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Sample records for north xinjiang china

  1. Complete mitogenome of a variegated racerunner, Eremias vermiculata, from north of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianhe; Liu, Jinlong; Guo, Xianguang

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was determined from a variegated racerunner, Eremias vermiculata, which was collected from north of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China. The mitogenome sequence was 19,494 bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region (D-loop), which is similar to the typical mtDNA of vertebrates. All the protein-coding genes in E. vermiculata were distributed on the H-strand, except the ND6 gene and eight tRNA genes, which were encoded on the L-strand. The mitogenome sequence herein will provide fundamental data for further investigating the phylogeographical pattern of E. vermiculata, along with testing the barrier effect of the Tianshan Mountains to gene flow. A preliminary phylogenetic inference has been implemented with five racerunner species and several other related lacertid species. PMID:26122333

  2. Molecular phylogeography of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations in Xinjiang of China: comparison with other Asian, European, and North American populations.

    PubMed

    Mahmut, Halik; Masuda, Ryuichi; Onuma, Manabu; Takahashi, Manami; Nagata, Junko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2002-04-01

    To illustrate phylogeography of red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations of Xinjiang, we determined their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, and then investigated geographic variations and phylogenetic relationships between Xinjiang populations and other populations from Asia, Europe, and North America. The C. elaphus mtDNA control region shared different copy numbers of tandem repeats of 38 to 43-bp motifs which clearly distinguished the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage of this species in Eurasia. The western lineage comprised the Tarim populations from southern Xinjiang and the European populations, all of which had four copies of the motifs. By contrast, the Eastern lineage consisted of populations from northern Xinjiang (Tianshan and Altai Mountains), other Asian areas (Alashan, Gansu, Tibet, Mongolia, and northeastern China), and North America, all of which shared six copies of the motifs. MtDNA phylogenetic trees showed that there are two major clusters of haplotypes which referred to the Western and Eastern lineages, and that subgroupings of haplotypes in each cluster were congruent with their geographic distributions. The present study revealed that a boundary separating the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage occurs between Tarim Basin and Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang. Meanwhile, North American populations were genetically closer to those of northern Xinjiang, northeastern China, and Mongolia, supporting that C. elaphus immigrated from northeastern Eurasia to North America through the glacier-induced land-bridge (Beringia) which had formed between the two continents after Late Pleistocene. PMID:12130826

  3. Chlorantraniliprole susceptibility in Leptinotarsa decemlineata in the north Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Wei-Ping; Guo, Wen-Chao; Xia, Zhen-Han; Fu, Wen-Jun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2012-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) in the north Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region has evolved resistance to various types of insecticides. Chlorantraniliprole is a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide that binds and activates ryanodine receptors. It exhibited excellent efficacy against L. decemlineata in several field trails in Europe. In the present paper, the susceptibility of L. decemlineata fourth-instar larvae derived from six field populations and L. decemlineata adults derived from three field populations to chlorantraniliprole was determined by a topical application. The fourth-instar larvae were substantially more susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than adults, although the range of susceptibility was far greater among the fourth-instar larvae. Regarding stomach toxicities, adult beetles were less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than larvae. Chlorantraniliprole was most toxic to second-instar larvae, followed by third- and fourth-instar larvae. These data suggested that the appropriate timing for chlorantraniliprole spraying is the early larval stage. Moreover, the synergistic activities of chlorantraniliprole in combination with triphenyl phosphate, diethyl maleate, or piperonyl butoxide against fourth-instar larvae from two field populations and adults from one field population were tested. Piperonyl butoxide had synergistic effects with chlorantraniliprole against fourth-instar larvae but not against adult beetles. Conversely, triphenyl phosphate and diethyl maleate exerted little synergistic effects. It appears that there is a potential risk of resistance against chlorantraniliprole resulting from cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. PMID:22606826

  4. Zircon U-Pb ages and tectonic implications of Paleozoic plutons in northern West Junggar, North Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia-Fu; Han, Bao-Fu; Ji, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Zhao; He, Guo-Qi; Wang, Tao

    2010-03-01

    North Xinjiang, Northwest China, is made up of several Paleozoic orogens. From north to south these are the Chinese Altai, Junggar, and Tian Shan. It is characterized by widespread development of Late Carboniferous-Permian granitoids, which are commonly accepted as the products of post-collisional magmatism. Except for the Chinese Altai, East Junggar, and Tian Shan, little is known about the Devonian and older granitoids in the West Junggar, leading to an incomplete understanding of its Paleozoic tectonic history. New SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages were determined for seventeen plutons in northern West Junggar and these ages confirm the presence of Late Silurian-Early Devonian plutons in the West Junggar. New age data, combined with those available from the literature, help us distinguish three groups of plutons in northern West Junggar. The first is represented by Late Silurian-Early Devonian (ca. 422 to 405 Ma) plutons in the EW-striking Xiemisitai and Saier Mountains, including A-type granite with aegirine-augite and arfvedsonite, and associated diorite, K-feldspar granite, and subvolcanic rocks. The second is composed of the Early Carboniferous (ca. 346 to 321 Ma) granodiorite, diorite, and monzonitic and K-feldspar granites, which mainly occur in the EW-extending Tarbgatay and Saur (also spelled as Sawuer in Chinese) Mountains. The third is mainly characterized by the latest Late Carboniferous-Middle Permian (ca. 304 to 263 Ma) granitoids in the Wuerkashier, Tarbgatay, and Saur Mountains. As a whole, the three epochs of plutons in northern West Junggar have different implications for tectonic evolution. The volcano-sedimentary strata in the Xiemisitai and Saier Mountains may not be Middle and Late Devonian as suggested previously because they are crosscut by the Late Silurian-Early Devonian plutons. Therefore, they are probably the eastern extension of the Early Paleozoic Boshchekul-Chingiz volcanic arc of East Kazakhstan in China. It is uncertain at

  5. Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rock studies of north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan basins, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, northwestern China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Xiao, Z.; Liang, Y.; Graham, S.A.; Carroll, A.R.; Chu, J.; McKnight, C.

    1989-03-01

    Ongoing outcrop and accompanying pyrolysis studies of Mesozoic strata of the north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan retroarc foreland basins, northwestern China, have demonstrated the existence of potential oil-prone and gas-prone petroleum source rocks. Lithologies include Jurassic coals from all three basins and Triassic coals from Tarim. Jurassic coals collected from the Mesozoic depocenters of the Junggar and Tarim basins are oil prone, yielding S/sub 2//S/sub 2+3/ values that range from 0.80 to 0.99 and average 0.96, hydrogen index (HI) values that range from 117.9 to 213.4 and average 150.8, and oxygen index (OI) values that range from 1.1 to 31.6 and average 7.67. In contrast, Triassic coals of Tarim and Jurassic coals of Turpan contain more conventional type III gas-prone kerogens and yield S/sub 2//S/sub 2+3/ values ranging from 0.04 to 0.52 and averaging 0.22, HI values ranging from 3.2 to 130.2 with a mean of 33.6, and OI values ranging from 30.9 to 223.7 and averaging 115.9. Coals of all three basins are slightly immature to mature with respect to oil generation, as indicated by T/sub max/ values ranging from 425/degrees/ to 449/degrees/C (average = 343/degrees/C) and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 0.51 to 0.64 (average = 0.57). Thus, given the widespread abundance and significant thicknesses of Mesozoic and especially Jurassic coals in all three basins, it is very likely that Mesozoic contributions to Xinjiang's oil and gas reserves are significant. This is particularly important in the north Tarim basin, where recent Chinese oil and gas discoveries have been made and the existence of significant pre-Mesozoic source beds remains unproven.

  6. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess–paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin. PMID:25970617

  7. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin. PMID:25970617

  8. Issues in water resources demand and supply in arid Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bingyu; Zhang, Yi

    2003-07-01

    In implementing China Western Development, there is no doubt that we should pay more attention to studying the sustainable development in arid north-west regions because those areas are backward in economy and hostile in natural environment, and have strategic positions to promote the real development of western regions. Of those regions, Xinjinag has even strong potentials to have a great impact on different factors of sustainable development because it is more inland than any other western region. Particularly, it is essential for us to take advantage of even more flexibility which dominates the means of adjustment and control of water resources utilisation and management, and to give a strong back-up in government decision-making. This paper focuses on Xinjiang water resource status to propose four characteristics in Xinjiang water resources and to point out relevant existing problems. According to the internal and external environments of China Western Development, the paper analyses the impact of developing trends in Xinjiang water resources on agriculture planting, manufacturing industry production, urbanisation, ecology evolution, and natural environment changes. In addition, this paper probes several problems on supply and demand of Xinjiang water resources. Lastly, the paper relies on the perspective of sustainable development as guidance, and on the perspective of water resources value as a basic theory to propose the relevant suggestions and countermeasures in the relationship of Xinjiang water resources development to societal and economic development.

  9. Comparison of Hybrid Classifiers for Crop Classification Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time Series: A Case Study for Major Crops in North Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Pengyu; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    A range of single classifiers have been proposed to classify crop types using time series vegetation indices, and hybrid classifiers are used to improve discriminatory power. Traditional fusion rules use the product of multi-single classifiers, but that strategy cannot integrate the classification output of machine learning classifiers. In this research, the performance of two hybrid strategies, multiple voting (M-voting) and probabilistic fusion (P-fusion), for crop classification using NDVI time series were tested with different training sample sizes at both pixel and object levels, and two representative counties in north Xinjiang were selected as study area. The single classifiers employed in this research included Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and See 5 (C 5.0). The results indicated that classification performance improved (increased the mean overall accuracy by 5%~10%, and reduced standard deviation of overall accuracy by around 1%) substantially with the training sample number, and when the training sample size was small (50 or 100 training samples), hybrid classifiers substantially outperformed single classifiers with higher mean overall accuracy (1%~2%). However, when abundant training samples (4,000) were employed, single classifiers could achieve good classification accuracy, and all classifiers obtained similar performances. Additionally, although object-based classification did not improve accuracy, it resulted in greater visual appeal, especially in study areas with a heterogeneous cropping pattern. PMID:26360597

  10. Comparison of Hybrid Classifiers for Crop Classification Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time Series: A Case Study for Major Crops in North Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Pengyu; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    A range of single classifiers have been proposed to classify crop types using time series vegetation indices, and hybrid classifiers are used to improve discriminatory power. Traditional fusion rules use the product of multi-single classifiers, but that strategy cannot integrate the classification output of machine learning classifiers. In this research, the performance of two hybrid strategies, multiple voting (M-voting) and probabilistic fusion (P-fusion), for crop classification using NDVI time series were tested with different training sample sizes at both pixel and object levels, and two representative counties in north Xinjiang were selected as study area. The single classifiers employed in this research included Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and See 5 (C 5.0). The results indicated that classification performance improved (increased the mean overall accuracy by 5%~10%, and reduced standard deviation of overall accuracy by around 1%) substantially with the training sample number, and when the training sample size was small (50 or 100 training samples), hybrid classifiers substantially outperformed single classifiers with higher mean overall accuracy (1%~2%). However, when abundant training samples (4,000) were employed, single classifiers could achieve good classification accuracy, and all classifiers obtained similar performances. Additionally, although object-based classification did not improve accuracy, it resulted in greater visual appeal, especially in study areas with a heterogeneous cropping pattern. PMID:26360597

  11. Characterization of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene mutations in phenylketonuria in Xinjiang of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wuzhong; He, Jiang; Yang, Xi; Zou, Hongyun; Gui, Junhao; Wang, Rui; Yang, Liu; Wang, Zheng; Lei, Quan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the spectrum and frequency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene mutations in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients in Xinjiang, China. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in combination with single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing analyses were performed, to screen potential mutations in the PAH gene in 46 individual PKU patients. Direct DNA sequencing was used to analyze the all of the exons in the PAH gene, including the promoter and flanking intron regions, in another 15 PKU patients. Our results indicated that, 30 different mutation types were identified in all 122 PAH alleles, with the mutation detection rate of 78.7% (96/122). Four novel mutations, i.e., 5’-Flanking -626G>A, 5’-Flanking -480DelACT, S196fsX4, and IVS8+1G>C, were identified for the first time. Similar to other regions in North China, R243Q, EX6-96A>G, IVS4-1A>G, R111X, and Y356X were the most prevalent PAH mutations in PKU patients from Xinjiang. Additionally, common mutations showed different frequencies in Xinjiang, when compared to other areas. Furthermore, sixteen different PAH gene mutation types were identified for the first time in the minorities in Xinjiang. Distinctive mutation spectrum of PAH gene in PKU patients from Xinjiang were characterized, which may promote the construction of PAH gene mutation database and serve as valuable tools for genetic diagnosis and counseling, and prognostic evaluation for PKU cases in the local area. PMID:25550961

  12. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  13. Spatiotemporal variability of four precipitation-based drought indices in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Yao, Ning; Sahin, Sinan; Appels, Willemijn M.

    2016-05-01

    Global increases in duration and prevalence of droughts require detailed drought characterization at various spatial and temporal scales. In this study, drought severity in Xinjiang, China was investigated between 1961 and 2012. Using meteorological data from 55 weather stations, the UNEP (1993) index (I A), Erinç's aridity index (I m), and Sahin's aridity index (I sh) were calculated at the monthly and annual timescales and compared to the Penman-Monteith based standard precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEIPM). Drought spatiotemporal variability was analyzed for north (NX), south (SX), and entire Xinjiang (EX). I m could not be calculated at 51 stations in winter as T max was below 0. At the monthly timescale, I A, I m, and I sh correlated poorly to SPEIPM because of seasonality and temporal variability, but annual I A, I m, and I sh correlated well with SPEIPM. Annual I A, I m, and I sh showed strong spatial variability. The 15 extreme droughts denoted by monthly SPEIPM occurred in NX but out of phase in SX. Annual precipitation, maximum temperature, and relative and specific humidity increased, while air pressure and potential evapotranspiration decreased over 1961-2012. The resulting increases in the four drought indices indicated that drought severity in Xinjiang decreased, because the local climate became warmer and wetter.

  14. Response of sand-dust weather to climate change in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qing; Yang, Qing; Yuan, Chunqiong; Pan, Xiaoling; Li, Hongjun

    2004-01-01

    Using the observations from 8 weather stations in northern Xinjiang, eight weather stations in southern Xinjiang and 8 weather stations in Tianshan Mountains area, we analyzed changing features of sandstorm, floating dust, blowing-sand. The observations were collected from 1961-2000 in Xinjiang, China. The results show that southern Xinjiang was the area where sandstorm and blowing-sand occurred more often, and the occurrence was 3-5 times higher than those in northern Xinjiang. Days of floating-dust appearing in southern Xinjiang were 50 times more than those in northern Xinjiang; in Tianshan Mountains area sand-dust weather appeared less. In the last 40 years, the long-term change trend of these sand-dust weather in southern Xinjiang was similar to those in northern Xinjiang, that had been obviously decreasing since the 1990"s the total days of sand-dust weather in southern Xinjiang in spring had a linear relationship with air temperature and precipitation of the same period, respectively.

  15. The Tectonic Evolution and Mineralization in Altay, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Y.; Ding, R.; Zhang, C.

    2011-12-01

    China Altai located in the center of Altai belt and experienced a long history of complex tectonic evolution, and the rich mineral resources were formed in the belt. The copper-zinc, lead- zinc and other non-ferrous metals deposits are produced in 230 -380 Ma ago, gold deposits are produced in 260-310 Ma and 135 Ma ago, and the rare metal deposits produced mainly in 148 -198 Ma ago in the Altay, Xinjiang, China. These ore deposits were formed in zoning and can be classified into following ore-forming belts such as Irtysh belt, Ashele belt, Chonghuer-Maizi belt and Keketuohai1belt. As Siberia plate and Kazakhstan plate expansion in sinian Period, the paleo-Asia ocean was formed,and the paleo-Asia ocean subducted to Siberia plate in the same time, shallow sea clastic rock formation was developed in Altay in Early Palaeozoic (Cambrian to early Ordovician) . The Siberian block cracked open along the southwestern edge of Siberian block since early Hercynian (400-380Ma) to cause the bimodal magma eruptive and invasive activities occurred strongly along the rift zone at the floor. The volcanic activity center moved from east to west to form a series of volcanic basin such as Maizi, Kelan, Chonghuer and Ashele volcanic basins in southern Altay, and the iron, lead, zinc, copper and zinc deposit formed in these volcanic basins. Because of the Continental crust relaxation, the Nurt volcanic sedimentary basin was formed between 370-330Ma. Volcanic rock erupted, granite intruded, And the source bed of lead, zinc and epithermal gold deposits were formed. Early Carboniferous (Hercynian middle and late ,320-280Ma) Junggar plate collision to the Siberian plate, the collision zone at roughly the irtysh melange rock zone distribution area, and the deep tensile fracture occurred along this tectonic belt to cause mantle material intrusion along this belt because of pressure depressing and the partial melting of magma to form basic and ultrabasic rock to form copper, nickel, platinum

  16. Understanding Educational Leadership in North-West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop greater depth of understanding regarding educational leadership development in the five north-western provinces (Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia) of the People's Republic of China. The researchers used a mixed method approach of surveys and focus group interviews to gather data regarding the…

  17. Assessing Dryland Ecosystem Services in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, T. F.; Brauman, K. A.; Zuo, L.; Doll, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems, including grassland, forest, and irrigated cropland, cover about 41% of earth's land area and are inhabited by over two billion people. In drylands, particularly arid and semiarid areas, the production of ecosystem services is primarily constrained by freshwater availability. Often, water allocated to production by one ecosystem or of one ecosystem service negatively impacts other ecosystems or ecosystem services (ESS). The challenge is to determine how much water should be allocated to which ecosystems (natural and manmade) such that multiple ESS are maximized, thus improving overall well-being. This strategic management decision must be supported by knowledge about spatial and temporal availability of water and its relationship to production (location and scale) of ESS that people receive. We assess the spatial and temporal relationships between water availability and ESS production in Xinjiang, Northwest China. We address four questions: (1) What services are produced by which ecosystems with water available? (2) Where are these services produced? (3) Who uses the services produced? (4) How the production of services changes with variability of water available? Using existing global, national, and regional spatial and statistical data, we assess food, fiber, livestock, and wood production as well as unique forest landscapes (as a proxy for aesthetic appreciation and habitats for unique animals and plants) and protection from dust storms. Irrigation is necessary for crop production in Xinjiang. The production of about 4.2 million tons of wheat and 500,000 tons of cotton requires more than 2 km3 of water each year. This is an important source of food and income for local residents, but the diverted water has negative and potentially costly impacts on downstream forests that potentially provide aesthetic services and protection from dust. Our analyses also show that cropland had increased by about 1.6 million ha from 1987 to 2010, while

  18. Spatiotemporal Variations of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xin; Lin, Hai-rong

    2014-01-01

    To set up a reasonable crop irrigation system in the context of global climate change in Northern Xinjiang, China, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was analyzed by means of spatiotemporal variations. The ET0 values from 1962 to 2010 were calculated by Penman-Monteith formula, based on meteorological data of 22 meteorological observation stations in the study area. The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Morlet wavelet analysis, and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The results showed that regional average ET0 had a decreasing trend and there was an abrupt change around 1983. The trend of regional average ET0 had a primary period about 28 years, in which there were five alternating stages (high-low-high-low-high). From the standpoint of spatial scale, ET0 gradually increased from the northeast and southwest toward the middle; the southeast and west had slightly greater variation, with significant regional differences. From April to October, the ET0 distribution significantly influenced the distribution characteristic of annual ET0. Among them sunshine hours and wind speed were two of principal climate factors affecting ET0. PMID:25254259

  19. Enterococcus Xinjiangensis sp. nov., Isolated from Yogurt of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaopu; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Dongqi

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-strain-positive bacterial strain 48(T) was isolated from traditional yogurt in Xinjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of Enterococcus ratti and analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 48(T) accounted for 96.1, 95.8, 95.8, and 95.7 % with Enterococcus faecium CGMCC 1.2136(T), Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T), and E. ratti ATCC 700914(T) in the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The sequence of rpoA gene showed similarities of 99.0, 96.0, 96.0, and 96 % with that of E. faecium ATCC 19434(T), Enterococcus villorum LMG12287, E. hirae ATCC 9790(T), and E. durans ATCC 19432(T), respectively. Based upon of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the study, a novel species, Enterococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., was proposed and the type strain was 48(T)(=CCTCC AB 2014041(T) = JCM 30200(T)). PMID:27260143

  20. Underplating-related adakites in Xinjiang Tianshan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. H.; Xiong, X. L.; Wang, Q.; Wyman, D. A.; Bao, Z. W.; Bai, Z. H.; Qiao, Y. L.

    2008-04-01

    Intermediate to acidic porphyries and dacites in the Awulale and Sanchakou area of the Xinjiang Tianshan region, China, conform to the definition of high-SiO 2 adakite (HSA). These volcanic or subvolcanic rocks are characterized by high Na 2O (Na 2O > K 2O), high Sr/Y (51-327), and strong depletions in HREE and HFSE (Nb, Ta, and Ti). Despite these characteristics, they are distinct from a suite of adakites in the same area that are inferred to be derived from partial melting of subducted slab. Differences between the two suites are evident mainly in their rock association, isotopic ages and compositions of Sr and Nd isotopes. The subducted slab-related adakites are associated with common island arc rocks, niobium-enriched basalt (NEB) and high-Mg andesite (HMA), formed in the late Carboniferous (320-334 Ma) and are characterized by relative high ɛNd( t) (+ 3.4 - + 11.6) and low ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) i ratios(0.7032-0.7063). In contrast, the Awulale and Sanchakou adakites were generated during the middle to late Permian (260-278 Ma), possess a wide range of low ɛNd( t) (+ 0.75 - + 5.69), a greater range of ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) i (0.7039-0.7054) and have young Nd model ages ( T2DM 472-699 Ma). In addition, their Mg# (35-56) and compatible element contents (MgO = 0.93-2.22 wt.%; Cr = 4.95-16.41 ppm; Ni = 2.9-25.8 ppm) are relative low compared to the subducted slab-related adakites(Mg# = 55-71; MgO = 1.22-6.78 wt.%; Cr = 24-132 ppm; Ni = 2.28-45.61 ppm). Based on these characteristics, the regional association of igneous rocks, and evidence from a global geoscience transect (GGT), the Awulale and Sanchakou adakites represent a genetically distinct suite in the Xinjiang region. We proposed that the source of these adakites was basaltic rock underplated to the base of the lower crust, that partial melted at the rutile-bearing amphibole-eclogite facies (> 650 °C and 1.5 Gpa minimum pressure (≥ 50 km)).

  1. Snow mapping for water resource management using MODIS satellite data in northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Huan; Qin, Zhihao; Fang, Shifeng; Liu, Zhihui

    2008-10-01

    Snow is the most important freshwater resource in northern Xinjiang, which is a typical inland arid ecosystem in western China. Snow mapping can provide useful information for water resource management in this arid ecosystem. An applicable approach for snow mapping in Northern Xinjiang Basin using MODIS data was proposed in this paper. The approach of linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) was used to calculate snow cover fractions within a pixel, which was used to establish a regression function with NDSI at a 250-meter grid resolution. Field campaigns were conducted to examine whether NDSI can be used to extend the utility of the snow mapping approach to obtain sub-pixel estimates of snow cover. In addition, snow depths at 80 sampling sites were collected in the study region. The correlation between image reflectivity and snow depth as well as the comparison between measured snow spectra and image spectra were analyzed. An algorithm was developed on the basis of the correlation for snow depth mapping in the region. Validation for another dataset with 50 sampling sites showed an RMSE of 1.63, indicating that the algorithm was able to provide an estimation of snow depth at an accuracy of 1.63cm. The results indicated that snow cover area can reach 81% and average snow depth was 13.8 cm in north Xinjiang in January 2005. Generally speaking, the snow cover and depth had a trend of gradually decreasing from north to south and from the surroundings to the center. Temporally, the cover reached a maximum in early January, and the depth reached a maximum was ten days later. Snow duration was so different in different regions with the Aletai region having the longest and the Bole having the shortest. In the period of snow melting, snow depth decreased earlier, afterward snow cover dwindled. Our study showed that the spatial and temporal variation of snow cover was very critical for water resource management in the arid inland region and MODIS satellite data provide an

  2. Socio-Demographic Predictors and Distribution of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) in Xinjiang, China: A Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wubuli, Atikaimu; Xue, Feng; Jiang, Daobin; Yao, Xuemei; Upur, Halmurat; Wushouer, Qimanguli

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Xinjiang is one of the high TB burden provinces of China. A spatial analysis was conducted using geographical information system (GIS) technology to improve the understanding of geographic variation of the pulmonary TB occurrence in Xinjiang, its predictors, and to search for targeted interventions. Methods Numbers of reported pulmonary TB cases were collected at county/district level from TB surveillance system database. Population data were extracted from Xinjiang Statistical Yearbook (2006~2014). Spatial autocorrelation (or dependency) was assessed using global Moran’s I statistic. Anselin’s local Moran’s I and local Getis-Ord statistics were used to detect local spatial clusters. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, spatial lag model (SLM) and geographically-weighted regression (GWR) models were used to explore the socio-demographic predictors of pulmonary TB incidence from global and local perspectives. SPSS17.0, ArcGIS10.2.2, and GeoDA software were used for data analysis. Results Incidence of sputum smear positive (SS+) TB and new SS+TB showed a declining trend from 2005 to 2013. Pulmonary TB incidence showed a declining trend from 2005 to 2010 and a rising trend since 2011 mainly caused by the rising trend of sputum smear negative (SS-) TB incidence (p<0.0001). Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed the presence of positive spatial autocorrelation for pulmonary TB incidence, SS+TB incidence and SS-TB incidence from 2005 to 2013 (P <0.0001). The Anselin’s Local Moran’s I identified the “hotspots” which were consistently located in the southwest regions composed of 20 to 28 districts, and the “coldspots” which were consistently located in the north central regions consisting of 21 to 27 districts. Analysis with the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic expanded the scope of “hotspots” and “coldspots” with different intensity; 30 county/districts clustered as “hotspots”, while 47 county/districts clustered as

  3. Forecast Model Analysis for the Morbidity of Tuberculosis in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xue-Liang; Wang, Kai; Zheng, Yu-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major global public health problem, which also affects economic and social development. China has the second largest burden of tuberculosis in the world. The tuberculosis morbidity in Xinjiang is much higher than the national situation; therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring and predicting tuberculosis morbidity so as to make the control of tuberculosis more effective. Recently, the Box-Jenkins approach, specifically the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, is typically applied to predict the morbidity of infectious diseases; it can take into account changing trends, periodic changes, and random disturbances in time series. Autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH) models are the prevalent tools used to deal with time series heteroscedasticity. In this study, based on the data of the tuberculosis morbidity from January 2004 to June 2014 in Xinjiang, we establish the single ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (1, 1, 1)12 model and the combined ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (1, 1, 1)12-ARCH (1) model, which can be used to predict the tuberculosis morbidity successfully in Xinjiang. Comparative analyses show that the combined model is more effective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish the ARIMA model and ARIMA-ARCH model for prediction and monitoring the monthly morbidity of tuberculosis in Xinjiang. Based on the results of this study, the ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (1, 1, 1)12-ARCH (1) model is suggested to give tuberculosis surveillance by providing estimates on tuberculosis morbidity trends in Xinjiang, China. PMID:25760345

  4. Guild Structure and Diversity of Insects from Saltcedar Woodlands in Xinjiang, West China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects and mites on saltcedar shrubs were surveyed over the season in two different sized woodlands, Fukang (larger) and Hutubi (smaller), in the Northern Xinjiang, west China. There were approximately 100 species in 50 families and seven guilds were established according to the trophical level an...

  5. Late paleozoic base and precious metal deposits, East Tianshan, Xinjiang, China: Characteristics and geodynamic setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Wang, Y.; Hart, C.J.; Wang, Z.; Yang, J.

    2005-01-01

    The East Tianshan is a remote Gobi area located in eastern Xinjiang, northwestern China. In the past several years, a number of gold, porphyry copper, and Fe(-Cu) and Cu-Ag-Pb-Zn skarn deposits have been discovered there and are attracting exploration interest. The East Tianshan is located between the Junggar block to the north and early Paleozoic terranes of the Middle Tianshan to the south. It is part of a Hercynian orogen with three distinct E-W-trending tectonic belts: the Devonian-Early Carboniferous Tousuquan-Dananhu island arc on the north and the Carboniferous Aqishan - Yamansu rift basin to the south, which are separated by rocks of the Kanggurtag shear zone. The porphyry deposits, dated at 322 Ma, are related to the late evolutionary stages of a subduction-related oceanic or continental margin arc. In contrast, the skarn, gold, and magmatic Ni-Cu deposits are associated with post-collisional tectonics at ca. 290-270 Ma. These Late Carboniferous - Early Permian deposits are associated with large-scale emplacement and eruption of magmas possibly caused by lithosphere delamination and rifting within the East Tianshan.

  6. Modeling and Analyzing the Transmission Dynamics of HBV Epidemic in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tailei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xueliang

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which affects livers. In this paper, we formulate a hepatitis B model to study the transmission dynamics of hepatitis B in Xinjiang, China. The epidemic model involves an exponential birth rate and vertical transmission. For a better understanding of HBV transmission dynamics, we analyze the dynamic behavior of the model. The modified reproductive number σ is obtained. When σ < 1, the disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable, when σ > 1, the disease-free equilibrium is unstable and the disease is uniformly persistent. In the simulation, parameters are chosen to fit public data in Xinjiang. The simulation indicates that the cumulated HBV infection number in Xinjiang will attain about 600,000 cases unless there are stronger or more effective control measures by the end of 2017. Sensitive analysis results show that enhancing the vaccination rate for newborns in Xinjiang is very effective to stop the transmission of HBV. Hence, we recommend that all infants in Xinjiang receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after birth. PMID:26422614

  7. Land consolidation and GIS application in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junfang; Wang, Ranghui; Zhang, Huizhi

    2006-12-01

    The growing concern about land resource management and the associated decline in land quality have led to the attention of land consolidation in many countries. Land consolidation is a tool for improving the effectiveness of land cultivation and may improve land productivity and possibly also the total factor productivity if it induces and enhances technical progress and increases scale economies. Land consolidation can also improve labor productivity to supporting rural development. Consolidation deals with a large number of phenomena, such as fields, roads, and land use, all of which exhibit characteristic forms and patterns which can be analyzed as to their existing spatial organization, or as to their changing spatial organization through time. This Paper put forward some approaches and advices about carrying out the principles of the agro-land consolidation, guiding the ideology, developing the strategy and tidying up the farmland. Firstly, the main conception and methodology of land consolidation are described. Then, the strengths and weaknesses of land consolidation in their process are discussed. Finally, as an example, through analyzing of the present condition and potential of land use and landscape in Beitun Oasis, China, a discussion and conclusions on land consolidation aided by GIS are presented. This will certainly play an exemplary role in the similar areas of north-west arid zone of China.

  8. A Dynamic Model of Human and Livestock Tuberculosis Spread and Control in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Li, Aiqiao; Feng, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    We establish a dynamical model for tuberculosis of humans and cows. For the model, we firstly give the basic reproduction number R0. Furthermore, we discuss the dynamical behaviors of the model. By epidemiological investigation of tuberculosis among humans and livestock from 2007 to 2014 in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, we estimate the parameters of the model and study the transmission trend of the disease in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. The reproduction number in Urumqi for the model is estimated to be 0.1811 (95% confidence interval: 0.123–0.281). Finally, we perform some sensitivity analysis of several model parameters and give some useful comments on controlling the transmission of tuberculosis. PMID:27525034

  9. Genetics analysis of 38 STR loci in Uygur population from Southern Xinjiang of China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Haibo; Liao, Qinxiang; Xu, Xu; Chen, Wen; Hao, Shicheng

    2016-05-01

    The allele frequencies and statistical parameters of 38 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed in the Uygur population from Southern Xinjiang of China with 290 unrelated individuals. The results show these 38 STR loci have high or medium power of discrimination and probabilities of exclusion. All loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genetic distances between the Uygur population and other Chinese populations were also estimated. PMID:26438047

  10. Nine new species of the spider genus Pireneitega Kishida, 1955 (Agelenidae, Coelotinae) from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Zhe; Zheng, Guo; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nine new Pireneitega species collected from Xinjiang, China are described as new to science: Pireneitega burqinensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega fuyunensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega gongliuensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega huochengensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega lini sp. n. (♀), Pireneitega liui sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega wensuensis sp. n. (♂), Pireneitega wui sp. n. (♂) and Pireneitega yaoi sp. n. (♀). DNA barcodes were obtained for all these species for future use. PMID:27551187

  11. Genetic relationships of introduced Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata populations in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jie; Yang, Juan; Li, Ying-Chao; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Run-Zhi

    2013-10-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an infamous invasive species worldwide that aggressively attacks potato and other Solanaceae crops. CPB was first found in China in 1993 and has since spread across 2.77 × 10(5) km(2) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. To better understand genetic variation and migration patterns, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to elucidate the genetic relationships and gene flow among 10 CPB populations across Xinjiang. (i) Overall low levels of genetic diversity were detected on the entire population in Xinjiang but most of the diversity was retained among populations during invasion. (ii) The mean pairwise FST was low (0.071 ± 0.043) among populations. The genetic differentiation was little (pairwise FST 0.038 ± 0.016) between the five interior populations (Wusu, Urumqi, Jimsar, Qitai and Mulei) and Tacheng population. The six populations might come from the same genetic group via Bayesian clustering and were closely related on a neighbor-joining tree. Combining the history data, the five interior populations may have originated from Tacheng. (iii) Gene flow was frequent, especially among the five interior populations. Individuals from the interior populations could be assigned to Tacheng at higher probabilities (means 0.518 ± 0.127) than vice versa (means 0.328 ± 0.074), suggesting that the beetle population has spread from the border to the interior in Xinjiang. PMID:23955877

  12. Independent evaluation of a canine Echinococcosis Control Programme in Hobukesar County, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    van Kesteren, Freya; Qi, Xinwei; Tao, Jiang; Feng, Xiaohui; Mastin, Alexander; Craig, Philip S.; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Duan, Xinyu; Chu, Xiangdong; Zhu, Jinlong; Wen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China is one of the world's most important foci for cystic echinococcosis. Domestic dogs are the main source for human infection, and previous studies in Xinjiang have found a canine Echinococcus spp. coproELISA prevalence of between 36% and 41%. In 2010 the Chinese National Echinococcosis Control Programme was implemented in Xinjiang, and includes regular dosing of domestic dogs with praziquantel. Six communities in Hobukesar County, northwest Xinjiang were assessed in relation to the impact of this control programme through dog necropsies, dog Echinococcus spp. coproantigen surveys based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and dog owner questionnaires. We found that 42.1% of necropsied dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and coproELISA prevalences were between 15% and 70% in the communities. Although approximately half of all dog owners reported dosing their dogs within the 12 months prior to sampling, coproELISA prevalence remained high. Regular praziquantel dosing of owned dogs in remote and semi-nomadic communities such as those in Hobukesar County is logistically very difficult and additional measures should be considered to reduce canine echinococcosis. PMID:25661801

  13. Active faults and seismogenic models for the Urumqi city, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingzhen; Yu, Yang; Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of the active faults and seismicity in the vicinity of Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, and have proposed a seismogenic model for the assessment of earthquake hazard in this area. Our work is based on an integrated analysis of data from investigations of active faults at the surface, deep seismic reflection soundings, seismic profiles from petroleum exploration, observations of temporal seismic stations, and the precise location of small earthquakes. We have made a comparative study of typical seismogenic structures in the frontal area of the North Tianshan Mountains, where Urumqi city is situated, and have revealed the primary features of the thrust-fold-nappe structure there. We suggest that Urumqi city is comprised two zones of seismotectonics which are interpreted as thrust-nappe structures. The first is the thrust nappe of the North Tianshan Mountains in the west, consisting of the lower (root) thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front. Faults active in the Pleistocene are present in the lower and upper parts of this structure, and the detachment in the middle spreads toward the north. In the future, M7 earthquakes may occur at the root thrust fault, while the seismic risk of frontal fold-uplift at the front will not exceed M6.5. The second structure is the western flank of the arc-like Bogda nappe in the east, which is also comprised a root thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front, of which the nappe stretches toward the north; several active faults are also developed in it. The fault active in the Holocene is called the South Fukang fault. It is not in the urban area of Urumqi city. The other three faults are located in the urban area and were active in the late Pleistocene. In these cases, this section of the nappe structure near the city has an earthquake risk of M6.5-7. An earthquake M S6.6, 60 km east to Urumqi city occurred along the

  14. Study on oasis soil heterogeneity in the watersheds of Bohe and Jinghe (Xinjiang, NW-China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhao-Peng; Bai, Xiang; Jin, Hai-Long; Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X.

    2010-05-01

    The change of oasis stability is essential for the investigation of oases in arid areas. Physical and chemical soil properties are the important components of oasis stability. Given identical climatic conditions, spatial heterogeneity (generally characteristic for soil resources of arid regions) is the main aspect contributing to the formation of plant patterns, and, hence, has a strong influence on oasis stability. The watersheds of Bohe and Jinghe in Xinjiang (NW-China) are representative as far as processes of eco-environmental change in the Junggar basin are concerned. So far, frequent human activities have severely affected the local eco-environment and social development. For the first time, physical and chemical soil properties of this region are analyzed, which in¬clude pH and the contents of nutrients, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus, rapidly-available-potassium and salt. We have found that soil fertility is not high and even lower than that 20 years ago. This is due to the existence of large soil particles, low soil organic matter, and high alkaline levels. Regular patterns of soil fertility, based on Kriging interpolation method, have been studied leading to the result, that the soil fertility in the south-east is higher than that in the north-west. Finally, we investigated the driving factors of soil heterogeneity by grey correlation analysis. While cultivation of land and chemical fertilizer wastage are the major human-driven factors, evaporation and disaster weather are the major natural factors. Among the variety of factors which affect soil heterogeneity, the human-driven factors dominate the natural factors. Our findings will be helpful for the return and reconstruction of the eco-environment of the Bohe and Jinghe watersheds.

  15. Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov., a novel halophilic actinomycete isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Wu, Nan; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Li

    2011-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 40133(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat of Tarim basin in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain showed that it formed a well-seperated sub-branch within the radiation of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found between the strain TRM 40133(T) and Saccharopolyspora qijiaojingensis YIM 91168(T) (96.5%). The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolate are typical for the genus Saccharopolyspora. It contained meso-DAP as the diagnostic diamino acid. Whole cell hydrolysate contained arabinose, xylose, ribose and glucose. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H(6)) and MK-9(H(4)). No mycolic acid was detected. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. In addition, the strain TRM 40133(T) had a phenotypic profile that readily distinguished it from the recognized representatives of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The strain TRM 40133(T) therefore represents a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 40133(T) (=KCTC 19987(T) =CCTCC AA 2010012(T)). PMID:21461999

  16. Climatic and Hydrological Variations during the Past 8000 Years in Northern Xinjiang of China and the Associated Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the published literature regarding the climatic and hydrological variations of the past 8000 years in northern Xinjiang of China in hope that some of the controversies surrounding the Holocene climate history can be reconciled. Based on the well-tested premise that the overall relationship between the A/C ratios and the bioclimates in arid and semi-arid areas of China still holds, we compared the A/C ratio-based SMI (Standardized Moisture Index) of five selected lacustrine sequences. Our comparison shows that the regional average SMI had a general rising trend, and the rising trend was reasonably corroborated by other pollen proxies. The rising trend can be explained by invoking its climatic linkage with the North Atlantic Ocean, and a possible linkage with ENSO is an additional or an alternative mechanism for explaining the rising trend. The nearly parallel rising trends of seven δ18O-indicated SSI curves (Standardized Salinity index) mean that the lake-water salinity has been rising since ~8.0 cal. ka BP. The rising trend can be explained by invoking the Holocene variations in the areal extent of ice covers in the Tianshan Mountains and the Altay Mountains. That is, the persistent shrinking of the ice extent in the mountains generated less and less melting water supplies to the lakes and thus resulted in saltier and saltier waters in the lakes. The contradiction between the increasing trend of the basin-wide moisture and the increasing trend of the lake-water salinity can be reconciled as follows: the increasing trend of the precipitation accompanied by the lowering tend of the temperature might have increasingly enhanced the effective soil moisture in northern Xinjiang, but the increase in the basin-wide moisture was not enough to compensate for the decrease in the lake inflowing water resulted from the shrinkage of ice-covered areas in the mountains.

  17. Sequence analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from ibexes in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Zheng, X G; Adili, G Z; Wei, Y R; Ma, W G; Xue, X M; Mi, X Y; Yi, Z; Chen, S J; Du, W; Muhan, M; Duhaxi, C; Han, T; Gudai, B; Huang, J

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an infectious disease caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). While PPR mainly affects domestic goats and sheep, it also affects wild ungulates such as ibex, blue sheep, and gazelle, although there are few reports regarding PPRV infection in wild animals. Between January 2015 and February 2015, it was found for the first time that wild ibexes died from PPRV infection in Bazhou, Xinjiang, China, where a total of 38 ibexes (including young and adult ibexes) were found to have died abnormally from PPR-related issues. First, we tested for the presence of the F gene of PPRV by RT-PCR. Then, we compared the sequence of the isolated F gene from the ibex strain, termed PPRV Xinjiang/Ibex/2015, with those previously identified from small domestic ruminants from local areas near where the reported isolate was collected as well as those from other regions. The current sequence was phylogenetically classified as a lineage IV virus, and shared a high level of sequence identity (99.7%) with a previously described Xinjiang PPRV isolate. PMID:27323119

  18. Impacts of the superimposed climate trends on droughts over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Sun, Changfeng

    2016-05-01

    This study reveals the impacts of climatic variable trends on drought severity in Xinjiang, China. Four drought indices, including the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (sc-PDSI), Erinç's index (I m), Sahin's index (I sh), and UNEP aridity index (AI), were used to compare drought severity. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the modified Mann-Kendall trend test were applied to analyze the nonlinear components and trends of the climatic variable and drought indices. Four and six climatic scenarios were generated in sc-PDSI, I m, I sh, and AI with different combinations of the observed and detrended climatic variables, respectively. In Xinjiang, generally increasing trends in minimal, average, and maximal air temperature (T min, T ave, T max) and precipitation (P) were found, whereas a decreasing trend in wind speed at 2 m height (U 2) was observed. There were significantly increasing trends in all of the four studied drought indices. Drought relief was more obvious in northern Xinjiang than in southern Xinjiang. The strong influences of increased P on drought relief and the weak influences of increased T min, T ave, and T max on drought aggravation were shown by comparing four drought indices under different climate scenarios. Decreased U 2 had a weak influence on drought, as shown by the AI in different climate scenarios. The weak influences of T and U 2 were considered to be masked by the strong influences of P on droughts. Droughts were expected to be more severe if P did not increase, but were likely milder without an increase in air temperature and with a decrease in U 2.

  19. Nine new species of the spider genus Pireneitega Kishida, 1955 (Agelenidae, Coelotinae) from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Zhe; Zheng, Guo; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nine new Pireneitega species collected from Xinjiang, China are described as new to science: Pireneitega burqinensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega fuyunensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega gongliuensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega huochengensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega lini sp. n. (♀), Pireneitega liui sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega wensuensis sp. n. (♂), Pireneitega wui sp. n. (♂) and Pireneitega yaoi sp. n. (♀). DNA barcodes were obtained for all these species for future use. PMID:27551187

  20. A new Early Oligocene peradectine marsupial (Mammalia)from the Burqin region of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xijun; Meng, Jin; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie

    2007-03-01

    Tertiary marsupial records are very scarce in Asia. A new peradectine marsupial, Junggaroperadectes burqinensis gen. et sp. nov., is reported from the Early Oligocene Keziletuogayi Formation in the Burqin region, Xinjiang, China. This new species is based on a single right upper M2. The tooth possesses a straight centrocrista, a characteristic of peradectines. Its main cusps lean buccally, with the paracone being smaller and lower than the metacone. The conules and stylar cusps are weakly developed. These characters distinguish J. burqinensis from Euro-American Tertiary peradectines, but they also imply a close phylogenetic relationship to Siamoperadectes and Sinoperadectes, two Asian Early Miocene peradectines.

  1. Isolation and identification of myxobacteria from saline-alkaline soils in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianjiao; Yao, Qing; Cai, Zhuoping; Xie, Xiaolin; Zhu, Honghui

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-eight terrestrial and salt-tolerant myxobacteria were isolated from the saline-alkaline soils collected from Xinjiang, China. Based on the morphologies and the 16S rRNA gene sequences, these isolates were assigned into 6 genera, Myxococcus, Cystobacter, Corallococcus, Sorangium, Nannocystis and Polyangium. All the strains grew better with 1% NaCl than without NaCl. Some Myxococcus strains were able to grow at 2% NaCl concentration, suggesting that these strains may be particular type of terrestrial myxobacteria. PMID:23936436

  2. Arsenic (As) contamination: A major risk factor in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region of China.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Xinjiang province is one of the unhealthiest region in China due to natural as well as man-made activities. Here soil and water having high concentration of multi-metals especially arsenic content in the soil and water is a major threat to the peoples which suffers regularly from arsenic contamination therefore multiple diseases and illness is the common phenomenon. Therefore this area urgently needed a comprehensive assessment by governmental and nongovernmental organization to cope up with this problem and find a miracle solution which can remediate soil and water quality. There peoples suffers much for the above mentioned reason. PMID:25983049

  3. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  4. [Identification and biodiversity of yeasts isolated from Koumiss in Xinjiang of China].

    PubMed

    Ni, Hui-juan; Bao, Qiu-hua; Sun, Tian-song; Chen, Xia; Zhang, He-ping

    2007-08-01

    A total of 87 yeast strains were isolated from 28 home-made koumiss samples, a traditional fermented mare milk product in Xinjiang of China. The isolates were identified by standard physiological and biochemical tests and analysis of the large-subunit (26S) rDNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences. They are proved to be Saccharomyces unisporus (48.3% of the isolates), Kluyveromyces marxianus (27.6%) and Pichia membranaefaciens (15.0%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (9.2%). Among them, six isolates and a standard yeast strain were selected for analysis of D1/D2 domain sequences. They are indicated as S. unisporus, K. marxianus, S. cerevisiae, P. membranifaciens, P. fermentans, P. galeiformis and the standard yeast strain is indicated as K. lactis (100%). The results obtained demonstrate the value of using analysis of D1/D2 domain sequences methods, in conjunction with the traditional taxonomic methods based on phenotypic characteristics. This study forms an essential step towards the preservation and exploitation of the hidden oenological potential of the wealth of yeast biodiversity of the koumiss in Xinjiang Province. The result obtained shown that S. unisporus and K. marxianus were the predominant strains of koumiss in Xingjiang of China. PMID:17944353

  5. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Located in the inland arid area of central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang is recently getting more concerns on soil water erosion issues, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Historical soil erosion data were analyzed to determine t...

  6. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in grazing horses from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Zhou, Huan; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Rongjun; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael J; Li, Junqiang; Zhang, Longxian

    2015-04-30

    A total of 262 fecal specimens collected from grazing horses at five locations in Xinjiang, China were examined by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. The Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis infection rates were 2.7% and 1.5%, respectively. Seven Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were found in foals (16.3%), and four G. duodenalis-positive specimens were found in mares (2.5%). Sequence analyses of 18S rRNA and gp60 genes revealed that seven animals were positive for the subtype VIaA15G4 of Cryptosporidium horse genotype. G. duodenalis assemblages A and B were identified by molecular characterization of the 16S rRNA and tpi genes. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium horse genotype and G. duodenalis in grazing horses from China. PMID:25794943

  7. Epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in xinjiang, china.

    PubMed

    Sun, Surong; Dai, Xiang; Aishan, Muhetaer; Wang, Xinhui; Meng, Weiwei; Feng, Conghui; Zhang, Fuchun; Hang, Changshou; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yujiang

    2009-08-01

    In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East. PMID:19553586

  8. Physicochemical evaluation and essential oil composition analysis of Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Hai-Yan, Gong; Tun-Hai, Xu; Tian, Shuge

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is reported that the plant Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang has great value. This article deals with the detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of the crude drug H. cuspidatus Boriss. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of H. cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China, was extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results: The yield of essential oil based on the dry weight of the plant was 0.6%(w/w). Fifty compounds accounting for 99.42% of the total oil were identified. The major components were oxygenated terpenes (66.33%), monoterpenes (26.14%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (1.25%), and octane (1.85%). Conclusion: Oxygenated terpenes were the main group of the compounds. The physicochemical parameters presented in this article may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of H. cuspidatus Boriss and can possibly aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. PMID:21120028

  9. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

    2013-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

  10. A camerate-rich late carboniferous (Moscovian) crinoid fauna from volcanic conglomerate, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, N.G.; Waters, J.A.; Maples, C.G.; Marcus, S.A.; Liao, Z.-T.

    1996-01-01

    A low-diversity camerate-rich crinoid fauna from the Qijiagou Formation, Taoshigo Valley near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uygar Autonomous Region, China was collected during field work in May, 1993. The crinoid fauna is dominated by species of Platycrinites. Other camerate crinoids include a species in the Paragaricocrinidae, Actinocrinites, a hexacrinitid, and an acrocrinoid. The only other non-North American occurrence of this latter family is Springeracrocrinus from the Moscovian of Russia. In addition to the camerates, there are several advanced cladid inadunates more typical of Upper Carboniferous crinoid faunas, including an erisocrinoid (possibly Sinocrinus), Graphiocrinus, ?Cromyocrinus, and an agassizocrinoid (Petschoracrinus) represented by partly fused infrabasal cones. A single radial plate with angustary facet may represent a cyathocrinoid, There also is a catillocrinoid, assigned here to Paracatillocrinus. The fauna, which resembles Moscovian crinoids described from Russia, is preserved in graded volcanic conglomeratic debris flows that overlie a carbonate mound and contain clasts up to 3 m in dimension. The crinoids are fragmentary, with many calyces seemingly torn into two or three pieces and dumped in with the pyroclastic debris. Camerates are represented by large thecal scraps consisting of numerous plates, or by large individual plates or circlets. Other fossils include rare solitary rugose corals, tabular bryozoans, Neospirifer, and other fragmentary brachiopods. We suspect that the crinoids may have been swept off of a nearby carbonate mound and deposited as debris-flow bedload.

  11. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  12. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. PMID:23028807

  13. Archaeobotanical Study of Ancient Food and Cereal Remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3rd to 9th centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. PMID:23028807

  14. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China.

    PubMed

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  15. Paleoearthquake History of the Cherchen He Reach of the Central Altyn Tagh Fault Xinjiang, China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muretta, M.; Arrowsmith, J.; Gold, R.; Cowgill, E.; Chen, X.; Wang, X.

    2007-12-01

    Although the Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF), Xinjiang, China, is a first-order structure within the Indo-Asian collision zone, its Holocene paleoseismic and slip history remain contested. Studies of offset fluvial terraces and other landforms indicate slip rates of 9-27mm/yr over millennial timescales. However, little is known about the record of paleoearthquakes along the ATF. Defining a paleoearthquake record for the last few millennia complements slip rate studies spanning 5-10 kyr as well as fault-behavior studies. A classification of slip rate over different time scales is vital to understanding the role such structures play in the large-scale tectonics of the Indo-Asian collision. We mapped ~20km of this reach of the ATF (N 37.43°, E 86.40°). Geomorphic and fault trace mapping (1:3,800) revealed a continuous fault morphology. This reach of the fault is characterized by north-facing scarps ~0.5-2m high superimposed on ~50m high south-facing escarpments. The north- side up component of slip may be associated with ~10 right steps of 10-50m along the fault trace. Along with mapping, measurements of drainages offset between 5 and 30m provide information about slip along this reach for the last few earthquakes. The smallest of these offsets were consistently 5-8m. We infer they result from the most recent earthquake. Two 15m-long and ~2m deep trenches, sites 123 and 105, were excavated across narrow fault traces where fan deposits from south-draining watersheds abut the 0.5m-high fault scarps. These scarps dam the south-draining watersheds, which were offset by the fault and form depressions in which younger sediment was deposited. Trench 123 was logged at a scale of 1:10 and trench 105, 5 km to the west, was logged at a scale of 1:12.5. The stratigraphy in both trenches revealed interfingering alluvial deposits and eolian fine silts and loess. Offset units, unconformities, onlap and drape sequences, and fissures clearly define the fault traces and paleoearthquakes

  16. Response of ESV to Climate Change and Human Activities in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusuli, Yusufujiang; Sidik, Halida; Gupur, Adila; Hong, Jiang; Kadir, Rayila

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem goods and services refer to the dependence of economic wealth and human well-being on natural systems. It is a common knowledge that the changing of structure and function of the ecosystem due to climate change and human activities. It is a priority issue to study on various spatiotemporal scales, the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate change and anthropogenic pressure in inland areas. In an effort to better understand the influence of climate change and human activities on ecosystem services, we evaluated the change in ESV of the Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang, China from 1973 to 2014 employing methods of MK, MK Sneyers, ESV and dynamic degree of LUCC. The Landsat images, digital elevation model (DEM) and metrological data were applied to assessing the ESV and its change. According to the degree of effects of the climate change and human activities, the research area was divided into two parts: the mountain area and the plain oasis area at a contour of 1400 m above sea level. According to type and affect, the land cover was classified as water, wetland, desert, fields, glacier, warm shrub grassland, cold meadow steppe and highland vegetation. We analyzed the relationship between the variation of ESV and precipitation, and evaporation and then quantitatively differentiated the influence of climate change and human activities on ESV. Results show that: (1) distinct change points of precipitation and evaporation in mountain and plain oasis of the Yanqi basin were detected by the MK-Sneyers test. The precipitation increased and the evaporation declined in mountain and plain oasis in the same way. Enlargement of agricultural areas to accommodate an increased population and socio-economic development was detected by conversion matrix of LUCC in oasis area. As a result, the variation of ESV was caused by climate change and human activities jointly; (2) the declining trend of ESV in the mountain area was mainly caused by shrinking of the glacier area; (3) ESV was

  17. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Lan; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Sikandaner, Huerxidan; Tang, Haishu; Wang, Dongyan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhu, Shuangli; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demonstrated 93.2% nucleotide and 99.3% amino acid identity with the EV-A89 prototype strain. In the P2 and P3 regions, the Chinese EV-A89 strain demonstrated markedly higher identity than the prototype strains of EV-A76, EV-A90, and EV-A91, indicating that one or more recombination events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures demonstrated low positive rates and low titres of EV-A89 neutralization antibody, suggesting limited range of transmission and exposure to the population. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-A89. PMID:26685900

  18. Paleozoic-early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rui, Z.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Qiu, Y.; Zhou, T.; Chen, R.; Pirajno, F.; Yun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar basin and the latter two by the immense Tarim basin. In northernmost Xinjiang, final growth of the Altaid orogen, southward from the Angara craton, is now recorded in the remote mid- to late Paleozoic Altay Shan. Accreted Early to Middle Devonian oceanic rock sequences contain typically small, precious-metal bearing Fe-Cu-Zn VMS deposits (e.g. Ashele). Orogenic gold deposits are widespread along the major Irtysh (e.g. Duyolanasayi, Saidi, Taerde, Kabenbulake, Akexike, Shaerbulake) and Tuergen-Hongshanzui (e.g. Hongshanzui) fault systems, as well as in structurally displaced terrane slivers of the western Junggar (e.g. Hatu) and eastern Junggar areas. Geological and geochronological constraints indicate a generally Late Carboniferous to Early Permian episode of gold deposition, which was coeval with the final stages of Altaid magmatism and large-scale, right-lateral translation along older terrane-bounding faults. The Tian Shan, an exceptionally gold-rich mountain range to the west in the Central Asian republics, is only beginning to be recognized for its gold potential in Xinjiang. In this easternmost part to the range, northerly- and southerly-directed subduction/accretion of early to mid-Paleozoic and mid- to late Paleozoic oceanic terranes, respectively, to the Precambrian Yili block (central Tian Shan) was associated with 400 to 250 Ma arc magmatism and Carboniferous through Early Permian gold-forming hydrothermal events. The more significant resulting deposits in the terranes of the southern Tian Shan include the Sawayaerdun orogenic deposit along the Kyrgyzstan border and

  19. Fertilizer impact on biogenic nitric oxide emissions from agricultural soils of the Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, A. D.; Behrendt, T.; Bruse, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    It is known that soil microbial processes play a crucial role in the production and consumption of atmospheric trace gases worldwide. Soils are mostly a major source of biogenic nitric oxide (NO). The main influencing factors controlling soil NO emissions are soil moisture, soil temperature, as well as nutrient availability. Adding fertilizer to agricultural soils changes the pool of nutrients and impacts the net NO emission from these soils. Irrigated and fertilized oases around the great Central Asian Taklamakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). While nowadays 90% of the agricultural output is produced on just 4.3% of Xinjiang's total area, recent and future enlargement of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. We present a systematic laboratory study of the influence of urea (CH4N2O) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4, DAP) fertilizer on NO emissions from Xinjiang soil samples. Urea is the most widely and excessively applied fertilizer in Xinjiang. Typically, about 600 kg ha-1 yr-1(in terms of mass of nitrogen) were applied to a cotton field in four separate events. In the laboratory, the fertilizer was applied accordingly, ranging from one quarter of the field amount within one of the four events (i.e. 37.5 kg ha-1 yr-1) to quadruple of that (150 kg ha-1 yr-1). Two different measurement series have been performed on six sub- samples (each out of a total of three soil samples taken in Xinjiang): the first series was conducted solely with urea fertilizer, the second one with a mixture of urea and DAP (2:1). All sub-samples were prepared in a standardized way: a fixed mass of soil (~0.06 kg, dried in field) was sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4° C. Then it was wetted up to a soil moisture tension of 1.8 pF. Subsequently, fertilizer was

  20. Burden and Correlates of Geriatric Depression in the Uyghur Elderly Population, Observation from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chen; Tang, Weiming; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xihua; Ma, Ying; Ben, Yanli; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Chen, Ruoling; Wang, Faxing; Hu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Background With the gradual aging of the population, geriatric depression has become a major public health issue in China owing to its overall upward trend and associated negative socio-economic impact. Dearth of information regarding the burden and correlates of geriatric depression among Uyghur minority population in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, called for a comprehensive survey involving representative sample for designing efficient targeted intervention to control this disabling disease. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 consenting Uyghur elderly in 2011 in six randomly selected communities/villages in Xinjiang. Information about socio-demographics, behavior, negative life-events, satisfaction regarding income/quality of life and other chronic diseases were collected while assessment of geriatric depression was done using Geriatric Mental State Schedule (GMS). Results Among these participants, majority were currently married, had attended elementary school or less, had an average annual family income of less than 3000 Yuan/person, had strong religious beliefs while 10.61% (2.77% in urban and 23.60% in rural area) had geriatric depression (5.91% among male and 14.58% among females). 61.83% were suffering from other chronic diseases, 96.16% could take care of themselves and 39.28% had experienced negative events during last two years. Religious belief (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI 1.18–13.03), satisfaction regarding quality of life (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.37–0.84) and income (AOR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.35–1.60), suffering from more chronic diseases (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.42–2.04), experiencing three or more negative events (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.92–3.22) and lack of ability to take self-care (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.09–4.48) were all associated with having geriatric depression with or without adjustment for gender, education and occupation. Conclusion High prevalence of geriatric depression among Uyghur elderly in Xinjiang

  1. Genetic structure and differention of Suaeda acuminata population in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xumai; Xu, Li; Zhang, Linjing; Yue, Ming; Zhao, Guifang; Gu, Fengxue; Pan, Xiaoling

    2003-07-01

    RAPD technique was applied to study intraspecific genetic polymorphism and differentiation of Suaeda acuminata populations in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang. By analysis of RAPD data, higher genetic variability was found in the populations of S. acuminata, with a percentage of polymorphic loci of 98.9%. Both estimations by Shannon diversity index and by Nei's gene diversity index from RAPD data, it was found identically that about 72% of molecular variation existed within the subpopulations, while about 28% of which existed among subpopulations. Analysis of genetic identity, genetic distance and cluster analysis showed that genetic differentiation has taken place in the populations of Suaeda acuminata in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China. The correlation analytical result between the soil factures and the genetic diversity indicted that there was a significant positive relation between genetic diversity and concentrations of Mg++, conductivity (CO) and absorbed water(W) in soil, while there was no significant relation between genetic distance among subpopulations and geographical distance. Analysis of genetic identity, genetic distance and cluster analysis between the five subpopulations showed that genetic differentiation has taken place in the population of Suaeda acuminata in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang. No correlation existed between genetic distance among subpopulations and their locations in oasis-desert transitional zone. Adaptation to its habitats and restricted gene flow among subpopulations may be a cause of genetic differentiation of Suaeda acuminata population in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang.

