production in monocytes treated with or without H2O2 and the effects are at par with what is observed in N-acetyl cysteine-treated cells. Conclusion The antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vespa affinis L. may mediate its therapeutic activities in oxidative stress-associated health disorders. PMID:27195807

  5. Seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among blood donors of north India

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, R.N.; Walia, Rimpreet Singh; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Hegde, Vikas; Rosamma, N.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Transfusion of blood and blood products although considered as a life saving treatment modality, but may lead to certain infectious and non-infectious complications in the recipients. The purpose of this analysis was to monitor the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in the blood donor population in a hospital based blood bank in north India, to evaluate the trends over the years (2001-2011). Methods: Relevant information of all the blood donors who donated whole blood at the department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi from the January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2011 was retrieved from the departmental records. The number of donors who were found reactive for anti-HCV anatibodies was calculated. Results: Of the 2,06,022 blood donors, 1,93,661 were males and 12,361 were females. The percentage of whole blood donors found seroreactive for anti-HCV antibodies was 0.39 per cent (n=795). The seroprevalence of anti-HCV in male blood donors was 0.38 per cent (n=750) and the respective seroprevalence in female blood donors was 0.36 per cent (n=45). No significant change in the trend of HCV seroprevalence was observed over the period under consideration. Maximum seroprevalence of anti-HCV was observed in the age group of 18 to 30 yr (0.41%) and the minimum in the age group of 51 to 60 yr (0.26%). Interpretation & conclusion: HCV seroprevalence in our study was 0.39 per cent and a decreasing trend with age was observed. No significant change in the trend of anti-HCV seroprevalence was seen over a decade. Since, no vaccine is presently available for immunization against HCV infection, transfusion transmitted HCV infection remains a potential threat to the safety of the blood supply. PMID:24056566

  6. Rainfall mechanism over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kothawale, D. R.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall mechanism over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during the summer monsoon season has been investigated using dynamic, thermodynamic, cloud microphysics and cloud dynamic (CMCD) forcings. Daily rainfall data has been used to understand rainfall variability. Daily ECMWF wind data for the period 2009-2011 have been used to study the wind divergence, shear and vertical velocity profiles. Daily thermodynamic parameters from upper air soundings of Hyderabad (17.448°N, 78.381°E), have been examined. Aircraft data have been used to study CMCD parameters. The divergence is found between surfaces to 850 hPa level whereas the convergence is at 850 hPa, which comes down to surface level during presence of low pressure systems. The divergence is observed at low (700 hPa), mid (600-300 hPa) and upper (250-150 hPa) tropospheric levels. In consequence of these divergence structures, three types of cloud systems viz. shallow, congestus and deep are developed with bases just above 850 hPa and tops at corresponding three divergent levels. The vertical profiles of relative humidity observed by radiosonde data have been analyzed to get the frequency distribution of shallow, congestus and deep clouds. The highest frequency observed is that of congestus clouds. The thermodynamic structure shows dry surface level and warm and moist middle troposphere with tongues of dry air and multilevel inversions which have been attributed to advection of aerosol-rich dry air. The aircraft observations showed high aerosol concentrations from surface to 5 km, polluted clouds with cloud droplet effective radius smaller than that required for collision-coalescence process. The factors which are responsible for causing low rainfall over the rain-shadow area have been identified.

  7. Three Dimensional Aerosol Climatology over India and the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, A.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    the CALIPSO algorithm, probably misclassifying marine aerosol as polluted dust. The origin of much of the polluted dust, the most prominent aerosol species in the region, is the mixing of dust and smoke from Africa. Low-level southerly winds south of 10°N transport smoke northward while northerly winds north of 10°N transport dust southward and upward due to orographic lifting. At their area of convergence, zonal wind transports the now elevated polluted dust eastward toward the Indian subcontinent. Subsidence and monsoon circulation reversal during boreal winter and fall limit vertical and horizontal aerosol transport from the India, particularly in the highly populated and always polluted Indo¬-Gangetic Plain. Polluted dust, polluted continental (non-elevated smoke), and smoke aerosols are confined near the surface and located over high population density areas and known biomass burning locations. Himalayan topography is an obvious barrier for the northward extent of aerosol. However, it also acts to create a meridional circulation limiting the southward extent of aerosol. Although transport pathways and the spatial structure of aerosol are well documented in the 2D sense, understanding the mechanisms controlling the vertical structure in concert with observation of the structure will be a valuable tool in reducing the uncertainty of aerosol effects in model simulations.

  8. Aerosol characteristics in north-east India using ARFINET spectral optical depth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, B.; Subba, T.; Dahutia, P.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Gogoi, M. M.; Babu, S. Suresh; Chutia, L.; Ajay, P.; Biswas, J.; Bharali, C.; Borgohain, A.; Dhar, P.; Guha, A.; De, B. K.; Banik, T.; Chakraborty, M.; Kundu, S. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Singh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Four years (2010-2014) of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from 4 Indian Space Research Organisation's ARFINET (Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India) stations (Shillong, Agartala, Imphal and Dibrugarh) in the North-Eastern Region (NER) of India (lying between 22-30°N and 89-98°E) are synthesized to evolve a regional aerosol representation, for the first time. Results show that the columnar AOD (an indicator of the column abundance of aerosols) is highest at Agartala (0.80 ± 0.24) in the west and lowest at Imphal (0.59 ± 0.23) in the east in the pre-monsoon season due to intense anthropogenic bio-mass burning in this region aided by long-range transport from the high aerosol laden regions of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), polluted Bangladesh and Bay of Bengal. In addition to local biogenic aerosols and pollutants emitted from brick kilns, oil/gas fields, household bio-fuel/fossil-fuel, vehicles, industries. Aerosol distribution and climatic impacts show a west to east gradient within the NER. For example, the climatological mean AODs are 0.67 ± 0.26, 0.52 ± 0.14, 0.40 ± 0.17 and 0.41 ± 0.23 respectively in Agartala, Shillong, Imphal and Dibrugarh which are geographically located from west to east within the NER. The average aerosol burden in NER ranks second highest with climatological mean AOD 0.49 ± 0.2 next to the Indo-Gangetic Plains where the climatological mean AOD is 0.64 ± 0.2 followed by the South and South-East Asia region. Elevated aerosol layers are observed over the eastern most stations Dibrugarh and Imphal, while at the western stations the concentrations are high near the surface. The climate implications of aerosols are evaluated in terms of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and consequent heating of the atmosphere in the region which follows AOD and exhibit high values in pre-monsoon season at all the locations except in Agartala. The highest ARF in the atmosphere occurs in the pre-monsoon season ranging from 48.6 Wm-2 in Agartala

  9. Preliminary studies on CD36 gene in type 2 diabetic patients from north India

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Sunaina; Agrawal, C.G.; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Banerjee, Monisha

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: The greater tendency to diabetes in Indians may be due to genetic factors in addition to environment and diet. CD36, a class B scavenger cell surface receptor mediates internalization of oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) leading to the formation of macrophage foam cells. CD36 deficiency is related to phenotypic expression of the metabolic syndrome, frequently associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases resulting in raised levels of glucose thereby contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Therefore, the association of human CD36 gene mutation to T2DM needs investigation. We undertook this study to investigate CD36 gene status in north Indian subjects by screening for the deletion of exons 3, 4 and 5 and certain polymorphisms. Methods: Clinical characteristics were compared between 300 T2DM patients and 100 healthy controls. Deletion analysis was carried out for exons 3, 4 and 5 of CD36 gene in 300 T2DM patients using PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. Genotype analysis for two polymorphisms 478C>T and delAC in exons 4 and 5 respectively was carried out using PCR-RFLP method. Results: Biochemical parameters such as fasting and post-prandial glucose levels, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure were slightly raised in the T2DM patients when compared with controls with lowered HDL-cholesterol. No exonic deletion was observed in the 300 patients and 100 controls screened. All individuals were found to be homozygous (CC and -/-) for the two polymorphisms studied. Interpretation & conclusions: Although no exonic deletion was found in T2DM patients, our study suggests that all 15 exons need to be screened for mutations which lead to CD36 deficiency. Genotyping studies of the two SNPs in the CD36 gene confirmed the absence of exons 4 and 5 deletion. This is perhaps the first report from India suggesting that CD36 is one of the several important genes that need to be explored in relation to T2DM. PMID:21808142

  10. Seamless hydrological predictions for a monsoon driven catchment in North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, Lisei; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Improving hydrological forecasting systems on different time scales is interesting and challenging with regards to humanitarian as well as scientific aspects. In meteorological research, short-, medium-, and long-term forecasts are now being merged to form a system of seamless weather and climate predictions. Coupling of these meteorological forecasts with a hydrological model leads to seamless predictions of streamflow, ranging from one day to a season. While there are big efforts made to analyse the uncertainties of probabilistic streamflow forecasts, knowledge of the single uncertainty contributions from meteorological and hydrological modeling is still limited. The overarching goal of this project is to gain knowledge in this subject by decomposing and quantifying the overall predictive uncertainty into its single factors for the entire seamless forecast horizon. Our study area is the Mahanadi River Basin in North-East India, which is prone to severe floods and droughts. Improved streamflow forecasts on different time scales would contribute to early flood warning as well as better water management operations in the agricultural sector. Because of strong inter-annual monsoon variations in this region, which are, unlike the mid-latitudes, partly predictable from long-term atmospheric-oceanic oscillations, the Mahanadi catchment represents an ideal study site. Regionalized precipitation forecasts are obtained by applying the method of expanded downscaling to the ensemble prediction systems of ECMWF and NCEP. The semi-distributed hydrological model HYPSO-RR, which was developed in the Eco-Hydrological Simulation Environment ECHSE, is set up for several sub-catchments of the Mahanadi River Basin. The model is calibrated automatically using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search algorithm, with a modified Nash-Sutcliff efficiency as objective function. Meteorological uncertainty is estimated from the existing ensemble simulations, while the hydrological uncertainty is

  11. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of a floodplain tree species Barringtonia acutangula from North East India.

    PubMed

    Nath, Shikhasmita; Nath, Arun Jyoti; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Vegetative and reproductive phenology of Barringtonia acutangula, a floodplain tree species was studied at Chatla floodplain, Assam North East India with the aim to investigate vegetative and reproductive phenology under stressful environment of seasonal submergence and to assess the impact of environmental variables (temperature and precipitation) on tree phenophases. Quantitative assessment was made at 15 day interval for all the phenophases (leaf initiation, leaf-fall, flowering and fruiting) by tagging 40 (forty) trees over aperiod of two years (2012-14).To test seasonal influence on the phenology of Barringtonia acutangula different phenophases were correlated with environmental variables and statistical spearman's rank correlation coefficient was employed. Aridity index was computed that delineate influence of rainfall and temperature together on any phenophases. Leaf initiation showed positively significant correlation with temperature (r(s) = 0.601, p = < .05) during the year 2012-2013 whereas it was significantly correlated with rainfall (r(s) = 0.583, p = < .05) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.583, p = < .05) during the year 2013-2014. Leaf-fall was significant negatively correlated with temperature (r(s) = -0.623, p = < .05), rainfall (r(s) = -0.730, p = < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = -0.730, p = < .01) for both the studied years. Flowering was significantly influenced by temperature (r(s) = 0.639, p = < .05), rainfall (r(s) = 0.890, p = < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.890, p = < .01) while in one month lag flowering was significantly correlated with rainfall (r(s) = 0.678, p = < .01) in 2012-13. Fruiting was also positively significant with temperature (r(s) = 0.795, P < .05), rainfall (r(s) = 0.835, P < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.835, P < .01) for both the years. During one month lag period fruiting was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall and aridity index in both the years. Temperature, rainfall and aridity index were major

  12. Phenotyping of Salmonella serotypes isolated from natural sources of water in rural areas of East Sikkim.

    PubMed

    Poonia, S; Singh, T S; Tsering, D C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to conduct bacteriological analysis of water with special reference to Salmonella spp from natural sources of rural habitations of East Sikkim. A total of 28 Salmonella serovars isolated were biotyped, phage typed and tested for their anti-microbial susceptibility. All the isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi belonged to Biotype I. Four isolates of S. typhi belonged to phage type A. All S. paratyphi A isolates belong to phage 2. All the isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, cefixime and amikacin. Untreated natural water sources are unsafe for human consumption. PMID:25560018

  13. Stemflow: A Source of Nutrients in some Naturally Growing Epiphytic Orchids of the Sikkim Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, O P; Sharma, E; Palni, L M

    1995-01-01

    A study on five naturally growing epiphytic orchids viz., Bulbophyllum affine Lindl., Coelogyne ochracea Lindl., Otochilus porrecta Lindl., Cirrhopetalum cornutum Lindl. and C. cornutum (var.) was carried out in the subtropical belt of Sikkim Himalaya. Stemflow leachates formed the main source of ammonium-N and nitrate-N for uptake by these orchids. Phosphorus concentration in the tissues of these orchids was high. Phosphate-P from stemflow does not seem to be a regular source of phosphorus for these orchids. Absorption/desorption results indicate that organic-N from stemflow leachates is not utilized by these orchids. PMID:21247907

  14. Stemflow: A Source of Nutrients in some Naturally Growing Epiphytic Orchids of the Sikkim Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, O. P.; Sharma, E.; Palni, L. M. S.

    1995-01-01

    A study on five naturally growing epiphytic orchids viz., Bulbophyllum affine Lindl., Coelogyne ochracea Lindl., Otochilus porrecta Lindl., Cirrhopetalum cornutum Lindl. and C. cornutum (var.) was carried out in the subtropical belt of Sikkim Himalaya. Stemflow leachates formed the main source of ammonium-N and nitrate-N for uptake by these orchids. Phosphorus concentration in the tissues of these orchids was high. Phosphate-P from stemflow does not seem to be a regular source of phosphorus for these orchids. Absorption/desorption results indicate that organic-N from stemflow leachates is not utilized by these orchids. PMID:21247907

  15. Cost of providing inpatient burn care in a tertiary, teaching, hospital of North India.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Goswami, Prasenjit

    2013-06-01

    There is an extreme paucity of studies examining cost of burn care in the developing world when over 85% of burns take place in low and middle income countries. Modern burn care is perceived as an expensive, resource intensive endeavour, requiring specialized equipment, personnel and facilities to provide optimum care. If 'burn burden' of low and middle income countries (LMICs) is to be tackled deftly then besides prevention and education we need to have burn centres where 'reasonable' burn care can be delivered in face of resource constraints. This manuscript calculates the cost of providing inpatient burn management at a large, high volume, tertiary burn care facility of North India by estimating all cost drivers. In this one year study (1st February to 31st January 2012), in a 50 bedded burn unit, demographic parameters like age, gender, burn aetiology, % TBSA burns, duration of hospital stay and mortality were recorded for all patients. Cost drivers included in estimation were all medications and consumables, dressing material, investigations, blood products, dietary costs, and salaries of all personnel. Capital costs, utility costs and maintenance expenditure were excluded. The burn unit is constrained to provide conservative management, by and large, and is serviced by a large team of doctors and nurses. Entire treatment cost is borne by the hospital for all patients. 797 patients (208 <12 years old) with acute burn were admitted with a mean age of 23.04 years (range 18 days to 83 years). The mean BSA burn was 42.26% (ranging from 2% to 100%). 378/797 patients (47.43%) sustained up to 30% BSA burns, 216 patients (27.1%) had between 31 and 60% BSA and 203 patients (25.47%) had >60% BSA burns. 258/797 patients died (32.37%). Of these deaths 16, 68 and 174 patients were from 0 to 30%, 31 to 60% and >60% BSA groups, respectively. The mean length of hospitalization for all admissions was 7.86 days (ranging from 1 to 62 days) and for survivors it was 8.9 days

  16. New discovery of coral rubbings in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India — GIS based evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesh Serebiah, J.; Rajkumar, M.; Sun, Jun; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thivakaran, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    The Gulf of Kachchh in western India, with its arid climate, large semi-diurnal tidal amplitudes, negative water balance and near-pristine water quality, is being extensively developed as oil importing bases for economic reasons in connection with its proximity to the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. Besides, new coral rubbings were sighted in Jakhau, north-western Gulf of Kachchh. Dredging in Mandvi of the north Gulf covering 3.5 km2 revealed a similar assortment of live corals with their associated flora and fauna. These pioneering observations demonstrate that there exist live corals of young polyps-colony of Favia sp. belonging to the family Faviidae in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh. The environmental parameters there were carefully recorded as: surface water temperature (°C) varying from 29 to 31.8, salinity (ppt), pH, dissolved oxygen (mgL-1) and total suspended solids (mgL-1) in the ranges of 37-43.5, 7.7-8.45, 5.4-6.8 and 11-31, respectively.

  17. Enhanced formation of secondary air pollutants and aggravation of urban smog due to crop residue burning emissions in North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Vinayak

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning causes intense perturbations to regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality and is a significant global source of reactive pollutants to the atmosphere (Andreae and Merlet, 2001). In November 2012, large areas in North India including New Delhi experienced several weeks of aggravated smog and poor air quality due to the impact of crop residue burning, which is a biannual post harvest activity that occurs during Oct-Nov and April-May every year in the agricultural belts of North western India. In-situ high temporal resolution (1 measurement every minute) measurements of a suite of volatile organic compounds measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) such as acetonitrile (biomass burning tracer) and aromatic hydrocarbons were performed simultaneously with carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and aerosol mass concentrations (PM 2.5 and PM 10) at a suburban site (30.667°N, 76.729°E and 310 m asl), impacted by air masses that had passed over the burning fields less than 72 hours ago. By using data from the same season but before the post harvest crop residue burning activity had commenced, we were able to quantify enhancements in ambient levels of the measured species due to the crop residue burning activity. When air masses influenced by the fire emissions reached the measurement site, peak values of about 8 ppbV acetonitrile, 4 ppmV CO, 100 ppbV NOx , 30 ppbV toluene and 15 ppbV benzene were observed which represented a factor of 2-5 increase over their ambient levels in the non-fire influenced period. Emission ratios of aromatic hydrocarbons/CO also showed a marked increase. Non fire event (N.F. E.) influenced and fire event (F.E.) influenced air masses had the following emission ratio enhancements: benzene/CO (N.F.E = 3; F.E. = 5), toluene/CO (N.F.E = 4; F.E. = 8.7) and sum of C8 aromatics/CO (N.F.E = 4; F.E. = 7.3) and sum of C9 aromatics/CO (N.F.E = 2.6; F.E. = 3.4). The OH reactivity of air masses which has strong

  18. 6.9 Sikkim Earthquake and Modeling of Ground Motions to Determine Causative Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Sumer; Sharma, Jyoti; Sutar, Anup; Bansal, B. K.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, source parameters of the September 18, 2011 M w 6.9, Sikkim earthquake were determined using acceleration records. These parameters were then used to generate strong motion at a number of sites using the stochastic finite fault modeling technique to constrain the causative fault plane for this earthquake. The average values of corner frequency, seismic moment, stress drop and source radius were 0.12 Hz, 3.07 × 1026 dyne-cm, 115 bars and 9.68 km, respectively. The fault plane solution showed strike-slip movement with two nodal planes oriented along two prominent lineaments in the region, the NE-oriented Kanchendzonga and NW-oriented Tista lineaments. The ground motions were estimated considering both the nodal planes as causative faults and the results in terms of the peak ground accelerations (PGA) and Fourier spectra were then compared with the actual recordings. We found that the NW-SE striking nodal plane along the Tista lineament may have been the causative fault for the Sikkim earthquake, as PGA estimates are comparable with the observed recordings. We also observed that the Fourier spectrum is not a good parameter in deciding the causative fault plane.

  19. Chlorinated drinking water, cancers and adverse health outcomes in Gangtok, Sikkim, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rabi N; Goel, Sudha

    2007-10-01

    Long-term impacts of drinking chlorinated water on the incidence of cancers and other adverse health outcomes were assessed in a population-based cross-sectional study. The study was conducted by comparing a group exposed to chlorinated drinking water for more than thirty years with control groups with less or no exposure to chlorine. A house-to-house survey was completed to gather information on residential history, age, education, income, source and extent of treatment of water and health characteristics. All residents below thirty years of age were excluded from the database used for analyses to ensure that the groups were comparable. Fourteen cancer cases were found in the long-term exposed groups of 1085 persons and 9 cancer cases in the two control populations of 725 persons. The odds ratio for cancers (OR) was 1.05 (95% CI = 0.43-2.65) and is not statistically significant. Reciprocal or inverse odds [corrected] ratios for gastrointestinal disorders, kidney problems and skin infections were statistically significant ranging from 2.06 (95% CI = 1.01-4.17) to 2.2 (95% CI = 1.45-3.33). These OR values indicate that there is no significant association between the incidence of cancer and exposure to chlorinated water while chlorinating drinking water significantly reduced the incidence of non-carcinogenic adverse health effects like gastrointestinal diseases, skin infections, and kidney diseases. PMID:18476370

  20. Molecular characterization of veterinary important trematode and cestode species in the mithun Bos frontalis from north-east India.

    PubMed

    Chamuah, J K; Raina, O K; Lalrinkima, H; Jacob, S S; Sankar, M; Sakhrie, A; Lama, S; Banerjee, P S

    2016-09-01

    Helminth infections in the mithun Bos frontalis, including the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica, hepato-gastric amphistomes Explanatum explanatum, Paramphistomum epiclitum and Calicophoron calicophorum, and the cestodes Echinococcus granulosus and E. ortleppi were studied in north-east India over a 2-year period from 2012 to 2014. Cystic echinococcosis caused by E. granulosus and E. ortleppi was found to be highly prevalent in the mithun, with E. ortleppi being reported for the first time. Molecular markers, including the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2), 28S rDNA and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase sub-unit1 (nad1) were used to confirm the identification of the trematode and cestode species. PMID:26343353

  1. Case Report of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Uterine Cervix Treated at a Semiurban Cancer Centre in North India

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Epari

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is very rare. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the uterine cervix treated at a newly commissioned semiurban cancer centre in north India in 2015. Data for this study was obtained from the hospital electronic medical records and the patient's case file. We also reviewed published case reports of uterine and cervical lymphoma involving forty-one patients. We treated a case of stage IV DLBCL cervix with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) and intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation with radiotherapy. The patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. We conclude that, in advanced stage lymphoma involving uterus and cervix, combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is effective in short term. PMID:27597906

  2. Crustacean-borne infections with microphallid metacercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from focal areas in Meghalaya, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, L M; Prasad, P K; Biswal, D K; Chatterjee, A; Tandon, V

    2013-06-01

    During a survey of edible Crustacea for recovery of infective stages (metacercariae) of potential helminthozoonoses of trematode origin in north-east India, the crab species Barytelphusa lugubris mansoniana, collected from suspected foci of lungfluke infection in Meghalaya and Assam, was found to harbour metacercarial cysts that were different from the earlier reported infection, in which the lungfluke Paragonimus was confirmed to be implicated. Using morphological criteria, this metacercaria was identified as Microphallus indicus Mukherjee & Ghosh, 1967 of the trematode family Microphallidae. The present study extends the previous work by providing molecular characterization of this parasite using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and the partial large ribosomal subunit DNA, lsr. These target regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using trematode universal primers and sequenced. In BLAST analysis the query sequences were found close to members of Microphallidae and closest to the genus Microphallus. PMID:22613735

  3. Case Report of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Uterine Cervix Treated at a Semiurban Cancer Centre in North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vibhor; Dora, Tapas; Patel, Mehul; Sancheti, Sankalp; Sridhar, Epari

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is very rare. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the uterine cervix treated at a newly commissioned semiurban cancer centre in north India in 2015. Data for this study was obtained from the hospital electronic medical records and the patient's case file. We also reviewed published case reports of uterine and cervical lymphoma involving forty-one patients. We treated a case of stage IV DLBCL cervix with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) and intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation with radiotherapy. The patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. We conclude that, in advanced stage lymphoma involving uterus and cervix, combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is effective in short term. PMID:27597906

  4. Heavy metals accumulation in crab and shrimps from Pulicat lake, north Chennai coastal region, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Batvari, B Prabhu Dass; Sivakumar, S; Shanthi, K; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek; Krishnamoorthy, R R; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) was examined in crab (Scylla serrata) and shrimps (Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus monodon) collected from Pulicat lake that receives effluents from industries located in north Chennai, southeast coast of India. The results showed limited difference between crab and prawns as well as significant variations between the organs. Pb is the highly accumulated metal in both crab and shrimps, except P. monodon. The highest metal concentration was mostly found in the liver followed by other organs. The concentration of metals in edible parts (muscle) was within the permissible level and safe for consumption. However, the results of the study clearly indicate the biomagnification of metals in Pulicat lake. PMID:23344825

  5. Shifting to settled cultivation: Changing practices among the Adis in Central Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Teegalapalli, Karthik; Datta, Aparajita

    2016-09-01

    In the hilly tropics, although shifting cultivation is a widespread practice, government policies have attempted to replace it with other land uses. However, several factors determine whether farming communities can make the shift. We tried understanding the factors that facilitate or impede the shift to settled cultivation through interviews with the Adi tribe in north-east India. Although settled cultivation was initiated in the 60s, about 90 % of the families still practise shifting cultivation, observing 13 festivals associated with the annual agricultural calendar. Our results indicate that the economic status of a household determined whether a family undertook settled cultivation, while labour availability was important for shifting cultivation. Often, these nuances are ignored in the Government policies. We conclude that future policies should be mindful of cultural and socio-economic factors that affect the community and of the social-ecological resilience of the landscapes and not use a one-size-fits-all strategy. PMID:26867932

  6. Virulence determinants in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from North India and their interaction in in vitro organ culture system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepika; Sharma, Monica; Sarkar, Subendu; Thapa, B R; Chakraborti, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important diarrhoeal pathogen causing diseases in multiple epidemiological and clinical settings. In developing countries like India, diarrhoeal diseases are one of the major killers among paediatric population and oddly, few studies are available from Indian paediatric population on the variability of EAEC virulence genes. In this study, we examined the distribution of plasmid and chromosomal-encoded virulence determinants in EAEC isolates, and analysed cytokines response generated against EAEC with specific aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF) type in duodenal biopsies using in vitro organ culture (IVOC) mimicking in vivo conditions. Different virulence marker combinations among strains were reflected as a function of specific adhesins signifying EAEC heterogeneity. fis gene emerged as an important genetic marker apart from aggA and aap Further, EAEC infection in IVOC showed upregulation of IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and TLR-5 expression. EAEC with AAFII induced significant TLR-5 and IL-8 response, conceivably owing to more pathogenicity markers. This study sheds light on the pattern of EAEC pathotypes prevalent in North Indian paediatric population and highlights the presence of unique virulence combinations in pathogenic strains. Thus, evident diversity in EAEC virulence and multifaceted bacteria-host crosstalk can provide useful insights for the strategic management of diarrhoeal diseases in India, where diarrhoeal outbreaks are more frequent. PMID:27493010

  7. Pathogenic 'Bison-type' Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis genotype characterized from riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in North India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, D; Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Sevilla, I; Juste, R A; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S

    2008-07-01

    Despite low per-animal productivity of ruminants in developing countries, Johne's disease has not been investigated in buffaloes, which are primarily found in these countries. This is due to lack of expertise, diagnostic kits and priority to production diseases like Johne's disease. Presence of pathogenic Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) was investigated by screening of target tissues (mesenteric lymph nodes and large intestine) by culture and IS 900 PCR, in 50 sacrificed buffaloes. Indigenous ELISA kit originally developed for goats and sheep was standardized in buffaloes and used to estimate sero-presence of Map in 167 serum samples representing population of buffaloes in Agra region of North India. In culture, 48.0% buffaloes were positive from 50 tissues each from mesenteric lymph nodes (34.0%) and large intestine (36.0%). IS 900 PCR was standardized using specific primers (150 C and 921) and 229 bp-amplified product was characteristic for Map. Of the 25 mesenteric lymph nodes, 40.0% were positive in IS 900 PCR. Genomic DNA from Map cultures was successfully amplified from all the 24 isolates (100.0%). Map was further genotyped as 'Bison type' using IS 1311 PCR-REA. Culture of tissues showed high presence of Map in target tissues, despite high culling rate in buffalos in view of high demand of buffalo meat. Specific tissue-PCR provided rapid confirmation of Map infection in sacrificed buffaloes. In tissue-PCR, all the cultures were positive as compared to 40.0% detected directly from tissues. ELISA kit using indigenous protoplasmic antigen was highly sensitive as compared to commercial antigen in detecting Map infection therefore, could be used as 'Herd Screening Test' in buffaloes against Johne's disease. This pilot study first time reports a highly pathogenic 'Bison-type' genotype of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis from the riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) of Agra region in North India. PMID:17804069

  8. Identification and characterization of metabolic properties of bacterial populations recovered from arsenic contaminated ground water of North East India (Assam).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soma; Sar, Pinaki

    2013-12-01

    Diversity of culturable bacterial populations within the Arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater of North Eastern state (Assam) of India is studied. From nine As contaminated samples 89 bacterial strains are isolated. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis reveals predominance of Brevundimonas (35%) and Acidovorax (23%) along with Acinetobacter (10%), Pseudomonas (9%) and relatively less abundant (<5%) Undibacterium, Herbaspirillum, Rhodococcus, Staphylococcus, Bosea, Bacillus, Ralstonia, Caulobacter and Rhizobiales members. High As(III) resistance (MTC 10-50 mM) is observed for the isolates obtained from As(III) enrichment, particularly for 3 isolates of genus Brevundimonas (MTC 50 mM). In contrast, high resistance to As(V) (MTC as high as 550 mM) is present as a ubiquitous property, irrespective of isolates' enrichment condition. Bacterial genera affiliated to other groups showed relatively lower degree of As resistance [MTCs of 15-20 mM As(III) and 250-350 mM As(V)]. As(V) reductase activity is detected in strains with high As(V) as well as As(III) resistance. A strong correlation could be established among isolates capable of reductase activity and siderophore production as well as As(III) tolerance. A large number of isolates (nearly 50%) is capable of anaerobic respiration using alternate inorganic electron acceptors [As(V), Se(VI), Fe(III), [NO(3)(2), SO(4)(2), S(2)O(3)(2). Ability to utilize different carbon sources ranging from C2-C6 compounds along with some complex sugars is also observed. Particularly, a number of strains is found to possess ability to grow chemolithotrophically using As(III) as the electron donor. The study reports for the first time the identity and metabolic abilities of bacteria in As contaminated ground water of North East India, useful to elucidate the microbial role in influencing mobilization of As in the region. PMID:24210546

  9. Profile of traditional birth attendants in a rural area of north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, A

    1994-01-01

    Two hundred traditional birth attendants (TBAs) of a community development block of India were interviewed. The majority were age 45 years or above (81%), illiterate (85%), and of low caste (78%). Most (88%) had three or more children. Although 27% had inherited the profession from older female relatives, only 4% have daughters or daughters-in-law in the profession. Almost half (48%) had conducted 11 or more deliveries in last year. The TBAs charged more money to deliver a male infant than to deliver a female. The TBA workforce in India appears to be shrinking, possibly because of gradual reduction in family size. Backup support from state maternal health care services is lacking. Existing cadre of TBAs should be involved in primary health care to ensure the survival of the institution of dais (TBAs) and to ensure the availability of basic maternity services to rural women. PMID:8027848

  10. Wild Mushroom Poisoning in North India: Case Series with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K.; Chawla, Yogesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome. PMID:25755582

  11. Cost of Delivering Health Care Services in Public Sector Primary and Community Health Centres in North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Verma, Ramesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kumar, Dinesh; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background With the commitment of the national government to provide universal healthcare at cheap and affordable prices in India, public healthcare services are being strengthened in India. However, there is dearth of cost data for provision of health services through public system like primary & community health centres. In this study, we aim to bridge this gap in evidence by assessing the total annual and per capita cost of delivering the package of health services at PHC and CHC level. Secondly, we determined the per capita cost of delivering specific health services like cost per antenatal care visit, per institutional delivery, per outpatient consultation, per bed-day hospitalization etc. Methods We undertook economic costing of fourteen public health facilities (seven PHCs and CHCs each) in three North-Indian states viz., Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Bottom-up costing method was adopted for collection of data on all resources spent on delivery of health services in selected health facilities. Analysis was undertaken using a health system perspective. The joint costs like human resource, capital, and equipment were apportioned as per the time value spent on a particular service. Capital costs were discounted and annualized over the estimated life of the item. Mean annual costs and unit costs were estimated along with their 95% confidence intervals using bootstrap methodology. Results The overall annual cost of delivering services through public sector primary and community health facilities in three states of north India were INR 8.8 million (95% CI: 7,365,630–10,294,065) and INR 26.9 million (95% CI: 22,225,159.3–32,290,099.6), respectively. Human resources accounted for more than 50% of the overall costs at both the level of PHCs and CHCs. Per capita per year costs for provision of complete package of preventive, curative and promotive services at PHC and CHC were INR 170.8 (95% CI: 131.6–208.3) and INR162.1 (95% CI: 112–219

  12. A link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region in Lonar Lake, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Philip; Gaye, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Plessen, Birgit; Stebich, Martina; Anoop, Ambili; Riedel, Nils; Basavaiah, Nathani

    2014-05-01

    A sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India covers the complete Holocene and was used to reconstruct the monsoon history of the core SW-monsoon region. We compare C/N ratios, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, grain size, as well as amino acid derived degradation proxies with climatically sensitive proxies of other records from South Asia and the North Atlantic region. The comparison reveals some more or less contemporaneous climate shifts. At Lonar Lake, a general long term climate transition from wet conditions during the early Holocene to drier conditions during the late Holocene, delineating the insolation curve, can be reconstructed. Several phases of shorter term climate alteration that superimpose the general climate trend correlate with cold phases in the North Atlantic region. The most pronounced climate deteriorations indicated by our data occurred between 6.2 - 5.2, 4.65 - 3.9, and 2.05 - 0.55 cal ka BP. The strong dry phase between 4.65 - 3.9 cal ka BP at Lonar Lake corroborates the hypothesis that severe climate deterioration contributed to the decline of the Indus Civilisation about 3.9 ka BP.