  2. Introduction of complementary foods to infants within the first six months postpartum in Xinjiang, PR China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fenglian; Binns, Colin; Lee, Andy; Wang, Yan; Xu, Bing

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document the introduction rates of complementary foods to infants in the Han, Uygur and other ethnic groups living in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, PR China. A longitudinal study of infant feeding practices was undertaken using a random sample that included all of the ethnic groups in the region. Mothers were randomly recruited and interviewed in hospitals and maternal and child health institutes in the region. A total of 1219 mothers (578 Han, 360 Uygur and 281 from "other minority" groups), who delivered babies during 2003 and 2004, were recruited. After discharge they were contacted at approximately monthly intervals during the first six months of their infant's life to obtain details of feeding practices. The overall introduction rates of water, cow's milk and solid food in Xinjiang were, respectively, 23%, 2% and 6% before discharge and 76%, 39% and 78% at six months. The rates were different between ethnic groups. Uygur mothers were most likely to feed water to their babies, with introduction rates of 57% before discharge and 95% at six months, while the corresponding rates were 6% and 77% for Han and 12% and 52% for other minority groups. Mothers from Uygur and other minorities introduced cow's milk earlier than Han mothers. Uygur mothers also introduce solid foods earlier (10% pre discharge and 91% by six months) when compared to Han (3% pre discharge and 85% by six months) and other minorities (4% pre discharge and 48% by six months). The pattern of introduction of complementary foods in this region does not follow internationally recognized practices, suggesting the need for further education of health professionals and parents. PMID:17392151

  3. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Haiying; Pa, Lize; Wang, Ke; Mu, Hebuli; Dong, Fen; Ya, Shengjiang; Xu, Guodong; Tao, Ning; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47%) than in the Han population (7.36%). In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71%) and the Han population (6.59%). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG), and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting. PMID:26473908

  4. Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

    2015-05-01

    Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation. PMID:25529706

  5. Three new species of the genus Conophyma Zubovsky, 1898 (Orthoptera, Acridoidea, Catantopidae, Conophyminae) from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Long; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Dao-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Conophyma Zobovsky, 1898 from Xinjiang, West China are described in this paper. The Conophyma xiai sp. nov. is similar to C. olive Huang, 2006, but differs from latter by: vertical diameter of eyes 1.7 times subocular furrow, minimum width of interspace of mesosternum 1.6 times length, hind tibia yellow and furculae smaller. The new species Conophyma nigrifemora sp. nov. is similar to C. xiai sp. nov., but differs from latter by: vertex of head longer, apex narrower; posterior margin of pronotum straight; minimum width 1.6 times its length in interspace of mesosternum; posterior margin of epiproct with curve projection in the middle; epiphallus almost straight on the lower margin, The new species Conophyma hejinensis sp. nov. is similar to C. rufitibia Li & Ti, 1995, but differs from latter by: anterior and posterior margin of pronotum excised in the middle, minimum width of interspace of mesosternum 1.2 times length, hind tibia yellow and posterior margin of epiproct straight, with acute projection in the middle. Type specimens are deposited in the Natural Museum of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, China. PMID:26624643

  6. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Cheng, H. S.; Ma, B.; Li, Q. H.; Zhang, P.; Gan, F. X.; Yang, F. J.

    2005-10-01

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 system, K2O-SiO2 system, Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system and Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass and the K2O-SiO2 glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass (including the Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  7. Prevalence and Racial Differences in Pterygium: A Cross-Sectional Study in Han and Uygur Adults in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Ding, Lin; Shan, Guangliang; Ke, Limujiang; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the prevalence and associated risk factors of pterygium in Han and Uygur population in Xinjiang, China and to assess the racial differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural and three urban regions of Xinjiang. A multistage and stratified sampling method was used to select representative samples. Risk factors associated with pterygium were screened in logistic regression models. Results. Among 4617 participants aged 30 years and older, 2452 were Han and 2165 were Uygur Nationality adults. The overall prevalence of pterygium was 11.95% (n = 546), with 4.27% (n = 197) were bilateral and 7.56% (n = 349) were unilateral. Multivariate analysis indicated that race, age, and rural residence were significantly associated with any pterygium (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of pterygium (P < 0.01) in Han subjects was higher than that of Uygur subjects. Both age and rural residence were associated with any pterygium in Han and Uygur. Low education level had significant positive association with pterygium in Han population (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Pterygium affects approximately one-ninth of Han and Uygur population. Compared with Uygur, Han ethnicity is a significant risk factor of pterygium. Our results indicated a higher prevalence of pterygium in rural areas of Xinjiang, China compared with urban cities. Age increase was also associated with presence of pterygium. Strategies are warranted to prevent the serious effects caused by pterygium. PMID:25626966

  8. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-03-01

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960-2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2-3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements. PMID:27007388

  9. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-01-01

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960–2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2–3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements. PMID:27007388

  10. Earthquake-ponded sediments as a high-resolution archive of Anthropocene climate change on the Fuyun Fault (Xinjiang, China).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Stephen; Gouramanis, Chris; Etchebes, Marie; Klinger, Yann; Gao, Mingxing; Switzer, Adam; Tapponnier, Paul

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution, late-Holocene climate patterns in arid central Asia, in particular the behaviour of the Asian Monsoon and occurrences of precipitation events, are not yet fully understood. In particular, few high-resolution palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimate studies are available from the Junggar-Altay region in the Xinjiang Province, northwestern China. This area is tectonically active and the last large earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred along the Fuyun strike-slip fault in 1931, resulting in ˜6m of right-lateral movement. South of the epicentre at Karaxingar, this earthquake resulted in the construction of large scarp-bounded ponds (46o43'N, 89o55'E) now filled with sediment. Sediment samples were collected every centimetre at a two-meter deep trench where the main pond was the deepest. The majority of the AMS 14C ages of charcoal and plant fibre samples are modern (56±34 to 171±34 yr BP) with the exception of a few much older carbon (842±26 to 2017±26 yr BP) at the base of the trench. The post-1931 age of the pond is validated by the 137Cs and 210Pb age-depth chronology. Each sediment sample was analysed for organic, carbonate and clastic contents and particle-size. This high-resolution analysis revealed eleven upward-fining sequences, with three prominent grain size peaks at depths of 1.7m, 0.95m and 0.6m below ground surface, suggesting three major modern precipitation events. The 11 grain-size peaks since 1931 in the pond coincide with 11 periods of increased precipitation measured in high-elevation tree-ring records ˜50 km north of the pond. Thus, low-altitude post-seismic sedimentary depocentres provide excellent high-resolution palaeoclimate archives that can fill a significant data gap where other proxy records are not available.

  11. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities. PMID:26820435

  12. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  13. Jonesia luteola sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from Xinjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Ma, Yong-Chun; Gong, Zhi-Lian; Jia, Man; Tian, Fei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Tang, Shu-Kun

    2015-09-01

    A Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe microorganism, designated YIM 93067(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang Province of China and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain YIM 93067(T) grew at 5-40 °C, 0-8.0 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 7.0-9.0. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism belongs to the genus Jonesia and exhibited a sequence similarity of 98.8 % to the closely related type strain Jonesia quinghaiensis DSM 15701(T). The predominant menaquinone was MK-9 and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and one unidentified phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 57.4 mol%. Based on the results of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic comparative analyses, the isolate is assigned to a novel species of the genus Jonesia, for which the name Jonesia luteola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain YIM 93067(T) (=DSM 21367(T) = CCTCC AB 2014350(T)). PMID:26122886

  14. Implicit Trust between the Uyghur and the Han in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueting; Fang, Huizhen; Yang, Shengmin; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Trust is a vital lubricant that increases the sense of security in social interactions. In this study, we investigated the intergroup trust between the Uyghur and the Han, the two largest ethnic groups in Xinjiang, China, with a Go/No-Go Association Task. Specifically, we instructed Uyghur and Han participants to respond to ethnic faces (Uyghur vs. Han) and trust/distrust words and measured the strength of the automatic associations between the faces and words for both in-group and out-group pairs. As expected, both ethnic groups showed implicit in-group trust and out-group distrust, but the Han group demonstrated stronger in-group trust and out-group distrust toward the Uyghur than the Uyghur group toward the Han. However, the magnitude of distrust of the Han toward the Uyghur was small to medium as compared with that reported by other intergroup relationship research. In addition, participant geographic location was associated with out-group distrust. These findings offer implications for developing effective strategies to encourage trust between conflicting groups. PMID:23977155

  15. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980–1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities. PMID:26820435

  16. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    LAGUARDIA, Alice; WANG, Jun; SHI, Fang-Lei; SHI, Kun; RIORDAN, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species’ scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats. PMID:25855225

  17. [Responses of ecosystem services value to land use change in national nature reserves in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Gao, Ji-Xi; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Leng, Ling; Qiu, Jie; Yang, Shan-Shan

    2014-05-01

    With GIS and RS technology, characteristics of land use change and ecosystem services value of different years in six national nature reserves in Xinjiang, China were analyzed with remote sensing image of the year 2000-2010. Results showed that the area of water body and grassland decreased while the area of forest, farmland, wetland, unused land and construction land increased in 2000-2010. Variation rate of land use change in 2000-2005 was faster, as 2.4-6.3 times as that in 2005-2010. The total ecosystem services value mostly consisted of that of water body, grassland and forest, accounting for 93% approximately. During the study, the values of all kinds of the ecosystem services increased except for grassland and water body, the total ecosystem services value increased firstly and then decreased, and overall emerged as a reducing trend with the rate of 1.2%. In the process of the development of the west regions, it is necessary to pay more attention to the protection of natural resources and ecosystem restoration, so as to achieve sustainable development of resources, environment and social economy in the western regions. PMID:25129947

  18. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  19. Spatiotemporal properties of growing season indices during 1961-2010 and possible association with agroclimatological regionalization of dominant crops in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Liu, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Variations of frost days and growing season length (GSL) have been drawing increasing attention due to their impact on agriculture. The Xinjiang region in China is climatically an arid region and plays an important role in agriculture development. In this study, the GSL and frost events are analyzed in both space and time, based on the daily minimum, mean and maximum air surface temperature data covering a period of 1961-2010. Results indicate that: (1) a significant lengthening of GSL is detected during 1961-2010 in Xinjiang, China. The increasing rate of GSL over Xinjiang is about 2.5 days per decade. Besides, the starting time of growing season is 0.7 days earlier per decade and the ending time is 1.6 days later per decade. Generally, GSL in southern Xinjiang has larger increasing magnitude when compared to other regions of Xinjiang; (2) longer GSL and larger changing magnitude of growing season start (GSS), growing season end (GSE) and GSL in southern Xinjiang implies higher sensitivity of the growing season response to climate warming. Besides, GSL is in close relation with latitude, and higher latitude usually corresponds to later start and earlier end of growing season, and hence shorter GSL. In general, a northward increase of 1° latitude triggers an 8-day delay of the starting time of growing season, 6-day advance of the ending time of growing season, and thus the GSL is 14 days shorter; (3) GSL under different rates can reflect light and heat resources over Xinjiang. The GSL related to 80 % guarantee rate is 5-14 days shorter than the long-term annual mean GSL; (4) Lengthening of GSL has the potential to increase agricultural production. However, negative influences by climate warming, such as enhanced evapotranspiration, increasing weeds, insects, and pathogen-mediated plant diseases, should also be considered in planning, management and development of agriculture in Xinjiang.

  20. Spatiotemporal properties of growing season indices during 1961-2010 and possible association with agroclimatological regionalization of dominant crops in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Liu, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Variations of frost days and growing season length (GSL) have been drawing increasing attention due to their impact on agriculture. The Xinjiang region in China is climatically an arid region and plays an important role in agriculture development. In this study, the GSL and frost events are analyzed in both space and time, based on the daily minimum, mean and maximum air surface temperature data covering a period of 1961-2010. Results indicate that: (1) a significant lengthening of GSL is detected during 1961-2010 in Xinjiang, China. The increasing rate of GSL over Xinjiang is about 2.5 days per decade. Besides, the starting time of growing season is 0.7 days earlier per decade and the ending time is 1.6 days later per decade. Generally, GSL in southern Xinjiang has larger increasing magnitude when compared to other regions of Xinjiang; (2) longer GSL and larger changing magnitude of growing season start (GSS), growing season end (GSE) and GSL in southern Xinjiang implies higher sensitivity of the growing season response to climate warming. Besides, GSL is in close relation with latitude, and higher latitude usually corresponds to later start and earlier end of growing season, and hence shorter GSL. In general, a northward increase of 1° latitude triggers an 8-day delay of the starting time of growing season, 6-day advance of the ending time of growing season, and thus the GSL is 14 days shorter; (3) GSL under different rates can reflect light and heat resources over Xinjiang. The GSL related to 80 % guarantee rate is 5-14 days shorter than the long-term annual mean GSL; (4) Lengthening of GSL has the potential to increase agricultural production. However, negative influences by climate warming, such as enhanced evapotranspiration, increasing weeds, insects, and pathogen-mediated plant diseases, should also be considered in planning, management and development of agriculture in Xinjiang.

  1. [Biodiversity of halophilic archaea isolated from two salt lakes in Xin-Jiang region of China].

    PubMed

    Cui, Heng-Lin; Yang, Yong; Dilbr, Tohty; Zhou, Pei-Jin; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2006-04-01

    There are more than 1000 salt lakes situated in northern and western regions of China and 790 of these salt lakes are in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region and Qinghai, Tibet, Inner Mongolia. To better understand halophilic archaeal diversity of salt lakes in Xinjiang, water and sediment samples were collected from two salt lakes, namely Aibi salt lake and Aiding salt lake, and the halophilic archaeal diversity of these samples was determined. Totally eighty-six halophilic archeal strains, of which 56 isolated from Aibi salt lake and 30 isolated from Aiding salt lake, were isolated respectively using CM agar medium. All the strains were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Similarity analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of all these strains indicated that the isolates from Aibi salt lake belong to 11 different species of genera Haloarcula, Halobacterium, Halorubrum, Haloterrigena, Natrinema and Natronorubrum, and that the isolates from Aiding salt lake belong to 8 different species of genera Haloarcula, Halobiforma, Halorubrum, Haloterrigena, Natrinema. Among the 86 strains, members of Natronorubrum Natrinema, Halorubrum and Haloterrigena, are dominant groups in Aibi salt lake. However, the dominant group in Aibi salt lake are the members of Natrinema, Halorubrum and Haloterrigena. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains ABH13, ABH 14, ABH 15, ABH 18, ABH 31 and ABH 33 may represent a novel species of Natronorubrum; ABH12, ABH32 and AD30 two novel species of Halorubrum; ABH17 and ABH25, ABH51, ABH52, ABH56 two novel species of Haloterrigena respectively; strain ABH19 a novel species of Haloarcula; strain ABHO7 a novel species of Halobacterium. The Shannon-Wiener's index of Aibi salt lake is 1.899, the same index of Aiding salt lake is 1.317, which indicated that the biodiversity of halophilic archaea from Aibi salt lake was slightly higher than that of Aiding salt lake. Different characteristics in pH of salt

  2. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Jingyu; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jiaming; Ma, Jiaolong; Guo, Heng; Yan, Yizhong; He, Jia; Wang, Kui; Li, Shugang; Ma, Rulin; Murat, Bek; Guo, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. Methods: The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old), and was conducted during 2009–2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4) and (80.9 ± 13.4) mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p < 0.05), while the SBP and DBP of Uyghur subjects were significantly low (Kazakh: (128.7 ± 23.9) and (83.0 ± 14.6) mmHg, Uyghur: (123.6 ± 19.3) and (77.4 ± 12.7) mmHg, Han: (126.5 ± 20.5) and (82.6 ± 11.9) mmHg, p < 0.05). Prevalence of hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p < 0.05). The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p < 0.05, p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Gender (OR = 1.324), age (OR = 2.098, 3.681, 6.794, 9.473, 14.646), nationality (OR = 1.541), occupation (OR = 1.659, 1.576), education (OR = 1.260), BMI (OR = 1.842), WC (OR = 1.585), WHR (OR = 1.188), WHR (OR = 1.188), diabetes (OR = 1.879), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.361), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.131) and high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR = 1.956) were all positively correlated with hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.765) was negatively correlated with hypertension. Conclusions

  3. HIV Screening and Awareness Survey for Pregnant Women in a Remote Area in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuping; Hewan-Lowe, Karlene; Wu, Qiang; Yu, Jiang; Guo, Zhiqiu; Han, Yali; Fan, Yujiang; Qin, Xianfang; Xu, Ping; Bolatihan, Janati; Hoshaerbai, Mayinuer; Yuan, Luping; Hong, Heng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China has increased in recent years. HIV screening for pregnant women was performed in a remote area in Xinjiang, as an effort to promote universal HIV screening in pregnant women and to help prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Methods: Pregnant women in Burqin and Jeminay Counties in Xinjiang were offered free voluntary HIV screening. Local mid-level medical workers were trained to use Determine® HIV-1/2 kit for HIV screening. All the tested pregnant women signed a consent form, received HIV education material, and participated in an HIV knowledge survey. Results: All the 890 pregnant women receiving HIV test had negative result. Among these women, 67.6% were Kazakh and 40.9% were farmers. Survey of HIV knowledge showed that these women's awareness about mother-to-child transmission was limited. The levels of HIV knowledge were related with ethnic background, age, education and profession of the pregnant women. Conclusion: The results suggested that HIV infection had not become a significant problem among the pregnant women in this remote area of Xinjiang, but continued efforts to improve the awareness of HIV, especially the knowledge about mother-to-child transmission of HIV, in pregnant women were needed. PMID:22207891

  4. Analysis on spatio-temporal trends and drivers in vegetation growth during recent decades in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiaqiang; Shu, Jianmin; Yin, Junqi; Yuan, Xinjie; Jiaerheng, Ahati; Xiong, Shanshan; He, Ping; Liu, Weiling

    2015-06-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the terrestrial carbon balance and the climate system, and also overwhelmingly dominates the provisioning of ecosystem services. In this study, a non-stationary 1982-2012 AVHRR NDVI3g time series, the newest dataset, were used to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of seasonal vegetation changes in Xinjiang province of China at regional, biome and pixel scales over progressively longer periods from 18 to 31 years, starting in 1982, and their linkages to climatic factors and human activities were analyzed. At regional scale, the increases were statistically significant for autumn NDVI during fourteen periods, for growing season and summer NDVI during the most periods, and for spring only during the first four periods. The rates of NDVI increase in growing season and all seasons significantly decreased over fourteen periods. At pixel scale, areas with significant browning rapidly increased over fourteen periods for growing season and all seasons, and these areas were mainly concentrated in northern desert of Xinjiang. Vegetation growth in Xinjiang was regulated by both moisture and thermal conditions: the response of NDVI in spring and autumn was more sensitive to thermal factors, such as temperature and potential evapotranspiration, and correlations between NDVI and precipitation and between NDVI and humidity index were stronger in summer and growing season. Extensive use of fertilizers and expanded farmland irrigated area increased vegetation growth for cropland. However, the rapid increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation and use of drip irrigation may reduce spring NDVI in the part of farmlands. Trend analysis during the multiple nested time series may contribute to a better and deep understanding of NDVI dynamic and foreseeing changes in the future. Accordingly, NDVI in Xinjiang will continuously increase at regional scale and the areas showing significant browning will also furthermore grow.

  5. The moisture sources and transport for the northern Xinjiang of China during 1979 to 2013 summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lijuan

    2016-04-01

    From the perspective of the recycling precipitation, this work examines the moisture sources of the northern Xinjiang during the summer season through the regionally unbounded dynamic recycling model (DRM) with Lagrangian back-trajectory track method by using the ERA-interim reanalysis during 1979~2013. The 10-day moisture trajectories identify the majority humidity contributions to the precipitation of northern Xinjiang are from the upwind westerly water transport and the sources can be traced to the North Atlantic and Arctic region. Furthermore, the moist air evaporated from Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea provides a large of amount moisture through west to east moist transport belt to the northern Xinjiang. Although the westerly moisture transport is the main source for the precipitation of the study region, the strongest moisture transport belt starting from eastern margin of Tibet plateau and then swinging northward and along the southern Tianshan Moutian arriving the domain. Moreover, the moisture contribution from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and more easterly water streams cannot be ignored during the heavy rainfall events in the study region.

  6. Distribution and Determinants of Non Communicable Diseases among Elderly Uyghur Ethnic Group in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xihua; Hu, Zhi; Ma, Ying; Tang, Weiming; Ben, Yanli; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Wang, Faxing

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are showing an increasing trend globally as well as in China. Elderly population are more prone to these NCDs. Situation in China is worse owing to the higher proportion of geriatric population. Burden of NCDs and the role of their socio-demographic and behavioral predictors among these elderly and more so among the ethnic minority groups among them, need to be investigated specifically, owing to their distinct genetic background, lifestyles and behavior. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 randomly selected persons of Uyghur ethnicity, aged 60 years or more in Xinjiang, the largest administrative division in China to measure the burden of NCDs, understand the distribution of socio-demographic, behavioral and life event-related potential correlates of them and to estimate the association of the NCDs with these correlates. Results Among these participants 54.2% were female, 86.8% were married and more than half had only attended elementary school or less. 41.46% was suffering from at least one NCD. 20.22% had one NCD, 12.11% had two and 8.58% had three or more. 27.3% had hypertension, 4.06% had diabetes, 6.02% had hyperlipidemia, 7.37% had angina, 14.52% had cardiovascular diseases, 11.59% had any kind of cancers and 9.78% had chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Rural residents (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.17–1.80, AOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.53–2.61) and current smokers had higher odds of having more NCDs (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00–2.34). Additionally not being satisfied with current life, not being able to take care of self in daily life, currently not being involved in farm work, less intake of fresh vegetables, fruits and garlic, too less or too much salt intake, not having hobbies were found to be positively associated with having more NCDs. Conclusion Implementation of effective intervention strategies to promote healthy life styles among the Uyghur elderly population of China seems

  7. Progress, challenges and prospects of eco-hydrological studies in the Tarim river basin of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaning; Xu, Changchun; Chen, Yapeng; Liu, Yongbo; Li, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Eco-hydrological research in arid inland river basins has been a focus of geologists and ecologists as it is crucial for maintaining the sustainable development of socio-economy, particularly in ecologically vulnerable areas. Based on the research work carried out in the Tarim River basin of Xinjiang, northwestern China, this paper summarizes synthetically the climate change and associated responses of water resources in the mountainous area, land use and land cover in the oasis, and plants responding to environmental stresses in the desert area of the river basin. Research gaps, challenges, and future perspectives in the eco-hydrological studies of the Tarim River basin are also discussed. PMID:22392285

  8. A new insight into Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) utilization from 2500-year-old Yanghai Tombs, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Zhao, You-Xing; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Bera, Subir; Wang, Yu-Fei; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2006-12-01

    A cache of shoots, leaves and fruits dated by (14)C at 2500 years B.P. were unearthed in the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan District in Xinjiang, China. By comparing the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the plant remains found in the tomb and specimens of modern plants, it is shown that the remains belong to Cannabis. Based on the shamanistic background of the deceased man and ancient customs, it is assumed that the Cannabis was utilized for ritual/medicinal purposes. PMID:16879937

  9. An enormous Jurassic turtle bone bed from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wings, Oliver; Rabi, Márton; Schneider, Jörg W.; Schwermann, Leonie; Sun, Ge; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Joyce, Walter G.

    2012-11-01

    A spectacular new terrestrial Konzentratlagerstätte is introduced from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China that probably belongs to the late Middle Jurassic Qigu Formation. It contains a mass accumulation of "xinjiangchelyid" turtles preliminarily identified as Annemys sp. In the zone with the highest turtle concentration, complete and articulated turtle skeletons are tightly packed at a density of up to 36 turtles per square meter. The fossiliferous layer is thickened here and shows an erosional base. This high concentration zone outcrops approximately 10 m in length and shows no decrease in turtle density after exposing 2 m of the layer into the hillside. Adjacent is a more expansive zone of at least 10 m by 30 m. In this region, the fossiliferous layer is evenly thick, and approximately five, fully disarticulated turtles are present per square meter. A conservatively estimated 1,800 turtles may, therefore, have been deposited at this site. It is likely that these aquatic turtles gathered in a retreating water hole in a riverine environment during a drought, much as some aquatic turtles will do today, but perished when the habitat dried up completely. A following catastrophic rainfall event caused a debris flow, possibly channelized in a dry river bed, which transported complete turtles, disarticulated turtles, and mudstone clasts and deposited them after a short distance. This taphonomic model is consistent with previous environmental reconstructions of the Turpan Basin during the late Middle Jurassic in predicting the episodic breakdown of regional monsoonal circulation resulting in a seasonally dry climate with severe episodic droughts.

  10. Fluvial sedimentology of a Mesozoic petrified forest assemblage, Shishu Formation, Junggar foreland basin, Xinjiang, China

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, C.L.; Gan, O.; Carroll, A.R.; Dilcher, D.; Zhao, M.; Liang, Y.H.; Graham, S.A.

    1988-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic(.) Shishu Formation of the eastern Junggar basin, Xinjiang, northwest China, is a fluvial sand unit containing an important assemblage of well-preserved, silicified tree trunks and rooted stumps. Numerous logs, up to 83 ft (25.5 m) long, occur at several levels within a 33.6-ft (10.3 m) stratigraphic section of fluvial sand, gravel, and mud and several paleosol horizons. The uppermost logbearing layer includes a number of rooted tree stumps in growth position, with diameters of up to 8 ft (2.5 m). The maximum root length observed is 40 ft (12.3 m). The trees have been identified by Chinese paleontologists as Cupressinoxylon. The petrified forest assemblage is preserved on the northeast margin of the Mesozoic Junggar foreland basin, a large continental basin subsiding under thrust loading from the south. Logs found within channel gravel units are oriented with their log axes parallel to the channel axis. Sedimentary structures, including epsilon and trough cross-stratification and imbricated channel gravels, indicate paleocurrent flow generally to the south, toward the basin center. The size of the logs suggests the presence of a major fluvial system. The epsilon cross-sets suggest a channel depth of 26 ft (8 m). The oriented silicified logs and their enclosing clastic sediments provide important information on the depositional systems active on the northeastern margin of the Junggar basin in the Late Jurassic(.) time. Hopefully, further detailed study of the fossil trees, including the spacing of the rooted stumps, will provide new information on the paleoecology of Mesozoic forests and the climatic conditions prevailing in the region at the time of deposition.

  11. A lacustrine record from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China: Implications for paleoclimate change during Late Pleistocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, L.; Zicheng, P.; Dong, Y.; Weiguo, L.; Zhaofeng, Z.; Jianfeng, H.; Chenlin, C.

    2009-01-01

    Climate variability during the Late Pleistocene is studied from the proxies in core CK-2 drilled from the Luobei Depression (91??03???E, 40??47???N), Lop Nur in the eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Geophysical and geochemical properties, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate content, loss on ignition and trace elements, have been determined to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the area during 32-9 ka BP. The chronology is established by uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating techniques. Our data suggest four paleoclimate stages, indicating glacial variations between cold-humid and warm-arid environments. A period of extreme humidity occurred during 31,900-19,200 yr BP is attributed the last glacial maximum (LGM). The period was followed by a warm-arid episode during 19,200-13,500 yr BP. Then a cold-humid interval during 13,500-12,700 yr BP may correspond to another cooling phases at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The last stage from 12,700 to 9000 yr BP has a trend that the climate turned warm and arid. The Lop Nur region is characterized by particularly humid stadials and arid interstadials. The climate variability in Lop Nur was constrained by global climate change because it is correlated with Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, which were observed at the northern high latitudes. The synchroneity of the palaeoclimatic events suggested that cold air activity at the northern high latitudes was the most important factor that influenced the climate evolution in the Lop Nur region. A probable mechanism that involves the migration of westerly winds is proposed to interpret this synchroneity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of Brucella isolates from patients in Xinjiang China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengbo; Li, Zhiwei; La, Xiaolin; Ma, Xiumin; Zhang, Yaoxin; Ji, Ping; Jiang, Min; Hu, Jinwei; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xiaobo; Ding, Jianbing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to characterize and identify the human Brucella strains in Xinjiang, China with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme. Methods: Brucella strains were isolated and cultured from 62 brucellosis patients. The bacteria strains were subjected to the oxidase, catalase, rapid urease, and nitrate reduction tests, and the species identification was performed using the VITEK-2 Compact system. These Brucella strains were further identified and characterized using the 16 VNTR loci in a MLVA-16 methodology. Results: Twelve Brucella strains had been identified out of 62 patients, which were all recognized as Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) according to the results from the VITEK-2 Compact system. Based on panel 1 (MLVA-8), these 12 Brucella isolates were clustered into three known genotypes and two new genotypes, in which 7 strains were clustered into genotype 45 (1-5-3-12-2-2-3-2), 1 strain was classified as genotype 42 (1-5-3-13-2-2-3-2), 1 stain was with genotype 62 (1-3-3-13-2-2-3-2), and the other 3 trains revealed two new genotypes, i.e., (1-5-3-12-2-3-3-2) and (1-5-3-11-2-3-3-2). Using panel 2A+2B (MLVA-16), we found that no genotypes of these strains were identical to the known genotypes, generally with differences in 2-4 loci. However, three strains shared the same genotype. Conclusion: Brucella strains in 62 brucellosis patients from Xinjiang are all identified as B. melitensis. Based on MLVA-8, two new genotypes have been discovered. These findings might contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of brucellosis in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26629067

  13. Virulence and molecular diversity of the Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici population in Xinjiang in relation to other regions of western China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, wheat stripe rust caused severe yield losses in western China, especially the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The population of the stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), in the vast region had not been well studied. To determine the population structure and comp...

  14. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  15. Seoul virus in the Brown Rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) from Ürümqi, Xinjiang, Northwest of China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gang; Sheng, Jinliang; Wu, Xiran; Wang, Yuanzhi; Guo, Liping; Zhang, Xun; Yao, Hua

    2016-07-01

    Hantavirus infections among human populations are linked to the geographic distribution of the host rodents that carry the viruses. To determine the presence and distribution of hantaviruses in the northern region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), northwestern China, 844 rodents were captured from five locations in four dissimilar habitats during 2010-14 and examined for Hantavirus infection. Hantavirus nucleic acids were firstly detected in the brown rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) from Ürümqi, China, indicating that the Hantavirus was transmitted into Ürümqi in XUAR and circulated by the brown rat. Our results suggest that the brown rat may act as a natural reservoir for the virus in XUAR. PMID:27258409

  16. Magnetic properties derived from a loess section at the northern piedmont of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China, and their paleoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guanhua; Xia, Dunsheng; Jia, Jia; Zhao, Shuang; Gao, Fuyuan; Wang, Youjun; Lu, Hao; Chen, Fahu

    2015-11-01

    Loess deposits in the arid Central Asia contain valuable information on the evolution of local aridification and dust sources in the Northern Hemisphere. Xinjiang is located in the eastern part of Central Asia and previous researches have revealed the complex enhancement of magnetic susceptibility in loess-paleosol sequences. However, systematic magnetic archives of loess deposit in this arid Asian interior are still far from adequate. In this study, magnetic parameters combined with nonmagnetic properties (granulometry and chromaticity) were analysed on a loess section in Shawan (SW), northwestern China. The section shares a similar magnetic composition with those in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) as well as other sites in Xinjiang. Ferrimagnetic components (magnetite and maghemite) dominate the magnetic signal while the contribution of antiferromagnetic phases (like hematite and goethite) and paramagnetic portions are relatively low. There is no specific correlation between magnetic concentration and pedogenic intensity in the SW section. In general, magnetic enhancement was largely influenced by the paleowind intensity. However, a positive correlation between magnetic susceptibility and pedogenesis is observed in the upper part (0-3.5 m depths), which is characterized by a moderate wind intensity. Moreover, pedogenesis might be responsible for the enhancement of fine magnetic particles in paleosols. Magnetic properties are controlled by coarse magnetic particles in the pseudo-single domain state, but a coarse stable single domain phase was found in certain paleosol samples. The input of detrital fractions from a nearby dust source probably controlled the magnetic properties while a superparamagnetic fraction, which has been deemed as a product of pedogenesis in the CLP, is limited in the SW section. Caution is needed to employ magnetic susceptibility directly for paleoclimatic assessment because of its uncertainty in the Xinjiang loess. However, the

  17. The Application of Gravity and CSAMT Survey on Baishan Molybdenum Deposit, Hami, Xinjiang,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Lu, H.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Baishan molybdenum deposit is located in the eastern Tianshan Carboniferous rift at Hami, Xinjiang, China, where exposed upper Carboniferous Gandun formation. Molybdenum ore appeared at thermal contact metamorphism hornfelsed banded quartz stockwork in the concealed porphyritic granite top, Potassium and metal sulfide mineralization existed in the top of concealed rockbody.The Baishan molybdenum ore bodies were delineated 2700 meters long and 40 meters thickness, with molybdenum @ 0.59%. The main orebody shows in stratoid, small orebody appears in lenticular and vein.In order to predict potential resources, we proposes a combined method of CSAMT and GS technology,and has applied it to the survey of concealed molybdenum deposit in the Baishan.This combind method can explore to larger depths, discriminate anomalies well and has higher resolution to deep objects, thus it is an efficient tool for surveys.By drilling, we found there exsit a hidden granite body in 1400 meters deep of Hami Baishan molybdenum mine, it confirmed that Baishan molybdenum mine is a porphyry molybdenum ore. Cataclastic hornfelsed zone in the coping granite are the product of heat contact metamorphism, the ore materials are mainly derived from deep magma hydrothermal solution. The CSAMT and Gravity Survey were able to reflect the space and intrusive boundary in rough of buried granite body clearly, deep hidden granite showed high-resistivity and high-gravity anomaly and the low-resistivity anomaly distributied around them, drilling verified that 200-2500Ω low-resistivity anomaly range at top of high-resistivity corresponded to the molybdenum ore horizon. Line 15 of southern section shows two low resistance anomaly zone, and the surface of them is corresponding to the granite and intrusive contact parts,inferring it was caused by the fault structure.In granite gravity anomaly is obviously high and the width is about 560m,Δg residual value is 400 × 10-8m/s2. According to the control of

  18. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus uberis isolates from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in Southern Xinjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Yaxin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of dairy cow mastitis throughout the world. The failure to control bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis is largely attributed to the little known about the epidemiology of this bacteria, especially strain differences in the same area. To define the local epidemiology of S. uberis in the south of Xinjiang, China, we explored the genetic diversity of 28 bovine subclinical mastitis field isolates of S. uberis, collected from 3 Chinese farms during 2009 and 2010, which was examined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clustering of the isolates and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to assess the relationship between PFGE patterns and to identify genetic lineages. The 28 isolates were grouped into 13 pulsotypes (U1 to U13), and 1 PFGE type (U1) accounted for almost half of the isolates (13/28, 46.4%). This major type was herd specific, indicating either cow-to-cow transmission or infection with isolates from the same environmental reservoirs. The remaining 12 PFGE types of isolates were from different herds, strongly suggesting environmental sources of S. uberis infection. All 28 isolates were analyzed by MLST and clustered into 8 sequence types (STs), of which 7 STs were found to be novel, either with 5 new alleles of 6 housekeeping and virulence genes (ST158, ST159) or with different combinations of previously assigned alleles (ST153, ST154, ST155, ST156, ST157). To our knowledge, this is the first report that documents molecular typing studies of bovine isolates of S. uberis from southern Xinjiang Province, China, which were shown to represent novel genomic backgrounds of this pathogen. PMID:24005178

  19. Frequency of Bt resistance alleles in Helicoverpa armigera in the Xinjiang cotton-planting region of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Feng, Hongqiang; Gao, Yulin; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming

    2010-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a key insect pest of cotton in Xinjiang cotton-planting region of northwest China. In this region, cotton is grown on average ≈ 1.65 million ha (1.53 ≈ 1.80 million ha) annually in largely monoculture agricultural landscapes, similarly to cropping systems in the United States or Australia. Under such cropping regimes, naturally occurring refuges (with non-Bt crops) may be insufficient to prevent H. armigera resistance development to Bt toxins. Therefore, we assessed frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ac toxin of F(1) and F(2) offspring of H. armigera isofemale lines from two distinct localities in the region during 2005-2009. More specifically, a total of 224 isofemale lines was collected from Korla County (≈ 70% Bt cotton adoption) and 402 lines from Shache County (≈ 5% Bt cotton planting). Subsequent offspring was screened on Cry1Ac artificial diet. From 2005 to 2009, resistance gene frequency in Korla fluctuated between 0.0000 and 0.0040, while being 0.0000-0.0008 in individuals collected from Shache, and there were no significant increases in both counties from 2005 to 2009. Relative average development rates (RADRs) of larvae in F(1) tests showed significant increases from Korla, but not in Shache. RADR of F(1) larvae is significantly correlated with RADR of F(2) offspring, indicating genetic variation in response to toxin in field H. armigera population. Although the occurrence of Cry1Ac resistance alleles was low in Xinjiang cotton-planting region of China, particular attention should be given to H. armigera resistance development in Korla County. PMID:22546469

  20. The role of scenario analysis in water resources management in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Li, W.; Dong, X.

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid increase of world population and food demand, the demand for water resources is also increasing. At the same time shifts in rain patterns due to global climate change make the water resources situation more uncertain. A global water crisis can therefore not be excluded. The socio-economic and environmental problems induced by such a water crisis are especially prominent in arid and semiarid regions. The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang province is a typical case study in China's arid and semi-arid areas, where rainfall is scarce and evaporation is extremely high. Thus its water resources have been under great pressure to satisfy the increasing water demand of agriculture and urban and industrial expansion in the last decades. The development has been accompanied by a number of environmental problems. Yanqi Basin is an important cultivated area which is irrigated by water diverted from rivers. Because of the long-term flood irrigation and an inefficient drainage system, the groundwater level under the cultivated area rose, accelerating the phreatic evaporation and leading to increased soil salinization. Simultaneously, the water quantity and quality of Boston Lake have been impaired in past years because of the decreased river discharge and the increased salt flux contained in the drainage discharge. Thus the ecosystems depending on the inflow to and outflow from the lake suffered. The riverine forests in the downstream area were degraded due to declining groundwater levels, and aquatic life as well as downstream water users had to cope with deteriorating water quality. The big challenge for decision makers in the basin is how to balance the justified requirements of agriculture, industrial development and the ecosystem. In order to provide a scientific basis to the decision making process, a scenario analysis was adopted. Here several scenarios are proposed: the basic scenario, scenario 1, describes the status of the year 2008. A second scenario maximizes the

  1. [Detection of the Siberian Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Zhang, Guilin; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Yuchang; Zheng, Zhong; Sun, Xiang; Yang, Yinhui

    2016-01-01

    Until the recent emergence/re-emergence of human-pathogenic viruses in ticks, tick-borne viruses have been neglected as causative agents of human disease (particularly in China). To gain insight into the diversity of tick-borne viruses in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (northwestern China), we conducted illumina deep sequencing-based screening for virus-derived small RNAs in field-collected Ixodes persulcatus ticks. We found 32, 631 unique virus-matched reads. In particular, 77 reads mapped to the tick-borne group within the genus of Flavivirus, and covered 3.8%-2.4% viral genomes. In addition, 32 unique reads were specific to the Siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis viruses (TBEV-Sib) which have never been reported in Chinese TBE loci. We confirmed the potential existence of TBEV-Sib by amplification (using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) of genomic fragments from the envelope gene or 3' genomic terminus from the pools of examined ticks. Both sequences demonstrated high homology to TBEV-Sib strains attached geographically to southern Siberia with nucleotide identity of 97.2%-95.5% and aminoacid identity of 99.4%-98.3%, respectively. In conclusion, we report, for the first time, detection of TBEV-Sib in the natural TBE loci of China. These novel data may provide genetic information for further isolation and epidemiologic investigation of TBEV-Sib. PMID:27295880

  2. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] http://www.coalfire.caf.dlr.de [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

  3. Prevalence of Cystic Echinococcosis in Slaughtered Sheep as an Indicator to Assess Control Progress in Emin County, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shijie; Wu, Weiping; Tian, Tian; Zhao, Jiangshan; Chen, Kang; Wang, Qinyan; Feng, Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Hydatid disease imposing serious threat on human health and great loss in live¬stock pastoralism remains a major public health problem in western China. To assess and monitor the effect of control program on transmission dynamics, we used the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep at slaughterhouse as an indicator during the period of 2007 to 2013 in Emin County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The results showed a significant decline trend of prevalence in all age groups during the 7 years when the control program was implemented; particularly, the rate was reduced by 72% after first 3 years. Among the sheep slaughtered, the age distribution evidenced that the prevalence increased significantly as the sheep grew older. The baseline data indicated that the rate was 4.5% at the age <1, 6.7% at age 2~, and reached to the highest 17.9% at age ≥ 4 years. Earlier response to the intervention pressure was seen in the sheep at the younger age. Significant decline started from 2008 at the age <1, from 2009 at age of 1~, 2010 at 2~ to 3~, and the latest, in 2012 at age ≥ 4. This study demonstrated that the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep may be used as an indicator to assess and monitor the transmission status during and after control program providing information for betterment of performance to sustain control strength. PMID:26174832

  4. Multi-proxy evidence for Late Pleistocene-Holocene climatic and environmental changes in Lop-Nur, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, C.; Yang, D.; Peng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Weiguo, L.; He, J.; Zhou, C.

    2008-01-01

    A 10.35-m-long sediment core from the Luobei depression in Lop-Nur, Xinjiang, Northwest China, provides detailed information about environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene. The samples taken every 5 cm of the core were analyzed for 10 environmental proxies, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate and loss on ignition (LOI), and pH value. The chronology data are provided by the uranium/thorium disequilibrium dates. The sediments of the section were deposited during the last 32000 years. The results of analysis of 10 proxies were examined using multivariate statistical analysis, and the principal components were calculated. According to the results, the Late Pleistocene sequence contains four climatic and environmental stages appearing in the cycles of cold-wet and warm-dry changes. During 10-9 ka BP, it was the earliest warm episode in the Holocene. Environmental changes in this district were restricted by global change, as suggested by the analysis of glacial-interglacial cycles. But it was different from the mutative trend of a monsoon region in East China because of its own characteristics, which was the situation of cold-wet and warm-dry climate-environment change. The candidate reason may be the uplift of the Tibet Plateau and the westerly wind circulation. ?? Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2008.

  5. Resource assessment and economic analysis: A study of mineral resources in the Altay Mountains area, Xinjiang, China

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.L.; Dorian, J.P.; Otto, J.M.; Johnson, C.J.; Bozich, L.G. ); Songguan, Chen; Jian, Zhao; Yongquan, Dong; Jianguo, Dai )

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an integrated resource assessment-development planning study conducted on the Altay Mountains area of Xinjiang Autonomous Uygur Region, China. The project was initiated by local Chinese government officials in order to more effectively plan future minerals exploration and development activities in this remote part of China. The study is comprised of four basic components: an initial resource assessment to estimate the type, quality, and quantity of mineral deposits that may occur in the area; a preliminary financial analysis based on the resource assessment estimates to determine which of the predicted deposits would be economic to develop if discovered and developed; a market analysis of the estimated commodities to assess which commodities would be desirable to develop for local, national, and international markets; and an integration of all these data into a comprehensive long-term development plan. The final results indicated that although the Altay Mountains area is richly endowed in synorogenic-synvolcanic nickel, felsic-intermediate massive sulfide, skarn, and stratiform lead-zinc deposits, only two of these deposit types may be economic to develop due to the lack of infrastructure and high capital investment and transportation costs.

  6. Population genetic structure in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars revealed by fluorescent-AFLP markers in southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaohe; Chen, Xuesen; He, Tianming; Feng, Jianrong; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Chunyu

    2007-11-01

    Population-wide genetic structure was studied using fluorescent-AFLP markers on 85 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars collected from Kuche, Kashi, Hetian in the Tarim Basin, southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic structure and genotypic diversity among the different eco-geographical populations. Based on the results from this study, 8 pairs of fluorescent-AFLP primers showed clear electrophoregram and high polymorphism amongst the 64 pairs of EcoR|/Mse|(Mse|--a FAM fluorescent marked primer) primers screened. There was a significant polymorphic difference for the same primer pair in different populations and for the same population with different primer pairs. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) at species level was higher than Kuche, Hetian, Kashi population levels, respectively. The Nei's gene diversity index (H) and Shannon's information index (I) at species level were higher than those of Kuche, Hetian, and Kashi at population level, respectively. H and I of Kuche population were the highest amongst the three populations. Apricot population genetic diversity was found mainly within the population. Genetic differentiation coefficient between populations (G(ST)) was 0.0882. Gene flow Nm between the populations was 5.1689. Population genetic identity was between 0.9772-0.9811 and genetic distance was between 0.0191-0.0232. These results further indicated that the similarity between populations was higher and the genetic distance between populations was smaller. The UPGMA cluster analysis indicates that the geographical populations at Kuche, Kashi, Hetian were relatively independent Mendelian populations. Concurrently, there was also partial gene exchange between the populations. All the evidences indicated that the genetic diversity in Kuche population was the highest, suggesting that it could be a transition population from wild apricot to cultivated apricot. There were abundant genetic

  7. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  8. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  9. Impacts of nomad sedentarization on social and ecological systems at multiple scales in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingming; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Lanhai

    2014-09-01

    China's government is now promoting the Nomad Sedentarization Project (NSP) in large areas of grassland as a solution for ecological restoration and poverty alleviation. To examine the effects of this policy, we conducted in-depth interviews at two of the project's sites and examined the social and ecological systems at village, county, and catchment scales in Jinghe County of Xinjiang. We found that (1) the NSP in one village greatly improved the household standard of living and changed their resource utilization modes; (2) the success in this village can be attributed to resources imported from the social and ecological systems at larger scales, and could not be repeated in a second nearby village with different constraints; and (3) the NSP is poorly adapted to local ecosystem characteristics, and may therefore have negative impacts at larger scales. To avoid these problems, holistic assessments are necessary to judge the NSP's impacts on social and ecological systems at multiple scales, and the program must be implemented cautiously to account for the potential risks in ecologically vulnerable areas. PMID:24092595

  10. Oviposition site selection by Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site selection is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of insects. A comparison of the habitats used by a species enhances our understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. We collected data on the oviposition behaviours of Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), Xinjiang, China between March and October 2014. We found 91 quadrats were used by G. pecorum for oviposition. Examining 13 ecological factors using the t-test, chi-square test, and principal component analysis showed that G. pecorum’s oviposition habitat was preferentially on slopes with inclinations of 10–30° that were semi-sunny, semi-cloudy slopes, in positions high or low on the slopes, with preferences for total plants lower than 10% and Stipa capillata coverage lower than 10% on the low slopes, but Ceratoides latens coverage on the high and intermediate slopes, when the numbers of plant species and families were lower than five. G. pecorum often selected sites at a distance < 2000 m from a water source and average altitude 900–1000 m. The oviposition site selection by G. pecorum may be correlated with the behaviour of Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii), and water and food resources may strongly influence oviposition site selection, as Przewalski’s horses rest and forage in these areas. PMID:26621549

  11. Exploring the correlations between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in the wastewater treatment plants of hospitals in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Genlin; Tong, Yanbing; Ma, Na

    2016-08-01

    Various antibiotics have been extensively used to treating infectious diseases in hospitals. In this study, the abundance and diversity of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were observed in the wastewater samples from five hospitals in Xinjiang, China. The total concentrations of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, and quinolones in hospital influents ranged from 363.4 to 753.3 ng/L, 285.5 to 634.9 ng/L, and 1355.8 to 1922.4 ng/L, respectively. However, the removal efficiency of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, and quinolones in wastewater treatment processes ranged from 72.4 to 79.3 %, 36.0 to 52.2 %, and 45.1 to 55.4 %, respectively. The contamination levels of the selected ARGs varied in all wastewater samples. The highest relative concentrations of sul1, sul2, tetQ, and qnrS were significantly higher than those of other ARGs in this study. Significant positive correlations between the relative abundance of partial ARGs and concentrations of certain antibiotics were observed in hospital wastewaters. Results show that integrons played an important role in disseminating and distributing ARGs in microorganism systems. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between tetQ, sulphonamide resistance genes (except sulA) and intI1. This study aimed to determine the contamination levels of antibiotics and ARGs and analyze the relationships among ARGs, and antibiotics and integron genes in hospital wastewaters. PMID:27094265

  12. Purification and characterization of a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 isolated from koumiss from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lanhua; Dang, Ying; Wu, Jingli; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Xiaojiao; Liu, Bianfang; Zhou, Yuan; Lu, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The growing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the food industry needs to be controlled with effective antimicrobials. In this study, bacteriocin MN047 A (BMA) was found to have antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria. It was produced by Lactobacillus crustorum MN047, which was first isolated from koumiss, a traditional fermented dairy product from Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China. It was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase chromatography. It had a low molecular mass of 1,770.89 Da according to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the sequence was identified as QLPWQILGIVAGMFQA by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis and MASCOT searching. It was proteinaceous in nature: the bacteriocin was digested by protease but not by α-amylase or lipase. It showed broad pH toleration (pH 2-11), good thermostability, and good storage stability. It had a broad inhibitory spectrum, including both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Growth curve and time-kill kinetics indicated that it was bactericidal to the indicator strains, and this finding was verified by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope after treatment with BMA. As well, BMA halted the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the G1 and G2/M phases according to cell-cycle analysis by flow cytometry, indicating that BMA had comprehensive inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. PMID:27423943

  13. Sero-Survey of Polio Antibodies during Wild Poliovirus Outbreak in Southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Gou, Ai-Li; Cui, Hui; Zhang, Yong; Ning, Gui-Jun; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Chen, Yuan-Sheng; Li, Ke-Li; Yuan, Ping; Ma, Chao; Ma, Jing; Zheng, Hui; Fan, Xin-Chun; Li, Xin-Lan; Tang, Hai-Shu; Li, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Fan; Yan, Dong-Mei; Wang, Dong-Yan; Cui, Zhi-Qiang; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Hui-Ling; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; An, Hong-Qiu; Liu, Yang; Li, Jing; Xu, Wen-Bo; Wen, Ning; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Luo, Hui-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak following importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) was confirmed in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, in 2011. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted prior to supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), immediately after the confirmation of the WPV outbreak. In selected prefectures, participants aged ≤60 years old who visited hospitals at county-level or above to have their blood drawn for reasons not related to the study, were invited to participate in our study. Antibody titers ≥8 were considered positive. Results Among the 2,611 participants enrolled, 2,253 (86.3%), 2,283 (87.4%), and 1,989 (76.2%) were seropositive to P1, P2 and P3 respectively, and 1744 (66.8%) participants were seropositive to all the three serotypes. Lower antibody seropositivities and geometric mean titers were observed in children <1 year of age and in adults aged 15–39 years. Conclusion Serosurveys to estimate population immunity in districts at high risk of polio importation might be useful to gauge underlying population immunity gaps to polio and possibly to guide preparedness and response planning. Consideration should be given to older children and adults during polio risk assessment planning and outbreak response. PMID:24991811

  14. Analysis of land cover change and its driving forces in a desert oasis landscape of southern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amuti, T.; Luo, G.

    2014-07-01

    The combined effects of drought, warming and the changes in land cover have caused severe land degradation for several decades in the extremely arid desert oases of Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China. This study examined land cover changes during 1990-2008 to characterize and quantify the transformations in the typical oasis of Hotan. Land cover classifications of these images were performed based on the supervised classification scheme integrated with conventional vegetation and soil indexes. Change-detection techniques in remote sensing (RS) and a geographic information system (GIS) were applied to quantify temporal and spatial dynamics of land cover changes. The overall accuracies, Kappa coefficients, and average annual increase rate or decrease rate of land cover classes were calculated to assess classification results and changing rate of land cover. The analysis revealed that major trends of the land cover changes were the notable growth of the oasis and the reduction of the desert-oasis ecotone, which led to accelerated soil salinization and plant deterioration within the oasis. These changes were mainly attributed to the intensified human activities. The results indicated that the newly created agricultural land along the margins of the Hotan oasis could result in more potential areas of land degradation. If no effective measures are taken against the deterioration of the oasis environment, soil erosion caused by land cover change may proceed. The trend of desert moving further inward and the shrinking of the ecotone may lead to potential risks to the eco-environment of the Hotan oasis over the next decades.

  15. Influence of climatic factors on tree-ring maximum latewood density of Picea schrenkiana in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Wang, Lili; Yin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The influence of temperature and precipitation on maximum latewood density (MXD) was mainly discussed in this paper, based on the samples of Picea schrenkiana from the Manas River Basin, Xinjiang, China. The correlation analysis between MXD and instrumental records from the Shihezi Meteorological Station showed that the MXD was positively related to the mean maximum temperature throughout the growing season at high elevations. Comparatively, the ring-width at low altitudes was limited by the precipitation in May-June. The composite chronology by MXD sequences was highly correlated with the mean maximum temperature in July-August ( r = 0.54, p<0.001), which was then reconstructed by the composite chronology. The comparative analysis on the reconstructed temperatures, observed values, and drought indices ( Is) revealed that precipitation would affect MXD when the absolute value of Is was greater than 1.5σ (i.e., | Is|>2.5) in the period of 1953-2008 A.D. or close to 1.5σ for 2-3 consecutive years. The response characteristics are linked with the semiarid climate in the study area. In a single year or consecutive years of extreme dryness, the lack of precipitation would limit the thickening of latewood cell walls and thus impact the MXD. All in all, if a MXD chronology is aimed to reconstruct temperature history, the moisture conditions at the sampling site should be considered prudently.

  16. Analysis of land cover change and its driving forces in a desert oasis landscape of Xinjiang, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amuti, T.; Luo, G.

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects of drought, warming and the changes in land cover have caused severe land degradation for several decades in the extremely arid desert oases of southern Xinjiang, northwest China. Land cover classifications of Landsat images in 1990, 2000 and 2008 were performed based on the multistage supervised classification scheme using the maximum likelihood classifier integrated with conventional vegetation and soil indexes, which improved overall accuracies by 4-5% compared to the standard classification method. Based on the detection of changes in land cover during 1990-2008 using remote sensing (RS) and a geographic information system (GIS), it can be found that the oasis significantly (+35%) increased, while the area of ecotone decreased (-43%). The major trends of the land cover changes were the notable growth of the oasis and the reduction of the desert-oasis ecotone. These changes were mainly a result of the intensified human activities such as land and water exploitation as well as overgrazing. The results of this study indicate that the oasis environment will be deteriorated by increase in potential areas of land degradation if the trend of desert moving further inward and the shrinking of the ecotone continues over the next decades.

  17. Oviposition site selection by Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site selection is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of insects. A comparison of the habitats used by a species enhances our understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. We collected data on the oviposition behaviours of Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), Xinjiang, China between March and October 2014. We found 91 quadrats were used by G. pecorum for oviposition. Examining 13 ecological factors using the t-test, chi-square test, and principal component analysis showed that G. pecorum's oviposition habitat was preferentially on slopes with inclinations of 10-30° that were semi-sunny, semi-cloudy slopes, in positions high or low on the slopes, with preferences for total plants lower than 10% and Stipa capillata coverage lower than 10% on the low slopes, but Ceratoides latens coverage on the high and intermediate slopes, when the numbers of plant species and families were lower than five. G. pecorum often selected sites at a distance < 2000 m from a water source and average altitude 900-1000 m. The oviposition site selection by G. pecorum may be correlated with the behaviour of Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii), and water and food resources may strongly influence oviposition site selection, as Przewalski's horses rest and forage in these areas. PMID:26621549

  18. Reconstruction and analysis of the past five centuries of streamflow on northern slopes on Tianshan Mountains in Northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Yaning; Wang, Minzhong; Sun, Huilan

    2016-03-01

    We examined the changes in streamflow on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northern Xinjiang, China, over two time scales: the past 500 years, based on dendrochronology data; and the past 50 years, based on streamflow data from hydrological stations. The method of artificial neural networks built from the data of the 50-year period was used to reconstruct the streamflow of the 500-year period. The results indicate that streamflow has undergone seven high-flow periods and four low-flow periods during the past 500 years. To identify possible transition points in the streamflow, we applied the Mann-Kendall and running T tests to the 50- and 500-year periods, respectively. During the past 500 years, streamflow has changed significantly from low to high flow about three to four times, and from high to low flow about three to five times. Over the recent 50 years, there have been three phases of variation in river runoff, and the most distinct transition of streamflow occurred in 1996.

  19. Environmental Reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and Its Bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes’ adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event. PMID:24475109

  20. Effect of Blast-Induced Vibration from New Railway Tunnel on Existing Adjacent Railway Tunnel in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qingguo; Li, Jie; Li, Dewu; Ou, Erfeng

    2013-01-01

    The vibrations of existing service tunnels induced by blast-excavation of adjacent tunnels have attracted much attention from both academics and engineers during recent decades in China. The blasting vibration velocity (BVV) is the most widely used controlling index for in situ monitoring and safety assessment of existing lining structures. Although numerous in situ tests and simulations had been carried out to investigate blast-induced vibrations of existing tunnels due to excavation of new tunnels (mostly by bench excavation method), research on the overall dynamical response of existing service tunnels in terms of not only BVV but also stress/strain seemed limited for new tunnels excavated by the full-section blasting method. In this paper, the impacts of blast-induced vibrations from a new tunnel on an existing railway tunnel in Xinjiang, China were comprehensively investigated by using laboratory tests, in situ monitoring and numerical simulations. The measured data from laboratory tests and in situ monitoring were used to determine the parameters needed for numerical simulations, and were compared with the calculated results. Based on the results from in situ monitoring and numerical simulations, which were consistent with each other, the original blasting design and corresponding parameters were adjusted to reduce the maximum BVV, which proved to be effective and safe. The effect of both the static stress before blasting vibrations and the dynamic stress induced by blasting on the total stresses in the existing tunnel lining is also discussed. The methods and related results presented could be applied in projects with similar ground and distance between old and new tunnels if the new tunnel is to be excavated by the full-section blasting method.

  1. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Gong; Lijuan, He; Shaoyu, Li; Chen, Zhang; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-07-01

    In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC-MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%), estragole (29.5%), and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%). 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8%) and estragole (20.8%). At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml(-1) and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations. PMID:27298587

  2. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  3. [Landscape pattern change and its ecological effect in Manas River Basin of Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2009-06-01

    Based on the 1976, 1989, 2000 and 2005 remote sensing images and related meteorological data, the landscape pattern change and its ecological effect in Manas River Basin of Xinjiang in 1976-2005 were analyzed with GIS and FRAGSTATES. In the study period, the landscape pattern change in the Basin mainly manifested in the increase of farmland, grassland, and residential area while the decrease of forestland, wetland, desert, and snow and ice coverage. At landscape level, the patch number, landscape shape index, and contagion index increased, while Shannon's diversity index decreased; at class level, there was a greater difference in the heterogeneity index among different kinds of landscape, indicating a complexity of the landscape ecosystem. The landscape pattern change caused the negative ecological effect of wetland area shrinking, but some positive effects such as the decrease of evaporation and the increase of relative humidity. From 1976 to 2005, the wetland area decreased from 415.7 km2 to 297.4 km2, with a decrement of 28%, evaporation decreased by 0.91 mm x a(-1), and relative humidity increased by 0.037% x a(-1). PMID:19795652

  4. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  5. Association of MTHFR genetic polymorphisms with venous thromboembolism in Uyghur population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Yadav, Umesh; Mahemuti, Ailiman; Tang, Bao-Peng; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to reveal the association between Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations (C677T, A1298C and C1317T) and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Han and Uyghur population in Xinjiang. Material and method: We conducted a case control study composed of 246 cases, including 86 Uyghur and 160 Han ethnic diagnosed VTE were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between January 2008 to December 2012, and 292 population including 122 Uyghur ethnic and 170 Han ethnic were studied as controls. To detect the polymorphism of MTHFR gene C677T, A1298T, and C1317T, Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay was adopted to determine the plasma levels Homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid and vitaminB12 (VitB12). The association of the polymorphism of MTHFR and levels Hcy, folic acid and VitB12 with VTE was analyzed. Results: The MTHFR gene C677T genotypes distribution in Uyghur VTE patients and control groups were: TT (27.91% vs. 12.29%), CT (41.86% vs. 52.46%) and CC (30.23% vs. 35.25%), respectively; and in Han VTE patients and control groups were: TT (27.49% vs. 14.71%), CT (44.38% vs. 53.53%) and CC (28.13% vs. 31.76%), respectively, and there were significant differences in TT genotype of MTHFRC677T between VTE patients and controls in both Uyghur and Han ethnic (Uyghur: x2=8.070, P=0.005; Han: x2=8.159, P=0.004). However, there were no significant differences in the MTHFR gene A1298T and C1317T genotyping distribution frequency in Uygur and Han ethnic between VTE patients and controls (P>0.05). Plasma levels of Hcy in MTHFR gene TT genotype were statistically higher than CT and CC genotype (P<0.05). After adjusting for age, gender, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and MTHFR genotype for plasma Hcy levels, multifactor logistic regression analysis showed (OR=1.025, 95% CI 1.003-1.046, P=0

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of red deer subspecies in XinJiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bin; Li, Ren-Yan; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Yan, Gen-Qiang; Xi, Ji-Feng; Blair, Hugh T; Li, Da-Quan; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhao, Xi-Tang

    2011-08-01

    Polymorphisms for seven microsatellite loci in three red deer subspecies (9 populations) found in XinJiang were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 12% nondenaturation polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the Sanguinetti silver staining method. Numbers of alleles, average effective numbers of alleles (E) and the average rate of homozygosity, allelic frequencies of seven microsatellite loci, polymorphism information content (PIC), mean heterozygosity (H) and genetic distances among the populations were calculated for each population. Dendrograms were constructed based on genetic distances by the neighbor-joining method (NJ), utilizing molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software PHYLIP (3.6). The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies using maximum likelihood (ML); the bootstrap value was estimated by bootstrap test in the tree. Lastly, phylogenesis was analyzed. The results showed that four of the seven microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic, but BMS2508 and Celjp0023 showed no polymorphism and BM5004 was a neutral polymorphism. It is our conclusion that the four microsatellite loci are effective DNA markers for the analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the three red deer subspecies. The mean PIC, H and E-values across the microsatellite loci were 0.5393, 0.5736 and 2.64, which showed that these microsatellite loci are effective DNA markers for the genetic analysis of red deer. C.e. songaricus populations from Regiment 104, 151 and Hami are clustered together. C.e. yarkandensis populations from Regiment 35, Xaya and Alaer are clustered together. These two clusters also cluster together. Lastly, C.e. sibiricus populations from Burqin, Regiment 188 and the first two clusters were clustered together. The phylogenetic relationship among different red deer populations is consistent with the known origin, history of breeding and geographic distributions of populations. PMID:21794008

  7. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  8. Monitoring vegetation dynamics with SPOT-VEGETATION NDVI time-series data in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Hongxiu; Sun, Zhandong; Xu, Yongming

    2009-09-01

    Desertification in the arid and semiarid regions directly influences the density and growth status of vegetation, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) has been widely used to monitor vegetation changes. This study analyzed the spatial patters of vegetation activity and its temporal variability in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China since 1998 to 2007 with NDVI data derived from SPOT4 Vegetation. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the NDVI was used as a parameter to characterize the change of vegetation and to compare the amount of variation in different sets of sample data. The method of quantifying changes in CoV values for each pixel was based on linear regression. The slope of linear regression was acted as the criterion for the change direction: pixels with a negative slope are considered to represent ground area with decreasing amounts of vegetation, vice versa. In this paper, We calculated (1) the inter-annual CoV based on the yearly ONDVI, the sum of the monthly NDVI in the growing season (from April to October), for each pixel between 1998-2007 to reveal the spatial patterns of vegetation activity, (2) the intra-annual CoV based on monthly NDVI by MVC to reflect vegetation seasonal dynamics, (3) the slope (") of the intra-annual CoV regression line for each pixel to identify the overall long-term trend of vegetation dynamics. This experiment demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CoV and its regression analysis based on long term SPOT-VGT NDVI time-series data for vegetation dynamics monitoring.

  9. Climatic and geological factors contributing to the natural water chemistry in an arid environment from watersheds in northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bingqi; Yu, Jingjie; Qin, Xiaoguang; Rioual, Patrick; Xiong, Heigang

    2012-06-01

    A natural water hydrochemical investigation was carried out on three watersheds in northern Xinjiang, China to evaluate the climatic, geological and anthropogenic influence on aqueous major element chemistry in an arid environment. Wide spatial variations are observed in the dissolved solids (TDS) and water chemistry. The hydrochemistry is typically carbonate and alkaline in nature, with Ca2 +, HCO3- and SO42 - dominating the major ion composition. Four major water types, Ca-HCO3, Ca-NDA (non-dominant anion), Ca-SO4 and NDC (non-dominant cation)-NDA or Na-NDA type, are identified in terms of the Piper model. The water chemistry agrees well with the “rock dominance” mechanism, with a TDS value of 80-600 mg/L and a Na+/(Na+ + Ca2 +) ratio of 0.1-0.6. Correlation analysis suggests that most of the ions derive from multiple sources. Stoichiometric analyses indicate that carbonate weathering is the primary source of dissolved ions, followed by silicate weathering and evaporite dissolution. The effects of local pollution have somewhat greater contribution on the oases and central areas of the Zhungarer watershed. Most parts of the rivers show an increasing trend in the dissolved load toward the lower reaches, which is primarily attributed to an evaporation process control along the water course. Variations in water chemistry show clear correlation with the regional lithological distribution, topography and atmospheric precipitation. Using rainwater as a baseline, contributions from atmospheric precipitation and rock weathering to the tributary chemistry are roughly evaluated to be in the range of 2-39% (average 13%) and 59-98% (average 86%), respectively, implying a high effective control of regional geology on stream chemistry compared with that of atmospheric input.

  10. The tetrad effect and geochemistry of apatite from the Altay Koktokay No. 3 pegmatite, Xinjiang, China: implications for pegmatite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ming-Jian; Zhou, Qi-Feng; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei; Evans, Noreen J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to better constrain the evolution and petrogenesis of pegmatite, geochemical analysis was conducted on a suite of apatite crystals from the Altay Koktokay No. 3 pegmatite, Xinjiang, China and from the granitic and amphibolitic wall rocks. Apatite samples derived from pegmatite zones show convex tetrad effects in their REE patterns, extremely negative Eu anomalies and non-chondritic Y/Ho ratios. In contrast, chondritic Y/Ho ratios and convex tetrad effects are observed in the muscovite granite suggesting that different processes caused non-chondritic Y/Ho ratios and lanthanide tetrad effects. Based on the occurrence of convex tetrad effects in the host rocks and their associated minerals, we propose that the tetrad effects are likely produced from immiscible fluoride and silicate melts. This is in contrast to previous explanations of the tetrad effect; i.e. surface weathering, fractional crystallization and/or fluid-rock interaction. Additionally, we put forward that extreme negative Eu and non-chondritic Y/Ho in apatite are likely caused by the large amount of hydrothermal fluid exsolved from the pegmatite melts. Evolution of melt composition was found to be the primary cause of inter and intra-crystal major and trace element variations in apatite. Mn entering into apatite via substitution of Ca is supported by the positive correlation between CaO and MnO. Different evolution trends in apatite composition imply different crystallization environments between wall rocks and pegmatite zones. Based on the geochemistry of apatite samples, it is likely that there is a genetic relationship between the source of muscovite granite and the source of the pegmatite.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Gerbillinae (Muridae, Rodentia) with emphasis on species living in the Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region of China and based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II genes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mamoru; Jiang, Wei; Sato, Jun J; Zhen, Qiang; Jiao, Wei; Goto, Kazuo; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiwata, Kenji; Oku, Yuzaburo; Chai, June-Jie; Kamiya, Haruo

    2010-03-01

    Rodents belonging to the subfamily Gerbillinae and living in the Xinjiang-Uygur autonomous region of China were collected in field surveys between 2001 and 2003. We found four Meriones species, including M. chengi M. liycus, M. meridianus, and M. tamariscinus, as well as related species from different genera, Rhombomys opimus and Brachiones przewaliskii For phylogenetic analyses of these gerbilline species, DNA sequences of parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) genes were examined with the neighbor Joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Meriones is not monophyletic and place M. tamaricinus as the sister taxon to a clade comprising Brachiones, Psammomys, Rhombomys, and the other Meriones species. The remaining Meriones species separate into three lineages: M. meridianus (including M. chengi), Meriones unguiculatus, and a clade that includes multiple Meriones species originating from Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The phylogenetic relationships among the genera Brachines, Meriones, Psammomys, and Rhombomys remain ambiguous, probably due to the saturation of mutations that occurs in fast-evolving mitochondrial DNA. In addition, intraspecific variation was observed for M. meridianus, and this mostly correlated with collection localities, i.e., the northern and southern parts of the Xinjiang region. This variation corresponded to interspecific levels of divergence among other lineages of Meriones. Interestingly, no differences were observed in either the Cytb or COII gene sequences isolated from M. chengi collected from the Turfan Basin in the north and those from M. meridianus in the south, suggesting that M. chengi may be a synonym of M. meridianus. PMID:20192696

  12. A persistent Holocene wetting trend in arid central Asia, with wettest conditions in the late Holocene, revealed by multi-proxy analyses of loess-paleosol sequences in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang

    2016-08-01

    There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  13. Retrospective Study to Determine Diagnostic Utility of 6 Commonly Used Lung Cancer Biomarkers Among Han and Uygur Population in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Yang-Chun, Feng; Min, Feng; Di, Zhang; Yan-Chun, Huang

    2016-05-01

    Early diagnosis was the main way to improve the survival rate of lung cancer patients. At present, the methods to diagnose lung cancer were varied, but early diagnosis of lung cancer was still difficult. In experimental and clinical studies, lung cancer related tumor markers were helpful to the early diagnosis of lung cancer. So far, there were many studies about lung cancer related tumor markers in China, but the subjects in these studies were almost the Han population. There were few studies about the Uygur population. Xinjiang was a multi-ethnic region in China, the ratios of Han and Uygur population were 40% and 45%, respectively. Xinjiang also was a high incidence area of lung cancer in China. The purpose of this study was to research the application of 6 tumor markers in Uygur and Han lung cancer patients in XinJiang, China.The study collected 342 cases who were diagnosed as lung cancer in Tumor Hospital Affiliated to XinJiang Medical University from May 2012 to December 2012. Serum concentrations of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cytokeratin fragment 19 (CYFRA21-1), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), precursor of gastrin-releasing peptide (Pro-GRP), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were tested for every patient before radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery. The serum concentrations of SCC, CYFRA21-1, CEA, CA125, and Pro-GRP were assayed using the micro-particle luminescence analysis testing by the Abbott ARHCITECT i2000SR immunoanalyzer. NSE was assayed by the electrochemical luminescence analysis testing using Roche Cobas E601 electrochemical luminescence analyzer.Serum levels of SCC were different between 2 ethnic populations, smoking should be the influence factor to create the difference. Cluster analysis showed that the NSE and Pro-GRP were helpful to identify small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and CEA, CA125, SCC, CYFRA21-1 were beneficial to diagnose non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The compare of diagnosis value about

  14. Retrospective Study to Determine Diagnostic Utility of 6 Commonly Used Lung Cancer Biomarkers Among Han and Uygur Population in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Yang-Chun, Feng; Min, Feng; Di, Zhang; Yan-Chun, Huang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early diagnosis was the main way to improve the survival rate of lung cancer patients. At present, the methods to diagnose lung cancer were varied, but early diagnosis of lung cancer was still difficult. In experimental and clinical studies, lung cancer related tumor markers were helpful to the early diagnosis of lung cancer. So far, there were many studies about lung cancer related tumor markers in China, but the subjects in these studies were almost the Han population. There were few studies about the Uygur population. Xinjiang was a multi-ethnic region in China, the ratios of Han and Uygur population were 40% and 45%, respectively. Xinjiang also was a high incidence area of lung cancer in China. The purpose of this study was to research the application of 6 tumor markers in Uygur and Han lung cancer patients in XinJiang, China. The study collected 342 cases who were diagnosed as lung cancer in Tumor Hospital Affiliated to XinJiang Medical University from May 2012 to December 2012. Serum concentrations of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cytokeratin fragment 19 (CYFRA21-1), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), precursor of gastrin-releasing peptide (Pro-GRP), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were tested for every patient before radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery. The serum concentrations of SCC, CYFRA21-1, CEA, CA125, and Pro-GRP were assayed using the micro-particle luminescence analysis testing by the Abbott ARHCITECT i2000SR immunoanalyzer. NSE was assayed by the electrochemical luminescence analysis testing using Roche Cobas E601 electrochemical luminescence analyzer. Serum levels of SCC were different between 2 ethnic populations, smoking should be the influence factor to create the difference. Cluster analysis showed that the NSE and Pro-GRP were helpful to identify small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and CEA, CA125, SCC, CYFRA21-1 were beneficial to diagnose non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The compare of diagnosis

  15. The prevalence and adverse profiles of fatty liver disease among different ethnic public servants in Urumqi of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dan; Guan, Jie; Xie, Xiang; Zhao, Wei-Yun; Abulaiti, Palida; Wang, Yu; Cheng, Zhi-Qin; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this survey was to confirm the prevalence and adverse profiles of fatty liver disease among different ethnic public servants in Urumqi of Xinjiang. Methods: The cross-sectional study were implemented among serving and retired public servants who participated in the annual physical check-up including abdominal ultrasonography from April 2012 to April 2013 at the health promotion center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University in Urumqi. The information including questionnaires, anthropometric indexes and biochemical profiles were collected to analyze. Results: There were 46612 individuals ranging from 20 to 93 years of age included in the analysis. There were 39120 of Han, 4148 of Uygur, 877 of Kazakh, 2098 of Hui, and 369 of other ethnic groups. The prevalence of FLD in total, Han, Hui, Uygur, Kazakh and other ethnic group were 32.0%, 31.2%, 31.5%, 39.3%, 36.4% and 32.8%. Uygur was significantly higher than the other ethnic groups both male and female (P < 0.01) and male was higher than female regardless of ethnicity (P < 0.01). FLD co-exiting with DM, hypertension, obesity, overweight and dysliplidemia (especially for hypertriglyceridemia) were common and distribution of these diseases were significantly different among various ethnicity (P < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that there were different in adverse factors including age, gender, DM, obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension of FLD among ethnicity and obesity having higher OR value in each ethnic group can be as predictive index of FLD. Conclusions: The high prevalence of FLD is present among public servants in Urumqi of Xinjiang, China. The prevalence of FLD is significantly different in different ethnic groups and genders. Distributions of adverse factors are disparate in different ethnicity. Comprehensive strategies for the prevention and treatment of FLD should be explored basing on the ethnic differences. PMID:26309579

  16. A modified genetic model for the Huangshandong magmatic sulfide deposit in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Xinjiang, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Chusi; Tang, Dong-Mei

    2015-01-01

    The Huangshandong Ni-Cu deposit is the largest magmatic sulfide deposit discovered to date in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in northern Xinjiang, western China. The host intrusion is a 274-Ma composite mafic-ultramafic intrusion consisting of four separate intrusive units: a large layered gabbroic sequence (phase I), a sheet-like ultramafic body (phase II), a dyke-like gabbronorite body (phase III), and an irregular ultramafic unit (phase IV). Important sulfide mineralization is present in the last three intrusive units, predominantly as disseminated and net-textured sulfides (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite). The Huangshandong mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks are characterized by arc-like geochemical signatures such as low Ca content in olivine and negative Nb-Ta anomalies in whole rocks. This, together with a post-subduction setting for the East Tianshan in the Permian, suggests that the source mantle was modified previously by slab-derived fluids in the Carboniferous. The mantle-derived magma was ponded in a staging chamber in the lower part of the newly formed arc crust. The first batch of magma to arrive at Huangshandong was most fractionated and depleted in Ni, crystallizing Fe-rich and Ni-depleted olivine (Fo67, <300 ppm Ni). The second batch of magma was more primitive, crystallizing more primitive olivine (Fo81-84). The third batch of magma was also highly fractionated and depleted in Ni, crystallizing Fe-rich and Ni-depleted olivine (Fo72, ~600 ppm Ni). The final batch of magma became more primitive again, crystallizing the most primitive olivine (Fo81-86). The occurrence of rounded sulfide inclusions in olivine primocrysts in the Huangshandong ultramafic rocks indicates that immiscible sulfide liquid droplets were present during olivine crystallization. The Ni tenors of disseminated sulfide ores in the gabbronorite dyke vary mainly between 5 and 8 wt%, which are too high to have been produced by the parental magma of the dyke. The Ni, Cu, and

  17. Variable mineralization processes during the formation of the Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, Xinjiang, Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun; Zu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit is located at the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northern Xinjiang, Northwestern China. The host intrusion of the Hulu deposit is composed of a layered mafic-ultramafic sequence and a dike-like unit. The layered sequence is composed of harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, gabbro, gabbrodiorite and diorite. The dike-like body comprises lherzolite and gabbro. Sulfide orebodies occur mainly within the harzburgite, pyroxenite and lherzolite at the base of the layered sequence and within the lherzolite in the dike-like body. Sulfide mineralization from the Hulu deposit shows significant depletion of PGE relative to Cu and Ni. These elements show good positive correlations with S in the sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit but relatively weak correlations in the sulfide mineralization from the layered sequence. The sulfide mineralization from the layered unit shows excellent positive correlations between Ir and Os, Ru or Rh, and poor relationships between Ir and Pt or Pd. On the contrary, sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit shows good correlations in the diagrams of Os, Ru, Rh, Pt and Pd against Ir. Both high Cu/Pd ratios (8855-481,398) and our modeling indicate that PGE depletion resulted from sulfide removal in a deep staging magma chamber. The evolved PGE-depleted magmas then ascended to the shallower magma chamber and became sulfide saturation due to crustal contamination. Both low Se/S ratios (33.5 × 10-6-487.5 × 10-6) and a negative correlation between Se/S and Cu/Pd ratios are consistent with the addition of crustal S. A large number of sulfide liquids segregated with minor crystallization of monosulfide solid solution (MSS) in the shallower magma chamber. When new magma pulses with unfractionated sulfide droplets entered the shallower magma chamber, the sulfide slurry containing crystallized MSS may be disrupted and mixed with the unfractionated sulfide droplets. The

  18. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland. PMID:26675454

  19. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the Yanqi Basin of Xinjiang Province, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuixian

    2013-09-01

    The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang Province is an important agricultural area with a high population density. The extensive agricultural activities in the Yanqi Basin started in the 1950s with flood irrigation techniques. Since then, the groundwater table was raised because of the absence of an efficient drainage system. This obstacle is a crucial factor that restricts sustainable socioeconomic development. Hydrochemical investigations were conducted in the Yanqi Basin, Northwestern China, to determine the chemical composition of groundwater. Sixty groundwater samples were collected from different wells to monitor the water chemistry of various ions. The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater in the area is generally neutral to slightly alkaline and predominantly contains Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations as well as HCO3(-) and SO4 (2+) anions. High positive correlations between HCO3 (-)-Mg(2+) + Ca(2+), SO 4 (2-)-Mg(2+), SO4 (2-)-Na(+) + K(+), and Cl(-)-Na(+) + K(+) were obtained. The total dissolved solids (TDS) mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as HCO3(-), SO4 (2-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) + K(+). The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3(-), Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)-SO4 (2-)-Cl(-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), and Na(+)-K(+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-HCO3(-) types. The hydrochemical processes are the main factors that determine the water quality of the groundwater system. These processes include silicate mineral weathering, dissolution, ion exchange, and, to a lesser extent, evaporation, which seem to be more pronounced downgradient of the flow system. The saturation index (SI), which is calculated according to the ionic ratio plot, indicates that the gypsum-halite dissolution reactions occur during a certain degree of rock weathering. SI also indicates that evaporation is the dominant factor that determines the major ionic composition in the study area. The assessment results of the water samples using various methods

  20. Investigation of evaporate deposits in the “Great Ear” area of Lop Nor salt plain, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Li, B.; Jiang, P.; Lowenstein, T. K.; Zhong, J.; Sheng, J.; Wu, H.

    2009-12-01

    In arid regions of the world, salt pans are common features occupying the lowest areas of closed interior basin. The Lop Nor salt plain is located at the east end of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Province, China. Widespread Holocene salt deposits were known to cover thousands of square kilometers and up to hundreds of meters thick. However, the salt pans in the central-eastern sector of the Lop Nor salt plain is unusually represented by successive concentric black-and-white rings that closely resembled a big human ear in satellite images. The total area of the “Great Ear” is approximately 5,500 km2, and the internal morphology is considered essentially flat with an elevation of 800 m. A series of detailed field investigations on the “Great Ear” salt pans involved describing evaporates and surface morphologies, measuring chemical compositions, and groundwater depths. The deposits show clear lateral variations in salt content, water content, evaporate mineralogy, as well as the microrelief of salt crust in the “Great Ear” area. Spatially, spectral imaging variation corresponds to color variation in the “Great Ear”, which suggests surface moist conditions of a salt pan: dark-toned areas are wet and the bright-toned areas are dry. In the wet zone, capillary fringing of groundwater brines control the precipitation of evaporites and microrelief genesis. The salt pans are marked by pressure-ridge and well-developed hexagonal honeycomb polygons structures, where the microrelief of salt crust ranges from 30 to 80 cm. In the dry salt pans zone, groundwater discharge was not observed on the surface and the salt crust is characterized by low relief, low salinity, a lack of efflorescences crusts, and significant amounts of detrital sediments. This zone shows bright-tone in the satellite images due to higher reflectance of dry salt-encrusted pans surface. Though, the sediment beneath the surface typically is saturated with concentrated brines and displacive

  1. Geomorphic assessment of the tectonic activity of Qiulitagh fold-belt, Kuqa foreland basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint Carlier, Dimitri; Graveleau, Fabien; Delcaillau, Bernard; Hurtrez, Jean-Emmanuel; Vendeville, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The Qiulitagh fold belt is an anticline structure located in the Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt (southern Tian Shan, China), whose active folding is well documented by structural and palaeomagnetic studies (Chen et al., 2007; Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2007; Li et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2011). The topography of Quilitagh fold belt can be divided into two SW-NE parallel ridges: 1) a 90 km long northern ridge, composed of the Northern Qiulitagh anticline and the Yakelike anticline, and 2) a 165km long southern ridge, composed of the Southern Qiulitagh anticline and the Mishikantage anticline. Due to the current absence of vegetation and relative homogeneity of outcropping lithologies (mainly Neogene detrital sandstone and silstone), these anticlines provide exceptional field cases for investigating the dynamic relationships between fold growth mechanisms, the subsurface structures, the geomorphic entities and the drainage network evolution. We used free topographic and satellite image datasets to carry out a morphometric study of the Quilitagh fold-belt and investigate the kinematics of active folding. Topographic datasets include Digital Elevation Models (DEM) from the NASA SRTM V.4.0 and ASTER programs, whereas satellite images are extracted from Landsat 7 shots and Google Earth. These datasets were incorporated in GIS software where three scales of observation were investigated: 1) a global fold scale, 2) a drainage basin scale and 3) a valley scale. At the drainage basin scale, we selected about 250 items and quantified several geomorphic indices of relative active tectonic growth. These are the basin mean slope, hypsometric integral, basin asymmetry and local relief. We also used published seismic profiles to link the 3D subsurface geometry of the salt-related Qiulitagh fold belt with the geomorphic signal. Results indicate that the morphometry of Quilitagh drainage basins (hypsometry, drainage basin asymmetry, local relief, valley incision, steepness index) change

  2. Iron-rich fragments in the Yamansu iron deposit, Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints on metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hou-Min; Ding, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Chong; Li, Li-Xing; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tong

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic rock-hosted iron deposits are among the important iron ores in China. However, the nature of primary magma and petrogenesis associated with these iron ores remains controversial. Here, we report iron-rich fragments (IRF) from the Yamansu iron deposit in Eastern Tianshan Mountains, NW China, which occurs in association with volcanic breccia, submarine volcanic breccia and ignimbrite. The IRF is composed of five types including oligoclase-iron oxide type (OIO), oligoclase-albite-iron oxide type (OAIO), albite-iron oxide type (AIO), albite-K-feldspar-iron oxide type (AKIO) and K-feldspar-iron oxide type (KIO). These fragments display typical volcanic fabric features, such as porphyritic texture, hyalopilitic texture of the groundmass and vesicles filled by minerals to form amygdales. The feldspar phenocrysts of IRF are dominantly albite. The groundmass of IRF consists of magnetite and feldspar. The magnetite is distributed in between the feldspar laths, and together display hyalopilitic texture which could be observed only in volcanic rocks. The vesicles are filled with magnetite, feldspar, chlorite and calcite from the margin to the interior. The IRF has high Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Na and K contents and low Mg content. The average total Fe is 26 wt.%. The magnetite is mostly titanium-vanadium magnetite, with the TiO2 content ranging up to 4.86 wt.% and V2O3 content up to 3.20 wt.%. The IRF probably came from iron-rich melts and represent the products of the Fenner magma evolution. The basaltic magma evolved into the Fe-Na-rich residual melts by crystallization under low oxygen fugacity condition in a closed magma chamber after intruding into the shallow crust. The Fe-Na-rich residual melts were emplaced in hypabyssal environments or erupted generating the orebodies or providing the material source for the generation of the high-grade iron ores which were subsequently enriched by the late-stage hydrothermal fluids.

  3. The incidence and species composition of Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae) causing equine myiasis in northern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Li, Kai; Hu, De-Fu

    2016-02-15

    A survey was conducted on the detection of the larval Gasterophilus species in 90 equines via necropsy or after administering oral ivermectin in Xinjian, China, from 2008 to 2013. All 90 (100%) equines were infested by larval Gasterophilus, and 3723second instar larvae (L2) and 63,778 third instar larvae (L3) were collected from faecal samples and the digestive tract, a ratio of L2:L3=1:17. Over 84.45% of the animals contained ≤1500 larvae and 7.78% had >2000 larvae. The highest totals of L2 and L 3 larvae in any one animal were 1208 in Mongolian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemionus), 2491 in Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), and 1785 in the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus). Six species of Gasterophilus were identified, with the following proportions of overall parasite abundance: Gasterophilus pecorum 88.94%, Gasterophilus nigricornis 4.94%, Gasterophilus nasalis 3.93%, Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis 1.91%, Gasterophilus intestinalis 0.19%, and Gasterophilus inermis 0.087%. A majority of equines (n=32, 35.57%) was infested with five Gasterophilus species, while 29 animals (32.22%) harboured four species, 13 animals (14.44%) had six, 12 animals (13.33%) had three, three (3.33%) had two, and one (1.11%) had only one species. The percentage of Przewalski's horses infested was higher than local domestic horse or Mongolian wild ass. PMID:26827858

  4. Prokaryotic diversity of an active mud volcano in the Usu City of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Mei; Lou, Kai; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Xiao-Long

    2012-02-01

    The Usu mud volcanoes are the largest group of terrestrial mud volcanoes in China. The volcanoes are located in a typical arid and semi-arid region, and the group consists of 36 erupting active mud volcanoes. In this study, the prokaryotic diversity and community structure in the sediment of an active mud volcano were investigated by constructing bacterial and archaeal clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 100 bacterial and 100 archaeal clones were analysed and found to comprise 11 and 7 distinct phylotypes, respectively. The bacterial phylotypes were classified into three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria). Of these, Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial group, with Deltaproteobacteria dominating the sediment community, and these were affiliated with the order Desulfuromonadales. The archaeal phylotypes were all closely related to uncultivated species, and the majority of the members were related to the orders Methanosarcinales and Halobacteriales of the Euryarchaeota originating from methane hydrate bearing or alkaline sediments. The rest of the archaeal phylotypes belonged to the phylum Crenarchaeota, with representatives from similar habitats. These results suggested that a large number of novel microbial groups and potential methanogenesis may exist in this unique ecosystem. PMID:21656823

  5. Holocene environmental fluctuations of Lake Bosten (Xinjiang, China) inferred from ostracods and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischke, S.

    2003-04-01

    Lake Bosten is an oligohaline lake in an intermontane basin of the Tianshan Mountains in northwestern China. The open-basin lake receives water from a large catchment area (56,000 km2) with the Kaidu River as its main tributary. A core of 9.25 m length was drilled at 6.25 m water depth in the southwestern part of the lake near the Kaidu river inflow. Sediments of the core contain authigenic carbonate materials, including calcitic shells of ostracods, charophyte-oogonia and stem incrustations. Five AMS-dating results provided the base to establish the chronology of the core which extends back to about 8.4 cal. ka BP. The majority of the ostracod taxa from the core may be classified into two different groups comprising littoral taxa (Cyclocypris ovum, Cypridopsis vidua, Darwinula stevensoni, Fabaeformiscandona hyalina, Herpetocypris chevreuxi, Heterocypris salina) and taxa reflecting profundal conditions (Candona neglecta, Cytherissa lacustris and Fabaeformiscandona caudata). Among these taxa, C. neglecta and D. stevensoni were the most abundant ostracod species providing more than 50 % of the fossil shells in most core samples. Where C. neglecta peaks D. stevensoni often shows minima abundances and vice versa. Stable isotope data derived from ostracod calcite display large variations throughout the core. d18O and d13C values vary over a range of 10 ‰ and 6.7 ‰ respectively. These large ranges may reflect that Lake Bosten responded like a semi-closed lake at least. Low lake levels inferred from species assemblages correspond to lowest d18O values thus indicating the influence of isotopically light river water at the core site and a low residence time and salinity. High d18O values correspond to higher abundances of Candona neglecta and low abundances of littoral taxa pointing towards deeper conditions, a higher distance of the core site from the river inflow, a higher residence time and corresponding salinity of the lake water. On the base of ostracod and stable

  6. Multicultural Education and the Acculturation of Students in the Interior-Region Xinjiang Senior Middle School Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Jihua

    2010-01-01

    Starting in 2000, the state began to set up interior-region Xinjiang senior middle school classes (the Xinjiang Class) in developed cities in China's interior ("neidi"). Cross-cultural adaptation is a very important issue for students from Xinjiang if they are to study and live in China's interior regions. Based on the perspective of cultural…

  7. A topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China and its zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Wu, Chang-zhi; Gou, Xiao-qin; Liao, Jing-juan; Yang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    The highly evolved Baishitouquan (BST) beryl-mineralised and topaz-bearing amazonite granite pluton is situated in the eastern Tianshan orogen of northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five well-exposed lithological zones, which, gradational from the lowest level, are leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). The rocks are composed mainly of quartz, albite, and K-feldspar with varying amounts of topaz and amazonite. Quartz and topaz phenocrysts are the earliest phases that crystallised from the melt. Amazonite which replaced albite and K-feldspar was formed at the late magmatic stage or during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Geochemically, this pluton is characterised by high F (>2 wt.%) and Rb (499.5-1087.04 ppm), low P 2O 5 (⩽0.06 wt.%), Na 2O > K 2O, A/NKC = 1.00-1.11, low ratios of K/Rb, Al/Ga, Y/Ho, Zr/Ha and Nb/Ta, Σ14 REE = 28.6-231.9 ppm with gull wing-shaped distribution patterns (La CN/Lu CN = 0.11-0.68, Eu/Eu * = 0.0005-0.0110) and tetrad effects, and δ 18O = 9.75-7.32‰. Melt and fluid-melt inclusions coexist with liquid and vapour inclusions. The rocks were originated from a highly evolved granitic magma. The BST pluton exhibits transition in the following aspects from zone-a to zone-e: (1) As quartz and topaz phenocrysts progressively increase in size and crystal euhedral shape, rock textures change from equigranular to porphyritic. (2) Amazonite begins to appear in zone-b and becomes most concentrated in zone-c, whereas topaz begins to appear in zone-d becoming highly concentrated in zone-e. (3) Li and (Al + Ti) increase in white mica. (4) Petrochemically, there are general trends of increasing F, Al 2O 3 and Na 2O, and decreasing SiO 2, (Fe 2O 3 + FeO + MgO + MnO) and K 2O. Plots of normative compositions on the Qz-Ab-Or diagram move gradually towards the Ab apex. (5) Overall, Cr, Ni, Co, V, W, Nb, Zr, U, Th and Y

  8. Archean crustal evolution of the northern North China Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Xianglin; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Jinzhong

    1988-01-01

    The Archean granultie facies rocks of the North China (Sino-Korean) Craton mostly occur inside the northern boundary forming a unique and spectacular granulite belt trending roughly E-W from eastern Hebei, North China in the east to Mt. Daqinchan, western Inner Mongolia in the west, ranging about 1,000 km long. Over the years in the middle portion of this Archean high-grade metamorphic belt a stratigraphic unconformity between the khondalite rock assemblage and the medium in composition granulite assemblage in Datong-Xinghe area is determined. The geological structural properties of the North China Craton are discussed.

  9. Pollen and Phytoliths from Fired Ancient Potsherds as Potential Indicators for Deciphering Past Vegetation and Climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP. PMID:22761901

  10. Potential of Carbon Sequestration as Soil Carbonate in Arid and Semi-arid Region of North China: Impacts of Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Guo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil carbonate (SIC) exceeds organic carbon (SOC) greatly in (semi-)arid lands, thus may be important for carbon sequestration. However, field data for studying SIC dynamics and quantifying SIC accumulation have been lacking. This paper consists of two parts. We first present our recent findings of SIC accumulation in the croplands of north China (Wang et al., 2014; 2015). We then report a meta-analysis of field based SIC data from 745 soil profiles in China. Our recent findings were based on two sets of data: >100 soil samples recently collected from the Yanqi Basin of central Xinjiang and ~200 archived soil samples from four long-term experiment (LTE) sites in the north China. Our study showed that intensive cropping in the arid and semi-arid region leaded to a greater increase in SIC than in SOC; organic amendments enhanced SIC accumulation in the cropland of north China. Our meta-analysis shows that despite a large variation of SIC stock (5-42 kg C m-2), SIC storage in agricultural soils is generally higher relative to non-agricultural soils. We provide assessment how land use change may affect SIC storage in north China.

  11. Area integrated emission of biogenic nitric oxide by Lagrangian dispersion modeling (LASAT): Milan oasis, Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, PR China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, M.; Wu, Z.; Behrendt, T.; Fechner, A. D.; Meixner, F. X.; Andreae, M. O.; Mamtimin, B.

    2012-04-01

    Today's knowledge of soil biogenic NO emission rates from arid and hyper-arid land is based on a total of about 20 experimental studies. Nevertheless, biogenic NO emissions even from non-managed arid and hyper-arid soils are significant and may range between 1-10 ng m-2 s-1 (in terms of nitrogen, if conditions for soil NO production are favourable (optimum soil moisture, high soil temperatures). Irrigated and fertilized oases, ranging about 3000 km long around the great Central Asian Taklimakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). Recent and future development of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. Up to today, only a few studies have preliminarily addressed soil biogenic NO emissions from the Taklimakan desert. In our contribution, we will focus on the quantification of the area integrated NO emission from the Milan oasis located on the most southern fringe of the Takalimkan desert (39.26° N, 88.91° E). At a first step, the 3D distribution of ambient NO concentration is calculated using a state-of-the-art commercially available dispersion model (LASAT 3.2, Lagrange Simulation of Aerosol-Transport). Performing the dispersion simulation, transport and turbulent diffusion are simulated for a group of representative "simulation particles" by means of a stochastic process (Lagrange simulation). Surface sources (individual cotton fields, Jujube orchards) are known: their geographical location as well as their areal extent, their stage of vegetation growth as well as irrigation and fertilization events and amounts, soil temperatures and soil water contents. This information is used to up-scale our results of field specific potential net NO emission, which has been parameterized in terms of soil temperature, soil water content, and soil nutrient

  12. The influence of natural and human factors in the shrinking of the Ebinur Lake, Xinjiang, China, during the 1972-2013 period.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Johnson, Verner Carl; Kung, Hsiang-te; Ding, Jian-li; Sun, Qian; Zhou, Mei; Kelimu, Ardak; Nurmuhammat, Ilyas; Chan, Ngai Weng

    2015-01-01

    The Ebinur Lake is a closed inland lake located within the arid region of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the northwestern part of China, near the Kazakhstan border. The shrinkage of the lake area is believed to be caused by ecological environmental deterioration and has become an important restraining factor for the social development of the local population. Of all the lakes in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the Ebinur Lake is the most severely impacted water body. The lake has undergone change in size naturally for over thousands of years due to natural causes. However, the authors observed the dramatic changes in the freshwater resources of this region from the aerial images from 1972 to 2013. Thus, this paper traces and analyzes the change in the Ebinur Lake surface area in the past 41 years. A set of six satellite images acquired between 1972 and 2013 was employed to map the change in the surface area of the Ebinur Lake using the water index approach. The authors applied the traditional normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) to quantify the change in the water body area of the Ebinur Lake during the study period. The results indicate that the lake area has experienced a dramatic decrease of 31.4% from 1972 to 2013. The paper also examines the natural processes and human activities that may have contributed to the decrease in the lake area. The results show that the decrease in total lake area appears to coincide with periods of rapid land reclamation in the study area. Moreover, the uncontrolled land reclamation activities, such as irrigation, can increase the sedimentation in the Ebinur Lake thereby reducing the lake size. Reduction of the lake area has a negative ecological impact on the environment and on human life and property. The lake area is the most important factor to ensure the environment of the watershed and the key index to measure the environment balance. PMID:25410947

  13. Water resource management in river oases along the Tarim River in North-West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water

  14. DNA polymorphism and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a population of North Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wen-Jing; Lv, Guo-Dong; Zheng, Shu-Tao; Huang, Cong-Gai; Liu, Qing; Wang, Xing; Lin, Ren-Yong; Sheyhidin, Ilyar; Lu, Xiao-Mei

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of metabolic enzyme and DNA repair genes in susceptibility of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: A case-control study was designed with 454 samples from 128 ESCC patients and 326 gender, age and ethnicity-matched control subjects. Genotypes of 69 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of metabolic enzyme (aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, ALDH2; alcohol dehydrogenase-1 B, ADHB1; Cytochrome P450 2A6, CYP2A6) and DNA repair capacity genes (excision repair cross complementing group 1, ERCC1; O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase, MGMT; xeroderma pigmentosum group A, XPA; xeroderma pigmentosum group A, XPD) were determined by the Sequenom MassARRAY system, and results were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, gender. RESULTS: There was no association between the variation in the ERCC1, XPA, ADHB1 genes and ESCC risk. Increased risk of ESCC was suggested in ALDH2 for frequency of presence C allele of SNP [Rs886205: 1.626 (1.158-2.284)], XPD for C allele [Rs50872: 1.482 (1.058-2.074)], and MGMT for A allele [Rs11016897: 1.666 (1.245-2.228)]. Five variants of MGMT were associated with a protective effect on ESCC carcinogenesis, including C allele [Rs7069143: 0.698 (0.518-0.939)], C allele [Rs3793909: 0.653 (0.429-0.995)], A allele [Rs12771882: 0.719 (0.524-0.986)], C allele [Rs551491: 0.707 (0.529-0.945)], and A allele [Rs7071825: 0.618 (0.506-0.910)]. At the genotype level, increased risk of ESCC carcinogenesis was found in homozygous carriers of the ALDH2 Rs886205 [CC vs TT, odds ratios (OR): 3.116, 95% CI: 1.179-8.234], MGMT Rs11016879 (AA vs GG, OR: 3.112, 95% CI: 1.565-6.181), Rs12771882 (AA vs GG, OR: 2.442, 95% CI: 1.204-4.595), and heterozygotes carriers of the ALDH2 Rs886205 (CT vs TT, OR: 3.930, 95% CI: 1.470-10.504), MGMT Rs11016879 (AG vs GG, OR: 3.933, 95% CI: 2.216-6.982) and Rs7075748 (CT vs CC, OR: 1.949, 95% CI: 1.134-3.350), respectively. Three variants were associated with a protective effect on ESCC carcinogenesis, carriers of the MGMT Rs11016878 (AG vs AA, OR: 0.388, 95% CI: 0.180-0.836), Rs7069143(CT vs CC, OR: 0.478, 95% CI: 0.303-0.754) and Rs7071825 (GG vs AA, OR: 0.493, 95% CI: 0.266-0.915). Increased risk of ESCC metastasis was indicated in MGMT for frequency of presence C allele [Rs7068306: 2.204 (1.244-3.906)], A allele [Rs10734088: 1.968 (1.111-3.484)] and C allele [Rs4751115: 2.178 (1.251-3.791)]. Two variants in frequency of presence C allele of CYP2A6 [Rs8192720: 0.290 (0.099-0.855)] and A allele of MGMT [Rs2053139: 0.511 (0.289-0.903)] were associated with a protective effect on ESCC progression. Increased risk of ESCC metastasis was found in heterozygote carriers of the MGMT Rs7068306 (CG vs CC, OR: 4.706, 95% CI: 1.872-11.833). CONCLUSION: Polymorphic variation in ALDH2, XPD and MGMT genes may be of importance for ESCC susceptibility. Polymorphic variation in CYP2A6 and MGMT are associated with ESCC metastasis. PMID:20128036

  15. The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille).

    PubMed

    An, Jiandong; Huang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youquan; Zhang, Shiwen; Wang, Biao; Liu, Xinyu; Wu, Jie; Williams, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators for wild flowers and agricultural crops. North China is a region of varied geomorphology and vegetation, with plateaus, plains, mountains and deserts, and is part of the greatest hotspot of bumblebee diversity worldwide. We report on a field survey of the bumblebees of North China made between 2005-2012. A sample of 21,636 bumblebee specimens are assigned to 76 species. One older specimen held in London added one more species to this list. Together, these 77 species represent 10 subgenera of the genus Bombus. Seven species are recorded from North China for the first time: B. (St.) distinguendus, B. (Th.) anachoreta, B. (Th.) pseudobaicalensis, B. (Th.) exil, B. (Ps.) campestris, B. (Pr.) infirmus and B. (Ag.) validus. We provide identification keys for both males and females, photographs of the common colour patterns, and distribution maps for all species. We describe variation in local species richness and abundance, and list the food plants used by bumblebees in North China. The most abundant 10 bumblebee species are: B. (Ml.) pyrosoma, B. (Bo.) lantschouensis, B. (Bo.) patagiatus, B. (St.) melanurus, B. (Sb.) sibiricus, B. (Bo.) ignitus, B. (Th.) hedini, B. (Pr.) picipes, B. (Mg.) trifasciatus and B. (Mg.) longipes. Bumblebees are distributed widely within North China, from low elevations near the edge of the North-China plain to high elevations at the edge of the east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (65-4011 m). The highest species richness is found in meadows of the high elevation east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and in forests of the Qilianshan mountains in southwestern Gansu. The 337 food plant species recorded here belong to 49 families, showing that bumblebees play an important role in interconnecting agricultural and natural ecosystems in North China.  PMID:25081273

  16. Re Os dating of two Cu Ni sulfide deposits in northern Xinjiang, NW China and its geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zuoheng; Mao, Jingwen; Du, Andao; Pirajno, Franco; Wang, Zhiliang; Chai, Fengmei; Zhang, Zhaochong; Yang, Jianmin

    2008-03-01

    Mafic-ultramafic intrusions in northern Xinjiang are located along major fault zones. Some of these intrusions host Cu-Ni sulfide deposits and amongst these are two economically important Cu-Ni deposits - Kalatongke (also called Karatungk) and Huangshan East (Huangshandong). Sulfides from these deposits were selected for a Re-Os geochronological study in order to understand the tectonic and metallogenic environment of the mafic-ultramafic intrusions and the associated Cu-Ni sulfide deposits in northern Xinjiang. Re-Os dating of Cu-Ni sulfide ores in the Nos. 1 and 2 intrusions of the Kalatongke ore district and Huangshan East deposit gave isochron ages of 282.5 ± 4.8, 290.2 ± 6.9 and 284 ± 14 Ma, respectively, with initial 187Os/ 188Os ratios of 0.2563 ± 0.0073, 0.2721 ± 0.0053 and 0.241 ± 0.092. The γOs values of the Kalatongke and Huangshan East deposits range from 100.6 to 124.2 and from -25.6 to 235.9. These results indicate that the Cu-Ni sulfide mineralization in both deposits formed during the Early Permian (280-290 Ma). Integrating our field observations with published literature and the Re-Os data presented in this work, we suggest that the mafic-ultramafic rocks investigated were emplaced in a post-collisional extensional setting and the Cu-Ni sulfide ores were segregated from crustally contaminated magmas.

  17. Late Carboniferous collision between the Tarim and Kazakhstan-Yili terranes in the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen, Central Asia, and implications for the Northern Xinjiang, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bao-Fu; He, Guo-Qi; Wang, Xue-Chao; Guo, Zhao-Jie

    2011-12-01

    The Tian Shan of Central Asia is located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, also known as the Central Asian Orogenic System or CAOS). Formation of the South Tian Shan Orogen is a diachronous, scissors-like process during the Paleozoic and its western segment in China-Kyrgyzstan contiguous regions is accepted as the site of the final collision zone between the Tarim craton to the south and the Kazakhstan-Yili terrane to the north in the Late Paleozoic. However, when the final collision occurred is still in hot debate. Particularly, an end-Permian to Triassic collisional model is recently proposed for the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen. This even leads to the speculation that the complicated accretion-collision processes in the Northern Xinjiang of western China, which involved the terrane amalgamation in the East and West Junggar and the collision between the Altai and Kazakhstan terranes and between the Yili-Central Tian Shan and Junggar terranes, were finally terminated during the end-Permian to mid-Triassic, rather than the Late Paleozoic as usually accepted. Obviously, the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen also presents the key issue associated with the termination time of accretion-collision processes in the Northern Xinjiang. A collisional model that is derived from the knowledge of the Himalayan Orogen is helpful for establishing a sequence of major tectonothermal events in the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen and constraining the time of collision between the Tarim craton and the Kazakhstan-Yili terrane. For the western segment of the South Tian Shan Orogen, the end-Permian to Triassic collisional model is mainly based on Triassic zircon U-Pb ages of 234 to 226 Ma from the West Tian Shan eclogite and two suspected Late Permian radiolarian specimens Albaillella excelsa Ishiga, Kito and Imoto (?) from the Baleigong ophiolitic mélange. Actually, the poor preservation of the two radiolarian

  18. Potential transport pathways of dust emanating from the playa of Ebinur Lake, Xinjiang, in arid northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yongxiao; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Ma, Long; Wu, Na; Liu, Dongwei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the HYSPLIT model, driven with reanalysis meteorological data from 1978 to 2013, was used to understand the potential transport characteristics of dust and salt dust emanating from the playa of Ebinur Lake in arid northwest China. Daily air parcel trajectories were computed forward for 8 days from an origin centered over Ebinur Lake at 100 m above ground level. Air parcel trajectory density plots were mapped for seven levels: 0-100 m agl., 100-500 m agl., 500-1000 m agl., 1000-1500 m agl., 1500-2000 m agl., 2000-3000 m agl., and 3000-5000 m agl. These show that potential dust transport pathways have clear seasonal differentiation. The potential transport distance of dust and salt dust is greatest in spring and summer. In autumn and winter, the potential transport of the high-density air trajectory is below 1000 m traveling a shorter distance. Potential dust transport pathways showed notifying directivity in different seasons and heights. Southeast in spring and summer, and north to northeast in autumn and winter are the two main potential transport channels of dust and salt dust. Accordingly, dust and salt dust from the playa of Ebinur Lake may influence the atmospheric processes and biogeochemical cycles of a vast region. The main area of influence of dust and salt dust is close to the source area, and will significantly accelerate the melting of snow and ice in the Tianshan Mountains. This highlights the urgent need to combine remote sensing, isotope and other methods to further research the transport characteristics of dust and salt dust from the playa of the Ebinur Lake.

  19. Genetic diversities of cytochrome B in Xinjiang Uyghur unveiled its origin and migration history

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Uyghurs are one of the many populations of Central Eurasia that is considered to be genetically related to Eastern and Western Eurasian populations. However, there are some different opinions on the relative importance of the degree of Eastern and Western Eurasian genetic influence. In addition, the genetic diversity of the Uyghur in different geographic locations has not been clearly studied. Results In this study, we are the first to report on the DNA polymorphism of cytochrome B in the Uyghur population located in Xinjiang in northwest China. We observed a total of 102 mutant sites in the 240 samples that were studied. The average number of mutated nucleotides in the samples was 5.126. A total of 93 different haplotypes were observed. The gene diversity and discrimination power were 0.9480 and 0.9440, respectively. There were founder and bottleneck haplotypes observed in Xinjiang Uyghurs. Xinjiang Uyghurs are more genetically related to Chinese population in genetics than to Caucasians. Moreover, there was genetic diversity between Uyghurs from the southern and northern regions. There was significance in genetic distance between the southern Xinjiang Uyghurs and Chinese population, but not between the northern Xinjiang Uyghurs and Chinese. The European vs. East Asian contribution to the ten regional Uyghur groups varies among the groups and the European contribution to the Uyghur increases from north to south geographically. Conclusion This study is the first report on DNA polymorphisms of cytochrome B in the Uyghur population. The study also further confirms that there are significant genetic differences among the Uyghurs in different geographical locations. PMID:24103151

  20. Active tectonics in southern Xinjiang, China: Analysis of terrace riser and normal fault scarp degradation along the Hotan-Qira fault system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Peltzer, Gilles

    1993-01-01

    The northern piedmont of the western Kunlun mountains (Xinjiang, China) is marked at its easternmost extremity, south of the Hotan-Qira oases, by a set of normal faults trending N50E for nearly 70 km. Conspicuous on Landsat and SPOT images, these faults follow the southeastern border of a deep flexural basin and may be related to the subsidence of the Tarim platform loaded by the western Kunlun northward overthrust. The Hotan-Qira normal fault system vertically offsets the piedmont slope by 70 m. Highest fault scarps reach 20 m and often display evidence for recent reactivations about 2 m high. Successive stream entrenchments in uplifted footwallls have formed inset terraces. We have leveled topographic profiles across fault scarps and transverse abandoned terrace risers. The state of degradation of each terrace edge has been characterized by a degradation coefficient tau, derived by comparison with analytical erosion models. Edges of highest abandoned terraces yield a degradation coefficient of 33 +/- 4 sq.m. Profiles of cumulative fault scarps have been analyzed in a similar way using synthetic profiles generated with a simple incremental fault scarp model.

  1. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-01-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region's metallogeny. PMID:26911195

  2. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-02-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny.

  3. Double sampling for stratification for the monitoring of sparse tree populations: the example of Populus euphratica Oliv. forests at the lower reaches of Tarim River, Southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tzeng Yih; Kleinn, Christoph; Coenradie, Bodo

    2011-04-01

    Desertification is a pressing issue in the dry Tarim River basin, which is under anthropogenic stresses. In this study, double sampling for stratification (DSS) is employed to inventory Populus euphratica Oliv. forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River Basin in Xinjiang, China. The two objectives were evaluating DSS as a sampling technique for monitoring desertification and generating baseline information for permanent observation. Here, DSS consists of two phases: in phase 1, crown cover is observed on a large sample of plots on a high resolution satellite image, and these photo-plots are stratified into five crown cover strata. Phase 2 is a stratified random sample from these photo-plots and the sampled plots are field observed. Approximately 32% of the study area is without P. euphratica trees. As expected, estimated mean poplar tree density and basal area increase with crown cover. DSS takes advantages of stratification (fieldwork efficiency and statistical precision) without the need for a priori strata delineation. It proves feasible for inventory the sparse poplar population and holds promise for the assessment of trees outside the forest, where density varies considerably and pre-stratification is intractable. It can be integrated into permanent observation systems for monitoring vegetation changes. PMID:20480391

  4. Active tectonics in southern Xinjiang, China: Analysis of terrace riser and normal fault scarp degradation along the Hotan-Qira fault system

    SciTech Connect

    Avouac, J.P.; Peltzer, G. |

    1993-12-01

    The northern piedmont of the western Kunlun mountains (Xinjiang, China) is marked at its easternmost extremity, south of the Hotan-Qira oases, by a set of normal faults trending N50E for nearly 70 km. Conspicuous on Landsat and SPOT images, these faults follow the southeastern border of a deep flexural basin and may be related to the subsidence of the Tarim platform loaded by the western Kunlun northward overthrust. The Hotan-Qira normal fault system vertically offsets the piedmont slope by 70 m. Highest fault scarps reach 20 m and often display evidence for recent reactivations about 2 m high. Successive stream entrenchments in uplifted footwallls have formed inset terraces. We have leveled topographic profiles across fault scarps and transverse abandoned terrace risers. The state of degradation of each terrace edge has been characterized by a degradation coefficient tau, derived by comparison with analytical erosion models. Edges of highest abandoned terraces yield a degradation coefficient of 33 +/- 4 sq.m. Profiles of cumulative fault scarps have been analyzed in a similar way using synthetic profiles generated with a simple incremental fault scarp model.

  5. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-01-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny. PMID:26911195

  6. Population genetic analysis of the GlobalFiler STR loci in 748 individuals from the Kazakh population of Xinjiang in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honghua; Yang, Shuping; Guo, Wei; Ren, Bo; Pu, Liwen; Ma, Teng; Xia, Mingying; Jin, Li; Li, Liming; Li, Shilin

    2016-09-01

    The six-dye GlobalFiler™ Express PCR amplification kit incorporates 21 commonly used autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci and three gender determination loci. In this study, we analyzed the GlobalFiler STR loci on 748 unrelated individuals from a Chinese Kazakh population of Xinjiang, China. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium were observed within and between 21 autosomal STR loci. SE33 showed the greatest power of discrimination in Kazakh population. The combined power of discrimination of Kazakh was 99.999999999999999999999996797 %. No significant differences of allele frequencies were observed between Kazakh and Uyghur at all 15 tested STR loci, as well as Mongolian. Significant differences were only observed between Kazakh and the other Chinese populations at TH01. Multiple STR loci showed significant differences between Kazakh and Arab, as well as South Portuguese. The multidimensional scaling plot (MDS) plot and neighbor-joining tree also showed Kazakh is genetically close to Uyghur. PMID:26846763

  7. Atmospheric PAHs in North China: Spatial distribution and sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Lin, Yan; Cai, Jing; Liu, Yue; Hong, Linan; Qin, Momei; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Xinghua; Zheng, Mei

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formed through incomplete combustion process, have adverse health effects. To investigate spatial distribution and sources of PAHs in North China, PAHs with passive sampling in 90 gridded sites during June to September in 2011 were analyzed. The average concentration of the sum of fifteen PAHs in North China is 220±14ng/m(3), with the highest in Shanxi, followed by Shandong and Hebei, and then the Beijing-Tianjin area. Major sources of PAHs are identified for each region of North China, coke process for Shanxi, biomass burning for Hebei and Shandong, and coal combustion for Beijing-Tianjin area, respectively. Emission inventory is combined with back trajectory analysis to study the influence of emissions from surrounding areas at receptor sites. Shanxi and Beijing-Tianjin areas are more influenced by sources nearby while regional sources have more impact on Hebei and Shandong areas. Results from this study suggest the areas where local emission should be the major target for control and areas where both local and regional sources should be considered for PAH abatement in North China. PMID:27241206

  8. Analysis of carbon monoxide budget in North China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Zhao, Chunsheng; Lin, Yunping; Zheng, Xiangdong; Tie, Xuexi; Chan, Lo-Yin

    2007-01-01

    A global chemical transport model (MOZART-2; model of ozone and related tracers, version 2) was used to assess physical and chemical processes that control the budget of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) in North China. Satellite observations of CO from the measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) instrument are combined with model results for the analysis. The comparison between the model simulations and the satellite observations of total column CO (TCO) shows that the model can reproduce the spatial and temporal distributions. However, the model results underestimate TCO by 23% in North China. This underestimation of TCO may be caused by the uncertainties of emissions. The tropospheric CO budget analysis suggests that in North China, surface emission is the largest source of tropospheric CO. The main sinks of tropospheric CO in this region are chemical reaction and stratosphere_and_troposphere exchange. The analysis also shows that most of inflow CO to Pacific regions comes from the upwind regions of North China. This transport of CO is significant during Winter and Spring time. PMID:17092540

  9. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai

    2004-12-16

    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton. PMID:15602559

  10. Annual Temperature Reconstruction by Signal Decomposition and Synthesis from Multi-Proxies in Xinjiang, China, from 1850 to 2001

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jingyun; Liu, Yang; Hao, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    We reconstructed the annual temperature anomaly series in Xinjiang during 1850–2001 based on three kinds of proxies, including 17 tree-ring width chronologies, one tree-ring δ13C series and two δ18O series of ice cores, and instrumental observation data. The low- and high-frequency signal decomposition for the raw temperature proxy data was obtained by a fast Fourier transform filter with a window size of 20 years, which was used to build a good relationship that explained the high variance between the temperature and the proxy data used for the reconstruction. The results showed that for 1850–2001, the temperature during most periods prior to the 1920s was lower than the mean temperature in the 20th century. Remarkable warming occurred in the 20th century at a rate of 0.85°C/100a, which was higher than that during the past 150 years. Two cold periods occurred before the 1870s and around the 1910s, and a relatively warm interval occurred around the 1940s. In addition, the temperature series showed a warming hiatus of approximately 20 years around the 1970s, and a rapid increase since the 1980s. PMID:26632814

  11. [Monitoring of soil salinization in Northern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang of China in dry and wet seasons based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Ding, Jian-Li; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hong-Nan

    2013-11-01

    Soil salinization is one of the most important eco-environment problems in arid area, which can not only induce land degradation, inhibit vegetation growth, but also impede regional agricultural production. To accurately and quickly obtain the information of regional saline soils by using remote sensing data is critical to monitor soil salinization and prevent its further development. Taking the Weigan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis in the northern Tarim River Basin of Xinjiang as test object, and based on the remote sensing data from Landsat-TM images of April 15, 2011 and September 22, 2011, in combining with the measured data from field survey, this paper extracted the characteristic variables modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the third principal component from K-L transformation (K-L-3). The decision tree method was adopted to establish the extraction models of soil salinization in the two key seasons (dry and wet seasons) of the study area, and the classification maps of soil salinization in the two seasons were drawn. The results showed that the decision tree method had a higher discrimination precision, being 87.2% in dry season and 85.3% in wet season, which was able to be used for effectively monitoring the dynamics of soil salinization and its spatial distribution, and to provide scientific basis for the comprehensive management of saline soils in arid area and the rational utilization of oasis land resources. PMID:24564152

  12. Formation mechanism of land subsidence in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haipeng; Cheng, Guoming

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is a progressive and gradual geological disaster, whose development is irreversible. Due to rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, land subsidence occurs commonly in the North China Plain, and has become the main environmental factor impacting sustainable economic and social development. This study presents a brief review on the current situation of land subsidence in the North China Plain. Then the hydrologic, hydrogeologic and anthropogenic conditions favorable for the formation of land subsidence are analyzed, indicating that the formation of land subsidence is mainly determined by local geological condition and enabling conditions, e.g. long-term excessive exploitation of groundwater and engineering construction. A correlation analysis was conducted in both the North China Plain and Cangzhou region, a typical area where severe land subsidence occurs, of the quantitative relationship between deep groundwater yield and the land subsidence. The analysis results indicate that the land subsidence volume accounts for 40% to 44% of deep water yield in the North China Plain, indirectly showing the proportion of released water from compressibility of the aquifer and the aquitard in deep groundwater yield. In Cangzhou region, this proportion was calculated as 58%, far greater than that of the North China Plain. This is induced by the local lithologic structure and recharge condition of deep groundwater in Cangzhou region. The analysis of soil samples in Cangzhou region shows that strong relations exist among different physical parameters, and good change laws of compression with depth and pressure are found for soil samples. The hydraulic conductivities of clay are six orders of magnitude greater than those of the aquifer, implying the strong hypothesis of land subsidence. This analysis provides data and scientific basis for further study on formation mechanism of land subsidence in Cangzhou region and objective evaluation of its

  13. Characteristics of the disastrous wind-sand environment along railways in the Gobi area of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Jiang, Fu-qiang; Xue, Chun-xiao; Xin, Guo-wei; Li, Kai-chong; Yang, Yin-hai

    2015-02-01

    Based on detailed long-term data of wind regimes collected from typical ventilation sites along the railways in the Gobi area of Xinjiang, this study systematically analyzes the characteristics of the disastrous wind-sand environment along the railways by combining gradient sand sampling data collected by a wind-drift sand monitoring system and site survey data. Wind direction and speed rose diagrams revealed the prevailing wind direction in each wind area along the railways, and this is the wind direction from which the maximum frequency of sandstorms occurred. Drift potential characteristic parameters (RDP, RDD) and the direction variability (RDP/DP) showed that each wind area along the Gobi railway featured a long wind period, with strong power in a single wind direction. The special geological environment of the Gobi determines the wind-drift sand that features gravel of large grain size and unsaturation, which are different from the wind-drift sand in deserts. With increasing wind velocity, the density of the wind-drift sand increased steadily; however, at a certain critical value, the density surged. This study on the wind-sand environment of the Gobi has significance for railway safety. The critical value of wind velocity corresponded to an abrupt increase in the wind-drift sand density and should be taken into account during the planning process of railway safety passage, since this will lead to a decrease in frontal visual distance, and an associated decrease in safety. Additionally, the specific features of wind-drift sand activities, such as the abruptness and higher than usual sand height, should be considered during the process of designing sand-damage-control engineering measures.