  13. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Levels Unaltered in Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque Patients from North India

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Dheeraj; Mathur, Deepali; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Thakur, Keshav; Anand, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to identify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) as a serum biomarker of symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque in North Indian population. Individuals with symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque have high risk of ischemic stroke. Previous studies from western countries have shown an association between VEGF and MCP-1 levels and the incidence of ischemic stroke. In this study, venous blood from 110 human subjects was collected, 57 blood samples of which were obtained from patients with carotid plaques, 38 neurological controls without carotid plaques, and another 15 healthy controls who had no history of serious illness. Serum VEGF and MCP-1 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also correlated the data clinically and carried out risk factor analysis based on the detailed questionnaire obtained from each patient. For risk factor analysis, a total of 70 symptomatic carotid plaque cases and equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls were analyzed. We found that serum VEGF levels in carotid plaque patients did not show any significant change when compared to either of the controls. Similarly, there was no significant upregulation of MCP-1 in the serum of these patients. The risk factor analysis revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity were the main correlates of carotid atherosclerosis (p < 0.05). Prevalence of patients was higher residing in urban areas as compared to rural region. We also found that patients coming from mountain region were relatively less vulnerable to cerebral atherosclerosis as compared to the ones residing at non mountain region. On the contrary, smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, alcohol consumption, and tobacco chewing were not observed as the determinants of carotid atherosclerosis risk in North India (p > 0.05). We conclude that the pathogenesis of carotid plaques may progress

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes - report of two survivors from North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from, e.g., the use of unvented coal-burning heaters, indoor barbecues, or inhalation of exhaust of vehicles. The latter is sometimes used to commit suicide. The most common presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is cerebral hypoxia. Despite frequent use of indoor coal-burning heaters and stoves during winter months in the northern part of India, carbon monoxide poisoning has been infrequently reported. We describe two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning who reported to the Emergency Department in the early morning of a winter season with un-witnessed, unexplained development of altered level of consciousness. PMID:26873733

  15. Sources of occupational stress in the police personnel of North India: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shweta; Kar, Sujita Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Police personnel in India are subjected to several distinct occupational stressors which impact their mental health and their work performance negatively. Aim: The study aimed to explore various sources of stress among police personnel. Method: In this study, 100 constables, 100 inspectors and 100 police officers of Uttar Pradesh, were evaluated using the occupational stress questionnaire. This was subjected to the quantitative as well as the qualitative analysis. Result: Occupational stress was commonly perceived among all police personnel, but the major attributes of stress in various groups were diverse. PMID:26023272

  16. Chronic granulomatous disease: two decades of experience from a tertiary care centre in North West India.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Amit; Singh, Surjit; Suri, Deepti; Gupta, Anju; Saikia, Biman; Minz, Ranjana Walker; Sehgal, Shobha; Vaiphei, Kim; Kamae, C; Honma, K; Nakagawa, N; Imai, K; Nonoyama, S; Oshima, K; Mitsuiki, N; Ohara, O; Chan, Koon-Wing; Lau, Yu Lung

    2014-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) results from an inherited defect in the phagocytic cells of the immune system. It is a genetically heterogenous disease caused by defects in one of the five major subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. There is a paucity of data from India on CGD. We herein describe the clinical features in 17 children with CGD from a single tertiary referral center in India. A detailed analysis of the clinical features, laboratory investigations and outcome of 17 children 7 with X-linked (XL) and 10 with autosomal recessive (AR) form was performed. Diagnosis of CGD was based on an abnormal granulocyte oxidative burst evaluated by either Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT) test or flow cytometry based Dihyrorhodamine 123 assay or both. The molecular diagnosis was confirmed by genetic mutation analysis in 13 cases. The mean age at diagnosis and the age at onset of symptoms was significantly lower in children diagnosed with XL- CGD compared those with AR disease. Mutations were detected in CYBB gene in 6 patients with XL-CGD and NCF-1 gene mutations were observed in 7 cases of AR- CGD. The course and outcome of the disease was much worse in children diagnosed with X-linked form of disease compared to AR forms of the disease; 4/7 (57%) children with X-CGD were dead at the time of data analysis. This is one of the largest series on chronic granulomatous disease from any developing country. PMID:24276928

  17. Clinical profile and epidemiological factors of oral cancer patients from North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Misra, Sanjeev; Rathanaswamy, Siva Prakash; Gupta, Sameer; Tewari, Brij Nath; Bhatt, Madan Lal Brahma; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption are major contributing factors in the development of oral carcinoma. India has world's highest number of oral cancers (almost 20%) and approximately 1% of the Indian population has oral premalignant lesions. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiological factors and clinical profile of oral cancer cases in our hospital. Settings: Department of Surgical Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 on 479 cases with histopathologically confirmed oral carcinoma. Subjects’ details of age, sex, occupation, tobacco consumption, site of carcinoma, and stage at presentation were recorded. Results: Mean age in this study was 47.84 years with male to female ratio of 3.1:1.0. Buccal mucosa and alveolus were the most affected sites. The majority of cases were from socially and economically weaker section, with 93.72% cases being tobacco users. The majority of cases were advance stage (Stage III and IV) with Stage IV being the predominant stage at presentation followed by Stage III. Conclusion: The findings of the study reveal that tobacco consumption is one of the major contributors in the development of cancer of oral cavity with the majority of cases presenting in advance stages posing a big therapeutic challenge. PMID:26668448

  18. Detection of amitraz resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from North Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Singh, Veer; Rath, S S

    2015-03-01

    Amitraz has become one of the most extensively used chemical acaricide for control of cattle tick due to development of resistance against most of the organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroid acaricides. The resistance status of amitraz was evaluated against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India by adult immersion test (AIT). The different concentrations of amitraz utilized in the AIT were 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm. The adult female ticks showed an upward trend in the mortality percentage with increase in drug concentration. The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality which was 1.868 ± 0.2068. The lethal concentration (LC95) was calculated as 3098.2 ppm and the RF was 24.78 which indicated level II resistance status. The dose response curves for egg masses, reproductive index and inhibition of oviposition of R. (B.) microplus were also validated and the slope was -0.5165 ± 0.08287, -0.1328 ± 0.04472 and 24.22 ± 8.160, respectively. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz resistance in R. (B.) microplus from India and the data generated could be of immense help to develop effective control strategies against ticks. PMID:25698859

  19. Private Schooling Industry in North East India: A Trend Analysis of Nagaland State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Biswambhara; Suresh, P. Srinivasa; Rio, K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine the intricacies of the growth of Private School industry in the North-Eastern Indian State of Nagaland. The study was carried out in Kohima, the capital city of Nagaland State. Data were obtained from field studies as well as from published reports of the Government. The main objective of the study was to…

  20. Distribution of blood pressure & correlates of hypertension in school children aged 5-14 years from North east India

    PubMed Central

    Borah, Prasanta Kr.; Devi, Utpala; Biswas, Dipankar; Kalita, Hem Ch.; Sharma, Meenakshi; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Elevated blood pressure (BP) in the young predicts serious cardiovascular events in the adults. High prevalence of adult hypertension reported from Assam, North East (NE) India may be linked with elevated blood pressure in the childhood. The present study was an attempt to describe the distribution of BP and correlates of hypertension in children aged 5-14 yr. Methods: A total of 10,003 school children from 99 schools of Dibrugarh district, Assam, NE India, were surveyed by stratified random cluster method. Blood pressure, demographic and anthropometric information were recorded. Blood pressure was categorized in to normal, prehypertension, stage I and stage II hypertension. Results: Girls had significantly higher (104.2 ± 12.0 vs. 103.2 ± 11.6 mm Hg, P<0.001) mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) than boys. Both SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) revealed significant correlation with age, height, weight and BMI in overall and in gender specific analysis. Hypertension was found in 7.6 per cent school children (Boys: 7.3%, Girls: 7.8%). In multivariable analysis older age (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 2.82-3.91), children from tea garden community (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.08-1.55) and other community (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.18-1.73) and overweight (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1) were independently associated with hypertension. Interpretation & conclusions: Mean blood pressure in the young school children of 5-14 yr was high. A programme comprising screening, early detection and health promotion through school health programmes may help prevent future complications of hypertension. PMID:26458345

  1. Gastric cancer—a clinicopathological study in a tertiary care centre of North-eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Sanjeet Kumar; Harsha, Hiriyur S; Sharma, Birkumar M.; Singh, Th Sudhirchandra

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of gastric cancer varies in different parts of the world and among various ethnic groups. It remains the fifth most common cancer among males and seventh most common cancer among females in India. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective study using the data base of 158 patients of primary gastric cancer diagnosed in the Department of Surgery at Regional Cancer Centre, RIMS, Manipur, India from July 2009 to June 2013. Results Our study revealed a male to female ratio of 2.16:1, distribution of age varied from 28 to 91 years. Majority of the men were in the age group of more than 60 years (45.37%) and majority of females were of 51-60 years (44%). Nearly 7.6% patients had a positive family history. Dietary history of intake salted, fermented fish was present in 67.7% of patients, whereas history of consumption of smoked meat was found in 77.8% of patients. Only 27.8% of patients in our study had history of regular consumption of fresh fruits. About 35.4% of the patients had poor drinking water source. Nearly, 67.6% of males and 44% of females had smoking history. Combined consumption of alcohol and smoking was present in 33.5% of patients. Vague abdominal discomfort was the most common presenting symptom in 61.4% of patients. The most common site of gastric cancer in our study was antrum (50.6%) followed by cardia (17.1%). The most common histological type was adenocarcinoma (95.6%). Most of our patients presented in locally advanced stage (62.7%). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that poor dietary habits such as smoked mead, dried fish and excessive use of tobacco are associated with high occurrence of gastric cancer in this part of the India. Increasing the awareness regarding the aetiology and varied clinical presentation among general population and health providers is needed for prevention and early detection. PMID:24772342

  2. Alagille syndrome: experience of a tertiary care center in North India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anshu; Goel, Deepak; Bolia, Rishi; Poddar, Ujjal; Yachha, Surender Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Alagille syndrome (AGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of chronic cholestasis characterized by paucity of interlobular bile ducts. The condition has been described only as isolated case reports in India. We describe clinical profile and outcome of nine subjects (six infants and three older children) with AGS. Cholestasis and characteristic facies were present in all, followed by congenital heart disease, vertebral anomalies, and posterior embryotoxon in seven, five, and four cases, respectively. Pruritus was the commonest symptom which was refractory to medical treatment in one third of cases. Two cases developed decompensated liver disease on follow up. High index of suspicion for this multisystemic condition is essential for correct diagnosis and management. PMID:24222371

  3. Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead from Mizoram, north-eastern India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    PubMed

    Lalhlimpuia, Denis Van; Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-01-01

    Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead of the C. gachua species group, is described from Karnaphuli drainage of Mizoram, India. The species is immediately distinguished from all other snakehead species by its unique coloration in life, specifically its brightly-coloured orange pectoral fins, which lack any spots or stripes; and by the presence of a dark V-shaped blotch on the dorsal surface of the head. It can be further distinguished from all other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: presence of pelvic fins, a large scale on the ventral surface of the lower jaw, 51-64 lateral-line scales, 34-37 dorsal-fin rays, 23-25 anal-fin rays, 13-14 pectoral-fin rays, 5½-6½ /1/ 7½-8½ transverse scale rows, and the absence of scales on the gular region. PMID:27515622

  4. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts. PMID:26345057

  5. Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Patients in North India

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Noman; Shamim, Mohammed; Hussain, Seema; Choudhary, Rakesh Kumar; Ahmed, Niyaz; Prachee; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Savithri, G. R.; Alam, Mahfooz; Pathak, Niteen; Amin, Amol; Hanief, Mohammed; Katoch, V. M.; Sharma, S. K.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2002-01-01

    The World Health Organization has identified India as a major hot-spot region for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We have characterized the sequences of the loci associated with multidrug resistance in 126 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from India to identify the respective mutations. The loci selected were rpoB (rifampin), katG and the ribosomal binding site of inhA (isoniazid), gyrA and gyrB (ofloxacin), and rpsL and rrs (streptomycin). We found known as well as novel mutations at these loci. Few of the mutations at the rpoB locus could be correlated with the drug resistance levels exhibited by the M. tuberculosis isolates and occurred with frequencies different from those reported earlier. Missense mutations at codons 526 to 531 seemed to be crucial in conferring a high degree of resistance to rifampin. We identified a common Arg463Leu substitution in the katG locus and certain novel insertions and deletions. Mutations were also mapped in the ribosomal binding site of the inhA gene. A Ser95Thr substitution in the gyrA locus was the most common mutation observed in ofloxacin-resistant isolates. A few isolates showed other mutations in this locus. Seven streptomycin-resistant isolates had a silent mutation at the lysine residue at position 121. While certain mutations are widely present, pointing to the magnitude of the polymorphisms at these loci, others are not common, suggesting diversity in the multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains prevalent in this region. Our results additionally have implications for the development of methods for multidrug resistance detection and are also relevant in the shaping of future clinical treatment regimens and drug design strategies. PMID:11796356

  6. Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical Tree Species: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen tree species in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten tree species (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all tree species were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two species of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two species of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three species underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst tree species, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine species. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining species had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while predation rates increased (p = 0

  7. Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical Tree Species: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen tree species in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten tree species (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all tree species were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two species of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two species of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three species underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst tree species, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine species. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining species had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while predation rates increased (p = 0

  8. β-Thalassaemia and its Co-existence with Haemoglobin E and Haemoglobin S in Upper Assam Region of North Eastern India: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Deori, Rumi; Saikia, Sidhartha Protim; Pathak, Kalyani; Panyang, Rita; Rajkakati, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction β-Thalassaemias are common genetic disorders in the Indian subcontinent and its status has not been well studied in the Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Aim The aim of the study was to show the prevalence of β- thalassaemias and its co-existence with Haemoglobin E and Haemoglobin S in the Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Materials and Methods A total of 1200 anaemic patients were investigated for β- thalassaemias. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were done for screening. Results Out of 1200 patients screened, 5.83% β-thalassaemia trait, 2.33% compound Hb E/β-Thalassaemia, 1.33% β-thalassaemia major and 0.42% compound Hb S/β- thalassaemia were detected. A high incidence of thalassaemia is found among the people of Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Conclusion The only way to prevent the disease is carrier detection and awareness among the people about it. PMID:27190829

  9. Two new species of hydnoid-fungi from India.

    PubMed

    Das, Kanad; Stalpers, Joost A; Stielow, J Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    Two taxa, Hericium yumthangense (Russulales, Agaricomycotina) and Mycoleptodonoides sharmae (Polyporales, Agaricomycotina) are described as new to science from the Shingba Rhododendron sanctuary located in the northern district of Sikkim, India. Macro- and micromorphological characters are described and illustrated for both species, which are compared with allied taxa. ITS rDNA sequences supported H. yumthangense as a rather isolated species within Hericium, the species complexes of which were not resolved due to low interspecific sequence divergence. In the case of M. sharmae, 28S rDNA (D1/D2) data rendered this poorly known genus among well-known taxa of the core-polyporoid clade. PMID:24563842

  10. Effect of sociocultural cleavage on genetic differentiation: a study from North India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal; Pandey, Atul Kumar; Borkar, Meenal; Tripathi, Manorma; Talwar, Sudha; Bisen, P S; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2008-06-01

    Indian populations possess an exclusive genetic profile primarily due to the many migratory events, which caused an extensive range of genetic diversity, and also due to stringent and austere sociocultural barriers that structure these populations into different endogamous groups. In the present study we attempt to explore the genetic relationships between various endogamous North Indian populations and to determine the effect of stringent social regulations on their gene pool. Twenty STR markers were genotyped in 1,800 random North Indians from 9 endogamous populations belonging to upper-caste and middle-caste Hindus and Muslims. All nine populations had high allelic diversity (176 alleles) and average observed heterozygosity (0.742 +/- 0.06), suggesting strong intrapopulation diversity. The average F(ST) value over all loci was as low as 0.0084. However, within-group F(ST) and genetic distance analysis showed that populations of the same group were genetically closer to each other. The genetic distance of Muslims from middle castes (F(ST) = 0.0090; DA = 0.0266) was significantly higher than that of Muslims from upper castes (F(ST) = 0.0050; DA = 0.0148). Phylogenetic trees (neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood) show the basal cluster pattern of three clusters corresponding to Muslims, upper-caste, and middle-caste populations, with Muslims clustered with upper-caste populations. Based on the results, we conclude that the extensive gene flow through a series of migrations and invasions has created an enormous amount of genetic diversity. The interpopulation differences are minimal but have a definite pattern, in which populations of different socioreligious groups have more genetic similarity within the same group and are genetically more distant from populations of other groups. Finally, North Indian Muslims show a differential genetic relationship with upper- and middle-caste populations. PMID:19130797

  11. Seasonal prevalence of some zoonotic trematode infections in cattle and pigs in the north-east montane zone in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, B; Tandon, V

    1992-02-01

    Seasonal variations in the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica and Eurytrema pancreaticum in cattle, and Opisthorchis noverca, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and Gastrodiscoides hominis in pigs, were studied post-necropsy over a 1 year period in a humid, subtropical north-east hilly region in India. The overall prevalence rate was 53.02% in cattle (n = 960) and 12.92% in pigs (n = 960). Fasciola gigantica and E. pancreaticum occurred throughout the year with peaks during cold winter months. Both species showed a high intensity of infection in winter and a low intensity during summer and autumn. The rate of infection due to A. malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and G. hominis rose to a peak during June-September and thereafter declined to a low level (November-March). Except for the month of February, O. noverca occurred throughout the year, with the highest rate of infection in late autumn and winter. The abundance of infection due to A. malayanum, Fasciolopsis buski and G. hominis was high during late summer and early autumn. Opisthorchis noverca showed a higher density during late autumn and winter. PMID:1561763

  12. Emergency contraception: Knowledge and attitude toward its use among medical students of a medical college in North-West India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajiv Kumar; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Verma, Aruna Kumari; Shora, Tejali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Emergency contraception (EC) is use of drug or device to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Unlike other regular methods of contraception which are taken prior to the sexual act, EC is used after the unprotected sex. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward use of emergency contraceptives among medical students. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among all the medical students in the Government Medical College in North-West India. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire seeking information on knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students was administered over a period of 4 weeks in the month of February and March 2014. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in MS excel and expressed using percentages. Chi-square test was used as a test of statistical significance. Results: About 61.6% (247/401) of the participants were aware about the timing of use of EC. Audio visual media (76.6%; 307/401) was the most common source of information for of these medical students. Conclusions: The lack of appropriate in-depth knowledge of EC among future health care professional should alarm the medical teaching system as EC is the only method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive accident. PMID:27413353

  13. Biochemical and biological characterization of Naja kaouthia venom from North-East India and its neutralization by polyvalent antivenom.

    PubMed

    Das, Diganta; Urs, Nanjaraj; Hiremath, Vilas; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik; Doley, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes biochemical and biological properties of Naja kaouthia (Indian monocled cobra) venom of North-East India. The LD50 of the crude venom was found to be 0.148mg/kg and neurotoxicitic symptoms like paralysis of lower limbs and heavy difficulty in breathing at sub-lethal dose in mice was observed. The venom exhibited PLA2, indirect hemolytic and myotoxic activities but showed weak proteolytic and low direct hemolytic activities. It did not exhibit any hemorrhage when injected intradermally to mice. Anticoagulant activity was prominent when recalcification, prothrombin and activated partial thrombinplastin time were tested on platelet poor plasma. Rotem analysis of whole citrated blood in presence of venom showed delay in coagulation time and clot formation time. Fibrinogen of whole citrated blood was depleted by venom when analyzed in Sonoclot. Crude venom at 10µg and after 16hr of incubation was found to degrade α chain of fibrinogen. Neutralization study showed that Indian polyvalent antivenom could neutralize some of the biochemical and biological activities as well as its fibrinogenolytic activity. PMID:24349704

  14. Biochemical and biological characterization of Naja kaouthia venom from North-East India and its neutralization by polyvalent antivenom

    PubMed Central

    Das, Diganta; Urs, Nanjaraj; Hiremath, Vilas; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik; Doley, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes biochemical and biological properties of Naja kaouthia (Indian monocled cobra) venom of North-East India. The LD50 of the crude venom was found to be 0.148mg/kg and neurotoxicitic symptoms like paralysis of lower limbs and heavy difficulty in breathing at sub-lethal dose in mice was observed. The venom exhibited PLA2, indirect hemolytic and myotoxic activities but showed weak proteolytic and low direct hemolytic activities. It did not exhibit any hemorrhage when injected intradermally to mice. Anticoagulant activity was prominent when recalcification, prothrombin and activated partial thrombinplastin time were tested on platelet poor plasma. Rotem analysis of whole citrated blood in presence of venom showed delay in coagulation time and clot formation time. Fibrinogen of whole citrated blood was depleted by venom when analyzed in Sonoclot. Crude venom at 10µg and after 16hr of incubation was found to degrade α chain of fibrinogen. Neutralization study showed that Indian polyvalent antivenom could neutralize some of the biochemical and biological activities as well as its fibrinogenolytic activity. PMID:24349704

  15. Assessment of nitrate contamination due to groundwater pollution in north eastern part of Anantapur District, A.P. India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A G S; Niranjan Kumar, K; Subba Rao, D; Sambashiva Rao, S

    2009-01-01

    The north eastern part of Anantapur district is in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, is significant as it is covered by varied geological formations and has different land use and irrigation practices. Though ground water is the major drinking water source, deterioration in its quality is going unchecked. In such agro-economy based rural areas, the nitrate contamination is rampant and much attention has not been drawn towards this anthropogenic pollution. In the study area ground water samples from different hydrogeological set-up have been collected during the pre and post monsoon seasons and analysed for the major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, CO(3), HCO(3), Cl, SO(4), NO(3) and F. The study revealed that 65% of the samples were found to be unsuitable for drinking purposes in the pre monsoon season and 45% in the post monsoon due to excess nitrate (>45 mg/l) content in the ground water. Among the different seasons and environs, nitrate was in highest concentration in the granitic terrain and canal command areas during pre monsoon season. The nitrate was found to decrease with depth in all the hydrogeological set-ups in both the seasons. Intense agriculture practices, improper sewerage and organic waste disposal methods were observed to contribute nitrate to the shallow and moderately deep aquifers. PMID:18347925

  16. Terpenoid compositions and antioxidant activities of two Indian valerian oils from the Khasi Hills of north-east India.

    PubMed

    Das, Jayashankar; Mao, Ashiho A; Handique, Pratap J

    2011-01-01

    The volatile constituents of Valeriana jatamansi Jones and V. hardwickii Wall. (Valerianaceae) collected from the Khasi Hills of north-east India were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-seven and twenty-one compounds were characterized and identified from V. jatamansi and V. hardwickii samples, representing 90.6% and 82.7% of the total oil, respectively. Sesquiterpenes were shown to be the main constituents in both the oil samples. Maaliol (26.1%), patchouli alcohol (9.3%) and a-gurjunene (8.7%) were the major components of V. jatamansi oil, whereas valeracetate (21.3%), methyl linoleate (14.1%), bornyl acetate (13.8%) and cuparene (7.1%) were the main constituents of V. hardwickii oil. Both Indian valerian essential oils were studied for their antioxidant activities using the free radical-scavanging activity (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. V. hardwickii oil exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than V. jatamansi in both assays. For both the valerian oil samples, there was a concentration-dependent increase in free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing capacity. Both valerian oils and their ingredients are potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:21366063

  17. Earthquake precursory studies in Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, with special emphasis on radon emission.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Kalia, Rajeev; Dhar, Sunil

    2009-10-01

    The continuous soil gas radon monitoring is carried out at Palampur and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Dharamshala region of Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, a seismic zone V, to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France, whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD 7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, and humidity on radon emission has been studied. The seasonal average value and standard deviation of radon in soil and water is calculated to find the radon anomaly to minimize the effect of meteorological parameters on radon emission. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M>or=2 reported by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi in NW Himalayas within 250km distance from the monitoring stations. PMID:19546007

  18. Post-placental intrauterine device insertion - A five year experience at a tertiary care centre in north India

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Manju; Qureshi, Sabuhi; Chandrawati

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of high rate of unintended pregnancy in our country, particularly in post-partum women, there is a need for reliable, effective, long-term contraception such as intrauterine device (IUD) in post-partum women. The present study was planned to evaluate the safety and efficacy of immediate post-partum IUD insertion in women delivering vaginally or by caesarian section in a tertiary care centre facility in north India during a period of five years. Methods: The women recruited had CuT 200B insertion immediately after delivery of placenta in vaginal or caesarean delivery. Women having post-partum haemorrhage (PPH), anaemia, pre-labour rupture of membranes >18 h, obstructed labour and distorted uterine cavity by fibroid or by congenital malformation were excluded from the study. The women were followed up at 6 wk and 6 months after delivery. Results: A total of 1317 women were included in the study. Of these, 1037 (78.7%) came for first follow up. The cumulative expulsion rate at the end of 6 months was 10.68 per cent. There was no case of misplaced IUD. Interpretation & conclusions: Although the expulsion rate for immediate post-partum insertion was higher than for interval insertion, the benefits of providing highly effective contraception immediately after delivery outweigh this disadvantage, particularly in country where women have limited access to medical care. PMID:23041736

  19. Outcome and predictors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among patients admitted in Medical Intensive Care Unit in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Amit; Singh, Tirath; Ahluwalia, Gautam; Singh, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Outcome and predictors of survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) have been extensively studied in western world, but data from developing countries is sparse. Objectives: To study the outcome and predictors of survival after CPR in a Medical ICU (MICU) of a tertiary level teaching hospital in North India. Materials and Methods: A 1-year prospective cohort study. Results: Of 105 in-MICU CPRs, forty patients (38.1%) achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Only one patient (0.9%) survived up to hospital discharge. The predictors of ROSC were ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation as first monitored rhythm, intubation during CPR and CPR duration ≤ 10 min. CPR duration > 10 min was a significant factor for resuscitation failure. Conclusions: The rate of survival to hospital discharge after in-MICU CPRs is extremely poor. Our data may aid treating physicians, resuscitation teams, and families in understanding the likely outcome of patients after in-MICU CPRs. PMID:27076727

  20. Heavy metal accumulation in lichens growing in north side of Lucknow city, India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shalini; Upreti, D K; Sharma, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of Pb, Fe, Cr, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Hg metals in six common lichen species growing on Mangifera indica trees in mango orchard surrounding the north side of the Lucknow city, were analyzed. The study revealed the higher concentration of Pb (3.3 - 15.6 microgg(-1)), Cr (25.6 - 137.5 microgg(-1)), Zn (49.4 - 219.7 microgg(-1)), Cu (10.2 - 66.6 microgg(-1)) and Fe (1748 - 19374 microgg(-1)). PMID:17717985

  1. Pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in North India

    PubMed Central

    Kore, Sachin D.; Kanwar, Amrinder J.; Vinay, Keshavamurthy; Wanchu, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mucocutaneous diseases are among the first-recognized clinical manifestations of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. They function as visual markers in assessing the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Given the relative ease of examination of skin, its evaluation remains an important tool in the diagnosis of HIV infection. Objective: To determine the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV-positive patients and to correlate their presence with CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 352 HIV-infected patients seen at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India, over a period of 1 year. The patients were screened for mucocutaneous disorders by an experienced dermatologist. The patients were classified into different stages according to the World Health Organization clinical and immunological staging system. Results: The most prevalent infection was candidiasis, seen in 57 patients (16.2%). Prevalence of candidiasis, dermatophytosis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, molluscum contagiosum (MC), seborrheic dermatitis, adverse drug reaction, nail pigmentation, xerosis and diffuse hair loss differed statistically according to the clinical stages of HIV infection. There was a statistically significant association between immunological stages of HIV infection and dermatophytosis. Conclusion: Results of our study suggest that mucocutaneous findings occur throughout the course of HIV infection. Dermatoses like MC and dermatophytosis show an inverse relation with CD4 cell count, and these dermatoses can be used as a proxy indicator of advanced immunosuppression to start highly active anti-retroviral therapy in the absence of facilities to carry out CD4 cell count. PMID:23919050

  2. A LIFE CRISIS AND ITS MANAGEMENT A CASE STUDY FROM NORTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Pfleiderer, Beatrix

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of so called traditional patients has been the topic of anthropological research for the last thirty years. Myths have been and constructed and rejected, one being that patients with chronic and less incapacitating illness see rather traditional healers than allopathic medical treatment. The case study with which we are concerned in this paper is the illness of a young girl who is the age in which she is expected to accept a marriage contract. Since she is obviously not willing to do she adopts an illness behaviour which enables her to postpone all role expectations of her age group. She performs a behaviour which is socially accepted and guarantees all the support from her family which she needs and requires. The paper investigates the causes, reason and development of her spirit possession and relates it to the cultural grammar of the patient's group of reference. The data of this case study were obtained at a Muslim shrine in Gujarat, India. PMID:22557510

  3. Infectious agents in congenital cataract in a tertiary care referral center in North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mini P; Ram, Jagat; Kumar, Archit; Khurana, Jasmine; Marbaniang, Merinda; Ratho, Radha Kanta

    2016-08-01

    Congenital cataract has the potential for inhibiting early visual development. Intrauterine infections with Rubella virus, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Toxoplasma gondii plays an important role in the development of congenital cataract. The study included 120 children under the age of 6 years presenting with congenital cataract and diagnosed using serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The IgM positivity for rubella, HSV, T. gondii was found to be 5.8%, 1.6% and 8.3% respectively. The overall PCR positivity was found to be 40(33.3%), 25 (20.8%) and 39 (32.5%) for rubella, HSV and T. gondii with mean copy number of 1599 copies/μL; 1716 copies/μL and 1503 copies/μL respectively. Infective etiology significantly contributes to the causation of congenital cataract particularly for rubella virus which is a potentially eradicable disease. This study provides an epidemiological data for rubella, HSV and T. gondii in children with congenital cataract and highlights the need to introduce rubella vaccine in the National Immunization Programme of India. PMID:27236713

  4. Economic Burden of Hospitalization Due to Injuries in North India: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Aggarwal, Sameer; Nguyen, Ha; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is little documentation of the potential catastrophic effects of injuries on families due to out of pocket (OOP) expenditure for medical care. Patients who were admitted for at least one night in a tertiary care hospital of Chandigarh city due to injury were recruited and were followed-up at 1, 2 and 12 months after discharge to collect information on OOP expenditure. Out of the total 227 patients, 60% (137/227) had sustained road traffic injuries (RTI). The average OOP expenditure per hospitalisation and up to 12 months post discharge was USD 388 (95% CI: 332–441) and USD 1046 (95% CI: 871–1221) respectively. Mean OOP expenditure for RTI and non-RTI cases during hospitalisation was USD 400 (95% CI: 344–456) and USD 369 (95% CI: 313–425) respectively. The prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was 30%, and was significantly higher among those belonging to the lowest income quartile (OR-26.50, 95% CI: 6.70–105.07, p-value: <0.01) and with an inpatient stay greater than 7 days (OR-10.60, 95% CI: 4.21–26.64, p-value: <0.01). High OOP expenditure for treatment of injury puts a significant economic burden on families. Measures aimed at increasing public health spending for prevention of injury and providing financial risk protection are urgently required in India. PMID:27384572

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of rainfall regime in the Brahmaputra valley of North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, R. L.; Mahanta, C.; Nath, K. K.; Dutta, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    Monthly rainfall data, spanning over 110 years (1901-2010), were utilized for trend analysis at different spatial and temporal scales over the Brahmaputra valley, India. The Mann-Kendall statistic and Sen's slope model were used to identify the trends and estimate the magnitude of change, respectively. Statistical significance of the decadal shifts in rainfall from the overall mean was estimated by using Cramer's test. The analysis revealed decrease in annual as well as monsoon rainfall in the Brahmaputra valley during the last 110 years with large spatial and temporal variations. These decreasing trends of rainfall in the eastern part of the valley were statistically significant. Significant decreasing trend of monsoon rainfall during the recent 30-year period was due to significant decrease of July and September rainfall, and this trend was found to be consistent at different spatial scales. In the last decade (2001-2010) in particular, monsoon rainfall exhibited significant negative deviation from the normal due to three deficient years and absence of excess rainfall years. On the contrary, contribution of pre-monsoon and post-monsoon rainfall to annual total in the Brahmaputra valley increased during the recent 30-year period. Winter rainfall in the valley decreased during the last 30 years due to significant decrease of December rainfall in the eastern and central parts.

  6. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  7. Paleoseismic investigations in the Kopili Fault Zone of North East India: Evidences from liquefaction chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Devender; Reddy, D. V.; Pandey, Anand K.

    2016-04-01

    We report the seismogenic liquefaction signatures observed in the Kopili Fault Zone of the Brahmaputra plains, NE India. This seismically active zone has previously been identified as the "Assam seismic gap" and thus necessitates understanding its past seismicity and implied seismic hazard. With this objective, paleo-seismic studies using seismogenic liquefaction features have been carried out in this region largely covered with the flood plain deposits of Kopili and Kalang rivers. The trenches excavated at two locations revealed extensive liquefaction features with more than 20 sub parallel sand dykes having major orientation in NE-SW direction. A total of 29 samples from marker horizons have been processed to constrain chronology of the liquefaction features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C (AMS) dating techniques. The age constraints in terms of respective lower and upper bound age brackets for individual dykes suggest three time intervals of their formations i.e. (i) 250 ± 25 yr. BP, (ii) between 400 to 770 yr. BP and (iii) 900 ± 50 yr. BP. These new ages of liquefaction features correspond to the occurrence timings of causative seismic events which are in addition to the known historical earthquakes and thus enhance our understanding of the paleoseismic history of this region during past ~ 1000 years.

  8. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  9. Economic Burden of Hospitalization Due to Injuries in North India: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Prinja, Shankar; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Aggarwal, Sameer; Nguyen, Ha; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is little documentation of the potential catastrophic effects of injuries on families due to out of pocket (OOP) expenditure for medical care. Patients who were admitted for at least one night in a tertiary care hospital of Chandigarh city due to injury were recruited and were followed-up at 1, 2 and 12 months after discharge to collect information on OOP expenditure. Out of the total 227 patients, 60% (137/227) had sustained road traffic injuries (RTI). The average OOP expenditure per hospitalisation and up to 12 months post discharge was USD 388 (95% CI: 332-441) and USD 1046 (95% CI: 871-1221) respectively. Mean OOP expenditure for RTI and non-RTI cases during hospitalisation was USD 400 (95% CI: 344-456) and USD 369 (95% CI: 313-425) respectively. The prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was 30%, and was significantly higher among those belonging to the lowest income quartile (OR-26.50, 95% CI: 6.70-105.07, p-value: <0.01) and with an inpatient stay greater than 7 days (OR-10.60, 95% CI: 4.21-26.64, p-value: <0.01). High OOP expenditure for treatment of injury puts a significant economic burden on families. Measures aimed at increasing public health spending for prevention of injury and providing financial risk protection are urgently required in India. PMID:27384572

  10. Using U-Th-Pb petrochronology to determine rates of ductile thrusting: Time windows into the Main Central Thrust, Sikkim Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Catherine M.; Parrish, Randall R.; Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Argles, Tom W.; Harris, Nigel B. W.; Roberts, Nick M. W.

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative constraints on the rates of tectonic processes underpin our understanding of the mechanisms that form mountains. In the Sikkim Himalaya, late structural doming has revealed time-transgressive evidence of metamorphism and thrusting that permit calculation of the minimum rate of movement on a major ductile fault zone, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), by a novel methodology. U-Th-Pb monazite ages, compositions, and metamorphic pressure-temperature determinations from rocks directly beneath the MCT reveal that samples from ~50 km along the transport direction of the thrust experienced similar prograde, peak, and retrograde metamorphic conditions at different times. In the southern, frontal edge of the thrust zone, the rocks were buried to conditions of ~550°C and 0.8 GPa between ~21 and 18 Ma along the prograde path. Peak metamorphic conditions of ~650°C and 0.8-1.0 GPa were subsequently reached as this footwall material was underplated to the hanging wall at ~17-14 Ma. This same process occurred at analogous metamorphic conditions between ~18-16 Ma and 14.5-13 Ma in the midsection of the thrust zone and between ~13 Ma and 12 Ma in the northern, rear edge of the thrust zone. Northward younging muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages are consistently ~4 Ma younger than the youngest monazite ages for equivalent samples. By combining the geochronological data with the >50 km minimum distance separating samples along the transport axis, a minimum average thrusting rate of 10 ± 3 mm yr-1 can be calculated. This provides a minimum constraint on the amount of Miocene India-Asia convergence that was accommodated along the MCT.

  11. Tobacco consumption in relation to causes of death in an urban population of north India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ram B; Singh, Surendra; Chattopadhya, Pronobesh; Singh, Kalpana; Singh, Vijender; Kulshrestha, Shallendra K; Tomar, Rukam S; Kumar, Rajeev; Singh, Garima; Mechirova, Viola; Pella, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Background: Noncommunicable diseases have become a public heath problem in India concomitant with economic development, leading to increases in tobacco consumption, obesity, and changes in diet and lifestyle. Although observation suggests that tobacco consumption is a major risk factor for deaths due to circulatory, pulmonary, and malignant diseases, such studies are not available from most populations in developing countries. Subjects and methods: For the period 1999–2001, we studied the randomly selected records of death of 2222 (1385 men and 837 women) decedents, aged 25–64 years, out of 3034 death records overall from the records at Municipal Corporation, Moradabad. All the families of these deceased could be contacted individually to find out the causes of death, by scientist/doctor administered, informed consented, verbal autopsy questionnaire, completed with the help of the spouse and local treating doctor practicing in the appropriate healthcare region. Social classes and tobacco intakes were assessed by a questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of tobacco consumption, including chewing + smoking, were 45% (n = 623) among men and 15% (n = 125) among women decedents. However, smoking was observed in 20% and tobacco chewing in 30% of male decedents, while only 6% of female decedents smoked and 10% chewed tobacco. Social class had no impact on tobacco consumption in men but did influence one subgroup >55 years among women, ie, among those who had the highest tobacco consumption. Tobacco intakes were significantly more common among decedents dying due to circulatory, malignant, and pulmonary diseases, compared with other causes (men 61.1%, 76.6%, pulmonary 77.3% vs 31%, P < 0.001; women 27.5%, 75.9%, pulmonary 24.6% vs 0.42%, P < 0.001) of mortality, respectively. Pulmonary causes included chronic bronchitis and asthma. Circulatory diseases (29.1%, n = 646) including heart attacks (10.0%), stroke (7.8%), valvular heart disease (7.2%, n = 160), sudden cardiac

  12. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  13. Ocular morbidity prevalence among school children in Shimla, Himachal, North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Madhu; Gupta, Bhupinder P; Chauhan, Anil; Bhardwaj, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Background Data on eye diseases among school children is not readily available. Considering the fact that one-third of India's blind lose their eyesight before the age of 20 years and many of them are under five when they become blind, early detection and treatment of ocular morbidity among children is important. Aim To estimate the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children of age 6-16 years. Settings Government and private coeducational schools in urban area of Shimla. Design Cross-sectional Materials and Methods Government and private coeducational schools selected by stratified random sampling. About 1561 school children, studying in elementary through secondary class in these schools were examined from August 2001 to January 2002 in Shimla. A doctor did visual acuity and detailed ophthalmic examination. Statistical analysis The Chi-square test was used to test differences in proportions. Differences were considered to be statistically significant at the 5% level. Results Prevalence of ocular morbidity was 31.6% (CI=29.9-32.1%), refractive errors 22% (CI=21.1-22.8%), squint 2.5% (CI=2.4-2.6%), color blindness 2.3% (CI=2.2-2.4%), vitamin A deficiency 1.8 % (CI=1.7-1.9%), conjunctivitis 0.8% (CI=0.79-0.81%). Overall prevalence of ocular morbidity in government and private schools did not show any statistical significant difference. Prevalence of conjunctivitis was significantly (P<0.5) more in government schools. Conclusion A high prevalence of ocular morbidity among high-school children was observed. Refractive errors were the most common ocular disorders. PMID:19237787

  14. Pseudotachylitic breccia from the Dhala impact structure, north-central India: Texture, mineralogy and geochemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, J. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Greshake, A.; Schmitt, R. T.; Koeberl, C.; Pati, P.; Prakash, K.

    2015-05-01

    Pseudotachylitic breccia (PTB) occurs in a drill core from the crater floor of the 11 km diameter, Proterozoic Dhala impact structure, India. PTBs were intersected in late Archean granitoids between 348.15 m and 502.55 m depth in the MCB-10 drill core from the center of the Dhala structure. The breccias comprise both cataclastic-matrix as well as melt breccias. The presence of microlites and vesicles in the groundmass and a widely observed flow fabric in the PTB support the presence of melt in the groundmass of some samples. Clasts in PTB are derived from the Archean granitoid basement. PTB matrix, the matrix of impact melt breccia also occurring between 256.50 m and 502.55 m depth, and the target granitoids vary in terms of silica, total alkali, magnesium and iron oxide contents. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of PTB and target granitoids are similar, but the elemental abundances in the PTB are lower. The restricted size of PTB as veins and pods of up to 2.5 cm width, their occurrence at varied depths over a core length of ~ 150 m, the clast population, and the chemical relationships between PTB and their host rocks all suggest the derivation of these breccias locally from the fractured basement granitoids involving in-situ melting. We favor that this took place due to rapid decompression during the collapse and modification stage of impact cratering, with, locally, additional energy input from frictional heating. Locally, amphibolite and dioritic mylonite occur in the host granitoids and their admixture could have contributed to the comparatively more mafic composition of PTB. Alteration of these crater floor rocks could have involved preferential reduction of silica and alkali element abundances, possibly due to impact-induced hydrothermal activity at crater floor level. This process, too, could have resulted in more mafic compositions.

  15. Structural pattern in the Precambrian rocks of Sonua-Lotapahar region, North Singhbhum, eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dhruba; Bhattacharya, Tapas; Chakraborty, Tapan; Dey, Arun Kanti

    1990-06-01

    In the western part of the North Singhbhum fold belt near Lotapahar and Sonua the remobilized basement block of Chakradharpur Gneiss is overlain by a metasedimentary assemblage consisting of quartz arenite, conglomerate, slate-phyllite, greywacke with volcanogenic material, volcaniclastic rocks and chert. The rock assemblage suggests an association of volcanism, turbidite deposition and debris flow in the basin. The grade of metamorphism is very low, the common metamorphic minerals being muscovite, chlorite, biotite and stilpnomelane. Three phases of deformation have affected the rocks. The principal D1 structure is a penetrative planar fabric, parallel to or at low angle to bedding. No D1 major fold is observed and the regional importance of this deformation is uncertain. The D2 deformation has given rise to a number of northerly plunging major folds on E-W axial planes. These have nearly reclined geometry and the L 2lineation is mostly downdip on the S 2surface, though some variation in pitch is observed. The morphology of D2 planar fabric varies from slaty cleavage/schistosity to crenulation cleavage and solution cleavage. D3 deformation is weak and has given rise to puckers and broad warps on schistosity and bedding. The D2 major folds south of Lotapahar are second order folds in the core of the Ongarbira syncline whose easterly closure is exposed east of the mapped area. Photogeological study suggests that the easterly and westerly closing folds together form a large synclinal sheath fold. There is a continuity of structures from north to south and no mylonite belt is present, though there is attenuation and disruption along the fold limbs. Therefore, the Singhbhum shear zone cannot be extended westwards in the present area. There is no evidence that in this area a discontinuity surface separates two orogenic belts of Archaean and Proterozoic age.

  16. Regional variability of farmer decision making and irrigation water use: insights from a data-scarce region of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Brozović, Nick; Mijic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Over the last fifty years, changes in agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution have transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country into the worlds' third largest grain producer and one of the most intensively irrigated parts of the globe. Regionally, cheap energy, subsidised seeds and fertilisers, and in some areas Government purchase guarantees for grain promote the intensification of farming. While this allows farmers to survive, it also aggravates the drain agriculture is having on resources, particularly energy and water. Analysis at a regional scale, however, masks the considerable spatial variability that exists on a more localised level and must be taken into consideration to understand correctly aggregate system response to policy, hydrologic, and climatic change. In this study we present and analyse the results from over 100 farmer interviews conducted in the data-scarce districts of Jalaun and Sitapur on the Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh during the post monsoon period of 2013. Variables such as the volumes and timing of irrigation water applied, sources of water, methods of abstraction and irrigation, and costs incurred are mapped, using qualitative data analysis and GIS. Large differences between the districts emerge, for instance in the region of Jalaun where cheaper canal water is available in addition to groundwater. This has enabled farmers to afford more water efficient technologies such as sprinklers, a practice not found in Sitapur which depends almost exclusively on more expensive diesel pumps. Results are used to delineate the spatial variability in water use practices, along with farmer behaviour and decision making. The primary data are compared with socio-economic information taken from regionally produced statistical abstracts. The combined data are used to identify the main drivers that influence farmer decision-making, which is in turn leading to groundwater overdraught in many parts of North India. Finally

  17. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively), foot breadth at ball (BBAL) and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between left and right feet occur in both the foot breadth measurements (BBAL and BHEL). Foot length measurements (T1 to T5 lengths) did not show any statistically significant bilateral asymmetry. The correlation between stature and all the foot measurements was found to be positive and statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). Linear regression models and multiple regression models were derived for estimation of stature from the measurements of the foot. The present study indicates that anthropometric measurements of foot and its segments are valuable in the estimation of stature. Foot length measurements estimate stature with greater accuracy when compared to foot breadth measurements. Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the

  18. Causality of injury and outcome in patients admitted in a major trauma center in North India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Devarshi; Meena, Sanjay; Sharma, Vineet; Singh, Girish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Context: Trauma in South Asia is an increasingly significant problem, particularly in light of increasing motorization. Societal changes are resulting in alterations in the epidemiology of trauma. Aims: To assess various epidemiological parameters that influence causation of injury in the patients admitted in a major trauma center in Northern India. Settings and Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, Hospital based study from August 2008 to July 2009. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 748 patients chosen by random assortment was carried out over a period of 1 year (August 2008 to July 2009) and following parameters were noted: Age group, sex, mode of trauma, type of injury, place where the trauma occurred and factors leading to injury. The length of stay of patients, Kampala trauma score (KTS) and mortality depending on the arrival time in emergency department was also noted. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 16. Results: Overall trauma was most common in the age group 15-30 years (Mean age: 29.43 ± 16.87 years), with male constituting 85.29% of the total patients. It was observed that road side injuries were the most frequent (66.71%) site of injuries, whereas household injuries (23.66%), farm site (6.28%), work place (1.60) were the next most common modes of trauma. Mean time of presentation of injured patient was 2.53 ± 4.92 days. About 48.13% patients were admitted after more than 24 h after the injury. Two wheelers (32.09) were found to be the most common mode of injury. Maximum injuries (65.31%) occurred in the rural setting. The overall length of hospital stay ranged from 2 days to 178 days (median15.6 days). Mortality is more in patients who arrive in night (between 9 pm and 5 pm). Conclusions: We conclude that the majority of injuries are preventable and the epidemiological trends differ from that of developed countries. Therefore, preventive strategies should be made on the basis of these epidemiological

  19. Scrub typhus meningoencephalitis, a diagnostic challenge for clinicians: A hospital based study from North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, M. D.; Hussain, Masaraf; Lyngdoh, Monaliza; Sharma, Shriram; Barman, Bhupen; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is a known complication of scrub typhus which range from mild meningitis to frank meninigoencephalitis. Aims and objectives: To study the clinical feature, laboratory parameters and response to treatment of scrub typhus meningitis/meningoencephalitis. Methods and Materials: This is a hospital based prospective observational study from North Eastern India. Diagnosis was based on clinical features and positive serological test (Weil's Felix test and IgM antibody card test). Results: 13 patients of scrub typhus with features of meningitis/meningoencephalitis were included. The mean duration of fever before presentation was 5.61±3.08 days and 4 (30.76 %) patients had eschar. Altered sensorium, headache, seizure and meningeal sign were present in 13 (100%), 13 (100%), 6 (46.15%) and 10 (76.92%) patients respectively. Mean CSF protein, glucose and Adenosine deaminase was 152.16±16.88mg/dl, 55.23±21.7mg/dl, and 16.98±7.37U/L respectively. Mean total count of CSF leukocyte and lymphocyte percentage was 46.07±131 cell/cumm and 98.66±3.09% respectively. Tablet doxycycline with or without injection azithromycin was used and that shows good response 15.38% of patients died and all of them had multi organ dysfunction. Conclusion: Meningoencephalitis is a common manifestation of scrub typhus and diagnosis requires high degree of clinical suspicion which if diagnosed early and specific treatment started, patients usually recover completely with few complications. PMID:26752890

  20. Subcutaneous Mycosis Due to Cladosporium cladosporioides and Bipolaris cynodontis from Assam, North-East India and Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Nath, Reema; Barua, Shyamanta; Barman, Jahnabi; Swargiary, Pallabi; Borgohain, Mondita; Saikia, Lahari

    2015-12-01

    A large number of phaeoid fungi cause infection in humans and other animals which is characterized by the basic development of sclerotic body, dark-coloured filamentous hyphae as well as yeast-like cells in the invaded tissue. Two cases of subcutaneous mycosis in immunocompetent male patients aged 55 and 58 years attending Dermatology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Assam, north-east India, are reported. The first case was diagnosed as chromoblastomycosis which was caused by Cladosporium cladosporioides. The patient clinically presented with a chronic verrucous and nodular growth of 32-year duration on the left foot and leg. Identification of the species was done by sequencing the D1/D2 region of LSU (large subunit 28S rDNA). The patient was treated with surgical resection and oral itraconazole which showed good clinical response and total regression of lesion after 9 months. The second case due to Bipolaris cynodontis presented as verrucous exophytic growth over the dorsum of the right foot of 1-year duration which was diagnosed as chromoblastomycosis. The identification of the species was done by sequencing the ITS region. The patient was started with oral itraconazole but was lost to follow-up. Chromoblastomycosis due to Cladosporium cladosporioides is rare. Bipolaris cynodontis is not yet reported as a cause of human infection. The aetiological role of this fungus was confirmed by repeated isolation of the fungus from the lesion and direct microscopy. Molecular identification methods can increase the spectrum of black moulds causing human infection in coming years. We are reporting these two cases with review of the available literature. PMID:26198088

  1. Intra-seasonal and Inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio over rain-shadow region of North peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio (BR) have been studied over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during summer monsoon season. Daily grid point data of latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the period 1970-2014 have been used to compute daily area-mean BR. Daily grid point rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° from APHRODITE's Water Resources for the available period 1970-2007 have been used to study the association between rainfall and BR. The study revealed that BR rapidly decreases from 4.1 to 0.29 in the month of June and then remains nearly constant at the same value (≤0.1) in the rest of the season. High values of BR in the first half of June are indicative of intense thermals and convective clouds with higher bases. Low values of BR from July to September period are indicative of weak thermals and convective clouds with lower bases. Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of BR is found to be inversely related to precipitation over the region. BR analysis indicates that the land surface characteristics of the study region during July-September are similar to that over oceanic regions as far as intensity of thermals and associated cloud microphysical properties are concerned. Similar variation of BR is found in El Nino and La Nina years. During June, an increasing trend is observed in SHF and BR and decreasing trend in LHF from 1976 to 2014. Increasing trend in the SHF is statistically significant.

  2. Vitamin D Insufficiency Is Associated with Abdominal Obesity in Urban Asian Indians Without Diabetes in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Sharma, Mukti; Guleria, Randeep; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Luthra, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: We evaluated the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT), and intraabdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) depots in Asian Indians without diabetes residing in north India. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study (n=137; 74 males and 63 females; 18–60 years of age), anthropometric (body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness at four sites) and biochemical (fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, and fasting insulin levels) assessments were done. Measurement of percentage body fat was done by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and areas of TAAT, SCAT and IAAT were measured at the L2–L3 intervertebral level by single-slice magnetic resonance imaging. Levels of 25(OH) D were measured by radioimmunoassay. Correlation analysis was used to assess relationships among clinical, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles, areas of TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT, and 25(OH) D levels. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OH) D was 40.5±8.6 ng/mL. Overall, 6.6% had vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), 87.6% had insufficiency (<30 ng/mL), and 5.8% had a sufficient level (>30 ng/mL). Levels of 25(OH) D did not correlate with demographic, biochemical, and anthropometric profiles or with abdominal fat depots (TAAT, SCAT, and IAAT). In the correlation regression model, 25(OH) D was associated with TAAT in obese subjects. Conclusions: In obese urban Asian Indians without diabetes, higher values of total abdominal fat at the L2–L3 intervertebral level were associated with low 25(OH) D levels. PMID:24528222

  3. Analysis of trends in streamflow and its linkages with rainfall and anthropogenic factors in Gomti River basin of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysingha, N. S.; Singh, Man; Sehgal, V. K.; Khanna, Manoj; Pathak, Himanshu

    2016-02-01

    Trend analysis of hydro-climatic variables such as streamflow, rainfall, and temperature provides useful information for effective water resources planning, designing, and management. Trends in observed streamflow at four gauging stations in the Gomti River basin of North India were assessed using the Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope for the 1982 to 2012 period. The relationships between trends in streamflow and rainfall were studied by correlation analyses. There was a gradual decreasing trend of annual, monsoonal, and winter seasonal streamflow ( p < 0.05) from the midstream to the downstream of the river and also a decreasing trend of annual streamflow for the 5-year moving averaged standardized anomalies of streamflow for the entire basin. The declining trend in the streamflow was attributed partly to the increased water withdrawal, to increased air temperature, to higher population, and partly to significant reducing trend of post monsoon rainfall especially at downstream. Upstream gauging station showed a significant increasing trend of streamflow (1.6 m3/s/year) at annual scale, and this trend was attributed to the significant increasing trend of catchment rainfall (9.54 mm/year). It was further evident in the significant coefficient of positive correlation ( ρ = 0.8) between streamflow and catchment rainfall. The decreasing trend in streamflow and post-monsoon rainfall especially towards downstream area with concurrent increasing trend of temperature indicates a drying tendency of the Gomti River basin over the study period. The results of this study may help stakeholders to design streamflow restoration strategies for sustainable water management planning of the Gomti River basin.

  4. Seroprevalence of infectious markers & their trends in blood donors in a hospital based blood bank in north india

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, R.N.; Hegde, Vikas; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Rosamma, N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis infections pose a great threat to blood safety. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) among blood donors at a hospital based blood centre in north India over a period of nine years. Methods: The results of serologic markers for TTIs (HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis) of all blood donations (both voluntary and replacement) at our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013 were screened. Additional analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence trends associated with each of the positive marker. Results: The data of 180,477 donors [173,019 (95.86%) males and 7,458 (4.13%) females] were analyzed. Replacement donations [174,939 (96.93%)] represented the majority whereas, only 5,538 (3.06%) donations were from the voluntary donors. The risk of blood being reactive was three times higher in male donors when compared with the female donors. The risk of blood being reactive for one or more infectious markers was 2.1 times higher in replacement donors when compared with the voluntary donors. Seropositivity of HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, syphilis showed a significant decreasing trend (P<0.05) while there was an increasing trend in HCV infection which was insignificant. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reflects that the risk of TTIs has been decreased over time with respect to HIV, HBV and syphilis, but the trends for HCV remains almost the same in blood donors. Blood transfusion remains a risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections. Therefore, improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood. PMID:26458348

  5. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  6. Forest fire scenario and challenges of mitigation during fire season in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, K.; Mondal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.; Sudhakar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Forest fires are a major environmental problem in North East Region (NER) with large tracts of forest areas being affected in every season. Forest fires have become a major threat to the forest ecosystems in the region, leading to loss of timber, biodiversity, wildlife habitat and loss to other natural resources. Studies on forest fire have reported that about 50% of forest fire in the country takes place in NE region. The forest fire in NER is anthropogenic in nature. The forest fire hazard map generated based on appropriate weightage given to the factors affecting fire behavior like topography, fuel characteristic and proximity to roads, settlements and also historical fire locations helped to demarcate the fire prone zones. Whereas, during fire season the weather pattern also governs the fire spread in the given area. Therefore, various data on fuel characteristics (land use/land cover, forest type map, forest density map), topography (DEM, slope, aspect) proximity to settlement, road, waterbodies, meteorological data from AWS on wind speed, wind direction, dew point have been used for each fire point to rank its possible hazard level. Near real time fire location data obtained from MODIS/FIRMSwere used to generate the fire alerts. This work demonstrates dissemination of information in the form of maps and tables containing information of latitude and longitude of fire location, fire occurrence date, state and district name, LULC, road connectivity, slope and aspect, settlements/water bodies and meteorological data and the corresponding rating of possibility of fire spread to the respective fire control authorities during fire season.

  7. The 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj, India Earthquake and Eastern North American Ground-Motion Attenuation Relations: Seismic Hazard Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, C. H.; Bhattacharya, S. N.; Kumar, A.

    2002-12-01

    It has been suggested that the Mw7.7 2001 Bhuj, India earthquake occurred in a stable continental region with ground-motion attenuation properties similar to eastern North America (ENA). No strong motion recordings for M7 or greater earthquakes have been recorded in ENA, so, if the two regions share similar properties, then observations from the Bhuj earthquake provide important information for hazard assessments in ENA as well as India. This thesis can be tested using seismic data for the Bhuj mainshock. The Indian Meteorological Department recorded accelerograph and broadband seismograph data at distances of 500 to 1800 km. Accelerograph and engineering seismoscope data were recorded at distances of 40 to 1100 km by the Department of Earthquake Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. We have processed the accelerograph and broadband data for response spectral accelerations and corrected them to a common NEHRP site class using Joyner and Boore (2000) site factors. The geologic conditions at each recording site were determined using the geologic map of India and categorized as Quaternary sediments, Tertiary sediments, or hard rock. Comparisons were then made to available ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. For peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 1.0 s spectral acceleration (Sa), the geologically-corrected Bhuj data generally fall among the ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. The Bhuj mainshock ground-motion data agree with the collective predictions of the ENA relations given the random uncertainty in ground-motion measurements of a factor of two or more plus the ground-motion attenuation relation modeling uncertainty. From an engineering perspective, this comparison supports the thesis that seismic-wave attenuation in stable continental India is similar to eastern North America.

  8. Generation of buckle folds in Naga fold thrust belt, north-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, B.; Dietl, C.

    2009-04-01

    Naga fold thrust belt (NFTB), India, formed as a result of northward migration of the Indian plate initiated in Eocene and its subsequent collision with the Burmese plate during Oligocene. The NW-SE oriented compression generated a spectrum of structures; among them, we intend to focus on the folds- varying from gentle to tight asymmetric in geometry. Large recumbent folds are often associated with thrusting. Buckle folds forming under shallow crustal conditions are frequently reported from NFTB. Buckle folding occurs mainly within sandstones with intercalated shale layers which are in the study area typical for the Barail, Surma and Tipam Groups. We have tried to explain the controlling factors behind the variation of the buckle fold shapes and their varying wavelengths throughout the fold thrust belt with the aid of analogue (sand box) modelling. It is undoubted that competence contrast along with the layer parallel compressive stress are the major influencing factors in generation of buckle folds. Schmalholz and Podladchikov (1999) and Jeng et al. (2002) have shown that when low strain rate and low temperature are applicable, not only the viscosity contrast, but also the elasticity contrast govern the geometry of the developing buckle folds. Rocks deforming under high temperature and high pressure deform in pure viscous manner, whereas, rocks undergoing less confining stress and less temperature, are subjected to pure elastic deformation. However, they are the end members, and most of the deformations are a combination of these two end members, i.e. of viscoelastic nature. Our models are made up of sieved sand (0.5 mm grain size) and mica layers (1-5 mm) This interlayering imparts a mechanical anisotropy in the model. Mica is not a pure viscous material, rather it displays more elastic behaviour. The mica layers in the model produce bedding parallel slip during shortening through internal reorganization of the individual mica crystals leading to the thickening

  9. Anglican Evangelism in North India and the Punjabi Missionary Classroom: The Failure To Educate the Masses, 1860-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the dominant Anglican missionary schools in Punjab (India). States that the Anglican missions failed to fulfill their original design, but that Hindu schools were successful and played a role in India's movement for independence over British settlements in the northern region. (KDR)

  10. Impact of land use change on soil carbon loss of the Sikkim Himalayan piedmont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Pawel; Ploskonka, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Natural and human causes of change in land use on soil carbon were studied at the outlet of the Tista River from the Sikkim Himalayas over the last 150 years. Analysis of topographic maps and satellite images indicates that the land reforms related to location of tea gardens in the piedmont caused rapid deforestation of terraces in the late 19th century. Continuous population growth after 1930 initiated the replacement of floodplain forest by rice cultivation. Both processes changed soil carbon content and intensified fluvial activity expressed through terrace erosion. The replacement of natural forest by tea cultivation reduced the soil carbon content within terraces from 1.95 kg to 1.77 kg (in 1 m of topsoil) respectively. The replacement of natural forest by rice reduced the soil carbon content within floodplains from 0.42 kg to 0.23 kg (in 1 m topsoil) respectively. Much more dangerous, was terrace erosion leading to permanent removal of sediment including soil. The total loss of soil carbon in a 1 m thick soil layer due to conversion of 5 km2 forest to tea cultivation was about 900 t between 1930 and 2010. While the total soil carbon removed due to 1.8 km2 terrace erosion reached 3510 t in the same period. Result is the outcome of research project 2012/05/B/ST10/00309 of the National Science Centre (Poland).

  11. Dynamic recrystallization mechanisms and their transition in the Daling Thrust (DT) zone, Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Dasgupta, Sujoy

    2016-04-01

    The Daling Thrust (DT) delineates a zone of intense shear localization in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) of the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. From microstructural studies of deformed quartzite samples, we show a transition in the dynamic recrystallization mechanism with increasing distance from the DT, dominated by grain boundary bulging (BLG) recrystallization closest to the DT, and progressively replaced by sub-grain rotation (SGR) recrystallization away from the thrust. The transition is marked by a characteristic variation in the fractal dimension (D) of grain boundaries, estimated from the area-perimeter method. For the BLG regime, D ≈ 1.046, which decreases significantly to a value as low as 1.025 for the SGR regime. Using the available thermal data for BLG and SGR recrystallization, we infer increasing deformation temperatures away from the DT in the hanging wall. Based on the quartz piezometer our estimates reveal strong variations in the flow stress (59.00 MPa to 16.00 MPa) over a distance of ~ 1.2 km from the DT. Deformation mechanism maps constructed for different temperatures indicate that the strain rates (10- 12 S- 1 to 10- 14 S- 1) comply with the geologically possible range. Finally, we present a mechanical model to provide a possible explanation for the cause of stress intensification along the DT.

  12. Alcohol and Tobacco Increases Risk of High Risk HPV Infection in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Study from North-East Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupesh; Rai, Avdhesh Kumar; Das, Debabrata; Das, Rajjyoti; Kumar, R. Suresh; Sarma, Anupam; Sharma, Shashi; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Ramteke, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) associated Head and Neck Cancers (HNCs) have generated significant amount of research interest in recent times. Due to high incidence of HNCs and lack of sufficient data on high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) infection from North -East region of India, this study was conceived to investigate hr-HPV infection, its types and its association with life style habits such as tobacco, alcohol consumption etc. Methods A total of one hundred and six primary HNC tumor biopsy specimens were collected. These samples were analyzed for hr-HPV DNA (13 HPV types) using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay and genotyping was done by E6 nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR). Results The presence of hr-HPV was confirmed in 31.13% (n = 33) and 24.52% (n = 26) of the HNC patients by nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR) and HC2 assay respectively. Among hr-HPV positive cases, out of thirteen hr- HPV types analyzed, only two prevalent genotypes, HPV-16 (81.81%) followed by HPV-18 (18.18%) were found. Significant association was observed between hr-HPV infection with alcohol consumption (p <0.001) and tobacco chewing (p = 0.02) in HNC cases. Compared to HPV-18 infection the HPV-16 was found to be significantly associated with tobacco chewing (p = 0.02) habit. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that tobacco chewing and alcohol consumption may act as risk factors for hr-HPV infection in HNCs from the North-East region of India. This was the first study from North-East India which also assessed the clinical applicability of HC2 assay in HNC patient specimens. We suggest that alcohol, tobacco and hr- HPV infection act synergistically or complement each other in the process of HNC development and progression in the present study population. PMID:26473489

  13. The Trend in Distribution of Q223R Mutation of Leptin Receptor Gene in Amoebic Liver Abscess Patients from North India: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Vineet; Paul, Jaishree

    2014-01-01

    Host genetic susceptibility is an important risk factor in infectious diseases. We explored the distribution of Q223R mutation in leptin receptor gene of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) patients of North India. A total of 55 ALA samples along with 102 controls were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis. The frequency of allele “G” (coding for arginine) was in general high in Indian population irrespective of the disease. Our results of Fisher exact test shows that heterozygous mutant (QQ versus QR, P = 0.049) and homozygous mutant (QQ versus RR, P = 0.004) were significantly associated with amoebic liver abscess when compared with homozygous wild (QQ). PMID:25114924

  14. Molecular identification and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in free living non-human primate (Rhesus macaques) from North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, P K; Kumar, A; Singh, B

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has emerged as major animal pathogen with significant zoonotic concerns, worldwide. MAP infection is endemic in domestic and wild ruminant population in India. However, information on MAP infection in free ranging animal species and non human primates is limited. Present study aimed to estimate the status of MAP infection in free living Rhesus macaques suffering with multiple clinical conditions (coughing and loose stool). A total of 25 stool samples were collected from six colonies of Rhesus macaques from Mathura region (North India) and screened for the presence of MAP, using microscopic examination and IS900 PCR, directly from stool samples. PCR positive DNA samples were further genotyped using IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. Of the 25 stool samples, 10 (40.0%) and 2 (8.0%) were positive for MAP using microscopic examination and direct IS900 PCR, respectively. IS900 PCR positive DNA samples were genotyped as 'Indian Bison type', which is a major MAP genotype infecting domestic and wild ruminant species and human beings in India. Prevalence of MAP in Rhesus macaques (Indian monkeys) was moderately high and confirmed interspecies sharing of MAP between domestic livestock and non-human primates. Presence of MAP in non-human primates, support the etiological role of MAP in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Indian monkeys may serve as model for understanding the role of non-human primates in sustenance, transmission and pathogenesis of MAP infection. PMID:21255839

  15. Phytochemical analyses and activity of herbal medicinal plants of North- East India for anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-tuberculosis and their docking studies.

    PubMed

    Suhitha, Sivasubramanian; Devi, Seenivasan Karthiga; Gunasekaran, Krishnasamy; Pakyntein, H Carehome; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2015-01-01

    The traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of North-East India is documented here. The present study was carried out through the personal discussion with the president of the Jaintia Indigenous Herbal Medicine Association, Dr.H.Carehome Pakyntein from Jowai, Meghalaya. The plants being used generation after generation by his family of herbalists to cure ailments like tuberculosis, cancer and diabetes were selected for the present study. In order to scientifically validate the use of these selected plants for the cure of selected diseases, phytochemical analyses, characterization and molecular docking studies of some of the selected compounds from these plants have been carried out. The compounds 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy- Benzaldehyde from methanolic extract of Strophanthus Wallichii and DL tetrahydropalmatine from Stephania Hernandifolia have been confirmed after determining their molecular structures, justifying the activity of these two plants against TB and cancer, respectively. The present study covers the potentials of some of the medicinal plants of North east India in curing common diseases due to which millions of people suffer and die. The presence of certain compounds in these plants related to the cure of the diseases deserves further studies. PMID:25579573

  16. Efficacy and well-being in rural north India: The role of social identification with a large-scale community identity

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sammyh S; Hopkins, Nick; Tewari, Shruti; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen David; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2014-01-01

    Identifying with a group can contribute to a sense of well-being. The mechanisms involved are diverse: social identification with a group can impact individuals' beliefs about issues such as their connections with others, the availability of social support, the meaningfulness of existence, and the continuity of their identity. Yet, there seems to be a common theme to these mechanisms: identification with a group encourages the belief that one can cope with the stressors one faces (which is associated with better well-being). Our research investigated the relationship between identification, beliefs about coping, and well-being in a survey (N = 792) administered in rural North India. Using structural equation modelling, we found that social identification as a Hindu had positive and indirect associations with three measures of well-being through the belief that one can cope with everyday stressors. We also found residual associations between participants' social identification as a Hindu and two measures of well-being in which higher identification was associated with poorer well-being. We discuss these findings and their implication for understanding the relationship between social identification (especially with large-scale group memberships) and well-being. We also discuss the application of social psychological theory developed in the urban West to rural north India. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26160989

  17. Evaluation of "Indigenous Absorbed ELISA Kit" for the Estimation of Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Antibodies in Human Beings in North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, A V; Singh, S V; Verma, D K; Yadav, R; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S

    2011-01-01

    In present pilot study aimed to estimate, presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in the human serum samples originating from North India using "Indigenous absorbed ELISA kit" (ELISA kit). The phase I, "ELISA kit" was optimized using protoplasmic antigen from native isolate of MAP "Indian Bison type" recovered from the biopsies of Crohn's disease patients. The phase II, sensitivity and specificity of the kit were estimated as 40.0 and 83.3%, respectively, when evaluated in 40 human serum samples (5 Crohn's disease and 22 ulcerative colitis patients and 13 healthy human subjects) with defined MAP status with respect to stool culture. Seroprevalence of MAP antibodies was higher in CD patients (80.0%) as compared to ulcerative colitis patients (4.5%) and normal human subjects (15.3%). The phase III, seroprevalence of MAP antibodies was estimated as 23.4%, on the basis of the screening of 452 human serum samples (without history) from different geographical regions of North India. Region-wise, 34.0, 33.3, 32.8, 25.0, 23.0, 17.7, and 12.5% samples were positive from the states of Punjab, Uttarakhand, New Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, respectively. Study reported moderately higher presence of MAP antibodies in human population, which necessitates programs to reduce the bioburden of MAP in the environment and in animal population. PMID:23738105

  18. Evaluation of “Indigenous Absorbed ELISA Kit” for the Estimation of Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Antibodies in Human Beings in North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A. V.; Singh, S. V.; Verma, D. K.; Yadav, R.; Singh, P. K.; Sohal, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    In present pilot study aimed to estimate, presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in the human serum samples originating from North India using “Indigenous absorbed ELISA kit” (ELISA kit). The phase I, “ELISA kit” was optimized using protoplasmic antigen from native isolate of MAP “Indian Bison type” recovered from the biopsies of Crohn's disease patients. The phase II, sensitivity and specificity of the kit were estimated as 40.0 and 83.3%, respectively, when evaluated in 40 human serum samples (5 Crohn's disease and 22 ulcerative colitis patients and 13 healthy human subjects) with defined MAP status with respect to stool culture. Seroprevalence of MAP antibodies was higher in CD patients (80.0%) as compared to ulcerative colitis patients (4.5%) and normal human subjects (15.3%). The phase III, seroprevalence of MAP antibodies was estimated as 23.4%, on the basis of the screening of 452 human serum samples (without history) from different geographical regions of North India. Region-wise, 34.0, 33.3, 32.8, 25.0, 23.0, 17.7, and 12.5% samples were positive from the states of Punjab, Uttarakhand, New Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, respectively. Study reported moderately higher presence of MAP antibodies in human population, which necessitates programs to reduce the bioburden of MAP in the environment and in animal population. PMID:23738105

  19. Analysis of Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in North-Eastern India: A Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Anjan; Raphael, Vandana; Shunyu, N-Brian; Khonglah, Yookarin; Mishra, Jaya; Jitani, Ankit-Kumar; Medhi, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in the North-East region of India. Though the role of environmental contributors of NPC in the North-Eastern part of India is firmly established, EBV as an etiological agent in the region remains unexplored. Material and Methods: Fifty-one patients, who presented at the department of ENT, NEIGRIHMS and were confirmed as NPC upon histopathological examination, were included in the study. Chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH) was used for the evaluation of EBER (Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA). Presence of nuclear signals was taken as positive for EBER expression. EBER status was correlated with various clinicopathological parameters like age, sex, dietary habits, histological types of NPC, and ethnicity of the patients. Results: The age range of the study group was 25 to 70 years with a mean age of 44.64 years and a male:female ratio of 3:2. Non-keratinizing undifferentiated type of NPC was the most common histological type. EBV was positive in 59% (30/51) of our cases. It showed a statistically significant correlation with the Naga community (P=0.01), with consumption of smoked food (P=0.02), and cigarette smoking (P=0.02). There was no correlation of EBV with age, sex, lymph node metastasis, stage, and histology. Conclusion: Our result indicates that EBV may be an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of NPC in this region of India. So apart from lifestyle modification, a future study for a screening test for EBV viral load even in asymptomatic patients may be considered, for determination of disease susceptibility, early diagnosis, and proper management. PMID:27602338

  20. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Natural Sources of Water from Rural Areas of East Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Poonia, Shubra; Singh, T. Shantikumar; Tsering, Dechen C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Contamination of water, food, and environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a serious public health issue. Objective: The objective was to study the bacterial pollution of the natural sources of water in east Sikkim and to determine the antimicrobial profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 samples, 75 each during winter, summer, and monsoon season were collected from the same source in every season for bacteriological analysis by membrane filtration method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 19 bacterial species of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Serratia were isolated and their antimicrobial sensitivity tested. Generally, most bacterial isolates except Salmonella and Shigella species were found resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (57.5%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxaole (39.1%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (37.4%), cefixime (34.5%), tetracycline (29.1%), ceftazidime (26.3%), ofloxacin (25.9%), amikacin (8.7%), and gentamicin (2.7%) but sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Natural sources of water in east Sikkim are grossly contaminated with bacteria including enteropathogens. The consumption of untreated water from these sources might pose health risk to consumers. PMID:25136156

  1. Analysis of ANKKI (rs1800497) and DRD2 (rs1079597, rs1800498) variants in five ethnic groups from Punjab, North-West India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Sandhu, Harkirat Singh; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S

    2016-06-10

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is one of the essential neurotransmitters in the brain studied extensively in the field of psychiatric disorders, alcoholic behaviors and Pharmacology. It is also a promising gene for studying the evolutionary and genetic variation among populations. The present study was an attempt to understand the extent of genetic variation among five different ethnic groups (Bania, Brahmin, Jat Sikh, Khatri and Scheduled caste) of Punjab (North West India). A total of 1012 individuals belonging to the above mentioned groups were analyzed for three TaqI Polymorphic loci of DRD2 and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKKI) using the allele frequencies and haplotype frequency distribution pattern. All the three loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The average heterozygosity for all loci in these ethnic groups was fairly substantial ranging from 0.3936 to 0.4986. The genetic differentiation among the population was observed to be in order of 0.0053.Among of the eight studied haplotypes, only six were shared by all the ethnic groups. TaqID and TaqIB loci were reported to be in significantly higher linkage disequilibrium (LD) in Scheduled Caste only, whereas TaqIA and TaqID showed modest LD in Brahmin, Jat Sikh and Khatri. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that the studied ethnic groups formed a close cluster, suggesting similar genetic structure of these populations which are in close proximity with other Indo European speaking North Indian and western Indian population groups. Overall this study highlights the genomic uniformity among the ethnic groups of Punjab (North-West India) owing to their common ancestral history and geographical closeness. PMID:26970175

  2. New species of xerocomoid boletes (Boletaceae) from Himalayan India based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Das, Kanad; Chakraborty, Dyutiparna; Baghela, Abhishek; Singh, S K; Dentinger, Bryn T M

    2016-01-01

    Xerocomus doodhcha and Hortiboletus indorubellus (Boletaceae) from broadleaf montane forest in Sikkim, India, are proposed as new. They are described in detail with supporting morphological illustrations and compared with related taxa using molecular phylogenetic analysis of ITS and 28S rDNA sequences. Xerocomus doodhcha is characterized by a pale brown pileus, basidiospores with a finely bacillate surface under SEM, and phylogenetic proximity to the type species of Xerocomus, X. subtomentosus Hortiboletus indorubellus is characterized by a dark brown to reddish brown pileus, context that turns brownish to brownish orange on bruising, and phylogenetic proximity to Hortiboletus rubellus. PMID:27153883

  3. Alcohol and Drug Use in Injured Drivers – An Emergency Room Study in a Regional Tertiary Care Centre of North West India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil; Singh, Dalbir; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-01-01

    Background Statistics show an increasing proportion of alcohol and drug use in drivers in more recent times throughout the world. It has been found that among the various human factors, alcohol consumption, using drugs and subsequent driving on the roads are major risk factors. Traffic regulations in India penalises drivers who drive beyond permissible alcohol limit of 30 mg%. Consumption of psychoactive drugs such as opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines has been reported mainly among youngsters. Hardly any data is available in Indian context particularly from North-West Zone of India. Study objective To study the pattern of alcohol, opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines use in injured drivers presenting to a designated trauma centre in Chandigarh zone of North-West India. Materials and Methods Consenting injured drivers who presented to the trauma centre in Chandigarh from September 2013 to January 2014 were included. Urine samples collected from the subjects were screened for abusive drug exposure (opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines) and alcohol using commercial bedside urine immunoassay kits. In urine alcohol positive cases blood samples were collected and analysed for alcohol concentration using standard gas chromatography. Retrograde extrapolation method was used to assess BAC at the time of accident. Results A total of 200 injured drivers were included in this study. We found substance consumption in 54.5% of drivers and alcohol (40.5%) was the most prevalent substance consumed followed by opiates (13%), cannabis (7%) and benzodiazepines (7%). More than one substance was shown in urine of 11.5% of drivers. Among 81 alcohol positive screening cases, the quantitative analysis was successfully done for 76 cases. Except one, all cases showed BAC value more than 30 mg% which is the legal limit for driving any vehicle in India. The values of alcohol concentration in blood at the time of accident were in the range of 20 to 391 mg%. Conclusion This study has shown

  4. A Rare HBV Subgenotype D4 with Unique Genomic Signatures Identified in North-Eastern India –An Emerging Clinical Challenge?

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Mondal, Rajiv Kumar; Nandi, Madhuparna; Ghosh, Sumantra; Khatun, Mousumi; Chakraborty, Nabendu; Bhattacharya, Swatilekha; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Banerjee, Soma; Santra, Amal; Sil, Samir; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Bhaumik, Pradip; Datta, Simanti

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims HBV has been classified into ten genotypes (A–J) and multiple subgenotypes, some of which strongly influence disease outcome and their distribution also correlate with human migration. HBV infection is highly prevalent in India and its diverse population provides an excellent opportunity to study the distinctiveness of HBV, its evolution and disease biology in variegated ethnic groups. The North-East India, having international frontiers on three sides, is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse region of the country. Given the paucity of information on molecular epidemiology of HBV in this region, the study aimed to carry out an in-depth genetic characterization of HBV prevailing in North-East state of Tripura. Methods From sera of chronically HBV infected patients biochemical/serological tests, HBV DNA quantification, PCR-amplification, sequencing of PreS/S or full-length HBV genomes were done. HBV genotype/subgenotype determination and sequence variability were assessed by MEGA5-software. The evolutionary divergence times of different HBV subgenotypes were estimated by DNAMLK/PHYLIP program while jpHMM method was used to detect any recombination event in HBV genomes. Results HBV genotypes D (89.5%), C (6.6%) and A (3.9%) were detected among chronic carriers. While all HBV/A and HBV/C isolates belonged to subgenotype-A1 and C1 respectively, five subgenotypes of HBV/D (D1–D5) were identified including the first detection of rare D4. These non-recombinant Indian D4 (IndD4) formed a distinct phylogenetic clade, had 2.7% nucleotide divergence and recent evolutionary radiation than other global D4. Ten unique amino acids and 9 novel nucleotide substitutions were identified as IndD4 signatures. All IndD4 carried T120 and R129 in ORF-S that may cause immune/vaccine/diagnostic escape and N128 in ORF-P, implicated as compensatory Lamivudine resistance mutation. Conclusions IndD4 has potential to undermine vaccination programs or anti

  5. Occurrence of Horizontal Gene Transfer of PIB-type ATPase Genes among Bacteria Isolated from the Uranium Rich Deposit of Domiasiat in North East India

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2012-01-01

    Uranium (U) tolerant aerobic heterotrophs were isolated from the subsurface soils of one of the pre-mined U-rich deposits at Domiasiat located in the north-eastern part of India. On screening of genomic DNA from 62 isolates exhibiting superior U and heavy metal tolerance, 32 isolates were found to be positive for PIB-type ATPase genes. Phylogenetic incongruence and anomalous DNA base compositions revealed the acquisition of PIB-type ATPase genes by six isolates through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Three of these instances of HGT appeared to have occurred at inter-phylum level and the other three instances indicated to have taken place at intra-phylum level. This study provides an insight into one of the possible survival strategies that bacteria might employ to adapt to environments rich in uranium and heavy metals. PMID:23133569

  6. Arrival time pattern and waiting time distribution of patients in the emergency outpatient department of a tertiary level health care institution of North India

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Yogesh; Goel, Sonu; Singh, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emergency Department (ED) of tertiary health care institute in India is mostly overcrowded, over utilized and inappropriately staffed. The challenges of overcrowded EDs and ill-managed patient flow and admission processes result in excessively long waits for patients. Aim: The objective of the present study was to analyze the patient flow system by assessing the arrival and waiting time distribution of patients in an Emergency out Patient Department (EOPD). Materials and Methods: This short cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the EOPD of a Tertiary level health care Institution in North India in the month of May, 2011. The data was obtained from 591 patients, who were present in the EOPD during the month of May, 2011. The waiting time, inter arrival time between two consecutive patients were calculated in addition to the daily census data (discharge rate, admission rate and transfer out rates etc.) of the emergency. Results: Arrival time pattern of patients in the EOPD was highly stochastic with the peak arrival hours to be 9.00-12.00 h in which around 26.3% patients arrived in the EOPD. The primary waiting areas of patients included patients under observation (29.6%); waiting for routine diagnostic tests (16.4%) and waiting for discharge (14.6%). Around 71% patients were waiting due to reasons within emergency complex. Conclusion: The patient flow of the ED could only be addressed by multifaceted, multidisciplinary and hospital wide approach. PMID:25114424

  7. Prevalence of household-level food insecurity and its determinants in an urban resettlement colony in north India.

    PubMed

    Chinnakali, Palanivel; Upadhyay, Ravi P; Shokeen, Deepa; Singh, Kavita; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Arvind K; Goswami, Anil; Yadav, Kapil; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2014-06-01

    An adequate food intake, in terms of quantity and quality, is a key to healthy life. Malnutrition is the most serious consequence of food insecurity and has a multitude of health and economic implications. India has the world's largest population living in slums, and these have largely been underserved areas. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (2012) estimates that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people. Various studies have been conducted to assess food insecurity at the global level; however, the literature is limited as far as India is concerned. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting the prevalence of food insecurity at the household level and the factors determining its existence in an urban slum population of northern India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi, India. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting socioeconomic details and information regarding dietary practices. Food insecurity was assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with food insecurity. A total of 250 women were interviewed through house-to-house survey. Majority of the households were having a nuclear family (61.6%), with mean family-size being 5.5 (SD +/- 2.5) and the mean monthly household income being INR 9,784 (SD +/- 631). Nearly half (53.3%) of the mean monthly household income was spent on food. The study found that a total of 77.2% households were food-insecure, with 49.2% households being mildly food-insecure, 18.8% of the households being moderately food-insecure, and 9.2% of the households being severely food-insecure. Higher education of the women handling food (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.92; p < or = 0.03) and number of earning members in the household (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98; p < or = 0.04) were associated with lesser chance

  8. Prevalence of Household-level Food Insecurity and Its Determinants in an Urban Resettlement Colony in North India

    PubMed Central

    Chinnakali, Palanivel; Upadhyay, Ravi P.; Shokeen, Deepa; Singh, Kavita; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Arvind K.; Goswami, Anil; Pandav, Chandrakant S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT An adequate food intake, in terms of quantity and quality, is a key to healthy life. Malnutrition is the most serious consequence of food insecurity and has a multitude of health and economic implications. India has the world's largest population living in slums, and these have largely been underserved areas. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (2012) estimates that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people. Various studies have been conducted to assess food insecurity at the global level; however, the literature is limited as far as India is concerned. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting the prevalence of food insecurity at the household level and the factors determining its existence in an urban slum population of northern India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi, India. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting socioeconomic details and information regarding dietary practices. Food insecurity was assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with food insecurity. A total of 250 women were interviewed through house-to-house survey. Majority of the households were having a nuclear family (61.6%), with mean family-size being 5.5 (SD±2.5) and the mean monthly household income being INR 9,784 (SD±631). Nearly half (53.3%) of the mean monthly household income was spent on food. The study found that a total of 77.2% households were food-insecure, with 49.2% households being mildly food-insecure, 18.8% of the households being moderately food-insecure, and 9.2% of the households being severely food-insecure. Higher education of the women handling food (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.92; p≤0.03) and number of earning members in the household (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98; p≤0.04) were associated with lesser chance/odds of being

  9. Motion of Nubia relative to Antarctica since 11 Ma: Implications for Nubia-Somalia, Pacific North America, and India-Eurasia motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Jean-Yves; Gordon, Richard G.; Horner-Johnson, Benjamin C.