  14. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem. PMID:27228607

  15. The diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II DRB1 gene in sheep breeds from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Polat, M; Aida, Y; Takeshima, S-N; Aniwashi, J; Halik, M

    2015-01-01

    Exon 2 of the ovine leukocyte antigen OLA-DRB1 locus was examined in sheep from the Xinjiang Karakul Ram and Bashibai populations, and three generations of hybrids were derived from a cross between Bashibai and Altai Argali wild sheep. This identified 12 novel alleles and 30 previously reported alleles. A neighbor-joining tree of the amino acid sequences of these 42 alleles revealed allelic clusters shared across the study populations. There were significant differences in allelic frequency between Karakul Ram and Bashibai sheep. DRB1*K18cC was the most frequent allele in Kararul Ram with a frequency of 21.2%, while DRB1*2F10c8 (13.2%) and DRB1*0803 (13.2%) were the most frequent alleles found in Bashibai sheep; the alleles DRB1*2F16c2, DRB1*1601, and DRB1*0803 occurred most frequently in F1, F2, and F3 populations, with frequencies of 17.6%, 14.3%, and 20%, respectively. Although many alleles were shared by Bashibai and hybrid sheep, some alleles differed between them, especially in the F1 generation of the Bashibai × Altai Argali cross. The hybrid-specific alleles indicated the introgression of Altai Argali alleles into hybrid flocks. A population tree based on the OLA-DRB1 allelic frequency in each population indicated that the Bashibai sheep and three hybrid populations were similar, with Karakul Ram being genetically distinct. PMID:25430475

  16. Multi-scale response of runoff to climate fluctuation in the headwater region of Kaidu River in Xinjiang of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ling; Chen, Zhongsheng; Xu, Jianhua; Li, Weihong

    2016-08-01

    Based on the hydrological and meteorological data in the headwater region of the Kaidu River during 1960-2009, the multi-scale characteristics of runoff variability were analyzed using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD), and the aim is to investigate the oscillation mode structure characteristics of runoff change and its response to climate fluctuation at different time scales. Results indicated that in the past 50 years, the overall runoff of Kaidu River in Xinjiang has showed a significant nonlinear upward trend, and its changes have obviously exhibited an inter-annual scale (quasi-3 and quasi-6-year) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-10 and quasi-25-year). Variance contribution rates of each component manifested that the inter-decadal change had been playing a more important role in the overall runoff change for Kaidu River, and the reconstructed inter-annual variation trend could describe the fluctuation state of the original runoff anomaly during the study period. The reconstructed inter-decadal variability effectively revealed that the runoff for Kaidu River changed over the years, namely the states of abundance and low water period appear alternately. In addition, we found that runoff has a positive correlation to precipitation and temperature at different time scales, but they are most significant and relevant at inter-decadal scale, indicating the inter-decadal scale is most suitable for investigating the responses of runoff dynamics to climate fluctuation. At the same time, the results also suggested that EEMD is an effective method to analyze the multi-scale characteristics of nonlinear and non-stationary signal.

  17. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  18. A non-plume model for the Permian protracted (266-286 Ma) basaltic magmatism in the Beishan-Tianshan region, Xinjiang, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Sheng-Chao; Li, Chusi; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    The convenient mantle plume model for the Permian protracted mafic-ultramafic intrusions and mafic dykes (266-286 Ma) in the Beishan-Tianshan region, northern Xinjiang, western China can be rejected, because their temporal-spatial distribution does not show a hotspot track predicted by such model. New zircon U-Pb ages reveal that two small mafic dyke clusters (Podong, 280.5 ± 2 Ma; Luodong, 266.2 ± 3.2 Ma) that are separated by only ~ 20 km in the Pobei area, the southernmost part of the Beishan-Tianshan region, have a large age difference of ~ 18 Ma. The older mafic dykes are characterized by nearly flat mantle-normalized rare-earth-element patterns, pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and positive εNd(t) values from 5.5 to 7.5, similar to the majority of the Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the region. The younger mafic dykes are characterized by significant light rare-earth-element enrichments as well as pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies, plus lower εNd(t) (- 1.2 to 2.6) values and higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios than the older mafic dykes. The observed compositional variations can be explained by source mantle heterogeneity plus different degrees of crustal contamination. Overall, the Permian mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Beishan-Tianshan region are geochemically consistent with the products of basaltic magmatism induced by lithospheric delamination and asthenosphere upwelling in a convergent tectonic zone.

  19. Two episodes of 13C-depletion in organic carbon in the latest Permian: Evidence from the terrestrial sequences in northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changqun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lujun; Shen, Shuzhong; Summons, Roger E.

    2008-06-01

    New analyses reveal two intervals of distinctly lower δ13C values in the terrestrial organic matter of Permian-Triassic sequences in northern Xinjiang, China. The younger negative δ13C org spike can be correlated to the conspicuous and sharp δ13C drops both in carbonate carbon and organic carbon near the Permian-Triassic event boundary (PTEB) in the marine section at Meishan. The geochemical correlation criteria are accompanied by a magnetic susceptibility pulse and higher abundances of distinctive, chain-like organic fossil remains of Reduviasporonites. The older negative δ13C org spike originates within a latest Permian regression. Significant changes in organic geochemical proxies are recorded in the equivalent interval of the marine section at Meishan. These include relatively higher concentrations of total organic carbon, isorenieratane, C 14-C 30 aryl isoprenoids and lower ratios of pristane/phytane that, together, indicate the onset of anoxic, euxinic and restricted environments within the photic zone. The massive and widespread oxidation of buried organic matter that induced these euxinic conditions in the ocean would also result in increased concentrations of 13C-depleted atmospheric CO 2. The latest Permian environmental stress marked by the older negative δ13C org episode can be correlated with the distinct changeover of ostracod assemblages and the occurrences of morphological abnormalities of pollen grains. These observations imply that biogeochemical disturbance was manifested on the land at the end of the Permian and that terrestrial organisms responded to it before the main extinction of the marine fauna.

  20. A new xinjiangchelyid turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Xinjiang, China and the evolution of the basipterygoid process in Mesozoic turtles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most turtles from the Middle and Late Jurassic of Asia are referred to the newly defined clade Xinjiangchelyidae, a group of mostly shell-based, generalized, small to mid-sized aquatic froms that are widely considered to represent the stem lineage of Cryptodira. Xinjiangchelyids provide us with great insights into the plesiomorphic anatomy of crown-cryptodires, the most diverse group of living turtles, and they are particularly relevant for understanding the origin and early divergence of the primary clades of extant turtles. Results Exceptionally complete new xinjiangchelyid material from the ?Qigu Formation of the Turpan Basin (Xinjiang Autonomous Province, China) provides new insights into the anatomy of this group and is assigned to Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. A phylogenetic analysis places Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. in a monophyletic polytomy with other xinjiangchelyids, including Xinjiangchelys junggarensis, X. radiplicatoides, X. levensis and X. latiens. However, the analysis supports the unorthodox, though tentative placement of xinjiangchelyids and sinemydids outside of crown-group Testudines. A particularly interesting new observation is that the skull of this xinjiangchelyid retains such primitive features as a reduced interpterygoid vacuity and basipterygoid processes. Conclusions The homology of basipterygoid processes is confidently demonstrated based on a comprehensive review of the basicranial anatomy of Mesozoic turtles and a new nomenclatural system is introduced for the carotid canal system of turtles. The loss of the basipterygoid process and the bony enclosure of the carotid circulation system occurred a number of times independently during turtle evolution suggesting that the reinforcement of the basicranial region was essential for developing a rigid skull, thus paralleling the evolution of other amniote groups with massive skulls. PMID:24053145

  1. Petrogenesis of the Seleteguole granitoids from Jinhe county in Xinjiang (West China): Implications for the tectonic transformation of Northwest Tianshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Su, Wen-Chao; Tang, Hong-Feng; Yan, Jia-Hui; Cao, Jing-Liang

    2016-07-01

    The Seleteguole Cu-Mo deposit in Jinghe County, Xinjiang is tectonically located on the northern margin of the Northwestern Tianshan. Three major intrusions including biotite granite, diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry have been identified. The biotite granite, with a zircon U-Pb age of 307 ± 3 Ma, intruded carbonates and clastic rocks of the Middle Carboniferous Dongtujin Formation. The younger diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry, with an identical zircon U-Pb age of 302 ± 3 Ma, locally intruded the biotite granite; where the granite in contact with the two porphyries were characterized by phyllic alteration. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics indicate that all granitoids in Seleteguole belong to calc-alkaline I-type. These granitoids are enriched in LILE relative to HFSE with negative anomalies of Nb, P and Ti, typical of arc-related rocks. All three granitoids have positive zircon εHf(t) values, low Mg# ratios (34-39), and low Cr (< 60 ppm) and Ni (< 15 ppm) contents, suggesting that their parental magmas could be derived from juvenile lower crust that has probably originated from cooling of mantle-derived magmas as a result of the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block. Subducted sediments were involved in the source of the granitoids in Seleteguole. Compared to biotite granite, diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry have higher Th/La ratios but lower zircon εHf(t) values, indicating that more subducted sediments contributed in the latter two. The regional geological and geochemical characteristics of the Late Carboniferous igneous rocks in the Northwestern Tianshan show that Late Carboniferous I-type granitoids, with juvenile Sr-Nd-(Hf) isotopic signatures, formed in a continent-marginal arc setting as a result of the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block. In combination with the compositions of the Early Permian granitoids in the region, we suggest that the tectonic setting of

  2. Locating True North in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankenier, D. W.

    2009-08-01

    Archaeological discoveries from the Chinese Bronze Age have demonstrated a dominant concern with achieving cardinal orientation that persisted throughout the Xià, Shāng, and Zhōdu dynasties (ca. 2000 -- 300 BCE). It has long been understood that cardinality is an index of the paradigmatic roles of ``the center'' and ``the four quarters'', both core organizing principles of early Chinese cosmological thinking. Here, however, I focus on a very early practical technique used to identify the location of the pole in the absence of a pole star. This method takes advantage of the unique orientation of the Great Square of Pegasus (known as Ding} in early China) and offers insight into a fundamental mindset that figured importantly in the formation of early Chinese Civilization.

  3. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution. PMID:26215458

  4. New evidence for early presence of hominids in North China

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Wei, Qi; Qiang, Xiaoke; Xiao, Guoqiao

    2013-01-01

    The Nihewan Basin in North China has a rich source of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites. Here, we report a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the Shangshazui Paleolithic site that was found in the northeastern Nihewan Basin in 1972. The artifact layer is suggested to be located in the Matuyama reversed polarity chron just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai polarity subchron, yielding an estimated age of ca 1.7–1.6 Ma. This provides new evidence for hominid occupation in North China in the earliest Pleistocene. The earliest hominids are argued to have lived in a habitat of open grasslands mixed with patches of forests close to the bank of the Nihewan paleolake as indicated from faunal compositions. Hominid migrations to East Asia during the Early Pleistocene are suggested to be a consequence of increasing cooling and aridity in Africa and Eurasia. PMID:23948715

  5. Late Precambrian aulacogens of the North China craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, X.

    1985-01-01

    According to tectonic styles, the Precambrian evolution history of the North China craton may be subdivided into four stages: (1) Archean consolidation in 3.5 to 2.5 Ga, (2) Early Proterozoic rifting in 2.5 to 1.8 Ga, (3) Late Precambrian aulacogen in 1.8 to 0.8 Ga and (4) Platform regime after 0.8 Ga. In the Late Precambrian aulacogen stage of the North China craton there were two main aulacogens, Yanliao and Zhongtiao (Y and Z), developed in Middle Proterozoic time with an age 1.8 to 1.0 Ga. Their NE trend caused them to meet together in the central part of the craton and build up one great Y-Z aulacogen throughout the craton.

  6. Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic constraints on the Paleozoic reconstructions of south China, north China and Tarim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangyou, Nie

    1991-10-01

    Paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic data provide the most useful latitudinal constraints for plate reconstructions. Distributions through the Paleozoic of five types of climatically sensitive sediments (coals, evaporites, reefs, dolomites and limestones) for south China, north China and Tarim are shown on 15 maps that include 1578 reliable data points. These paleoclimatic data agree reasonably well with available paleomagnetic directions, although significant divergence between the two exists for the Early Paleozoic. These data indicate the following: (1) South China was in low latitudes during the entire Paleozoic, with a subtropical position in the Cambrian. (2) North China also remained near the equator in the Early and Late Paleozoic, except for the Ordovian and the Late Permian when extensive evaporites suggest slightly higher latitudinal positions, while its Middle Paleozoic position is uncertain due to the missing stratigraphie record. (3) In south China, local tectonics appears to have played a dominant role in determining paleogeography and therefore marine sedimentation, especially after the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian, because the areal coverage of marine sediments through time is distinctly different from what would be expected from published global sea-level curves. (4) Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic data are compatible with biogeographic data which suggest that south China was part of eastern Gondwana in the Early Paleozoic, but was widely separated from Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic, and the split between the two probably happened in the Devonian, giving rise to a major break-up unconformity in central south China.

  7. Research of Houjiayao Unit in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    "Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic

  8. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant. PMID:23564427

  9. Juxtaposition of adakite, boninite, high-TiO 2 and low-TiO 2 basalts in the Devonian southern Altay, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hecai; Sato, Hiroaki; Zhang, Haixiang; Ito, Jun'ichi; Yu, Xueyuan; Nagao, Takashi; Terada, Kentaro; Zhang, Qi

    2006-12-01

    We present petrographic and geochemical data on representative samples of the Devonian adakite, boninite, low-TiO 2 and high-TiO 2 basalts and associated rocks in the southern Altay areas, Xinjiang, NW China. These volcanic rocks mostly occur as tectonic blocks within suture zones between the Siberian and Junggar plates. Adakite occurs in the Suoerkuduke area ca. 40 km south of Fuyun, and actually represents a poorly-sorted massive volcaniclastic deposit, mostly consisting of a suite of hornblende andesite to pyroxene andesite. The geochemical features of the adakite suggest its generation by melting of subducted oceanic crust. Boninite occurs in the Saerbulake area ca. 20 km southwest of Fuyun, as pillowed lava or pillowed breccia. It is associated with high-TiO 2 basalt/gabbro and low-TiO 2 basalt. The boninites are metamorphosed, but contain relict clinopyroxene with Mg# (=100*Mg/(Mg+Fe)) of 90-92, and Cr 2O 3 contents of 0.5-0.7 wt% and chromian spinel with Cr/(Cr+Al) ratio of 0.84. The bulk rock compositions of the boninites are characterized by low and U-shaped REE with variable La/Yb ratios. They are classified as high-Ca boninite. The Cr-rich cpx phenocryst and Chromian spinel suggests that the boninites were formed by melting of mildly refractory mantle peridotite fluxed by a slab-derived fluid component under normal mantle potential temperature conditions. Basaltic rocks occur as massive flows, pillowed lavas, tuff breccia, lapilli tuff and blocks in tectonic mélanges. Together with gabbros, the basaltic rocks are classified into high-TiO 2 (>1.7 wt%) and low-TiO 2 (<1.5 wt%) types. They show variable trace element compositions, from MORB-type through transitional back-arc basin basalt to arc tholeiite, or within plate alkalic basalt. A notable feature of the Devonian formations in the southern Altay is the juxtaposition of volcanic rocks of various origins even within a limited area; i.e. the adakite and the boninites are associated with high-TiO 2 and

  10. [Dynamic changes in vegetation NDVI from 1982 to 2012 and its responses to climate change and human activities in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Du, Jia-qiang; Jiaerheng, Ahati; Zhao, Chenxi; Fang, Guang-ling; Yin, Jun-qi; Xiang, Bao; Yuan, Xin-jie; Fang, Shi-feng

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the terrestrial carbon balance and the climate system, and also overwhelmingly dominates the provisioning of ecosystem services. Therefore, it has significance to monitor the growth of vegetation. Based on AVHRR GIMMS NDVI and MODIS NDVI datasets, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of change in NDVI and their linkage with climate change and human activity from 1982 to 2012 in the typical arid region, Xinjiang of northwestern China, at pixel and regional scales. At regional scale, although a statistically significant positive trend of growing season NDVI with a rate of 4.09 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ was found during 1982-2012, there were two distinct periods with opposite trends in growing season NDVI before and after 1998, respectively. NDVI in growing season first significantly increased with a rate of 10 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ from 1982 to 1998, and then decreased with a rate of -3 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ from 1998 to 2012. The change in trend of NDVI from increase to decrease mainly occurred in summer, followed by autumn, and the reversal wasn't observed in spring. At pixel scale, the NDVI in farmland significantly increased; the NDVI changes in the growing season and all seasons showed polarization: Areas with significant change mostly increased in size as the NDVI record grown in length. The rate of increase in size of areas with significantly decreasing NDVI was larger than that with significantly increasing NDVI, which led to the NDVI increase obviously slowing down or stopping at regional scale. The vegetation growth in the study area was regulated by both climate change and human activity. Temperature was the most important driving factor in spring and autumn, whereas precipitation in summer. Extensive use of fertilizers and increased farmland irrigated area promoted the vegetation growth. However, the rapid increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation and use of drip irrigation might reduce spring NDVI in the

  11. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) Genotypes and Multiple Infections in Cervical Abnormalities from Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jingyun; Jiang, Jianjun; Jia, Xuesong; Chen, Chuangfu; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within the cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in various grades of the cervical neoplasia. To date, only a few reports exist on multiple HPV infections of HPV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes and multiple infections. Cervical cytology samples were collected from 428 women who presented cervical abnormalities. Genotyping of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction–sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) using consensus primers and specific primers. Of them, 166 samples were positive for HPV according to PCR results using the consensus primers. These samples contained cervical abnormalities enriched with inflammation (n = 107), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 19), CINII-III (n = 9) and cervical cancer (n = 31). Of the 166 HPV positive samples as determined by PCR analysis, 151 were further typed by PCR-SBT using 19 pairs of genotype-specific primers. Using this method, 17 different HR-HPV genotypes were identified. The most frequently observed HPV genotypes were HPV16 (44.0%, 73/166), 53 (28.9%, 48/166), 52 (25.3%, 42/166), 58 (22.3%, 37/166) and 35 (17.5%, 29/166). The proportions of single and multiple infections in the HPV-positive specimens were 34.9% and 65.1%, respectively. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in the inflammatory state (63.0%), followed by cervical cancer (24.1%), CINI (11.1%), and CINII-III (1.9%). The results of our data analyses suggested that i) multiple HPV infection is not necessarily correlated with the severity of cervical abnormalities; and ii) among the multiple HPV infections, double infections combined with HPV16 is the most common. In addition, L1 full-length sequences of the top five high-risk HPV genotypes were amplified and sequenced. According to the L1 sequence of the epidemic genotypes that were amplified, we found that these

  12. Formation mechanism of the lanthanide tetrad effect for a topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-zhi; Liu, Si-hai; Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Lei, Ru-xiong

    2011-10-01

    The Baishitouquan (BST) pluton is a topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite intrusion located in the Middle Tianshan orogen of Xinjiang, northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five lithological zones gradational from the bottom upwards: leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). Contents of REE and other trace elements were analysed on major and accessory minerals, including quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, white micas, topaz, fluorite, garnet, zircon and monazite, separated from above five zones of the BST pluton. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of minerals from zone-a to zone-e display clear convex tetrad effect, and the TE 1,3 (quantification factor of tetrad effect) values of these minerals increases from zone-a to zone-e, except that a quartz sample from zone-b and zircon from zone-c exhibits W-type tetrad effect. Therefore, we conclude that REE tetrad features of the minerals, such as quartz, plagioclase, zircon, garnet and monazite, are inherited directly from the melt and have not significantly affected by both fractional crystallization and surface weathering. With progressing of magmatic differentiation, total REE contents decrease, Eu anomaly becomes more negative, whereas Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and Y/Ho ratios decrease gradually from zone-a to zone-e with increasing TE 1,3 values. Therefore, we suggest that F-rich magmatic fluid-melt interaction above its solidus may leave the residual silicate melt with the features of very low contents of all REE, subchondritic Y/Ho, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta values, and with an M-type tetrad pattern, including minerals crystallizing from it. Such a pattern is manifested by both whole-rock and separate minerals. Hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction played only a minor role to the convex tetrad effect of the minerals and their host rocks.

  13. IL-10 Genetic Polymorphisms Were Associated with Valvular Calcification in Han, Uygur and Kazak Populations in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-Tong; Wulasihan, Muhuyati; Huang, Ying; Adi, Dilare; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Huang, Ding; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bang-Dang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Valvular calcification occurs via ongoing endothelial injury associated with inflammation. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and 75% of the variation in IL-10 production is genetically determined. However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of IL-10 and valvular calcification has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between valvular calcification and IL-10 genetic polymorphisms in the Han, Uygur and Kazak populations in China. Patients and Methods All of the participants were selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1800871 and rs1800872 of the IL-10 gene were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Three independent case-control studies involving the Han population, the Uygur population and the Kazak population were used in the analysis. Results For the Han and Kazak populations, rs1800871 was found to be associated with valvular calcification in the recessive model, and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (p<0.001, p=0.031, respectively). For the Han, Uygur and Kazak populations, rs1800872 was found to be associated with valvular calcification in the dominant model, and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (p<0.001, p=0.009, and p=0.023,respectively) Conclusion Both rs1800871 and rs1800872 of the IL-10 gene are associated with valvular calcification in the Han and Kazak populations in China. Rs1800872 is also associated with valvular calcification in the Uygur population. PMID:26039365

  14. Lead distribution in Permo-Carboniferous coal from the North China Plate, China.

    PubMed

    Kunli, Luo; Jidong, Lu; Lianwu, Chen

    2005-02-01

    The content and distribution of the lead in coal, gangue and the sulfur ball and the pyritic gangue of the Permo-Carboniferous in the North China Plate have been systematically studied (nearly 300 samples) in this paper. The Permo-Carboniferous coals in the North China Plate account for nearly 44.45% of total Chinese coal resources, and most of the steam coals in China come from the Permo-Carboniferous coals in the North China Plate. The result shows that lead content in the coal varied from 1.45 to 63.60 mg kg(-1), averaging 23.95 mg kg(-1); the lead content of the sulfur ball and the pyritic gangue in the coal seam ranges from 70.26-1060 mg kg(-1), with an average of 271.28 mg kg(-1); the lead content of the gangue is from 29.5 to 77.81 mg kg(-1), averaging at 40.77 mg kg(-1). The lead in the coal seam is mainly concentrated in the pyrite, such as sulfur ball, pyritic gangue or pyrite, and is the least concentrated in the organic of coal. The content of the lead has a direct ratio with the ash and the pyretic sulfur. Coal washing can reduce the content of the pyretic sulfur and the lead. PMID:15688128

  15. Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Thalassemia in Uygur and Kazak Ethnic Groups in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Han, Luhao; Su, Hai; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Weiying; Chen, Suqin

    2016-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and thalassemia occur frequently in tropical and subtropical regions, while the prevalence of relationship between the two diseases in Xinjiang has not been reported. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these diseases and clarify the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes of the two diseases in the Uygur and Kazak ethnic groups in Xinjiang. We measured G6PD activity by G6PD:6PGD (glucose acid-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) ratio, identified the gene variants of G6PD and α- and β-globin genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-DNA sequencing and gap-PCR and compared these variants in different ethnic groups in Xinjiang with those adjacent to it. Of the 149 subjects with molecular analysis of G6PD deficiency conducted, a higher prevalence of the combined mutations c.1311C > T/IVSXI + 93T > C and IVSXI + 93T > C, both with normal enzymatic activities, were observed in the Uygur and Kazak subjects. A case of rare mutation HBB: c.135delC [codon 44 (-C) in the heterozygous state], a heterozygous case of HBB: c.68A > G [Hb G-Taipei or β22(B4)Glu→Gly] and several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found on the β-globin gene. In conclusion, G6PD deficiency with pathogenic mutations and three common α-thalassemia (α-thal) [- -(SEA), -α(3.7) (rightward), -α(4.2) (leftward)] deletions and point mutations of the α-globin gene were not detected in the present study. The average incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) in Uygurs was 1.45% (2/138) in Xinjiang. The polymorphisms of G6PD and β-globin genes might be useful genetic markers to trace the origin and migration of the Uygur and Kazak in Xinjiang. PMID:26950205

  16. Satellite signal shows storage-unloading subsidence in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiwo, J. P.; Tao, F.

    2015-06-01

    Worsening water storage depletion (WSD) contributes to environmental degradation, land subsidence and earthquake and could disrupt food production/security and social stability. There is need for efficient water use strategies in North China, a pivotal agrarian, industrial and political base in China with a widespread WSD. This study integrates satellite, model and field data products to investigate WSD and land subsidence in North China. In the first step, GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mass rates are used to show WSD in the region. Next, GRACE total water storage (TWS) is corrected for soil water storage (SWS) to derive groundwater storage (GWS) using GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) data products. The derived GWS is compared with GWS obtained from field-measured groundwater level to show land subsidence in the study area. Then GPS (Global Positioning System) data of relative land surface change (LSC) are used to confirm the subsidence due to WSD. A total of ~ 96 near-consecutive months (January 2002 through December 2009) of datasets are used in the study. Based on GRACE mass rates, TWS depletion is 23.76 ± 1.74 mm yr-1 or 13.73 ± 1.01 km3 yr-1 in the 578 000 km2 study area. This is ~ 31 % of the slated 45 km3 yr-1 water delivery in 2050 via the South-North Water Diversion Project. Analysis of relative LSC shows subsidence of 7.29 ± 0.35 mm yr-1 in Beijing and 2.74 ± 0.16 mm yr-1 in North China. About 11.53 % (2.74 ± 0.18 mm or 1.58 ± 0.12 km3) of the TWS and 8.37 % (1.52 ± 0.70 mm or 0.88 ± 0.03 km3) of the GWS are attributed to storage reductions accompanying subsidence in the region. Although interpretations of the findings require caution due to the short temporal and large spatial coverage, the concurrence of WSD and land subsidence could have adverse implications for the study area. It is critical that the relevant stakeholders embark on resource-efficient measures to ensure water availability, food security, ecological

  17. Spaceborne radar for geoscientific applications in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hua-Dong; Wu, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Song

    1993-05-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A and -B (SIR-A and SIR-B) carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia in Nov. 1981 and the Challenger in Oct. 1984 acquired images of test sites of North China. The Russian ALMAZ SAR also acquired imagery of part of this test site in Sep. 1992. In Nov. 1990, the airborne SAR developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS/SAR) covered this area for the purpose of Chinese spaceborne radar development. By studying and analyzing these SAR data, positive results in geoscientific applications were achieved.

  18. Spaceborne radar for geoscientific applications in North China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Hua-Dong; Wu, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Song

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A and -B (SIR-A and SIR-B) carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia in Nov. 1981 and the Challenger in Oct. 1984 acquired images of test sites of North China. The Russian ALMAZ SAR also acquired imagery of part of this test site in Sep. 1992. In Nov. 1990, the airborne SAR developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS/SAR) covered this area for the purpose of Chinese spaceborne radar development. By studying and analyzing these SAR data, positive results in geoscientific applications were achieved.

  19. Oasis land-use change and its effects on the eco-environment in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mamat, Zulpiya; Yimit, Hamid; Eziz, Anwar; Ablimit, Ajigul

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data and the published coefficients about the world's and China's ecosystem were used to analyze the effects of land-use changes on the ecosystem service in the Yanqi Basin. Both economic developments and arid, fragile ecosystems have strongly affected the land use. A sensitivity analysis determined the effect of manipulating the coefficients on the estimated values. Results indicated that (1) the total value of ecosystem services in the Yanqi Basin were 9,374.66, 10,450.52, 9,964.20, and 9,8707.77 million Yuan in 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively. The net increase in ecosystem service values were about 496.11 million Yuan within 1990-2011; (2) The aggregated ecosystem service values of water body, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands were about 99.25 % of the total value; (3) Waste treatment and soil formation were the top two ecological functions with high service values and contributing about 61.70 % of the total service values; and (4) Ecosystem service values estimated in this study were inelastic with respect to the value coefficients; therefore, the estimation was robust in spite of uncertainties on the value coefficients. A reasonable land-use plan should be based on rigorous environmental impact analyses for maintaining stability and sustainable development of the Yanqi Basin. PMID:24046238

  20. Assimilating MODIS Snow Covers into Land Surface Model: Validation with in-situ Snow Measurements in Northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chunlin; Hou, Jinliang; Wang, WeiZhen

    2016-04-01

    Accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of snow cover is important for snowmelt runoff simulation and water resources management especially in mountainous areas. In this work, we develop a snow data assimilation scheme based on Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) algorithm and Common Land Model (CoLM), which can assimilate snow cover fraction (SCF) products from the Moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into CoLM for improving snow depth (SD) and snow cover area simulations. An empirical model between SD and SCF has been built based on MODIS SCF and snow depth observations at meteorological stations located in study area, which is used as observation operator in snow data assimilation scheme. The assimilation experiment is conducted during 2004-2007, in Xingjiang province, west China. The preliminary assimilation results are very promising and show that the assimilation of SCF could significantly improve the CoLM capability of simulating snow cover area and snow depth. The assimilation results are more closer to those of observations, which have more reasonable and reliable snow accumulation and melting trends throughout the snow season. After assimilating MODIS SCF observations, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias error (MBE) of snow cover or snow depth are significantly reduced compared to the results without assimilation.

  1. Northeast China summer temperature and North Atlantic SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Yang, Song; Liu, Shi; Sun, Li; Lian, Yi; Gao, Zongting

    2011-08-01

    A previous study revealed a close relationship between interannual variations of northeast China (NEC) summer temperature and a tripole sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly pattern in the North Atlantic in preceding spring. The present study investigates the change in the above relationship and the plausible causes for the change. A tripole SST index is defined with its positive value corresponding to positive SST anomalies in the tropics and midlatitudes and negative SST anomalies in the subtropics. The tripole SST anomaly pattern has a weak correlation with NEC summer temperature during the 1950s through the mid-1970s, in sharp contrast to the 1980s and 1990s. This change is related to the difference in the persistence of the tripole SST pattern. Before the late 1970s, the tripole SST pattern weakened from spring to summer, and thus, the spring North Atlantic tripole SST pattern had a weak connection with NEC summer temperature. On the contrary, after the late 1970s, the tripole SST pattern displayed a tendency of persistence from spring to summer, contributing to circulation changes that affected NEC summer temperature. There are two factors for the persistence of the tripole SST pattern from spring to summer. One is the North Atlantic air-sea interaction, and the other is the persistence of SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the decay of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). It is shown that the North Atlantic SST anomalies can have an impact on NEC summer temperature independent of ENSO.

  2. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113

  3. Mesozoic non-marine petroleum source rocks determined by palynomorphs in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, D.-X.; Wang, Y.-D.; Robbins, E.I.; Wei, J.; Tian, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Tarim Basin in Northwest China hosts petroleum reservoirs of Cambrian, Ordovician, Carboniferous, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary ages. The sedimentary thickness in the basin reaches about 15 km and with an area of 560000 km2, the basin is expected to contain giant oil and gas fields. It is therefore important to determine the ages and depositional environments of the petroleum source rocks. For prospective evaluation and exploration of petroleum, palynological investigations were carried out on 38 crude oil samples collected from 22 petroleum reservoirs in the Tarim Basin and on additionally 56 potential source rock samples from the same basin. In total, 173 species of spores and pollen referred to 80 genera, and 27 species of algae and fungi referred to 16 genera were identified from the non-marine Mesozoic sources. By correlating the palynormorph assemblages in the crude oil samples with those in the potential source rocks, the Triassic and Jurassic petroleum source rocks were identified. Furthermore, the palynofloras in the petroleum provide evidence for interpretation of the depositional environments of the petroleum source rocks. The affinity of the miospores indicates that the petroleum source rocks were formed in swamps in brackish to lacustrine depositional environments under warm and humid climatic conditions. The palynomorphs in the crude oils provide further information about passage and route of petroleum migration, which is significant for interpreting petroleum migration mechanisms. Additionally, the thermal alternation index (TAI) based on miospores indicates that the Triassic and Jurassic deposits in the Tarim Basin are mature petroleum source rocks. ?? Cambridge University Press 2008.

  4. [Demography and spectrum analysis of Juglans cathayensis populations at different altitudes in the west Tianshan valley in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Zi-wei; Shang, Tian-cui; Yang, Yun-fei

    2015-04-01

    Juglans cathayensis is an endangered plant species and listed as a class II protected species of the national government of China. In order to grasp the current state of J. cathayensis populations and predict the population dynamics in the future, a large-sample investigation was conducted in the sample plots along different altitude gradients in four valleys in J. cathayensis conservation area. According to the diameter at breast height (DBH) class of the trees, the age class structures of the populations were analyzed, and static life tables for J. cathayensis populations in different habitats along the altitude gradient was constructed by smoothing out technique, and comparative fluctuations cycles of the populations in different habitats were carried out by spectral analysis. The results showed that DBH decreased gradually with the increasing altitude. The population was composed of 19 age classes in the low-altitude habitat (1241 - 1380 m) with the maximum DBH of 91.7 cm, 18 age classes in the middle-altitude habitat (1381 - 1490 m) with the maximum DBH of 82.8 cm, and 13 age classes in the high-altitude habitat (1491 - 1670 m) with the maximum DBH of 58.9 cm. Life expectancies of J. cathayensis populations were fluctuant for the same age class at different altitudes and for different age classes at the same altitude. In the three altitude-different habitats, the survival curves of the populations trended toward Deevey- II type and the age structures of the populations were expanding. The curves of mortality showed three peaks, and the mortality rates of 9 age classes at 1241 - 1380 m and 1491 - 1670 m above sea levels were the highest, being 55.9% and 89.8%, respectively, and the mortality rate of 12 age classes at 1381 - 1490 m above sea level was the highest (79.4%). The population dynamics was significantly affected by the fundamental wave of biological characteristic throughout the life cycle of J. cathayensis population, and small cycles of multi

  5. Evaluation of dust activity and climate effects in North China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiang-ao; Liang, Feng; Wang, Ming-xing

    2004-01-01

    TOMS/AI data with nearly 20 years are utilized in the paper to evaluate dust activities in North China. Combined with simultaneous NCEP reanalysis climate data, climate effects on dust activities are assessed. The results showed that the whole North China suffers impact by dust aerosols, with three centers standing out in TOMS/AI spring average map that are western three basins, which are characterized by lower annual precipitation and elevation. Gobi deserts in Mongolia Plateau do not attain higher TOMS/AI value due to cloud contamination and relative higher elevation. Spring is the season with the highest TOMS dust aerosol index; within the western three basins, high dust aerosol index appears in both spring and summer, especially in Tarim Basin. Wind speed in spring and precipitation in previous rainy season play important roles in controlling dust activities, higher wind speed and less precipitation than the normal are in favor of dust activities in spring. Temperature in spring and previous winter also affect dust activity to a certain extent, but with contrary spatial distribution. Temperature in winter exert effect principally in west part, contrarily, temperature effect in spring is mainly shown in east part. Both of them have negative correlation with dust activity. PMID:15137635

  6. Background ozone in North China: trends, photochemical and transport impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Lin, W.; Ge, B.

    2012-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the key greenhouse gases and plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Being a strong oxidant, ozone in the surface layer has significant impacts on human and vegetation health. Long-term measurements of surface ozone are highly needed for climate change assessment and environmental policy-making. Such measurements are scarce, particularly from the background regions. Since 2004, surface ozone and some related reactive gases have been observed at Shangdianzi (SDZ), a Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station in North China. Located at the north edge of the Northern China Plain (NCP), the SDZ station is an ideal site for capturing polluted air masses from the NCP sector (southwest) and clean air masses from the background sector (northeast). This facilitates the investigation of impacts of regional transport on surface ozone. In this study, we present long-term measurements of surface ozone made at SDZ, discuss the trends of surface ozone levels in different seasons. Results about the observation-based ozone production efficiency (OPE) for the site will be presented, along with impacts from horizontal and vertical air transport.

  7. Background ozone in North China: trends, photochemical and transport impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Lin, W.; Ge, B.

    2011-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the key greenhouse gases and plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Being a strong oxidant, ozone in the surface layer has significant impacts on human and vegetation health. Long-term measurements of surface ozone are highly needed for climate change assessment and environmental policy-making. Such measurements are scarce, particularly from the background regions. Since 2004, surface ozone and some related reactive gases have been observed at Shangdianzi (SDZ), a Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station in North China. Located at the north edge of the Northern China Plain (NCP), the SDZ station is an ideal site for capturing polluted air masses from the NCP sector (southwest) and clean air masses from the background sector (northeast). This facilitates the investigation of impacts of regional transport on surface ozone. In this study, we present long-term measurements of surface ozone made at SDZ, discuss the trends of surface ozone levels in different seasons. Results about the observation-based ozone production efficiency (OPE) for the site will be presented, along with impacts from horizontal and vertical air transport.

  8. 77 FR 13171 - China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2012. It... accurate information concerning the securities of China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited (``NEP''),...

  9. The Late Triassic and Late Jurassic stress fields and tectonic transmission of North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guiting; Wang, Yanxin; Hari, K. R.

    2010-09-01

    The transmission of the tectonic regime from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean during Mesozoic era was reconstructed using the modeling of Late Triassic (T 3) and Late Jurassic (J 3) stress fields employing two dimensional linear finite element models (2-D FEM). The model at T 3 proposes that Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogens coevally collided and the model J 3 proposes that Subei block continued to collide with the North China block along the Sulu orogen while the collision of the Qinling-Dabie orogen was terminated. The stress fields at T 3 and J 3 during the two episodes were calculated based on mechanical conditions under different deviatoric stresses acting along the boundaries of the North China craton by elastic finite modeling. The transmission between two episodes of stress fields resulted from Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision between North China and South China in the Late Triassic period, and from continued collision between the Subei block and North China by the NW-trending movement of Izanagi plate during Late Jurassic. The results from modeling of the Mesozoic stress fields of the North China suggest that late Jurassic was the key transmission period of the tectonic regime of the North China block when large scale thrusting triggered the subsequent destruction of the North China craton.

  10. Characteristics of groundwater recharge on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiu-Cui; Wu, Jing-Wei; Cai, Shu-Ying; Yang, Jin-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is an important component of the groundwater system. On the North China Plain (NCP), groundwater is the main water supply. Because of large-scale overexploitation, the water table has declined, which has produced severe adverse effects on the environment and ecosystem. In this article, tracer experiment and watershed model were used to calculate and analyze NCP groundwater recharge. In the tracer experiment, average recharge was 108 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.16. With its improved irrigation, vegetation coverage and evapotranspiration modules, the INFIL3.0 model was used for calculation of groundwater recharge. Regional modeling results showed an average recharge of 102 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.14, for 2001-2009. These values are very similar to those from the field tracer experiment. Influences in the two methods were analyzed. The results can provide an important reference for NCP groundwater recharge. PMID:24032445

  11. Rangeland degradation in North China: perceptions of pastoralists.

    PubMed

    Ho, Peter; Azadi, Hossein

    2010-04-01

    Rangeland degradation, a worldwide problem, is serious in China, especially in the Northern provinces. To assess the pastoralists' perceptions toward rangeland trend and degradation, a survey was conducted in Ningxia, North China. Data were collected from a total of 284 pastoralists in six Ningxia counties. Findings showed that the majority of respondents believe the rangelands in Ningxia have been degraded, although there are some disparities among the counties that illustrate differing severity of degradation. Findings also clarified that the pastoralists have more knowledge about the "technical" and "supportive" aspects of conditions, while remaining less aware of "economic" and "management" factors of this issue. Yet, a high disparity was revealed between pastoralists' perceptions among the counties in this study. The correlation matrix showed that most of their perceptions do not act independently. Findings also showed that those pastoralists who believe that their rangeland trend is "improved" have broader management and social perceptions than those who believe their rangeland is "degraded". Finally, correlation analysis showed that the management and social perceptions have a negative correlation with degradation severity. Based on the findings, recommendations for possible interventions through extension/educational programs to diminish rangeland degradation are made. The programs are suggested to be presented in three packages including "management", "social", and "economic" issues in rangeland degradation. PMID:20106474

  12. Comparison of Late Ordovician epicontinental seas and their relative bathymetry in North American and China

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Fox, W.T. ); Jia-Yu, Rong )

    1989-02-01

    Six widely separated areas with Upper Ordovician strata in Canada and the United States are compared with six localities in southern China. Cyclic sedimentation, including evaporites, carbonates, and phosphatic black shales, occurred in relatively shallow epicontinental seas of North America. As many as three Ashgill cycles of regionally different styles may have been coeval throughout North America in response to modest changes in sea level. Environments in South China primarily included carbonates and black shales with a far more uniform distribution. Absence of comparable sedimentary cycles confirms that the platform bathymetry of South China was consistently deeper than in North America. The almost complete exposure of North China (Sino-Korean Plate) by Late Ordovician time underscores the fact that independent cratons have different bathymetric histories. By mid-Silurian time, South China also was fully exposed. Such hypsographic variation is critical to the intercontinental correlation of features related to eustasy, water chemistry, and even the patterns of extinctions.

  13. Formation of the Shanxi Rift in North China: The control of preexisting lithospheric weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Liu, M.; Ye, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Shanxi Rift is an active seismic zone in North China, developed mainly since Pliocene (~5 Ma). Its formation has been associated with the Indo-Asian collision; other hypothesized causes include a regional extensional stress field associated with subduction of the western pacific plate and mantle upwelling under the North China Plain. However, these mechanisms do not explain why the rift system did not form along the western boundary of the North China Plain, where lithospheric thickness changes sharply from more than 150 km under the Ordos block and the Taihangshan Mountains to the west, to less than 70 km under the North China Plain. We have used a viscoplastic finite element model to explore the conditions for localized rifting in North China. Our results show that, for all the hypothesized causes, the preferred site of rifting would be along the boundary zone of changing lithospheric thickness. The only way to initiate the Shanxi rift in its current location, which is between the Ordos block and the Taihangshan Mountains with thick lithosphere, is to have preexisting lithospheric weakening there. This lithospheric weakness was likely formed during the collision between the Easter North China block and the Western North China block during the Paleoproterozoic (~1.8 Ga). Hence the ancient tectonic event still controls the young continental rifting.

  14. Two modes of extension in the North China Craton: Insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Liu, M.

    2013-12-01

    The North China Craton was formed around 1.8 Ga by collision and amalgamation of the Eastern and Western blocks. It remained tectonically stable since then until Mesozoic, when its eastern part experienced wide-distributed extension and volcanism. This distributed extension waned down in the early Cenozoic, and was replaced by localized extension (rifting) in the western part of the North China Craton. We have developed a series of viscoplastic finite element models to investigate the lithospheric conditions associated with these changing modes of extension in the North China Craton. Our results show that the wide-distributed extension in North China requires a thin and hot lithosphere, which is probably the result of delamination or thermal erosion of the lithospheric root under the eastern part of the North China Craton. The localized rifting during the late Cenozoic in the western part of the North China Craton indicates a relatively cold and thick lithosphere. Furthermore, preexisting lithospheric weakening was needed to explain the formation of the Late Cenozoic rift zones. These preexisting weakening zones may be inherited from the Paleoprotozoic collision that formed the North China Craton.

  15. HPV Infection and Prognostic Factors of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Different Ethnic Groups from Geographically Closed Cohort in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Huarong; Niyaz, Huerxidan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Songan; Reheman, Yiming; Bao, Yongxing; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The effect of HPV infection status and ethnic differences on the prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang presents an interesting set of conditions that has yet to be studied. Methods. A comprehensive analysis of clinical data was undertaken for a cohort consisting of 63 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma recruited from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. PCR was used for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 infections. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for analyzing survival outcome in addition to the assessment of other prognostic factors. Results. The overall infection rate for HPV was 28.6% (18/63); the 5-year survival rate among the HPV-positive patients was 47.8% and 30.3% for HPV-negative patients. The survival rate for HPV-positive patients who received radiotherapy and chemotherapy was better than for those who did not receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. N staging and HPV infection were found to be two independent and significant prognostic factors. Conclusion. HPV-positive patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma are more sensitive to chemotherapy. Higher N staging indicates poor prognosis. PMID:27034835

  16. Landsat and SPOT data for oil exploration in North-Western China

    SciTech Connect

    Nishidai, Takashi |

    1996-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has been employed by Japex to provide information related to oil exploration programs for many years. Since the beginning of the 1980`s, regional geological interpretation through to advanced studies using satellite imagery with high spectral and spatial resolutions (such as Landsat TM and SPOT HRV), have been carried out, for both exploration programs and for scientific research. Advanced techniques (including analysis of airborne hyper-multispectral imaging sensor data) as well as conventional photogeological techniques were used throughout these programs. The first program using remote sensing technology in China focused on the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and was carried out using Landsat MSS data. Landsat MSS imagery allows us to gain useful preliminary geological information about an area of interest, prior to field studies. About 90 Landsat scenes cover the entire Xinjiang Uygru Autonomous Region, this allowed us to give comprehensive overviews of 3 hydrocarbon-bearing basins (Tarim, Junggar, and Turpan-Hami) in NW China. The overviews were based on the interpretations and assessments of the satellite imagery and on a synthesis of the most up-to-date accessible geological and geophysical data as well as some field works. Pairs of stereoscopic SPOT HRV images were used to generate digital elevation data with a 40 in grid cover for part of the Tarim Basin. Topographic contour maps, created from this digital elevation data, at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 with contour intervals of 100 m and 50 m, allowed us to make precise geological interpretation, and to carry out swift and efficient geological field work. Satellite imagery was also utilized to make medium scale to large scale image maps, not only to interpret geological features but also to support field workers and seismic survey field operations.

  17. Ozone production efficiency calculated for different cities in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Min; Ma, Jianzhong

    2014-05-01

    North China, or Huabei in Chinese, is one of the most severely polluted regions in China. There are many large, complex and strong emission sources in Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan (together called Jing-Jin-Tang in Chinese) and other urban and industrial centers in Huabei. We applied a regional chemical transport model including the tracer-tagging technique to investigate the chemical characteristics of air masses from different pollution hotspots in Huabei during the IPAC-NC campaign in spring 2006. We calculated the ozone production efficiency of NOx (OPEx) using selected data points of Ox and NOz corresponding to a large number of model grids, which have a good representation of the chemical characteristics of air masses for an entire investigated region. The estimated OPEx for Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, and Shijiazhuang general plumes is 3.35, 2.75, 1.43 and 2.33 mole/mole, respectively. We also calculated the OPEx using selected data points of Ox and NOz corresponding to different air masses arriving at Xin'an (one model grid), a rural station located in the center part of Jing-Jin-Tang. The estimated OPEx in Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan air masses arriving at Xin'an is 2.98, 2.52, and 1.42 mole/mole, respectively. The difference in estimated OPEx can be attributed to the difference in the emission source types and strength between these regions. The estimated OPEx in Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan air masses arriving at Xin'an are comparable to those in their general pollution plumes. This indicates that air masses from different urban and industrial centers in Huabei can also maintain their different chemical characteristics while being transported to the rural areas.

  18. The making and remaking of the North China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.

    2004-12-01

    The North China Block (NCB) consists of two major Archaean crustal nuclei that collided together by ca. 1800 Ma (e.g., Zhao, 2001), although some argue that they came together as early as ca. 2500 Ma (e.g., Zhai and Liu, 2003; Kusky and Li, 2004). No orogenic event is known within the NCB from ca. 1800 Ma until Permian. The shape and lithospheric architecture of this seemingly stable continental block were significantly reworked by Mesozoic-Cenozoic events. Continental collision between the NCB and South China Block (SCB) started from their eastern ends as early as Permian, leading to the initial continental subduction and subsequent exhumation of 240-235 Ma UHP metamorphic rocks (e.g., Hacker et al., 2000; Ayers et al., 2002) to the crustal level by ca. 220 Ma (Hacker et al., 2000). This was followed by the development of flake tectonics in the region east of the Tanlu Fault between Late Triassic and mid-Jurassic (Li, 1994, 1998), where the lower crust and lithospheric mantle of the SCB continued to subduct beneath the NCB, whereas the upper crust of the SCB, along with the UHP rocks at the upper crustal level along the former plate margin, were obducted over the lower crust of the NCB for up to 500 km. We thus have a composite crust in the Sulu-Yellow Sea-central Korea region. Extensive thin- to thick-skinned thrusting also developed in both the Jiao-Liao region east of the Tanlu Fault and the Xu-Huai and Luxi regions west of the Tanlu Fault during this process, all within the upper crust of the NCB. This complex crustal architecture may still influence distribution of epicentres in the region. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thin-skinned thrusts were well developed along northern NCB (e.g., Davis et al., 1998) possibly due to the closure of the Mongolo-Okhotsk sea to the north. For reasons still being debated, eastern NCB underwent dramatic lithospheric thinning (locally total erosion of lithospheric mantle?) during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary (e.g., O'Reilly et

  19. Metamorphism and geochronology of the Jining khondalites in the UHT belt, North China Craton, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Guochun; Grapes, Rodney; Guo, Jinghui; Xia, Xiaoping

    2010-05-01

    The basement rocks of the North China craton (NCC) are divided into the Eastern and Western blocks separated by the Trans-North China orogen on the basis of lithologic associations, structures, metamorphism and isotopic ages. In the Western block, a belt of khondalite-series rocks are believed to represent the products of collision between the north Yinshan block and the south Ordos block before the final amalgamation of the NCC basement. The Jining Complex occurs in the eastern part the khondalite belt, and is intersected by Trans-North China orogen. Khondalite rock of the complex consist of mainly graphite-bearing sillimanite-garnet gneiss associated with syntectonic garnet/sillimanite-bearing granite, massive porphyritic granite, garnet quartzite, calc-silicate and marble with minor felsic gneiss and mafic granulite. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and cathodoluminescene (CL) image analysis were used to determine the protolith and metamorphic ages of khondalite rocks. The analytical results of 317 detrital zircon grains indicate five main age populations: 2410~2550 Ma, 2162 Ma, 2047~2099 Ma, 1944~1993 Ma and 1842 Ma. CL results reveal that zircon grains of majority samples are rounded, unzoned with low Th/U, indicating a metamorphic origin, while some zircon grains of a few samples are characterized by magmatic oscillatory zoning and comparatively high Th/U, but are typically overgrown by metamorphic low CL rims with low Th/U. Five-type rocks are used in this study: (1) Sil-Bt-Grt leptynite-gneiss; (2) a Spl- Sil-Ksp-Grt vein in Sil-Grt-Fsp gneiss (garnet-sillimanite khondalite relic of an UHT event that involved partial melting to form granite; (3) Sil-Grt-K-Fsp mylonite from a shear zone in the khondalite complex; (4) Crd-bearing two-feldspar Sil-Grt gneiss; (5) granite. Three samples of Sil-Bt-Grt gneiss record the oldest ages of 2550~2480 Ma, suggesting the existence of a Paleoproterozoic provenance for the Jining Complex. Ages of 2162~2047 Ma are interpreted

  20. Mixing state of atmospheric particles over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. L.; Ma, N.; Kecorius, S.; Wang, P. C.; Hu, M.; Wang, Z. B.; Größ, J.; Wu, Z. J.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this unique processing study, the mixing state of ambient submicron aerosol particles in terms of hygroscopicity and volatility was investigated with a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer and a Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer. The measurements were conducted at a regional atmospheric observational site in the North China Plain (NCP) from 8 July to 9 August, 2013. Multimodal patterns were observed in the probability density functions of the hygroscopicity parameter κ and the shrink factor, indicating that ambient particles are mostly an external mixture of particles with different hygroscopicity and volatility. Linear relationships were found between the number fraction of hydrophobic and non-volatile populations, reflecting the dominance of soot in hydrophobic and non-volatile particles. The number fraction of non-volatile particles is lower than that of hydrophobic particles in most cases, indicating that a certain fraction of hydrophobic particles is volatile. Distinct diurnal patterns were found for the number fraction of the hydrophobic and non-volatile particles, with a higher level at nighttime and a lower level during the daytime. The result of air mass classification shows that aerosol particles in air masses coming from north with high moving speed have a high number fraction of hydrophobic/non-volatile population, and are more externally mixed. Only minor differences can be found between the measured aerosol properties for the rest of the air masses. With abundant precursor in the NCP, no matter where the air mass originates, as far as it stays in the NCP for a certain time, aerosol particles may get aged and mixed with newly emitted particles in a short time.

  1. Upper mantle temperatures and lithospheric thickness of North China inferred from S-wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Yang, S.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature is one of the most important key parameters which control the density, viscosity, and rheology of the earth's material and hence the dynamic process of the mantle. Based on the correlation between mineral temperature and seismic velocity structure, we derive the upper mantle temperatures of North China in the depth range of 50 to 300 km by high-resolution S-wave tomography model. Defining the depth where the geotherm intersects the mantle adiabat with a potential temperature of 1300°C as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, we estimate the correspondent lithospheric thickness in the north China. The calculated heat flows agree well with the observed data at the surface, and the misfits for most regions of North China are within the uncertainty of the heat flow measurements. Three main characteristics can be observed from the distribution of temperature: (1) lithospheric temperature at shallow depth is in consistent with the tectonic settings. At depth shallower than 170 km, temperature under the active tectonic eastern part of North China is higher than that in the stable cratonic regions in west. The regions with high mantle temperature include the Hehuai Basin, the Bohai Bay Basin, the boundary between North China Plain and the central North China; hotter lithosphere can also be found at the northern margin of Ordos Plateau, including the Yinchuan-Hetao Rift Zone and the Yinshan Orogen. (2) The lithospheric thickness in the regions with warmer lithosphere is about 80 -100 km thick, which is relatively thinner than the stable areas. The lowest temperature is located under the Ordos Plateau in western North China, which is about 200 to 400°C lower than that in the eastern North China. The lithosphere in the Ordos block is also the thickest in the north China, with thickness ranges 140-150 km on average and about 160 km in the thickest areas; (3) At the depth between 170 and 280 km, the distribution pattern of the thermal structure is almost reverse

  2. Impact of karst water on coal mining in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gongyu; Zhou, Wanfang

    2006-01-01

    Coalfields in North China encompass more than ten Provinces. They contain six to seven coal seams in the Permo-Carboniferous strata. The lower three seams account for 37% of the total reserves and are threatened with intrusion of karst water from the underlying Ordovician limestone. Hundreds of water inrush incidences have occurred, in which a large amount of water suddenly flows into tunnels or working faces under high potentiometric pressure. Over 50 mines have been flooded over the last 30 years. Large-scale dewatering or depressurizing of the karst aquifer was considered essential to avoid water inrushes and keep the mines safely operational. This practice, however, has caused sinkholes, dry springs, water supply shortage, and groundwater contamination in the surrounding areas. One alternative water control measure is to make full use of the rock layer between the coal seam and the karst aquifer as a protective barrier to prevent or constrain water flow from the underlying aquifer into the mines. Grouting is effective when the hydrogeological conditions are favorable to this technique. Proper design of the grouting program and experience of the contractor are also important for a successful application.