    2006-06-01

    Recent estimates of the rotation between Nubia and Somalia have resulted in disparate poles of rotation for the motion since 3.16 Ma (southwest of South Africa) compared with that since 11.03 Ma (near the east tip of Brazil). Here we use magnetic anomaly profiles unavailable in prior Nubia-Antarctica motion studies to significantly revise the estimate of the rotation between Nubia and Antarctica since 11.03 Ma. We use this newly estimated rotation to construct revised estimates of Nubia-Somalia, Pacific North America, and India-Eurasia motion. The new Nubia-Somalia rotation indicates substantial displacement of Somalia relative to Nubia over the past 11.03 m.y.: 129 ± 62 km extensional, 90 ± 42 km right-lateral transtensional, and 52 ± 21 km right-lateral transtensional near the northern extremity of the East African Rift, the northern Mozambique Basin, and the Andrew Bain Fracture Zone complex, respectively. The substantial rotation between Nubia and Somalia implies that prior plate motion estimates based on a circuit through Africa are biased by 60 85 km at 11.03 Ma and perhaps by much more for earlier reconstructions. Our results imply that India-Eurasia motion since 11.03 Ma has been ˜12% (˜5 mm yr-1) slower than, and ˜20° clockwise of, estimates that neglect Nubia-Somalia motion. Our results further imply that Pacific North America displacement since 11.03 Ma has been 5° 10° clockwise of prior estimates and require 58 75 km less extensional displacement across the Basin and Range since 11.03 Ma than inferred before.

  10. A Study of Sports Related Occurrence of Traumatic Orodental Injuries and Associated Risk Factors in High School Students in North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gundeep; Garg, Shalini; Damle, Satyawan Gangaramji; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Kaur, Ambreen; Singla, Shilpy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral and dental injuries contribute to a major part of sports related injuries in children. Trauma occurring in developing years disrupts normal social functioning and brings about a major impact on quality of life due to their cumulative effect. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and causes of various sports related traumatic orodental injuries among 8 to 16 year school students along with identifying the associated risk factors in North India. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study consisting of high school students of different organized sports teams aged 8-16 years was carried out in geographical area of north India. The students were selected by multistage cluster sampling methodology. 1105 students from 19 school teams (sports teams) and sports academies participated in study through structured interview and clinical examination in different sports situations. Results: 30.3% (n = 335) of students suffered from orodental injuries. A higher number of girls had injury (32%) than boys (29%), though the difference was not significant. Most of the students suffered from soft tissue injuries (48%) followed by tooth fractures (43%). Maximum numbers of injuries were reported in high velocity (44.1%) and medium intensity sports (46.6%) (P < 0.001) Maximum injuries occurred in basketball (50%) and lowest in the field of badminton (6.1%) (P < 0.05). Amateurs (52%) suffered the most from injuries as per level of coaching. Only 6% of boys and 2% of girls used mouthguards. Conclusions: The result of the present study confirmed that students participating in different organized sports at high school level are at a very high risk of getting orodental injury. Hence knowledge and education regarding prevention of traumatic injuries is of paramount importance. PMID:25520762

  11. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India. PMID:24426163

  12. Genetic and functional characterization of HIV-1 Vif on APOBEC3G degradation: First report of emergence of B/C recombinants from North India

    PubMed Central

    Ronsard, Larance; Raja, Rameez; Panwar, Vaishali; Saini, Sanjesh; Mohankumar, Kumaravel; Sridharan, Subhashree; Padmapriya, Ramamoorthy; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Ramachandran, Vishnampettai G; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 is characterized by high genetic heterogeneity which is a challenge for developing therapeutics. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the extent of genetic variations that HIV is undergoing in North India. The objective of this study was to determine the role of genetic and functional role of Vif on APOBEC3G degradation. Vif is an accessory protein involved in counteracting APOBEC3/F proteins. Genetic analysis of Vif variants revealed that Vif C variants were closely related to South African Vif C whereas Vif B variants and Vif B/C showed distinct geographic locations. This is the first report to show the emergence of Vif B/C in our population. The functional domains, motifs and phosphorylation sites were well conserved. Vif C variants differed in APOBEC3G degradation from Vif B variants. Vif B/C revealed similar levels of APOBEC3G degradation to Vif C confirming the presence of genetic determinants in C-terminal region. High genetic diversity was observed in Vif variants which may cause the emergence of more complex and divergent strains. These results reveal the genetic determinants of Vif in mediating APOBEC3G degradation and highlight the genetic information for the development of anti-viral drugs against HIV. Importance: Vif is an accessory HIV-1 protein which plays significant role in the degradation of human DNA-editing factor APOBEC3G, thereby impeding the antiretroviral activity of APOBEC3G. It is known that certain natural polymorphisms in Vif could degrade APOBEC3G relatively higher rate, suggesting its role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. This is the first report from North India showcasing genetic variations and novel polymorphisms in Vif gene. Subtype C is prevalent in India, but for the first time we observed putative B/C recombinants with a little high ability to degrade APOBEC3G indicating adaptation and evolving nature of virus in our population. Indian Vif C variants were able to degrade APOBEC3G well in comparison to Vif B variants. These

  13. Plasma cell leukemia in North India: retrospective analysis of a distinct clinicohematological entity from a tertiary care center and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bommannan, Karthik; Malhotra, Pankaj; Kumar, Narender; Sharma, Prashant; Naseem, Shano; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Das, Reena; Varma, Neelam; Prakash, Gaurav; Khadwal, Alka; Srinivasan, Radhika; Varma, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive plasma cell neoplasm. In PCL, clonal plasma cells comprise ≥20% of the peripheral blood (PB) leukocytes and/or the absolute clonal PB plasma cell count is ≥2×109/L. Primary PCL (PPCL) originates de novo, whereas, secondary PCL (SPCL) evolves from pre-existing multiple myeloma. Methods Clinicohematological features, immunophenotypic profile, and survival of PCL patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results Between January 2007 and December 2014, ten PPCL and four SPCL patients were investigated (8 PPCLs and 3 SPCLs had complete clinical data). All were North Indians, sharing common geography and ethnicity. Our cohort showed less frequent renal failure, more frequent hepatomegaly, and non-secretory type disease. In contrast to western literature, flow cytometric immunophenotyping of our cohort revealed altered expression of CD138 (67%), CD56 (33%), and CD20 (0%). With novel therapeutic agents, these PPCL patients had a median overall survival of 15 months. Conclusion We highlight that our PPCL patients from North India had distinct clinicohematological and immunophenotypic profiles. The significance of our findings must be tested in a larger patient cohort and must be supported by molecular and cytogenetic investigations to unmask possible significant effects on pathogenesis. PMID:27104188

  14. Local Hierarchies and Distributor (Non) Compliance: A Case Study of Community-Based Distribution in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    ABBOTT, LIBBY; LUKE, NANCY

    2013-01-01

    Community-based distribution of family planning services is particularly appropriate for South Asia, which has hard-to-reach rural populations. In Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, local status hierarchies of gender, caste, and generation shape the nature of relationships that community-based distributors (CBDs) create with their clients. In this case study of an “ideal” distributor, we uncover the conflicting expectations that many CBDs experience: to comply with project objectives without violating local social norms that limit interactions across status boundaries. Our CBD responded to these dual pressures with varying strategies, often perpetuating social distance and restricting information and services for men, adolescents, and other marginalized populations. PMID:21337244

  15. Environmental Relationship of Benthic Fauna in the Near Shore Waters off Gulf of Kutch, North West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Bhat, U. G.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken for a period of two years from December 2010 to May 2012.Studying the benthos of Gulf of Kutch near shore waters is also useful in understanding changes in biological diversity of Gujarat coast. The use of benthos in aquatic ecological research is especially effective in assessing long term changes and detecting input from diffuse sources. The benthos reflects the effects organic enrichment by responding through detectable changes in population dynamics on a time scale of months to years. This is in contrast to plankton which shows a more immediate change to point sources with no long term consequences to the populations (Gray et al 1992). Benthoses were collected from 6 stations on regular basis and were identified. Altogether 60 species belonging to 39 families were identified and placed taxonomically during the course of investigation with sediment samples. Benthic environmental relationship species were observed and recorded. Our studies of monthly comparisons have become an interesting and popular approach in ecology and environmental relationships in the past a number of studies have been conducted on the ecology of macro benthic populations of Gulf of Kutch near shore. My research helps in Gulf of Kutch of the west coast of India has become an important economic asset of the country serving commercial navigation and the fishing sector with environmental relation of benthos in the Gulf of Kutch Gujarat. India.

  16. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Molecular Evidence of Increased Resistance to Anti-Folate Drugs in Plasmodium falciparum in North-East India: A Signal for Potential Failure of Artemisinin Plus Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Pradyumna Kishore; Sarma, Devojit Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Bora, Khukumoni; Ahmed, Md. Atique; Sarma, Bibhas; Goswami, Basanta Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dibya Ranjan; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    North-east India, being a corridor to South-east Asia, is believed to play an important role in transmitting drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to India and South Asia. North-east India was the first place in India to record the emergence of drug resistance to chloroquine as well as sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Presently chloroquine resistance is widespread all over the North-east India and resistance to other anti-malarials is increasing. In this study both in vivo therapeutic efficacy and molecular assays were used to screen the spectrum of drug resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in the circulating P. falciparum strains. A total of 220 P. falciparum positives subjects were enrolled in the study for therapeutic assessment of chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and assessment of point mutations conferring resistances to these drugs were carried out by genotyping the isolates following standard methods. Overall clinical failures in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine were found 12.6 and 69.5% respectively, while overall treatment failures recorded were 13.7 and 81.5% in the two arms. Nearly all (99.0%) the isolates had mutant pfcrt genotype (76T), while 68% had mutant pfmdr-1 genotype (86Y). Mutation in dhps 437 codon was the most prevalent one while dhfr codon 108 showed 100% mutation. A total of 23 unique haplotypes at the dhps locus and 7 at dhfr locus were found while dhps-dhfr combined loci revealed 49 unique haplotypes. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple mutations were common while 1 haplotype was found with all five mutated codons (F/AGEGS/T) at dhps locus. Detection of quadruple mutants (51I/59R/108N/164L) in the present study, earlier recorded from Car Nicobar Island, India only, indicates the presence of high levels of resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in north-east India. Associations between resistant haplotypes and the clinical outcomes and emerging resistance in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in

  18. Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Madhu; Angeli, Federica; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Bosma, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012) and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the

  19. Active detection of tuberculosis and paragonimiasis in the remote areas in North-Eastern India using cough as a simple indicator.

    PubMed

    Rekha Devi, Kangjam; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Deori, Rumi; Lego, Kabang; Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kumar Rajguru, Sanjib; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    One of the essential steps in targeting tuberculosis (TB) intervention is early diagnosis and treatment of patients by reducing the reservoir of infection in the community. In the North-Eastern (NE) region of India pulmonary TB and paragonimiasis are overlapping public health issues. We performed a cross-sectional study in 63 remote villages from the two states Arunachal Pradesh (AP) and Assam to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and paragonimiasis cases using cough as a simple indicator. In AP, 2961 individuals aged five years and above were examined and 1108 (37·4%) were found to have cough for one week or more. Of the 417 individuals who provided sputum, 11 (2·64%) were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). All these cases were yet undiagnosed, thus the prevalence of new smear positive TB in AP was 0·37%. In Assam on the other hand 331 (23·5%) subjects out of 1410 individuals who were examined had a cough for one week or more and of the 112 individuals who provided sputum, 13 (11·6%) were smear positive for AFB. The prevalence of new smear positive TB cases was 0·78% in Assam. Sero-positivity of paragonimiasis in coughers of AP was 7·6% (n = 1091), which was significantly higher (p < 0·01) as compared to that in Assam (1·2%, n = 321). The findings of the present study suggest that TB remains a major public health concern in the NE region of India especially in the remote places and there is need to strengthen early case detection of TB. PMID:23683370

  20. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  1. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Germplasm from North-Eastern Region of India and Development of a Core Germplasm Set

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  2. Climatology of columnar aerosol properties at a continental location in the upper Brahmaputra basin of north east India: Diurnal asymmetry and association with meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The spectro-temporal variation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and associated physico-optical properties are studied for the period October 2001-November 2010 over a continental location, Dibrugarh (27.3°N, 94.6°E, 111 m amsl) located in the upper Brahmaputra basin of north-east India. The emphasis is on the climatological diurnal asymmetry of AOD and its association with meteorological parameters. AOD is found to be higher during forenoon (FN) hours compared to those in the afternoon (AN) hours in almost all seasons. The mean difference between FN and AN AOD averaged for the period 2001-2010 is 0.18. This variability is found primarily to be driven by the prevailing meteorological conditions including columnar water vapour content. It may also be attributed to the change in the ray path in the forenoon through the polluted industrialised areas located in the east and north-east of Dibrugarh to the cleaner mountain region and river Brahmaputra in the afternoon hours. The estimated CSDs are mostly bimodal in the FN hours while in the AN power law and unimodal character prevails. This indicates dominance of coarse mode aerosols in the forenoon as compared to that in the afternoon. The differences in aerosol modes between FN and AN hours result in the diurnal asymmetry of the modified Ångström coefficients. AOD retrieved from MODIS satellites is also higher in the FN by 0.08 as compared to that in the AN The climatological mean difference between MODIS Terra and Aqua AOD is however, less than the mean difference observed between AOD measured from ground.

  3. Relative frequency of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in selected centres in North Africa, the middle east and India: a review of 971 cases.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anamarija M; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2016-03-01

    Comparative data regarding the distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes in North Africa, the Middle East and India (NAF/ME/IN) is scarce in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in this region. Five expert haematopathologists classified 971 consecutive cases of newly-diagnosed NHL from five countries in NAF/ME/IN. After review, 890 cases (91·7%) were confirmed to be NHL and compared to 399 cases from North America (NA). The male-to-female ratio was significantly higher in NAF/ME/IN (1·8) compared to NA (1·1; P< 0·05). The median ages of patients with low-grade (LG) and high-grade (HG) B-NHL in NAF/ME/IN (56 and 52 years, respectively) were significantly lower than in NA (64 and 68 years, respectively). In NAF/ME/IN, a significantly lower proportion of LG B-NHL (28·4%) and a higher proportion of HG B-NHL (58·4%) were found compared to NA (56·1% and 34·3%, respectively). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was more common in NAF/ME/IN (49·4%) compared to NA (29·3%), whereas follicular lymphoma was less common in NAF/ME/IN (12·4%) than in NA (33·6%). In conclusion, we found significant differences in NHL subtypes and clinical features between NAF/ME/IN and NA. Epidemiological studies are needed to better understand the pathobiology of these differences. PMID:26684877

  4. Assessment of Universal Healthcare Coverage in a District of North India: A Rapid Cross-Sectional Survey Using Tablet Computers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarundeep; Roy, Pritam; Jamir, Limalemla; Gupta, Saurav; Kaur, Navpreet; Jain, D. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective A rapid survey was carried out in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar District of Punjab state in India to ascertain health seeking behavior and out-of-pocket health expenditures. Methods Using multistage cluster sampling design, 1,008 households (28 clusters x 36 households in each cluster) were selected proportionately from urban and rural areas. Households were selected through a house-to-house survey during April and May 2014 whose members had (a) experienced illness in the past 30 days, (b) had illness lasting longer than 30 days, (c) were hospitalized in the past 365 days, or (d) had women who were currently pregnant or experienced childbirth in the past two years. In these selected households, trained investigators, using a tablet computer-based structured questionnaire, enquired about the socio-demographics, nature of illness, source of healthcare, and healthcare and household expenditure. The data was transmitted daily to a central server using wireless communication network. Mean healthcare expenditures were computed for various health conditions. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure was defined as more than 10% of the total annual household expenditure on healthcare. Chi square test for trend was used to compare catastrophic expenditures on hospitalization between households classified into expenditure quartiles. Results The mean monthly household expenditure was 15,029 Indian Rupees (USD 188.2). Nearly 14.2% of the household expenditure was on healthcare. Fever, respiratory tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases were the common acute illnesses, while heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases were the more common chronic diseases. Hospitalizations were mainly due to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal problems, and accidents. Only 17%, 18%, 20% and 31% of the healthcare for acute illnesses, chronic illnesses, hospitalizations and childbirth was sought in the government health facilities. Average expenditure in government health

  5. Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  6. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer; Patel, K K

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and Larval Packet Test (LPT) were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5) has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25). Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks. PMID:26788362

  7. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Shyma, K. P.; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer; Patel, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and Larval Packet Test (LPT) were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5) has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25). Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks. PMID:26788362

  8. Babesia infection in naturally exposed pet dogs from a north-eastern state (Assam) of India: detection by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Sarmah, P C; Das, M; Goswami, A; Sarma, D; Sen, A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to detect Babesia infections in pet dogs of a north-eastern state of India. The diagnostic efficacy of Babesia infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been compared with microscopy examination. For this, a total of 111 blood samples of pet dogs presented at clinical complex of the College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati, Assam with clinical signs suspected for Babesia infection subjected to the study. A total of 44 (39.63 %) dogs were diagnosed as positive for Babesia infections after microscopic examination. Among these, Babesia canis infection was diagnosed in 5 dogs (4.50 %) and B. gibsoni infection in 39 (35.13 %) dogs microscopically in Giemsa stained blood smears. Molecular diagnosis using PCR detected 63 (56.75 %) dogs positive for Babesia infection. Single infection with B. canis was found in 9 (8.10 %) dogs while B. gibsoni alone was detected in 3 (2.70 %) dogs. Mixed infections by both these species were detected in 51 (45.94 %) dogs. Overall, PCR detected 54 (48.64 %) dogs as B. gibsoni and 60 (54.05 %) dogs as B. canis positive. PMID:25320489

  9. Measuring opportunity for natural selection: Adaptation among two linguistically cognate tribes inhabiting two eco-situations of North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous literature on the migration of Mishings point out to the fact that the Mishing and the Minyong are two culturally and linguistically cognate tribes that co-existed in the same ecology in the hills of Arunachal Pradesh. The Mishing tribe after migration, now inhabits flood-prone areas of Brahmaputra valley of Assam. AIM: The study aims to measure the adaptation process of these two cognate tribes inhabiting two different ecologies at present: Hills and plains by calculating the index of selection intensity by Crow’s and Johnston and Kensinger’s formulae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The reproductive histories of 77 Mishing mothers of completed fertility inhabiting a flood affected village of Assam and 74 Minyong mothers inhabiting a hilly village of Arunachal Pradesh are selected. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Minyongs show higher average fertility than the Mishings. The proportion of embryonic death is higher, and child death is lower among the Mishings (0.1661; 0.1623) than the Minyongs (0.1319; 0.2238). The index of selection due to mortality component is contributing more toward the total index of selection in both the tribes. CONCLUSION: The contribution of mortality component is sizeable to the total selection like many other tribes of North-East India. Higher proportion of embryonic deaths among the Mishings infers that the causes are mostly biological whereas, the higher proportion of child deaths among the Minyongs infers that the causes are mostly socio-cultural. PMID:24019616

  10. Uranium (U)-Tolerant Bacterial Diversity from U Ore Deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and Its Prospective Utilisation in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 μM and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

  11. Susceptibility mapping and estimation of rainfall threshold using space based input for assessment of landslide hazard in Guwahati city in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhusan, K.; Kundu, S. S.; Goswami, K.; Sudhakar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Slopes are the most common landforms in North Eastern Region (NER) of India and because of its relatively immature topography, active tectonics, and intense rainfall activities; the region is susceptible to landslide incidences. The scenario is further aggravated due to unscientific human activities leading to destabilization of slopes. Guwahati, the capital city of Assam also experiences similar hazardous situation especially during monsoon season thus demanding a systematic study towards landslide risk reduction. A systematic assessment of landslide hazard requires understanding of two components, "where" and "when" that landslides may occur. Presently no such system exists for Guwahati city due to lack of landslide inventory data, high resolution thematic maps, DEM, sparse rain gauge network, etc. The present study elucidates the potential of space-based inputs in addressing the problem in absence of field-based observing networks. First, Landslide susceptibility map in 1 : 10,000 scale was derived by integrating geospatial datasets interpreted from high resolution satellite data. Secondly, the rainfall threshold for dynamic triggering of landslide was estimated using rainfall estimates from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis. The 3B41RT data for 1 hourly rainfall estimates were used to make Intensity-Duration plot. Critical rainfall was estimated for every incidence by analysing cumulative rainfall leading to a landslide for total of 19 incidences and an empirical rainfall intensity-duration threshold for triggering shallow debris slides was developed (Intensity = 5.9 Duration-0.479).

  12. Prevalence and identification of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) in Escherichia coli isolated from a tertiary care hospital in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Ravikant; Kumar, Parveen; Ranotkar, Swapnil; Zutshi, Shubhranshu; Lahkar, Mangala; Phukan, Chimanjita; Saikia, Kandarpa K

    2016-02-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are rapidly evolving group of β-lactamase enzymes produced by the Gram negative bacteria. In this study, we determined the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli isolates and prevalence of TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes in ESBL positive E. coli isolated from the patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in North-East India. A total of 85 multidrug-resistant isolates of E. coli obtained from clinical samples; urine (n = 80), sputum (n = 3), body fluid (n = 1), vaginal discharge (n = 1) were screened for resistance to third generation cephalosporins. ESBL production in resistant isolates was determined by double disk synergy test (DDST) and phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT). ESBL positive isolates were subjected to PCR for detection of TEM, SHV and CTX-M genes. Imipenem was found to be most effective against E. coli (susceptible isolates 96.47%) while ciprofloxacin was the least effective antibiotic (resistant isolates 60%). Among 33 ESBL positive isolates confirmed via PCT, preponderance in female population (60.6%) was noted. The most prevalent gene was bla(SHV) (63.04%) followed by bla(TEM) and bla(CTX-M) (60.86 and 54.34%, respectively) in ESBL positive E. coli. Most of the extensively used antibiotics, appear to be ineffective against the ever-mutating bacteria. This resistance urges cautious antimicrobial management on priority. Further, it helps in effectively designing the chemotherapeutic regimen for patients of a particular geographic area. PMID:26934778

  13. Survival patterns in treated cases of carcinoma larynx in North India: A 10-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Jaimanti; Panda, Naresh K; Sharma, Suresh C; Gupta, Ashok; Mann, S B S

    2005-04-01

    Carcinoma of larynx is a common disease in North Indian population. It is seen commonly in smokers and alcoholics. It poses a serious health problem due to its tendency to cause airway obstruction and to make the patient aphonic if total larynxgectomy is done for curing this cancer. We conducted a retrospective analysis in 690 cases of carcinoma larynx presenting to Nehru Hospital, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. Various aspects of this disease like predisposing factors, patterns of spread, histological types, various treatment modalities, their complications and response of this disease to these therapeutic options were studied in detail. PMID:23120142

  14. Clinico-epidemiological study of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A tertiary care centre study in North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Kumar, Vijay; Agarwal, Akash; Kumar, Rajendra; Bhatt, M.L.B.; Misra, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) ranks 12th most common cancer in the world. Objective The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the OSCC. Methods A retrospective study of 611 OSCC patients from January 2010 to December 2013 was carried out in Department of Surgical Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India. Details of patient's sex, age, tobacco habit and site of cancer were noted. Data were analyzed by Student's t test and chi-squire (χ2) test. Results The prevalence of OSCC was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males (75.9%) than females (24.1%). The mean age of female patients was higher than males (p < 0.001). In both the genders, the buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus were found to be the most affected sites. Moreover, the smokeless form of tobacco was found to be significantly associated with OSCC, especially in females. Conclusion The study concluded that OSCC is more common in men as compared to women, probably due to habit of tobacco consumption. Smokeless tobacco use is an important risk factor, especially in females. PMID:26937366

  15. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

    2006-01-01

    The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind. PMID:16899114

  16. Comparative cost-effectiveness of the components of a behavior change communication campaign on HIV/AIDS in North India.

    PubMed

    Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally. PMID:17148103

  17. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another. PMID:21453496

  18. Continental export efficiencies and delineation of sources for trace gases and black carbon in North-East India: Seasonal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Chutia, Lakhima; Bharali, Chandrakala; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) has been identified from back-trajectory analyses, as one of the most potential region affecting the species transport to the Northeastern region of India (NER). The continental export efficiency (εε) of BC, NOx and SO2 within the boundary layer is estimated in order to examine how efficiently these chemical species are transported towards the NER. For this the measurements carried out at Dibrugarh, a wet tropical location in NER during 2012-2013 have been used as the references in the estimation of the species enhancements above their background. CO is used as a passive tracer of transport due to its longer lifetime in the atmosphere. The emission estimates of BC, NOx, SO2 and CO in the IGP region are adopted from the emission inventories REAS and INTEX-B. The estimated export efficiency is highest in winter (DJF) for BC and NOx, whereas SO2 shows maximum efficiency in monsoon (JJAS). BC due to efficient transportation/removal from the IGP region exhibits highest εε values compared to the other species. NOx and SO2 on the other hand get transformed to other chemical species shortly after emission into the atmosphere and hence are less efficiently transported towards the study region. The export of BC, CO, NOx and SO2 are expected to supplement the chemical atmosphere in NER, which is further studied through the annual variability in their distribution in Dibrugarh. Pearson correlation analyses of BC, NOx and SO2 with CO is carried out to examine the similarity or dissimilarity among the sources.

  19. Identification and genetic characterization of chikungunya virus from Aedes mosquito vector collected in the Lucknow district, North India.

    PubMed

    Nyari, N; Maan, H S; Sharma, S; Pandey, S N; Dhole, T N

    2016-06-01

    Chikungunya fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by the infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The CHIKV has been rarely detected in mosquito vectors from Northern India, since vector surveillance is an effective strategy in controlling and preventing CHIKV transmission. Thus, virological investigation for CHIKV among mosquitoes of Aedes (A.) species was carried out in the Lucknow district during March 2010 to October 2011. We collected adult mosquitoes from areas with CHIKV positive patients. The adult Aedes mosquito samples were pooled, homogenized, clarified and tested for CHIKV by nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 91 mosquito pools comprising of adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus were tested for CHIKV. The partial envelope protein (E1) gene sequences of mosquito-borne CHIKV strains were analyzed for genotyping. Of 91 pools, 6 pools of A. aegypti; and 2 pools of A. albopictus mosquitoes were identified positive for CHIKV by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of CHIKV strains in two sub-lineages within the monophyletic East-Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Novel amino acid changes at the positions 294 (P294L) and 295 (S295F) were observed during analysis of amino acid sequence of the partial E1 gene. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity of circulating CHIKV strains and reports the first detection of CHIKV strains in Aedes vector species from the state of Uttar Pradesh. These findings have implication for vector control strategies to mitigate vector population to prevent the likelihood of CHIKV epidemic in the near future. PMID:26943997

  20. Fine mode aerosol chemistry over a rural atmosphere near the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Anandamay; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted on the chemical characterization of fine mode aerosol or PM2.5 over a rural atmosphere near the coast of Bay of Bengal in eastern India. Samples were collected and analyzed during March 2013 - February 2014. The concentration of PM2.5 was found span over a wide range from as low as 3 µg m-3 to as high as 180 µg m-3. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 62 µg m-3. Maximum accumulation of fine mode aerosol was observed during winter whereas minimum was observed during monsoon. Water soluble ionic species of fine mode aerosol were characterized over this rural atmosphere. In spite of being situated near the coast of Bay of Bengal, we observed significantly higher concentrations for anthropogenic species like ammonium and sulphate. The concentrations of these two species were much higher than the sea-salt aerosols. Ammonium and sulphate contributed around 30 % to the total fine mode aerosols. Even dust aerosol species like calcium also showed higher concentrations. Chloride to sodium ratio was found to be much less than that in standard sea-water indicating strong interaction between sea-salt and anthropogenic aerosols. Use of fertilizers in various crop fields and human and animal wastes significantly increased ammonium in fine mode aerosols. Dust aerosol species were accumulated in the atmosphere which could be due to transport of finer dust species from nearby metropolis or locally generated. Non-sea-sulphate and nitrate showed significant contributions in fine mode aerosols having both local and transported sources. Source apportionment shows prominent emission sources of anthropogenic aerosols from local anthropogenic activities and transported from nearby Kolkata metropolis as well.

  1. How are our medical students using the computer and internet? A study from a medical college of north India

    PubMed Central

    Maroof, Khan Amir; Parashar, Pawan; Bansal, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Background: In today's world, use of Internet has become indispensable. Medical students have much to gain from the Internet technology that has revolutionized the medical field. There is a very rapid change in the way communication technology is being handled and our medical students should also be ready to embrace it. Very few studies have been done on this topic in India. The aim was to find out the knowledge, practice, and barriers of Internet use among the medical undergraduates of Subharti Medical College, Meerut. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the MBBS students belonging to the first, second, third, and fourth years of their course during August to October 2009. A pretested questionnaire was used collecting information on their Internet usage patterns, knowledge about information technology, and barriers to using it. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and appropriate statistical tests were applied for analysis. Results: The proportion of respondents having a laptop were more in cohort of students belonging to the admission year 2009 (65.8%) followed by 2008 (54.7%), 2007 (53.0%), and 2006 (38.0%), i.e., a gradual increase in newer cohorts. About half (57.4%) of the students had some sort of formal training in computer and Internet use. Knowledge about Internet was more among the junior cohorts compared to the senior cohorts (P<0.0001). Only about one-fifths of the respondents used Internet for searching literature for projects from medical journals on the Internet. Majority of the respondents accessed Internet for less than 3 hours per week. About one-tenth (8.0%) of the students felt that Internet is totally useless in medical field. The major barrier (54.4% of the respondents) to using Internet was lack of time. Conclusions: Further research should focus on designing and implementing computer and Internet training for medical students. PMID:23271853

  2. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno; Ghosh, Sampat

    2011-01-01

    Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another. PMID:21453496

  3. Coagulation factor VIII, IX and XI levels in north Indian patients with venous thromboembolism: first study from India.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Rajpal, Sweta; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Bose, Sunil Kumar; Masih, Joseph; Das, Reena; Kumar, Narender; Malhotra, Pankaj; Suri, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown elevated levels of certain coagulation factors as risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this study, we investigated the levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), FIX and FXI in north Indian patients with VTE. A total of 123 patients with VTE were screened prospectively for FVIII, FIX and FXI levels and the conventional risk factors - deficiencies of protein C, S and antithrombin, positivity for antiphospholipid antibodies and the factor V Leiden mutation. Age-matched and sex-matched controls were included. VTE was secondary to known circumstantial and thrombophilic risk factors in 66 (53.7%) patients. In 46.3% (idiopathic VTE) patients, no cause was identified. The mean FVIII levels in idiopathic (187 IU/dl) and secondary VTE patients (185.4 IU/dl) were significantly higher compared with controls (129.6 IU/dl; P < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the levels of FIX and FXI between patients and controls (P = 0.214 and 0.198, respectively). Patients with elevated FVIII levels had increased risk of VTE compared with controls (odds ratio: 9.4, 95% confidence interval: 4.7-18.79). On logistic regression analysis after adjusting for surgery and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, this risk remained unchanged (odds ratio: 9.54, 95% confidence interval: 4.68-19.44). A dose-response relationship was observed with progressive increase in FVIII levels. Elevated FVIII levels constitute an independent risk factor for VTE in the north Indian population. Elevated levels of FIX and FXI were not associated with increased risk of VTE. PMID:26340461

  4. Macrothrombocytopenia in north India: role of automated platelet data in the detection of an under diagnosed entity.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Naveen; John, M Joseph; Mathew, Amrith

    2015-03-01

    Congenital macrothrombocytopenia is being increasingly recognised because of the increasing availability of automated platelet counts during routine complete blood count. If not recognised, these patients may be unnecessarily investigated or treated. The study was done to assess the occurrence of macrothrombocytopenia in the North Indian population and the role of automated platelet parameters in its detection. This prospective study was done on patients whose blood samples were sent for CBC to the hematology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital. Samples were run on Advia-120, a 5-part differential automated analyzer. Routine blood parameters including platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet cytogram pattern and platelet flagging was studied along with peripheral blood smear examination. ANOVA was used to compare difference in mean MPV in patients with macrothrombocytopenia, and those with secondary thrombocytopenia and ITP. Seventy five (0.6 %) patients with CBC evaluation were detected to have macrothrombocytopenia, majority (96 %) of North Indian origin. The MPV (fl) in the 75 patients ranged from 10.9 to 23.3 (mean 15.1 ± 3.1 fl) with a dispersed cytogram pattern distinct from that seen in patients with normal platelet count, raised platelet count or low platelets due to secondary thrombocytopenia (MPV-10.9 ± 2.6) or ITP (10.8 ± 3.5). The difference in mean MPV in these patients was statistically significant (p < 0.00001). Macrothrombocytopenia is an under diagnosed condition and may be initially suspected on automated blood counts. Along with a blood smear examination, automated data (MPV and platelet cytogram pattern) aids the diagnosis and can avoid unnecessary investigations and interventions for these patients. PMID:25548447

  5. Sustained Virological Response Rates to Antiviral Therapy in Genotype 1 and 3 Chronic Hepatitis C Patients: A Study from North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Praveen; Tyagi, Pankaj; Bansal, Naresh; Singla, Vikas; Arora, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background In India, both genotype 3 and 1 are predominant genotypes in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). However, there is scanty data on sustained viral response (SVR) rate with conventionally recommended dual therapy with PEG-IFN and ribavirin. Methods In this retrospective study, consecutive patients of CHC of genotypes 1 and 3, attending the single unit of Gastroenterology of our hospital, who received PEG-IFN and ribavirin therapy, were included. Patients who had co-infection with HIV or HBV were excluded. Results A total of 114 patients were included in the study median age 44 (15–72) years, 79% males. Most common presentation was with chronic hepatitis, while 10 (9%) patients had compensated cirrhosis. Nine (8%) patients had associated diabetes, 16 (14%) patients gave history of significant alcohol abuse. The median baseline HCV RNA level was 3.0 × 105 (1.7 × 103–1.8 × 107) IU/mL. The most common genotype was 3 (75%) followed by genotype 1 (25%). 70% patients received PegIFN-α2a (median dose 180 MIU/wk) and 30% patients received PegIFN-α2b (median dose 80 MIU/wk). The median ribavirin dose was 800 (range 800–1200) mg. SVR in genotype 1 was 64% (18/28) while SVR in genotype 3 was 73% (63/86). The factors predicting SVR on univariate analysis were a lower baseline HCV RNA level (less than 3.0 × 105), higher hemoglobin level > 11.8 g/dl, and achievement of rapid virological response (RVR), early virological response (EVR) and end of treatment response (ETR). In multivariate analysis the only baseline factor found independently correlating with SVR was low HCV RNA level (<3.0 × 105 IU/mL) (P = 0.003). Conclusion In north India, HCV genotype 3 has a SVR rate of 73%, which is comparable to genotype 1 with SVR rate of 64% when treated with PEG-IFN and ribavirin therapy. A baseline HCV RNA level lower than 3.0 × 105 best predicts SVR in addition to achievement of RVR, EVR or ETR. PMID:25755575

  6. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric particulate carbon fractions and identification of secondary sources at urban sites in North India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sailesh N; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-09-01

    An intensive measurement campaign was undertaken to characterize eight fractions of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in particulate matter (PM) at four urban sites with different pollution characteristics during summer, post-monsoon, and winter at Kanpur, India. Speciation samplers were used to collect particulate samples on quartz filters followed by analysis of OC and EC using Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)-based thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) method. Based on 24-h average results at each site, the highest levels of OC and EC were observed during winter as 96.7 ± 26.9 and 31.8 ± 9.8 μg/m(3) at residential site and traffic site, respectively. The levels of OC at residential sites during winter appeared to be more than twice of that during summer. The site close to the road traffic had the least value of OC/EC, as 1.77 ± 0.28 during post-monsoon, and the site influenced by emissions of domestic cooking and heating had the highest value of OC/EC, as 4.05 ± 0.79 during winter. The average abundances of OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, OP, EC1, EC2, and EC3 in total carbon (TC) at all sites for three seasons were 10.03, 19.04, 20.03, 12.32, 10.53, 33.39, 3.21, and 1.99 %, respectively. A sharp increase in levels of OC1 and EC1-OP during winter at two residential sites revealed that biomass burning could be a significant contributor to carbonaceous aerosols. From the application of EC-tracer method, it was observed that contribution of secondary organic carbon (SOC) to PM mass increased from 5 % during post-monsoon to 16 % during winter at residential sites and from 2 % during post-monsoon to 7 % during winter at traffic sites. Therefore, it could be inferred that increase in primary emissions coupled with unfavorable meteorological conditions could cause particle agglomeration and hygroscopic growth, leading to unpleasant pollution episode during winter. PMID:25940490

  7. Characterization of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from cases of diarrhoea & haemolytic uremic syndrome in north India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Taneja, Neelam; Bharti, Bhavneet; Sharma, Meera

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important zoonotic foodborne pathogen, capable of causing haemorrhagic colitis (HC) and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). As data from India on human infections caused by STEC are limited, this study was carried out for hospital based surveillance for STEC as a causative agent of diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea and HUS at a tertiary care centre and to study the virulence gene profile and strain relatedness by multi locus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Methods: A total of 600 stool samples were studied. Stool samples of every fifth patient presenting with non-bloody diarrhoea, all cases of bloody diarrhoea and diarrhoea associated HUS (D+HUS) were collected from October 2009 to September 2011. Stool samples were cultured for STEC and characterization of STEC was done by serogrouping, virulence genes analysis, and MLVA typing. Results: STEC were isolated as a sole pathogen from 11 stool samples [5 of 290 (1.7%) non-blood diarrhoea and 5 of 300 (1.6%) blood diarrhoea cases]. STEC was also isolated from one fatal case of HUS who was an eight month old child. Only six of 11 isolates were positive for stx2 gene, whereas stx1 was present in all 11 isolates. Only one isolate was positive for eae. Other adhesion genes present were iha in five isolates, followed by toxB and efa1 in two each and saa gene in one, isolate. Among the plasmid encoded genes, espP, hly and etpD were each present in one isolate each. In the MLVA typing, diverse profiles were obtained except two untypeable isolates from different patients shared the same MLVA profile. Both these isolates were not epidemiologically linked. Interpretation & conclusions: This study demonstrated that STEC could be a causative agent of diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea and sporadic HUS. However, further work needs to be done to study and explore the prevalence of these organisms in the food chain in this region. PMID:25758577

  8. Low dose mifepristone in medical management of uterine leiomyoma - An experience from a tertiary care hospital from north India

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Vidushi; Kriplani, Alka; Agarwal, Nutan; Sareen, Neetu; Garg, Pradeep; Hari, Smriti; Thulkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Uterine myoma is a common indication for hysterectomy in India. An effective medical treatment option may reduce hysterectomy associated morbidity. This study was undertaken to evaluate efficacy and safety of low dose mifepristone in medical management of myoma and to compare two doses - 10 vs. 25 mg/day. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, women with symptomatic myoma or myoma>5cm were included. Uterine size >20 wk, fibroids >15 cm were excluded. Pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) score was used to assess menstrual-blood-loss and visual analog scale (VAS) for other symptoms. Haemogram, liver function test, ultrasound with doppler and endometrial histology was performed. Patients were randomized and were given oral mifepristone as 25 mg/day in group 1 and 10 mg/day in group 2 for 3 months. Patients were followed at 1, 3 and 6 months. Results: Seventy patients in group 1 and 73 in group 2 completed treatment. Mean PBAC score reduced from 253 to 19.8 and from 289.2 to 10.4 at 1 and 3 months in groups 1 and 2, respectively. At 3 months, 67 of 70 (95.7%) patients of group 1 and 66 of 73 (90.4%) of group 2 developed amenorrhoea which reverted after median 34 (range 4-85) days. Mean myoma volume decreased by 35.7 per cent (from 176.8 to 113.7cm3) and 22.5 per cent (from 147.6 to 114.4 cm3) at 3 months in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Side effects seen were leg cramps in 7 of 70 (10%) and 5 of 73 (6.8%) and hot-flushes in 5 of 70 (7.1%) and 5 of 73 (6.8%) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Repeat endometrial-histopathology did not reveal any complex hyperplasia or atypia in either group. Interpretation & conclusions: Mifepristone (10 and 25 mg) caused symptomatic relief with more than 90 per cent reduction in menstrual blood. Greater myoma size reduction occured with 25 mg dose. Amenorrhoea was developed in 90-95 per cent patients which was reversible. It can be a reasonable choice for management of uterine leiomyoma as it is

  9. Evidence of pre-Gondwana tectono-thermal event from the Bhilwara Supracrustal units of Rajasthan, north-west India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Saheli; Rakshit, Nibedita; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2014-05-01

    In the Indian subcontinent, two pre- Gondwana (pre- Pan African) orogenies are mostly recorded and well-studied from the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt: (i) >1.1 Ga and (ii) ~950 Ma. During the ~950Ma orogeny, the pre-existing granulites have been re-melted under granulite facies conditions at ~8 kbar, 800-850ºC in the sillimanite stability field with formation of garnet-orthopyroxene in the restites. In this study we report garnet-sillimanite bearing and garnet-staurolite-kyanite bearing supracrustal rocks from the Bhilwara Supergroup in Rajasthan, N-W India. Peak assemblage in the garnet-sillimanite bearing metapelite is: garnet-sillimanite-biotite-plagioclase-quartz. Garnet porphyroblasts contain sillimanite-biotite bearing inclusion trails. Matrix foliations consist of biotite, sillimanite, quartz. Peak pressure-temperature calculated for garnet formation are ~7-8 kbar, 800ºC. Garnet is replaced along the margins by biotite during retrogression. Within garnet-staurolite-kyanite schist, peak assemblage is formed of garnet-staurolite-biotite-kyanite quartz, where garnet and staurolite occur as porphyroclasts and the matrix foliations are formed of kyanite-biotite-quartz. Mineral assemblages and compositions in the rock indicate peak pressure-temperature >8 kbar, 600ºC. The ages of the metamorphic events at sillimanite and kyanite facies are not well-constrained. However since the Bhilwara supracrustal units occur close to the Grenvillian orogenic belt at Sandmata Complex, the timing of the peak metamorphism can be constrained at ~1.0 Ga. Garnet-sillimanite-bearing assemblages noted in the Bhilwara Supracrustal Belt, has also been noted from the Grenvillian belts in the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt. So the question that needs to be addressed is whether the Grenvillian orogenic belt recorded form the Sandmata Complex in Rajasthan and that of the Eastern Ghat Belt had been a continuous orogenic belt? Such possibilities can be addressed by establishing detailed structural

  10. Study of single nucleotide polymorphisms of tumour necrosis factors and HSP genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in North East India.

    PubMed

    Lakhanpal, Meena; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwor; Rahman, Tashnin; Sharma, Jagnnath; Singh, M Madhumangal; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Verma, Saurabh; Pandrangi, Santhi Latha; Singh, Y Mohan; Wajid, Saima; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial tumour with a distinctive racial and geographical distribution. High incidence of NPC has been reported from China, Southeast Asia, and northeast (NE) region of India. The immune mechanism plays incredibly role in pathogenesis of NPC. Tumour necrosis factors (TNFs) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) constitute significant components of innate as well as adaptive host immunity. Multi-analytical approaches including logistic regression (LR), classification and regression tree (CART) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) were applied in 120 NPC cases and 100 controls to explore high order interactions among TNF-α (-308 G>A), TNF β (+252 A>G), HSP 70-1 (+190 G>C), HSP 70-hom (+2437 T>C) genes and environmental risk factors. TNF β was identified as the primary etiological factor by all three analytical approaches. Individual analysis of results showed protective effect of TNF β GG genotype (adjusted odds ratio (OR2) = 0.27, 95 % CI = 0.125-0.611, P = 0.001), HSP 70 (+2437) CC genotype (OR2 = 0.17, 95 % CI = 0.0430.69, P = 0.013), while AG genotype of TNF β was found significantly associated with risk of NPC (OR2 = 1.97, 95 % CI = 1.019-3.83, P = 0.04). Analysis of environmental factors demonstrated association of alcohol consumption, living in mud houses and use of firewood for cooking as major risk factors for NPC. Individual haplotype association analysis showed significant risk associated with GTGA haplotype (OR = 68.61, 95 % CI = 2.47-190.37, P = 0.013) while a protective effect with CCAA and GCGA haplotypes (OR = 0.19, 95 % CI = 0.05-0.75, P = 0.019; OR = 0.01 95 % CI = 0.05-0.30, P = 0.007). The multi-analytical approaches applied in this study helped in identification of distinct gene-gene and gene-environment interactions significant in risk assessment of NPC. PMID:26198046

  11. Food-Safety Hazards in the Pork Chain in Nagaland, North East India: Implications for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P.; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2013-01-01

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

  12. Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

  13. The use of remote sensing for rapid post-disaster assessment - an example from Kedarnath, Uttarakhand, north India (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petley, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    Kedarnath is small town built around in important Hindu temple in the Rudraprayag district, Uttarakhand in northern India. Located at an elevation of 3,583 m, it is situated in a remote valley with no vehicular access. In summer, the temple is an important pilgrimage destination, with thousands of visitors per day, all of whom have to access the location via a 14 km trek or horse ride along a paved pathway, or via a helicopter ride. Between 14th and 17th June 2013, Uttarakhand was affected by unusually heavy early monsoonal rainfall. Whilst the rainfall totals did not reach record levels, the precipitation fell onto thawing snow, inducing very large debris flows. Kedarnath was affected by two major debris flows. According to eyewitness reports the first struck without warning in the evening of 16th June at about 7 pm local time. The second, larger, event occurred the following morning at about 6 am. The two debris flows destroyed most of the buildings in Kedarnath, although the temple survived with some damage. Across Uttarakhand it is estimated that about 5700 people died in the debris flows; the majority of these losses were at Kedarnath and in the immediate downstream communities. In the aftermath of the disaster there was considerable uncertainty as to the cause of the debris flows, with much speculation about the possibility that either a rock avalanche had developed on the flanks of the adjacent mountains or that there had been a catastrophic glacial collapse event upstream of the town. On 18th June the Indian Remote Sensing Organisation (IRSO) captured and released a RISAT-1 image of Kedarnath. Although the resolution was insufficient to determine what had occurred to trigger the disaster, it served to highlight two potential sources of the debris flows. One of these was an area of disturbance at the snout of the Charobari Glacier upslope from the town; the other was a possible landslide scar on an adjacent slope. On 23rd June 2013 NASA captured a Landsat 8

  14. Assessment of Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Care Practice Among Adolescents - A State Wide Cross- Sectional Study in Manipur, North Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Wahengbam, Brucelee Singh; Nandkeoliar, Tanya; Lyngdoh, Daiasharailang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization global strategy of promoting oral health have shown vast improvements in developed countries but the scenario is glum among underprivileged communities due to lacunae in implementation of these promotional programs. Manipur, a North Eastern state in India, is one such marginalized area. Aim The study aimed to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards oral health in 15-18 year adolescents residing in Manipur together with the association of these variables to sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 810 healthy adolescents drawn from various primary health care centers spanning in all the nine districts of Manipur. A closed ended questionnaire for the purpose of collecting data was used in the survey. Results Of the total participants 90.9% had high knowledge, 79.8% had favorable attitude and 70.4% had adequate practice towards oral health. Education of the parents and respondents was the only factor significantly associated with all three variables, knowledge, attitude and practice. Significant and positive linear correlation between knowledge-attitude (r=0.369, p<0.01) knowledge-practice (r=0.405, p<0.01) and attitude-practice (r =0.353, p<0.01), were observed. Conclusion An overwhelming majority of the respondents had high knowledge, favorable attitude and sound practice with respect to oral health. A positive linear correlation exists between the knowledge, attitude and practice. Evidence based reinforcement programs should be introduced to further reduce the gap between knowledge, attitude and practice. The study will also serve as a reference value for use in future evaluation to help measure the effectiveness of the planned activities. Future research needs to focus on establishing the dental caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of Manipuri youth. PMID:27504414

  15. Cobalamin and Folic Acid Status in Relation to the Etiopathogenesis of Pancytopenia in Adults at a Tertiary Care Centre in North India

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, M.; Gupta, N.; Singh, T.; Velpandian, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pancytopenia has multiple etiologies like megaloblastic anemia, aplastic anemia, leukemia, and various infections. We investigated the clinical, etiological and hematological profile including bone marrow morphology of patients with pancytopenia in relation to their vitamin B12 and folic acid status at a tertiary care referral hospital in north India. Methods. A total of 140 consecutive patients with pancytopenia were selected from June 2007 to December 2008. Bone marrow examination and other tests were carried out as warranted, including serum cobalamin and folate assays using liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC MS/MS). Results. The study population consisted of 92 males and 48 females with a mean age of 32.8 years. Megaloblastic anemia 60.7%, aplastic anemia (7.8%), and leukemia (9.2%) were common causes. Infectious causes (16.4% of all cases) included leishmaniasis, HIV–AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Severe cobalamin deficiency (B12 < 100 pg/mL) was seen in 81% of all patients including 91.6% of patients with MA. In contrast, only 7.14% of all pancytopenic patients were folate deficient. Folate deficiency (<5 ng/mL) was seen in just 5% MA patients. Combined cobalamin and folate deficiency was seen in 5 patients (3.51%). Conclusion. Cobalamin deficiency was found to be more common in our setting and is largely underdiagnosed in the age of folate supplementation. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, and increasingly HIV are important and treatable causes of pancytopenia. This is in contrast with the developed nations where the bulk of disease is due to malignancy or marrow aplasia. PMID:22545211

  16. Analysis of p53, K-ras gene mutation & Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer & peptic ulcer disease at a tertiary care hospital in north India

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ashish; Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Ghoshal, Uday Chand

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mutations in the oncogene and tumour suppressor genes play an important role in carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of p53 and K-ras gene mutation and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) attending a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: In total, 348 adult patients [62 GC, 45 PUD and 241 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD)] who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and PCR. Mutation in the exon 5-8 of p53 gene was analyzed by PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and confirmed by sequence analysis. K-ras gene codon 12 mutation was analyzed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Overall p53 gene mutation was found in 4.6 per cent of the study population, and its distribution in GC, PUD and NUD was 21, 4.4 and 0.4 per cent, respectively. p53 gene mutation was significantly higher in patients with GC than PUD (P<0.05) and NUD (P<0.001). No difference in p53 gene mutation was observed between H. pylori infected and non-infected individuals. K-ras gene mutation was absent in all the patients. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that p53 gene mutation may be associated with gastric carcinogenesis independent to H. pylori infection and absence of K-ras gene mutation questions its role in the pathogenesis of GC and PUD in Indian patients. PMID:23168708

  17. Body Fat Patterning, Hepatic Fat and Pancreatic Volume of Non-Obese Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes in North India: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Anoop; Anoop, Shajith; Gulati, Seema; Mani, Kalaivani; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate body fat patterning and phenotype including hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non-obese (BMI: < 25 kg/m2) Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes residing in North India. Methods Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 93) and non-obese, normo-glycemic subjects (n = 40) were recruited. BMI, waist & hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at 8 sites, body fat, lean mass and detailed abdominal fat evaluation [total abdominal fat, total subcutaneous fat (superficial, deep, anterior, and posterior), total intra-abdominal fat (intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal)], liver span, grades of fatty liver and pancreatic volume were compared. Results Waist circumference, subscapular skinfolds and total truncal fat (on DEXA) were higher whereas calf, total peripheral skinfolds and total leg fat (on DEXA) lower in patients. Specifically, the following volumes were higher in cases as compared to controls; total abdominal fat (19.4%), total intra-abdominal fat (49.7%), intra-peritoneal fat (47.7%), retroperitoneal fat (70.7%), pancreatic volume (26.6%), pancreatic volume index (21.3%) and liver span (10.8%). In cases, significant positive correlations were observed for pancreatic volume with BMI, waist and hip circumferences, W-HR, subscapular, abdominal and total truncal skinfolds, truncal, total subcutaneous, total intra-abdominal, intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal fat depots, liver span and fatty liver. Conclusions In non-obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal obesity, including fatty liver, and pancreatic volume were higher and peripheral subcutaneous adiposity was lower than BMI matched non-diabetic subjects. Importantly, increased pancreatic volume in patients was highly correlated with multiple measures of abdominal obesity and liver fat. PMID:26474415

  18. Does intrapleural length and position of the intercostal drain affect the frequency of residual hemothorax? A prospective study from north India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Agarwal, Nitin; Rattan, Amulya; Rathi, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Context: Thoracic trauma causes significant morbidity; however, many deaths are preventable and few patients require surgery. Intercostal chest drainage (ICD) for hemo/pneumothorax is simple and effective; the main problem is residual hemothorax, which can cause lung collapse and empyema. Aims: Our study aimed to analyze the relationship between radiological chest tube parameters (position and intrathoracic length) and the frequency of residual hemothorax. Settings and Design: This prospective analytical study was conducted in a large tertiary care hospital in north India over 2 years till March 2013. Materials and Methods: Patients of chest trauma aged 18-60 years, with hemothorax or hemopneumothorax requiring ICD insertion were included in the study. Bedside ICD insertion was performed as per current standards. Immediate post-ICD chest radiographs were used to record lung status and ICD position (chest tube zone and intrapleural length). Residual hemothorax was defined as any collection identified on radiological investigations after 48 hours of ICD placement. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis was performed with the chi-square test or Student's t-test as appropriate, while multivariate analysis using stepwise logistic regression; a P-value < 0.05 was significant. Results: Out of 170 patients of chest trauma, 154 underwent ICD insertion. Most patients were young (mean age: 31.7 ± 12 years) males (M:F = 14:1). Ninety-seven patients (57.1%) had isolated chest injuries. Blunt trauma (n = 119; 77.3%) and motor vehicle accidents (n = 72; 46.7%) were the commonest causes. Mean hospital stay was 9 ± 3.94 days, and mortality 2/154 (1.1%). Residual hemothorax was seen in 48 (31%). No ICD zone or length was significantly associated with residual hemothorax on univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Intrapleural ICD zone or length does not affect the frequency of residual hemothorax. PMID:25400388

  19. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Results: Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties. PMID:25538349

  20. High Prevalence of Abdominal, Intra-Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adiposity and Clustering of Risk Factors among Urban Asian Indians in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop; Misra, Ranjita; Goel, Kashish; Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Rastogi, Kavita; Vikram, Naval K.; Gulati, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of abdominal obesity including intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity along with other cardiometabolic risk factors in urban Asian Indians living in New Delhi. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological descriptive study with 459 subjects (217 males and 242 females), representing all socio-economic strata in New Delhi. The anthropometric profile [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and skinfold thickness], fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile were recorded. Percent body fat (%BF), total abdominal fat (TAF), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) were quantified using predictive equations for Asian Indians. Results The overall prevalence of obesity was high [by BMI (>25 kg/m2), 50.1%]. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (as assessed by WC) was 68.9%, while that assessed by TAF was 70.8%. Increased IAAT was significantly higher in females (80.6%) as compared to males (56.7%) (p = 0.00) with overall prevalence being 69.3%. The overall prevalence of high SCAT was 67.8%, more in males (69.1%) vs. females (66.5%, p = 0.5). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome and hypertension was 8.5%, 45.3% and 29.2%, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and low levels of HDL-c were prevalent in 42.7%, 26.6% and 37% of the subjects, respectively. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was significantly higher in males (p = 0.007); however, low levels of HDL-c were more prevalent in females as compared to males (p = 0.00). Conclusion High prevalence of generalized obesity, abdominal obesity (by measurement of WC, TAF, IAAT and SCAT) and dysmetabolic state in urban Asian Indians in north India need immediate public health intervention. PMID:21949711

  1. Genetic Environment of Plasmid Mediated CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases from Clinical and Food Borne Bacteria in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Supriya; Hussain, Abbas; Mishra, Shweta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2015-01-01

    Background The study investigated the presence of CTX-M-15 type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), compared their genetic arrangements and plasmid types in gram negative isolates of hospital and food origin in north-east India. From September 2013 to April 2014, a total of 252 consecutive, non-duplicate clinical isolates and 88 gram negative food isolates were selected. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL genes was performed. Presence of integrons and gene cassettes were analyzed by integrase and 59 base-element PCR respectively. The molecular environments surrounding blaCTX-M and plasmid types were investigated by PCR and PCR-based replicon typing respectively. Transformation was carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the blaCTX-M-15 genes. DNA fingerprinting was performed by ERIC-PCR. Results Prevalence of ESBL was found to be 40.8% (103/252) in clinical and 31.8% (28/88) in food-borne isolates. Molecular characterization revealed the presence of 56.3% (58/103) and 53.5% (15/28) blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates respectively. Strains of clinical and food origin were non-clonal. Replicon typing revealed that IncI1 and IncFII plasmid were carrying blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates and were horizontally transferable. The ISEcp1 element was associated with blaCTX-M-15 in both clinical and food isolates. Conclusions The simultaneous presence of resistance determinants in non-clonal isolates of two different groups thus suggests that the microbiota of common food products consumed may serve as a reservoir for some of the drug resistance genes prevalent in human pathogens. PMID:26361395

  2. Adverse Respiratory Health and Hematological Alterations among Agricultural Workers Occupationally Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides: A Cross-Sectional Study in North India

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Mohd.; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Kamal, Ritul; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. Objective This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. Results Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05) the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001) lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet count were

  3. Anomalous behavior of ionospheric total electron content over Dibrugarh preceding five major earthquakes (M greater than 5) in North-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Pradip; Hazarika, Rumajyoti

    The North Eastern part of India nestled between the Eastern Himalayas and the South East Asia mountains and valleys falls in the high risk seismic zone 5. Five major earthquakes (M>5) occurred from 2009 to 2013 within this zone. The epicentres of the earthquakes lied within about 2.5° in latitude and longitude from Dibrugarh (27.5° N, 94.9° E) where ionospheric TEC is being recorded using a NOVATEL GSV4004B receiver since 2009. The TEC data has been analyzed to examine the signature of these earthquakes on the ionosphere prior to their occurrence by removing the ionospheric anomalies that might be caused by variations in solar and magnetic activities. The inter-quartile range of TEC data is utilized to construct their upper and lower bounds to detect the excursions outsides the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. The results indicate large enhancements and depletion in TEC on geomagnetically quite days at Dibrugarh, which is within the earthquake preparation zones. Both enhancement and depletion in TEC have been observed prior to 1 to 15 days of the earthquakes, mainly during daytime hours. The enhancement in TEC was seen before four major earthquakes respectively M 6.4, M 6.1, M 5.8 and M 5.4, while in contrast depletion in TEC was observed before the M 5.6 earthquake. Probable causes of these enhancement and depletion prior to the earthquakes are discussed. One probable cause could be the large increase in surface latent heat flux observed between 4-8 days prior to the earthquakes near the epicenter.

  4. Cloud characteristics over the rain-shadow region of North Central peninsular India during monsoon withdrawal and post-withdrawal periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Kothawale, D. R.; Dani, K. K.; Burger, R.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud characteristics over the rain-shadow region of the north central peninsular India has been studied using C-band radar data for the period 21 September-30 October 2011. The period covers withdrawal and post-withdrawal periods of monsoon 2011. Though the study has been carried out for one season, it has been shown that it is representative of climatic feature over the region. The cloud characteristics have been discussed in the context of large scale dynamical and thermodynamical conditions over the region using NCEP wind data and radiosonde data, respectively. The large scale dynamic and thermodynamical conditions were found favorable for occurrence of widespread and deep convection. The cloud top heights show tri-modal distribution with peaks at 2-3, 4-6 and 8-12 km which are associated with cumulus, congestus and cumulonimbus clouds, respectively. The tops of these three types of the clouds are found to be associated with the stable layers in the atmosphere. The frequency of congestus clouds was the highest. The cloud characteristics over the region differ from other tropical land and oceanic regions in respect of maximum height, mean duration and cumulative frequency distribution. Distribution of cloud top height and duration show deviation from lognormality in the lower ends. It indicates that the cloud growth mechanism is different than that observed over other tropical land and oceanic regions and also due to the large wind shear prevailed over the region. During the period, a large number of suitable clouds were found available for hygroscopic and glaciogenic cloud seeding.

  5. Fat embolism syndrome in long bone trauma following vehicular accidents: Experience from a tertiary care hospital in north India

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Parvaiz A.; Ahmad, Feroze; Gurcoo, Showkat A.; Khan, Umar H.; Naqash, Imtiyaz A.; Sidiq, Suhail; Jan, Rafi Ahmad; Koul, Ajaz N.; Ashraf, Mohammad; Bhat, Mubasher Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a clinical problem arising mainly due to fractures particularly of long bones and pelvis. Not much literature is available about FES from the Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients referred/admitted prospectively over a 3-year period for suspected FES to a north Indian tertiary care center and satisfying the clinical criteria proposed by Gurd and Wilson, and Schonfeld were included in the study. Clinical features, risk factors, complications, response to treatment and any sequelae were recorded. Results: The patients (all male) presented with acute onset breathlessness, 36-120 hours following major bone trauma due to vehicular accidents. Associated features included features of cerebral dysfunction (n = 24, 69%), petechial rash (14%), tachycardia (94%) and fever (46%). Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 80% cases, thrombocytopenia in 91%, anemia in 94% and hypoalbuminemia in 59%. Bilateral alveolar infiltrates were seen on chest radiography in 28 patients and there was evidence of bilateral ground glass appearance in 5 patients on CT. Eleven patients required ventilatory assistance whereas others were treated with supportive management. Three patients expired due to associated sepsis and respiratory failure, whereas others recovered with a mean hospital stay of 9 days. No long term sequelae were observed. Conclusion: FES remains a clinical challenge and is a diagnosis of exclusion based only on clinical grounds because of the absence of any specific laboratory test. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis and initiating supportive management in patients with traumatic fractures, especially in those having undergone an invasive orthopedic procedure. PMID:23741088

  6. Petrological and geochemical studies of ultramafic-mafic rocks from the North Puruliya Shear Zone (eastern India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Aditi; Ray, Arijit

    2015-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic rocks occur within a linear belt, trending nearly E-W along North Puruliya Shear Zone of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC). These rocks are classified as gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite, dolerite, diorite, olivine-websterite and lherzolite. Mafic rocks (Group 1) often occur in association with ultramafic variants (Group 2) and sometimes in isolation. A genetic link has been established between these mafic and ultramafic rocks using disposition of ultramafic and mafic rocks in the outcrop, systematic variation in modal mineralogy, co-linearity of plots in biaxial chemical variation diagram. Chemical composition of biotite and clinopyroxene reveal calc-alkaline nature and arc signature in these mafic-ultramafic rocks and whole rock geochemical characters indicate similarity with arc magma in subduction zone setting. The high values of Mg no. (47-81) and Al 2 O 3 (5.5-17.9) of mafic rocks indicate primitive, aluminous nature of the parental melt and presence of amphibole and biotite indicate its hydrous nature. The parent mafic melt evolved through fractionation of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The crystal cumulates gave rise to the ultramafic rocks and the associated mafic rocks formed from residual melt. Crustal contamination played an important role in magmatic evolution as evident from variation in abundance of Rb in different lithomembers. Mafic-ultramafic rocks of the present study have been compared with intra-cratonic layered complexes, mafic-ultramafic rocks of high grade terrain, Alaskan type ultramafic-mafic complex and ophiolites. It is observed that the ultramafic-mafic rocks of present study have similarity with Alaskan type complex.

  7. Glacier changes in the Ravi basin, North-Western Himalaya (India) during the last four decades (1971-2010/13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Pritam; Sharma, Milap Chand

    2015-12-01

    A glacier inventory of the Ravi basin, north-western Himalaya has been generated for the year 2002 using Landsat ETM + and ASTER Global DEM (GDEM V2) as the baseline data for the change analysis. The Ravi basin consists of 285 glaciers (> 0.02 km2) covering an area of 164.5 ± 7.5 km2, including 71 debris-covered glaciers with an area of 36.1 ± 2.1 km2 (22% of total glacierized area) in 2002. Change analysis based on Corona KH-4B (1971), Worldview (2010) and Landsat 8 OLI/TRIS (2013) images was restricted to a subset of 157 glaciers (covering an area of 121.4 ± 5.4 km2 in 2002) due to cloud cover. Glacier area decreased from 125.8 ± 1.9 km2 (1971) to 119.9 ± 4.8 km2 (2010/13), a loss of 4.7 ± 4.1% or 0.1 ± 0.1% a- 1. The glacier recession rate has decreased, to a minimum for the recent decades (2002-2010/13). The debris-covered glacier area increased by 19.2 ± 2.2% (0.5 ± 0.05% a- 1) in the Ravi basin. However, there were significant variation in its sub-basins i.e. in Budhil and Upper Ravi sub-basin, where the debris-covered area increased by 28.6 ± 3.1% (0.7 ± 0.1% a- 1) and 14 ± 1.6% (0.3 ± 0.04% a- 1), respectively, between 1971 and 2010/13. Field investigation of selected glaciers (2010-2014) supports glacier recession trend from remote sensing data. Glacier retreat rates in the Ravi basin were lower than previously reported for selected glaciers in the similar basin and other basins (e.g. Chenab, Beas, Parbati, Baspa and Tirungkhad) of the Himachal Himalaya.

  8. Aerosol characterization over Sundarban mangrove forest at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Das, Sanat Kumar; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Singh, Soumendra; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted on chemical characterization of size segregated and cumulative aerosols during winter, 2015 and summer 2016 over a remote mangrove forest at Sundarban at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal. Aerosols originated from the surf zone at the land-ocean boundary of Sundarban mangrove forest and aerosols advected from Kolkata and other metropolitan and urban cities at Indo-Gangetic Plain were characterized in terms of major water soluble inorganic species. Attempt was made to investigate the combined effect of locally generated sea-salt and advected anthropogenic aerosols could change the pristine marine character at this region during the above mentioned periods. Significant chloride depletion from sea-salt aerosols was observed in coarse and ultrafine mode compared to fine mode in winter whereas reverse trend was observed during summer. On an average the chloride to sodium ratio in PM10 aerosol was found to be around 0.6 which was much lower than that in sea-water. It was observed that non-sea-sulphate and nitrate aerosols were the major species depleting chloride from sea-salt aerosols. This supported the interaction between fresh marine and polluted anthropogenic aerosols. The average concentration of PM10 aerosols was 64 μg m-3 in winter and 89 μg m-3 in summer. Major water soluble ionic species were used for the source apportionment of aerosol during the two seasons. On an average it was observed that 60-70 % of total PM10 aerosols were constituted by the major water soluble ionic species. Emission flux and deposition flux of aerosols were also studied over this remote forest region. It was also observed that anthropogenic ionic species were mostly accumulated in the ultrafine and fine mode region both during winter and summer. On the other hand sea-salt species were mostly accumulated in the coarse mode region. Sulphate aerosol showed bimodal distribution with prominent peaks both at ultrafine/fine and coarse mode region

  9. Isotopic and trace element geochemistry of alkalic-mafic-ultramafic-carbonatitic complexes and flood basalts in NE India: Origin in a heterogeneous Kerguelen plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, Arundhuti; Basu, Asish R.

    2013-08-01

    The Archean East Indian cratonic margin was affected by the Kerguelen plume (KP) ˜117 Ma, causing flood-basalt eruptions of the Rajmahal-Bengal-Sylhet Traps (RBST). The RBST cover ˜one million km2 in and around the Bengal Basin as alkalic-ultrabasic intrusives in the west and Sikkim in the north, and Sylhet basalts and alkalic-carbonatitic-ultramafic complexes in the Shillong plateau - Mikir hills farther east of the Rajmahal-Bengal Traps. We provide new Nd-Sr-Pb-isotopic and trace element data on 21 unreported discrete lava flows of the Rajmahal Traps, 56 alkalic-carbonatitic-mafic-ultramafic rocks from four alkalic complexes, and three dikes from the Gondwana Bokaro coalfields, all belonging to the RBST. The data allow geochemical correlation of the RBST with some contemporaneous Kerguelen Plateau basalts and KP-related volcanics in the southern Indian Ocean. Specifically, the new data show similarity with previous data of Rajmahal group I-II basalts, Sylhet Traps, Bunbury basalts, and lavas from the southern Kerguelen Plateau, indicating a relatively primitive KP source, estimated as: ɛNd(I) = +2, 87Sr/86Sr(I) = 0.7046, with a nearly flat time-integrated rare earth element (REE) pattern. We model the origin of the uncontaminated RBST basalts by ˜18% batch melting with a 2× chondritic KP source in the spinel-peridotite stability depths of 60-70 km in the mantle. The new geochemical data similar to the Rajmahal group II basalts indicate a light REE enriched average source at ɛNd(I) = -5, 87Sr/86Sr(I) = 0.7069. Our geochemical modeling indicates these lavas assimilated granulites of the Eastern Ghats, reducing the thickness of the continental Indian lithosphere. Lack of an asthenospheric MORB component in the RBST province is indicated by various trace element ratios as well as the Nd-Sr isotopic ratios. Three alkalic complexes, Sung, Samchampi, and Barpung in NE India, and one in Sikkim to the north are of two groups: carbonatites, pyroxenites, lamproites

  10. A seismic hazard scenario in the Sikkim Himalaya from seismotectonics, spectral amplification, source parameterization, and spectral attenuation laws using strong motion seismometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Vyas, Madhav; Pal, Indrajit; Sengupta, Probal

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a seismic hazard map of the Indian Himalayan State of Sikkim, lying between Nepal and Bhutan Himalaya, in terms of horizontal peak ground accelerations with 10% exceedance probability over the next 50 years. These figures, the first for the region, were calculated through a stepwise process based on (1) an estimation of the maximum credible earthquake (MCE) from the seismicity of the region and Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program considerations and (2) four seismotectonic parameters abstracted from accelerograms recorded at nine stations of the Sikkim Strong Motion Array, specifically installed for this study. The latter include (1) the frequency-dependent power law for the shear wave quality factor, QS, (2) the site response function at each station using receiver function analysis and generalized inversion, (3) source parameterization of various events recorded by the array and application of the resulting relationships between M0 and MW, and corner frequency, fc and MW to simulate spectral accelerations due to higher-magnitude events corresponding to the estimated MCE, and (4) abstraction of regional as well as site specific local spectral attenuation laws at different geometrically central frequencies in low-, moderate-, and high-frequency bands.

  11. Kinematic analyses of orogen-parallel L-tectonites from Pelling-Munsiari thrust of Sikkim Himalayan fold thrust belt: Insights from multiple, incremental strain markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Jyoti Prasad; Bhattacharyya, Kathakali; Mookerjee, Matty; Ghosh, Pritam

    2016-09-01

    Fault rocks associated with the Pelling thrust (PT) in the Sikkim Himalayan fold thrust belt (FTB) change from SL tectonites to local, transport-parallel L-tectonites that are exposed in discontinuous klippen south of the PT zone. By estimating the incremental kinematic vorticity number (Wk) from quartz c-axes fabric, oblique fabric, and subgrains, we reconstruct a first-order, kinematic path of these L-tectonites. Quartz c-axes fabric suggests that the deformation initiated as pure-shear dominated (∼56-96%) that progressively became simple-shear dominated (∼29-54%), as recorded by the oblique fabric and subgrains in the L-tectonites. These rocks record a non-steady deformation where the kinematic vorticity varied spatially and temporally within the klippen. The L-tectonites record ∼30% greater pure-shear than the PT fault rocks outside the klippen, and the greatest pure-shear dominated flow among the published vorticity data from major fault rocks of the Himalayan FTB. The relative decrease in the transport-parallel simple-shear component within the klippen, and associated relative increase of transport-perpendicular, pure-shear component, support the presence of a sub-PT lateral ramp in the Sikkim Himalayan FTB. This study demonstrates the influence of structural architecture for fault systems for controlling spatial and temporal variations of deformation fabrics and kinematic path of deforming thrust wedges.

  12. India gears up to host aLIGO lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, T. V.

    2016-05-01

    India is on track to build an Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO), with discussions under way to select a site from a shortlist of two options in western and north-western India.

  13. Assessment of aerosol radiative forcing in the North-Eastern region of India using radiative transfer model and regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip

    Regional characterization of atmospheric aerosols is essential from the viewpoint of reducing the current uncertainties in the understanding of their climate implications at regional and global scale. The north-eastern part of India owing to its unique topography and geography located at sub Himalayan range and the middle of Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asian region as well as with scattered local hilly regions persevere complex aerosol environment. Collocated measurements of parameters corresponding to aerosol optical and physical properties i.e., spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) by a 10 channel Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR), near surface aerosol mass concentration of composite aerosols by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Impactor (QCM) and Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration by an Aethalometer have been used in the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model to estimate the optical properties of composite aerosols over Dibrugarh (27.3ºN, 94.6ºE, 111 m amsl) for the short wavelength range. The OPAC outputs are then used as inputs to the Rdiative Transfer model ‘Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART)’, developed by the University of California, Santa Barbara, to derive the shortwave aerosol radiative properties. The aerosol optical depth shows maximum value in pre-monsoon season and minimum in post-monsoon season. Columnar aerosols are bimodal in nature with dominant contribution from fine mode aerosols. Unlike columnar aerosols surface aerosol concentration including black carbon shows maximum value in winter and minimum in monsoon season. The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) estimated for the period pre-monsoon 2008-winter 2013 shows maximum value in the pre-monsoon season at the surface as well as in the atmosphere corresponding to highest columnar aerosol loading. The surface forcing varies between -37 Wm-2 in Pre-monsoon 2009 and 2011 to -13 Wm-2 in Post-monsoon 2008 while forcing in the Atmosphere

  14. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amarnath; Kamal, Ritul; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Satyanarayana, Gubbala Naga Venkata; Bihari, Vipin; Shukla, Nishi; Khan, Altaf Hussain; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM) for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001) was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd) pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001) as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001) among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs metabolites may

  15. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarnath; Kamal, Ritul; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Satyanarayana, Gubbala Naga Venkata; Bihari, Vipin; Shukla, Nishi; Khan, Altaf Hussain; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM) for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001) was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd) pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001) as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001) among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs metabolites may

  16. A possible link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region identified from Lonar Lake in central India: Indication of a connection between solar output and monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, P.; Gaye, B.; Prasad, S.; Plessen, B.; Stebich, M.; Anoop, A.; Riedel, N.; Basavaiah, N.

    2013-12-01

    Former comparison of climate sensitive proxies from natural archives of the northern monsoon domain with proxy data from mid and high latitude archives have proven a correlation between the proxies of both regions. But still some ambiguities concerning the mechanisms that drive this correlation exist. During our investigation of a sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India, which covers the complete Holocene sedimentation history of the lake, we could identify several phases of centennial scale climate alteration on the basis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, mineralogy, and amino acid derived degradation proxies. These phases correlate with climate sensitive proxies from the North Atlantic region as well as with 14C nuclide production rate, which indicates changes in solar output. The results from this first continuous, high resolution record of Holocene climate history from central India indicate sensitivity of monsoon climate to solar forcing. Additionally, a connection between North Atlantic climate and the climate of a region that is not affected by the Westerlies or shifts of the summer ITCZ to a position south of the investigation site could be identified.

  17. Gut bacterial diversity of the tribes of India and comparison with the worldwide data.

    PubMed

    Dehingia, Madhusmita; Devi, Kanchal Thangjam; Talukdar, Narayan C; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, Nageshwar; Mande, Sharmila S; Deka, Manab; Khan, Mojibur R

    2015-01-01

    The gut bacteria exert phenotypic traits to the host but the factors which determine the gut bacterial profile (GBP) is poorly understood. This study aimed to understand the effect of ethnicity and geography on GBP of Mongoloid and Proto-Australoid tribes of India. Fecal bacterial diversity was studied in fifteen tribal populations representing four geographic regions (Assam, Telangana, Manipur and Sikkim) by DGGE followed by NGS analysis on Illumina MiSeq platform. Geography and diet had significant effect on GBP of the Indian tribes which was dominated by Prevotella. The effects were more prominent with lower taxonomic levels, indicating probable functional redundancy of the core GBP. A comparison with the worldwide data revealed that GBP of the Indian population was similar to the Mongolian population (Mongolia). The bacterial genera Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, Clostridium, Blautia, Ruminococcus and Roseburia were found to be core genera in the representative populations of the world. PMID:26689136

  18. Gut bacterial diversity of the tribes of India and comparison with the worldwide data

    PubMed Central

    Dehingia, Madhusmita; Thangjam devi, Kanchal; Talukdar, Narayan C.; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, Nageshwar; Mande, Sharmila S.; Deka, Manab; Khan, Mojibur R.

    2015-01-01

    The gut bacteria exert phenotypic traits to the host but the factors which determine the gut bacterial profile (GBP) is poorly understood. This study aimed to understand the effect of ethnicity and geography on GBP of Mongoloid and Proto-Australoid tribes of India. Fecal bacterial diversity was studied in fifteen tribal populations representing four geographic regions (Assam, Telangana, Manipur and Sikkim) by DGGE followed by NGS analysis on Illumina MiSeq platform. Geography and diet had significant effect on GBP of the Indian tribes which was dominated by Prevotella. The effects were more prominent with lower taxonomic levels, indicating probable functional redundancy of the core GBP. A comparison with the worldwide data revealed that GBP of the Indian population was similar to the Mongolian population (Mongolia). The bacterial genera Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, Clostridium, Blautia, Ruminococcus and Roseburia were found to be core genera in the representative populations of the world. PMID:26689136

  19. Population deworming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Richards, Susan M; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India many pre-school children are underweight, many have intestinal worms, and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We used the state-wide Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) infrastructure to help to assess any effects of regular deworming on mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised study were children in catchment areas of 8338 ICDS-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of albendazole effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial deworming to sample faeces (for presence of worm eggs, reliably assessed only after mid-study), weigh children, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at age 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly albendazole was 86%. Among 2589 versus 2576 children surveyed during the second half of the study, nematode egg prevalence was 16% versus 36%, and most infection was light. After at least 2 years of treatment, weight at ages 3·0–6·0 years (standardised to age 4·0 years, 50% male) was 12·72 kg albendazole versus 12·68 kg control (difference 0·04 kg, 95% CI −0·14 to 0·21, p=0·66). Comparing the 36 albendazole-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths

  20. Vitamin A supplementation every 6 months with retinol in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Clark, Sarah; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India, vitamin A deficiency (retinol <0·70 μmol/L) is common in pre-school children and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We aimed to assess whether periodic vitamin A supplementation could reduce this mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised trial were pre-school children in the defined catchment areas of 8338 state-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks (clusters) were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford, UK, between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of retinol effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial vitamin A to sample blood (for retinol assay, technically reliable only after mid-study), examine eyes, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at ages 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly retinol supplements was 86%. Among 2581 versus 2584 children surveyed during the second half of the study, mean plasma retinol was one-sixth higher (0·72 [SE 0·01] vs 0·62 [0·01] μmol/L, increase 0·10 [SE 0·01] μmol/L) and the prevalence of severe deficiency was halved (retinol <0·35 μmol/L 6% vs 13%, decrease 7% [SE 1%]), as was that of Bitot's spots (1·4% vs 3·5%, decrease 2·1% [SE 0·7%]). Comparing the 36 retinol-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths per child

  1. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India     View Larger Image ... a tongue of pollution extending across the middle of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther ...