  3. A new species of Dyspessa Hübner, (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) from Western China, with catalogue of Chinese species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Saldaitis, Aidas; Pekarsky, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The genus Dyspessa is the largest genus of carpenter moths including 60 valid species, widely distributed in Western Palearctic, especially in Sahara desert, Minor Asia, Iran and Central Asia (Yakovlev 2011; 2015). Most of the species have a small distribution range, limited by mountain ranges or deserts (Yakovlev & Dubatolov 2013). The only known trophic preferences of Dyspessa are their specialization to different species of the plant genus Allium (Alliaceae) (Yakovlev 2015). There are only three species known from China, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Dyspessa saissanica Yakovlev, 2014 (erroneously listed for Hami (Xinjiang) as Dyspessa salicicola (Eversmann, 1848) (Yakovlev 2005), Dyspessa tristis A. Bang-Haas, 1912 (known by a single male from Chinese part of Mongolian Altai mountains collected by Grigory Grumm-Grzhimaylo (probably in June 2003, Kurtu river of Kran river basin) and Dyspessa rueckbeili Yakovlev, 2007, described from Central Asia, Altyn Tagh [Altun Shan] (Altun Shan is a mountain range in northwestern China that separates the eastern Tarim Basin from the Tibetan Plateau (Yakovlev 2007). The western third is in Xinjiang while the eastern part forms the border between Qinghai to the south and Xinjiang and Gansu to the north). During a study of the new Dyspessa specimens from Western China, West South part of Xinjiang the new species, described below, was found. PMID:27394807

  4. Appropriate LDL-C-to-HDL-C Ratio Cutoffs for Categorization of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Uygur Adults in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Jie; Lai, Hong-Mei; Chen, Bang-Dang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Zhai, Hui; He, Chun-Hui; Pan, Shuo; Luo, Jun-Yi; Gao, Jing; Liu, Fen; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has been shown to be a marker of lipid metabolism as well as a good predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is useful for detecting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in general healthy Uygur adults in Xinjiang. A total of 4047 Uygur subjects aged ≥35 years were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in all participants. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were calculated. The prevalence of high LDL-C and low HDL-C cholesterol was high and positively correlated with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in the Uygur population. In both men and women, we detected a slight apparent trend of high prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Our study also demonstrated that the discriminatory power of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio for CVD risk factors was slightly stronger in men than in women. Analysis of the shortest distance in the ROC curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥two of these risk factors suggested a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cutoff of 2.5 for both men and women. The results of this study showed that a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cut-off of 2.5 might be used as the predictive marker to detect CVD risk factors among Uygur adults in Xinjiang. PMID:26907312

  5. Increasing the cotton yield and improving the ecology in cotton fields by utilizing the properties of natural resources in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Changyan; Lu, Zhaozhi; Song, Yudong; Zhang, Henian

    2003-07-01

    The area of aeolian sand soil in Xinjiang is 3.7189×107 hm2 and occupies 25% of the total land area. Traditionally, it is considered that aeolian sand soil has low yield of crops due to its poor retention power of soil moisture and soil fertility. However, the stems of cotton growing on aeolian sand soil are small and their fictile shape is easy to be controlled. Thus, a culture mode of "increasing stems and bolls, double-layer and double-stem" of cotton is developed by scientific irrigation and fertilizer spread as well as artificial control of fictile shape based on the growth laws of cotton and the properties of aeolian sand soil, and a lint yield of over 3,750 kg/hm2 has been reaped in successive 3 years. Currently, the cotton culture in Xinjiang is rapidly developed, the proportion of cotton-culture areas occupies 40~60%, the cultivating areas of other crops are reduced, the ecosystems are simplified, and the natural enemies in cotton fields are reduced. Alfalfa belts of 8~10 m in width are planted in the zones affected by shelter forests, the occurrence of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) in alfalfa belts is 10~15 days earlier than that of cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover), and in the alfalfa belts the quantity of herioaphis maculata (Buckton), the natural enemies, is 13.65 times of that in cotton fields when the cotton aphids occur. To resect the alfalfa this moment makes the natural enemies in the alfalfa belts enter the cotton fields and eat cotton aphids, which has good effects for preventing and controlling cotton aphids.

  6. Changes of Grassland Types and Net Primary Production of North America, Europe, Australia, and China in Response to Global Climate Change from 1911 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the changes of area of each broad potential vegetation category from 1911 to 2000 based on the CSCS method and their Net Primary Production (NPP) to analyze the influence of global climate change at global scale. we studied the characteristics of global Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV) distribution in the 20th century using the CSCS approach to explore the distribution of more detailed grassland vegetation types and their NPP using the Thornthwaite Memorial model. Results showed that: (1) the area of tundra and alpine steppe and desert decreased by 5.09% and 5.82% respectively, while the area of forest and grassland increased by 2.31% and 3.62% from 1911 to 2000 at global scale, respectively. However, there was a significant difference in the magnitude of area change in northern and southern hemispheres. (2) In Australia, the area of warm desert grassland decreased by 140.75 ×104km2 , while the area of savanna increased by 145.75 ×104km2, and the semi-desert grassland and steppe decreased by 4.25 ×104km2 and 2.75 ×104km2, and the area of forest increased by 1.75 ×104km2. (3) In Europe, the area of semi-desert increased by 48.93×104km2, nearly 46.2% of semi-desert increased in Spain, while the area of forest decreased by 201.35×104km2, and the biggest decreased was recorded in Ukraine (80.83%). (4) In North America, the area of warm desert and forest increased by 9.26% and 4.58%, while the cold desert decreased by 55.56%; in Canada, the area of steppe decreased by 38.46 %, while the area of forest increased by 7.49%; in Mexico, the area of warm desert and forest increased by 39.74 %, while the area of the steppe decreased by 18.75%. (5) In China, the area of temperate humid grassland increased by 28.6% in Xinjiang, and 66.67% in Tibet, the area of forest in Xinjiang and Qinghai increased 33.3 % and 15.4% respectively, while the area of tundra and alpine decreased by 7.02% in Xinjiang, while it increased 9.38% in

  7. East-China Geochemistry Database (ECGD):A New Networking Database for North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ma, W.

    2010-12-01

    North China Craton is one of the best natural laboratories that research some Earth Dynamic questions[1]. Scientists made much progress in research on this area, and got vast geochemistry data, which are essential for answering many fundamental questions about the age, composition, structure, and evolution of the East China area. But the geochemical data have long been accessible only through the scientific literature and theses where they have been widely dispersed, making it difficult for the broad Geosciences community to find, access and efficiently use the full range of available data[2]. How to effectively store, manage, share and reuse the existing geochemical data in the North China Craton area? East-China Geochemistry Database(ECGD) is a networking geochemical scientific database system that has been designed based on WebGIS and relational database for the structured storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. It is integrated the functions of data retrieval, spatial visualization and online analysis. ECGD focus on three areas: 1.Storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. Research on the characters of geochemical data, including its composing and connecting of each other, we designed a relational database, which based on geochemical relational data model, to store a variety of geological sample information such as sampling locality, age, sample characteristics, reference, major elements, rare earth elements, trace elements and isotope system et al. And a web-based user-friendly interface is provided for constructing queries. 2.Data view. ECGD is committed to online data visualization by different ways, especially to view data in digital map with dynamic way. Because ECGD was integrated WebGIS technology, the query results can be mapped on digital map, which can be zoomed, translation and dot selection. Besides of view and output query results data by html, txt or xls formats, researchers also can

  8. Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian palynostratigraphy of the Baode section in the Ordos Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Huaicheng; Ouyang, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Well-preserved miospores are recorded and illustrated from the Penchi to the lower part of the Sunjiagou formations in the Baode section of the Ordos Basin, North China. Eight palynological biozones are proposed for the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian interval. Among them, five biozones are refined from pre-existing biozones. The biozones are comparable throughout the North China Craton. In contrast, long distance palynological correlation between North China and Euramerica only extends to the end of the Bolsovian (early Moscovian). By reference of associated marine fossils and magnetostratigraphic data, approximate stratigraphic correlation with the international stages is possible in Ordos Basin. Quantitative abundances of spores and pollen from the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian reflect a wet-hot palaeoclimate in the Ordos Basin but with an increasing tendency of palaeoclimatic drying from the Early Kungurian. This drying tendency can be recognized throughout the North China Craton and seems to be related to the suturing process between North China Craton with the combined northeastern China blocks. Reduviasporonites which occurs often in relatively high frequencies in many Permian-Triassic boundary sections was recorded for the first time from the early Kungurian Shansiensis Biozone.

  9. Updated precipitation reconstruction (AD 1482-2012) for Huashan, north-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Ruibo; Wang, Huiqin; Qin, Li; Yuan, Yujiang

    2016-02-01

    We developed a tree-ring width chronology from pine trees ( Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus armandii) stand near the peaks of Huashan, Shaanxi, north-central China. Growth-climate response analyses showed that the radial growth of pine trees is mainly influenced by April-June precipitation. A model to reconstruct precipitation based on tree widths was constructed, accounting for 55 % of the instrumental variance during the period 1953-2012. Spatial correlation analyses between the reconstruction and observed gridded precipitation data shows that the seasonal precipitation reconstruction captures regional climatic variations over north China. Compared with the historical archives and other tree-ring records in north China, many large-scale drought events, linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), were found. Many of these events have had profound impacts on the people of north China over the past several centuries. Composite maps of sea surface temperatures and 500 hPa geopotential heights for selected extremely dry and wet years in Huashan show characteristics similar to those related to the ENSO patterns, particularly with regard to ocean and atmospheric conditions in the equatorial and north Pacific. Our 531-year precipitation reconstruction for Huashan provides a long-term perspective on current and 20th century wet and dry events in north China, and is useful to guide expectations of future variability, and helps us to address climate change.

  10. Study on Hydrological Functions of Litter Layers in North China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, and runoff have received considerable attention during the study of water balance and hydrological processes in forested ecosystems. Past research has either neglected or underestimated the role of hydrological functions of litter layers, although some studies have considered the impact of various characteristics of rainfall and litter on litter interception. Based on both simulated rainfall and litter conditions in North China, the effect of litter mass, rainfall intensity and litter type on the maximum water storage capacity of litter (S) and litter interception storage capacity (C) were investigated under five simulated rainfall intensities and four litter masses for two litter types. The results indicated: 1) the S values increased linearly with litter mass, and the S values of broadleaf litter were on average 2.65 times larger than the S values of needle leaf litter; 2) rainfall intensity rather than litter mass determined the maximum interception storage capacity (Cmax); Cmax increased linearly with increasing rainfall intensity; by contrast, the minimum interception storage capacity (Cmin) showed a linear relationship with litter mass, but a poor correlation with rainfall intensity; 3) litter type impacted Cmax and Cmin; the values of Cmax and Cmin for broadleaf litter were larger than those of needle leaf litter, which indicated that broadleaf litter could intercepte and store more water than needle leaf litter; 4) a gap existed between Cmax and Cmin, indicating that litter played a significant role by allowing rainwater to infiltrate or to produce runoff rather than intercepting it and allowing it to evaporate after the rainfall event; 5) Cmin was always less than S at the same litter mass, which should be considered in future interception predictions. Vegetation and precipitation characteristics played important roles in hydrological characteristics. PMID:23936188

  11. Detailed crustal structure of the North China and its implication for seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenliang; Wang, Xin; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jingfa; Wang, Donglei

    2014-02-01

    Since the Mesozoic-Cenozoic era the North China Craton has experienced an important tectonic transition and it has given rise to complicated crustal structure and strong earthquake activity. Based on the large-scale surface gravity data, we studied the detailed crustal structure and seismogenic mechanism of the North China. The results indicate that the North China presents typical characteristics of adjoining depression and uplift, alternating basins and hills, inhomogeneous density and also great differences in crustal structure and Moho topography. The upper and middle crustal structures are dominated by the NNE-striking tectonic units, with many faults cut down to the middle crust. The lower crust is characterized by the folding-structure, with high and low-density placed alternately from west to east, presenting lateral heterogeneous feature. Adjusted by the gravity isostasy, Moho topography of the North China fluctuates greatly. Compared with the North China Basin, crustal thickness in the Western Taihang, northern Yanshan and Luzhong areas are much thicker while those densities are lower than the North China Basin. The dominating tectonic direction of the Moho topography strikes NE to NNE and undulates alternately from west to east. The epicenters are mostly concentrated in the upper and middle crust, especially the transitional areas between the high and low-gravity anomalies. The Tancheng earthquake in 1668, Sanhe earthquake in 1673, Tangshan earthquake in 1976, and all other seismic tectonic zones of the North China are all distributed in area where magma moves strongly beneath the crust, which is considered to be related to the movement of the high density, unstable and heat flows along the deep passage from the uppermost and asthenosphere due to the subduction of the Pacific slab towards the Eurasian plate.

  12. Mesozoic tectonic setting of rift basins in eastern North China and implications for destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guo-wei; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Wang, Meng

    2015-11-01

    Destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic due to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate has attracted a lot of recent interest, with numerous studies focusing on regional tectonics and associated magmatism. Although the peak ages for this event have been established, the timing of its initiation remains poorly understood. In this paper, two rift basins in the northern Hebei Province of China, the Diaoe Basin (DB) and Houcheng Basin (HB), are studied in order to constrain the timing of destruction of the northern margin of the NCC. Both NNE-striking basins developed on Proterozoic basement. The DB is a graben controlled by normal faults on its two margins, and the HB is a half-graben bounded by normal faults on its eastern side. Basin fills include detrital sediments and volcanic rocks, which are (from bottom to top) the Houcheng Formation (Fh), the Zhangjiakou Formation (Fzh), the Shijiayao Formation (Fs), and the Huajiying Formation (Fhj). The Fh is composed mainly of detrital sediments interlayered with andesite in its lower section, and interlayered with felsic volcanics (rhyolite) in its upper section. There exists a transitional change from the Fh to the thick felsic volcanic strata of the Fzh. Geochemically, the andesite layers in the lower Fh were most likely derived from mixing of crust and mantle melts, whereas the felsic rocks were derived from melting of the lower crust. U-Pb dating of zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded ages for the lower Fh andesites of ca. 165.7 Ma in the HB and ca. 157.4 Ma in the DB. The felsic rocks at the base of the Fzh yielded ages of ca. 155.1 Ma in the HB and ca. 149.2-143.4 Ma in the DB. The Fs and Fhj in the DB both yielded similar ages of ca. 136 Ma. The development of rift basins, together with the occurrence of massive felsic volcanic rocks, indicates a period of significant extension and thinning of the NCC. The ca. 165.7-155.1 Ma age for andesites not only represents the initial timing of crustal extension

  13. Integrated Seismic Arrays for Imaging the North China Craton: the ¡°Destruction of the North China Craton¡± Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; Chen, L.; Zheng, T.; Zhou, S.

    2007-12-01

    It has been known, mostly according to the petrological and geochemical studies particularly the xenolith's data, that the North China craton (NCC), which is part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton, had been reactivated since Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Currently the NCC is characterized by a thin lithosphere (as thin as 80 km according to published studies) and strong internal deformation, where over half of the eastern China's earthquakes occurred while the two major plate boundaries about China are thousands kilometers away. Although it is seismically quite active this region encompasses the China's capital and several mega cities which together hosts a large population and are very important to China's growing economy. Supported by the Chinese earth science community, the Chinese NSF recently started a major research program, the ¡°Destruction of the North China craton¡± (DNCC). About 150 million RMB (~ 20 million US dollars) will be allocated for this 5-year multi-disciplinary research program which is open for competition for all the earth scientists in China. Here we report one major seismic observation project of ¡°Integrated Seismic Arrays of DNCC¡± just funded during the first phase funding of DNCC. This observation-driven project integrates two groups at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Peking University, and both institutions have their own broadband seismometers and have recently conducted pilot portable seismic array studies in North China. Up to seven linear broadband seismic arrays, each consists of 60-100 stations, are planned within the NCC. The principle objectives are to quantify the range and degree of the craton destruction in spatial domain with major focus on the east-west variation from the previously proposed intact craton in the west to the rejuvenated region in the east and the transition zone in the middle. With the expected

  14. Understanding on Soil Inorganic Carbon Transformation in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guitong; Yang, Lifang; Zhang, Chenglei; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    Soil total carbon balance in long-term fertilization field experiments in North China Plain. Four long-term fertilization experiments (20-30 years) were investigated on SOC in 40 cm, calcium carbonate and active carbonate (AC) in 180 or 100 cm soil profile, δ13C values of SOC and δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate in soil profile, particle distribution of SOC and SIC in main soil layers, and ratios of pedogenic carbonate (PC) in SIC and C3-SOC in SOC. The most important conclusion is that fertilization of more than 20 years can produce detectable impact on pool size, profile distribution, ratio of active component and PC of SIC, which make it clear that SIC pool must be considered in the proper evaluation of the response of soil carbon balance to human activities in arid and semi-arid region. Land use impact on soil total carbon pool in Inner Mongolia. With the data of the second survey of soils in Inner Mongolia and the 58 soil profile data from Wu-lan-cha-bu-meng and Xi-lin-hao-te, combining with the 13C and 18O techniques, SIC density and stock in Inner Mongolia is estimated. The main conclusion is that soils in inner Mongolia have the same level of SOC and SIC, with the density in 100cm pedons of 8.97 kg•m-2 and 8.61 kg•m-2, respectively. Meanwhile, the significantly positive relationship between SOC and SIC in A layer indicates co-sequestration of SOC and SIC exist. Evaluation of the methods for measuring CA enzyme activity in soil. In laboratory, method in literature to measure CA activity in soil sample was repeated, and found it was not valid indeed. The failure could not attribute to the disturbance of common ions like NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The adsorption of CA to soil material was testified as the main reason for that failure. A series of extractants were tested but no one can extract the adsorbed CA and be used in measuring CA activity in soil sample. Carbonate transformation in field with straw returned and biochar added. In 2009, a field

  15. Interannual variations of dust events in the Xinjiang region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Caixia; Li, Xia

    2003-07-01

    Based on meteorological data of the recent 40 years, the long-term changes of sandstorms in China"s Xinjiang region were analyzed. The frequency and the scope of influence of sandstorms that occurred in Xinjiang have decreased during the 1990s. In fact, with the warming of the climate, a wet trend was also obvious. By comparing the relations between the long-term changes of climate and sandstorms, we found that there may be some synchronous connections between them. On the other hand, we noted that increased population and livestock pressures on marginal lands around the desert have accelerated desertification processes. While desertification has received tremendous attention by political leaders and publicity from the news media, there are still many things that we do not know about the degradation of productive lands and the expansion of deserts. Clearly, the relationship between desertification processes and the occurrence of sandstorms is tight.

  16. Changes in flowering phenology of woody plants in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu

    2016-04-01

    Over the past several decades, abundant evidences proved that the first flowering date of plants in northern hemisphere became earlier in response to climate warming. However, the existing results about impact of climate change on flowering duration are controversial. In this study, we studied temporal trends in first flowering date (FFD), end of flowering date (EFD) and flowering duration (FD) of 94 woody plants from 1963 to 2014 at three stations (Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an) in North China. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between length of flowering periods and temperature using two phenological models (including regression model and growing degree day model). At all stations, more than 90% of observed species showed earlier flowering over time from 1963 to 2014. The average trends in FFD were 1.33, 1.77 and 3.01 days decade-1 at Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. During the same period, EFD also became earlier by a mean rate of 2.19, 1.39 and 2.00 days decade-1, respectively. Regarding FD, a significant shortening of FD was observed at Harbin (-0.86 days decade-1), but FD extended by 0.37 and 1.01 days decade-1 at Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. At interspecific level, the plant species with longer FD tend to have stronger trends of FD extension. Through regression analyses, we found more than 85% of time series revealed a significant negative relationship between FFD (or EFD) and preseason temperature. The regression model could simulate the interannual changes in FFD and EFD with the mean goodness of fit (R2) ranging from 0.38 to 0.67, but failed to simulate the FD accurately, as R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.18. Regarding to FFD and EFD, the growing degree day model could improved R2 of simuation, but also could not simulate FD accurately. Therefore, we concluded that the FFD and EFD advanced notably in recent six decades as a result of climate warming, but the direction of FD changes depended on locations and the species involved. In addition, the

  17. Features and geotectonic evolution of the Alxa Terrane at North Qilian Mountains in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; Zhengmin, Min

    2015-04-01

    The Alxa Terrane in west China, covered with Badain Jaran and Tengger Deserts at the earth's surface, lies geographically on the north of the Qilian-Mountains Structural Belt and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with intense tectonic activities. The Mongolian Plateau with Cenozoic activities and the Ordos Plateau are on the north and east of the terrane separately. Tectonically the terrane lies among the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt in the Tarim Plate, and the North China Craton. In view of its special geotectonic location, the knowledge about the Alxa Terrane generation and evolution would be significant to the understanding of plates and terranes convergence and evolution in west China and to hydrocarbon exploration in those small and medium basins in the Hexi Corridor. The conclusions include (1) the Alxa Terrane is a component part in the west of the North China Plate instead of a part separated from the Tarim Plate. Neoarchean rocks occurring in the Beidashan area in west Alxa are mainly composed of granodiorite gneiss with typical TTG gneiss features. The age of the magmatic zircon nucleus is about 2522±30 Ma, which is basically consistent with that of TFG gneiss pervasively distributing in the North China Craton; (2) the Alxa Terrane was a relatively isolated small terrane in the Archaean and Proterozoic Eras. The lithologies of the crystalline basement are different from those in the Tarim and North China Plates. Tectothermal events took place 800-1000 Ma and 400-600 Ma ago separately in Alxa, which had few signatures in the North China Plate. The North China Plate and the Alxa Terrane converged in the south and diverged in the north due to the impact of the Caledonian Movement and then merged at the early stage of the Middle Ordovician. During the Middle Hercynian Movement, the Paleoasian Ocean in the north closed and new crust appeared in the Early Permian to form the trench-arc-basin system at the north margin. During the Late

  18. Application of MODFLOW and geographic information system to groundwater flow simulation in North China Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiqin; Shao, Jingli; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yongbo; Huo, Zhibin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2008-10-01

    MODFLOW is a groundwater modeling program. It can be compiled and remedied according to the practical applications. Because of its structure and fixed data format, MODFLOW can be integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology for water resource management. The North China Plain (NCP), which is the politic, economic and cultural center of China, is facing with water resources shortage and water pollution. Groundwater is the main water resource for industrial, agricultural and domestic usage. It is necessary to evaluate the groundwater resources of the NCP as an entire aquifer system. With the development of computer and internet information technology it is also necessary to integrate the groundwater model with the GIS technology. Because the geological and hydrogeological data in the NCP was mainly in MAPGIS format, the powerful function of GIS of disposing of and analyzing spatial data and computer languages such as Visual C and Visual Basic were used to define the relationship between the original data and model data. After analyzing the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the NCP, the groundwater flow numerical simulation modeling was constructed with MODFLOW. On the basis of GIS, a dynamic evaluation system for groundwater resources under the internet circumstance was completed. During the process of constructing the groundwater model, a water budget was analyzed, which showed a negative budget in the NCP. The simulation period was from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. During this period, the total recharge of the groundwater system was 49,374 × 106 m3 and the total discharge was 56,530 × 106 m3 the budget deficit was -7,156 × 106 m3. In this integrated system, the original data including graphs and attribution data could be stored in the database. When the process of evaluating and predicting groundwater flow was started, these data were transformed into files that the core program of MODFLOW could read. The calculated water

  19. The relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation change in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanling; Yang, Yanli; Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhongliang

    Using SPOT-VEGETATION Normal Difference Vegetation Index (SPOT/NDVI) data from 1998 to 2011 and climate data obtained from 223 weather stations in or near North China, vegetation variation characteristics within North China were analyzed. Vegetation variation characteristics under the influence of climate variations and human activities were distinguished through a residual analysis. Based on the results of that analysis, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation variation were calculated. The results showed that NDVI observed by remote sensing (SPOT/NDVI) increased from 1998 to 2011. The relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation increase were 30.82% and 69.18%, respectively, indicating that human activities played a major role. And observed NDVI showed an increasing trend for different land cover types overall. While NDVI increase in shrub was mainly caused by climate variations, NDVI increases in forest, grassland, farmland, deserts and urban were all primarily caused by human activities. For areas with increasing vegetation, as identified by remote sensing observations in North China, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation change were calculated at 14.85% and 85.15% respectively, again indicating that human activities played an important role in vegetation increase. For areas of decreasing vegetation, as identified by remote sensing observations in North China, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation change were calculated at 87.72% and 12.28% respectively, indicating that climate variations had large negative effects on vegetation condition. In addition, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities on vegetation variation have obvious spatial differences in North China. Human activities played a positive role in vegetation growth in North China. However, we cannot ignore the function of human destruction on

  20. Prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus infection: A population-based study from Hetian, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Niyazi, Mayinuer; Husaiyin, Sulaiya; Han, Lili; Mamat, Huduyum; Husaiyin, Kundus; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection contributes to most cases of cervical cancer, and HPV genotypes exhibit different distributions according to geographic region. This study evaluates the prevalence of HPV infection in Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang, and establishes risk factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes in this region. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, 883 healthy women 15-54 years of age were enrolled. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociocultural and sexual activity characteristics. Visual inspections with acetic acid, colposcopies and biopsies were performed using the Preventive Oncology International microbiopsy protocol for pathological diagnosis. Cervical epithelial tissue specimens were collected and tested for HPV using linear array assays. According to the results of HR-HPV infection status, individuals infected with HR-HPV were classified into one group, and the remaining individuals were classified into the control group. The risk factors for HR-HPF infection were analyzed. The participants included 66 women (7.47%) with HR-HPV, 10 women (1.13%) with low-risk HPV, and 14 women (1.59%) with HPV of unknown risk. The five most prevalent types of HR-HPV were HPV-16 (0.31%), HPV-51 (0.08%), HPV-31 (0.07%), HPV-58 (0.07%), and HPV-39 (0.06%). Vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation were found in 190 participants (21.52%) and 256 participants (28.99%), respectively. The HR-HPV and control groups significantly differed with respect to age at first marriage, number of marriages, and the presence of vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation (p<0.05). Based on this study, an immunization strategy targeting HPV-16 should be prioritized in Hetian Prefecture. These findings contribute to the understanding of HPV infection. PMID:26773182

  1. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of Glioblastoma mRNA Expression Profiles in Uyghur and Han Patients in Xinjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; Li, Wenting; Xia, Haicheng; Zhu, Zhengquan; Luan, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate differences in glioblastoma RNA gene expression profiles between Uyghur and Han patients in Xinjiang province and to screen and compare differentially expressed genes with respect to their clinical significance in the pathogenesis of high-grade glioma and their relationship to disease prognosis. Material/Methods Illumina HT-12mRNA expression profiles microarray was employed to measure the gene expression profiles of 6 patients with advanced glioma and to screen for differentially expressed genes. Results GO and KEGG analyses were performed on the differentially expressed genes using Web Gestalt software (P<0.05). Comparison of glioblastoma RNA expression profiles in the Uyghur and Han patients indicated that 1475 genes were significantly differentially expressed, of which 669 showed increased expression, while 807 showed decreased expression. One gene (STRC) corresponded to 2 transcripts, 1 of which showed increased expression and the other showed decreased expression. The differentially expressed genes participate in metabolic processes, biological regulation, stress response, and multi-cellular organic processes, including small GTPase regulatory signaling pathways, Ras signaling pathway, neuronal reactive protein regulation, and myelination of the central nervous system. The genes are also involved in tumor-related signaling pathways, including metabolic pathways, cancer pathways, MAPK signaling pathway, TGF-β signaling pathway, neurotrophic factor signal transduction pathway, and mTOR signaling pathway. Conclusions Differentially expressed genes were screened by studying the gene expression profiles in glioblastoma from Uyghur and Han patients. The cellular function and location of these genes were further investigated. Based on related molecular markers of glioblastoma, the differences in the mechanism of initiation and development of glioblastoma between Uyghur and Han patients were investigated for

  2. Quantifying Regional Vegetation Cover Variability in North China during the Holocene: Implications for Climate Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  3. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  4. 78 FR 55769 - North China Horticulture, Inc., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION North China Horticulture, Inc., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading September 6, 2013... information concerning the securities of North China Horticulture, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  5. Accretion and reworking beneath the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. P.; Griffin, W. L.; Ma, Q.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Xiong, Q.; Tang, H. Y.; Zhao, J. H.; Yu, C. M.; Su, Y. P.

    2012-09-01

    How has the Earth's continental lithosphere evolved? Most of our knowledge is derived from surface exposures, but xenoliths carried in volcanic rocks can be an important source of information. The North China Craton (NCC) is one of the oldest in the world and Phanerozoic volcanic rocks with abundant xenoliths are widespread, making it an ideal area to study the formation and evolution of continents. New analyses of U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes in zircon were obtained for lower crustal xenoliths from four localities including the Paleozoic Yingxian lamproites, and the basalts of Pingquan (Paleocene), Hebi and Nushan (Neogene). Published ages and compositions of lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths from the NCC are synthesized to constrain the accretion and reworking processes that have affected the deep lithosphere beneath the craton. The peridotite bodies within the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) belt, along the southern edge of the NCC, are compared with the xenolith peridotites to constrain early Mesozoic dynamics. The oldest components of the NCC may be ~ 4.0 Ga old. The craton experienced complex accretion and reworking processes in its deep lithosphere, accompanied by the formation (or aggregation) and differentiation of the ancient continental nucleus. The small size of the NCC, compared with many other cratons worldwide, made it more susceptible to the effects of marginal subduction and collision with surrounding blocks. The subcontinental lithosphere mantle (SCLM) was generally coupled with the lower crust through the Paleozoic, while decoupling occurred in late Mesozoic-Cenozoic time, except locally (such as the Neoarchen lower crust and SCLM in Hebi), suggesting strong interactions between the asthenosphere and the lithosphere (both upper mantle and lower crust) in Phanerozoic time. In the lower crust, the ancient components of the craton were re-worked in Paleoarchean (3.80-3.65 Ga) time. The craton also experienced two important accretionary

  6. Comparison of dental education and professional development between mainland China and North America.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Y; Zhang, Z Y; Jiang, X Q; Guo, L

    2010-05-01

    Different educational and professional developments within the dental field create different sets of missions, norms, and practices regarding dental diseases and their appropriate treatment. This review has addressed differences in dental education and professional development between mainland China and North America. Many factors influence the choice of model and it is very difficult to predict which model will become predominant. However, there is growing sentiment that the independent faculty model in North America is logical and superior to the model, which 'integrates' dental and medical education in mainland China. Many North America dental schools place a high priority on preclinical and clinical training in the curriculum in order to expose students to patient oral health needs and systemic dental problems much earlier than in mainland China. North America dental schools promote and embrace students self-learning skills by the use of PBL, CRL, and TRAD education methodologies and new e-based technologies and approaches whereby students learn rather than are taught. In mainland China, the traditional lecture-based format is still employed in the majority of dental schools; however, strategies to enhance students self-learning skills is increasingly utilised in most well-known Chinese dental schools. The Chinese dental education model, which treats dentistry as a sub-specialty of medicine, has brought about fundamental differences, with the dentist functioning essentially as a stomatologist. For example, China has built up a large oral and maxillofacial surgery society, and craniofacial surgery is performed to a much broader extent by Chinese dentists than by most North American counterparts. In North America, dentists engage in full-time work, attend continuing training/education programmes, belong to an association, gain legal status, and construct a code of ethics emphasising the quality of care delivered to the public. Currently, continuing dental

  7. Associations of Human Leukocyte Antigen-DRB1 Alleles with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiao-Tao; Hu, Yun-Hui; Dong, Tao; Wang, Ruo-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genetic susceptibility is one of the major etiological factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Among the genetic predisposing factors, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes have been reported to be associated with NPC. This study aimed to investigate the associations of HLA-DRB1 alleles with NPC and the clinical significance of HLA-DRB1 alleles in NPC. Methods: From January 2009 to December 2013, 140 NPC patients (118 Han patients and 22 Uyghur patients) and 158 healthy controls (81 Han individuals and 77 Uyghur individuals) from Xinjiang Province were genotyped for HLA-DRB1 using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer technique. Chi-square analysis was used when comparing allele frequencies between groups. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Results: Compared with healthy controls, the allele frequency of HLA-DRB1*0701 was increased in the Uyghur patients (P = 0.008) but not in the Han patients (P = 0.869). HLA-DRB1*0101 allele was presented with higher frequency in clinical Stage I + II group compared with clinical Stage III + IV group in the Han patients (P = 0.015) but not in the Uyghur patients (P = 1.000). Higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*1501 allele was observed in patients aged <45 years compared with those in patients aged ≥45 years (P = 0.002). Neither HLA-DRB1*0701 nor HLA-DRB1*0101 had a statistically significant association with 3-year survival. Conclusions: This study found HLA-DRB1*0701 in Uyghur population was associated with an increased risk of developing NPC. In Han population, we found HLA-DRB1*0101 was associated with protection from disease progression, and HLA-DRB1*1501 was associated with early age of onset. HLA-DRB1 could not be identified as a prognostic indicator for NPC in either Han or Uyghur patients. PMID:27231174

  8. [Effects of water and nitrogen regulation on the yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton in south Xinjiang, Northwest China under plastic mulched drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhong; Bai, Dan; Zhai, Guo-Liang; Zong, Jie; Li, Ying; Cai, Jiu-Mao; Feng, Jun-Jie

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment with three irrigation amounts and five nitrogen application levels was conducted to investigate the effects of water and nitrogen regulation on the growth characteristics, yield component factors, and water and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton in south Xinjiang under mulched drip irrigation. With the increasing amount of irrigation, the plant height, leaf number on main stem, boll number, LAI, and dry matter accumulation in leaf and stem improved significantly, but the root growth was restrained. As compared with low and high irrigation amounts (4950 and 6750 mm x hm(-2), respectively), medium irrigation amount (5850 mm x hm(-2)) increased the available bolls per plant and the single boll mass averagely by 0.96 and 0.4 and by 0.22 and 0.11 g, respectively. When the nitrogen application level was 300 kg x hm(-2), as compared with other nitrogen application levels, the stem diameter increased significantly, and the growth of bud, boll, and root was accelerated. Moreover, the allocation ratio of dry matter from nutritional organs to reproductive organs under medium irrigation amount increased by 5.1% and 29.6% respectively, as compared with that under low and high irrigation amounts. Irrigation amount had significant effects on the cotton yield but little effects on the lint percentage, whereas nitrogen application level had definite effects on the cotton yield and lint percentage. However, low irrigation amount restrained the effects of nitrogen application on yield enhancement. In this experiment, when the irrigation amount was 5850 mm x hm(-2) and the nitrogen application level was 300 kg x hm(-2), the cotton grew healthily, the plant shape structure was optimized, the dry matter allocation to reproductive organs was promoted dramatically, the available bolls, single boll mass, and lint percentage increased, the cotton yield reached the highest (6992.33 kg x hm(-2)), and the water and nitrogen use efficiency amounted to 1.45 kg x m(-3) and 45

  9. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China. PMID:27181364

  10. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  11. Destruction of the North China Craton: Lithosphere folding-induced removal of lithospheric mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai-Jun

    2012-01-01

    High heat flow, high surface topography, and widespread volcanism indicate that the lithospheric mantle of typical cratonic character of the North China Craton has been seriously destroyed in its eastern half. However, the mechanism of this process remains open to intense debate. Here lithosphere folding-induced lithospheric mantle removal is proposed as a new mechanism for the destruction of the craton. Four main NNE-SSW-striking lithospheric-scale anticlines and synclines are recognized within North China east of the Helan fold-and-thrust belt. The lithosphere folding occurred possibly during the Late Triassic through Jurassic when the Yangzi Craton collided with the North China Craton. It was accompanied or followed by lithospheric dripping, and could have possibly induced the lithosphere foundering of the North China Craton. The lithosphere folding would have modified the lithosphere morphology, creating significant undulation in the lithospheric base and thus causing variations of the patterns of the small-scale convection. It also could have provoked the formation of new shear zones liable to impregnation of magma, producing linear incisions at the cratonic base and resulting in foundering of lithospheric mantle blocks. Furthermore, it generated thickening of the lithosphere or the lower crust and initiated the destabilization and subsequent removal of the lithospheric mantle.

  12. Water Resources and Agricultural Water Use in the North China Plain: Current Status and Management Options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious water deficits with deteriorating environmental quality are threatening agricultural sustainability in the North China Plain (NCP). This paper addresses spatial and temporal availability of water resources in the NCP, and identifies the effects of soil management, irrigation and crop genetic...

  13. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China. PMID:27181364

  14. Anisotropy structure beneath the eastern edge of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R.; Wang, Y.; Wang, W.; Wen, L.; Chen, X.

    2013-12-01

    The North China Craton is one of the most ancient craton which is considered as a perfect area to observe the craton basement destruction, replacement and reconstruction. But the mechanism and kinetics background of the lithospheric thinning of the North China Craton are still under debate. The upper mantle velocity and anisotropy structures, temperature and chemical composition are important for us to understand the destruction process of the North China Craton. Most of previous studies used shear wave splitting or surface wave analysis to study anisotropy structure, which have a poor vertical resolution in upper mantle. Waveform modeling of upper mantle triplication phases can provide a high vertical resolution. We develop a method based on the generalized reflection and transmission method (GRTM) to calculate synthetic seismograms for wave propagating in stratified VTI media, so we can waveform model triplication phases to study the upper mantle anisotropy structures. In this study, we waveform model the tangential and radial seismic triplication data recorded in Chinese digital seismic stations at a epicentral distance of 10-30 degree for several events occurring in southeast of Russia to constrain the fine upper mantle velocity and anisotropy structures beneath the eastern edge of the North China Craton . We also use mineral physic simulation to explore thermal and compositional models that would explain the inferred seismic structures.

  15. Source, evolution and emplacement of Permian Tarim Basalts: Evidence from U-Pb dating, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics and whole rock geochemistry of basalts from the Keping area, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dayu; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Jowitt, Simon M.; Fan, Yu; Liu, Shuai

    2012-04-01

    Permian basalts distribute at least 250,000 km2, and underlie the southwest Tarim Basin in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, northwest China. This vast accumulation of basalt is the main part of the Tarim Large Igneous Province (LIP). The basaltic units in the Lower Permian Kupukuziman and Kaipaizileike Formations in the Keping area, Tarim Basin; were the best exposure of the Permian basalt sequence in the basin. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon from the basal basaltic unit in the section gives an age of 291.9 ± 2.2 Ma (MSWD = 0.30, n = 17); this age, combined with previously published geochronological data, indicates that the basalts in the Tarim Basin were emplaced between 292 Ma and 272 Ma, with about 90% of the basalts being emplaced between 292 and 287 Ma. Basalts from the Keping area have high FeOT (10.8-18.6 wt.%), low Mg#s (0.26-0.60), and exhibit primitive mantle normalized patterns with positive Pb, P and Ti but negative Zr, Y and Ta anomalies. The basalts from both formations have similar 206Pb/204Pb (18.192-18.934), 207Pb/204Pb (15.555-15.598) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.643-38.793) ratios. The basalts also have high ɛSr(t) (45.7-62.1), low ɛNd(t) (-3.6 to -2.2) and low zircon ɛHf(t) (-4.84 to -0.65) values. These characteristics are typical of alkali basalts and suggest that the basalts within the Tarim Basin were derived from an OIB-type mantle source and interacted with enriched mantle (EMI-type) before emplacement. Rare earth element systematics indicate that the parental melts for the basalts were high-degree partial melts derived from garnet lherzolite mantle at the base of the lithosphere. Prior to emplacement, the Tarim Permian Basalts (TPB) underwent fractional crystallization and assimilated crustal material; the basalts were finally emplaced during crustal extension in an intra-plate setting. The wide distribution, deep source and high degree partial melting of the TPB was consistent with a mantle plume origin. The TPB and other coeval igneous

  16. Termination time of peak decratonization in North China: Geochemical evidence from mafic igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical and petrological data indicate destruction of the cratonic lithosphere in North China in the Mesozoic, resulting in replacement of the ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by the juvenile SCLM. However, it remains to be answered when the craton destruction would have been terminated in the Mesozoic. This question is resolved by studying the two types of mafic igneous rocks with contrasting geochemical compositions from North China. The first type of mafic igneous rock shows arc-like trace element distribution patterns and enriched radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions, with emplacement ages spanning from the Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The mafic magmatism is absent in a period from ~ 200 Ma to ~ 135 Ma, recording the thinning of cratonic lithosphere due to the westward flat subduction of the Paleo-Pacific slab beneath the North China Craton. In contrast, the second type of mafic igneous rocks exhibits oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like trace element distribution patterns and relatively depleted radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions, with emplacement ages spanning from the Early Cretaceous to Cenozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating yields an age of ~ 121 Ma for the geochemical transformation between the two types of mafic igneous rocks. This age marks a dramatic demarcation in the composition of their mantle sources. As such, the nature of mantle lithosphere in North China was changed from the ancient SCLM to the juvenile SCLM at ~ 121 Ma. Thus, this age not only signifies the tectonic transition from the enriched mantle to the depleted mantle in the Early Cretaceous, but also dates the termination of peak decratonization in North China. Therefore, the craton destruction in the Early Cretaceous is temporally and spatially associated with the dramatic changes in the geochemical composition of mantle lithosphere.

  17. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes from Different Host Plants in North China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Li, Chun-Hua; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution and a variety of biotypes. North China is a traditional agricultural area with abundant winter and summer hosts of A. gossypii. While the life cycles of A. gossypii on different plants have been well studied, those of the biotypes of North China are still unclear. Results Host transfer experiments showed that A. gossypii from North China has two host-specialized biotypes: cotton and cucumber. Based on complete mitochondrial sequences, we identified a molecular marker with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms to distinguish the biotypes. Using this marker, a large-scale study of biotypes on primary winter and summer hosts was conducted. All A. gossypii collected from three primary hosts—hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash—were cotton biotypes, with more cotton-melon aphids found on hibiscus than the other two species. In May, alate cotton and cucumber biotypes coexisted on cotton and cucumber seedlings, but each preferred its natal host. Both biotypes existed on zucchini, although the cucumber biotype was more numerous. Aphids on muskmelon were all cucumber biotypes, whereas most aphids on kidney bean were cotton biotypes. Aphids on seedlings of potato and cowpea belong to other species. In August, aphids on cotton and cucumber were the respective biotypes, with zucchini still hosting both biotypes as before. Thus, the biotypes had different fitnesses on different host plants. Conclusions Two host-specialized biotypes (cotton and cucumber) are present in North China. Hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash can serve as winter hosts for the cotton biotype but not the cucumber biotype in North China. The fitnesses of the two host-specialized biotypes differ on various summer hosts. When alate aphids migrate to summer hosts, they cannot accurately land on the corresponding plant. PMID:26735973

  18. Illicit drugs and their metabolites in 36 rivers that drain into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea, north China.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Gao; Zheng, Qiu-Da; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Du, Juan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Wang, Zhuang; Ge, Lin-Ke

    2016-08-01

    Illicit drugs and their metabolites have recently been recognized as an emerging group of contaminants due to their potential ecotoxicological impact in aquatic ecosystems. To date, information on the occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment of China remains limited. In this study, we collected surface water samples from 36 rivers in north China that discharge into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea and measured the concentrations of amphetamine-like compounds, ketamines, cocainics, and opioids. The occurrence and spatial patterns of these substances show significant differences between the rivers and regions. Two designer drugs, methamphetamine (METH) and ketamine (KET), were the most abundant compounds detected in the entire set of samples (detection frequency of 92 and 69 %). The concentrations of METH and KET ranged from <0.1 to 42.0 ng L(-1) (mean = 4.53 ng L(-1)) and <0.05 to 4.50 ng L(-1) (mean = 0.49 ng L(-1)), respectively. The high detection frequencies of METH and KET are consistent with the fact that they are the main illicit drugs consumed in China. The high concentrations of these illicit drugs and their metabolites were found in areas that have a high population density. The riverine input of total illicit drugs into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea was estimated to be in the range of 684 to 1160 kg per year. PMID:27167374

  19. Human leukocyte antigen-B27 alleles in Xinjiang Uygur patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Zou, H-Y; Yu, W-Z; Wang, Z; He, J; Jiao, M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients in Xinjiang. B27-positive patients with ankylosing spondylitis were subtyped by using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing. The HLA-B27 subtype frequencies of Uygur patients were compared with those in Han patients in Xinjiang and the other areas of China. B*2705 was the predominant subtype in Uygur patients with a frequency of 58.95%, which was much higher than that in Han patients in Xinjiang (31.58%, P < 0.05) and the other areas of China (excluding the Shandong region, which was 63.89%). The frequency of B*2704 (27.37%) in Uygur patients was the lowest and significantly lower than that in Han patients (61.18%, P < 0.05) and in 8 other areas of China. B*2710 has not been previously reported in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients; B*2704 was the main (61.18%) subtype in Han patients in Xinjiang, followed by B*2705 (31.58%) and was similar to the characteristics of Han patients in the other areas of China. B*2724 in Han ankylosing spondylitis patients has not been previously reported. Additionally, the B*2702/B*2705 homozygote was identified in Uygur patients. B*2702/B*2704, B*2704/B*2705, and B*2705/B*2705 homozygotes were identified in 3 Han patients. The distribution of HLAB27 subtypes in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients in Xinjiang significantly differed from that in Han patients. Understanding the distribution of HLAB27 subtypes in ethnic minority populations of Xinjiang is important for anthropological genetic studies and for analyzing the impact of genetic background on ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility. PMID:26125763

  20. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae), a new species from North China.

    PubMed

    Sennikov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group Hieracium sect. Aestiva (Hieracium sect. Prenanthoidea × Hieracium sect. Umbellata) and is most similar to Hieracium veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements. PMID:25197222

  1. Melt-Peridotite Reaction Mechanism of North China Craton Destruction: Experimental Constrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Jin, Z.; Gao, S.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, S.

    2009-12-01

    Although the geoscientsts in the world have reached an agreement about the Mesozoic thinning of North China Craton, the dynamics of this process is still under debate, especially the thinning mechanism. There are two popular thinning mechanisms were proposed for the North China Craton, one is the delamination model and the other is thermo-mechanical erosion model. The delamination model has aroused great interests since Gao et al. use it to explain the formation of Xilonggou high Mg# andesite from Liaoxi region of Liaoning Province. These Lavas, which possessed an adakitic signature with high Mg#, were believed to origin by the interaction between silica rich and yttrium delepted melt, which are formed by partile melting of low crust eclogite, and asthenospheric peridotite. The discovery of zoned mantle olivine and pyroxene xenocrysts, especially zoned mantle peridotitic xenoliths in Mesozoic basaltic rocks from eastern North China, indicates that peridotite-melt reaction was widespread in Mesozoic lithospheric mantle beneath the southeastern North China craton. Such interaction could be an important mechanism for the compositional transformation and rapid enrichment of the lithospheric mantle. We conducted a series of experiments at a pressure of 2.0 GPa and temperatures of 1250-1400 °C using Bixiling eclogite and Damaping peridotite as starting materials to study the mechanism of melt-peridotite reaction. Our results show that olivine and orthopyroxene were dissolved in the reacting melts between eclogite and peridotite, resulting in clinopyroxene precipitation along the interface of melts and lherzolite. The experimental run products, possessing a lherzolite-pyroxenite-garnet pyroxenite sequence, are identical to the composite mantle xenoliths in the Neogene Hannuoba basalt of the North China craton. The later is considered as strong evidence of the maffic lower continental crust recycling into the mantle during the Mesozoic Era. The reacting melts have a high

  2. Granulite xenoliths from Cenozoic basalts in SE China provide geochemical fingerprints to distinguish lower crust terranes from the North and South China tectonic blocks: comment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai-Jun

    2004-03-01

    A careful examination of the geochemical data set for SE China granulite xenoliths in Cenozoic basalts shows differences between the magmatic and cumulate granulite xenoliths, but no distinction between the Nushan and the other South China magmatic granulite xenoliths. Nushan granulite xenoliths with Archean Nd model ages were most likely derived from the Archean basement of the Yangtze craton itself and overprinted by a Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic tectonothermal event that occurred in the South China block, including the northern margin of the Yangtze craton. The granulate xenoliths therefore cannot be used to distinguish the North China and South China lower crust. Further, the discovery of the UHP eclogite xenoliths west of the Tanlu fault zone, along with recent paleomagnetic, seismic profiling, and other geochemical studies, favors a deep-seated, Tibetan-type, continental subduction of the Yangtze craton beneath North China along the Tanlu belt.

  3. The Development of Minority Education and the Practice of Bilingual Education in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Rong

    2009-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is an area of great importance for the ethnic minorities of northwestern China, and the development of local minority education has been a constant concern in both government and academic spheres. By means of analyzing government documents, statistical data and research literature, this article attempts to…

  4. Microgranular enclaves in island-arc andesites: A possible link between known epithermal Au and potential porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Tulasu ore cluster, western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Xue, Chunji; Symons, David T. A.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Wang, Honggang

    2014-05-01

    The successful exploration for porphyry copper deposit in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, faces great challenge. Tulasu basin is an important epithermal gold ore cluster in western Tianshan, which was formed in a southwest-Pacific-type island-arc setting during the late Paleozoic by the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean beneath the Yili plate. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits are possibly to be found at depth or adjacent to these epithermal gold deposits. Some sulfide-mineralized microgranular enclaves of monzonite porphyry and microdiorite were found in andesites of the Tawuerbieke gold district, Tulasu basin. The enclaves are randomly distributed, with generally round or subangular shape and commonly clearly defined within their host andesite, and have a chilled surrounding margin of andesite. The monzonite porphyry enclaves (MPE) exhibit porphyritic texture with the phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The microdiorite enclaves (MDE) are mainly composed of plagioclase and hornblende with an aplitic texture and massive structure. The host andesites show porphyritic texture, with the phenocrysts major of plagioclase, minor of hornblende and clinopyroxene. The groundmass consists of short-column plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene with a hyalopilitic texture. Zircon grains from a MPE sample yield a weighted 206Pb/238U age of 356.2 ± 4.3 Ma (n = 13, MSWD = 1.11), which is effectively coincident with the 360.5 ± 3.4 Ma (n = 20, MSWD = 0.61) of an andesite sample within analytical error, indicating that they were coeval. In addition, the MPE, MDE and the andesite samples share similar normalized incompatible element and rare earth element patterns that are characterized by a pronounced enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and a deficit of high field strength elements. Moreover, the samples show similar Nd isotope compositions to the contemporary andesites and basaltic andesites. Detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry studies suggest that

  5. Origin and spread of wheat in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John R.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Xinying; Zhao, Keliang; Sun, Nan; Atahan, Pia

    2013-07-01

    Wheat was added as a new crop to the existing millet and rice based agricultural systems of China. Here we present 35 radiocarbon ages from wheat seeds collected from 18 sites between western (Xinjiang Province) and eastern (Henan Province) China. The earliest wheat ages cluster around 2100-1800 BCE in northern China's Hexi corridor of Gansu Province, where millet was already a well-established crop. Wheat first appears in Xinjiang and Henan about 300-400 years later, and perhaps a little earlier than this in Xinjiang, and we hypothesize that the likely route of wheat into China was via Russia through Gansu.

  6. Multi-scale characteristics of moisture transport during a rainstorm process in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengxin; Gao, Shouting; Liang, Li; Deng, Difei; Gong, Hainan

    2014-08-01

    A rainstorm process that occurred in North China from July 24-25, 2011 was accurately simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and the multi-scale characteristics of moisture transport were studied based on the simulated results. The results indicated that water vapor was carried to North China mainly by the southwest low-level jet and easterly flow, with the former playing a principal role. The enhancement and northward extension of the southwesterly wind were consistent with the increase of magnitude and northward propulsion of the moisture flux. The variation of the winds mirrored fluctuations in the amount of precipitation. In addition, the water vapor from low latitudes to North China was transported first near the boundary layer over 15°N-21°N and then primarily at 850 hPa over 21°N-30°N, 900 hPa over 30°N-39°N, and 800 hPa over the region north of 39°N. The net budget of water vapor in North China was always positive during the rainstorm process because the zonal deficit was much smaller than the meridional surplus. The contribution of the water vapor advection was larger than that of the water vapor convergence in the prior period of rainfall, and the subsequent moisture aggregation relied on the water vapor convergence. The rainband in North China presented frontal mesoscale characteristics, and the short-term aggregation of moisture was closely related to the genesis and development of the mesoscale convective system that was triggered mainly by the cold air intrusion near the boundary layer. The underlying cold air not only lifted the warm air to trigger the convection, but it also influenced the development of the low pressure system in the lower levels, which further intensified the convergence and benefited the rapid accumulation of moisture to the convective zone near the boundary layer. The moisture transport reached its maximum an hour before the rainstorm occurred.

  7. Magnetostratigraphic Study of Chengde Basin, Yanshan Area and its Restriction on the Peaking Age of North China Craton Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, S.; He, H.; Zhu, R.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of North China Craton destruction has been contineous paid attention to. There have already been plenty of research from Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry. However, the exact destruction age of North China Craton is still controversial. In this paper, we try to put forward geomagnetic evidence of the peaking destruction age of North China Craton. Yanshan orogen is located at the north edge of North China Craton and affected significantly by its destruction. Chengde Basin is located at the middle section of Yanshan orogen, which makes it an ideal area for studying the basin record of North China Craton destruction. Oriented core samples are collected from Yuanjiazhuang section of Chengde Basin for magnetostratigraphic and rock-magnetic study. Fresh massive volcanic samples are also collected for radiometric dating. The rock-magnetic results show that magnetic minerals of volcanics are complex, including magnetite, maghemite and hematite while sedimentary magnetic minerals are mainly magnetite, possibly including small amount of maghemite and hematite. An age of 128~129Ma is obtained from the radiometric dating result. Magnetostratigraphic result shows three polarity sections: the lower normal section(N2), the reversal section(R1) and the upper normal section(N1). Comparing with the Geologic Time Scale 2004 and combining the radiometric result, it is believed that the N2 section is related to M3n, R1 related to M1r and N1 related to M1n. Therefore, the start age of lacustrine sediment at Yuanjiazhuang section is ~128Ma. According to the magnetostratigraphic study and radiometric dating of Chengde Basin in Yanshan area, the peak destruction age of North China Craton is confirmed to be no later than 128Ma. It is believed that North China Craton destruction is the primary element leading to Mesozoic basin at the Yanshan area changed from Late Triassic-Late Jurassic flexural basin to rift basin. One of the shallow responses accompanying with the peak age of

  8. Multi-timescale Drought Variations based on standardized precipitation index in China during past 52 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, su ping; jie Zhang, cun; Li, yao hui; Feng, jianying; Wang, jinsong

    2016-04-01

    Based on daily precipitation data from 566 weather stations during 1960 to 2011 , the multi-timescale variations of drought in China were analyzed by using Standardized Precipitation Index. The results showed that there existed a northeast to southwest drought belt in China in recent 52 years. The climate in Northeast China, North China, eastern Inner Mongolia, east of Northwest China and Southwest China was becoming dry. Meanwhile it became significant wetter in Northern Xinjiang, central Qinghai and north central Tibet. The drought trend in North China mainly happened in summer, and drought in Northeast and Southwest occurred in summer and autumn, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the east part of Northwest it was mainly in spring and autumn. In Northeast China, the drought days in 1970s and 2000 - 2011 were more than other decades, and it were fewer in 1960s. In North China and the east of Northwest China, the driest decade was 1990s, and it was wetter from 1960s to 1980s. Southwest China experienced more droughts after 2000, and fewer in 1960s and 1970s. In the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River .drought days were more in 1960s and after 2000, and fewer in 1980s. In 1960s, the high occurrence frequency of drought was in the west and middle of Northwest China and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. In 1970s,the droughts frequently occurred in Northeast and the west of Northwest. In 1980s,drought events mainly took place in North China, Huang Huai plain, the west and middle part of inner Mongolia and east of Southwest respectively. In 1990s,the areas with high occurrence were transferred to the southeast of Northwest, North China, and Huang Huai, Jiang Huai, Jiang Han plain. After 2000, drought frequently occurred in Northeast, the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and east part of Inner Mongolia, Northwest and Southwest China.

  9. The relationship between spring soil moisture and summer hot extremes over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lingyun; Zhang, Jingyong

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the occurrence of hot extremes is known to have resulted in serious consequences for human society and ecosystems. However, our ability to seasonally predict hot extremes remains poor, largely due to our limited understanding of slowly evolving earth system components such as soil moisture, and their interactions with climate. In this study, we focus on North China, and investigate the relationship of the spring soil moisture condition to summer hot extremes using soil moisture data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System and observational temperature for the period 1981-2008. It is found that local soil moisture condition in spring is closely linked to summer hot days and heat waves over North China, accounting for 19%-34% of the total variances. Spring soil moisture anomalies can persist to the summer season, and subsequently alter latent and sensible heat fluxes, thus having significant effects on summer hot extremes. Our findings indicate that the spring soil moisture condition can be a useful predictor for summer hot days and heat waves over North China.

  10. Geochemistry of fine-grained clastic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group: implications for provenance and the tectonic model of the Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Hua-Yong; Zhang, Li; Fralick, Philip; Hollings, Pete; Mi, Mei; Lu, Wan-Jian; Han, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Fang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group, which is unconformably overlain by the Lower Cambrian Huangshan Formation and conformably overlies the Mesoproterozoic Xingxingxia Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China, is comprised mainly of siltstone, slate, sandstone and phyllite. New geochemical data for the clastic rocks from the Kawabulake Group were investigated to constrain the provenance and weathering history of the source rocks, in order to evaluate the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Tianshan area. Kawabulake Group rocks are compositionally similar to PAAS (average Post-Archean Australian Shale), indicating derivation from a felsic source that is characterized by depletion in some HFSEs such as Nb, Ta and Ti. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for the sandstone, siltstone and slate samples (CIA = 60 on average) suggests intensely weathered sources. Light REE-enrichment patterns ((La/Yb)CN = 4-20) coupled with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* between 0.44 and 0.89 with an average of 0.62) are similar to those of PAAS, consistent with cratonic sources. The major and trace element compositions imply a dominantly Precambrian felsic source region with a minor contribution from mafic materials. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and the ages of T DM2 (~3.4, 2.5-1.8, 1.2 and 1.0 Ga) are consistent with the evolutionary history of Kuluketage in the northern Tarim, suggesting that the Tarim Craton was the main source area for the Kawabulake Group.