  2. Diabetes mellitus: Trends in northern India.

    PubMed

    Gutch, Manish; Razi, Syed Mohd; Kumar, Sukriti; Gupta, Keshav Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming a global health issue with more than 80% diabetics living in developing countries. India accounts for 62.4 million diabetics (2011). Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (ICMR-INDIAB) study showed highest weighted prevalence rate in the north India among all studied regions. Diabetes in north India has many peculiarities in all aspects from risk factors to control programmers. North Indians are becoming more prone for diabetes and dyslipidemia because rapid westernization of living style and diet due rapid migration to metropolitan cities for employment. North Indian diabetes is plagued with gender bias against females, poor quality of health services, myths, and lack of disease awareness compounded with small number of prevention and awareness programmers that too are immature to counteract the growing pandemic. PMID:25285295

  3. The prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasites of stray and refuge dogs in four locations in India.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J; Pednekar, Riddhi P; Cuttell, Leigh; Porter, Ronald B; Abd Megat Rani, Puteri Azaziah; Gatne, Mukulesh L

    2014-09-15

    A gastrointestinal parasite survey of 411 stray and refuge dogs sampled from four geographical and climactically distinct locations in India revealed these animals to represent a significant source of environmental contamination for parasites that pose a zoonotic risk to the public. Hookworms were the most commonly identified parasite in dogs in Sikkim (71.3%), Mumbai (48.8%) and Delhi (39.1%). In Ladakh, which experiences harsh extremes in climate, a competitive advantage was observed for parasites such as Sarcocystis spp. (44.2%), Taenia hydatigena (30.3%) and Echinococcus granulosus (2.3%) that utilise intermediate hosts for the completion of their life cycle. PCR identified Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum to occur sympatrically, either as single or mixed infections in Sikkim (Northeast) and Mumbai (West). In Delhi, A. caninum was the only species identified in dogs, probably owing to its ability to evade unfavourable climatic conditions by undergoing arrested development in host tissue. The expansion of the known distribution of A. ceylanicum to the west, as far as Mumbai, justifies the renewed interest in this emerging zoonosis and advocates for its surveillance in future human parasite surveys. Of interest was the absence of Trichuris vulpis in dogs, in support of previous canine surveys in India. This study advocates the continuation of birth control programmes in stray dogs that will undoubtedly have spill-over effects on reducing the levels of environmental contamination with parasite stages. In particular, owners of pet animals exposed to these environments must be extra vigilant in ensuring their animals are regularly dewormed and maintaining strict standards of household and personal hygiene. PMID:25139393

  4. Paleomagnetic investigation of the Early Permian Panjal Traps of NW India; regional tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovic, Denis; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Ali, Jason R.; Ahmad, Talat; Dar, Reyaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The ∼289 Ma Panjal Traps of NW India (Kashmir) are part of a series of rift-related mafic suites (Abor, Sikkim etc.) that were erupted onto northern India (present-day coordinates) around the same time as separation of the Cimmerian blocks of Qiangtang and Sibumasu. We report new data from only the second paleomagnetic investigation of this unit. Standard alternating field and thermal demagnetization methods were used to isolate characteristic magnetizations from seven outcrops at three locations within the Kashmir Valley, NW India. Analysis of four sections (14 individual cooling units) from close to Srinagar, that together form a tectonically coherent sequence spanning ∼3 km of stratigraphy, yield a single-component, primary magnetization with a mean direction of Dec: 134.8°, Inc: 55.3° (α95 = 8.9°, k = 21.0). An inclination-only mean of 52.5° (α95 = 8.9°, k = 47.2) gives a paleolatitude of ∼33°S (±5°). A paleopole of 110.5°E 8.4°S (A95 = 10.7) is also calculated. Assuming the magnetization records a portion of the reverse polarity Kiaman Superchron, the new result indicates extrusion of the Panjal Traps basalts at mid-latitudes in the southern hemisphere. By inference this constrains the location of central Gondwana, and informs debates related to Cimmeria's detachment from Gondwana.

  5. Distribution of Class 1 Integrons, sul1 and sul2 Genes Among Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parvinder; Gautam, Vikas; Tewari, Rupinder

    2015-08-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen responsible for serious human infections. This study was carried out to determine antibiotic susceptibility, resistance mechanisms (integrons, sul1 and sul2), and genetic relatedness (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus [ERIC]-PCR) among 106 clinical isolates of S. maltophilia from India. Twenty-four (22.6%) of S. maltophilia isolates exhibited resistance to mainstay antibiotic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Except for 2 isolates which contained both TMP-SMX resistance determinants sul1 and sul2 genes, all other 22 TMP-SMX-resistant isolates carried either sul1 (10 isolates) or sul2 (12 isolates) genes. Class 1 integrons were present in 8.5% (9 out of 106) of S. maltophilia isolates, and only 5 out of these isolates were TMP-SMX resistant and positive for sul1 gene. The same isolates also carried resistance cassettes containing qac/smr gene. Minocycline and levofloxacin exhibited the maximum in vitro activity against S. maltophilia. ERIC-PCR revealed high diversity among S. maltophilia isolates. The present study demonstrated high (22.4%) TMP-SMX resistance in clinical isolates of S. maltophilia from India. TMP-SMX-resistant isolates carried relatively higher percentage of sul2 gene than sul1 gene as against the reported literature. Majority (58.3%) of sul1 gene positive were not associated with class 1 integrase gene. PMID:25781206

  6. Bridging the gap: addressing challenges toward improvement of cleft teamwork in a tertiary care center in north India: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Moghe, Gayatri; Mauli, Simratvir; Thomas, Abi; Obed, Vijay A E

    2013-07-01

    Aim : The aim of this study was the initiation of systematic data collection so as to improve the capacity for outcome measurement after cleft repair. Also, a clinical audit was done for evaluation of the process and assessment of outcomes of cleft care. Design and Setting : A questionnaire-based survey and outcome assessment was carried out over a 1-year period from March 2008 to February 2009 at the combined outpatient cleft clinic of a tertiary care center in India. Patients and Participants : Data collection (basic demographic and environmental information) was done twice a week throughout the year by students from the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, at the outpatient cleft clinic. Results : A total of 68 completed cleft lip and palate registry forms, from which all the information was available, were analyzed. There was a skewed sex ratio, with a higher preponderance of boys seeking treatment. Of affected males, 19.1% were between 2 and 5 years of age when they first reported to the cleft clinic. Surprisingly, no bilateral clefts of lip, unilateral cleft lip (right) and unilateral cleft lip and palate (right) were observed in girls. Oral health was poor in 74% of patients; among the dental referrals only 26% could be recruited for orthodontics with a reasonably good prognosis. Conclusions : Poverty, illiteracy, and superstitions prevent an average patient from India from receiving multidisciplinary cleft care. This emphasizes the need to create systems that suit the needs of our target patients. PMID:21973282

  7. Drinking habits in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Murthy, A. G. Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  8. Drinking habits in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D Vijaya; Murthy, A G Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  9. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in hemodialysis patients: A retrospective study from a tertiary care hospital of North India

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Rubina; Soin, Divya; Grover, Pragati; Galhotra, Shipra; Khutan, Himanshu; Kaur, Navneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections represent significant public health issues globally. They are important causes of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Patients with HBV/HCV co-infection have a higher risk of progression to cirrhosis and decompensated liver disease and have an increased risk of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Because the two hepatotropic viruses share same modes of transmission, co-infection with the two viruses is not uncommon, especially in areas with a high prevalence of HCV infection and among people at high-risk for parenteral infection. Aims: To estimate the prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection among hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, single centered hospital record-based study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Faridkot (Punjab), India. All the patients who underwent hemodialysis from January 2013 to December 2014 were included in the study. Patients of all age groups were tested for anti-HCV antibodies by fourth Generation HCV Tridot ELISA (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India) and for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by Hepalisa (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd). Results: Of the total 262 patients on hemodialysis, 88 (33.5%) were found to be having HCV infection, 4 (1.5%) were found to be positive for HBsAg. Co-infection with HBV/HCV was observed in 2 (0.8%) patients. Out of the total 92 patients having HBV and HCV infection, 62 (67.4%) were males and 30 (32.6%) were females. The majority of the patients were found to be of 41-60 years of age (41.3%) followed by 21-40 years (31.5%) and thereafter in 61-80 years (23.9%) and lowest prevalence was observed in the age group of <20 years (2.2%) and >80 years (1.1%). Conclusion: The risk of co-infection is greater among the chronic renal failure (CRF) patients due to the high frequency of transfusions of blood/blood products and extracorporeal circulation during hemodialysis. Patients with HBV

  10. Association of tuberculosis and diabetes Mellitus: an analysis of 1000 consecutively admitted cases in a tertiary care hospital of North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surinder Pal; Singh, Satinder Pal; Kishan, Jai; Kaur, Sumeet; Ramana, Shandhra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association of Tuberculosis and Diabetes Mellitus is a cause of concern for the health sector. The coexistence of these two highly prevalent diseases has made the already existing treatments very complex. This issue is of particular significance to developing countries like India that bear a significant burden of these two diseases. Methods Retrospective analysis of 1000 consecutively admitted patients in a tertiary care hospital were analyzed for the coexistence of Tuberculosis and Diabetes Mellitus. Results The study found that a significant proportion of diabetic patients had coexistent tuberculosis (65.5%). Rural population was predominantly affected in both the genders. The study observed that the coexistence of these two conditions increased with advanced age. Conclusion The coexistence of Diabetes Mellitus with Tuberculosis needs to identified early and adequately addressed. The rural population needs to be educated about these two conditions and seek timely medical care. PMID:27583068

  11. Dietary beliefs and eating patterns influence metabolic health in type 2 diabetes: A clinic-based study in urban North India

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Susan L.; Singh, Shweta; Kohli, Chhavi; Mithal, Ambrish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Almost 15% of India's urban adult populace now lives with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to characterize the eating patterns, knowledge, beliefs, and determinants of food choice, and assess associations with the metabolic health among urban Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 258 individuals (mean age 55.7 ± 10 years; body mass index 27.1 ± 4.8 kg/m2; diabetes duration 10.1 ± 6.5 years) attending two out-patient clinics in New Delhi, India. Food-related information was collected during a semi-structured interview. Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data were recorded. Results: Beliefs related to health and diabetes played a role determining food choice and dietary patterns; erroneous views were associated with the poor food choices and greater metabolic perturbations. Average consumption of fruits/vegetables was low. Intakes were positively associated with intentions to manage diabetes; inversely associated with the waist circumference and negatively correlated with one's degree of personal responsibility for food choice. Household saturated fat usage was common. High fat intakes were positively associated with the taste preference, ratings of perceived “health-value;” waist circumference, glycosylated haemoglobin percentage (HbA1c%) and lipids. Conclusions: Strategies to enhance diabetes control among Asian Indians are required and should encourage fruit/vegetable intake, personal accountability, and consider individual beliefs and preferences. Greater emphasis and resources directed to regular dietary and behavioral counseling may assist. PMID:24381886

  12. Monitoring of groundwater chemistry in terms of physical and chemical parameters of Gajraula, a semi-urbanized town of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bineet; Jain, Vikas; Mohan, Anuraag

    Groundwater happens to be a major source of drinking water for urban and rural India. With rapid growth in industrial sector, the shallow groundwater regime has become more vulnerable to industrial contamination and human activity. In this study, the drinking water quality of Gajraula and its suburbs, a semi-urbanized town of northern India, was assessed. The water samples from pre-identified 14 wells with different depths were analyzed for 2 years, i.e. 2008 and 2009. The samples were taken thrice a year in May (summers), August (monsoon) and December (winters). The compiled results were compared with recommended values of World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for drinking water. The analysis showed that concentration levels of TDS, BOD, NO3- and Ca2+ exceeded the desirable limits of WHO and BIS in certain wells. The levels of trace metals Fe and Pb exceeded the limits in almost all the wells, while pH, Cl-, SO42-, Mg2+, Zn, Cr and Ni were well within the limits. The contamination levels in most cases were higher during summers as compared to monsoon and winters, which may be due to high build-up of dissolved solids. The quality of water from shallow hand pumps in vicinity to industries were unsuitable for human consumption as compared to public deep bore wells. Agro-chemicals, irrigation by effluent discharge and wastewater from commercial cum residential area were the main sources of groundwater pollution. A study based on long-term surveillance of water systems, incorporating individual exposure assessment of users of private wells, should be considered for a lasting solution.

  13. Copy number polymorphism of glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 & GSTT1) in susceptibility to lung cancer in a high-risk population from north-east India

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Rakhshan; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, L.C.; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Zomawia, Eric; Verma, Yogesh; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) have been studied intensively for their potential role in lung cancer susceptibility. However, most of the studies on association between the polymorphisms and lung cancer do not distinguish between genotypes with one or two copies of the genes. The present study investigates the gene dosage effects of GSTT1 and GSTM1 copy number and their environmental interactions to examine the association of lung cancer risk with trimodular genotypes of the GSTs in a high-risk population from north-east India. Methods: A total of 154 lung cancer cases and 154 age and sex matched controls from the high risk region of north-east India were analyzed by multiplex real-time PCR to determine the trimodal genotypes (+/+, +/- and -/-) in both the genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1). Results: No significant association and gene dosage effect of GSTM1 gene copy number with lung cancer risk (Ptrend=0.13) were found. However, absence of GSTT1 conferred 68 per cent (OR=0.32;95%CI=0.15-0.71; P=0.005) reduced risk compared to the two copy number of the gene. There was evidence of gene dosage effect of GSTT1 gene (Ptrend=0.006). Tobacco smoking was a major environmental risk factor to lung cancer (OR=3.03;95%CI=1.73-5.31; P<0.001). However, its interaction with null genotype of GSTT1 conferred significant reduced risk to lung cancer (OR=0.30;95%CI=0.10-0.91; P=0.03). Further in only tobacco smokers, null genotype was associated with increased reduced risk [0.03(0.001-0.78)0.03; Ptrend=0.006]. No effect modification of GSTM1 was observed with lung cancer risk by environmental risk factors. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that absence of GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer and the effect remains unchanged after interaction with smoking. PMID:25027082

  14. Formation of Se (0) Nanoparticles by Duganella sp. andAgrobacterium sp. isolated from Se-laden soil of North-East Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, but is toxic at high concentrations. Depending upon the geological background, the land use or on anthropogenic pollution, different amounts of Se may be present in soil. Its toxicity is related to the oxyanions selenate and selenite as they are water soluble and bioavailable. Microorganisms play an important role in Se transformations in soil and its cycling in the environment by transforming water-soluble oxyanions into water insoluble, non-toxic elemental Se (0). For this study, soil samples were collected from selenium-contaminated agricultural soils of Punjab/India to enrich and isolate microbes that interacted with the Se cycle. Results A mixed microbial culture enriched from the arable soil of Punjab could reduce 230 mg/l of water soluble selenite to spherical Se (0) nanoparticles during aerobic growth as confirmed by SEM-EDX. Four pure cultures (C 1, C 4, C 6, C 7) of Gram negative, oxidase and catalase positive, aerobic bacteria were isolated from this mixed microbial consortium and identified by 16 S rDNA gene sequence alignment as two strains of Duganella sp. (C 1, C 4) and two strains of Agrobacterium sp.(C 6, C 7). SEM/TEM-EDX analyses of the culture broth of the four strains revealed excretion of uniformly round sharply contoured Se (0) nanoparticles by all cultures. Their size ranged from 140–200 nm in cultures of strains C 1 and C 4, and from 185–190 nm in cultures of strains C 6 and C 7. Both Duganella sp. revealed better selenite reduction efficiencies than the two Agrobacterium sp. Conclusions This is the first study reporting the capability of newly isolated, aerobically growing Duganella sp. and Agrobacterium sp. from soils of Punjab/India to form spherical, regularly formed Se (0) nanoparticles from water soluble selenite. Among others, the four strains may significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of Se in soil. Bioconversion of toxic selenite to non-toxic Se (0

  15. Impact assessment of on-site sanitation system on groundwater quality in alluvial settings: A case study from Lucknow city in North India.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Chandrakant; Ramya Sanam, S; Chaturvedi, M K; Padmakar, C; Pujari, Paras R; Labhasetwar, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    The present case study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality in alluvial settings in Lucknow City in India. The groundwater samples have been collected in the areas of Lucknow City where the on-site sanitation systems have been implemented. The groundwater samples have been analyzed for the major physicochemical parameters and fecal coliform. The results of analysis reveal that none of the groundwater samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) limits for all the parameters. Fecal coliform was not found in majority of the samples including those samples which were very close to the septic tank. The study area has a thick alluvium cover as a top layer which acts as a natural barrier for groundwater contamination from the on-site sanitation system. The t test has been performed to assess the seasonal effect on groundwater quality. The statistical t test implies that there is a significant effect of season on groundwater quality in the study area. PMID:26342476

  16. Demographic profile, host, disease & viral predictive factors of response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection at a tertiary care hospital in north India

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Sreejith; Shalimar; Kavimandan, Amit; Kalra, Nancy; Nayak, Baibaswata; Thakur, Bhaskar; Das, Prasenjit; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Panda, Subrat Kumar; Acharya, Subrat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Standard of care for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in India is peginterferon and ribavirin (RBV). The response to treatment in real life stetting is unclear. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the demographic profile and assess the virological response and predictors of response in CHC patients. Methods: Consecutive patients with CHC were included in this study. Detailed clinical history, risk factors, and predictive factors of response were noted. Patients were treated with peginterferon α2b (1.5 µg/kg/wk) and RBV (12 mg/kg/day) for 6 to 18 months based on response. Results: A total of 211 patients were included in the analysis, mean age 40.6±12.3 yr, 144 (68%) were males and 71 (34%) had compensated cirrhosis. Commonest risk factor for acquiring CHC was previous transfusion and surgery (51%). Genotype 3 (72%) was most common followed by genotype 1 (23%). Overall sustained virologic response (SVR) was 64 per cent [95% CI 57.1%-70.4%]. The SVR was 66.5 per cent [95% CI 58.34-73.89%] for genotype 3 and 61.2 per cent [95% CI 46.23 to 74.80%] for genotype 1. Non-cirrhotics had better SVR rates compared to cirrhotics (76 vs 41%, P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, BMI ≥23 kg/m2, HOMA-IR ≥2, compliance (≤80%), and fibrosis >2 were predictors of low SVR. Interpretation & conclusions: Genotype 3 was the commonest HCV genotype. The commonest source of infection was previous transfusion and surgery. SVR rates for genotypes 3 were better than genotype 1 patients. Predictors of non-response were high BMI, insulin resistance, significant fibrosis and inadequate compliance. PMID:27241647

  17. An epidemiological study on the predictors of health status of food handlers in food establishments of teaching hospitals of North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun; Katyal, Rashmi; Chaudhary, Varsha; Narula, Kusum; Upadhayay, Deepak; Singh, Shailendra Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USDHHS-CDC 1996) revealed that the outbreaks of food borne diseases include inadequate cooking, heating, or re-heating of foods consumption of food from unsafe sources, cooling food inappropriately and allowing too much of a time lapse. As we all know that the food handlers have been working in various types of community kitchen and their health status can affect the status of food hygiene which can lead to contamination of foods attributing to acute gastroenteritis and food poisoning in various subgroups of the population e.g., medical/dental/nursing students. The background characteristics of these food handlers may have important role to affect health status of these handlers. Methods: The indexed study was carried out among the food handlers working in the food establishments the 5 teaching hospitals of Bareilly city in U.P. India during one year i.e., from August 2013 to July 2014. The survey method using schedule was conducted to get information about the background characteristics and food handlers and each food handler was examined clinically for assessing health status. Chi-Square test was used as test of significance and regression analysis was also done to nullifying the effect of confounders. Results: The health status of the mess workers was found to be significantly associated with use of gloves, hand washing after toilet and hand washing before cooking and serving food. Conclusion: The rationale of this study was that though many studies have been carried out to show the health status of the food handlers and their background characteristics, no study has highlighted the association of these background characteristics and personal hygiene practices with the health status of food handlers. PMID:26957813

  18. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  19. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  20. Evaluation of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 for Rapid Diagnosis of Syphilis: Report from a Regional Sexually Transmitted Infection Reference Laboratory in North India

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Bhanu; Bhattar, Sonali; Saxena, Shikhar; Rawat, Deepti; Bhalla, Preena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serology is considered the mainstay of syphilis diagnosis. The limitations of the traditional serological methods and the advent and availability of novel immunochromatographic assays have led to the widespread application of rapid point-of-care procedures as screening tools for syphilis. However, these tests have not been extensively evaluated. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of a rapid syphilis diagnostic test known as SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 (SD Biostandard Diagnostics Private Limited, Gurgaon, Haryana, India). Materials and Methods: A panel comprising of 50 venereal disease research laboratory reactive and 50 nonreactive sera was tested using SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0. The performance of the test was evaluated using IMMUTREP Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) (OMEGA Diagnostics Limited, Scotland, United Kingdom) as the reference standard and sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were calculated. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0 were 92.86% (confidence interval of 95%: 80.52–98.50%), 98.28% (90.76-99.96%), 97.50% (86.84–99.94%), and 95.00% (86.08–98.96%), respectively, compared to TPHA as the gold standard. Conclusion: Keeping in view the high sensitivity and specificity of SD BIOLINE Syphilis 3.0, we conclude that the test can be used as a tool for rapid on-site diagnosis of syphilis and as an alternative to TPHA for detection of antibodies to Treponema pallidum. PMID:27013811

  1. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  2. India: Kachchh

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

  3. AB152. Inborn errors of metabolism spectrum in symptomatic children of north India: 5-year prospective data from tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Somesh; Lomash, Avinash; Varughese, Bijo; Bidhan, Sourabh; Khalil, Sumaira; Polipalli, Sunil K.; Kapoor, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with high suspicion of IEM is a more effective screening strategy in a resource limited country like India. We present a prospective analysis of symptomatic children with red flag signs suggestive of IEM referred for analysis by LCMSMS. This study investigated the spectrum of IEM in symptomatic children over a period of 5 years (1st June 2010 to May 31st 2015). Methods A total of 3,250 symptomatic children for IEM were screened. Dried blood spots were collected and processed by MS/MS (API-2000 & 3200 Qtrap), using a non derivatized kit, analysed by R-4 Stork algorithm. Results A total of 3,250 children, 1,803 boys (56.34%), 1,397 girls (43.66%) with a median age of 20.8 months (range, 0.04-148.2 months) were screened. The 125 were diagnosed with an inborn error of metabolism, with a detection rate of 3.90%. Of these, 78 (62.40%) were males and 47 (38.60%) were females with a median age of 6.55 months. Clinical variation among the patients were unexplained encephalopathy, seizures, convulsions, delayed milestones with global developmental delay, persistent metabolic acidosis with increase anion GAP. The commonest group was amino acid disorders affecting 61 (48.8%) with phenylketonuria (n=5), hyperphenylalaninemia (n=4), maple syrup urine disease (n=8), hypermethioninemia (n=3), hyperglycemia (n=14), tyrosinemia (n=5), classic neonatal onset citrullinemia (n=4), 3 with hyperornithinemia, 10 with rasied alanine (as a secondary indicator), 3 with argininemia and 2 with remethylation defect. Organic acidemias 37 (29.60%) were methylmalonic academia (n=15), malonic aciduria (n=3), propionic aciduria (n=5), glutaric academia type I (n=5) and with 3-Methyl crotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (n=9). Fatty acids disorders were seen in 27 (21.60%) children with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency being the commonest (n=5), and very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (n=2), carnitine palmitoyl-transferase Ia deficiency (n=12), carnitine

  4. Adding Content to Contacts: Measurement of High Quality Contacts for Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia, North East Nigeria, and Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Tanya; Tilley-Gyado, Ritgak Dimka; Tessema, Tsegahun; Singh, Kultar; Gautham, Meenakshi; Umar, Nasir; Berhanu, Della; Cousens, Simon; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna RM

    2015-01-01

    Background Families in high mortality settings need regular contact with high quality services, but existing population-based measurements of contacts do not reflect quality. To address this, in 2012, we designed linked household and frontline worker surveys for Gombe State, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Uttar Pradesh, India. Using reported frequency and content of contacts, we present a method for estimating the population level coverage of high quality contacts. Methods and Findings Linked cluster-based household and frontline health worker surveys were performed. Interviews were conducted in 40, 80 and 80 clusters in Gombe, Ethiopia, and Uttar Pradesh, respectively, including 348, 533, and 604 eligible women and 20, 76, and 55 skilled birth attendants. High quality contacts were defined as contacts during which recommended set of processes for routine health care were met. In Gombe, 61% (95% confidence interval 50-72) of women had at least one antenatal contact, 22% (14-29) delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 7% (4-9) had a post-partum check and 4% (2-8) of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was reduced to 11% (6-16), 8% (5-11), 0%, and 0% respectively. In Ethiopia, 56% (49-63) had at least one antenatal contact, 15% (11-22) delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 3% (2-6) had a post-partum check and 4% (2-6) of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was 4% (2-6), 4% (2-6), 0%, and 0%, respectively. In Uttar Pradesh 74% (69-79) had at least one antenatal contact, 76% (71-80) delivered with a skilled birth attendant, 54% (48-59) had a post-partum check and 19% (15-23) of newborns had a post-natal check. Coverage of high quality contacts was 6% (4-8), 4% (2-6), 0%, and 0% respectively. Conclusions Measuring content of care to reflect the quality of contacts can reveal missed opportunities to deliver best possible health care. PMID:26000829

  5. Immunization status of children admitted to a tertiary-care hospital of north India: reasons for partial immunization or non-immunization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devendra; Aggarwal, Anju; Gomber, Sunil

    2010-06-01

    Reasons for the low coverage of immunization vary from logistic ones to those dependent on human behaviour. The study was planned to find out: (a) the immunization status of children admitted to a paediatric ward of tertiary-care hospital in Delhi, India and (b) reasons for partial immunization and non-immunization. Parents of 325 consecutively-admitted children aged 12-60 months were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. A child who had missed any of the vaccines given under the national immunization programme till one year of age was classified as partially-immunized while those who had not received any vaccine up to 12 months of age or received only pulse polio vaccine were classified as non-immunized. Reasons for partial/non-immunization were recorded using open-ended questions. Of the 325 children (148 males, 177 females), 58 (17.84%) were completely immunized, 156 (48%) were partially immunized, and 111 (34.15%) were non-immunized. Mothers were the primary respondents in 84% of the cases. The immunization card was available with 31.3% of the patients. All 214 partially- or completely-immunized children received BCG, 207 received OPV/DPT1, 182 received OPV/DPT2, 180 received OPV/DPT3, and 115 received measles vaccines. Most (96%) received pulse polio immunization, including 98 of the 111 non-immunized children. The immunization status varied significantly (p<0.05) with sex, education of parents, urban/rural background, route and place of delivery. On logistic regression, place of delivery [odds ratio (OR): 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-4.1], maternal education (OR=6.94, 95% CI 3.1-15.1), and religion (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.2-3.1) were significant (p<0.05). The most common reasons for partial or non-immunization were: inadequate knowledge about immunization or subsequent dose (n=140, 52.4%); belief that vaccine has side-effects (n=77, 28.8%); lack of faith in immunization (n=58, 21.7%); or oral polio vaccine is the only vaccine required (n=56

  6. Evolution of the great river systems of southern Asia during the Cenozoic India-Asia collision: Rivers draining north from the Pamir syntaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookfield, M. E.

    2008-08-01

    During uplift of the Tibetan plateau and surrounding ranges, tectonic processes have interacted with climatic change and with local random effects (such as landslides) to determine the development of the major river systems of Asia. Rivers draining northward from the Pamir syntaxis have three distinctive patterns that are controlled by different tectonic and climatic regimes. West of the Pamir, the rivers have moderate but irregular gradients and drain northwards to disappear into arid depressions. Relatively steady uplift of the Hindu Kush in northern Afghanistan allowed rivers to cut across the rising ranges, modified by the shear along the Harirud fault zone, local faulting, and by increasing rain-shadow effects from the rising Makran. In the transition to the Pamir the rivers have steeper but more even gradients suggesting more even flow and downcutting during uplift, possibly related to larger glacial sources. In the central Pamir, only one antecedent river, the Pyandzh appears to have kept its northward course with compression and uplift of the indenter, and its course strangely corresponds with a major geophysical boundary (a distorted subducted slab) but not a geological boundary: the other rivers are subsequent rivers developed along deformation fronts during development and northward displacements of the Pamir structural units. The above areas have sources north of the Cretaceous Karakorum-South Pamir Andean margin. On the eastern flank of the Pamir, in the Kunlun and northern Tibetan plateau, the rivers rise similarly north of the Cretaceous Andean margin of southern Tibet, but then flow with low gradients across the plateau, before cutting and plunging steeply down across the Kunlun to disappear into the arid Tarim. These steep profiles are the result of late Neogene uplift of the northern Tibetan plateau and Kunlun possibly modified by glacial diversion and river capture. The drainage history of the Pamir indenter can be reconstructed by restoring the

  7. Association of genetic variants in INS (rs689), INSR (rs1799816) and PP1G.G (rs1799999) with type 2 diabetes (T2D): a case-control study in three ethnic groups from North-West India.

    PubMed

    Sokhi, Jasmine; Sikka, Ruhi; Raina, Priyanka; Kaur, Ramandeep; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Arora, Punit; Bhanwer, Ajs

    2016-02-01

    Genetic contributions towards Type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been assessed through association studies across different world populations with inconsistencies. The majority of the T2D susceptibility loci are common across different races or populations but show ethnicity-specific differences. The pathogenesis of T2D involves genetic variants in the candidate genes. The interactions between the genes involved in insulin signaling and secretory pathways are believed to play an important role in determining an individual's susceptibility towards T2D. Therefore, the present study was initiated to examine the differences, if any, in the contribution of polymorphisms towards T2D susceptibility in the background of different ethnic specifications. The present case-control study included a total of 1216 T2D cases and healthy controls from three ethnic groups (Jat Sikhs, Banias and Brahmins) of North-West India. Polymorphisms were selected on the basis of information available in the literature for INS (rs689), INSR (rs1799816) and PP1G.G (rs1799999) in context to T2D. The genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP method. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. The analyses revealed that INS (rs689) polymorphism conferred risk towards T2D susceptibility in all the three ethnic groups whereas INSR (rs1799816) polymorphism conferred risk towards T2D in Brahmins only and PP1G.G (rs1799999) polymorphism indicated T2D risk in Jat Sikhs only. Furthermore, interaction analyses indicated the cumulative role of three genetic variants in modulating T2D susceptibility in the three ethnic groups. In conclusion, our results substantiated the evidences for the role of ethnicity in differential susceptibility to T2D in the background of same genetic variants. PMID:26251103

  8. Interplay between grain size reduction, chemical reaction, and shear localization in lower crustal rocks: a case study from Archaean Bundelkhand Craton, North-Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Ankit; Nasipuri, Pritam; Saha, Lopamudra; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Sarkar, Saheli; Purohit, Rohan

    2016-04-01

    Weakening of the rocks is pronounced during the formation of shear zone. Crustal scale shear zones at the plate boundary develop due to grain size reduction, either by mechanical breakdown of minerals or by the development of new minerals due to change in pressure (P) - temperature (T) conditions. In either of the mechanisms for grain size reduction, the Gibb's free energy of the system should be minimum in value to stabilize the mineral.In this contribution, we have studied the deformation mechanism and P-T conditions from acrustal scale shear zone, in the North Central Part of Archaean Bundelkhand Craton. In the Archaean Buldelkhand craton, tens of kilometre wide E-W trending shear zone developed in the sodic-potassic granite. The undeformed rock (protolith) is characterized by euhedral to subhedral sodic feldspar (XAb =0.80) and subordinate quartz, whereas the deformed rock is characterized by the development of extremely deformed feldspar and quartz associated with chlorite. The onset of the strain localization and shear zone formation in the proto-mylonite has been accompanied by developing brittle fractures in the euhedral feldspar grains. In contrast to the brittle deformation in feldspar, quartz grains are characterized by development of small bulges around the grain boundary. Chlorite develops at the fractures in the feldspar that are indicative of fluid infiltration in the proto-mylonite.In the extremely deformed samples (ultramylonite) grain size reduction occurs by bulging recrystallization in quartz. Flow stress obtained from grain size analysis of quartz indicates that the palaeo-stress varies from ~44-46 MPa in proto-mylonite to ~ 61-63 MPa in Ultra-mylonite. Mineral chemical analysis of undeformed feldspar grains in the protolith and mylonite indicate significant changes in the chemical composition that leads to minimum Gibbs energy. Also the presence of chlorite indicates hydration reaction, which has reduced the chemical energy of the system

  9. Meeting the needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in North-east India – a challenge for HIV prevention services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The North-east Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland consistently report relatively high HIV prevalence. The targeted HIV prevention interventions in these two states are mostly delivered by non-government organizations (NGOs), and prevention of HIV transmission by injecting drug use is their main focus. Most injecting drug users (IDUs) are male, and the services are primarily tailored to meet their needs, which are not necessarily the same as those for women. This qualitative study describes the health service needs of women who use drugs and alcohol in Manipur and Nagaland, with the goal of identifying strategies and activities that can be implemented by NGOs wanting to improve their reach among vulnerable women. Methods In 2009-10, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 key informants and nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with women who use drugs and alcohol, and two FGDs with male IDUs. The thematic areas covered included: the context of female drug and alcohol use; drug and alcohol use patterns; HIV risk behaviours; barriers and facilitators of service use; perceived health needs; and expressed health service needs. The data were recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results The most problematic substance for women from Nagaland was alcohol, and for women from Manipur it was heroin. The most commonly identified health problems were primarily related to the women’s drug and alcohol use, reproductive health and mental health. Other problems of major concern included social exclusion, violence, children’s welfare, and financial difficulties. The expressed service needs of these women were women-only integrated health services, women-only detoxification and rehabilitation services, mental health services, desensitization of mainstream health workers, free access to medicines, assistance to meet basic needs, and a safe place for engaging in sex work. Conclusion The expressed health and other service needs

  10. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  11. Argon behaviour in an inverted Barrovian sequence, Sikkim Himalaya: The consequences of temperature and timescale on 40Ar/39Ar mica geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Catherine M.; Warren, Clare J.; Halton, Alison M.; Kelley, Simon P.; Harris, Nigel B. W.

    2015-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating of metamorphic rocks sometimes yields complicated datasets which are difficult to interpret in terms of timescales of the metamorphic cycle. Single-grain fusion and step-heating data were obtained for rocks sampled through a major thrust-sense shear zone (the Main Central Thrust) and the associated inverted metamorphic zone in the Sikkim region of the eastern Himalaya. This transect provides a natural laboratory to explore factors influencing apparent 40Ar/39Ar ages in similar lithologies at a variety of metamorphic pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions. The 40Ar/39Ar dataset records progressively younger apparent age populations and a decrease in within-sample dispersion with increasing temperature through the sequence. The white mica populations span ~ 2-9 Ma within each sample in the structurally lower levels (garnet grade) but only ~ 0-3 Ma at structurally higher levels (kyanite-sillimanite grade). Mean white mica single-grain fusion population ages vary from 16.2 ± 3.9 Ma (2σ) to 13.2 ± 1.3 Ma (2σ) from lowest to highest levels. White mica step-heating data from the same samples yields plateau ages from 14.27 ± 0.13 Ma to 12.96 ± 0.05 Ma. Biotite yield older apparent age populations with mean single-grain fusion dates varying from 74.7 ± 11.8 Ma (2σ) at the lowest structural levels to 18.6 ± 4.7 Ma (2σ) at the highest structural levels; the step-heating plateaux are commonly disturbed. Temperatures > 600 °C at pressures of 0.4-0.8 GPa sustained over > 5 Ma, appear to be required for white mica and biotite ages to be consistent with diffusive, open-system cooling. At lower temperatures, and/or over shorter metamorphic timescales, more 40Ar is retained than results from simple diffusion models suggest. Diffusion modelling of Ar in white mica from the highest structural levels suggests that the high-temperature rocks cooled at a rate of ~ 50-80 °C Ma- 1, consistent with rapid thrusting, extrusion and exhumation along the Main

  12. Sero-prevalence of bovine Johne's disease in buffaloes and cattle population of North India using indigenous ELISA kit based on native Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis 'Bison type' genotype of goat origin.