  11. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted. PMID:26308449

  12. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted. PMID:26308449

  13. Lung cancer among women in north-east China.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Williams, A. H.; Dai, X. D.; Blot, W.; Xu, Z. Y.; Sun, X. W.; Xiao, H. P.; Stone, B. J.; Yu, S. F.; Feng, Y. P.; Ershow, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer involving interviews with 965 female patients and 959 controls in Shenyang and Harbin, two industrial cities which have among the highest rates of lung cancer in China, revealed that cigarette smoking is the main causal factor and accounted for about 35% of the tumours among women. Although the amount smoked was low (the cases averaged eight cigarettes per day), the percentage of smokers among women over age 50 in these cities was nearly double the national average. Air pollution from coal burning stoves was implicated, as risks of lung cancer increased in proportion to years of exposure to 'Kang' and other heating devices indigenous to the region. In addition, the number of meals cooked by deep frying and the frequency of smokiness during cooking were associated with risk of lung cancer. More cases than controls reported workplace exposures to coal dust and to smoke from burning fuel. Elevated risks were observed for smelter workers and decreased risks for textile workers. Prior chronic bronchitis/emphysema, pneumonia, and recent tuberculosis contributed significantly to lung cancer risk, as did a history of tuberculosis and lung cancer in family members. Higher intake of carotene-rich vegetables was not protective against lung cancer in this population. The findings were qualitatively similar across the major cell types of lung cancer, except that the associations with smoking and previous lung diseases were stronger for squamous/oat cell cancers than for adenocarcinoma of the lung. PMID:2257230

  14. Lithosphere stress changes due to groundwater unloading in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yajin; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    During the past 50 years, excessive groundwater pumping has led to the continuous decline of groundwater table in North China Plain, which becomes one of the global hotspots of groundwater depletion. Over most of the rural areas of the plain, the shallow aquifer has experienced a water-table decline of more than 15m, with greater declines up to 50m in most urban centres, such as Beijing, Tangshan, Shijiangzhuang and so forth in 1960-2000. The entire groundwater depletion area covers a total area of approximately 56,273 km2 , more than 40% of the North China Plain. The vast area of enormous groundwater exploitation in North China Plain will definitely unload the lithosphere and create stress perturbations, the problem is if the stresses change large enough to affect tectonic activities. In this essay, we set up a 3 dimensional numerical visco-elastic model to discuss the effect of groundwater over-pumping on the lithosphere deformation and stress state in North China Plain. Based on the records of total groundwater-table decline during 1960-2010 in North China Plain, we estimate the accumulated deformation and lithosphere stress due to unloading of human-induced groundwater depletion. The area in the model ranges from 34° To 42°N, and 112° To 119°E, including the major groundwater depression cones in North China Plain. According to the simulating result, the maximum surface vertical uplift caused by groundwater unloading is 8cm. Meanwhile cumulative horizontal crustal stress changes near the surface goes up to 100kPa, and up to 40kPa at 15km depth where most earthquakes occurred in this area. The tectonic compressive stress rate is about 0.25kPa per year. Therefore, the stress changes due to groundwater pumping is significant compared with the tectonic driven stress changes. As China developed rapidly since 1978, the groundwater table mainly declined after 1978. Taking the earthquake catalog in the vicinity of groundwater depression zone into consideration, we

  15. Spectral reflectance properties of major objects in desert oasis: a case study of the Weigan-Kuqa river delta oasis in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Ding, Jianli; Sawut, Mamat; Tashpolat, Nigara; Kung, Hsiangte; Han, Guihong; Gui, Dongwei

    2012-08-01

    Aiming at the remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics. In order to further research the spectral reflectance characteristics in arid area, this study was performed in the typical delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa rivers located north of Tarim Basin. Data were collected from geo-targets at multiple sites in various field conditions. The spectra data were collected for different soil types including saline-alkaline soil, silt sandy soil, cotton field, and others; vegetations of Alhagi sparsifolia, Phragmites australis, Tamarix, Halostachys caspica, etc., and water bodies. Next, the data were processed to remove high-frequency noise, and the spectral curves were smoothed with the moving average method. The derivative spectrum was generated after eliminating environmental background noise so that to distinguish the original overlap spectra. After continuum removal of the undesirable absorbance, the spectrum curves were able to highlight features for both optical absorbance and reflectance. The spectrum information of each ground object is essential for fully utilizing the multispectrum data generated by remote sensing, which will need a representative spectral library. In this study using ENVI 4.5 software, a preliminary spectral library of surface features was constructed using the data surveyed in the study area. This library can support remote sensing activities such as feature investigation, vegetation classification, and environmental monitoring in the delta oasis region. Future plan will focus on sharing and standardizing the criteria of professional spectral library and to expand and promote the utilization of the spectral databases. PMID:21922179

  16. Astronomical Orientation of Pyramid Tombs in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusell Tiede, Vance

    2010-01-01

    Two ancient Chinese texts, the Chou Bei Suan Ching and Chou Li (Western Han Dynasty, ca. 100 BC), record that the Imperial Astronomer (Feng Hsian Shin) made solar observations to determine the solstices and equinoxes, and for determining the cardinal directions with a circle and gnomon. By combining the techniques of astro-archaeology (G. S. Hawkins, 1968) with both overhead imagery and ground survey, the present study seeks to link historical Chinese descriptions of astronomical phenomena with contemporary architectural orientation. In the process, several unexpected astronomical orientation patterns emerged which apparently do not appear in the surviving historical record. For example, at the imperial Western Han capital of Ch'ang-an (N 34° latitude), the diagonals of cardinally oriented square pyramid mounds (ling) align to zenith (+34° declination) and nadir (-34° declination) star rise and set points on the skyline. This is in accord with the Chou (Zhou) Dynasty's name of Chung-Kuo, meaning Central Country or Middle Kingdom. That is, the imperial capital is centered both politico-geographically with respect to its vassal states of the Eastern Yi, Southern Man, Western Rong, and Northern Di, as well as astro-geomantically regarding the color-coded Five Sacred Directions East-South-West-North-Zenith/Nadir in the Cosmos. Our ground survey also confirmed pyramid orientation to the lunar standstills (+28°, +18° and +5° declination) that we reported from overhead imagery in 1980 (155th AAS Meeting, HAD 18.CE.12, Lunar and Solar Alignments of Ancient Chinese Pyramids). Grateful acknowledgment is given to the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the invitation to conduct an astro-archaeological survey of the Wei-ho valley, Shensi (Shaanxi) Province.

  17. Estimation of saltation emission in the Kubuqi Desert, North China.

    PubMed

    Du, Heqiang; Xue, Xian; Wang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    The Kubuqi Desert suffered more severe wind erosion hazard. Every year, a mass of aeolian sand was blown in the Ten Tributaries that are tributaries of the Yellow River. To estimate the quantity of aeolian sediment blown into the Ten Tributaries from the Kubuqi Desert, it is necessary to simulate the saltation processes of the Kubuqi Desert. A saltation submodel of the IWEMS (Integrated Wind-Erosion Modeling System) and its accompanying RS (Remote Sensing) and GIS (Geographic Information System) methods were used to model saltation emissions in the Kubuqi Desert. To calibrate the saltation submodel, frontal area of vegetation, soil moisture, wind velocity and saltation sediment were observed synchronously on several points in 2011 and 2012. In this study, a model namely BEACH (Bridge Event And Continuous Hydrological) was introduced to simulate the daily soil moisture. Using the surface parameters (frontal area of vegetation and soil moisture) along with the observed wind velocities and saltation sediments for the observed points, the saltation model was calibrated and validated. To reduce the simulate error, a subdaily wind velocity program, WINDGEN was introduced in this model to simulate the hourly wind velocity of the Kubuqi Desert. By incorporating simulated hourly wind velocity, and model variables, the saltation emission of the Kubuqi Desert was modeled. The model results show that the total sediment flow rate was 1-30.99 tons/m over the last 10years (2001-2010). The saltation emission mainly occurs in the north central part of the Kubuqi Desert in winter and spring. Integrating the wind directions, the quantity of the aeolian sediment that deposits in the Ten Tributaries was estimated. Compared with the observed data by the local government and hydrometric stations, our estimation is reasonable. PMID:24534701

  18. S-wave velocity structure of the North China from inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao-peng; Zhu, Liang-bao; Wang, Qing-dong; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Ying-hang

    2014-07-01

    We constructed the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle (10-100 km) beneath the North China based on the teleseismic data recorded by 187 portable broadband stations deployed in this region. The traditional two-step inversion scheme was adopted. Firstly, we measured the interstation fundamental Rayleigh wave phase velocity of 10-60 s and imaged the phase velocity distributions using the Tarantola inversion method. Secondly, we inverted the 1-D S-wave velocity structure with a grid spacing of 0.25° × 0.25° and constructed the 3-D S-wave velocity structure of the North China. The 3-D S-wave velocity model provides valuable information about the destruction mechanism and geodynamics of the North China Craton (NCC). The S-wave velocity structures in the northwestern and southwestern sides of the North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) are obviously different. The southeastern side is high velocity (high-V) while the northeastern side is low velocity (low-V) at the depth of 60-80 km. The upwelling asthenosphere above the stagnated Pacific plate may cause the destruction of the Eastern Block and form the NSGL. A prominent low-V anomaly exists around Datong from 50 to 100 km, which may due to the upwelling asthenosphere originating from the mantle transition zone beneath the Western Block. The upwelling asthenosphere beneath the Datong may also contribute to the destruction of the Eastern Block. The Zhangjiakou-Penglai fault zone (ZPFZ) may cut through the lithosphere and act as a channel of the upwelling asthenosphere. A noticeable low-V zone also exists in the lower crust and upper mantle lid (30-50 km) beneath the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan (BTT) region, which may be caused by the upwelling asthenosphere through the ZPFZ.

  19. High resolution Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography in northern North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilai; Wu, Jianping; Fang, Lihua

    2012-04-01

    This study presents the Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomographic results in northern North China. The data are from 190 broad-band and 10 very broad-band stations of the North China Seismic Array and 50 permanent stations nearby. All available teleseismic vertical component time-series are used to extract the phase velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave by interstation method. Tomographic maps are obtained at periods of 10, 15, 25 and 60 s with a grid spacing of 0.25°× 0.25°. The short-period phase velocity maps show good correlation with the geological and tectonic features. To be specific, lower velocities correspond to North China Basin and depression area whereas higher velocities are associated with Taihangshan and Yanshan uplifts. At 25 s, there are obvious low-velocity anomalies in Jizhong depression and Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, indicating that ascendant low velocity channel may be formed beneath these areas and induce the velocity difference in the upper crust. The phase velocity map at 60 s reflects the upper-mantle information in the study area. High-velocity anomalies are observed at Yanshan blocks north to Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, suggesting that the materials are stable beneath these areas or the asthenosphere is at deeper location. Low-velocity anomalies are mainly south to the seismic belt, implying the asthenosphere is shallower and the materials are transformed by the open stretching rift trending NNE, resulting in many NNE-directed fault belts. These structural differences at depth may be controlled by the fault activity and strong tectonic movements.

  20. Comparative climatological study of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over North America and China in 2011-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Feng; Wan, Weixing; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Song, Qian; Ning, Baiqi; Liu, Libo; Zhao, Biqiang; Xiong, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of the climatology of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) over North America and China based on observations obtained in 2011-2012 using two GPS networks characterized by dense regional coverage. We identified a total of 390 LSTIDs in China and 363 events in North America. These can be categorized into three types, namely south, north, and westward propagating LSTIDs. The southward LSTIDs over North America show similar diurnal and seasonal variations to those of geomagnetic disturbances, but the southward LSTIDs over China do not show such variations. The occurrence of southward LSTIDs over China increases at ~1-2 h after the time of geomagnetic activity maximum; this increase lasts several hours until the geomagnetic minimum, which happens during the local evening. The southward LSTIDs over North America show a semiannual variation with two peaks in March and October, while the southward LSTIDs over China show a major peak in January. Northward LSTIDs occur much less frequently than their southward counterparts, and they are mainly observed in China. They mostly occur during geomagnetic activity maximum, indicating a possible relation with the degree of geomagnetic activity. Westward LSTIDs are seen in both regions during local sunrise and may be excited by the moving solar terminator. No relationship was found between these latter LSTIDs and the geomagnetic disturbances. The propagation direction of westward events changed from northwestward during winter solstice to southwestward at summer solstice. This is consistent with the seasonal orientation of the solar terminator.

  1. Crust and Upper-mantle Structure in the Western North China Craton from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, M.; Guo, Z.; Wang, X.; Feng, Y.; Chen, Y. J.

    2014-12-01

    North China Craton (NCC) is separated by the Trans-North China Orogen into two parts: the Eastern NCC and the Western NCC. It has been proposed that the Western NCC has remained stable since the Precambrian. Here receiver function (RF) analysis is used to image the crustal structures along an N-S profile (31N-43N) across the Qinling Orogen from the south, through Ordos Block and Yinshan Orogen to the north. The profile consists of 36 portable broadband stations which were deployed by Peking University during June 2012 to June 2014 and 12 permanent seismic stations of CEA. We selected teleseismic P waveforms from events with magnitudes Mw>5.0 and within the epicentral distances of 35-90 degrees and used the iterative time domain deconvolution method to obtain the RFs. Crustal thickness and the average Poison's ratio are obtained by the use of H-k method while the 410 and 660 discontinuity depths are calculated by using common conversion point stacking method from the RF data. The fine structures from this receiver function study should help us to better understand the nature and evolution of the Western NCC.

  2. An evaluation of atmospheric Nr pollution and deposition in North China after the Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. S.; Liu, P.; Tang, A. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Zong, X. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Kou, C. L.; Zhang, L. J.; Fowler, D.; Fangmeier, A.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.

    2013-08-01

    North China is known for its large population densities and rapid development of industry and agriculture. Air quality around Beijing improved substantially during the 2008 Summer Olympics. We measured atmospheric concentrations of various Nr compounds at three urban sites and three rural sites in North China from 2010 to 2012 and estimated N dry and wet deposition by inferential models and the rain gauge method to determine current air conditions with respect to reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds and nitrogen (N) deposition in Beijing and the surrounding area. NH3, NO2, and HNO3 and particulate NH4+ and NO3-, and NH4+-N and NO3--N in precipitation averaged 8.2, 11.5, 1.6, 8.2 and 4.6 μg N m-3, and 2.9 and 1.9 mg N L-1, respectively, with large seasonal and spatial variability. Atmospheric Nr (especially oxidized N) concentrations were highest at urban sites. Dry deposition of Nr ranged from 35.2 to 60.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1, with wet deposition of Nr of 16.3 to 43.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and total deposition of 54.4-103.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The rates of Nr dry and wet deposition were 36.4 and 33.2% higher, respectively, at the urban sites than at the rural sites. These high levels reflect the occurrence of a wide range of Nr pollution in North China and suggest that further strict air pollution control measures are required.

  3. Significant increase of surface ozone at a rural site, north of eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Jing; Quan, Weijun; Zhang, Ziyin; Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin

    2016-03-01

    Ozone pollution in eastern China has become one of the top environmental issues. Quantifying the temporal trend of surface ozone helps to assess the impacts of the anthropogenic precursor reductions and the likely effects of emission control strategies implemented. In this paper, ozone data collected at the Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional atmospheric background station from 2003 to 2015 are presented and analyzed to obtain the variation in the trend of surface ozone in the most polluted region of China, north of eastern China or the North China Plain. A modified Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter method was performed on the maximum daily average 8 h (MDA8) concentrations of ozone to separate the contributions of different factors from the variation of surface ozone and remove the influence of meteorological fluctuations on surface ozone. Results reveal that the short-term, seasonal and long-term components of ozone account for 36.4, 57.6 and 2.2 % of the total variance, respectively. The long-term trend indicates that the MDA8 has undergone a significant increase in the period of 2003-2015, with an average rate of 1.13 ± 0.01 ppb year-1 (R2 = 0.92). It is found that meteorological factors did not significantly influence the long-term variation of ozone and the increase may be completely attributed to changes in emissions. Furthermore, there is no significant correlation between the long-term O3 and NO2 trends. This study suggests that emission changes in VOCs might have played a more important role in the observed increase of surface ozone at SDZ.

  4. Crustal recycling through intraplate magmatism: Evidence from the Trans-North China Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Fang; Santosh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) preserves the history of crustal growth and craton formation during the early Precambrian followed by extensive lithospheric thinning and craton destruction in the Mesozoic. Here we present evidence for magma mixing and mingling associated with the Mesozoic tectonic processes from the Central NCC, along the Trans-North China Orogen, a paleo suture along which the Eastern and Western Blocks were amalgamated at end of Paleoproterozoic. Our investigations focus on two granitoids - the Chiwawu and the Mapeng plutons. Typical signatures for the interaction of mafic and felsic magmas are observed in these plutons such as: (1) the presence of diorite enclaves; (2) flow structures; (3) schlierens; (4) varying degrees of hybridization; and (5) macro-, and micro-textures. Porphyritic feldspar crystals show numerous mineral inclusions as well as rapakivi and anti-rapakivi textures. We present bulk chemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and REE data, and Lu-Hf isotopes on the granitoids, diorite enclaves, and surrounding basement rocks to constrain the timing of intraplate magmatism and processes of interaction between felsic and mafic magmas. Our LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb data show that the pophyritic granodiorite was emplaced at 129.7 ± 1.0 Ma. The diorite enclaves within this granodiorite show identical ages (128.2 ± 1.5 Ma). The basement TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) gneisses formed at ca. 2.5 Ga coinciding with the major period of crustal accretion in the NCC. The 1.85 Ga age from zircons in the gabbro with positive Hf isotope signature may be related to mantle magmatism during post-collisional extension following the assembly of the Western and Eastern Blocks of the NCC along the Trans-North China Orogen. Our Hf isotope data indicate that the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic basement rocks were derived from complex sources of both juvenile magmas and reworked ancient crust, whereas the magma source for the Mesozoic units are dominantly

  5. Effects of drought on winter wheat yield in north China during 2012-2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanling; Zhao, Yanxia

    2012-08-01

    Winter wheat is one of China's most important staple food crops, and its production is strongly influenced by weather, especially droughts. As a result, the impact of drought on the production of winter wheat is associated with the food security of China. Simulations of future climate for scenarios A2 and A1B provided by GFDL-CM2, MPI_ECHAM5, MRI_CGCM2, NCAR_CCSM3, and UKMO_HADCM3 during 2001-2100 are used to project the influence of drought on winter wheat yields in North China. Winter wheat yields are simulated using the crop model WOFOST (WOrld FOod STudies). Future changes in temperature and precipitation are analyzed. Temperature is projected to increase by 3.9-5.5°C for scenario A2 and by 2.9-5.1°C for scenario A1B, with fairly large interannual variability. Mean precipitation during the growing season is projected to increase by 16.7 and 8.6 mm (10 yr)-1, with spring precipitation increasing by 9.3 and 4.8 mm (10 yr)-1 from 2012-2100 for scenarios A2 and A1B, respectively. For the next 10-30 years (2012-2040), neither the growing season precipitation nor the spring precipitation over North China is projected to increase by either scenario. Assuming constant winter wheat varieties and agricultural practices, the influence of drought induced by short rain on winter wheat yields in North China is simulated using the WOFOST crop model. The drought index is projected to decrease by 9.7% according to scenario A2 and by 10.3% according to scenario A1B during 2012-2100. This indicates that the drought influence on winter wheat yields may be relieved over that period by projected increases in rain and temperature as well as changes in the growth stage of winter wheat. However, drought may be more severe in the near future, as indicated by the results for the next 10-30 years.

  6. Primary Analysis of Shear-Wave Splitting Aroundbohai Sea Area in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, L.; Gao, Y.; Shi, Y.; Sun, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bohai Sea area locates at eastern China, including 3 provinces ( Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong ) and 2 metropolitan cities ( Beijing and Tianjin ). There are 5 tectonic units (Yanshan uplift, Taihang uplift, Liaodong uplift, Luxi uplift and Jizhong depression), where is within North China (in short, NC). Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, an important seismotectonic zone in eastern China and Tanlu fault, the largest fault in eastern China, intersect in this zone, so that the tectonics are complicated. Earthquake activity is very strong in this zone, which is famous of earthquakes with large magnitude and high frequency. This study used a system analysis method of shear-wave splitting, namely SAM method (GAO et al, 2004). It includes mainly three aspects, i.e., calculation of cross-correlation function, elimination of time delay and check of polarization analysis. Preliminarily, we obtained the 378 seismic data within shear-wave window recorded by 27 stations around Bohai Sea area. The polarizations of fast shear-waves show different local features so that we divide the studied zone into 3 different areas, west of Bohai Sea gulf (including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province), north of Bohai Sea gulf (Liaoning province) and south of Bohai Sea gulf (Shandong province). In the west of Bohai Sea gulf, we divided the area into 3 parts. In south of Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, the predominant polarizations of fast shear-waves are a little scattered, lots of stations strike to nearly E-W, consistent with the direction of the in situ principal stress, consistent with the direction of regional tectonic stress in north part of NC, which strikes to nearly WNW or E-W, while some stations strike to NNE or NW, different from the direction of the regional principal stress field. It may be influenced by local tectonics or shallow crust structure. Within Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, the predominant polarizations of fast shear-waves are in direction of nearly E-W, consistent with

  7. Central-north China precipitation as reconstructed from the Qing dynasty: Signal of the Antarctic Atmospheric Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijun; Fan, Ke

    2005-12-01

    Based on the long-term Central-north China precipitation (CNCP) time series reconstructed from the Qing Dynasty Official Document, the relationship between CNCP and the Antarctic Atmospheric Oscillation (AAO) in June-July is examined. The analysis yields a (significant) negative correlation of -0.22. The signal of AAO in CNCP is further studied through analyses of the atmospheric general circulation variability related to AAO. It follows that AAO-related variability of convergence and convection over the tropical western Pacific can exert impact on the circulation condition and precipitation in north China (actually, the precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley as well) through atmospheric teleconnection known as the East Asia-Pacific (or Pacific-Japan) teleconnection wave pattern. There is also an AAO-connected wave train in the vorticity field at high troposphere over Eurasia, providing an anti-cyclonic circulation in central-north China favorable to the decline of precipitation in positive phase of AAO.

  8. Monitoring of 1300 organic micro-pollutants in surface waters from Tianjin, North China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingxiao; Kadokami, Kiwao; Wang, Shaopo; Duong, Hanh Thi; Chau, Hong Thi Cam

    2015-03-01

    In spite of the quantities and species of chemicals dramatically increased with rapid economic growth in China in the last decade, the focus of environmental research was mainly on limited number of priority pollutants. Therefore, to elucidate environmental pollution by organic micro-pollutants, this work was conducted as the first systematic survey on the occurrence of 1300 substances in 20 surface water samples of Tianjin, North China, selected as a representative area of China. The results showed the presence of 227 chemicals. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and median concentration were bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (100%; 0.26μgL(-1)), siduron (100%; 0.20μgL(-1)), lidocaine (100%; 96ngL(-1)), antipyrine (100%; 76ngL(-1)), caffeine (95%; 0.28μgL(-1)), cotinine (95%; 0.20μgL(-1)), phenanthrene (95%; 0.17μgL(-1)), metformin (90%; 0.61μgL(-1)), diethyl phthalate (90%; 0.19μgL(-1)), quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (90%; 0.14μgL(-1)), 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole (85%; 0.11μgL(-1)) and anthraquinone (85%; 54ngL(-1)). Cluster analysis discriminated three highly polluted sites from others based on data similarity. Principle component analysis identified four factors, corresponding to industrial wastewater, domestic discharge, tire production and atmospheric deposition, accounting for 78% of the total variance in the water monitoring data set. This work provides a wide reconnaissance on broad spectrum of organic micro-contaminants in surface waters in China, which indicates that the aquatic environment in China has been polluted by a large number of chemicals. PMID:25479805

  9. Environmental controls of evapotranspiration in a mixed plantation in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jinsong; Meng, Ping; Li, Jun; Zheng, Ning

    2016-07-01

    The mixed plantation plays an important role in the water cycle in the hilly area of North China. To evaluate the effect of afforestation on the water balance in this region, the temporal variation of evapotranspiration (ET) and environmental controls were investigated based on the eddy flux measurement of water vapor in a 31-year-old mixed plantation from 2006 to 2010. During 5 years, annual ET ranged from 513 to 680 mm, with an average of 579 mm. Growing season ET accounted for 72-82 % of annual ET during the 5-year period and its interannual variation was determined by the number of rainy days. In the non-growing and growing seasons, monthly ET was primarily dependent on monthly mean soil water content and monthly mean net radiation, respectively. Annual mean Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α) was 0.64, and the decoupling factor (Ω) was 0.48. High values of α and Ω implied that ET was energy limited in the growing seasons of 2006-2010. The mean annual ratio of ET to precipitation (ET/P) was 1.10. The density of the mixed plantation was around 50 % higher than the optimal value determined by local water capacity, leading to a large ET/P ratio. The dense plantation needs to be thinned to prevent excessive water loss in the hilly area of North China.

  10. P wave radial anisotropy tomography of the upper mantle beneath the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Huohua; Zhao, Dapeng

    2014-06-01

    present the first P wave radial anisotropy tomography of the crust and upper mantle beneath the North China Craton (NCC), determined using a large number of high-quality arrival-time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events. Our results show a prominent high-velocity (high-V) anomaly down to ˜250 km depth beneath the Ordos block, a high-V anomaly in the mantle transition zone beneath the eastern NCC, and a low-velocity (low-V) anomaly down to ˜300 km depth beneath the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO). The Ordos block exhibits significant negative radial anisotropy (i.e., vertical Vp > horizontal Vp), suggesting that its cratonic lithosphere has kept the frozen-in anisotropy formed by vertical growth via high-degree melting mantle plume in the early Earth. Prominent low-V anomalies with positive radial anisotropy (i.e., horizontal Vp > vertical Vp) exist beneath the Qilian and Qaidam blocks down to ˜400 km depth, suggesting that the horizontal material flow resulting from the Tibetan Plateau is blocked by the Ordos thick lithosphere. Beneath the eastern NCC, high-V anomalies with negative radial anisotropy exist in the upper mantle, possibly reflecting sinking remains of the Archean cratonic lithosphere. A high-V anomaly with positive radial anisotropy is revealed in the mantle transition zone under the eastern NCC, which reflects the stagnant Pacific slab.

  11. Prediction of agriculture derived groundwater nitrate distribution in North China Plain with GIS-based BPNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M. X.; Liu, G. D.; Wu, W. L.; Bao, Y. H.; Liu, W. N.

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, nitrate contamination of groundwater has become a growing concern for people in rural areas in North China Plain (NCP) where groundwater is used as drinking water. The objective of this study was to simulate agriculture derived groundwater nitrate pollution patterns with artificial neural network (ANN), which has been proved to be an effective tool for prediction in many branches of hydrology when data are not sufficient to understand the physical process of the systems but relative accurate predictions is needed. In our study, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) was developed to simulate spatial distribution of NO3-N concentrations in groundwater with land use information and site-specific hydrogeological properties in Huantai County, a typical agriculture dominated region of NCP. Geographic information system (GIS) tools were used in preparing and processing input-output vectors data for the BPNN. The circular buffer zones centered on the sampling wells were designated so as to consider the nitrate contamination of groundwater due to neighboring field. The result showed that the GIS-based BPNN simulated groundwater NO3-N concentration efficiently and captured the general trend of groundwater nitrate pollution patterns. The optimal result was obtained with a learning rate of 0.02, a 4-7-1 architecture and a buffer zone radius of 400 m. Nitrogen budget combined with GIS-based BPNN can serve as a cost-effective tool for prediction and management of groundwater nitrate pollution in an agriculture dominated regions in North China Plain.

  12. Source attribution of PM2.5 pollution over North China using the adjoint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Liu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Conventional methods for source attribution of air pollution are based on measurement statistics (such as Positive Matrix Factorization) or sensitivity simulations with a chemical transport model (CTM). These methods generally ignore the nonlinear chemistry associated with the pollution formation or require unaffordable computational time. Here we use the adjoint of GEOS-Chem CTM at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 pollution over North China in winter 2013. We improved the model sulfate simulation by implementing the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) by nitrogen dioxide. The adjoint results provide detailed source information at the model underlying grid resolution including source types and sectors. We show that PM2.5 pollution over Beijing and Baoding (Hebei) in winter was largely contributed by the large-scale residential and industrial burnings, and ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture activities. Nearly half of pollution was transported from outside of the city domains, and accumulated over 2-3 days. We also show under the current emission conditions, the PM2.5 concentrations over North China are more sensitive to NH3 emissions than NOx and SO2 emissions.

  13. Source attribution of particulate matter pollution over North China with the adjoint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Licheng; Zhao, Yuanhong; Gong, Sunling; Zhang, Xiaoye; Henze, Daven K.; Capps, Shannon L.; Fu, Tzung-May; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Yuxuan

    2015-08-01

    We quantify the source contributions to surface PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) pollution over North China from January 2013 to 2015 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint with improved model horizontal resolution (1/4° × 5/16°) and aqueous-phase chemistry for sulfate production. The adjoint method attributes the PM2.5 pollution to emissions from different source sectors and chemical species at the model resolution. Wintertime surface PM2.5 over Beijing is contributed by emissions of organic carbon (27% of the total source contribution), anthropogenic fine dust (27%), and SO2 (14%), which are mainly from residential and industrial sources, followed by NH3 (13%) primarily from agricultural activities. About half of the Beijing pollution originates from sources outside of the city municipality. Adjoint analyses for other cities in North China all show significant regional pollution transport, supporting a joint regional control policy for effectively mitigating the PM2.5 air pollution.

  14. Roaming Earthquakes in North China and Central-Eastern US: How and Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Stein, S. A.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Large earthquakes in mid-continents often occur in unexpected places. In North China, large earthquakes roamed between distant fault systems in the past 2000 years such that no large events ruptured the same fault segment twice during this period. In the central-eastern US, although historic earthquake records only go back a few hundred years, increasing paleoseismic evidence reveals large events in places of little seismicity today. Such spatiotemporal patterns of mid-continental earthquakes differ significantly from those at plate boundary zones, where relative plate motion loads the plate boundary faults steadily at relatively high rates, leading to localized seismicity with some arguable quasi-periodicity. In mid-continents, tectonic loading is slow and accommodated collectively by a complex system of interacting faults, each of which can be active for a short period after long dormancy. The mechanics of fault interaction in mid-continents remain to be fully understood. Besides the well studied Coulomb stress perturbations due to dislocation on the fault planes, property changes of fault zones by a large rupture may cause redistribution of regional stress and strain fields in mid-continents. Further studies of fault interaction and the resulting spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in mid-continents are imperative for improving earthquake hazard assessment in North China, central-eastern US, and other highly populated and earthquake-prone mid-continents.

  15. Lithospheric Structure of the Northeastern North China Craton Imaged by S Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingchen; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhu, Lupei

    2016-08-01

    Lithosphere thickness variation is important for understanding the significant tectonic reactivation of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Here, we determined the lithospheric structure in the northeastern NCC using S receiver functions from 305 teleseismic events recorded by 223 seismic stations. The Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are imaged clearly beneath the region. The Moho depth decreases from ~45 km beneath the western NCC to ~25 km beneath the eastern NCC. We found that the lithospheric thickness varies from 60 to 80 km beneath the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) and eastern NCC with no significant change of the LAB depth. The lithosphere thickness beneath the northwestern Ordos plateau is 100-130 km. In addition, there is a mid-lithosphere discontinuity at a depth of 80 km beneath the plateau that is connected to the base of thinned lithosphere in TNCO and eastern NCC. We suggest that the mid-lithosphere discontinuity represents a mechanically weak zone in the original cratonic lithosphere of the NCC. The material in the lower lithosphere of the craton, when warmed and hydrated by water released from the subducting slab of Western Pacific, became weak due to decrease in viscosity and/or partial melting and was subsequently removed through small-scale mantle convections.

  16. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M.; Xiao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ7Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ7Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from −27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ7Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1–2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ7Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ7Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ7Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust. PMID:24589693

  17. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust. PMID:24589693

  18. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  19. Lithospheric Structure of the Northeastern North China Craton Imaged by S Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingchen; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhu, Lupei

    2016-04-01

    Lithosphere thickness variation is important for understanding the significant tectonic reactivation of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Here, we determined the lithospheric structure in the northeastern NCC using S receiver functions from 305 teleseismic events recorded by 223 seismic stations. The Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are imaged clearly beneath the region. The Moho depth decreases from ~45 km beneath the western NCC to ~25 km beneath the eastern NCC. We found that the lithospheric thickness varies from 60 to 80 km beneath the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) and eastern NCC with no significant change of the LAB depth. The lithosphere thickness beneath the northwestern Ordos plateau is 100-130 km. In addition, there is a mid-lithosphere discontinuity at a depth of 80 km beneath the plateau that is connected to the base of thinned lithosphere in TNCO and eastern NCC. We suggest that the mid-lithosphere discontinuity represents a mechanically weak zone in the original cratonic lithosphere of the NCC. The material in the lower lithosphere of the craton, when warmed and hydrated by water released from the subducting slab of Western Pacific, became weak due to decrease in viscosity and/or partial melting and was subsequently removed through small-scale mantle convections.

  20. [Change and analysis of background concentration of air pollutants in north China during 2008 Olympic Games].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Xin, Jin-yuan; Sun, Yang; Wang, Yue-si; Wang, Pu-cai

    2010-05-01

    To understand the atmospheric background in North China and evaluate the effect of pollutant emission control as well as the influence of contaminant transportation in the regional pollution, during the 2008 Olympic Games, concentrations of four main air pollutants were observed from June to November at Xinglong station which is the regional background station of North China. We compared the concentrations and diurnal variations in different periods, analyzed the pollution transportation using the ground meteorological data and the backward trajectory model and compared the concentrations between different observation stations in Northern China. The results indicated that the concentrations of NOx, SO2, O3 and PM2.5 in summer were 8.4, 10.5, 126.0 and 59.8 microg x m(-3) respectively and in autumn were 11.7, 17.2, 97.5 and 30.7 microg x m(-3) respectively. During the period of Olympic (2008-08-08-2008-08-24), the concentrations of NOx, SO2, O3 and PM2.5 were 6.6, 6.8, 100.5 and 33.3 microg x m(-3) and reduced 29.0%, 46.9%, 18.6% and 36.5% respectively compared to the average concentrations of the period before and after Olympic Games. The concentration of NOx has reduced 62.5% and the PM2.5 has reduced 29.0% compared to the same term of Olympic in 2007. The air quality has obvious improvement in North China during the Olympic Games. Before the emission control, the concentrations of pollutants were lower in the night and became higher gradually in the daytime and reached the peak values in 17:00-20:00 which can indicate the accumulation of regional pollution transportation in Xinlong. In the emission control period, the accumulation of pollutants in afternoon was obviously weakened and the transportation of pollutants was lower which can reveal the obvious effect of the emission control in Beijing and peripheral areas. The atmosphere in Xinglong was mainly influenced by the monsoon from south direction in summer and autumn and the pollution of Xinglong was

  1. Probing The Structure North China To Better Understand Its Evolution, Natural Resources, And Seismic Hazards (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R.; Gao, R.; Qu, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, North China has been the target of a vast array of geoscience investigations that have advanced our understanding of the region. One major effort that has targeted the area is SinoProbe, which is China's ambitious national joint earth science research project that was established to develop a comprehensive understanding of the deep interior beneath the Chinese continent via a broad range of investigations that include deep drilling and geological and geophysical studies along continental-scale transects. As one of the eight major programs within SinoProbe, SinoProbe-02 (Seismic Observations) initiated a large-scale controlled-source seismic experiment in North China under the leadership of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (CAGS) of the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR) in cooperation with the University of Oklahoma and University of Missouri-Columbia in the U. S. This experiment was conducted in December of 2009 and consisted of three coordinated seismic recording activities along a profile that extended for over 400km from near Beijing northwestward to the Mongolian border. Near Beijing, the profile began near the eastern edge of the Western Block of the North China Precambrian craton, crossed this feature to the Solonker suture zone, and ended in the Central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB). The CAOB is one of the world's most prominent sites of the formation juvenile Phanerozoic crust. In January of 2010, a different effort led by the Chinese Earthquake administration was undertaken in cooperation with the same US universities. This effort targeted the Tangshan area where a devastating earthquake killed at least 250,000 people in 1976. In this seismic experiment, an innovative 3-D survey was undertaken across a 40km x 40km region centered on the city of Tangshan by deploying Texan instruments along a web of profiles with shotpoints at their intersections. This experiment targeted the middle and upper crust. A deep seismic reflection profile was

  2. Lithospheric shear wave velocity and radial anisotropy beneath the northern part of North China from surface wave dispersion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuanyuan V.; Gao, Yuan; Li, Aibing; Shi, Yutao

    2015-09-01

    Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocities in the northern part of the North China are obtained from ambient noise tomography in the period range of 8-35 s and two plane wave earthquake tomography at periods of 20-91 s using data recorded at 222 broadband seismic stations from the temporary North China Seismic Array and permanent China Digital Seismic Array. The dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love wave from 8 to 91 s are jointly inverted for the 3-D shear wave structure and radial anisotropy in the lithosphere to 140 km depth. Distinct seismic structures is observed from the Fenhe Graben and Taihang Mountain to the North China Basin. The North China Basin from the lower crust to the depth of 140 km is characterized by high-velocity anomaly, reflecting mafic intrusion and residual materials after the extraction of melt, and by strong radial anisotropy with Vsh > Vsv, implying horizontal layering of intrusion and alignment of minerals due to vigorous extensional deformation and subsequent thermal annealing. However, low-velocity anomaly and positive radial anisotropy are observed in the Fenhe Graben and Taihang Mountain, suggesting the presence of partial melt in the lithosphere due to the mantle upwelling and horizontal flow pull.

  3. From mountain building in the Tibetan Plateau to crustal extension in North China: The role of sublithospheric mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Yang, Y.; Ceylan, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Cui, D.

    2010-12-01

    Cenozoic continental collision and mountain building in the Tibetan Plateau, the Tian Shan, and the rest of western China contrast with the coeval crustal extension and volcanism in North China. While escaping tectonics provides a possible link between these two tectonic regimes, the role of sublithospheric mantle flow remains uncertain. Here we show that seismic velocity and anisotropy structures under the Tibetan Plateau and North China are correlated with crustal deformation, which indicates a significant role of sublithospheric mantle flow for crustal dynamics. The sublithospheric mantle flow under the Ordos Plateau and the surrounding regions are consistent with the mantle flow being primarily driven by the Indo-Asian collision; the flow is largely controlled by the lateral variations of lithospheric rheology. Under the North China Plain, the sublithospheric mantle flow results from both subduction of the Pacific plate and the Indo-Asian collision. Geodynamic modeling suggests that large-scale lateral flow in the asthenosphere provides a critical dynamic link between the Cenozoic compressive tectonics in Tibetan Plateau and extensional tectonics in North China.

  4. Farmers Extension Program Effects on Yield Gap in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sum, N.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Improving crop yield of the lowest yielding smallholder farmers in developing countries is essential to both food security of the country and the farmers' livelihood. Although wheat and maize production in most developed countries have reached 80% or greater of yield potential determined by simulated models, yield gap remains high in the developing world. One of these cases is the yield gap of maize in the North China Plain (NCP), where the average farmer's yield is 41% of his or her potential yield. This large yield gap indicates opportunity to raise yields substantially by improving agronomy, especially in nutrition management, irrigation facility, and mechanization issues such as technical services. Farmers' agronomic knowledge is essential to yield performance. In order to propagate such knowledge to farmers, agricultural extension programs, especially in-the-field guidance with training programs at targeted demonstration fields, have become prevalent in China. Although traditional analyses of the effects of the extension program are done through surveys, they are limited to only one to two years and to a small area. However, the spatial analysis tool Google Earth Engine (GEE) and its extensive satellite imagery data allow for unprecedented spatial temporal analysis of yield variation. We used GEE to analyze maize yield in Quzhou county in the North China Plain from 2007 to 2013. We based our analysis on the distance from a demonstration farm plot, the source of the farmers' agronomic knowledge. Our hypothesis was that the farther the farmers' fields were from the demonstration plot, the less access they would have to the knowledge, and the less increase in yield over time. Testing this hypothesis using GEE helps us determine the effectiveness of the demonstration plot in disseminating optimal agronomic practices in addition to evaluating yield performance of the demonstration field itself. Furthermore, we can easily extend this methodology to analyze the whole

  5. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-03-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUEPAR) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security.

  6. Satellite observation of regional haze pollution over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Minghui; Chen, Liangfu; Su, Lin; Tao, Jinhua

    2012-06-01

    Haze clouds often form over the North China Plain (NCP) of eastern China, where large amounts of aerosol particles and their precursors are emitted. To obtain general insights into regional pollution, a large-scale, long-term study was conducted using A-Train satellite observations, ground measurements, and meteorological data. Contrary to previous analyses, most of the haze clouds appeared to form abruptly (within 2-3 h). Case studies show that natural sources contribute significantly to the formation of regional haze. Dust plumes can mix with local pollutants, causing smog clouds to form abruptly, while moist airflows can cause widespread haze-fog pollution. The combined observations revealed highly inhomogeneous haze clouds, in terms of both vertical and horizontal distribution, leading to clear discrepancies between site measurements near the surface and satellite observations at the top of the atmosphere. Surprisingly, prevailing dust plumes, which are closely connected with the haze clouds, were observed in winter. Airborne dust and water vapor transported from outside the region are the main drivers of regional haze over the NCP. Accumulation of local pollutants also leads to common occurrences of urban smog; however, the occurrence of most haze clouds shows no obvious correlation with local pollution. Local- and regional-scale haze pollution are common over the NCP, but they have differing formation mechanisms, and contrasting chemical and physical properties. The present findings improve our understanding of heavy pollution over eastern China and its links to climate.

  7. Is the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt (North China Craton) a rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuang; Chen, Bin; Wei, Chunjing

    2016-04-01

    As a typical example of the Paleoproterozoic crust in the Eastern Block of the North China Craton, the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt consists principally of the Liaohe Group (and its equivalents), Liaoji granites and mafic intrusions. Previous studies indicate that the evolution of the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt has been mainly attributed to the opening and closing of an intracontinental rift along the eastern continental margin of the North China Craton. Here we synthesize the Paleoproterozoic magmatism, sedimentation, metamorphism and metallogeny against the rift model and propose a process of arc-continent collision between the northern Longgang and the southern Nangrim Blocks. This conclusion is consistent with the observations, including that (a) the 2.0- to 2.2-Ga magmatism shows a typical subalkaline series, rather than a bimodal distribution, since the mafic rocks mostly have arc affinities and the acidic-intermediate rocks belong to the calc-alkaline series; (b) the main source of the 1.9- to 2.0-Ga sedimentary rocks is the Paleoproterozoic arc materials, indicating a fore-arc or back-arc basin setting; (c) a couple of big borate deposits occur in the boron-rich volcanic rocks that were formed in convergent continental margins; (d) the North and South Liaohe Groups show different rock associations and metamorphic histories (P-T paths); and (e) the Nangrim and Longgang Blocks vary in lithological units, geochronology and metamorphic features. Thus, an arc-continent collision tectonic scenario for the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt is involved: (a) a southward subduction in the period 2.0-2.2 Ga; (b) sedimentation during the period 1.9-2.0 Ga; (c) arc-continent collision at ca. 1.9 Ga; and (d) post-collisional extension at 1.82-1.87 Ga, marking the end of the Paleoproterozoic tectonothermal event.

  8. Assessing the Remotely Sensed Drought Severity Index for Agricultural Drought Monitoring in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Huang, J.; Mu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    With a warming climate, the world has experienced frequent droughts during the past few decades. A remotely sensed Drought Severity Index (DSI), which integrates both vegetation growth condition and evapotranspiration, has been recently proposed for drought monitoring at the global scale. However, there has been little research on its utility for regional application, especially on agricultural drought. As an important winter wheat producing region, the North China has suffered from frequent droughts in recent years. In this study, the capability of the DSI for drought monitoring and impact analysis in five wheat producing provinces of North China was investigated. First, the DSI was compared with precipitation and soil moisture to show its ability for characterizing moisture status. Then specifically for agricultural drought, the DSI was evaluated against agricultural drought severity and the impacts of drought on crop yield during the growing season were also explored using the 8-day DSI data. The main conclusions are: (1) The DSI shows generally good ability for characterizing moisture conditions at the province level with varying ability during winter wheat main growing season (March-June), and the best relationship was found in April. (2) Despite varying capability, the DSI is quite effective in characterizing agricultural drought severity at the province level. (3) Drought shows generally increasing agricultural impacts during winter wheat main growing season (March-June), with little impacts in March (green-up stage), emerging impacts in April (jointing and booting stages) and significant drought impacts in May (heading and filling stages). (4) Based on the spatial pattern of agricultural drought impacts, densely winter wheat planted areas such as South Hebei, Central/West Shandong and North/East Henan are identified as drought vulnerable regions and comprehensive monitoring in these hotspots is highly recommended.

  9. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmitting visceral leishmaniasis and their geographical distribution in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-Ren; Zhou, Zheng-Bin; Jin, Chang-Fa; Fu, Qing; Chai, Jun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    After the existence of phlebotomine sand flies was first reported in China in 1910, the distribution of different species and their role in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been extensively studied. Up until 2008, four species have been verified as vectors of VL, namely, Phlebotomus chinensis (Ph. sichuanensis), Ph. longiductus (Ph. chinensis longiductus), Ph. wui (Ph. major wui), and Ph. alexandri. The sand fly species vary greatly depending on the natural environments in the different geographic areas where they are endemic. Ph. chinensis is euryecious and adaptable to different ecologies, and is thus distributed widely in the plain, mountainous, and Loess Plateau regions north of the Yangtze River. Ph. longiductus is mainly distributed in ancient oasis areas south of Mt. Tianshan in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region. Ph. wui is the predominant species in deserts with Populus diversifolia and Tamarix vegetation in Xinjiang and the western part of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Finally, Ph. alexandri is steroecious and found only in stony desert areas, such as at the foot of the mountains in Xinjiang and the western Hexi Corridor, in Gansu province. This review summarized the relationship between the geographic distribution pattern of the four sand fly species and their geographical landscape in order to foster research on disease distribution and sand fly control planning. Furthermore, some problems that remained to be solved about vectors of VL in China were discussed. PMID:26906187

  10. Magnetotelluric Evidence of Regional Lithospheric Modification in Ordos Block, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Wei, W.; Ye, G.; Jin, S.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Ordos Block (OB), which is located in the western part of the North China Craton (NCC), is one of the oldest and most stable cratonic blocks in Asia. To study the electrical structure of Ordos block, long period magnetotelluric (MT) array data from project SINOPROBE were acquired and modeled using three-dimensional (3D) MT inversion method. For the first time a high resolution 3D resistivity model of the lithosphere is acquired in the region. The lithosphere beneath the northern part of the OB and Hetao Graben is revealed to be geo-electrically distinct from that beneath the middle and southern Ordos. Contrary to what would be expected for a stable cratonic block, compelling evidence is presented of a large scale conductive complex in the lower crust and upper mantle beneath north Ordos and Hetao Graben. The abnormally conductive structure indicates the presence of aqueous fluids and/or inter-connected sulphides, possibly resulting from an upwelling of mantle material beneath the region. Correlating well with results of seismic studies, the evidence from independent magnetotelluric data supports a regional modification and thinning of the lithosphere, which might contribute to the extension of Hetao Graben started in late Miocene to Pliocene, as well as the uplifting of the north the Ordos Block since Neogene.

  11. Comparative climatological study of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over North America and China in 2011-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Feng; Ning, Baiqi; Wan, Weixing; Zhao, Biqiang; Xiong, Bo

    This paper describes a comparative study of the climatology of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) over North America and China based on observations obtained in 2011-2012 using two GPS networks characterized by dense regional coverage. We identified a total of 390 LSTIDs in China and 363 events in North America. These can be categorized into three types, namely south-, north-, and westward-propagating LSTIDs. The southward-moving LSTIDs over North America show similar diurnal and seasonal variations to those of geomagnetic disturbances, but the southward LSTIDs over China do not show such variations. The occurrence of southward-propagating LSTIDs over China increases at ~1-2 hours after the time of geomagnetic activity maximum; this increase lasts several hours until the geomagnetic activity minimum, which happens during the local evening. The southward-moving LSTIDs over North America show a weak semiannual variation, with two major peaks in March and October, while the southward-propagating LSTIDs over China show a major peak in January. Northward-propagating LSTIDs occur much less frequently than their southward-moving counterparts, and they are mainly observed in China. They mostly occur during geomagnetic activity maximum, indicating a possible relation with the degree of geomagnetic activity. Westward-traveling LSTIDs are seen in both regions during local sunrise and may be excited by the moving solar terminator. No relationship was found between these latter LSTIDs and the geomagnetic disturbances. The propagation direction of westward-moving events changed from northwestward during winter solstice to southwestward at summer solstice. This is consistent with the seasonal orientation of the solar terminator.

  12. Source of Mesozoic intermediate-felsic igneous rocks in the North China craton: Granulite xenolith evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Neng; Carlson, Richard W.; Guo, Jinhui

    2011-07-01

    Four intermediate to felsic igneous rocks from the Zhangjiakou region, along the northern margin of the North China craton, have magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 122 to 144 Ma. Two of these samples have inherited zircon U-Pb ages of ~ 2.5 Ga, similar to the zircon ages of rocks from the surrounding granulite terrain. Zircons from two intermediate composition granulite xenoliths (JN0811 and JN0919) in the nearby Cenozoic Hannuoba basalts yield two groups of ages. The rims have concordant Mesozoic ages mostly between 120 and 145 Ma, coeval with the Mesozoic intermediate-felsic magmatism in the region, while the cores have discordant U-Pb ages with upper-intercepts of ~ 2.5 Ga, overlapping the zircon ages of granulite terrain rocks, and lower-intercept ages of ~ 130 Ma, approximating the ages of the Mesozoic intermediate-felsic magmatism. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the Mesozoic intermediate-felsic igneous rocks are completely different from those expected for basaltic melts from either the lithospheric mantle or the asthenospheric mantle, precluding a derivation by extensive fractional crystallization of mantle-derived magmas. The lack of correlation between (86Sr/87Sr)i, εNd(t) and SiO2 for the Mesozoic igneous rocks, the very narrow range of zircon εHf(t) for individual intermediate-felsic igneous rocks, and simple binary mixing calculations argue against them being formed by mixing between mantle-derived magma and preexisting crust that has extremely evolved Sr-Nd isotopic compositions like granulite xenoliths JN0811 and JN0919. Hf isotopic compositions of the Mesozoic zircons and whole-rock geochemistry show that the granulite xenoliths with extremely evolved Sr-Nd isotopic compositions have not undergone partial melting during the Mesozoic and thus do not contribute to the Mesozoic intermediate-felsic magmas. Further comparisons show that the source rocks for the Mesozoic intermediate-felsic magmas likely were late Archean lower crustal rocks similar in

  13. The ambient noise and earthquake surface wave tomography of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Obrebski, M. J.; Wu, Q.; Li, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) is unique for its unusual Phanerozoic tectonic activity. The NCC was internally tectonically stable until Jurassic when its southern margin collided with the Yangzte Craton. Subsequently, the eastern and central part of the NCC underwent distinctive evolutions during the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In contrast to the Erdos block located in the western part of NCC and that seems to have preserved the typical features of a stable craton, the eastern NCC has experienced significant lithospheric thinning as evidenced by widespread magmatism activity and normal faulting, among other manifestations. The eastern part of the NCC is also one of the most seismically active intracontinental regions in the world. Here we focus on the region that comprises the North China Basin and the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains, two major tectonic units located to the east and in the center of the NCC, respectively. We combine ambient noise data and ballistic surface wave data recorded by the dense temporary seismic array deployed in the North China to obtain phase velocity maps at periods ranging from 5s to 60s. 1587 and 3667 ray paths were obtained from earthquake surface waves and ambient noise correlations, respectively. The phase velocity distribution was reconstructed with grid size 0.25x0.25 degrees and 0.5x0.5 degrees from ambient noise tomography and earthquake surface wave tomography. For periods shorter than 15s, the phase velocity variations are well correlated with the principal geological units in the NCC, with low-speed anomalies corresponding to the major sedimentary basins and high-speed anomalies coinciding with the main mountain ranges. Within the period range from 20s to 30s, the phase velocity variations seem to be related to the local variations of the crustal thickness. For the periods above 30s, the strength of the phase velocity variations decreases with increasing periods, which may imply that the uppermost mantle is much more homogeneous

  14. Two new species of the genus Podalonia Fernald from China and a key to the Chinese species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hong; Li, Qiang; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Two new species are described: Podalonia arcuaticlypeata Wang & Ma, sp. nov. from Xinjiang, China and Podalonia bicellularis Wang & Ma, sp. nov. from Qinghai, China. A key to the species of Podalonia from China is provided. PMID:27615896

  15. Effects of tillage and residue management on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the North China Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A suitable tillage-residue management system is needed in the North China Plain (NCP) that sustains soil fertility and agronomic productivity. The objective was to determine the effects of different tillage-residue managements for a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), summer maize (Zea Mays L.) dou...

  16. Organic manure as an alternative to crop residues for no-tillage wheat-maize systems in North China Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NT can provide both environmental and economic benefits and has been recognized as a sustainable land use practice in many areas worldwide. NT has induced some concerns in the North China Plain (NCP), e.g. unstable crop yield and fodder shortage, with regards to the amount of crop residues retained ...

  17. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species' distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities. PMID:27452616

  18. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species’ distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities. PMID:27452616

  19. Three-North Shelter Forest Program contribution to long-term increasing trends of biogenic isoprene emissions in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Leiming; Shen, Yanjie; Zhao, Yuan; Gao, Hong; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Jia, Chenhui; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    To assess the long-term trends of isoprene emissions in northern China and the impact of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program (TNRSF) on these trends, a database of historical biogenic isoprene emissions from 1982 to 2010 was developed for this region using a biogenic emission model for gases and aerosols. The total amount of the biogenic isoprene emissions during the 3 decades was 4.4 Tg in northern China and 1.6 Tg in the TNRSF, with annual emissions ranging from 132 000 to 176 000 t yr-1 and from 45 000 to 70 000 t yr-1, respectively, in the two regions. Isoprene emission fluxes have increased substantially in many areas of the TNRSF over the last 3 decades due to the growing trees and vegetation coverage, especially in the central north China region where the highest emission incline reached to 58 % from 1982 to 2010. Biogenic isoprene emissions produced from anthropogenic forests tended to surpass those produced from natural forests, such as boreal forests in northeastern China. The estimated isoprene emissions suggest that the TNRSF has altered the long-term emission trend in north China from a decreasing trend during 1982 to 2010 (slope = -0.533, R2 = 0.05) to an increasing trend for the same period of time (slope = 0.347, R2 = 0.014), providing strong evidence for the change in the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) induced by the human activities on decadal or longer timescales.

  20. Serious BTEX pollution in rural area of the North China Plain during winter season.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kankan; Zhang, Chenglong; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhang, Gen; Sun, Xu; Mu, Yujing

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a rural site of the North China Plain (NCP) were preliminarily investigated in winter, and the outdoor concentrations (25.8-236.0 μg/m3) were found to be much higher than those reported in urban regions. The pollution of BTEX inside a farmer's house was even more serious, with combined concentrations of 254.5-1552.9 μg/m3. Based on the ratio of benzene to toluene (1.17±0.34) measured, the serious BTEX pollution in the rural site was mainly ascribed to domestic coal combustion for heating during the winter season. With the enhancement of farmers' incomes in recent years, coal consumption by farmers in the NCP is rapidly increasing to keep their houses warm, and hence the serious air pollution in rural areas of the NCP during winter, including BTEX, should be paid great attention. PMID:25872726

  1. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of North China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, T.; Zuan, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocens Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pole in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point.

  2. Do aerosols impact ground observation of total cloud cover over the North China Plain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Xia, Xiangao; Wang, Pucai; Fei, Ye

    2015-04-01

    Ground observation of the total cloud cover (TCC) showed a significant downward trend during the past half century over the North China Plain (NCP). The objective of this paper is to examine whether aerosols have impacted the surface observations of TCC by human observers. TCC observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua (TCCgrd) were firstly compared with ground observations (TCCsat) at 201 synoptic stations over the NCP. Results showed that both data sets were in good agreement. The correlation coefficient between TCCgrd and TCCsatranged from 0.80 in winter to 0.90 in summer. The relationship between TCCsat - TCCgrdand visibility was then analyzed, which showed no significant correlation. Finally, long-term trends of TCCgrd and visibility were not correlated. These results indicated that aerosols likely did not impact the long-term trend of TCCgrdover the NCP.

  3. Do aerosols impact ground observation of total cloud cover over the North China Plain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Xia, X.; Wang, P.; Fei, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Ground observation of the total cloud cover (TCC) showed a significant downward trend during the past half century over the North China Plain (NCP). The objective of this paper is to examine whether aerosols have impacted the surface observations of TCC by human observers. TCC observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua (TCCsat) were firstly compared with ground observations (TCCgrd) at 201 synoptic stations over the NCP. Results showed that both data sets were in good agreement. The correlation coefficient between TCCgrd and TCCsat ranged from 0.80 in winter to 0.90 in summer. The relationship between TCCsat-TCCgrd and visibility was then analyzed, which showed no significant correlation. Finally, long-term trends of TCCgrd and visibility were not correlated. These results indicated that aerosols likely did not impact the long-term trend of TCCgrd over the NCP.

  4. Determining the major Bt refuge crops for cotton bollworm in North China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Le-Fu; Fu, Xue; Ouyang, Fang; Xie, Bao-Yu; Ge, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of the effectiveness of refuge strategies involved in cotton bollworm Bt resistance management would be aided by technologies that allow monitoring and quantification of key factors that affect the process under field conditions. We hypothesized that characterization of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in adult bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) moths may aid in determining the larval host that they developed upon. We found moths reared from larvae fed on peanut, soybean or cotton, respectively, could be differentiated using isotopic analyses that also corresponded to their respective larval host origins. These techniques were then used to classify feral second-generation bollworm moths caught in Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields into different populations based on their isotopic signatures. In 2006-2007 feral moths captured in Bt cotton fields predominantly correlated with the peanut (Arachis hypogea) having served as their larval host, indicating this is the most important refuge crop for Bt-susceptible bollworm individuals (providing 58%-64% individuals) during independent moth peaks for the second generation in North China. The remaining feral moths correlated with soybean (Glycine max) (0-10%); other C3 plant (20%-22%) and non-C3 plant (12%-14%) host types also provided some Bt-sensitive moths. Field observations showed that peanut constitutes the primary refuge crop contributing to sustaining Bt-susceptible moths dispersing into cotton in North China. These results suggest that peanut may be a more effective refuge to sustain Bt-susceptible bollworm individuals and reduce the risk of development of a Bt-resistant biotype. PMID:25196072

  5. Provenance and paleoweathering reconstruction of the Mesoproterozoic Hongshuizhuang Formation (1.4 Ga), northern North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingyong; Zhong, Ningning; Wang, Yannian; Ma, Ling; Li, Min

    2015-10-01

    This is the first study presenting major and trace elemental data from the Mesoproterozoic Hongshuizhuang Formation shales in Yanshan basin, North China, in order to reconstruct its provenance and chemical weathering history. The shales are strongly depleted in Na2O and Sr and enriched in Y and transition metal elements relative to upper continental crust. Low Zr concentrations and various discriminant plots (e.g., Th/Sc-Zr/Sc and Al2O3-TiO2-Zr) indicate insignificant mineral sorting or recycling of these shales. The rocks show light rare earth element (REE) enrichment (La/YbCN = 3.99-6.92), flat heavy REE, and significantly negative Eu anomalies (Euan = 0.57-0.68) in chondrite-normalized REE patterns, similar to post-Archean Australian average shales. The fairly uniform REE patterns and trace element ratios indicate that the Hongshuizhuang Formation shales were derived from a felsic source area with granodiorite as the dominant contributor. Mixing calculations suggest a mixture of 30 % granite porphyry, 5 % basalt, and 65 % granodiorite as the possible source of the shales, also supporting that granodiorite was the predominant source. Intense chemical weathering of the source terrain is indicated by high values of the premetasomatized chemical index of alteration, plagioclase index of alteration, Rb/Sr, a strong positive correlation between TiO2 and Al2O3, depletion of CaO, Na2O, and Sr, and mineral compositions. Such strong chemical weathering suggests a warm and wet paleoclimate, perhaps due to high atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and a near-equatorial location of the North China Craton in the Columbia supercontinent at 1.4 Ga.