    PubMed

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, R; Sharma, S; Shukla, N; Misra, S; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S; Kumar, H; Patil, P K; Misra, P; Sandhu, K S

    2008-09-01

    Present pilot study is the first attempt in the country to estimate sero-prevalence of Bovine Johne's disease (BJD) by screening cattle and buffaloes representing large population belonging to farmer's and farm herds in the home tracts (Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Punjab) of Hariana cattle and Murrah buffaloes in North India. Indigenous and in-house plate ELISA kit (using protoplasmic antigen from native Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 'Bison type' strain of goat origin), originally developed for goats and sheep was standardized in bovines and used for screening. For this study, 33 villages of south and west UP were randomly selected and surveyed from 2001 to 2003. There were 7943 farmer's families having 38,251 livestock, including cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep (per family 4.8% livestock). Numerically, buffaloes and cattle were 54.7% and 22.1%, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 726 animals (4.2% of 16, 981 livestock with 4375 farmer's families) located in 33 randomly surveyed villages. Serum samples (699), submitted to Epidemiology Department of Veterinary College (Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana), in the year 2004 by farmer's and organized farm herds (Buffaloes, 372, Cattle, 327), were screened by this ELISA kit. Soluble protoplasmic antigen was prepared from Map (S 5) 'Bison type' strain isolated from a terminally sick goat with Johne's disease. Of the total 1425 bovine (Buffaloes and cattle) serum samples screened using indigenous ELISA kit, sero-prevalence of Johne's disease was 29.0% (28.6% in buffalo and 29.8% in cattle) in Northern India. State-wise sero-prevalence was 31.9% and 23.3% in UP and Punjab, respectively. In UP, of the 601 randomly sampled buffaloes, sero-prevalence was 40.3% (16.6% in young and 40.9% adults) and 25.5% (10.5% in young and 26.3% adults) in south and west UP, respectively. Of the 125 cattle screened, sero-prevalence was 42.6% (nil in young and 44.4% adults) and 30.0% (nil in young and 30.6% adults

  13. Utilization study of antidiabetic agents in a teaching hospital of Sikkim and adherence to current standard treatment guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Satpathy, Sushrut Varun; Datta, Supratim; Upreti, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes has gradually emerged as one of the most serious public health problems in our country. This underlines the need for timely disease detection and decisive therapeutic intervention. This prospective cross-sectional observational study aims at analyzing the utilization pattern of antidiabetic agents in a remote North-East Indian tertiary care teaching hospital in the perspective of current standard treatment guidelines. Materials and Methods: Diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic medication, both as outpatients and inpatients in our hospital over a period of 12 months (May 2013–May 2014), were included in this study. The data obtained were sorted and analyzed on the basis of gender, type of therapy, and hospital setting. Results: A total of 310 patients were included in the study. Metformin was the single most frequently prescribed antidiabetic agent (66.8%) followed by the sulfonylureas group (37.4%). Insulin was prescribed in 23.2% of the patients. Combination antidiabetic drug therapy (65.1%) was used more frequently than monotherapy (34.8%). The use of biguanides (P < 0.0001) and sulfonylureas (P = 0.02) in combination was significant as compared to their use as monotherapy. A total of 48% of all antidiabetic combinations used, comprised metformin and sulfonylureas (n = 96). Insulin use was significantly higher as monotherapy and in inpatients (P < 0.0001). The utilization of drugs from the National List of Essential Medicines was 51.2%, while 11% of antidiabetics were prescribed by generic name. Conclusion: The pattern of utilization largely conforms to the current standard treatment guidelines. Increased use of generic drugs is an area with scope for improvement. PMID:27413351

  14. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Citrus (L) from north-east India as revealed by meiosis, and molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2014-01-01

    The north-eastern region of India is reported to be the center of origin and rich in diversity of Citrus (L.) species, where some wild and endangered species namely Citrus indica, Citrus macroptera, Citrus latipes, Citrus ichagensis and Citrus assamensis exist in their natural and undisturbed habitat. In order to have comprehensive information about the extent of genetic variability and the occurrence of cryptic genomic hybridity between and within various Citrus species, a combined approach involving morphological, cytogenetical and molecular approaches were adopted in the present study. Cytogenetic approaches are known to resolve taxonomic riddles in a more efficient manner, by clearly delineating taxa at species and sub species levels. Male meiotic studies revealed a gametic chromosome number of n = 9, without any evidence of numerical variations. Bivalents outnumbered all other types of associations in pollen mother cells (PMCs) analyzed at diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I. Univalents were frequently encountered in nine species presently studied, though their presence appropriately did not influence the distributional pattern of the chromosomes at anaphases I and II. The molecular approaches for phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data related to ITS 1, ITS 2 and ITS 1 + 5.8 s + ITS 2 of rDNA using maximum parsimony method and Bayesian inference have thrown light on species inter-relationship and evolution of Citrus species confirming our cytogenetical interpretations. The three true basic species i.e. Citrus medica, Citrus maxima and Citrus reticulata with their unique status have been resolved into distinct clades with molecular approaches as well. C. indica which occupies a unique position in the phylogenetic ladder of the genus Citrus has been resolved as a distinct clade and almost behaving as an out-group. The presences of quadrivalents in C. indica also echo and support its unique position. From our study it is amply clear that C

  15. Assessment of 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11-βHSD1) 4478T>G and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-308G>A polymorphisms with obesity and insulin resistance in Asian Indians in North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukti; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Misra, Anoop; Bhatt, SuryaPrakash; Tarique, Mohammed; Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Luthra, Kalpana

    2013-11-01

    11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11-βHSD1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and their role in obesity, regional adiposity and insulin resistance has been sparsely evaluated. We determined the polymorphic status of 11-βHSD1 4478T>G and TNF-α-308G>A in Asian Indians in north India. In this cross-sectional study (n = 498; 258 males, 240 females), association of genotypes (PCR–RFLP) of 11-βHSD1 and TNF-α were analyzed with obesity [BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), percentage body fat (%BF by DEXA); subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat area (L(2-3) level by single slice MRI) in a sub sample] and insulin resistance. 46 percent subjects had generalized obesity, 55 % abdominal obesity and 23.8 % were insulin resistant. Frequencies (%) of [T/T] and [T/G] genotypes of 11-βHSD1 were 89.57 and 10.43 respectively. Homozygosity for 11-βHSD1 4478G/G was absent with no association with parameters of obesity and insulin resistance. Frequencies (%) of TNF-α [G] and [A] alleles were 88 and 12 respectively. Higher frequency of variant -308[A/A] was observed in females versus males (p = 0.01). Females with at least one single A allele of TNF-α-308G>A had significantly high %BF and total skinfold, whereas higher values of waist hip ratio, total cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL were observed in males. Subjects with even a single A allele in TNF-α genotype showed higher subscapular skinfold predisposing them to truncal subcutaneous adiposity (p = 0.02). Our findings of association of TNF-α-308G>A variant in females with obesity indices suggests a gender-specific role of this polymorphism in obesity. High truncal subcutaneous adiposity is associated with A allele of TNF-α-308G>A in this population. PMID:24078163

  16. Adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers associated with first birth: a hospital-based case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Medhi, Robin; Das, Banani; Das, Arpana; Ahmed, Mansur; Bawri, Sonika; Rai, Suditi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome of adolescent mothers associated with first birth. Patients and methods This prospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North-East India between January 2014 and December 2014. All adolescent primigravidae completing 28 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancy and delivered at our institution were included in the study group. Primigravidae aged between 20 and 25 years were taken as a control group. Mothers having pregnancy complicated with diabetes mellitus, renal disorder, thyroid disorders, and cardiac diseases were excluded from the study. Demographic data, maternal complications like severe anemia, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, and postpartum complications were compared. Among fetal complications, low-birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, still birth, and early neonatal death were compared. All the patients were interviewed regarding contraceptive knowledge and its use preceding the pregnancy. Results Quality antenatal care was received by 80.6% of adolescent mothers. The adolescent mothers had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia (odds ratio [OR] 2.017 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.045–3.894, P=0.03), preterm deliveries (OR: 1.655, 95% CI: 1.039–2.636, P=0.03). Among fetal outcomes, the low- birth weight babies (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.016–2.478), low mean birth weight (2,544.4±622.09 g versus 2,701.6±582.51 g), and higher admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR: 1.957, 95% CI: 1.120–3.417) were significantly associated with adolescent mothers. There was no significant difference found regarding the mode of delivery, still birth, and early neonatal death. Moreover, contraceptive knowledge and its use were found to be poor among adolescent mothers. Conclusion With quality antenatal, intranatal, and postnatal care, the obstetric risk of childbirth in adolescent mothers

  17. Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2005-10-01

    "Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean

  18. Distribution pattern of reptiles along an eastern Himalayan elevation gradient, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chettri, Basundhara; Bhupathy, Subramanian; Acharya, Bhoj Kumar

    2010-01-01

    We examined the spatial distribution pattern of reptiles in an eastern Himalayan elevation gradient. The factors governing the distribution have been assessed with emphasis on the mid-domain effect. We surveyed reptiles along the elevation gradient (300-4800 m) of the Teesta valley in Sikkim, Eastern Himalaya, India using time constrained visual encounter survey. A total of 42 species of reptiles were observed during the study, and the species richness peaked at 500-1000 m with no species beyond 3000 m. The observed pattern was consistent with estimated richness, both showing significant negative relation with elevation. Lizards showed a linear decline with elevation, whereas snakes followed a non-linear relation with peak at 500-1000 m. Observed species richness deviated significantly from that predicted by a mid-domain null model. The regression between empirical and simulated richness was not significant for total reptiles as well as lizards and snakes separately. Most species distributed in the high elevation extended towards lower elevation, but low elevation species (around 50%) were restricted below 1000 m. Deviation of empirical from predicted richness indicates that the distributions of reptile species were least governed by geographic hard boundaries. Climatic factors especially temperature explained much variation of reptiles along the Himalayan elevation gradient. Most reptiles were narrowly distributed, especially those found in low elevation indicating the importance of tropical low-land forests in the conservation of reptiles in Eastern Himalayas.

  19. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  20. Sexuality research in India: An update.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Rao, T S Sathyanarayana

    2010-01-01

    This review provides the available evidence on sexual dysfunctions in India. Most of the studies have concentrated on male sexual dysfunction and hardly a few have voiced the sexual problems in females. Erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PME) and combinations of ED and PME appear to be main dysfunctions reported in males. Dhat syndrome remains an important diagnosis reported in studies from North India. There is a paucity of literature on management issues with an emergent need to conduct systematic studies in this neglected area so that the concerns of these patients can be properly dealt with. PMID:21836690

  1. Maternal mortality in southern India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S; Amalraj, A

    1994-01-01

    In a 4 year prospective community survey of 20,000 women randomly selected in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu State in South India, the maternal mortality rates per 1,000 liveborn were estimated to be 17.4 and 16.6 for rural and semi-urban areas, respectively. The rates based only on direct causes were 11.9 in rural and 14.4 in semi-urban areas. As expected, these figures are considerably higher than those based on official or hospital statistics. Factors associated with such high mortality and the implications for programme planning and implementation are discussed. PMID:7855917

  2. Economic burden of dengue infections in India.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj; Nagpal, Jitender; Khairnar, Prakash; Seneviratne, Suranjith L

    2008-06-01

    Dengue infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and lead to adverse economic effects in many developing tropical countries. In this study, we estimated the economic burden faced by India during the 2006 dengue epidemic. Costs incurred in managing a cohort of serologically confirmed dengue patients at a tertiary-level private hospital in north India were calculated. The median cost of treatment per hospitalised dengue patient was US$432.2 (95% CI US$343.6-625). A sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate the costs to the health system in India using a regression model. Variables with potentially large variations, including the ratio of unreported to reported cases and of hospitalised to ambulatory cases, the proportion requiring transfusions, loss of economic activities due to loss of workdays and deaths, were used. The average total economic burden was estimated to be US$27.4 million (95% CI US$25.7-29.1 million). Costs in the private heath sector were estimated to be almost four times public sector expenditures. Considerable economic losses (at a macro level) are incurred by developing countries like India during each dengue epidemic. Accurate estimates of the proportions of reported to unreported and of hospitalised to ambulatory dengue cases in India are needed to refine further the estimates of financial burden due to dengue in India. PMID:18402995

  3. North Carolina

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... (Terra orbit 4344) captures the intricate system of barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries comprising the coastal environments of North ... formats available at JPL October 11, 2000 - Barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries of coastal North Carolina and ...

  4. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  5. Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India

    PubMed Central

    CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

  6. Morphological characterization of some representative species of the genus Loxoblemmus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae; Gryllinae; Gryllini) from India.

    PubMed

    Mal, Jhabar; Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2015-01-01

    Morphological characterization of some common species of the genus Loxoblemmus (Gryllidae: Gryllinae) from India is presented. In all, 5 species were identified that included two, Loxoblemmus equestris Saussure and Loxoblemmus haani Saussure, from the sub-humid regions of Rajasthan (South West India) and Madhya Pradesh (Central India); while three species, Loxoblemmus taicoun Saussure, Loxoblemmus jacobsoni Chopard and Loxoblemmus intermedius Chopard from the humid hilly regions of Meghalaya and Assam (North East India). Of the 5 reported species, based on the comparative linear measurements, L. haani is relatively larger than the other species encountered. PMID:25947856

  7. Modern Education and the Revolt of 1857 in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Parimala V.

    2016-01-01

    In May 1857, a number of battalions in the Bengal army of the East India Company rebelled against their immediate British officers and the British administration in the North Western Provinces (NWP), Oudh and Bihar. The protracted conflict that stretched over a year was extremely violent, killed thousands of British officers and civilians and…

  8. Reductions in India's crop yield due to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghude, Sachin D.; Jena, Chinmay; Chate, D. M.; Beig, G.; Pfister, G. G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ramanathan, V.

    2014-08-01

    This bottom-up modeling study, supported by emission inventories and crop production, simulates ozone on local to regional scales. It quantifies, for the first time, potential impact of ozone on district-wise cotton, soybeans, rice, and wheat crops in India for the first decade of the 21st century. Wheat is the most impacted crop with losses of 3.5 ± 0.8 million tons (Mt), followed by rice at 2.1 ± 0.8 Mt, with the losses concentrated in central and north India. On the national scale, this loss is about 9.2% of the cereals required every year (61.2 Mt) under the provision of the recently implemented National Food Security Bill (in 2013) by the Government of India. The nationally aggregated yield loss is sufficient to feed about 94 million people living below poverty line in India.

  9. Origin and Distribution Of Glacial Lakes: A Case Study In Tista Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Himalayan glaciers are experiencing retreat due to changes in the temperature and precipitation pattern. Retreating glaciers depending upon the underlying bed topography can cause lake formation near terminus. Therefore formation and draining of lakes in the glaciated terrain of Himalaya is commonly observed. However, few lakes became stable under suitable geomorphologic conditions and grow sufficiently large to threaten population and infrastructure in downstream. In this investigation changes in glacial lakes in Tista basin were studied using satellite images for a period between 1989 and 2010. The Tista basin in Sikkim covers approximately 7096 sq km area and the total glaciated area is 501± 29 sq km. During the period of investigation the lake area is increased from 6.6 ± 0.8 km2 to 9.6 ± 1.1 km2 due to formation of new lakes and also due to expansion of existing lake. Out of 23 lakes, 16 showed variable increase in area. We have also observed formation of stable proglacial lake due to coalescence of small supra glacial lakes on Changsang and South Lhonak Glacier. The size of lake near South Lhonak Glacier was increased from 18 to 126 ha from 1978 to 2014 (Figure). Therefore detail field investigations were carried out to understand volume and extent of ice in end moraine. The water volume was estimated as 53 million m3 using bathymetric survey and ice at the core of terminal moraines was mapped using resistivity survey. These investigations suggests a possibility of catastrophic outburst flood, if moraine dam breached under extreme weather conditions. Therefore, mitigation strategy is needed to improve safety of people living in the region. In addition, numerous remote sensing based investigations have mapped more than 300 lakes in the glaciated terrain in India, therefore, a national program to monitor glacier lakes and strategy to mitigate possible disaster is needed. Figure: Expansion of the lake near South Lhonak glacier from year 1990 to 2014.

  10. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia.

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Lippert, Peter C; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; McQuarrie, Nadine; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H

    2012-05-15

    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India-Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 ± 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya between approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory resulted from 2,675 ± 700 km of North-South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma "India"-Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The "hard" India-Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25-20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography. PMID:22547792

  11. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-01-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80-40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70-43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52-51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma. PMID:26395973

  12. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A.; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-09-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80-40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70-43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52-51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma.

  13. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A.; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-01-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80–40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70–43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52–51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma. PMID:26395973

  14. Defrosting North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 June 2004 Spring is upon the martian northern hemisphere, and the north polar cap is shrinking. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired on 12 June 2004, shows the retreating edge of the seasonal north polar cap near 70oN, 209oW. Low clouds and fogs stream away from the cap edge as it sublimes away. North is approximately up and the image covers an area roughly 500 km (311 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. The crater containing a thick mound of material near the right-center of the image is Korolev.

  15. Most Patients of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in India Present Late for Interferon-Based Antiviral Treatment: An Epidemiological Study of 777 Patients from a North Indian Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Praveen; Bansal, Naresh; Singla, Vikas; Arora, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Background Interferon-based antiviral therapy is offered only to those HCV patients who have either chronic hepatitis or early cirrhosis. Advanced cirrhotics do not tolerate interferon-based therapy. Since HCV is asymptomatic in early stages and usually presents late, the eligibility for interferon-based therapy is thus limited. There are scarce studies from India, which looked specifically the eligibility of interferon-based therapy in HCV patients. Aim To study the spectrum of presentation of HCV infection, determine their eligibility for interferon-based therapy, and follow for SVR. Methods The records of all consecutive patients of HCV, >14 years age, who presented to our department between 2008 and 2014, were analyzed for categorization into chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with detectable HCV RNA who have chronic hepatitis or Child A cirrhosis were considered eligible for Peg-interferon and ribavirin. Patients who received treatment were followed for SVR. Results 777 patients (median age 49 [range 15–95] years, males 69%) were included. Cirrhosis was the most common presentation (56%, 439/777) followed by chronic hepatitis (37%, 287/777) and HCC (7%, 51/777). Of patients who had cirrhosis (including those with HCC), 36% (174/490) were Child A; 51% (250/490) were Child B and 14% (66/490) were Child C. Only 347/777 (45%) were eligible for Peg-interferon-alpha and Ribavirin. Among the remaining 430 patients, in 326 (76%) the disease was far too advanced. Of eligible patients only 54% actually received Peg-interferon-alpha and Ribavirin and 81% patients could complete the course. Of them only 70% could achieve SVR. Conclusions Most HCV patients in India present late and only about 45% are eligible for Interferon-based antiviral treatment. At presentation 56% patients already have cirrhosis and 7% have HCC. Since HCV is usually asymptomatic in early stages, awareness about screening should be increased so that more patients are

  16. Forest cover change prediction using hybrid methodology of geoinformatics and Markov chain model: A case study on sub-Himalayan town Gangtok, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Mondal, Arun; Mukherjee, Sandip; Khatua, Dipam; Ghosh, Subhajit; Mitra, Debasish; Ghosh, Tuhin

    2014-08-01

    In the Himalayan states of India, with increasing population and activities, large areas of forested land are being converted into other land-use features. There is a definite cause and effect relationship between changing practice for development and changes in land use. So, an estimation of land use dynamics and a futuristic trend pattern is essential. A combination of geospatial and statistical techniques were applied to assess the present and future land use/land cover scenario of Gangtok, the subHimalayan capital of Sikkim. Multi-temporal satellite imageries of the Landsat series were used to map the changes in land use of Gangtok from 1990 to 2010. Only three major land use classes (built-up area and bare land, step cultivated area, and forest) were considered as the most dynamic land use practices of Gangtok. The conventional supervised classification, and spectral indices-based thresholding using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) were applied along with the accuracy assessments. Markov modelling was applied for prediction of land use/land cover change and was validated. SAVI provides the most accurate estimate, i.e., the difference between predicted and actual data is minimal. Finally, a combination of Markov modelling and SAVI was used to predict the probable land-use scenario in Gangtok in 2020 AD, which indicted that more forest areas will be converted for step cultivation by the year 2020.

  17. India: Degree Verification Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Grady

    2004-01-01

    According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

  18. Postcards from India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahni, Urvashi

    1999-01-01

    Interviews children and adults living in rural areas in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India regarding education, revealing individuals' hopes and dreams against a backdrop of severe class, caste, and gender stratification. Examines the promise of schooling and literacy in India, the relationship of schooling and literacy to work, and of…

  19. The Myths of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  20. Overweight and Obesity in School Children of a Hill State in North India: Is the Dichotomy Urban-Rural or Socio-Economic? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kandpal, S. D.; Aggarwal, Pradeep; Sati, Hem Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obesity are a public health problem in India not only in adults but also in children. The authors sought to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-going children of 6–17 years of age and examine its demographic and dietary correlates in context of their urban-rural status and socio-economic status. Methods In this cross-sectional survey height and weight were measured in 1266 school children in government and private schools of urban and rural areas. Dietary assessment was done using single day 24-hour dietary recall method. The data were analyzed using SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics Version 19) and WHO AnthroPlus Software. Factorial ANOVA was used for testing interaction within and between subgroups for continuous variables and Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. Results It was found that the overall prevalence of overweight was 15.6% of which 5.4% were obese, with maximum prevalence in boys attending urban private schools. The mean caloric intake in the study population with 24-hour dietary recall method was 1558.2 kilocalories (SD: 428 kilocalories). Conclusion Overweight and obesity is a significant problem in school-going children. Higher socio-economic status continues to remain an important driver of this epidemic in the younger generation and affects demographic and dietary determinants of this problem. PMID:27227780

  1. Gender Disparity in Late-life Cognitive Functioning in India: Findings From the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. Methods. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. Discussion. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. PMID:24622150

  2. 84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, BRONZE DOUBLE DOORS (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Television Training in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Iqbal

    1973-01-01

    A general discussion of training programs which resulted from India's decision to expand television as a nationwide network and a vastly expanded use of educational technology within the educational system. (Author/HB)

  4. Liver transplantation in India.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Gomathy; Kota, Venugopal; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Liver transplantation as an established form of treatment for end-stage liver disease has gained acceptance in India over the last 10 years. Liver transplantation in India has unique features that have contributed to the growth of both deceased donor and living donor transplantations of which living donor currently dominates the picture. Living donor contributes to 80% and deceased donor to 20% of the liver transplants currently performed in India. The majority of these transplants are performed within the private sector with public sector hospitals lagging behind significantly. This article gives an overview of the evolution of liver transplantation in India and the potential future challenges. Liver Transplantation 22 1019-1024 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082718

  5. Unleashing science in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagla, Pallava

    2009-04-01

    With a population of over 1.1 billion people, of whom 714 million are entitled to vote, elections in India are complex affairs. In the next general election, which begins on 16 April, there will be more than 828 000 polling stations, where some 1.3 million electronic voting machines will be used in what will be the world's largest electronic election. The machines themselves were built and designed in India.

  6. True North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jo-Anne Mary

    2007-01-01

    For Americans wanting to explore beyond their frontiers, their neighbor to the north is an ideal destination. Much of Canada's population is concentrated near the shared border, mostly in Ontario and Quebec. While nature is an obvious draw, Canada's dynamic urban centers present their own sophisticated enticements, and the country's ten provinces…

  7. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  8. Geological factors contributing to landslides: case studies of a few landslides in different regions of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Nirmala; Ramanathan, Kaushik

    2016-02-01

    Landslides - mass movements of rock, debris or earth down a slope - are worldwide phenomena which cause significant damage and an estimated 5000 fatalities each year. They are caused by the interplay of various natural and anthropogenic factors and occur under diverse geoenvironmental conditions. In India, landslides occur primarily in the Himalayas of North India and in the Western Ghats of South India. This paper reports the results of field investigations for six landslide sites in North, Northeast and South India. We provide explanations as to why several landslides occurred at each of the sites. Our goal is to gain a deeper insight into the causes and precursors of landslides, which will facilitate more accurate identification of landslide-prone locations and enable early detection of landslide events.

  9. Premonsoon aerosol optical properties from AERONET retrievals and its probable source fields in Eastern India urban environment (Kolkata): evaluating spatial variability and its comparison with MODIS retrievals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, P.; Verma, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol characteristics were examined using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and MODIS retrievals (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) during the period, February to June 2009 in Eastern India, Kolkata (KOL). AERONET retrievals results for the study period manifested an aerosol optical depth - AOD (Angstrom exponent - α) in the range 0.65 - 0.81 (0.66 - 0.97) with an intermittent influence of dust. A substantial dominance of finer (coarser) particles were found in February (April) and an equal dominance of both in June. Aerosol size distribution (ASD) revealed a high volume in fine mode during June and that in April for the coarse mode. A few areas of in and around KOL, Odisha, and Sikkim influenced AOD ascertained using the Potential source contribution function (PSCF). Cluster analysis revealed preferred pathway as continental during February and both continental and marine during March to June. Episodic days identified for dust occurrence was examined and was further corroborated by MODIS Rapid response images. Further, comparative results of seven collateral AERONET sites in India, revealed a high AOD (α) at KOL during February to May (March and April) with Fine mode - FM (Coarse mode - CM) AOD of KOL being high during March and April (February to April) than other locations. Single scattering albedo (SSA) at 0.67 μm at KOL was slightly lower during February and March, with being equivalent and or higher than other sites during April to June. Comparison of AERONET - MODIS AOD at 0.55 µm for KOL (entire study period) for the collateral days revealed underestimation of MODIS during February to April and overestimation during May and June than AERONET. AERONET - MODIS AOD comparison for seven locations, during low (February) and high (June) aerosol loading, showed good agreement for few stations and divulged discrepancy for other sites.

  10. The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the

  11. The INFIR Cohort Study: investigating prediction, detection and pathogenesis of neuropathy and reactions in leprosy. Methods and baseline results of a cohort of multibacillary leprosy patients in north India.

    PubMed

    van Brakel, Wim H; Nicholls, Peter G; Das, Loretta; Barkataki, Pramila; Suneetha, Sujai K; Jadhav, Rupendra S; Maddali, Pranava; Lockwood, Diana N J; Wilder-Smith, Einar; Desikan, K V

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find predictors of neuropathy and reactions, determine the most sensitive methods for detecting peripheral neuropathy, study the pathogenesis of neuropathy and reactions and create a bank of specimen, backed up by detailed clinical documentation. A multi-centre cohort study of 303 multibacillary leprosy patients in Northern India was followed for 2 years. All newly registered MB patients requiring a full course of MDT, who were smear positive and/or had six or more skin lesions and/or had two or more nerve trunks involved, were eligible. A detailed history was taken and physical and neurological examinations were performed. Nerve function was assessed at each visit with nerve conduction testing, warm and cold detection thresholds, vibrometry, dynamometry, monofilaments and voluntary muscle testing. Because the latter two are widely used in leprosy clinics, they were used as 'gold standard' for sensory and motor impairment. Other outcome events were type 1 and 2 reactions and neuritis. All subjects had a skin biopsy at registration, repeated at the time of an outcome event, along with a nerve biopsy. These were examined using a variety of immunohistological techniques. Blood sampling for serological testing was done at every 4-weekly clinic visit. At diagnosis, 115 patients had an outcome event of recent onset. Many people had skin lesions overlying a major nerve trunk, which were shown to be significantly associated with an increased of sensory or motor impairment. The most important adjusted odds ratios for motor impairment were, facial 4.5 (1.3-16) and ulnar 3.5 (1.0-8.5); for sensory impairment they were, ulnar 2.9 (1.3-6.5), median 3.6 (1.1-12) and posterior tibial 4.0 (1.8-8.7). Nerve enlargement was found in 94% of patients, while only 24% and 3% had paraesthesia and nerve tenderness on palpation, respectively. These increased the risk of reactions only marginally. Seven subjects had abnormal tendon reflexes and seven abnormal

  12. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α -308G/A (rs1800629) polymorphism distribution in North India and its association with pemphigus: Case-control study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Sajad Ahmad; Akhter, Naseem; Haque, Shafiul; Singh, Taru; Mandal, Raju Kumar; Ramachandran, Vishnampettai Ganapathysubramanian; Bhattacharya, Sambit Nath; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Das, Shukla

    2016-05-01

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disorder of skin and/or mucosal surfaces characterized by intraepithelial lesions and immunoglobulin-G autoantibodies against desmogleins (proteins critical in cell-to-cell adhesion). Genetic, immunological, hormonal, and environmental factors are known to contribute to its etiology. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) which plays a key role in pathogenesis of many infectious and inflammatory diseases has been found in high levels in lesional skin and sera of pemphigus patients. However, studies on association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in promoter region of TNF-α at position -308 affecting G to A transition with pemphigus has been scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the TNF-α -308G/A SNP distribution in North Indian cohort, and to define the association between the TNF-α -308G/A SNP distribution and pemphigus, globally, by means of meta-analysis. TNF-α -308G/A SNP in pemphigus patients was investigated by cytokine genotyping using genomic DNA by PCR with sequence-specific primers. Meta-analysis of the data, including four previously published studies from other populations, was performed to generate a meaningful relationship. The results of our case-control study indicate non-significant differences between patients and controls in TNF-α -308G/A SNP. The meta-analysis also revealed that TNF-α -308G/A SNP is not associated with pemphigus risk in population at large; however, it may be contributing towards autoimmune phenomenon in pemphigus by being a part of its multi-factorial etiology. This study provides evidence that the TNF-α -308G/A polymorphism is not associated with overall pemphigus susceptibility. Nevertheless, further studies on specific ethnicity and pemphigus variants are necessary to validate the findings. PMID:26761187

  13. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  14. Jacob Chandy: pioneering neurosurgeon of India.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jacob; Mathai, K V; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Narayan, Raj K

    2010-09-01

    Jacob Chandy, who passed away in 2007 at the age of 97, was born into a deeply religious Christian family in Kerala, South India. After obtaining his medical education at the Madras Medical College, Madras, he serendipitously came to work with Dr Paul Harrison, a renowned medical missionary, in the Gulf state of Bahrain. Harrison urged Chandy to pursue training in the fledgling specialty of neurosurgery in North America. Chandy received his neurosurgical training at the Montreal Neurological Institute with Wilder Penfield and in Chicago with Theodore Rasmussen. At Harrison's urging, Chandy decided to return to India after completing his training to work at the Christian Medical College in Vellore. Thus, it was in 1949 that Chandy established the first neurosurgery department in south Asia in Vellore. He initiated the first neurosurgical training program in India at the Christian Medical College in 1957, with a distinct North American neurosurgical tradition. He went on to train nearly 20 neurosurgeons, many of whom set up new departments of neurosurgery in their home states. Chandy also had several other remarkable achievements to his credit. Despite the pressures of clinical practice, he insisted on fostering both basic and clinical neurosciences within his department, an arrangement that persists to this day in the Department of Neurological Sciences at the Christian Medical College, Vellore. As the Principal (Dean) of the Christian Medical College, Chandy displayed his skills as a medical educator and administrator. In this role, he was instrumental in starting specialty training programs in several other medical and surgical disciplines. His greatest legacies survive in the form of the department that he founded and his trainees and their students who have helped to establish neurosurgery all over the country. PMID:20647965

  15. Critical care in India.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

    1997-04-01

    India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

  16. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  17. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  18. North America

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Christopher B.; Mortsch, Linda D.; Brklacich, Michael; Forbes, Donald L.; Kovacs, Paul; Patz, Jonathan A.; Running, Steven W.; Scott, Michael J.

    2007-08-06

    The United States (U.S.) and Canada will experience climate changes through direct effects of local changes (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events), as well as through indirect effects, transmitted among regions by interconnected economies and migrations of humans and other species. Variations in wealth and geography, however, lead to an uneven distribution of likely impacts, vulnerabilities, and capacities to adapt. This chapter reviews and synthesizes the state of knowledge on both direct and indirect impacts, vulnerability and adaptations for North America 9 (comprising Canada and the U.S).

  19. After the CTB... India`s intentions

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwai, P.; Vanaik, A.

    1997-03-01

    More than six months after it was adopted in the U.N. General Assembly, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTB) remains a victim of narrowly perceived national security interests. Three sour ironies marked the way agreement was reached. First, India, which pioneered the proposal in 1954, became its bitterest opponent, alone vetoing it at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, thus denying the CTB universality. Second, for all the hard bargaining over 33 months, the CTB may well remain a paper treaty with an entry-into-force clause (Article XIV) that makes it uniquely vulnerable to the specific perceptions of any of the 44 states that must ratify it. Among them is India, which declared last September that it would not sign it then--or later. Third the CTB is no longer comprehensive in the way it would have been in the 1950s and 1960s. It permits non-explosive weapons-related tests. While the value of these tests in weapons development is debatable--indeed, virtually nonexistent according to many scientists--such tests will keep weapons labs running, bomb designers employed, and delusions about weapons efficacy alive. This will surely hamper ratification by many states.

  20. A summer in India.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, E

    1996-01-01

    An elective in India, during which she provided palliative care for a young girl, taught medical student Erica Weir several lessons about health care that she would never have learned during an elective in Canada. Images p786-a p787-a PMID:8823226

  1. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  2. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  3. Women's Work in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  4. Vocationalising Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  5. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  6. Electrifying rural India

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

    1999-12-01

    NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

  7. [North] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic, also called North Yemen, is a small republic on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula facing the Red Sea. Yemen has a temperate interior suitable for agriculture. 8.7 million people of Semetic Arab origin are growing at a rate of 3.1% yearly. The infant mortality rate is 173/1000; the life expectancy is 44 years, and the per capita income is about $550. Yemen was once self-sufficient in food production, exporting fine coffee. Years of civil wars, emigration to Saudi Arabia for work, production of the cash crop "qat" for internal consumption, and the recent drought have contributed to the decline of agriculture. Yemen's economy is maintained by foreign aid from Saudi Arabia, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States. U.S. aid has centered around food, roads and other development projects and primary health care such as immunization and reduction of child mortality. PMID:12177954

  8. Clinical profile of multiple sclerosis in north-west India.

    PubMed

    Syal, P; Prabhakar, S; Thussu, A; Sehgal, S; Khandelwal, N

    1999-03-01

    A total of 100 patients were enrolled in this study with the clinical diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). This included prospective analysis of 35 patients and retrospective analysis of 65 patients from their medical records spanning a period from January 1986 to March 1998. They were divided into 3 groups (i) overall group (ii) MRI group (where MRI was available) (iii) No MRI group (where MRI was not available). Data in terms of clinical features and laboratory investigations were compared in the three groups. MS was found to constitute 2.54% of neurology admission between January 1993 to December 1997. It was higher as compared to previous data from our institute (1.58%). Cerebellar symptoms were higher in the MRI group as compared to the non MRI group. The clinical spectrum of MS in the MRI group was comparable to that in the west. Obviously the MRI helps in early diagnosis of milder and atypical cases. Oligoclonal bands were found in 30.5% of cases only. PMID:10339702

  9. A case of extensive chromoblastomycosis from North India

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ghanshyam Kumar; Verma, Santwana; Singh, Gagandeep; Shanker, Vinay; Tegta, Geeta Ram; Minhas, Smridhi; Sharma, Vineeta; Thakur, Jatin

    2014-01-01

    A case of extensive chromoblastomycosis of the right leg and thigh with verruciform to nodular lesions evolving rapidly over five years duration is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed by visualizing pathognomonic pigmented muriform bodies with unique septate hyphae and mycological culture yielding Fonsecaea pedrosoi. PMID:24948945

  10. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  11. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  12. First report of Chilli veinal mottle virus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amrita; Dutta, Ram; Roy, Somnath; Ngachan, S V

    2014-01-01

    The present study confirms the occurrence of Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) under the genus Potyvirus in Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense) in Meghalaya based on mechanical transmission assay, transmission electron microscopy, RT-PCR and sequence analysis. This is the first record of Chivmv in Naga chilli in North-East India. PMID:24426324

  13. Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a young boy from rural part of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Mane, Pratibha; Sangwan, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta) is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India. PMID:27453865

  14. India's misconceived family plan.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable. PMID:12284385

  15. Hematological Practice in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Reena; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a short summary of hematological practice in India. It focuses particularly on how the patterns of hematologic practice differ from those of countries in the West with particular respect to genetic hematological diseases and a wide range of malignant disorders of hemopoiesis. It also focuses on the difficulties of control and management of hematological disorders set against a background of a relatively poor country. PMID:27040963

  16. [Child marriage in India].

    PubMed

    Wen, J

    1984-07-29

    Child marriages have been practiced in India for thousands of years. Even though its popularity has now decreased due to changes in law and society, it is still a major problem, causing a great deal of hardship. Even though laws prohibited child marriage as early as 1860, statistics show that, on the average, Indians marry very young (1972: females at age 17; males at age 22 years of age; 34 females and 13 males under age 15). The following are incentives to marry young and have large families: 1) religion teaches that only those with descendants go to heaven; 2) unmarried women are traditionally scorned; and 3) most importantly, economic reasons encourage people to have large families as soon as possible, e.g., male children are encouraged to marry to obtain the dowry as soon as possible and children are considered a source of income in India. Child marriage in India causes the following problems: 1) a high infant mortality rate, as much as 75% in rural areas; 2) an imbalance in the male to female ratio (1901: 970 females/1000 males; 1971: 930 females/1000 males) because women who marry young tend to lose their health earlier; 3) a population explosion: in 1971, the Indian population was found to be increasing at the rate of 225/1000. PMID:12159404

  17. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  18. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  19. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  20. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  1. Dengue in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C

    2012-09-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  2. Mental hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  3. Research fellowships in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twelve long-term (6 to 10 months) and nine short-term (2 to 3 months) research awards are being offered for 1983-84 by the Indo-U.S. Subcommission on Education and Culture. The fellowship program seeks to open new channels of communication between academic and professional groups in the United States and India and to encourage a wider range of research activity between the two countries. Scholars and professionals with limited or no experience in India are encouraged to apply.The fellowship, without restriction to field, is for $1200 to $1500 per month, depending on academic/professional achievement and seniority; $350 per month is payable in dollars, with the balance paid in rupees. There is also an allowance for books and study/travel in India and for international travel. In addition, long-term fellows receive international travel allowances for dependents; a dependent allowance of $100-$250 per month in rupees; and a supplementary research allowance up to 34,000 rupees.

  4. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  5. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  6. Astronomy of the Korku Tribe of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh; Dahedar, Purushottam

    2016-08-01

    The Korku are an ancient tribe of India believed to be of Austro-Asian origin. They trace their origin to the eastern Indian region of Chota Nagpur but large numbers of these people are settled in the forest reserves of central India. We visited twelve villages almost exclusively populated by Korku people in Northern Maharashtra about 200 km north of the city of Amravati, and focused on recording their astronomical beliefs. While living in the same Satpuda Mountain ranges, these groups differ in their astronomical beliefs from other tribes in the region. They focus on the Big Dipper (part of Ursa Major), and also show an understanding of some other aspects of the sky. They are particularly fascinated by eclipses (but treat solar and lunar eclipses the same) and have elaborate ways of measuring time. They also are aware of conjunctions of Mars and Venus and consider these to be of importance for marriages. They also are fascinated by Taurus. In this paper we report on the astronomical beliefs of the Korkus and compare these with the astronomical beliefs of other tribes in the region that have already been reported.

  7. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  8. Molecular detection and genetic diversity of Babesia gibsoni in dogs in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, M N; Raina, O K; Sankar, M; Rialch, Ajayta; Tigga, M N; Kumar, G Ravi; Banerjee, P S

    2016-07-01

    Babesia gibsoni is a tick borne intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite causing piroplasmosis in dogs and has been predominantly reported in Asian countries, including Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. The present communication is the first evidence on the genetic diversity of B. gibsoni of dogs in India. Blood samples were collected from 164 dogs in north and northeast states of India and 13 dogs (7.9%) were found positive for B. gibsoni infection by microscopic examination of blood smears. Molecular confirmation of these microscopic positive cases for B. gibsoni was carried out by 18S rRNA nested-PCR, followed by sequencing. Nested-PCR for the 18S rRNA gene was also carried out on microscopically B. gibsoni negative samples that detected a higher percentage of dogs (28.6%) infected with B. gibsoni. Genetic diversity in B. gibsoni in India was determined by studying B. gibsoni thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (BgTRAP) gene fragments (855bp) in 19 isolates from four north and northeast states of India. Phylogenetic analysis of the BgTRAP gene revealed that B. gibsoni parasite in India and Bangladesh formed a distinct cluster away from other Asian B. gibsoni isolates available from Japan, Taiwan and Korea. In addition, tandem repeat analysis of the BgTRAP gene clearly showed considerable genetic variation among Indian isolates that was shared by B. gibsoni isolates of Bangladesh. These results suggested that B. gibsoni parasites in a different genetic clade are endemic in dogs in India and Bangladesh. Further studies are required for better understanding of the genetic diversity of B. gibsoni prevalent in India and in its neighbouring countries. PMID:27020545

  9. Diversity of sickle cell trait in Jharkhand state in India: Is it the zone of contact between two geographically and ethnically distinct populations in India?

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rachana; Raman, Rajiva

    2015-09-01

    Incidence of sickle cell trait in India is high in peninsular south, south-eastern, central and south-western India, while in north and north-eastern India, it is absent. Unicentric origin of SCD in the tribals of nilgiri hills in southern India has been proposed. The present study on the frequency of HbS trait and beta-globin gene haplotypes was conducted in the tribal-rich states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand to get an insight into the uneven distribution of HbS in India. Jharkhand borders with the HbS-high Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and HbS-low UP, Bihar and Bengal. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed on the collected blood samples, to detect sickle haemoglobin (HbS) followed by DNA analysis. HbS associated beta-gene haplotype was constructed for the samples positive for HbS and all the tribals by PCR-RFLP. Out of 805 (Chhattisgarh - 261, Jharkhand - 544; greater than 36 percent tribals) samples analysed HbS frequency was 13 percent in Chhattisgarh and 3.3 percent in Jharkhand. Within Jharkhand, frequencies varied considerably from 10 percent in Tatanagar to nil in Sahibganj. The Arab-India (AI) haplotype of beta-globin cluster occurred in low frequency, confined mainly to Chhattisgarh. The most abundant haplotype in all the populations was the East Asian, + - - - - - +, rare in HbS, mainly in Sahibganj in east Jharkhand, which lacked AI. Our results indicate that besides the heterozygote advantage againstmalaria, the uneven regional distribution of HbS trait is because of restricted movement of two different populations, Dravidian from the south and Tibeto-Burman from the east into the Indianmainland which failed tomeet, we conjecture, due to severe climatic conditions (deserts and heat) prevailing through parts of central India. Apparently, Jharkhand became a zone of contact between them in recent times. PMID:26333400

  10. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Harish; Mehreen, T.S.; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Garg, Renu; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern. PMID:27121514

  11. Seismic Structure of India from Regional Waveform Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, V.; Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Rai, S.

    2003-12-01

    We use a neighborhood adaptive grid search procedure and reflectivity synthetics to model regional distance range (500-2000~km) seismograms recorded in India and to determine the variation in the crust and uppermost mantle structure across the subcontinent. The portions of the regional waveform which are most influenced by the crust and uppermost mantle structure are the 10-100~s period Pnl and fundamental mode surface waves. We use the adaptive grid search algorithm to match both portions of the seismogram simultaneously. This procedure results in a family of 1-D path average crust and upper mantle velocity and attenuation models whose propagation characteristics closely match those of the real Earth. Our data set currently consist of ˜20 seismograms whose propagation paths are primarily confined to the Ganges Basin in north India and the East Dharwar Craton of south India. The East Dharwar Craton has a simple and uniform structure consisting of a 36+/-2 km thick two layer crust, and an uppermost mantle with a sub-Moho velocity of 4.5~km/s. The structure of northern India is more complicated, with pronounced low velocities in the upper crustal layer due to the large sediment thicknesses in the Ganges basin.

  12. A new theropod dinosaur from India with remarks on the Gondwana-Laurasia connection in the Late Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, S.

    Walkeria maleriensis (n. g., n. sp.) from the Late Triassic Maleri Formation of the Godavari Valley of India is the earliest known dinosaur from Asia. It is a small podokesaurid theropod, very similar to Procompsognathus of Germany, Coelophysis of North America, and Syntarsus from Zimbabwe and North America. The podokesaurs are of particular interest to students of organic evolution because they are the earliest known theropods from which Archaeopteryx, the oldest known fossil bird, was probably evolved. Traditionally, India has been regarded as a part of Gondwana. It is generally believed that Gondwana remained an integral geographic unit throughout the Triassic. If this is so, a strong faunal correlation between India and other Gondwana continents should be expected in Late Triassic time. Contrary to this, the Maleri fauna is overwhelmingly "northern". Walkeria occurs in association with metoposaurs, parasuchids, protorosaurs, aetosaurs, rhynchosaurs, and traversodonts. Most of these taxa have been identified in the Dockum fauna of North America, indicating a close paleontologic link between India and Laurasia. Possibly the route of faunal migration between India and North America during the Late Triassic was via northern Africa.

  13. India`s first solar chicken brooder

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.; Naryanaswamy, T.S.; Kumar, A.; Choudhary, U.; Sharma, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    A 1,200 bird solar chicken brooder was indigenously designed and operated by the Indian scientists for the first time in the country as a Project under funding by the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources to the All India Women`s Conference. This multi disciplinary project was taken up on the International Sun Day, May 3, 1993 and completed on May, 1994. Data has been collected for the first nine months of operation. Its successful operation has justified multi disciplinary approach. The solar chicken brooder incorporates modern poultry concepts of breeding under controlled temperatures. In view of the mixed climate of Delhi, provision was made for heating and cooling both to take care of the 24 hour cycle. Comfort conditions have been identified and maintained (as is done in the their genetic characteristics) at different temperatures for a period of 8--10 weeks to grow them to a uniform weight of 2.0 kg. Growing them under controlled temperature for the first 4 weeks and then at room temperature was another new concept to grow hard stock. This development has opened avenues for new food industry based on processing of chicken utilizing internationally available technologies.

  14. A Tale of Two Indias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  15. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  16. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  17. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  18. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  19. Teaching about India. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, S. Rex

    Although world history and global studies programs in U.S. public schools have expanded in recent years, teaching about India and South Asia has remained insufficient. As a result, students often develop cultural misunderstandings and false stereotypes. India, as a focus of study, provides students with the opportunity to examine an ancient…

  20. Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carolyn McPherson

    This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the facts presented. The…

  1. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  2. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  3. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  4. Astronomy and Astrophysics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, J.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The growth in astronomy and astrophysics (A&A) in India has been mostly since the country achieved independence in 1947. The present work is carried out in a few select research institutes and in some university departments. The Astronomical Society of India has around 300 working A&A scientists as members, with another 50-60 graduate students....

  5. The Arabia-India plate boundary unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Rodriguez, M.; Petit, C.; Huchon, P.; Beslier, M.; Hazard, B.

    2009-12-01

    Since the advent of Plate Tectonics, tectonic plate boundaries were explored on land as at sea for search of active faults where the destructive energy of earthquakes is released. Yet, some plate boundaries, less active or considered as less dangerous to humankind, escaped general attention and remained unknown to a large extent. Among them, the boundary between two major tectonic plates: Arabia and India. The Arabia-India motion is currently accommodated along the Owen Fracture Zone (OFZ) in the NW Indian Ocean, which connects the spreading centers of the Sheba and Carlsberg ridge system to the Makran subduction zone. We recently surveyed this fracture zone onboard the R/V Beautemps-Beaupré (Owen Cruise, March 2009) using a high-resolution deep-water multibeam echo-sounder. Bathymetric data reveal a spectacular submarine fault system running over a distance of 800 km between the Arabia-India-Somalia triple junction to the south and the Dalrymple Trough to the north. The morphology of the active faults is well preserved on the seafloor where fault scarps can be followed over hundreds of kilometres. The surficial trace of the faults is not obscured by the sediments of the aggrading deep-sea fan of the Indus River. The fault system is segmented in five main segments connected by pull apart basins. The length of the individual, apparently uninterrupted, segments is between 100 km and 220 km. The largest pull-apart basin at the latitude 20°N (20°N-Basin) corresponds to a right step-over of about 12 km between two fault segments. The 20°N-Basin is bounded by a normal fault scarp with a throw of 450-500 m. Numerous minor normal faults cutting the floor of the basin attest to recent activity. The 20°N-Basin is directly supplied in turbidity-current deposits by an active channel of the Indus fan. The preservation of tectonic features indicates that the dip-slip motion has exceeded the rate of burial by sediments. Some compressional structures are also deduced from

  6. India's population--what is being done?

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1986-01-01

    Thus far, India's efforts to curtail population growth have consistently failed to meet official targets. The crude birthrate (per 1000 population per year) is highest in the belt of 6 Hindi-speaking states, which include Rajasthan (40), Madhya Pradesh (38.5), Uttar Pradesh (38.4), Bihar (37.2), and Haryana (35.9). The rates are slightly lower in the other large North Indian States. The rate is 33.6 for India as a whole according to 1983 data. 3 of the South Indian states have the lowest crude birthrates: Kamataka (28.7), Tamil Nadu (27.8), and Kerata (24.9). Each of India's successive Five Year Plans gave increasingly more emphasis to population control, but the key tactical features have stayed the same. Population control comes under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, with family planning services provided through the free health delivery system. The main strategy continues to be to persuade people on an individual basis to accept the small family norm by a wide range of advertising and educational efforts. As of 1986, the family planning establishment had grown to gigantic proportions, employing half a million people in the family planning and health services. The Five Year Plan initiated in July 1985 continues the same approach but with added features. "Green cards" are given to those who accept sterilization after 2 children, allowing them a wide range of benefits such as low interest housing loans, preference in getting housing plots and enterprise loans, and salary increases for government employees. Health workers and other government employees have quotas of persons to motivate for contraceptive acceptance. They receive a small monetary incentive, which they often give to the acceptors so they can maintain their quotas and keep their jobs. The 1986 Revised Strategy for Family Planning is essentially more of the same with family planning more integrated with the health delivery system. Foreign and international donor agencies frequently have placed

  7. Infant feeding in India.

    PubMed

    1984-09-15

    The report of a survey organized by the Nutrition Foundation of India indicated that, although breastfeeding is the traditional standard of infant nutrition in India, good infant feeding practices depend on education provided by health services. Interviews with 4926 mothers with infants under 1 year indicated that over 97% motherrs suckle their infants, and 75% or more in most centers are still breastfeeding when the infant is 1 year old. At age 5 months 30-40% of infants are fed entirely from the breast; at age 1, 5-10% were getting no other food. Of the very small number of mothers who never breastfed their infants, most belonged to the highest income group. Causes of lactation failure in India and other countries seem to be social and psychological and not physiological. Most Indian babies grow well at first, but by the age of 6 months are growth retarded. Growth retardation may be caused by insufficient breast milk and repeated gastrointestinal and respiratory infections associated with poor hygiene and abject poverty, both more prevalent in Calcutta than in Bombay and Madras. Because of risk of infection, dietary supplements should be given to the mother (rather than to the infant) during the 1st 6 months of lactation. Traditional cow and buffalo milk was the main supplement given to 1955 of infants surveyed, but 1531 were given commerical milk formulas. Commercial milk was used mainly by the wealthy in big cities but some was used in rural areas, where some of the poorest mothers spend 10% of family income on commerical milk. It is important that fresh animal milk be made available to the poor at reasonable prices. Indian mothers are reluctant to give older infants any normal family foods except cereals. Manuals should be prepared for use by health workers to teach practical nutrition education in different regions. PMID:6147646

  8. Earth - India and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. India is near the top of the picture, and Australia is to the right of center. The white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Pacific, lower right. This is a frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500-frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  9. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  10. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  11. Tracking Arabia-India motion from Miocene to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Fournier, M.

    2009-12-01

    Although small, the present-day Arabia-India motion has been captured by several global and regional geodetic surveys that consistently show dextral motion of a few mm/yr, either transpressive or transtensive (Fournier et al., 2008). This motion is accommodated along the Owen Fracture Zone, an active strike-slip boundary that runs for more than 700 km from the Somalia-India-Arabia triple junction in the south to the Dalrymple trough in the north. Two recent marine cruises conducted along this fault aboard the BHO Beautemps-Beaupré (AOC 2006 and OWEN 2009) using a high resolution multibeam sounder (Simrad EM120, 10 m vertical resolution) provided a complete map of the active fault and confirmed a present-day pure dextral motion. The surface breaks closely follow a small circle of the Arabia-India motion, with several pull-part basins at the junctions between the main segments of the fault. Geomorphologic offsets reach 10 km, suggesting that the mapped fault has been active with the same style for past several million years. When did this motion start? The difficulty in tracking the past Arabia-India motion is that there is no direct kinematic indicator available, since the boundary has been strike-slip and/or convergent during the Tertiary. Motion was most probably sinistral during the rapid northward travelling of India towards Eurasia in the early Tertiary, Arabia being rigidly attached to Africa until the opening of the Gulf of Aden. However, the nature and location of the Arabia-India boundary at that time remain speculative. Throughout the Miocene, the relative motion between India and Arabia has been indirectly recorded at the Sheba and Carslberg ridges, the former recording Arabia-Somalia motion (opening of the Gulf of Aden) and the latter India-Somalia motion (Indian Ocean opening). Both ridges have been studied with some details recently, using up to date magnetic lineations identification (Merkouriev and DeMets, 2006; Fournier et al., 2009). We combine

  12. Prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan: a review.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Ehtisham; Bilal, Saira; Kiani, Adnan; Haque, Uzma

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of

  13. Climatology and trends of summer high temperature days in India during 1969-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaswal, A. K.; Rao, P. C. S.; Singh, Virendra

    2015-02-01

    Based on the daily maximum air temperature data from 176 stations in India from 1969 to 2013, the climatological distribution of the number of days with high temperature (HT) defined as days with maximum temperature higher than 37°C during summer season (March-June) are studied. With a focus on the regional variability and long-term trends, the impacts of HT days are examined by dividing the country into six geographical regions (North, West, North-central, East, South-central and South). Although the long-term (1969-2013) climatological numbers of HT days display well-defined spatial patterns, there is clear change in climatological mean and coefficient of variation of HT days in a recent period (1991-2013). The long period trends indicate increase in summer HT days by 3%, 5%, and 18% in north, west, and south regions, respectively and decrease by 4% and 9% in north-central and east regions respectively. However, spatial variations in HT days exist across different regions in the country. The data analysis shows that 2010 was the warmest summer year and 2013 was the coolest summer year in India. Comparison of spatial distributions of trends in HT days for 1969-1990 and 1991-2013 periods reveal that there is an abrupt increase in the number of HT days over north, west and north-central regions of India probably from mid 1990s. A steep increase in summer HT days in highly populated cities of Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, Jaipur, and Visakhapatnam is noticed during the recent period of 1991-2013. The summer HT days over southern India indicate significant positive correlation with Nino 3.4 index for three months' running mean (December-January-February, January-March, February-April, March-May and April-June).

  14. The End of Tethys: Opening and Closing of Oceans between Australia, India and SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R.

    2008-12-01

    SE Asia has grown by closure of Tethyan oceans south of Asia, principally by addition of fragments rifted from the Gondwana margins, resulting in a mosaic of continental crust and arc/ophiolite sutures. A new reconstruction identifies the blocks rifted from West and NW Australia in the Late Jurassic. They are now in Borneo, Java and Sulawesi, not West Burma as often assumed. Rifting in the Banda and Argo regions began at about 160 Ma, possibly due to south-directed subduction at the north Gondwana margin. Greater India is proposed to have extended north to the northern edge of the Exmouth Plateau and began to separate from Australia at about 140 Ma. The Banda and Argo blocks collided with the SE Asian margin between 110 and 90 Ma. At 90 Ma the Woyla intra-oceanic arc also collided with the Sumatra margin. This terminated subduction beneath Sundaland. The Indian and Australian plates were separated by a leaky transform from about 90 to 75 Ma which became a slightly convergent transform from about 75 to 55 Ma. This transform boundary is considered the eastern end of Tethys from the mid Cretaceous. There was a completely different history of subduction north of India compared to that north of Australia. The subduction history is recorded in the deep mantle by distinctive velocity anomalies which change from east to west abruptly at about 110°E. Between 90 and 45 Ma, India moved rapidly north with north-directed subduction within Tethys and at the Asian margin. It collided with an intra-oceanic arc at about 57 Ma, west of Sumatra, but continued to move north. The first contact of India with Asia was probably about 45 Ma, an estimate dependent on the shape of Greater India and the Asian margin; final ocean closure was later. North of Australia, between 90 and 45 Ma, there was no subduction beneath Sumatra and Java. During this interval south Sundaland was a mainly passive margin with some strike-slip deformation and extension. At 45 Ma Australia began to move north and

  15. India`s low-tech energy success

    SciTech Connect

    Sampat, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

  16. Evolution of Anklesvar anticline, Cambay basin, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, M.K.

    1981-02-01

    The Anklesvar structure, discovered productive by the Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) in May 1960, is the best hydrocarbon-bearing anticline known in the Cambay basin of India. Situated south of the Narmada River, the structure is a 15 x 2.5-km, doubly plunging, northeast-southwest-trending, asymmetric anticline limited on the south by the South Anklesvar fault system. Regional paleostructural profiles across Anklesvar from Broach on the north to Kosamba on the south suggest that, at the end of the Cretaceous, the regional slope was south. By middle Eocene time, this regional slope had been removed. After the Oligocene, the regional relief of the entire area was reversed, resulting in regional north tilt. The south Anklesvar fault system, a zone of reverse faults, originated probably during the period of reversal. Growth of the Anklesvar anticline was, however, initiated during the Paleocene. One fault on the northern limb developed during the Oligocene. Anklesvar anticline grew into an asymmetric fold in post-Oligocene time as a result of differential movement of the blocks across the strike faults present on both the limbs of the anticline.

  17. Cataract progression in India

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, M; Rahmathullah, R.; Blair, C.; Murphy, A.; Beck, R.; Wilkins, J.; Whitcher, J.; Smolin, G.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—The study was undertaken to test the feasibility of using the LOCS III cataract grading scale in the field and to determine the rate of cataract progression over a 1 year period of time.
METHODS—For 150 subjects between the ages of 33 and 55 who attended the refraction clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India, lens abnormalities were graded at the slit lamp using the LOCS III scale. One year later, 99 of the subjects were re-evaluated by the same methodology to assess the amount of lens change.
RESULTS—Interrater reliability was high. A change of 0.5 or more in lens colour, cortical, nuclear, or posterior subcapsular cataract was observed in at least one eye of 54% of the subjects.
CONCLUSION—The LOCS III grading scale is a feasible method for measuring lens changes in the field with the slit lamp. Cataract progression in India is rapid enough to permit intervention studies to be performed with relatively small numbers of subjects over a short period of time (that is, 600 subjects for 2 years).

 PMID:9486033

  18. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  19. Research on antidepressants in India

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Grover, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Munish

    2010-01-01

    Data suggests that antidepressants are useful in the management of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, enuresis, aggression and some personality disorders. Research focusing on the usefulness of antidepressants in India has more or less followed the trends seen in the West. Most of the studies conducted in India have evaluated various antidepressants in depression. In this article, we review studies conducted in India on various antidepressants. The data suggests that antidepressants have been evaluated mainly in the acute phase treatment and rare studies have evaluated the efficacy in continuation phase treatment. PMID:21836704

  20. The biological sciences in India

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

  1. Climate change and threat of vector-borne diseases in India: are we prepared?

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Ramesh C; Pahwa, Sharmila; Dhillon, G P S; Dash, Aditya P

    2010-03-01

    It is unequivocal that climate change is happening and is likely to expand the geographical distribution of several vector-borne diseases, including malaria and dengue etc. to higher altitudes and latitudes. India is endemic for six major vector-borne diseases (VBD) namely malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and visceral leishmaniasis. Over the years, there has been reduction in the incidence of almost all the diseases except chikungunya which has re-emerged since 2005. The upcoming issue of climate change has surfaced as a new threat and challenge for ongoing efforts to contain vector-borne diseases. There is greater awareness about the potential impacts of climate change on VBDs in India and research institutions and national authorities have initiated actions to assess the impacts. Studies undertaken in India on malaria in the context of climate change impact reveal that transmission windows in Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and north-eastern states are likely to extend temporally by 2-3 months and in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu there may be reduction in transmission windows. Using PRECIS model (driven by HadRM2) at the resolution of 50 x 50 Km for daily temperature and relative humidity for year 2050, it was found that Orissa, West Bengal and southern parts of Assam will still remain malarious and transmission windows will open up in Himachal Pradesh and north-eastern states etc. Impact of climate change on dengue also reveals increase in transmission with 2 C rise in temperature in northern India. Re-emergence of kala-azar in northern parts of India and reappearance of chikungunya mainly in southern states of India has also been discussed. The possible need to address the threat and efforts made in India have also been highlighted. The paper concludes with a positive lead that with better preparedness threat of climate change on vector-borne diseases may be negated. PMID:20155369

  2. District level coverage gap in Maternal, Newborn and Child Health care services in India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar

    2012-12-01

    India has the highest number of maternal (2010) and child (2009) deaths in the world suggesting a poor coverage in Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) care services. This study assessed the coverage gap in MNCH care across districts in India using a robust aggregate Coverage Gap Index (CGI) developed by the 'Countdown 2008 Equity Analysis Group'. The north-south divide in MNCH care coverage gap is apparent. The results derived from this study emphasise the need for focused intervention in 210 districts which have a coverage gap of ≥50%. PMID:23856504

  3. FISH KILLS, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data related to fish kills in North Carolina are collected and stored in tables on the Web at the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. http://www.esb.enr.state.nc.us/Fishkill/fishkill00.htm

  4. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  5. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  6. GPS Measurements Of The Relative Motion Between India And Sundaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.; Pubellier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Rangin, C.

    GPS measurements acquired in the framework of the GEODYSSEA project have pro- vided significant new information on the present day plate tectonics in South East Asia. In order to further investigate the relative motion between India and South East Asia, we have performed a combined processing the THAICA, APRGP, MYANMAR, GEODYSSEA and RTSD data (10 GPS campaigns from 1994 to 2000) including 90 stations in South East Asia. Global plate motion model Nuvel-1A [DeMets et al., 1994] predicts a relative motion of India with respect to Eurasia of about 5.5 cm/yr oriented around N20rE on the east- ern border of the Indian plate in Myanmar. Our geodetic results allow us to confirm That India motion is actually slower than this value in agreement with the results ob- tained by Paul et al., 2001. In addition, since the block along which India is sliding is not stable Eurasia but rather the Sundaland block [Michel et al., 2001], the relative motion expected between India and Sundaland on the Myanmar boundary reduces to about 4.5 cm/yr and rotates towards North. The local Myanmar velocity field [Vigny et al.,2001] show that, out of the 4.5 cm/yr of India versus Sundaland rate, only 3 cm/yr are accommodated in Myanmar, distributed between 2 cm/yr on the Sagaing fault and 1 cm/yr in the Myanmar Central Basins. Therefore, 1.5 cm/yr have to be taken elsewhere. Our results indicate that about 0.5 cm/yr can be accommodated in a large shear zone in Indochina, the remaining motion being accommodated in the Andaman trench. DeMets, C., R. G. Gordon, D. Argus, and S. Stein, Effect of recent revisions to the geomagnetic reversal time scale on estimates of current plate motions, Geophys. Res. Letters., 21, 2191-2194, 1994. Michel, G., Y. Yu, S. Zhu, C. Reigber, M. Becker, E. Reinhart, W. Simons, B. Am- brosius, C. Vigny, N. Chamot-Rooke, X. LePichon, P. Morgan, and S. Matheussen, Crustal motion and block behavior in SE-Asia from GPS measurements,.Earth and Physics Science letters, 187, 289

  7. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. Blood bank regulations in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Desai, Priti

    2012-06-01

    Successful blood services depend on legally empowered regulatory services. Blood transfusion services are important constituents of national health services. Blood transfusion services in India are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its subsequent amendments. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 specifies about accommodation, manpower, equipment, supplies and reagents, good manufacturing practices, and process control to be followed in Indian blood transfusion services.Regulatory affairs in the Indian blood banking system are controlled by central and provincial Drug Control authority under Drug Controller General of India. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) acts as a facilitator to Indian blood transfusion services on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India,especially to the government sector. The National Blood Policy was published by the Government of India in 2002 and it provides objectives to provide safe, adequate quantity of blood, blood components, and products. PMID:22727006

  9. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India. PMID:27256123

  10. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  11. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  12. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. PMID:27235937

  13. India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeksen, Peggy

    This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

  14. Occurrence of a new species of Letana (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) in India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the Oriental genus Letana, Walker (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae), proposed as Letana dentata sp. nov., collected from the North-eastern province, Meghalaya, India (Ri bhoi 90°55'15 to 91°16' latitude and 25°40' to 25°21' longitude, 993 MSL), is described together with the morphological characterization of eight reported species. Of these, Letana rubescens (Stål, 1861) collected from Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India) is being reported for the first time from India. The other species of Letana include: L. atomifera, L. bulbosa, L. inflata, L. infurcata, L. pyrifera and L. rufonatata. Taxonomic and diagnostic characters with illustrations of the head, pronotum, ventral view of left tegmina to show stridulatory file teeth and the genitalia (supra-anal plate and subgenital plate) including the phallus sclerite has been given. PMID:26624719

  15. 'Stratified Contraception': Emergency Contraceptive Pills and Women's Differential Experiences in Contemporary India.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Nayantara

    2015-01-01

    Available without prescriptions in India since 2005, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and their advertisements have provided women with increased contraceptive options and a vocabulary to talk about their reproductive lives. I draw on long-term fieldwork with women in urban India about ECPs, demonstrating a new form of 'stratified contraception' enabled by these pills and their advertisements. I posit that there are within India spaces that replicate the luxuries and privileges of the global North. These material conditions, I suggest, are replicated when it comes to contraception as there are hubs of women consumers of contraception and contraceptive advertising that participate in an 'imagined cosmopolitanism' within the global South in close proximity to 'contraceptive ghettos.' Moving beyond simplistic binaries, I outline three major stratifications along which women experience this medical technology and outline the implications for women and their contraceptive choices when notions of northern privilege exist in the 'South.' PMID:24901232

  16. Sex in an Imperial war zone: transnational encounters in Second World War India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests how the waging of war in an imperial setting may have reshaped military and civilian relations in India from 1939-45. The number of troops stationed in India had repercussions for society and local politics. The article investigates widespread prostitution as one aspect of the gendered wartime economy. Indian prostitution was closely linked to militarization and to the effects of the 1943 Bengal famine. The article also argues this was symptomatic of a more far-reaching renegotiation of the interactions between men and women in the Indian Empire of the 1940s. Other Indian, European, North American and Anglo-Indian women worked as nurses, with the Red Cross and in a variety of roles towards the war effort. Women were subject to new social and sexual demands due to the increased numbers of troops stationed in India in the 1940s. PMID:22830097

  17. India`s nuclear weapons posture: The end of ambiguity. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis examines the future of India`s nuclear weapons posture. Since testing a nuclear device in 1974, India been able to produce weapons material within its civilian nuclear power program. Despite having this nuclear weapons capability, India prefers to maintain an ambiguous nuclear posture. New pressures in the post-cold war era -- the loss of the Soviet Union as a strategic ally, the indefinite extension of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, the rise of Hindu nationalism, and India`s growing participation in the global economy -- have the potential to derail India`s current nuclear policy. This thesis identifies the domestic and international pressures on India, and assesses the prospects for India to retain its ambiguous policy, renounce the nuclear option, or assemble an overt nuclear arsenal.

  18. North Korea: The next nuclear nightmare

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.S.; Smith, J.R.

    1991-03-01

    The crisis in the Persian Gulf has reawakened concerns over the spread of nuclear arms. Even before its invasion of Kuwait, Iraq's history of aggression and support for international terrorism triggered fears in Washington that its acquisition of nuclear weapons might damage international stability and US interests far more than the emergence of India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa as de facto nuclear powers. Thus, when the Gulf War began on January 16, Iraq's nuclear sites were among the first attacked by allied air strikes. Unfortunately, Iraq has not been the only hostile proliferator looming on the horizon. North Korea, which has been no less dedicated than Iraq to the use of violence to advance its expansionist goals, has also tenaciously pursued a nuclear-weapons capability. Moreover, the North Korean program is considerably closer to bearing fruit than the Iraqi effort. And although North Korea, like Iraq, has signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, unlike Iraq it has refused to conclude the safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency that the treaty requires.

  19. High bat (Chiroptera) diversity in the Early Eocene of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham

    2007-12-01

    The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.

  20. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Ganesh, T.; Jaikumar, M.; Raman, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species ( Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures of the 11 valid species reported so far from India are given together with a key for their identification. No caprellids were found in sediments from the northeast (16-20ºN) coast of India while they were abundant in the southeast and west coast. Decreases in salinity due to river discharges associated with lower values of oxygen, higher water temperatures and lower nutrient inputs along the east coast could explain these differences in caprellid composition between the two coastlines. Significantly, lower abundance of caprellids in India, as in other tropical ecosystems, is probably related to the lack of species belonging to the genus Caprella, which reach very high abundances in temperate waters.

  1. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship. PMID:19962634

  2. Seismic hazard assessment and mitigation in India: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

    2013-07-01

    The Indian subcontinent is characterized by various tectonic units viz., Himalayan collision zone in North, Indo-Burmese arc in north-east, failed rift zones in its interior in Peninsular Indian shield and Andaman Sumatra trench in south-east Indian Territory. During the last about 100 years, the country has witnessed four great and several major earthquakes. Soon after the occurrence of the first great earthquake, the Shillong earthquake ( M w: 8.1) in 1897, efforts were started to assess the seismic hazard in the country. The first such attempt was made by Geological Survey of India in 1898 and since then considerable progress has been made. The current seismic zonation map prepared and published by Bureau of Indian Standards, broadly places seismic risk in different parts of the country in four major zones. However, this map is not sufficient for the assessment of area-specific seismic risks, necessitating detailed seismic zoning, that is, microzonation for earthquake disaster mitigation and management. Recently, seismic microzonation studies are being introduced in India, and the first level seismic microzonation has already been completed for selected urban centres including, Jabalpur, Guwahati, Delhi, Bangalore, Ahmadabad, Dehradun, etc. The maps prepared for these cities are being further refined on larger scales as per the requirements, and a plan has also been firmed up for taking up microzonation of 30 selected cities, which lie in seismic zones V and IV and have a population density of half a million. The paper highlights the efforts made in India so far towards seismic hazard assessment as well as the future road map for such studies.

  3. Future of Endemic Flora of Biodiversity Hotspots in India

    PubMed Central

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  4. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    PubMed

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  5. Culture influences demographic behavior: evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, A

    1994-03-01

    Delhi migrants from low socioeconomic classes were compared based on their home origins in north or south India. The two groups differed in cultural beliefs, attitudes, and practices, but they lived in the same resettlement colony and had the same physical access to services and opportunities. Retrospective data was collected from a sample of ever-married women and household heads. Longitudinal data was collected on households with at least two living children younger than 12 in visits once every two weeks over a six-month period. Information was obtained on children's eating patterns, activities, illnesses, and the treatment of their illnesses. Households from Tamil Nadu in the south were more modern, had greater female autonomy, and were open to new ideas. Uttar Pradesh women from the north were more traditional, secluded, and restricted in economic activities. The results showed lower fertility, higher levels of contraceptive use, and earlier ends to childbearing among Tamil Nadu women, who had had more exposure to ideas about smaller family size, healthful childrearing practices, and positive attitudes about contraceptive use. For every 100 Tamil Nadu children who died, 111 Uttar Pradesh children died. Health care practices differed between groups; the urban slum environment was conducive to the spread of gastrointestinal infections among Uttar Pradesh girls discouraged from using the public water taps and toilet facilities. Among the Tamil Nadu migrants, girls actually had lower childhood mortality rates than boys. 115 girls died for every 100 boys among the Uttar Pradesh. The reason may be due to the avoidance or delay of outside medical attention until too late. The conclusion was that the status of women, and their exposure to and interaction with the outside world and control over decision making at home, explained the differences between the two groups. Policy implications are to make programs culturally sensitive for example, providing at-home care for

  6. Aerosol properties over south india during different seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaprasad, P.; Babu, C. A.; Jayakrishnan, P. R.

    Aerosols play an important role in the radiation balance and cloud properties, thereby affect the entire climatology of the earth-atmosphere system. Besides natural sources like dust, seasalt and natural sulphates, anthropogenic activities also inject aerosols like soot and industrial sulphates. Of these sea-salt and sulphates scatter the solar radiation. Soot is an absorbing aerosol while soil dust and organic matters are partly absorbing aerosols. Wind and rainfall are major factors affecting the transportation and deposition of the aerosols. India is a country blessed with plenty of monsoon rains. Winter (December to February), summer (March to May), monsoon (June to September) and post monsoon (October to November) are the four seasons over the region. Aerosol properties vary according to the season. Natural aerosols blown from the deserts have a major role in the aerosol optical depth over India. Of this, dust from Arabian desert that is carried by the winds are most important. The aerosol optical depth of south India is entirely different from that of north India. Maximum aerosol concentration is found over Gangetic plane in most of the seasons, whereas entire south India shows less aerosol optical depth. In the present study the aerosol properties of south India is analysed in general. Particular analysis is carried out for the four regions in the east and west coasts around Chennai, Kolkotha, Mumbai and Cochin. Chennai and Kolkotha are situated in the east coast whereas Cochin and Mumbai are in the west coast. These are industrial cities in India. Chennai region does not get monsoon rainfall since it is situated in the leeward side of Western ghats. But in the post monsoon season Chennai gets good amount of rainfall. Other three regions get good amount of rainfall during monsoon season. The study uses Terra MODIS, TOMS, NCEP/NCAR and TRMM data. Aerosol properties are analysed using Terra MODIS and Nimbus TOMS data. The variations of the aerosol optical

  7. Incredible India: the inconvenient truth.

    PubMed

    Mundkur, Bal

    2011-01-01

    The author's objective is to correct many of the misconceptions about India and to combat mistaken analysis. He highlights the hundreds of millions who live in poverty, the rampant corruption and the incompetence of the administration. He asserts that comparisons with China are always to the disadvantage of India, except in the field of democracy, and suggests that the Indian Space Programme is symptomatic of a wide-spread misallocation of resources. And to suggest that the traffic problems in Delhi and Mumbai are being caused by more motor vehicles is a misdiagnosis. The real cause is an increase in the number of bullock carts. PMID:21305798

  8. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country. PMID:26111571

  9. HIV in India: the Jogini culture

    PubMed Central

    Borick, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Jogini is the name for a female sexually exploited temple attendant and is used interchangeably with Devadasi in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Jogini are twice more likely than other women who are used for sexual intercourse in India to be HIV positive, and their rate of mortality from HIV is 10 times the total mortality rate for all women in India. The four states in India with the most Jogini also have the highest prevalence of HIV. The following case is unfortunately typical of the Jogini and sheds light on a potentially disastrous public health problem in rural South India. PMID:25015167

  10. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  11. Country watch: India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, A; Sehgal, P N

    1995-01-01

    Linking more than 3000 health and development organizations, the Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI) is one of the largest networks in the country. In 1990 VHAI began incorporating HIV/STD-related activities into its broader programs. An existing infrastructure for intersectoral collaboration in the areas of community health promotion, public policy, information and documentation, and communications facilitated inclusion of the new activities. Several VHAI departments collaborate in offering training courses, workshops, and seminars at the state and community levels to involve nongovernmental organizations and professional groups in HIV/STD prevention and counseling. More than 950 persons have been trained so far, including trainers of primary health care workers, family physicians, medical practitioners, social scientists, teachers, community volunteer workers, and youth leaders. Local experts act as training resource persons; materials produced locally, abroad, and by VHAI itself are used. Training facilities are offered free of charge to member organizations; VHAI also awards fellowships for field training and financial support for approved projects. VHAI suggests intervention measures to governmental and nongovernmental organizations related to drug users, youth, truck drivers, blood donors, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The information, documentation, and communications departments provide members with a wide variety of information, education, and communication (IEC) materials that can be translated into local languages: posters, folders, flip charts, stickers, and folk songs. VHAI advocacy issues that have been highlighted through the press include: confidentiality, protection against discrimination, the right of all persons to health care, and the need to make properly-equipped STD clinics available. VHAI has established sub-networks in Tamil Nadu (155 organizations) and Manipur (55 organizations) states. VHAI has found that incorporating HIV

  12. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  13. India - Mahabharata. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Carole; DeVito, Pasquale

    This lecture is accompanied by slides of India. The lecture is used an introduction to the first of the three videotapes of Peter Brook's "Mahabharata," providing students with preliminary background on Hinduism and on the Hindu epic. The objective is also to have students think about the basic values of ancient and modern Hindus. (EH)

  14. Curriculum Project: India. Fulbright Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1995 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Norma L.

    This elementary-level thematic unit on India was designed to serve as a stepping stone toward the goal of mutual respect among children of different backgrounds. This unit may take one to four weeks depending on the class time. To expand children's awareness of the Indian culture, many hands-on activities are included. This unit was developed with…

  15. Genome Assembly of Chryseobacterium polytrichastri ERMR1:04, a Psychrotolerant Bacterium with Cold Active Proteases, Isolated from East Rathong Glacier in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakshak; Singh, Dharam; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome assembly of a psychrotolerant bacterium, Chryseobacterium polytrichastri ERMR1:04, which secretes cold-active proteases. The bacterium was isolated from a pristine location, the East Rathong Glacier in the Sikkim Himalaya. The 5.53-Mb genome provides insight into the cold-active industrial enzyme and adaptation in the cold environment. PMID:26543128

  16. Genome Assembly of Chryseobacterium polytrichastri ERMR1:04, a Psychrotolerant Bacterium with Cold Active Proteases, Isolated from East Rathong Glacier in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharam; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome assembly of a psychrotolerant bacterium, Chryseobacterium polytrichastri ERMR1:04, which secretes cold-active proteases. The bacterium was isolated from a pristine location, the East Rathong Glacier in the Sikkim Himalaya. The 5.53-Mb genome provides insight into the cold-active industrial enzyme and adaptation in the cold environment. PMID:26543128

  17. North American patience

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Independent power companies are facing numerous changes in power markets across North America. While changes bring uncertainty, they also hold promise for future competitive power opportunities. Included are new capacity, repowering aging infrastructure and the role of power brokers. It is likely that patience has never been a more valuable attribute for companies working in the North American market.

  18. North American Biome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North America biome includes the major ecoregions that make up the land area of Canada, the United States, Mexico, and countries in Central America. The biome is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the s...

  19. India-Eurasia collision triggers formation of an oceanic microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kara; Müller, Dietmar; Sandwell, David

    2016-04-01

    Detailed mapping of seafloor tectonic fabric in the Indian Ocean, using high-resolution satellite-derived vertical gravity gradient data, reveals an extinct Pacific-style oceanic microplate - the Mammerickx Microplate - west of the Ninetyeast Ridge. It is one of the first Pacific-style microplates to be mapped outside the Pacific basin, suggesting that geophysical conditions during formation probably resembled those that have dominated at eastern Pacific ridges. The microplate formed at the Indian-Antarctic ridge and is bordered by an extinct ridge in the north and pseudofault in the south, whose conjugate is located north of the Kerguelen Plateau. Independent microplate rotation is indicated by asymmetric pseudofaults and rotated abyssal hill fabric, also identified in multibeam data. Magnetic anomaly picks and age estimates calculated from published spreading rates suggest formation during chron 21o (~47.3 Ma). Plate reorganizations can trigger ridge propagation and microplate development, and we propose that formation of the Mammerickx Microplate is linked with the initial 'soft' stage of the India-Eurasia collision. The collision altered the stress regime at the Indian-Antarctic ridge, leading to a change in segmentation and ridge propagation from an establishing transform fault. Fast Indian-Antarctic spreading that preceded microplate formation, and Kerguelen Plume activity may have facilitated ridge propagation via the production of thin and weak lithosphere. However, both factors had been present for tens of millions of years and are therefore unlikely to have triggered the event. Prior to the collision, this combination of fast spreading and plume activity was responsible for the production of a wide region of undulate seafloor to the north of the extinct ridge and 'W' shaped lineations that record back and forth ridge propagation. Microplate formation provides a means of dating the onset of the India-Eurasia collision, and is completely independent of and

  20. 17. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) section of firing pier. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  1. 39. View of north side of 1958 service building, north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. View of north side of 1958 service building, north side of warehouse, and north and west sides of parking deck, from northwest on Spring Street viaduct looking southeast. - Rich's Downtown Department Store, 45 Broad Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  2. Detail; Street Car Waiting House window, north wall North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail; Street Car Waiting House window, north wall - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 29. Oblique Aerial View of North Plant, Looking North, Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Oblique Aerial View of North Plant, Looking North, Showing Powerhouse in Left Center and 1929 Bridge in Right Center (undated) - Atwater Kent Manufacturing Company, North Plant, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE WEST PIER OF THE CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  5. NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE (WPA PROJECT, 1938-1941). - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  6. 626628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626628 North Eutaw Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    626-628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626-628 North Eutaw Street & 400-412 Druid Hill Avenue on a block bounded by North Eutaw Street, George Street, Jaspar Street, & Druid Hill Avenue, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TO THE POWER PLANT OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKS SITE. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  8. History of Cardiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  9. International Nurse Recruitment in India

    PubMed Central

    Khadria, Binod

    2007-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a “business process outsourcing” of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Findings Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Conclusions Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of “registered nurse,” impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty. PMID:17489924

  10. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  11. Schools and Languages in India.