  6. The Landscape Evolution of Ulan Buh Desert in North China during Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fahu; Li, Guoqiang; Zhao, Hui; Jin, Ming; Fan, Yuxin; Madsen, David; Chun, Xi

    2013-04-01

    Desert evolution was one of the major environmental changes in northern China during Quaternary. Ulan Buh Desert (UBD), at margin of present summer monsoon, is one of main desert fields and dust source areas in the north and northwest China. In this paper we present the results of lithology, Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dates, grain-size, carbonate content, organic content and pollen analysis from the drilling cores in the different parts of UBD. Our results show that most area of the present Ulan Buh desert was covered by the Jilantai-Hetao mage-paleolake before ~90 ka ago, a uniform paleolake of about 34,000 km2 covering the whole Hetai palin, and sevrious eolian and desert environment was prevailing during the last glacial and early Holoccene. Then an Ulan Buh paleolake (UB paleolake), likely a desert-wetland enviroment, formed in the northern part of UBD and Jilantai salt lake at around 8-7 ka, leaving dry lake bed landform in northern UBD, while high dune landscape probably prevailed in south UBD. After that, the mordern UBD landscape formed. The Jilantai Salt Lake in western UBD continued to exist until present with high lake level during UB paleolake preiod. During the recent 2000 years aeolian sand from Badan Jaran desert invaded the north UBD through Langshan mountain to form dune landform covered on dry UB paleolake bed and seperated main Ulan Buh desert and Jilantai Salt Lake. Human activities such as changing low wetland to farmland and following abandonment resulted the formation of easten Ulan Buh desert in Han dynasty since 200 BC. The formation of UBD landfporms was suggedted to be relate to disintegration of Jilantai-Hetao mage-paleolake, and was also likely to corresponding to summer monsoon changes during during last glacial and Holocene.

  7. Trace metal accumulation in soil and their phytoavailability as affected by greenhouse types in north China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Hickethier, Martina; Hu, Wenyou

    2015-05-01

    Long-term heavy organic fertilizer application has linked greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) with trace metal contamination in north China. Given that trace metals release from fertilizers and their availability may be affected by discrepant environmental conditions, especially temperature under different greenhouses, this study investigated Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn accumulation and contamination extent in soil as well as their phytoavailability under two major greenhouses in Tongshan, north China, namely solar greenhouse (SG) and round-arched plastic greenhouse (RAPG), to evaluate their presumed difference. The results showed significant Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn accumulation in GVP soil by comparing with those in open-field soil, but their accumulation extent and rates were generally greater in SG than those in RAPG. This may be related to more release of trace metals to soil due to the acceleration of decomposition and humification process of organic fertilizers under higher soil temperature in SG relative to that in RAPG. Overall, soil in both greenhouses was generally less polluted or moderately polluted by the study metals. Similarly, decreased soil pH and elevated soil available metals in SG caused higher trace metals in leaf vegetables in SG than those in RAPG, although there was no obvious risk via vegetable consumption under both greenhouses. Lower soil pH may be predominantly ascribed to more intensive farming practices in SG while elevated soil available metals may be attributed to more release of dissolved organic matter-metal complexes from soil under higher temperature in SG. The data provided in this study may assist in developing reasonable and sustainable fertilization strategies to abate trace metal contamination in both greenhouses. PMID:25422117

  8. Three-dimensional circulation structures leading to heavy summer rainfall over central North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Yu, Rucong; Li, Jian; Yuan, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    Using daily and hourly rain gauge records and Japanese 25 year reanalysis data over 30 years, this work reveals two major circulation structures leading to heavy summer rainfall events in central North China (CNC), and further analyzes the effects of the circulations on these rainfall events. One circulation structure has an extensive upper tropospheric warm anomaly (UTWA) covering North China (NC). By strengthening the upper anticyclonic anomaly and lower southerly flows around NC, the UTWA plays a positive role in forming upper level divergence and lower level moisture convergence. As a result, the warm anomalous circulation has a solid relationship with large-scale, long-duration rainfall events with a diurnal peak around midnight to early morning. The other circulation structure has an upper tropospheric cold anomaly (UTCA) located in the upper stream of NC. Contributed to by the UTCA, a cold trough appears in the upper stream of NC and an unstable configuration with upper (lower) cold (warm) anomalies forms around CNC. Consequently, CNC is covered by strong instability and high convective energy, and the cold anomalous circulation is closely connected with local, short-duration rainfall events concentrated from late afternoon to early nighttime. The close connections between circulation structures and typical rainfall events are confirmed by two independent converse analysis processes: from circulations to rainfall characteristics, and from typical rainfall events to circulations. The results presented in this work indicate that the upper tropospheric temperature has significant influences on heavy rainfall, and thus more attention should be paid to the upper tropospheric temperature in future analyses.

  9. Two major circulation structures leading to heavy summer rainfall over central North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Jian; Yu, Rucong; Yuan, Weihua

    2015-05-01

    Using daily and hourly rain gauge records and Japanese 25 year reanalysis data over 30 years, this paper reveals two major circulation structures leading to heavy summer rainfall events in central North China (CNC), and further analyzes the effects of the circulations on these rainfall events. One circulation structure has an extensive upper tropospheric warm anomaly (UTWA) covering North China (NC). By strengthening the upper anticyclonic anomaly and lower southerly flows around NC, the UTWA plays a positive role in forming upper level divergence and lower level moisture convergence. As a result, the warm anomalous circulation has a solid relationship with large-scale, long-duration rainfall events with a diurnal peak around midnight to early morning. The other circulation structure has an upper tropospheric cold anomaly (UTCA) located in the upper stream of NC. Contributed to by the UTCA, a cold trough appears in the upper stream of NC and an unstable configuration with upper (lower) cold (warm) anomalies forms around CNC. Consequently, CNC is covered by strong instability and high convective energy, and the cold anomalous circulation is closely connected with local, short-duration rainfall events concentrated from late afternoon to early nighttime. The close connections between circulation structures and typical rainfall events are confirmed by two independent converse analysis processes: from circulations to rainfall characteristics, and from typical rainfall events to circulations. The results presented in this paper indicate that the upper tropospheric temperature has significant influences on heavy rainfall, and thus more attention should be paid to the upper tropospheric temperature in future analyses.

  10. Aerosol characterization over the North China Plain: Haze life cycle and biomass burning impacts in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Xu, Yisheng; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Xingang; Li, Weijun; Wang, Fei; Li, Jie; Wang, Pucai; Li, Zhanqing

    2016-03-01

    The North China Plain experiences frequent severe haze pollution during all seasons. Here we present the results from a summer campaign that was conducted at Xianghe, a suburban site located between the megacities of Beijing and Tianjin. Aerosol particle composition was measured in situ by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor along with a suite of collocated measurements during 1-30 June 2013. Our results showed that aerosol composition at the suburban site was overall similar to that observed in Beijing, which was mainly composed of organics (39%), nitrate (20%), and sulfate (18%). Positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol (OA) identified four OA factors with different sources and processes. While secondary organic aerosol dominated OA, on average accounting for 70%, biomass burning OA (BBOA) was also observed to have a considerable contribution (11%) for the entire study period. The contribution of BBOA was increased to 21% during the BB period in late June, indicating a large impact of agricultural burning on air pollution in summer. Biomass burning also exerted a significant impact on aerosol optical properties. It was estimated that ~60% enhancement of absorption at the ultraviolet spectral region was caused by the organic compounds from biomass burning. The formation mechanisms and sources of severe haze pollution episodes were investigated in a case study. The results highlighted two different mechanisms, i.e., regional transport and local sources, driving the haze life cycles differently in summer in the North China Plain. While secondary aerosol species dominated aerosol composition in the episode from regional transport, organics and black carbon comprised the major fraction in the locally formed haze episode.

  11. Lithospheric Structure, Crustal Kinematics, and Earthquakes in North China: An Integrated Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Yang, Y.; Sandvol, E.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhou, S.; Shen, Z.; Wang, Q.

    2007-12-01

    The North China block (NCB) is geologically part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton. But unusual for a craton, it was thermally rejuvenated since late Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Today, the NCB is characterized by strong internal deformation and seismicity, including the 1976 Tangshan earthquake that killed ~250,000 people. We have started a multidisciplinary study to image the lithospheric and upper mantle structure using seismological methods, to delineate crustal kinematics and deformation via studies of neotectonics and space geodesy, and to investigate the driving forces, the stress states and evolution, and seismicity using geodynamic modeling. Both seismic imaging and GPS results indicate that the Ordos plateau, which is the western part of the NCB and a relic of the Sino-Korean craton, has been encroached around its southern margins by mantle flow and thus is experiencing active cratonic destruction. Some of the mantle flow may be driven by the Indo-Asian collision, although the cause of the broad mantle upwelling responsible for the Mesozoic thinning of the NCB lithosphere remains uncertain. At present, crustal deformation in the NCB is largely driven by gravitational spreading of the expanding Tibetan Plateau. Internal deformation within the NCB is further facilitated by the particular tectonic boundary conditions around the NCB, and the large lateral contrasts of lithospheric strength and rheology. Based on the crustal kinematics and lithospheric structure, we have developed a preliminary geodynamic model for stress states and strain energy in the crust of the NCB. The predicted long-term strain energy distribution is comparable with the spatial pattern of seismic energy release in the past 2000 years. We are exploring the cause of the spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in the NCB, especially the apparent migration of seismicity from the Weihe-Shanxi grabens around the Ordos to

  12. Effects of double cropping on summer climate of the North China Plain and neighbouring regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most important agricultural regions in Asia and produces up to 50% of the cereal consumed in China each year. To meet increasing food demands without expanding croplands, annual agricultural practice in much of the NCP has changed from single to double cropping. The impact of double cropping on the regional climate, through biophysical feedbacks caused by changes in land surface conditions, remains largely unknown. Here we show that observed surface air temperatures during the inter-cropping season (June and July) are 0.40 °C higher over double cropping regions (DCRs) than over single cropping regions (SCRs), with increases in the daily maximum temperature as large as 1.02 °C. Using regional climate modelling, we attribute the higher temperatures in DCRs to reduced evapotranspiration during the inter-cropping period. The higher surface temperatures in June and July affect low-level circulation and, in turn, rainfall associated with the East Asian monsoon over the NCP and neighbouring countries. These findings suggest that double cropping in the NCP can amplify the magnitude of summertime climate changes over East Asia.

  13. azimuthal anisotropy underneath western North China Craton from surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, S.

    2013-12-01

    Azimuthal anisotropic velocity structure beneath the western North China Craton (NCC) has been extracted using Rayleigh wave data from 69 broad-band seismographs of China Earthquake Networks Center and 23 of Peking University. We get the surface wave structure for period of 20s to 125s of Rayleigh wave. Surface wave velocity in a slight anisotropic media can be expressed as following: v_1=v_0+asinθ+bcosθ Where v_0 is the isotropic velocity and θ is the back azimuth. The primary results indicate that the Ordos Craton, which has been stable since Archean is obviously high-velocity-anomaly for over 200 km depth. While the Central part of NCC, including the Shanxi Rift, has obvious low-velocity-anomaly going down to 200 km. We interpret this enormous velocity changes as an evidence for the apart geologic processes of the eastern and western parts of NCC. The reactivation since Mesozoic of NCC may have caused upwelling of upper mantle right beneath Shanxi Rift.

  14. Heavy Metals Pollution and Pb Isotopic Signatures in Surface Sediments Collected from Bohai Bay, North China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as “the unpolluted” level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as “unpolluted to moderately polluted” level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for 206Pb/207Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for 208Pb/207Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources. PMID:24982926

  15. The cost of ending groundwater overdraft on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, C.; Liu, S.; Mo, X.; Rosbjerg, D.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2015-06-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater reserves is a major environmental problem around the world. In many river basins, groundwater and surface water are used conjunctively and joint optimization strategies are required. A hydroeconomic modelling approach is used to find cost-optimal sustainable surface water and groundwater allocation strategies for a river basin, given an arbitrary initial groundwater level in the aquifer. A simplified management problem with conjunctive use of scarce surface water and groundwater under inflow and recharge uncertainty is presented. Because of head-dependent groundwater pumping costs the optimization problem is non-linear and non-convex, and a genetic algorithm is used to solve the 1-step-ahead sub-problems with the objective of minimizing the sum of immediate and expected future costs. A real-world application in the Ziya River Basin in northern China is used to demonstrate the model capabilities. Persistent overdraft from the groundwater aquifers on the North China Plain has caused declining groundwater tables, salinization and infiltration of wastewater. The model maps the opportunity cost of water in different scenarios, and the cost of ending groundwater overdraft in the basin is estimated to be 5.47 billion CNY yr-1. The model can be used to guide decision makers to ensure long-term sustainability of groundwater and surface water resources management in the basin in an economically optimal way.

  16. Heavy metals pollution and pb isotopic signatures in surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as "the unpolluted" level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as "unpolluted to moderately polluted" level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources. PMID:24982926

  17. Petrogenesis and evolution of Quaternary basaltic rocks from the Wulanhada area, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qi-Cheng; Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Zhao, Yong-Wei; Zou, Hai-Bo; Li, Ni; Sui, Jian-Li

    2014-10-01

    The origin of alkali basalts in eastern China has been the subject of considerable debate. Here we focus on the Wulanhada basalts located in the western block of North China Craton to provide new insights into recent deep mantle dynamics. The Wulanhada volcanic group has 30 volcanic cones with variable volumes, consisting of scoria cone (cinder cone + spatter cone) and lava. The Wulanhada volcanoes exhibit Strombolian eruption activities during late Pleistocene epoch and Holocene. The Wulanhada basalts are strongly alkaline rocks (tephrite). According to the characteristics of trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions, the Wulanhada magmas were mainly derived from garnet-bearing peridotite within the asthenosphere and underwent fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene without significant crustal contamination. Their elevated values of Na, Al, Sr/Sm, Sm/Hf, Zr/Hf, and Nb/Ta, positive Ba, K, Pb, and Sr anomalies and negative Zr, Hf anomalies, combined with a negative correlation between 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd and relatively low 87Sr/86Sr, suggest that the magma source may be a mixture of garnet peridotites and carbonated melts. The presence of carbonated melts is likely associated with the sediments or fluids carried by the subducted or stagnant Pacific Plate.

  18. Reactivation and mantle dynamics of North China Craton: insight from P-wave anisotropy tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, You; Zhao, Dapeng

    2013-12-01

    We determined the first 3-D P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath the North China Craton (NCC) using a large number of high-quality arrival-time data from local earthquakes and teleseismic events, which reveals depth-dependent azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle down to 600 km depth. In the NCC western block, the fast velocity direction (FVD) varies from east-west in the southern part to northeast-southwest in the northern part, which may reflect either the interaction between the Yangtze block and NCC or fossil lithospheric fabrics in the craton. Under the NCC eastern block, a uniform northwest-southeast FVD is revealed in the lower part of the upper mantle (300-410 km depths) and the mantle transition zone (410-660 km depths), which may reflect horizontal and upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. The NCC central block exhibits a northeast-southwest FVD, consistent with the surface tectonic orientation there, suggesting that the cold and thick (>300 km) cratonic root of the NCC western block may obstruct the northwest-southeast trending mantle flow induced by the Pacific Plate subduction, resulting in a northeast-southwest trending mantle flow under the central block. Our present results indicate that the corner flow in the BMW associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific Plate is the main cause of NCC reactivation and mantle dynamics under East China.

  19. Trends and Numerical Simulation of Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Exploitation in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Cao, G.; Liu, J.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) refers to the alluvial plain to the north of Yellow River, the south of Yanshan Mountain, and the east of Taihang Mountain, with a total area of 140,000 km2. Due to decades of groundwater overexploitation, the NCP has one of the the largest area of water table depression cones and the most severe land subsidence in the world. The maximum accumulated subsidence of the NCP, found in Tanggu District of Tianjin, is 3,187 mm and the total area with accumulated subsidence over 200 mm is 64,296 km2. The NCP aquifer system is composed of Quaternary deposits, which can be divided into one unconfined aquifer and three confined aquifers. According to the hydrogeological monitoring data from 1960 to 2008, it can be inferred that the land subsidence in the NCP is caused by continuously excessive extraction of groundwater from deep confined aquifer zones. In this study, we developed a coupled numerical model of groundwater flow and land subsidence for the NCP based on the computer program MODFLOW-2000 and aquifer-system compaction package (SUB). We calibrated the numerical model by comparing the simulated and measured extents and magnitudes of land subsidence. The calibrated model provides a useful tool for managing groundwater resources in the NCP.

  20. Influence of springtime North Atlantic Oscillation on crops yields in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Mengzi; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Song; Fan, Ke

    2013-12-01

    Forecasting grain production is of strategic importance in considerations of climate change and growing population. Here we show that the springtime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is significantly correlated to the year-to-year increment of maize and rice yield in Northeast China (NEC). The physical mechanism for this relationship was investigated. Springtime NAO can induce sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the North Atlantic, which display a tripole pattern and are similar to the empirical mode pattern in spring. The spring Atlantic SSTA pattern that could persists to summer, can trigger a high-level tropospheric Rossby wave response in the Eurasia continent, resulting in atmospheric circulation anomalies over the Siberia-Mongolia region, which is unfavorable (favorable) for cold surges that affect NEC. Weaker (stronger) cold surges can accordingly reduce (increase) cloud amount, resulting in an increase (a decrease) in daily maximum temperature and a decrease (an increase) in daily minimum temperature, thereby leading to an increase (a decrease) in diurnal temperature range. And summer-mean daily minimum temperature and diurnal temperature range are most significantly related to the NEC crop yields.

  1. Paragneiss zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Zhang, J.X.; Bird, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    In the southeastern part of the North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, paragneiss hosts minor peridotite and UHP eclogite. Zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry of three paragneiss samples (located within a ???3 km transect) indicates that eclogite-facies metamorphism resulted in variable degrees of zircon growth and recrystallization in the three samples. Inherited zircon core age groups at 1.8 and 2.5 Ga suggest that the protoliths of these rocks may have received sediments from the Yangtze or North China cratons. Mineral inclusions, depletion in HREE, and absence of negative Eu anomalies indicate that zircon U-Pb ages of 431 ?? 5 Ma and 426 ?? 4 Ma reflect eclogite-facies zircon growth in two of the samples. Ti-in-zircon thermometry results are tightly grouped at ???660 and ???600 ??C, respectively. Inclusions of metamorphic minerals, scarcity of inherited cores, and lack of isotopic or trace element inheritance demonstrate that significant new metamorphic zircon growth must have occurred. In contrast, zircon in the third sample is dominated by inherited grains, and rims show isotopic and trace element inheritance, suggesting solid-state recrystallization of detrital zircon with only minor new growth. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  3. Upper-mantle tomography and dynamics beneath the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jianshe

    2012-06-01

    A high-resolution tomographic model of the upper mantle beneath the North China Craton (NCC) is determined using a large number of precisely hand-picked teleseismic P wave arrival times. The results are generally consistent with previous results but high-quality arrivals provide new insights into the dynamics beneath the NCC. Obviously north-south trending low-velocity (low-V) zones are revealed down to ˜300-400 km depth under the Shanxi rift and Tanlu fault zone, while a north-south trending high-velocity (high-V) zone representing the remainder of detached lithosphere is visible down to ˜200 km depth under the western portion of eastern NCC. High-V anomalies representing the detached lithosphere are detected at 200-400 km depth under central and eastern NCC. Under the Ordos block high-V anomalies are visible above ˜400 km depth, indicating intact lithosphere. Broad high-V anomalies representing the stagnant Pacific slab are imaged with a low-V anomaly from Datong volcano to the edge of Bohai Sea in the mantle transition zone beneath eastern and central NCC, suggesting that the Pacific slab has subducted to central NCC but with a gap. A continuously Y-shaped low-V structure is clearly imaged under Datong volcano and Bohai Sea from the lower mantle through this gap in the mantle transition zone to the upper mantle, indicating the existence of a lower mantle plume. These results suggest that in addition to the subduction of the Pacific plate, the plume has also played an important role in lithospheric destruction by thermal erosion of the asthenosphere and detachment of the lithosphere beneath the NCC.

  4. Petrogenesis and Tectonic Evolution of Granitic Rocks in The Northern Margin of North China Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, C.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.

    2010-12-01

    The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic granites in Daqingshan district of the northern margin of north China plate is classified into six types as follows.Aguigou intrusion is consists of gabbro, diorite, quartz diorite, and granodiorite.Its feature is rich in mafic compositions.The formation age is 284.5±2.9Ma or 283.7±3.7Ma for the quartz diorite, and 281.1±3.4Ma for granodiorite. The genesis of the intrusion belongs to I-type granite. Laoyinhada intrusion comprises fine biotite monzonitic granite and porphyritic biotite monzonitic granite. The age is 272±4Ma for the fine biotite monzonitic granite. The genesis of the body is I-type granite.Halaheshao intrusion is a group of medium-coarse biotite-bearing monzonitic granites and large porphyritic-bearing monzonitic granite. The age is 260±0.5Ma for the biotite-bearing monzonitic granite.The tectonic environment belongs to post-orogenic granites.Taolegai intrusion consists of medium-fine granite, medium-coarse granite, porphyritic-bearing granite, and fine granite. The age is 224±3Ma for medium-coarse granite.Its genesis is light color granite co-occurred with muscovite peraluminous granites. The tectonic environment belongs to post-orogenic granites.Gechoushan intrusion is medium-fine monzonitic granite, a kind of typical muscovite granites. Its formation era is late Triassic. The tectonic environment belongs to post-orogenic granite.Shadegai intrusion is mainly composed of biotite granites. The age is 211.2±0.7Ma for medium-coarse biotite granite. The tectonic setting belongs to post-orogenic granites. The different types granites in the area basically reveal all the magmatic events from late Palaeozoic orogeny, to post-orogeny, and to intracontinental orogeny in the north edge of the north China plate. Early Permian Aguigou intrusion is a magmatic arc granite, formed in the continental edge in the early period of the middle Asia ocean plate subduction. Mid-Permian Laoyinhada intrusion is a magmatic arc granite

  5. Tectonic affiliation of the North China Block with supercontinents since 1.8 Ga (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2010-12-01

    North China Block (NCB) is a small but very stable Precambrian craton in eastern Asia. Its tectonic affiliation with the supercontinents in geological history is of great interest but remains unclear. The previous reconstruction models based on the Precambrian tectonostratigraphic and paleomagnetic analysis should be radically revised because the new geochronological data obtained in the last several years have greatly changed the Proterozoic age framework of the strata in the NCB. In this research, five Precambrian paleomagnetic key poles, including three poles with direct U-Pb zircon ages from the Xionger GP (1.78Ga), Taihang dike (1.77Ga) and Tieling Fm (1.44Ga) respectively and two less well-dated poles from Yangzhuang Fm (1.45-1.56Ga) and Yunmengshan Fm (1.60-1.77Ga), were selected to discuss the relationship between the NCB and the supercontinent Columbia. These poles, in combination with reliable poles from other continents, suggest that the NCB was connected to Laurentia between 1.78 Ga and ca. 1.40 Ga. However, there is no well dated pole to determine the paleogeographic position of the NCB in Rodinia from 1.3 Ga to ca. 0.80 Ga. The available paleomagnetic data and sedimentary records suggest that the NCB was likely isolated block in low latitude during the late Neoproterozoic. Latest Precambrian and Paleozoic Paleomagnetic results do not support any connection between the NCB and Gondwana, although some biogeographic studies demonstrated the similarity between the NCB and Australia in the Early Cambrian. During the Paleozoic, the NCB significantly enlarged by the addition of accretionary blocks along its northern and southern sides. The Permian paleomagnetic poles from the north side of the Solonker suture are in agreement with those from interior of the NCB indicating that the NCB collided with the Mongolia composite terrane by Permian. On the other side, assembly of the NCB and south China block (SCB) took place from late Permian through Triassic. The

  6. Blue water transfer versus virtual water transfer in China, with a focus on the South-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Junguo

    2015-04-01

    Alongside its astonishing economic growth during the past decades, there has been increasing water stress in many areas in China. Water diversion has been one of the measures in dealing with the problem. The South-North Water Transfer Project is the largest project as such in the world, which aims to transfer water from the Yangtze River to primarily the North China Plain to alleviate the water stress in the region. Water diversion projects play an important role in supporting the continuous economic growth and safeguarding food production in the country. However, they also bring about many negative impacts concerning the environmental and ecosystem sustainability, as well as socio-economic development, both in the source and destination regions of diversions. One question arising is whether a virtual water transfer, primarily in the form of agricultural products, would be one of the tools economically and environmentally advantageous over transferring massive amounts of water to water deficit regions. This study presents an overview of China's water and land endowments and uses across regions, and the spatial distribution of food production. Based on this, the extent to which the virtual water strategy may be useful in dealing with the water stress in northern China as well as its limitations will be discussed. The focus will be on the South-North Water Transfer Project.

  7. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration for clear sky days over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Stisen, S.; Sandholt, I.; Jensen, K. H.

    2009-04-01

    The triangle method combined with thermal inertia for estimation of regional evapotranspiration based on Feng Yun-2C(FY-2C) satellite data and MODIS products over the North China Plain is presented. FY-2C, China's first operational geostationary meteorological satellite which features 5 spectral bands (1 VIS and 4 IR), can acquire one full disc image of China (60° N - 60° S ,45° E - 165° E) per hour every day. Two thermal red channels (IR1: 10.3-11.3 μm) and (IR2:11.5-12.5 μm) were used for surface temperature estimation using a split window algorithm originally proposed for the MSG-SEVIRI sensor assuming the channel response function range of the two split-window channels for MSG SEVIRI and FY-2C are similar and that the center of channels are the same. For application of the improved triangle method taking thermal inertia into account, the surface-air temperature gradient in the Ts-NDVI space, was replaced by the surface temperature temporal change estimated from the Land Surface Temperature at hours 8:00 and 12:00 in local time (ΔTs). Combined with the 16 days composite MODIS Vegetation Indices product (MOD 13) at spatial resolution of 5 km, evaporative fraction was estimated by interpolation in the ΔTs-NDVI triangular-shaped parameter space. Subsequently, regional actual evapotranspiration was estimated based on the derived evaporative fraction and available energy estimated from satellite data. In the piedmont plain with high NDVI and low ΔTs, evapotranspiration rate is high because of irrigation of winter wheat. In the coastal plain NDVI is low and also ΔTs is low as high evapotranspiration rates are sustained water supply from shallow water table. Ground-based measurements of evapotranspiration were retrieved from a lysimeter at the Luancheng eco-agricultural station of China Academy of Sciences. These data are representative for evapotranspiration in the piedmont plain and were used for validation of the actual evapotranspiration retrievals from

  8. The Successful Prevention of Silicosis among China Biscuit Workers in the North Staffordshire Potteries*

    PubMed Central

    Meiklejohn, A.

    1963-01-01

    The pottery industry in North Staffordshire was established towards the close of the seventeenth century. At first the wares which were made from local clays were rather crude but manufacturers unremittingly sought to improve the quality of their productions by the addition of other ingredients to the clays. In 1720 calcined powdered flint was introduced into the clay body. Six years later Benson described the serious effects of the dust on the lungs of millmen engaged in dry flint crushing. Later the disease became very prevalent not only among millmen but among workmen, males and females, in a wide range of pottery occupations and processes. Popularly the disease was known as potters' asthma or potters' rot, which was later identified scientifically as silicosis. Among the workmen most seriously affected were men engaged in china biscuit bedding and placing and women in the china biscuit warehouse. The risk arose from bedding the ware in flint for the first or so-called biscuit firing. In the course of firing some flint adhered to the surface of pieces and this had to be scoured or brushed off to ensure a clean surface for glazing. The manufacturers experimented to discover a suitable substitute for bedding flint. In due course it was proved that calcined alumina fulfilled all the practical requirements. This success immediately raised the question as to whether or not alumina was free from any risk to the health of workmen. The problem was investigated by a survey of furnacemen who had been seriously exposed for many years to the inhalation of alumina in the manufacture of aluminium. The research team concluded that alumina was safe. Thereafter manufacturers progressively substituted alumina for flint. At first this action was voluntary but it was made statutory in 1947. Vigilant supervision of alumina workers in potteries and aluminium works was maintained between 1936 and 1962; the original findings as to the safety of alumina were confirmed. During this

  9. A New System of Marginal Arc in the North of the South China Sea of Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N.; Dong, H.; Zhao, H.; Liu, H.; Shen, P.; Liang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) of today results from rupturing of the marginal continent of South China. Both its north and west margins are of typical passivity. Some records mirroring a Cretaceous active margin were reported in the study area. Generally they were attributed to westward subduction from the fossil Pacific plate. With respect of the problem, however, whether the subduction may induce response of an area far from the Pacific margin is an open question. The present approach has been primitively undertaken with the comparison of magmatic formation between the proto-SCS and the Pacific. The adakitic granite and Mg-rich andesite collected from the southern Hainan Island have their own petrologic and chemical characters as distinct from those igneous rocks from Zhejiang-Fujian province just bordering the western Pacific. Interestingly, the characters displayed in the Hainan are repeated in the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area, South Vietnam. According to Tapponier's model (1986), Indo-China block was SE-ward slid 500-700km along the Red River Fault since the late Eocene. If restoring it, the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area should be on the line extended westward from the Hainan Island. The above two sites constitute a latitudinal zone representing the active margin of the proto-SCS differing from the Pacific system. Actually some elements can be concentrated as follows to illustrate the framework in the northern margin of the SCS (fig. 1): (1) the late Jurassic to late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence drilled from the Chaoshan depression 150 mile off the Pearl River Delta, accumulating in the fore-arc environment, (2) the arc-related granite, diorite and monzodiorite (118-72Ma) drilled from the northern continental shelf, the SCS, (3) the Cretaceous andesite, andesitic basalt, granite, and pyroclastic sediments, afore-said, outcropping both in Hainan and South Vietnam, (4) granite-gneiss (75Ma) drilled in the Xisha foundation of reef platform, which might be the output of

  10. An observed connection between wintertime temperature anomalies over Northwest China and weather regime transitions in North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Qingyun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the association between wintertime temperature anomalies over Northwest China and the weather regime transitions in North Atlantic on synoptic scale is analyzed by using observational surface air temperature (SAT) data and atmospheric reanalysis data. Daily SAT anomaly and duration time are used in order to define SAT anomaly cases. Differences with regard to the circulation anomalies over the Ural Mountains and the upstream North Atlantic area are evident. It is found that the colder than normal SAT is caused by the enhanced Ural high and associated southward flow over Northwest China. Time-lagged composites reveal possible connections between the SAT anomalies and the different development phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The Ural highs tend to be strengthened during the negative phase of NAO (NAO-) to Atlantic ridge transition, which are closely related to the downstream-propagating Rossby wave activity. The opposite circulation patterns are observed in the warm SAT cases. A cyclonic circulation anomaly is distinctly enhanced over the Urals during the positive phase of NAO (NAO+) to Scandinavian blocking transition, which would cause warmer SAT over Northwest China. Further analyses suggest that the intensified zonal wind over North Atlantic would favor the NAO- to Atlantic ridge transition, while the weakened zonal wind may be responsible for the transition between NAO+ and Scandinavian blocking.

  11. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermotectonic evolution along a transect from the north China craton through the Qinling orogen into the Yangtze craton, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shengbiao; Raza, Asaf; Min, Kyoungwon; Kohn, Barry P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Ketcham, Richard A.; Wang, Jiyang; Gleadow, Andrew J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Cretaceous and Cenozoic reactivation of the Triassic Qinling-Dabie orogen between the north China and Yangtze cratons resulted from the combined effects of Pacific subduction-back-arc extension in east China and collisions in west China. We report new apatite fission track and apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He data from east Qinling along a >400-km-long N-S transect from Huashan through the Qinling orogen to Huangling. The ages show a general pattern of younging northward. Three major cooling phases are defined by modeling the multiple thermochronologic data sets. The first phase occurred locally in the North and South Qinling during the late Triassic to early Jurassic, following heating associated with the Triassic Yangtze subduction and exhumation of the Wudang metamorphic core complex on the cratonal edge. A second phase represents regional exhumation between 100 and 60 Ma, coeval with rifting marked by the Late Cretaceous-Eocene (K2-E) red bed deposition in eastern China and possibly indicating a link with Pacific subduction-back-arc extension in eastern China; however, it may also have been superimposed by eastward tectonic escape resulting from the Lhasa-West Burma-Qiangtang-Indochina collision. The third cooling phase was initiated at ˜45 Ma exclusively in the north Qinling and in the footwall of the graben-bounding normal fault of the Weihe graben in the Lesser Qinling. We suggest the third phase was related to reactivation of the Qinling fault system as a result of eastward tectonic escape imposed by the India-Asia collision at ˜50 Ma.

  12. No evolutionary shift in the mating system of north American Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae) following its introduction to China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Meng; Liao, Wan-Jin; Wolfe, Lorne M; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2012-01-01

    The mating system plays a key role during the process of plant invasion. Contemporary evolution of uniparental reproduction (selfing or asexuality) can relieve the challenges of mate limitation in colonizing populations by providing reproductive assurance. Here we examined aspects of the genetics of colonization in Ambrosia artemisiifolia, a North American native that is invasive in China. This species has been found to possess a strong self-incompatibility system and have high outcrossing rates in North America and we examined whether there has been an evolutionary shift towards the dependence on selfing in the introduced range. Specifically, we estimated outcrossing rates in one native and five invasive populations and compared levels of genetic diversity between North America and China. Based on six microsatellite loci we found that, like the native North American population, all five Chinese populations possessed a completely outcrossing mating system. The estimates of paternity correlations were low, ranging from 0.028-0.122, which suggests that populations possessed ~8-36 pollen donor parents contributing to each maternal plant in the invasive populations. High levels of genetic diversity for both native and invasive populations were found with the unbiased estimate of gene diversity ranging from 0.262-0.289 for both geographic ranges based on AFLP markers. Our results demonstrate that there has been no evolutionary shift from outcrossing to selfing during A. artemisiifolia's invasion of China. Furthermore, high levels of genetic variation in North America and China indicate that there has been no erosion of genetic variance due to a bottleneck during the introduction process. We suggest that the successful invasion of A. artemisiifolia into Asia was facilitated by repeated introductions from multiple source populations in the native range creating a diverse gene pool within Chinese populations. PMID:22384104

  13. Structure and dynamics in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Q.; Qi, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    -Lujiang fault zone, is induced by the movement of plates. This study makes further steps to the research of basin evolution in Jizhong depression, especially the relationship between extensional system and strike-slip system, and provides references to the basin research of Bohai Bay, even the destruction of North China Craton.

  14. Groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and processes along flow paths in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Lina; Guo, Huaming; Zhan, Yanhong

    2013-07-01

    The North China Plain is one of the biggest plains in China, where municipal, agricultural and industrial water supplies are highly dependent on groundwater resources. It is crucial to investigate water chemistry and hydrogeochemical processes related to hydrogeologic settings for sustainable utilization of groundwater resources. Two hydrochemical profiles proximately along the groundwater flow paths were selected for hydrogeochemical study. Major components and 2H and 18O isotopes were analyzed in groundwater samples from the profiles. The study area was divided into three zones, including strong runoff-alluvial/pluvial fans in the piedmont area (Zone I), slow runoff-alluvial/lacustrine plain in the central area (Zone II), and discharge-alluvial/marine plain in the coastal area (Zone III). Major components of groundwater samples showed obvious zonation patterns from Zone I to Zone III. Total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations gradually increased, and the hydrochemical type changed from HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg and HCO3-Cl-Ca-Mg types to HCO3-SO4-Na-Ca, SO4-Cl-Na-Ca and SO4-Cl-Na types from Zone I to Zone III. Abrupt increases in concentrations of Na+, Cl- and SO42- in deep groundwater were observed around the depression cones, which indicated that overexploitation resulted in water quality deterioration. Calcite and dolomite precipitation occurred in Zone I of deep groundwater systems and shallow groundwater systems. Cation exchange was believed to take place along the entire flow paths. Gypsum tended to dissolve in groundwater systems. The depletion in D and 18O isotopes in deep groundwater was related to the recharge from precipitation in paleo-climate conditions in glacial or interglacial periods, indicating that renewal groundwater was very limited. Efficient strategies must be taken to preserve the valued water resources for sustainable development.

  15. Monitoring and Modeling Water and Energy Fluxes in North China Plain: From Field to Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North China Plain is one of the mostly water deficit region in the world. Even though the total water withdrawal from surface and groundwater exceeded its renewable ability for long years, due to its importance to balance the food budget in China, large amount of groundwater is still extracted every year for intensive irrigation. With winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping system, the grain yield of NCP can reach a very high level of around 15 t/ha annually, which is largely depended on timely irrigation. As a result, the ceaseless over exploitation of groundwater caused serious environmental and ecological problems, e.g. nearly all the rivers run drying-up at plain areas, groundwater declined, land subsidence, and wetland shrank. The decrease in precipitation over past half century reinforced the water shortage in NCP. The sustainability of both the water resources and agriculture became the most important issue in this region. A key issue to the sustainable use of water resources is to improve the water use efficiency and reduce agricultural water consumptions. This study will introduce the efforts we put to clarify the water and heat balances in irrigated agricultural lands and its implications to crop yield, hydrology, and water resources evolution in NCP. We established a multi-scale observation system in NCP to study the surface water and heat processes and agricultural aspect of hydrological cycle in past years. Multi-disciplinary methods are adopted into this research such as micro-meteorologic, isotopic, soil hydrologic methods at the field scale, and remote sensing and modeling for study the water fluxes over regional scale. Detailed research activities and interesting as well as some initial results will be introduced at the workshop.

  16. The cost of ending groundwater overdraft on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater reserves is a major environmental problem around the world. In many river basins, groundwater and surface water are used conjunctively and joint optimization strategies are required. A hydroeconomic modeling approach is used to find cost-optimal sustainable surface water and groundwater allocation strategies for a river basin, given an arbitrary initial groundwater level in the aquifer. A simplified management problem with conjunctive use of scarce surface water and groundwater under inflow and recharge uncertainty is presented. Because of head-dependent groundwater pumping costs the optimization problem is nonlinear and non-convex, and a genetic algorithm is used to solve the one-step-ahead subproblems with the objective of minimizing the sum of immediate and expected future costs. A real-world application in the water-scarce Ziya River basin in northern China is used to demonstrate the model capabilities. Persistent overdraft from the groundwater aquifers on the North China Plain has caused declining groundwater levels. The model maps the marginal cost of water in different scenarios, and the minimum cost of ending groundwater overdraft in the basin is estimated to be CNY 5.58 billion yr-1. The study shows that it is cost-effective to slowly recover the groundwater aquifer to a level close to the surface, while gradually lowering the groundwater value to the equilibrium at CNY 2.15 m-3. The model can be used to guide decision-makers to economic efficient long-term sustainable management of groundwater and surface water resources.

  17. Perceived resource support for chronic illnesses among diabetics in north-western China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Huiqin; Shao, Ya; Fan, Ling; Zhong, Tangshen; Ren, Lu; Wang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    A high level of social support can improve long-term diabetes self-management. Support from a single source has been evaluated. This study aims to analyze support from multiple and multilevel sources for diabetic patients by using the Chronic Illness Resources Survey (CIRS). Factors influencing the utilization of the CIRS were also evaluated. A total of 297 patients with diabetes were investigated using the CIRS and Perceived Diabetes Self-management Scale in Shihezi City, China. Descriptive statistics were used to explain demographic variables and scores of the scales. Factors affecting the utilization of chronic illness resources were determined through univariate analysis and then examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 297 diabetic patients surveyed, 67% failed to reach the standard (more than 3 points) of utilizing chronic illness resources. Moreover, utilization of chronic illness resources was positively moderately correlated with self-management of diabetes (r = 0.75, P < 0.05). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (OR, 3.42; 95%CI, 1.19-9.84) and monthly income (OR, 5.27; 95%CI, 1.86-14.90) were significantly positively associated with the CIRS score. Individuals with high school (OR, 2.61; 95%CI, 1.13-6.05) and college (OR, 3.02; 95%CI, 1.13-8.04) degrees obtained higher scores in the survey than those with elementary school education. Results indicated that utilization of resources and support for chronic illness self-management, particularly personal adjustment and organization, were not ideal among diabetics in the communities of north-western China. Improved utilization of chronic illness resources was conducive for proper diabetes self-management. Furthermore, the level of utilization of chronic illness resources increased with age, literacy level, and monthly income. PMID:27075460

  18. Late Permian appinite-granite complex from northwestern Liaoning, North China Craton: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Xue, Fuhong; Yuan, Lingling; Ma, Yuguang; Wilde, Simon A.

    2012-12-01

    The appinite-granite suite commonly occurs within post-subduction regimes during the final stage of an orogeny and thus holds the key to monitoring critical geodynamic and crustal evolutionary processes. The present zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents the Late Permian appinite-granite complex from northwestern Liaoning, North China Craton. The hornblende-rich appinitic rocks have an SiO2 range from 41.8 to 53.4%, moderate to high alkali contents, enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and depletion in high field strength elements, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7066 to 0.7128, ɛNd(t) of - 8.3 to - 13.3 and zircon ɛHf(t) from - 10.1 to - 18.7. These features suggest that their generation most likely involves metasomatism of mantle peridotites by sediment-derived liquids related to subduction and a later partial melting. The associated monzogranites range in SiO2 from 72.6 to 75.0% and exhibit a high-K calc-alkaline character, with high Sr-Ba abundances and elevated Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios. Such potassic adakitic signatures, plus their evolved isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sri = 0.7063 to 0.7066, ɛNd(t) = - 15.6 to - 16.3, zircon ɛHf(t) = - 16.5 to - 18.8), are consistent with partial melting of mixed protoliths including newly underplated enriched mafic lower crust and minor old lower crustal materials. Such a mafic and felsic magma association not only attests to a heterogeneously enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath the northern North China Craton, but also indicates reworking within a post-orogenic transcurrent regime of lithospheric delamination. The temporal coincidence of the present appinite-granite complex with regional transcurrent fault activity leads to the further suggestion that such mafic-felsic magmatic suites could provide spatial markers for monitoring important post-orogenic structural and geodynamic processes.

  19. A stable isotope study of water movements with typical vegetation cover in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin; Liang, Xing; Liu, Shaohua; Jin, Menggui; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotope 2H and 18O are often used as natural tracers in subsurface water pathways in semi-arid areas. The stable isotopic compositions in precipitation, soil water and groundwater were observed to assess the temporal variations in soil water flow at three sites covered by grass (Carex humili and Carex lanceolata) (site A), poplar (Ponulus hopeiensis) (site B) and winter wheat (Triticum asetivum) and summer maize (Zea mays) (site C) in the shallow groundwater area in the North China Plain (NCP) from April 2012 to October 2013. Precipitation isotopes resulted in a meteoric water line of δ2H =7.6δ18O -3.7 and showed a typical seasonal variation for δ2H (-98.9 to -13.3) and δ18O (-12.0 to -1.7). The seasonality in the shallow groundwater was further subdued due to the evaporation and mixing and diffusional exchange with stored water held in the soil pores within the unsaturated zone. Shallow groundwater was mainly recharged by precipitation in the rainy season. Soil water isotope profiles were sampled at depths of 10 cm down to 150 cm every 10 cm for the three sites. The vertical profiles of soil water δ18O showed large variations in the superficial 10 cm layer under the precipitation input and evapotranspiration effects. The soil water δ18O decreased and soil moisture increased with depth ( 70 cm) due to continuously evapotranspiration for the three sites though that at site B showed more positive δ18O values and smaller soil moisture than those at site A and C. The signal of individual rainstorm event in the summer with low δ18O values could be traced down to a depth of 40 cm that mixed with antecedent mobile soil water and to 120 cm due to a fast and direct preferential infiltration of the input rainwater that bypassed the upper soil layer at sites B and C. Keywords: stable isotopes; soil water pathways; groundwater recharge; North China Plain

  20. Loess deposition and Paleolithic human activity in late Pleistocene in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Loess is one of the best geological records in the world for reconstruction of paleoenvironment. Loess deposited widely in North China in Quaternary, composing the famous Chinese Loess Plateau where loess sections could be as thick as 200 m. In these thick loess profiles, various archaeological remains including human fossils are found across the Chinese Loess Plateau, which indicates the aeolian loess deposition provides a good preservation environment for archaeological remains or the environment when loess is deposited in North China is favorable for human subsistence. Therefore, well developed loess studies using conventional methods such as grain size, magnetism, carbonate contents, TOC and biological or chemical methods like pollen, phytolith, stable isotopes, could provide important information for archaeologists about site formation process, human subsistence environment and human adaptation behaviors. This study focuses on late Pleistocene environment change and human adaptation in Chinese Western Loess Plateau. Over fifty Paleolithic sites were found buried in loess sections in two small rive catchments about 400 km2 in Chinese Western Loess Plateau in this study. Based on the well loess study in this region, the ages of most of the sites could be easily assumed in the field, which were usually confirmed by later radiocarbon or OSL dating results. Paleoenvironment of human subsistence is reconstructed using pollen, grain size, magnetism studies on the loess profiles producing archaeological remains. The chronological framework built with absolute dating results and loess-paleosol sequence comparison shows that humans first appear in the study area during warm and humid MIS5, may have abandoned the area in cold MIS4, reappeared in cool but humid MIS3 and continued thereafter, even extremely cold and dry LGM. A comprehensive study of 3727 pieces of stone artifacts shows that small-flake-tool industry is dominant through most of the late Pleistocene and

  1. Formation of secondary organic carbon and cloud impact on carbonaceous aerosols at Mount Tai, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Tao; Guo, Jia; Gao, Rui; Xue, Likun; Zhang, Jiamin; Zhou, Yang; Zhou, Xuehua; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols measured at Mount Tai in north China in 2007 were further examined to study the formation of secondary organic carbon (SOC) and the impact of clouds on carbonaceous species. A constrained EC-tracer method and a multiple regression model showed excellent agreement in estimating SOC concentration. The average concentrations of non-volatile and semi-volatile SOC (SOC NV and SOC SV) were 2.61, 5.58 μg m -3 in spring and 2.81, 10.44 μg m -3 in summer. The total SOC accounted for 57.3% and 71.2% of total organic carbon in spring and summer, respectively, indicating the presence of high loading of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the North China Plain. The fraction of SOC NV increased with photochemical age (as indicated by NO x/NO y ratios) of air mass, whereas SOC SV was also influenced by the dynamic equilibrium between formation and sink. Significant scavenging by clouds of non-volatile organic carbon (OC NV) and elemental carbon (EC) was observed, whereas semi-volatile organic carbon (OC SV) concentrations increased during clouds, suggesting substantial SOA formation through aqueous-phase reactions in clouds. A mass balance model was proposed to quantify the scavenging coefficients for OC NV, EC and formation rates of OC SV in clouds. The scavenging coefficient constant of EC ( KEC) varied from 0.11 to 0.90 h -1, and was higher than that of OC NV ( KNV-OC: 0.07-0.55 h -1), implying internal mixing of EC with more hygroscopic species. The formation rate constant ( JSV-OC) and sink constant ( SSV-OC) of OC SV ranged from 0.09 to 1.39 h -1 and 0.001 to 1.07 h -1, respectively. These field derived parameters could be incorporated into atmospheric models to help close the gap between predicted and observed SOA loadings in the atmosphere.

  2. Type-C olivine LPOs in garnet peridotites in North Qaidam UHP collision belt, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Lee, J.; Ko, B.; Jung, S.; Park, M.; Cao, Y.; Song, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water is known to change the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine, which significantly affects seismic anisotropy in the Earth's upper mantle. Research into the LPO of olivine in the deep interior of the Earth has been limited due to inadequate specimens. We report both the water-induced LPOs of olivine and the presence of large quantities of water inside olivine, enstatite, and garnet in garnet peridotites from the North Qaidam ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) collision belt in NW China. We show that the [001] axis of olivine is aligned subparallel to the lineation and that the [100] axis is strongly aligned subnormal to the foliation. This alignment is a known feature of type-C LPO of olivine formed experimentally under water-rich conditions (≥700 ppm H/Si) at high pressure and temperature. Enstatite possessed an LPO with the [001] axis aligned parallel to the lineation and the [100] axis aligned normal to the foliation. FTIR analysis of this specimen revealed that olivine contained concentrations of water up to 1130 × 50 ppm H/Si in clean areas, whereas olivine, enstatite, and garnet contained considerably more water, i.e., 2600 × 100 ppm H/Si, 5000 × 100 ppm H/Si, and 21000 × 200 ppm H/Si, respectively, when exsolved inclusions were visible. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy of these exsolved inclusions revealed that they were composed of hornblende and amphiboles. Straight dislocations were also commonly observed in olivine and are characteristic of olivine that had been experimentally deformed under hydrous conditions. These observations suggest that the type-C LPO of olivine in the North Qaidam UHP belt formed under water-rich conditions.

  3. The effects of monsoons and climate teleconnections on the Niangziguan Karst Spring discharge in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Juan; Hao, Yonghong; Hu, Bill X.; Huo, Xueli; Hao, Pengmei; Liu, Zhongfang

    2016-03-01

    Karst aquifers supply drinking water for 25 % of the world's population, and they are, however, vulnerable to climate change. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of various monsoons and teleconnection patterns on Niangziguan Karst Spring (NKS) discharge in North China for sustainable exploration of the karst groundwater resources. The monsoons studied include the Indian Summer Monsoon, the West North Pacific Monsoon and the East Asian Summer Monsoon. The climate teleconnection patterns explored include the Indian Ocean Dipole, E1 Niño Southern Oscillation, and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The wavelet transform and wavelet coherence methods are used to analyze the karst hydrological processes in the NKS Basin, and reveal the relations between the climate indices with precipitation and the spring discharge. The study results indicate that both the monsoons and the climate teleconnections significantly affect precipitation in the NKS Basin. The time scales that the monsoons resonate with precipitation are strongly concentrated on the time scales of 0.5-, 1-, 2.5- and 3.5-year, and that climate teleconnections resonate with precipitation are relatively weak and diverged from 0.5-, 1-, 2-, 2.5-, to 8-year time scales, respectively. Because the climate signals have to overcome the resistance of heterogeneous aquifers before reaching spring discharge, with high energy, the strong climate signals (e.g. monsoons) are able to penetrate through aquifers and act on spring discharge. So the spring discharge is more strongly affected by monsoons than the climate teleconnections. During the groundwater flow process, the precipitation signals will be attenuated, delayed, merged, and changed by karst aquifers. Therefore, the coherence coefficients between the spring discharge and climate indices are smaller than those between precipitation and climate indices. Further, the fluctuation of the spring discharge is not coincident with that of precipitation in most

  4. Seismic Evidence for North China Plate Subduction beneath Northeastern Tibet and its Implications for Plateau Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Ye, Z.; Li, Q.; Zhang, H.; Shen, X.; Liu, X.; Gong, C.

    2014-12-01

    The mode of lithospheric deformation related to the Tibetan plateau has been clarified as verging subduction of the Indian (northward) and Asian (southward) plates beneath the plateau, but how the lithosphere of the Tibetan plateau interacts with that of the North China craton (NCC) is still unclear due to shortage of data in the northeastern Tibet (NE Tibet). A long passive-source broadband seismic profile with densely spaced stations was conducted across the entire NE Tibet, extending to the southern border of the Alxa block (belonging to NCC). A structural model of lithosphere was derived from P and S receiver function imaging. Some significant features including the north-dipping intracrustal converter (NC) beneath the Kunlun-West Qinling orogen, the Moho offsets with overlaps beneath the fault zones and the low velocity layer (LVL) beneath the Qilian terrane were revealed by our observations. A synthesis of these observations probably indicates the oblique crustal thrusts (accompanied by shear) along the large strike-slip faults, taking the LVL as an intracrustal decollement. We did observe the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB), as south-dipping and descending continuously from beneath the interior Alxa to the Qilian block. Combining our profiling results with other seismic evidence, we infer that, the lithosphere of NCC may underthrust beneath the Qilian block and as a minimum reach the southern margin of the Qilian block (bounded by the West Qinling fault zone) to the south. We suggest that, the continental subduction of lithosphere of the NCC accompanied by crustal thrusts is a preferred mode of the lithospheric deformation beneath NE Tibet, which is responsible for the plateau growth in the northeastern margin of Tibetan plateau.

  5. Mesozoic tectonically driven climatic partitioning of the south Junggar and north Tarim basins, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Graham, S.A.; Brassell, S.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Detailed basin analysis of Mesozoic strata exposed in the south Junggar and north Tarim foreland basin Mesozoic depocenters, northwest China, has documented periodic structural reactivation of the intervening Tian Shan during that era. Coarse alluvial pulses, contained in an otherwise relatively fine-grained section of fluvial lacustrine sediments, were shed off both the north and south flanks of the Tian Shan during the Late Triassic, Latest Jurassic, and late Cretaceous. The lofty modern Tian Shan and associated rain shadow cast over the Tarim basin to the south reflect deformation associated with the early Cenozoic Himalayan collision; so too were the two basins climatically partitioned during the Mesozoic in response to relief produced by orogenesis. During prolonged episodes of relative tectonic quiescence, it appears that Tian Shan relief was too low to confine moisture to the windward side of the range. Most notable is the Middle Jurassic section that is dominated in both basins by a relatively fine-grained series of organic-rich, meandering fluvial, and lacustrine sediments. Pyrolytic analyses of organic-rich mudstones associated with these sediments document high H.I. kerogens, suggesting algal-dominated organic matter typical of anoxic lacustrine settings. However, detailed GC-MS biomarker analysis of the alipaphatic fraction also suggests substantial input from higher land plants in addition to algal sources. Not only are n-alkane distributions typically dominated by high molecular weight compounds with an odd-over-even preference typical of higher land plants, but the abundance of specific diterpenoid biomarker compounds strongly suggests the development of widespread coniferous forests on either side of the range during the Middle Jurassic.

  6. Impacts of climate change on growth period and planting boundaries of winter wheat in China under RCP4.5 scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Jia, S. F.; Lv, A. F.; Yang, K. J.; Svensson, J.; Gao, Y. C.

    2015-10-01

    This paper advances understanding of the impacts of climate change on crops in China by moving from ex-post analysis to forecasting, and by demonstrating how the effects of climate change will affect the growth period and the planting boundaries of winter wheat. Using a multiple regression model based on agricultural meteorological observations and the IPCC AR5 GCMs simulations, we find that the sowing date of winter wheat in the base period, 2040s and 2070s, shows a gradually delayed trend from north to south and the growth period of winter wheat in China will be shortened under climate change. The simulation results also show that (i) the north planting boundaries of winter wheat in China will likely move northward and expand westward in the future, while the south planting boundary will rise and spread in south Hainan and Taiwan; and (ii) the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region will have the largest increases in planting areas in 2040s and 2070s. Our simulation implies that Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia are more sensitive to climate change than other regions in China and priority should be given to design adaptation strategies for winter wheat planting for these provinces.

  7. Co-seismic and post-seismic effects of the Tohoku-Oki M W 9.0 earthquake in North and Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chengjun; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Chengxuan; Qi, Bangshen; Wang, Lianjie

    2016-01-01

    Using the US Geological Survey (USGS) finite fault model, the co-seismic horizontal displacement and horizontal principal stress field in North and Northeast China generated by the Tohoku-Oki M W 9.0 earthquake of March 11th, 2011, were retrieved by linear elastic finite element numerical simulation. On this basis, the static Coulomb failure stress variations of the main active faults and tectonic zones in North and Northeast China were calculated, and the triggering effect of the earthquake on seismicity in North and Northeast China was discussed. Results were as follows: (1) the co-seismic horizontal displacement field caused by the great earthquake was eastward in North China; the maximum value, which occurred in the Shandong Peninsula and north Jiangsu Province, was about 12 mm; and the values gradually decreased from east to west. The co-seismic horizontal displacement field in Northeast China was SE-SEE and the maximum value, which occurred in northeast Jilin Province, was about 30 mm. The simulated results for the co-seismic horizontal displacement field were in good agreement with GPS observational results. (2) The near-surface co-seismic maximum horizontal principal stress (ΔσHmax) was tensile stress ranging from 0 to 2.0 KPa. From Northeast China to North China, the direction gradually altered from NW to NWW to nearly EW to NEE. The co-seismic minimum horizontal principal stress (ΔσHmax) was compressive as well as tensile stress, with a magnitude of 0-0.75 KPa, which is approximately equal to zero. From Northeast China to North China, the direction gradually changed to NNW from NE to NNE to nearly NS. Although the co-seismic stress effect generated by the great earthquake had some effect on the present tectonic stress field of North and Northeast China, its influence was too slight to change the present framework of the regional tectonic stress field. (3) Coulomb failure stress variations on active fault zones in North and Northeast China mainly

  8. Crustal Structure across The North China Craton from long-range seismic wide angle reflection/refraction profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Wang, Fuyun; Jia, Shixu; Duan, Yonghong

    2014-05-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) is the oldest craton in China, which formed around 2.5Ga and had a 200 km thick lithosphere during the Paleozoic. The cratonic lithosphere of NCC has experienced strong thinning since the Mesozoic. In the past 30 years, a lot of excellent research about NCC have provided some different tectonic models, however, carton destruction is a sophisticated process. Though there have been many deep seismic sounding profiles in North China, but none of them is long enough to sample the complete section of thinned and preserved Craton. Recent long range seismic wide angle reflection/refraction experiment have provided the best opportunities to obtain better knowledge of seismic structure and properties of lithosphere. A 1500 km long wide angle reflection/refraction profile was completed in 2009. Our long range profile extends from west end of Ordos Plateau, across Shanxi Plateau, Taihang Mountains, to Luxi Uplift. We present a hybrid tomographic and layered velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle along the profile crossed whole the north China craton. The model shows the crustal thickness of the region is very variable. The Moho topography varies more than 10km in the Central part of the north China craton. In particular, the crust appears the thinnest in the North China Plain, where the crust consists of very thick upper-mid crust and very thin lower crust, and the lower crust is with a lower velocity (~6.8km/s). The Moho dip with thinner lower crust beneath the Shanxi plateau may support the Central NCC has been affected at some time since its formation in the Archean. Furthermore, the TFZ is manifested in the deep structure. Our model provide the seismic evidences supporting that the TFZ extend deep into the uppermost mantle. It is the hypothesis that TFZ is a major channel for asthenosphere upwelling accompanying the tectonic extension and lithospheric reactivation in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic time. The different structural features may

  9. Chinese students' science-related experiences: Comparison of the ROSE study in Xinjiang and Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Yau-yuen; Li, Yufeng

    2015-05-01

    Background: Students' daily-life experiences may render favorable effects on the students' affective domain like interest, enthusiasm, motivation, joy, curiosity, awareness, and eagerness to learn science as not commonly found in the classroom environment. However, no rigorous research has been reported on those aspects in Mainland China despite many recent studies done in various Western countries. Purpose: This paper aims to report and compare the science-related experiences of ninth-graders from two places (in Urumqi City of Xinjiang province and Shanghai) in China through a large-scale survey of their junior secondary three students. Sample: The sample consists of 4115 students in Urumqi City (from 28 schools) and Shanghai (from 25 schools). Design and methods: This study adopted a Likert scale questionnaire instrument, as translated from the international Relevance Of Science Education (ROSE) Project. From a confirmatory factor analysis of the data, we identify and focus on six factors which are directly correlated with students' science-related experiences outside school environment in Xinjiang and Shanghai and employ relevant factor scores to compare the gender, regional, and socioeconomic effects. Results: As revealed by the t-test, gender and regional differences were statistically significant in affecting (1) students' outdoor living experience, (2) hands-on experience of transportation, and (3) their daily-life experience with do-it-yourself tools and models. In all three aspects, boys and Xinjiang students possessed richer experiences than girls and Shanghai students, respectively. Conclusions: Based on ANOVA tests, Shanghai students' out-of-school science-related experiences were more often significantly affected by various socioeconomic variables (including their parents' education and occupation and their family income) than Xinjiang students. From cross-regional comparison, Chinese students had much fewer science-related experiences than those of

  10. Seismic imaging of North China: insight into intraplate volcanism and seismotectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2004-12-01

    We used seismic tomography to study the detailed three-dimensional (3-D) seismic velocity structure of the crust and mantle beneath North China for understanding the intraplate volcanism and seismotectonics of the Asian continent. Two active volcanoes, Changbai and Wudalianchi, exist in Northeast China and they have erupted several times in the last 1000 years. The origin of the active intraplate volcanoes is still unclear. Global tomography shows that the subducting Pacific slab becomes stagnant under NE Asia and strong low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exist in the upper mantle under the two volcanoes (Zhao, 2004). Recently we determined a 3-D P-wave velocity structure under the Changbai volcano using teleseismic data recorded by 19 portable seismic stations in NE China (Zhao et al., 2004). Our result shows a columnar low-V anomaly extending to 400 km depth and high-velocity anomalies in the mantle transition zone with deep-focus earthquakes of about 600 km depth. These results indicatie that the Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes are not hotspot like Hawaii but a kind of back-arc volcano related to the deep subduction and stagnancy of the Pacific slab under NE Asia. A detailed 3-D P-wave tomography of the crust and uppermost mantle under the Beijing region is determined by using local earthquake arrival times recorded by the newly installed Chinese Capital Seismic Network with 101 short-period seismic stations coving the region densely and uniformly (Huang and Zhao, 2004). The results show that large crustal earthquakes, such as the 1679 Sanhe earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.8), generally occurred in high-velocity areas in the upper to middle crust. In the lower crust to the uppermost mantle under the source zones of the large earthquakes, however, low-velocity and high-conductivity anomalies exist, which are considered to be associated with fluids. The fluids in the lower crust may cause the weakening of the seismogenic layer in the upper

  11. Seismic scattering and velocity structure near the Earth's core-mantle boundary beneath the South China Sea and north Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, J.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    We constrain seismic scatterers near the Earth's core-mantle boundary beneath the South China Sea and north Indonesia using the observed PKP precursory energy and velocity structure in the region using the travel time of the core-reflected phases. The PKP precursor data are collected from the seismic data recorded in the USArray and the core-reflected seismic data include ScS and ScP phases recorded in the China National Digital Seismographic Network, the F-net in Japan, the Global Seismographic Network and several regional arrays. Migration of PKP precursory energy reveals crescent-shaped scatterers distributed from the middle of the South China Sea to the north of Sulawesi Island. ScSH-SH differential-travel-times suggest a complex shear-velocity structure near the core-mantle boundary, changing from a low-velocity patch to a high shear-velocity patch and to another low shear-velocity patch from east to west beneath the middle of the South China Sea. ScP-P differential travel-time residuals reveal a low-velocity patch in northeast of Sulawesi Sea, a high-velocity patch in north of Sulawesi Sea, another low-velocity patch in the middle of Sulawesi Sea and another high-velocity patch in north of the Kalimantan Island. Overall, the seismic structure in the region can be characterized by alternative presence of high- and low-velocity patches near the core-mantle boundary, with the abrupt shear-wave velocity changes between the patches being the source of seismic scattering in the region.

  12. Disease outbreaks caused by steppe-type rabies viruses in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Wang, W; Guo, J; Alatengheli; Li, Y; Yang, G; Su, N; Zhang, L; Xu, W; Sheng, Z; Ma, L; Gui, J; Dejide; Lin, H; Tu, C

    2015-04-01

    While rabies is a significant public health concern in China, the epidemiology of animal rabies in the north and northwest border provinces remains unknown. From February 2013 to March 2014, seven outbreaks of domestic animal rabies caused by wild carnivores in Xinjiang (XJ) and Inner Mongolia (IM) Autonomous Regions, China were reported and diagnosed in brain samples of infected animals by the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and RT-PCR. Ten field rabies viruses were obtained. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on the complete N gene (1353 bp) amplified directly from the original brain tissues showed that these ten strains were steppe-type viruses, closely related to strains reported in Russia and Mongolia. None had been identified previously in China. The viruses from XJ and IM clustered separately into two lineages showing their different geographical distribution. This study emphasizes the importance of wildlife surveillance and of cross-departmental cooperation in the control of transboundary rabies transmission. PMID:25078967

  13. Changes of accumulated temperature, growing season and precipitation in the North China Plain from 1961 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanling; Zhao, Yanxia; Wang, Chunyi

    2011-08-01

    Using the high-quality observed meteorological data, changes of the thermal conditions and precipitation over the North China Plain from 1961 to 2009 were examined. Trends of accumulated temperature and negative temperature, growing season duration, as well as seasonal and annual rainfalls at 48 stations were analyzed. The results show that the accumulated temperature increased significantly by 348.5°C day due to global warming during 1961-2009 while the absolute accumulated negative temperature decreased apparently by 175.3°C day. The start of growing season displayed a significant negative trend of -14.3 days during 1961-2009, but the end of growing season delayed insignificantly by 6.7 days. As a result, the length of growing season increased by 21.0 days. The annual and autumn rainfalls decreased slightly while summer rainfall and summer rainy days decreased significantly. In contrast, spring rainfall increased slightly without significant trends. All the results indicate that the thermal conditions were improved to benefit the crop growth over the North China Plain during 1961-2009, and the decreasing annual and summer rainfalls had no direct negative impact on the crop growth. But the decreasing summer rainfall was likely to influence the water resources in North China, especially the underground water, reservoir water, as well as river runoff, which would have influenced the irrigation of agriculture.

  14. Impact of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Dai, J R; Liang, Y S; Huang, Y X; Coles, G C

    2009-01-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) is currently the key, national, water-conservation project in China, designed to optimise the use of water resources and relieve the water shortages in the north of the country. As one of the main water intakes for the project, that of the Eastern Route Scheme (ERS), is a breeding site for Oncomelania hupensis (the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum), there is concern that the snail may be carried far to the north, in the water passing through the project. To see if they could survive and breed to the north of their current range in China, O. hupensis were collected in marshland near Nanjing City and transferred to cages, on the banks of fish ponds, in the cities of Zhenjiang (in Jiangsu province, at 32 degrees 10'N), Xuzhou (in the same province but at a latitude of 34 degrees 23'N) and Jining (in Shandong province, at 35 degrees 23'N). Except over the first 6 months in Xuzhou, the snails moved north of their natural distribution did not survive and reproduce as well as those in Zhenjiang, and all those transferred to Jining died out within 1 year. Although the snail populations in Xuzhou survived for 7-8 years and retained their infectivity to S. japonicum, histological and histochemical studies revealed abnormalities in the reproductive organs of these snails. It is concluded that, unless global warming significantly increases the minimum winter temperatures in northern China, the SNWDP is unlikely to result in the northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica. PMID:19173773

  15. How Did the North China Craton Move from Nuna to Rodinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Several models that include the paleogeographic positions of the North China Craton (NCC) in Precambrian supercontinents Nuna and Rodinia were tested in this study using Proterozoic global paleomagnetic database. During ca. 1.8 - 1.4 Ga, the NCC can be placed far from Laurentia and Baltica. In Nuna, the present southern margin of the NCC faced an open ocean, whilst its present northern margin was likely connected to Indian and Australian cratons. In Rodinia, however, during ca. 1.1 - 0.85 Ga, the paleomagnetic data indicate a proximate connection between the NCC and the arctic side of Laurentia. These two models, if both are right, suggest that the NCC may have moved a long distance since the departure from Nuna to the joining of Rodinia. Moreover, paleomagnetic data and our reconstructions require many cratons to drift away from their connections in Nuna after ca. 1.35 Ga. These reconstructions strongly challenges the currently influential speculation of limited breakup of Nuna, which is mainly based on the observation of low abundance of passive margins that were formed during the boring billion years (ca. 1.75 - 0.75 Ga).

  16. Compiling the map of shallow-buried palaeochannels on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wu; Xuanqing, Zhu; Naihua, He; Yonghong, Ma

    1996-12-01

    The 4 methods used in compiling the shallow-buried palaeochannel maps are as follows: geohydrologic, electrical-resistivity, areo electro-magnetism and drilling methods. On the North China Plain, the drilling method was used mainly accompanied by the geohydrologic and the electrical-resistivity methods. Before compiling the map, detailed studies of typical palaeochannels were undertaken of palaeochannel sediments, their ages and relation to the storage of shallow groundwater quantity and quality. This provides the theoretical foundation for compiling the map of a large area and for dividing the palaeochannels. Then, data from drilling samples were collected and each drilling hole divided into zones 1 and 2 and marked on the base map. The boundaries of zones 1 and 2 were drawn on the base map. From the map of the shallow-buried palaeochannels, we can conclude that the shallow-buried palaeochannel zones and shallow groundwater zones are identical with the sand bodies of stage I, III and IV palaeochannels.

  17. The Lithic Assemblages of Xiaochangliang, Nihewan Basin: Implications for Early Pleistocene Hominin Behaviour in North China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Xia; Hou, Ya-Mei; Yue, Jian-Ping; Petraglia, Michael D; Deng, Cheng-Long; Zhu, Ri-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Xiaochangliang (XCL), located in the Nihewan Basin of North China, is a key archaeological locality for understanding the behavioural evolution of early humans. XCL dates to ca. 1.36 Ma, making it one of the earliest sites in Northeast Asia. Although XCL represents the first excavation of an Early Pleistocene site in the Nihewan Basin, identified and excavated in the 1970's, the lithic assemblages have never been published in full detail. Here we describe the lithic assemblages from XCL, providing information on stone tool reduction techniques and the influence of raw materials on artefact manufacture. The XCL hominins used both bipolar and freehand reduction techniques to manufacture small flakes, some of which show retouch. Bipolar reduction methods at XCL were used more frequently than previously recognized. Comparison of XCL with other Early Pleistocene sites in the Nihewan Basin indicates the variable use of bipolar and freehand reduction methods, thereby indicating a flexible approach in the utilization of raw materials. The stone tools from XCL and the Nihewan sites are classifiable as Mode I lithic assemblages, readily distinguished from bifacial industries manufactured by hominins in Eastern Asia by ca. 800 ka. PMID:27205881

  18. Diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land uses on Taihang Mountain, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qihong; Chang, Jianguo; Hou, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land use types on Taihang Mountain, North China, and to understand its response to environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) and forest management. Diurnal variations in soil respiration from plantations (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujuba), naturally regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla), grasslands (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and farmlands (winter wheat/summer maize) were measured using an LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system from May 2012 to April 2013. The results indicated that land use type had a significant effect on the diurnal variation of soil respiration. The diurnal soil respiration from farmlands was highest, followed by Ziziphus jujube, R. pseudoacacia, P. granatum, the lower soil CO2 efflux was found from B. ischaemum and V. negundo var. heterophylla. The diurnal soil respiration across different land use types was significantly affected by soil temperature and moisture, and their interaction. Precipitation-stimulated soil respiration increased more in soil with low water content and less in soil with high water content. The lower diurnal soil respiration from naturally regenerated forests suggests that naturally regenerated vegetation is the optimal vegetation type for reducing global warming.

  19. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of north China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, Tong; Huang Zuan

    1988-02-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocene Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pools in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point. Hydrocarbon exploration began in 1971, but only a few small oil fields were found in the 1970s. Recently, by applying digital seismic techniques, the subsurface geological structure has been accurately mapped and new production technology has enabled the high-our-point oil to be produced. Thus, important achievements in hydrocarbon exploration were made during the 1980s.

  20. Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  1. Paleolithic human exploitation of plant foods during the last glacial maximum in North China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Bestel, Sheahan; Shi, Jinming; Song, Yanhua; Chen, Xingcan

    2013-04-01

    Three grinding stones from Shizitan Locality 14 (ca. 23,000-19,500 calendar years before present) in the middle Yellow River region were subjected to usewear and residue analyses to investigate human adaptation during the last glacial maximum (LGM) period, when resources were generally scarce and plant foods may have become increasingly important in the human diet. The results show that these tools were used to process various plants, including Triticeae and Paniceae grasses, Vigna beans, Dioscorea opposita yam, and Trichosanthes kirilowii snakegourd roots. Tubers were important food resources for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, and Paniceae grasses were exploited about 12,000 y before their domestication. The long tradition of intensive exploitation of certain types of flora helped Paleolithic people understand the properties of these plants, including their medicinal uses, and eventually led to the plants' domestication. This study sheds light on the deep history of the broad spectrum subsistence strategy characteristic of late Pleistocene north China before the origins of agriculture in this region. PMID:23509257

  2. The Earthworm Eisenia fetida Can Help Desalinate a Coastal Saline Soil in Tianjin, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Yang; Gong, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Ying; Jia, Liming

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E. fetida and green waste compost (GWC) on the salt content of the soil. The microcosm results showed that E. fetida survived in GWC-amended saline soil and increased the contents of humic acid, available N, and available P in the GWC-amended soil. The data from the field experiment were described by the following second-order model: [Formula in text], where y is the decrease in soil salinity (g of salt per kg of dry soil) relative to the untreated control, x1 is the number of E. fetida added per m2, and x2 is the quantity of GWC added in kg per m2. The model predicted that the total salt content of the saline soil would decrease by > 2 g kg(-1) (p<0.05) when 29-90 individuals m-2 of E. fetida and 6.1-15.0 kg m(-2) of GWC were applied. We conclude that the use of E. fetida for soil desalination is promising and warrants additional investigation. PMID:26699869

  3. The Lithic Assemblages of Xiaochangliang, Nihewan Basin: Implications for Early Pleistocene Hominin Behaviour in North China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shi-Xia; Hou, Ya-Mei; Yue, Jian-Ping; Petraglia, Michael D.; Deng, Cheng-Long; Zhu, Ri-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Xiaochangliang (XCL), located in the Nihewan Basin of North China, is a key archaeological locality for understanding the behavioural evolution of early humans. XCL dates to ca. 1.36 Ma, making it one of the earliest sites in Northeast Asia. Although XCL represents the first excavation of an Early Pleistocene site in the Nihewan Basin, identified and excavated in the 1970’s, the lithic assemblages have never been published in full detail. Here we describe the lithic assemblages from XCL, providing information on stone tool reduction techniques and the influence of raw materials on artefact manufacture. The XCL hominins used both bipolar and freehand reduction techniques to manufacture small flakes, some of which show retouch. Bipolar reduction methods at XCL were used more frequently than previously recognized. Comparison of XCL with other Early Pleistocene sites in the Nihewan Basin indicates the variable use of bipolar and freehand reduction methods, thereby indicating a flexible approach in the utilization of raw materials. The stone tools from XCL and the Nihewan sites are classifiable as Mode I lithic assemblages, readily distinguished from bifacial industries manufactured by hominins in Eastern Asia by ca. 800 ka. PMID:27205881

  4. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  5. Vertical profiles of black carbon concentration and particle number size distribution in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Deng, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical distribution of aerosols is of great importance to our understanding in the impacts of aerosols on radiation balance and climate, as well as air quality and public health. To better understand and estimate the effects of atmospheric components including trace gases and aerosols on atmospheric environment and climate, an intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP), was carried out from late July to early August 2013 over a rural site in the polluted NCP. During the campaign, vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration and particle number size distribution were measured respectively by a micro-Aethalometer and an optical particle counter attached to a tethered balloon within 1000 m height. Meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, were measured simultaneously by a radiosonde also attached to the tethered balloon. Preliminary results showed distinct diurnal variations of the vertical distribution of aerosol total number concentration and BC concentration, following the development of the mixing layer. Generally, there was a well mixing of aerosols within the mixing layer and a sharp decrease above the mixing layer. Particularly, a small peak of BC concentrations was observed around 400-500 m height for several profiles. Further analysis would be needed to explain such phenomenon. It was also found that measured vertical profiles of BC using the filter-based method might be affected by the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  6. Crop classification using HJ satellite multispectral data in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Kun; Wu, Bingfang; Li, Qiangzi

    2013-01-01

    The HJ satellite constellation is designed for environment and disaster monitoring by the Chinese government. This paper investigates the performance of multitemporal multispectral charge-coupled device (CCD) data on board HJ-1-A and HJ-1-B for crop classification in the North China Plain. Support vector machine classifier is selected for the classification using different combinations of multitemporal HJ multispectral data. The results indicate that multitemporal HJ CCD data could effectively identify wheat fields with an overall classification accuracy of 91.7%. Considering only single temporal data, 88.2% is the best classification accuracy achieved using the data acquired at the flowering time of wheat. The performance of the combination of two temporal data acquired at the jointing and flowering times of wheat is almost as well as using all three temporal data, indicating that two appropriate temporal data are enough for wheat classification, and much more data have little effect on improving the classification accuracy. Moreover, two temporal data acquired over a larger time interval achieves better results than that over a smaller interval. However, the field borders and smaller cotton fields cannot be identified effectively by HJ multispectral data, and misclassification phenomenon exists because of the relatively coarse spatial resolution.

  7. Holocene intracontinental deformation of the northern North China Plain: Evidence of tectonic ground fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liqing; Li, Sanzhong; Cao, Xianzhi; Somerville, I. D.; Suo, Yanhui; Liu, Xin; Dai, Liming; Zhao, Shujuan; Guo, Lingli; Wang, Pengcheng; Cao, Huahua

    2016-04-01

    Following the collecting and analyzing of field data on the geometry and kinematics characteristics of ground fissures in the northern North China Plain (NNCP), this paper shows that en échelon ground fissures or tectonic ground fissures with a length of several meters to tens of kilometers extending along active faults are possibly controlled by underlying active faults. There are two groups of tectonic ground fissures developed in the NNCP. One group consists of ENE-trending "right-stepping" ground fissures, some of which have a component of sinistral motion. The other group is NNE-trending "left-stepping" ground fissures with dextral motion. A large amount of data from trenches, boreholes and seismic exploration reflect that they are active-faulting-related. The NNW-trending regional extensional stress field and the reactivation of pre-existing faults are the major factors controlling ground fissures. Data from the Quaternary sedimentary records, deep incised valleys, the distribution of earthquakes and ground fissures, and our field work show that the Holocene intracontinental deformation of the NNCP is characterized by intense faulting and northwestward tilting, which may be related to a NNW-SSE-oriented tensional stress field in the shallow crust and asthenospheric upwelling in the mantle.

  8. Monthly survey of N-nitrosamine yield in a conventional water treatment plant in North China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengkun; Liu, Shuming; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2015-12-01

    A sampling campaign was conducted monthly to investigate the occurrence of N-nitrosamines at a conventional water treatment plant in one city in North China. The yield of N-nitrosamines in the treated water indicated precursors changed greatly after the source water switching. Average concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) in the finished water were 6.9, 3.3, and 3.1ng/L, respectively, from June to October when the Luan River water was used as source water, while those of NDMA, N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), and NPYR in the finished water were 10.1, 4.9, and 4.7ng/L, respectively, from November to next April when the Yellow River was used. NDMA concentration in the finished water was frequently over the 10ng/L, i.e., the notification level of California, USA, which indicated a considerable threat to public health. Weak correlations were observed between N-nitrosamine yield and typical water quality parameters except for the dissolved organic nitrogen. PMID:26702978

  9. Inorganic nitrogen wet deposition: Evidence from the North-South Transect of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, X; Yu, G; He, N; Jia, B; Zhou, M; Wang, C; Zhang, J; Zhao, G; Wang, S; Liu, Y; Yan, J

    2015-09-01

    We examined the spatio-temporal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition in eight typical forest ecosystems of Eastern China for three consecutive years. DIN deposition exhibited an increasing gradient from north to south, with N-NH4(+) as the predominant contributor. DIN deposition in precipitation changed after interaction with the forest canopy, and serious ecological perturbations are expected in this region. DIN deposition presented seasonal fluctuations, which might be ascribed to agricultural activity, fossil-fuel combustion and environmental factors (i.e., wind direction, soil temperature). Notably, N fertilizer use (FN), energy consumption (E), and precipitation (P) jointly explained 84.3% of the spatial variation in DIN deposition, of which FN (27.2%) was the most important, followed by E (24.8%), and finally P (9.3%). The findings demonstrate that DIN deposition is regulated by precipitation mainly via anthropogenic N emissions, and this analysis provides decision-makers a novel view for N pollution abatement. PMID:25898231

  10. Time-varying land subsidence detected by radar altimetry: California, Taiwan and north China

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Cheinway; Yang, Yuande; Kao, Ricky; Han, Jiancheng; Shum, C. K.; Galloway, Devin L.; Sneed, Michelle; Hung, Wei-Chia; Cheng, Yung-Sheng; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary applications of radar altimetry include sea-level rise, ocean circulation, marine gravity, and icesheet elevation change. Unlike InSAR and GNSS, which are widely used to map surface deformation, altimetry is neither reliant on highly temporally-correlated ground features nor as limited by the available spatial coverage, and can provide long-term temporal subsidence monitoring capability. Here we use multi-mission radar altimetry with an approximately 23 year data-span to quantify land subsidence in cropland areas. Subsidence rates from TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, ENVISAT, and JASON-2 during 1992–2015 show time-varying trends with respect to displacement over time in California’s San Joaquin Valley and central Taiwan, possibly related to changes in land use, climatic conditions (drought) and regulatory measures affecting groundwater use. Near Hanford, California, subsidence rates reach 18 cm yr−1 with a cumulative subsidence of 206 cm, which potentially could adversely affect operations of the planned California High-Speed Rail. The maximum subsidence rate in central Taiwan is 8 cm yr−1. Radar altimetry also reveals time-varying subsidence in the North China Plain consistent with the declines of groundwater storage and existing water infrastructure detected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, with rates reaching 20 cm yr−1 and cumulative subsidence as much as 155 cm. PMID:27324935

  11. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event was mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 278.2 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 µg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. It was also shown that black carbon (BC) absorption has significant impacts on meteorology and air quality changes, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  12. Crustal and upper mantle structures beneath Cenozoic volcanoes on the board of China and North Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Cenozoic-to-recent volcanoes on the border of China and North Korea are recognized as continental intraplate volcanoes. Despite of much work, the origin and mechanism of the volcanoes remain as an issue of debate, due to their complex and long-lived volcanic activities and lack of detailed information for the crust and upper mantle structures. In this work, ambient noise analysis is performed to image lithospheric structures beneath the volcanoes and surrounding regions using continuous broadband recordings of two temporary networks (1998-1999 PASSCAL array and a part of the 2009-2011 NECASSArray). To better constrain the entire depths of lithosphere in the estimated 3-D velocity structure, we utilize the spectral auto-correlation (SPAC) method and a Bayesian inversion technique to measure phase velocity dispersion data and to obtain shear-wave velocity structures, respectively. We developed a novel grid-search technique for more stable SPAC measurements, and obtained phase velocity data are compared and combined with group and phase velocity data from the conventional frequency-time analysis. Hierarchical and trans-dimensional techniques are implemented in the Bayesian method to estimate more rigorous models and associated uncertainties. The estimated 3-D model shows slower velocity (~0.3 km/s) at the bottom of lithosphere (>60 km) and less modified thick-crust beneath the volcanoes compared to other regions in the model. This suggests our model favors the theory of magma underplating, crustal assimilation, and less volume of magma supply from upper mantle.

  13. Time-varying land subsidence detected by radar altimetry: California, Taiwan and north China.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheinway; Yang, Yuande; Kao, Ricky; Han, Jiancheng; Shum, C K; Galloway, Devin L; Sneed, Michelle; Hung, Wei-Chia; Cheng, Yung-Sheng; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary applications of radar altimetry include sea-level rise, ocean circulation, marine gravity, and icesheet elevation change. Unlike InSAR and GNSS, which are widely used to map surface deformation, altimetry is neither reliant on highly temporally-correlated ground features nor as limited by the available spatial coverage, and can provide long-term temporal subsidence monitoring capability. Here we use multi-mission radar altimetry with an approximately 23 year data-span to quantify land subsidence in cropland areas. Subsidence rates from TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, ENVISAT, and JASON-2 during 1992-2015 show time-varying trends with respect to displacement over time in California's San Joaquin Valley and central Taiwan, possibly related to changes in land use, climatic conditions (drought) and regulatory measures affecting groundwater use. Near Hanford, California, subsidence rates reach 18 cm yr(-1) with a cumulative subsidence of 206 cm, which potentially could adversely affect operations of the planned California High-Speed Rail. The maximum subsidence rate in central Taiwan is 8 cm yr(-1). Radar altimetry also reveals time-varying subsidence in the North China Plain consistent with the declines of groundwater storage and existing water infrastructure detected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, with rates reaching 20 cm yr(-1) and cumulative subsidence as much as 155 cm. PMID:27324935

  14. A new approach for estimating groundwater table fluctuation response to rainfall events in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z.; Xie, X.; Ma, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A rise or decline in water table in response to water budget is a function of rainfall volume and groundwater depletion intensity. Most research have focus on estimating water table fluctuations among various shallow aquifer resulting from recharge and discharge change, however, the methods commonly applied are limited in that the subsurface system is more complex. In this paper, a reliable approach based on statistics theory is presented for quantifying the correlation relationship among water table, rainfall events and groundwater depletion process. The detail monitoring data are used to multivariate regression analysis and established the relationship model between water table and groundwater depletion in the proposed method. We further employed the model to obtain water table fluctuation trend with manual controlled depletion in different rainfall conditions. We also identify how this model applied to North China Plain and examine the water table error. The results show that controlling the depletion process based on different rainfall frequency can promote groundwater table recover and the model can provide a reliable method to groundwater management.

  15. Field dissipation of four personal care products in biosolids-amended soils in North China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the dissipation behaviors of 4 typical personal care products (PCPs)-triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), tonalide (AHTN), and galaxolide (HHCB)- in soils amended with biosolids under field conditions in North China. The results showed that the 4 target compounds were detected in all biosolids-amended soils at levels of a few nanograms per gram to thousands of nanograms per gram (dry wt). The residual concentrations of the 4 PCPs were found in the following order: TCC > TCS > AHTN > HHCB. Significant dissipation of the 4 PCPs was observed in the biosolids-amended soils, with half-lives ranging from 26 d to 133 d. Furthermore, repeated biosolids applications and a higher biosolids application rate could lead to higher accumulation of the 4 PCPs in the agricultural soils. Based on the detected concentrations in the field trial and limited ecotoxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC, whereas low to medium risks are expected in most cases for AHTN, HHCB, and TCS. PMID:25044513

  16. Groundwater-abstraction induced land subsidence and groundwater regulation in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Wang, L.; Cheng, G.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence can be induced when various factors such as geological, and hydrogeological conditions and intensive groundwater abstraction combine. The development and utilization of groundwater in the North China Plain (NCP) bring great benefits, and at the same time have led to a series of environmental and geological problems accompanying groundwater-level declines and land subsidence. Subsidence occurs commonly in the NCP and analyses show that multi-layer aquifer systems with deep confined aquifers and thick compressible clay layers are the key geological and hydrogeological conditions responsible for its development in this region. Groundwater overdraft results in aquifer-system compaction, resulting in subsidence. A calibrated, transient groundwater-flow numerical model of the Beijing plain portion of the NCP was developed using MODFLOW. According to available water supply and demand in Beijing plain, several groundwater regulation scenarios were designed. These different regulation scenarios were simulated with the groundwater model, and assessed using a multi-criteria fuzzy pattern recognition model. This approach is proven to be very useful for scientific analysis of sustainable development and utilization of groundwater resources. The evaluation results show that sustainable development of groundwater resources may be achieved in Beijing plain when various measures such as control of groundwater abstraction and increase of artificial recharge combine favourably.

  17. Economic Performance and Sustainability of a Novel Intercropping System on the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chengdong; Liu, Quanqing; Heerink, Nico; Stomph, TjeerdJan; Li, Baoshen; Liu, Ruili; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Chaochun; van der Werf, Wopke; Zhang, Fusuo

    2015-01-01

    Double cropping of wheat and maize is common on the North China Plain, but it provides limited income to rural households due to the small farm sizes in the region. Local farmers in Quzhou County have therefore innovated their production system by integration of watermelon as a companion cash crop into the system. We examine the economic performance and sustainability of this novel intercropping system using crop yield data from 2010 to 2012 and farm household survey data collected in 2012. Our results show that the gross margin of the intercropping system exceeded that of the double cropping system by more than 50% in 2012. Labor use in the intercropping system was more than three times that in double cropping. The lower returns per labor hour in intercropping, however, exceeded the average off-farm wage in the region by a significant margin. Nutrient surpluses and irrigation water use are significant larger under the intercropping system. We conclude that the novel wheat-maize/watermelon intercropping system contributes to rural poverty alleviation and household-level food security, by raising farm incomes and generating more employment, but needs further improvement to enhance its sustainability. PMID:26275297

  18. Genetic characterization of the complete genome of an Aleutian mink disease virus isolated in north China.

    PubMed

    Xi, Ji; Wang, Jigui; Yu, Yongle; Zhang, Xiaomei; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-01

    The genome of a highly pathogenic strain of Aleutian disease mink virus (AMDV-BJ) isolated from a domestic farm in North China has been determined and compared with other strains. Alignment analysis of the major structural protein VP2 revealed that AMDV-BJ is unique among 17 other AMDV strains. Compared with the nonpathogenic strain ADV-G, the 3' end Y-shaped hairpin was highly conserved, while a 4-base deletion in the 5' U-shaped terminal palindrome resulted in a different unpaired "bubble" group near the NS1-binding region of the 5' end hairpin which may affect replication efficiency in vivo. We also performed a protein analysis of the NS1, NS2, and new-confirmed NS3 of AMDV-BJ with some related AMDV DNA sequence published, providing information on evolution of AMDV genes. This study shows a useful method to obtain the full-length genome of AMDV and some other parvoviruses. PMID:27007772

  19. [Species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China].

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Dong; Huang, Jia-Xing; Williams, Paul H; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Bing-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Based on the 1893 specimens collected from Hebei Province, Beijing City, and Tianjin City in 2005-2009, and the specimens deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, this paper analyzed the species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China. A total of 32 species belonging to 8 subgenera of Bombus were recorded, with 32 species in Hebei Province, 18 species in Beijing, and 5 species in Tianjin. The bumblebee in Taihang Mountains, Yanshan Mountains, and Bashang Plateau had the highest richness and abundance, and its food-plant included 80 species of 21 families, among which, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Labiatae were most important. Five bumblebee species, i. e., Bombus hypocrita, B. ignitus, B. patagiatus, B. pyrosoma, and B. picipes, had the largest colony, with more than 110 workers, 160 drones, and 30 young queens produced per colony. The success in rearing colonies of each of the 5 species by queens was > 50%, demonstrating that these 5 species had the potential to be mass-reared, with important applied value for crop pollination. PMID:20873633

  20. Folate metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to primary liver cancer in North China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Song, Yang; Si, Hongzong; Shen, Fangzhen; Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Hee Nam; Choi, Jin-Su

    2012-09-01

    Genetic factors may contribute to individual differences in cancer susceptibility. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C → T (MTHFR 677 C → T), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1298 A → C (MTHFR 1298A → C), thymidylate synthase (TYMS 3R → 2R), and methionine synthase 2756 A → G (MTR 2756 A → G) on the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC). We conducted a case-control study involving 356 PLC cases and 641 healthy controls in North China. Compared with the MTHFR 677CC genotype, the MTHFR 677TT genotype showed an increased risk for PLC (TT vs. CC: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-2.40; P = 0.043) after adjusting for gender and age, whereas the MTHFR 1298CC genotype showed a significantly decreased risk for PLC (CC vs. AA: adjusted OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08-0.70; P = 0.010). However, no significant association was found between the TYMS 3R → 2R or the MTR 2756 A → G polymorphism and the risk of PLC. Our results suggest that the MTHFR 677 C → T and the MTHFR 1298A → C genetic polymorphisms might play important role in hepatic carcinogenesis. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to validate this association. PMID:21956592

  1. Economic Performance and Sustainability of a Novel Intercropping System on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chengdong; Liu, Quanqing; Heerink, Nico; Stomph, TjeerdJan; Li, Baoshen; Liu, Ruili; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Chaochun; van der Werf, Wopke; Zhang, Fusuo

    2015-01-01

    Double cropping of wheat and maize is common on the North China Plain, but it provides limited income to rural households due to the small farm sizes in the region. Local farmers in Quzhou County have therefore innovated their production system by integration of watermelon as a companion cash crop into the system. We examine the economic performance and sustainability of this novel intercropping system using crop yield data from 2010 to 2012 and farm household survey data collected in 2012. Our results show that the gross margin of the intercropping system exceeded that of the double cropping system by more than 50% in 2012. Labor use in the intercropping system was more than three times that in double cropping. The lower returns per labor hour in intercropping, however, exceeded the average off-farm wage in the region by a significant margin. Nutrient surpluses and irrigation water use are significant larger under the intercropping system. We conclude that the novel wheat-maize/watermelon intercropping system contributes to rural poverty alleviation and household-level food security, by raising farm incomes and generating more employment, but needs further improvement to enhance its sustainability. PMID:26275297

  2. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2015-08-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event is mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 47.8 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, Relative Humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 300 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 μg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. Feedbacks associated to Black Carbon (BC) account for about 50 % of the PM2.5 increases and 50 % of the PBL decreases in Shijiazhuang, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  3. Regional yields simulation for winter wheat in North China based on assimilating remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shili

    2006-08-01

    Accurate crop growth monitoring and yield forecasting are significant to food security and sustainable development of agriculture. However, regional crop growth simulation faces the difficulties in determining the spatial distribution of some model parameters and initial conditions. In this study, regional biomasses at turn-green stage of winter wheat were re-estimated by linking WOFOST model and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) synthesized from remote sensing data. Moreover, we proposed a way of combining evapotranspiration derived from satellite remote sensing data to crop grow simulation model. Thus, the regional initial available soil water and irrigation at earring stage were re-initialized and re-estimated by using remote sensing data. Those methods were well applied to simulate the growth and development for winter wheat at local site. After regionalizing of weather data, crop model parameters and initial conditions, those methods were used to estimate winter wheat yields in North China during the growing season from 2001 to 2002 at the scale of 0.25 degrees. The results showed that both soil water and final winter wheat yields estimation were improved and the relative root mean square error (RRMSE) decreased from 0.63 without remote sensing data to 0.20 with remote sensing data for 32 sites. The relative errors of the aggregated yields for three provinces were -4.9%, 4.3% and 8.6%, respectively. These results illustrated that remote sensing data can be used to improve winter wheat yields simulation at regional scale.

  4. Monitoring winter wheat growth in North China by combining a crop model and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuping, Ma; Shili, Wang; Li, Zhang; Yingyu, Hou; Liwei, Zhuang; Yanbo, He; Futang, Wang

    2008-12-01

    Both of crop growth simulation models and remote sensing method have a high potential in crop growth monitoring and yield prediction. However, crop models have limitations in regional application and remote sensing in describing the growth process. Therefore, many researchers try to combine those two approaches for estimating the regional crop yields. In this paper, the WOFOST model was adjusted and regionalized for winter wheat in North China and coupled through the LAI to the SAIL-PROSPECT model in order to simulate soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Using the optimization software (FSEOPT), the crop model was then re-initialized by minimizing the differences between simulated and synthesized SAVI from remote sensing data to monitor winter wheat growth at the potential production level. Initial conditions, which strongly impact phenological development and growth, and which are hardly known at the regional scale (such as emergence date or biomass at turn-green stage), were chosen to be re-initialized. It was shown that re-initializing emergence date by using remote sensing data brought simulated anthesis and maturity date closer to measured values than without remote sensing data. Also the re-initialization of regional biomass weight at turn-green stage led that the spatial distribution of simulated weight of storage organ was more consistent to official yields. This approach has some potential to aid in scaling local simulation of crop phenological development and growth to the regional scale but requires further validation.

  5. Observed changes in winter wheat phenology in the North China Plain for 1981-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu; Liu, Yujie; Shi, Wenjiao; Wang, Meng; Liu, Fengshan; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Climate change in the last three decades could have major impacts on crop phenological development and subsequently on crop productivity. In this study, trends in winter wheat phenology are investigated in 36 agro-meteorological stations in the North China Plain (NCP) for the period 1981-2009. The study shows that the dates of sowing (BBCH 00), emergence (BBCH 10) and dormancy (start of dormancy) are delayed on the average by 1.5, 1.7 and 1.5 days/decade, respectively. On the contrary, the dates of greenup (end of dormancy), anthesis (BBCH 61) and maturity (BBCH 89) occur early on the average by 1.1, 2.7 and 1.4 days/decade, respectively. In most of the investigated stations, GP2 (dormancy to greenup), GP3 (greenup to anthesis) and GP0 (entire period from emergence to maturity) of winter wheat shortened during the period 1981-2009. Due, however, to early anthesis, grain-filling stage occurs at lower temperatures than before. This, along with shifts in cultivars, slightly prolongs GP4 (anthesis to maturity). Comparison of field-observed CERES (Crop Environment Resource Synthesis)-wheat model-simulated dates of anthesis and maturity suggests that climate warming is the main driver of the changes in winter wheat phenology in the NCP. The findings of this study further suggest that climate change impact studies should be strengthened to adequately account for the complex responses and adaptations of field crops to this global phenomenon.

  6. Time-varying land subsidence detected by radar altimetry: California, Taiwan and north China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Cheinway; Yang, Yuande; Kao, Ricky; Han, Jiancheng; Shum, C. K.; Galloway, Devin L.; Sneed, Michelle; Hung, Wei-Chia; Cheng, Yung-Sheng; Li, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Contemporary applications of radar altimetry include sea-level rise, ocean circulation, marine gravity, and icesheet elevation change. Unlike InSAR and GNSS, which are widely used to map surface deformation, altimetry is neither reliant on highly temporally-correlated ground features nor as limited by the available spatial coverage, and can provide long-term temporal subsidence monitoring capability. Here we use multi-mission radar altimetry with an approximately 23 year data-span to quantify land subsidence in cropland areas. Subsidence rates from TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, ENVISAT, and JASON-2 during 1992–2015 show time-varying trends with respect to displacement over time in California’s San Joaquin Valley and central Taiwan, possibly related to changes in land use, climatic conditions (drought) and regulatory measures affecting groundwater use. Near Hanford, California, subsidence rates reach 18 cm yr‑1 with a cumulative subsidence of 206 cm, which potentially could adversely affect operations of the planned California High-Speed Rail. The maximum subsidence rate in central Taiwan is 8 cm yr‑1. Radar altimetry also reveals time-varying subsidence in the North China Plain consistent with the declines of groundwater storage and existing water infrastructure detected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, with rates reaching 20 cm yr‑1 and cumulative subsidence as much as 155 cm.

  7. Time-varying land subsidence detected by radar altimetry: California, Taiwan and north China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hwang, Cheinway; Yang, Yuande; Kao, Ricky; Han, Jiancheng; Shum, C.K.; Galloway, Devin L.; Sneed, Michelle; Hung, Wei-Chia; Cheng, Yung-Sheng; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary applications of radar altimetry include sea-level rise, ocean circulation, marine gravity, and ice sheet elevation change. Unlike InSAR and GNSS, which are widely used to map surface deformation, altimetry is neither reliant on highly temporally-correlated ground features nor as limited by the available spatial coverage, and can provide long-term temporal subsidence monitoring capability. Here we use multi-mission radar altimetry with an approximately 23 year data-span to quantify land subsidence in cropland areas. Subsidence rates from TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, ENVISAT, and JASON-2 during 1992–2015 show time-varying trends with respect to displacement over time in California’s San Joaquin Valley and central Taiwan, possibly related to changes in land use, climatic conditions (drought) and regulatory measures affecting groundwater use. Near Hanford, California, subsidence rates reach 18 cm/yr with a cumulative subsidence of 206 cm, which potentially could adversely affect operations of the planned California High-Speed Rail. The maximum subsidence rate in central Taiwan is 8 cm/yr. Radar altimetry also reveals time-varying subsidence in the North China Plain consistent with the declines of groundwater storage and existing water infrastructure detected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, with rates reaching 20 cm/yr and cumulative subsidence as much as 155 cm.

  8. The Earthworm Eisenia fetida Can Help Desalinate a Coastal Saline Soil in Tianjin, North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Yang; Gong, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Ying; Jia, Liming

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E. fetida and green waste compost (GWC) on the salt content of the soil. The microcosm results showed that E. fetida survived in GWC-amended saline soil and increased the contents of humic acid, available N, and available P in the GWC-amended soil. The data from the field experiment were described by the following second-order model:y^ =-1.76+0.091x1+0.48x2-0.00083x1x2-0.00078x12-0.022x22, where y is the decrease in soil salinity (g of salt per kg of dry soil) relative to the untreated control, x1 is the number of E. fetida added per m2, and x2 is the quantity of GWC added in kg per m2. The model predicted that the total salt content of the saline soil would decrease by > 2 g kg-1 (p<0.05) when 29–90 individuals m-2 of E. fetida and 6.1–15.0 kg m-2 of GWC were applied. We conclude that the use of E. fetida for soil desalination is promising and warrants additional investigation. PMID:26699869

  9. Granulite xenoliths from Cenozoic Basalts in SE China provide geochemical fingerprints to distinguish lower crust terranes from the North and South China tectonic blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jin-Hai; Xu, Xisheng; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Griffin, W. L.; Zhang, Ming

    2003-03-01

    A large suite of lower crustal xenoliths from Cenozoic basaltic rocks from three widely spaced localities in the eastern part of the South China Block (SCB; Xilong, Qilin and Leizhou) and two localities (Nushan and Guizishan) close to the suture between the North and South China Blocks in Southeast China has been studied in detail. They are used to define the nature of the lower crust beneath these regions and to define two distinct types of lithospheric domains resulting from different tectonic episodes. Lower crustal xenoliths from the Nushan area have distinctive petrologic and geochemical (including isotopic) characteristics indicating formation by underplating of continental basaltic magmas around the crust-mantle boundary. Geochemistry of these granulites demonstrates that an isotopically enriched old source component had played a significant role in the formation of the Nushan xenoliths. The lower crustal xenoliths from the South China Block reveal different origins and source compositions from those from the Nushan area. The South China Block xenoliths are considered to be derived from the underplating of continental arc-type basaltic magmas, but also show evidence of significant assimilation and fractional crystallisation (AFC) that produced abundant cumulates and fractionated liquids with strong crustal contamination signatures. They are geochemically and isotopically similar to the outcropping Late Mesozoic gabbros and basalts in the same region and are inferred to be their underplated high-pressure analogues and products of AFC with the lower crustal sources parental to the more silicic Mesozoic outcropping magmatic rocks. These Mesozoic basaltic magmas from the South China Block are geochemically distinct from the Cenozoic basaltic volcanics in this region, indicating a secular source change from a continental arc setting to an intraplate extensional regime. This significant change from Mesozoic to Cenozoic may indicate eastward movement of the

  10. Sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River in North-Western China under conditions of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.; Disse, M.; Ahlheim, M.; Brieden, A.; Cyffka, B.; Doluschitz, R.; Duethmann, D.; Feike, T.; Frör, O.; Gärtner, P.; Halik, Ü.; Hill, J.; Hinnenthal, M.; Keilholz, P.; Kleinschmit, B.; Krysanova, V.; Kuba, M.; Mader, S.; Menz, C.; Othmanli, H.; Pelz, S.; Schroeder, M.; Siew, T. F.; Stender, V.; Stahr, K.; Thomas, F. M.; Welp, M.; Wortmann, M.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, X.; Luo, J.; Yimit, H.; Yu, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Tarim River Basin, located in Xinjiang, NW China, is the largest endorheic river basin of China and one of the largest in whole Central Asia. Due to the extremely arid climate with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm, the water supply along the Aksu and Tarim River solely depends on river water. This applies for anthropogenic activities (e.g. agriculture) as well as for the natural ecosystems so that both compete for water. The on-going increase of water consumption by agriculture and other human activities in this region has been enhancing the competition for water between human needs and nature. Against this background, 11 German and 6 Chinese universities and research institutes formed the consortium SuMaRiO (www.sumario.de), which aims at gaining a holistic picture of the availability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin and the impacts on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems caused by the water distribution within the Tarim River Basin. The discharge of the Aksu River, which is the major tributary to the Tarim, has been increasing over the past 6 decades due to enhanced glacier melt. Alone from 1989 to 2011, the area under agriculture more than doubled. Thereby, cotton became the major crop and there was a shift from small-scale farming to large-scale intensive farming. The major natural ecosystems along the Aksu and Tarim River are riparian ecosystems: Riparian (Tugai) forests, shrub vegetation, reed beds, and other grassland. Within the SuMaRiO Cluster the focus was laid on the Tugai forests, with Populus euphratica as dominant tree, because the most productive and species-rich natural ecosystems can be found among those forests. On sites with groundwater distance of less than 7.5 m the annual increments correlated with river runoffs of the previous year. But, the further downstream along the Tarim River, the more the natural river dynamics ceased, which impacts on the recruitment of

  11. The Mesozoic Caosiyao giant porphyry Mo deposit in Inner Mongolia, North China and Paleo-Pacific subduction-related magmatism in the northern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaying; Zhang, Lianchang; Pirajno, Franco; Shu, Qihai; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Mingtian; Xiang, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The Caosiyao giant porphyry Mo deposit is located in the Wulanchabu area of Inner Mongolia, within the northern North China Craton (NCC). It contains more than 2385 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.075% Mo. In the Caosiyao mining district, Mo mineralization occurs mainly in a Mesozoic granite porphyry as disseminations and stockworks, with some Mo distributed in Archean metamorphic rocks and diabase as stockworks and veins. The host granite porphyry is composed of two different phases that can be distinguished based on mineral assemblages and textures: one phase contains large and abundant phenocrysts (coarse-grained), while the other phase is characterized by fewer and smaller phenocrysts (medium-grained). Zircon U-Pb-Hf analyses of the former phase yielded a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 149.8 ± 2.4 Ma with a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 149.9 ± 2.4 Ma and εHf(t) values ranging from -12.2 to 18.3, while the latter phase gave a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 149.0 ± 2.2 Ma with a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 149.0 ± 2.1 Ma and εHf(t) values ranging from -13.1 to 17.7. Five samples of disseminated molybdenite have a 187Re-187Os isochron age of 149.5 ± 5.3 Ma with a weighted average age of 149.0 ± 1.8 Ma, whereas six veinlet-type molybdenite samples have a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 146.9 ± 3.1 Ma and a weighted average age of 146.5 ± 0.8 Ma. Thus, it is suggested that the Mo mineralization of the Caosiyao deposit occurred during the Late Jurassic (ca. 147-149 Ma), almost coeval with the emplacement of the host granite porphyry (ca. 149-150 Ma). The host granite porphyry is characterized by high silica (SiO2 = 71.52-74.10 wt%), relatively high levels of oxidation (Fe2O3/FeO = 0.32-0.94 wt%) and high alkali element concentrations (Na2O + K2O = 8.21-8.76 wt%). The host granite porphyry also shows enrichments in U and K, and depletion in Ba, Sr, P, Eu, and Ti, suggesting strong fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, and

  12. Spatial geochemical and isotopic characteristics associated with groundwater flow in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Sakura, Yasuo; Kondoh, Akihiko; Yu, Jingjie; Shimada, Jun; Tanaka, Tadashi

    2004-11-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is an important agricultural area in China and has a high population density. Serious water shortages have occurred in this region over the last 20 years. Water transfer from the Yangtze River (the east route) was initiated in the year 2002 to provide water for the major cities of the NCP. This study was carried out before the implementation of the water transfer project, focusing on the spatial integration of the groundwater flow system and geochemical characteristics, which are mainly controlled by tectonics, geomorphology, and lithology. The field survey and the geochemical analyses of the groundwater samples indicated that the groundwater in the NCP has a two-layer structure, with a boundary at a depth of about 100-150 m. The two layers differ in pH, concentrations of SiO2 and major ions, and isotopes (18O, deuterium and tritium (T)). Chemical components in the upper layer showed a wider range and higher variability than those in the lower layer, indicating the impact of human activity. The flow direction of the groundwater in the upper layer was examined in detail in two profiles, showing that the upper layer flows east towards the Cangzhou-Daming fault, while the groundwater in the lower layer flows northeast towards Tianjin. Three hydrogeological zones are identified: recharge (Zone I), intermediate (Zone II), and discharge (Zone III). The recharge zone was found to be low in chloride (Cl-) but high in T. The discharge zone was found to be high in Cl- and low in T. This may be due to the difference in groundwater age. The discharge zone was subdivided into two sub-zones, Zone III1 and Zone III2, by considering the effects of human activities. Zone III2 was strongly affected by water diversions from the Yellow River. As groundwater flows from the recharge zone to the intermediate and discharge zones, chemical patterns evolve in the order: Ca-HCO3 > Mg-HCO3 > Na-Cl + SO4.

  13. Comparison of optimal irrigation scheduling and groundwater recharge at representative sites in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ying

    2014-05-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is an important food production area in China, facing an increasing water shortage and overexploitation of groundwater. It is critical to optimize the irrigation scheduling and accurately estimate groundwater recharge for saving water and increasing crop water use efficiency. However, the water cycle and crop responses to irrigation are quite various in different areas, because of the spatial variation of climatic, soil, water table and other management practices in the NCP. In this study, three representative sites (LC site in the piedmont plain, TZ site in the northern alluvial and lacustrine plain, YC site in the southern alluvial and lacustrine plain) were selected to compare the optimal irrigation scheduling and corresponding groundwater recharge under different hydrological years for winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system. At each site, a physically based agro-hydrological model (SWAP) was calibrated using field data of soil moisture. Then, scenarios under different irrigation time and amount were simulated. Results showed that the optimal irrigation scheduling and corresponding groundwater recharge were significant different between the three representative sites. The mean water table depth at the LC (33.0 m), YC (10.3 m), and TZ site (2.5 m) caused great different time lags of infiltrated water and groundwater contribution to evapotranspiration. Then, the most irrigation amount was required for the TZ site but the least requirement for the YC site at each hydrologic year. As most clay contents in the deep soils at the LC site increased tortuosity and limited water movement, which resulted in lower rates of recharge compared to more sandy soils at the other two sites. Averagely, using the optimal irrigation scheduling could save 2.04×109 m3 irrigation water and reduce about 84.3% groundwater over-exploitation in winter wheat growth period in the NCP. Therefore, comparison of the simulation results among the three

  14. Chemical Characteristics and Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yanhong; Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui

    2015-04-01

    For the lack in gross of water resources and serious contamination of surface water in the North China Plain (NCP), groundwater has been the main water resources in the past decades. Studies of geochemical evolution in groundwater of the NCP can not only provide scientific data for sustainable utilization of groundwater resources, but also help us to comprehend hydrogeochemical processes in aquifers better. According to topography and hydrogeological settings, the NCP is divided into three zones, being piedmont alluvial fan-recharge zone (Zone I), central alluvial plain-intermediate zone (Zone II) and coast plain-discharge zone (Zone III). Based on zonation of the groundwater in the plain, characteristics of major components in shallow and deep groundwater of different zones were studied. In general, concentrations of major components in shallow groundwater were higher than those in deep. For example, the maximum concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions in shallow groundwater were 121 mg/L and 98.0 mg/L, respectively, while the maximum concentrations of those in deep groundwater were 54.1 mg/L and 28.9 mg/L, respectively. The spatial distribution of sodium and potassium, chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions in shallow groundwater was much more patchy than that in deep. In shallow groundwater, concentrations of sodium and potassium, magnesium and chloride ions increased from Zone I to Zone III, while concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate ions decreased. Moreover, concentration of sulfate ion in shallow groundwater increased from Zone I to Zone II and slightly decreased from Zone II to Zone III. In deep groundwater, concentrations of sodium and potassium, chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions elevated from Zone I to Zone III, while concentration of calcium ion reduced all the way. Concentration of magnesium ion in deep groundwater decreased from Zone I to Zone II and slightly increased from Zone II to Zone III. Temporal evolution indicated that major

  15. Groundwater Recharge and Flow Processes in Taihang Mountains, a Semi-humid Region, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow/recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management especially in semi-arid and semi-humid regions. In order to reveal comprehensive groundwater flow/recharge processes in a catchment with a large topographical relief and seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were undertaken at 4 times in different seasons (June 2011, August 2012, November 2012, February 2014) in the Wangkuai watershed, Taihang mountains, which is a main groundwater recharge area of the North China Plain. The groundwater, spring, stream water and reservoir water were taken, and inorganic solute constituents and stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium were determined on all water samples. Also, the stream flow rate and the depth of groundwater table were observed. The stable isotopic compositions and inorganic solute constituents in the groundwater are depleted and shown similar values as those of the surface water at the mountain-plain transitional area. Additionally, the groundwater in the vicinity of the Wangkuai Reservoir presents clearly higher stable isotopic compositions and lower d-excess than those of the stream water, indicating the groundwater around the reservoir is affected by evaporation same as the Wangkuai Reservoir itself. Hence, the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and Wangkuai Reservoir are principal groundwater recharge sources. An inversion analysis and simple mixing model were applied in the Wangkuai watershed using stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium to construct a groundwater flow model. The model shows that multi-originated groundwater flows from upstream to downstream along topography with certain mixing. In addition, the groundwater recharge occurs dominantly at the altitude from 421 m to 953 m, and the groundwater recharge rate by the Wangkuai Reservoir is estimated to be 2.4 % of the total groundwater recharge in the Wangkuai watershed. Therefore, the stream water and

  16. Vegetated dune morphodynamics during recent stabilization of the Mu Us dune field, north-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Mason, Joseph A.; Lu, Huayu

    2015-01-01

    The response of dune fields to changing environmental conditions can be better understood by investigating how changing vegetation cover affects dune morphodynamics. Significant increases in vegetation and widespread dune stabilization over the years 2000-2012 are evident in high-resolution satellite imagery of the Mu Us dune field in north-central China, possibly a lagged response to changing wind strength and temperature since the 1970s. These trends provide an opportunity to study how dune morphology changes with increasing vegetation stabilization. Vegetation expansion occurs mainly by expansion of pre-existing patches in interdunes. As vegetation spreads from interdunes onto surrounding dunes, it modifies their shapes in competition with wind-driven sand movement, primarily in three ways: 1) vegetation anchoring horns of barchans transforms them to parabolic dunes; 2) vegetation colonizes stoss faces of barchan and transverse dunes, resulting in lower dune height and an elongated stoss face, with shortening of barchan horns; and 3) on transverse dunes, the lee face is fixed by plants that survive sand burial. Along each of these pathways of stabilization, dune morphology tends to change from more barchanoid to more parabolic forms, but that transformation is not always completed before full stabilization. Artificial stabilization leads to an extreme case of "frozen" barchans or transverse dunes with original shapes preserved by rapid establishment of vegetation. Observations in the Mu Us dune field emphasize the point that vegetation growth and aeolian sand transport not only respond to external factors such as climate but also interact with each other. For example, some barchans lose sand mass during vegetation fixation, and actually migrate faster as they become smaller, and vegetation growth on a barchan's lower stoss face may alter sand transport over the dune in a way that favors more rapid stabilization. Conceptual models were generalized for the

  17. Assessment of the impact of emissions reductions on air quality over North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen

    2016-04-01

    The production rate of secondary pollutants was highly non-linear with the emission intensity of their precursors. In this study, the air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ with zero-out sensitivity test was applied to conduct source sensitivity approaches of PM2.5 for four source categories (industry, power plants, transport, and residential) over the North China Plain (NCP) in January and July of 2013. The results show that the residential and industry emission sector were the greatest contributors to domain-wide PM2.5 in January and July, respectively. The largest variation could exceed 200 μg m-3 attributed to the residential sector in January when a heavy pollution period appeared, and could reach 40-60 μg m-3 attributed to the industry sector in July in the heavy pollution area, respectively. The nonlinear relationship between the secondary pollutant formation and its precursors was reflected by this source sensitivity approaches, as the summation of the secondary pollutant variations attributed to the four sources was obviously different from the simulated baseline concentration and the mass burden of nitrate would increase upon removal of the power plants or transport emission sector in the heavy pollution regions in January. Further analysis indicated that the improvement of atmospheric oxidation capacity due to emission sector removal coupled with the sufficient precursor nitrogen oxide under severe pollution background should be the main reason of the negative variation of nitrate appeared in the sensitivity test. This feature indicates that the atmospheric oxidation capacity is an important impact factor in determining the production rate of nitrate formation, and could further influence the variation feature of PM2.5 mass burden during the pollution episode. Thus, it is suggested that the comprehensive pollution control strategies should be implemented based on the specific pollution condition. Additionally, the nonlinearity of secondary pollutants

  18. Ecosystem water use efficiency in an irrigated cropland in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiao-Juan; Li, Jun; Yu, Qiang; Qin, Zhong

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe eddy covariance technique and the cuvette method were used to investigate water use efficiency in an irrigated winter wheat ( Triticum asetivum L.)/summer maize ( Zea mays L.) rotation system in the North China Plain. The results show that ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE e) changed diurnally and seasonally. Daily maximal WUE e appeared in the morning. WUE e generally peaked in late April in wheat field and in late July/early August in maize field. From 2003 to 2006, seasonal mean WUE e was 6.7-7.4 mg CO 2 g -1 H 2O for wheat and 8.4-12.1 mg CO 2 g -1 H 2O for maize. WUE e was much lower than canopy water use efficiency (WUE c) under small leaf area index (LAI) but very close to WUE c under large LAI. With the increase in LAI, WUE e enlarged rapidly under low LAI but slowly when LAI was higher than one. WUE e was greater on the cloudy days than on the sunny days. Under the same solar radiation, WUE e was higher in the morning than in the afternoon. The ratio of internal to ambient CO 2 partial pressure ( Ci/ Ca) decreased significantly with the increase in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) when PAR was lower than the critical values (around 500 and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 for wheat and maize, respectively). Beyond critical PAR, Ci/ Ca was approximately constant at 0.69 for wheat and 0.42 for maize. Therefore, when LAI and solar radiation was large enough, WUE e has negative correlation with vapor pressure deficit in both of irrigated wheat and maize fields.

  19. Factors controlling the CCN number concentrations at north of East China Sea in spring 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, M.; Kuwata, M.; Kondo, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kodama, D.; Yum, S. S.; Tanimoto, H.; Matsueda, H.

    2006-12-01

    Ground based measurement of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) was made at Gosan station on Jeju Island, Korea, which is located at north of East China Sea during the Atmospheric Brown Cloud/East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 (ABC/EAREX2005) campaign conducted in March/April 2005. An averaged CCN number concentration was 3600 cm-3 at super-saturation S = 1.0%, which is higher than previously-reported CCN concentrations in the maritime (less than 1000 cm-3) and continental (about 2000 cm-3) air, and is as high as the CCN concentration measured in air influenced by large- scale biomass burning in southern Africa and Amazon. When air parcels which had been strongly affected by anthropogenic emissions over Asian continent were transported, CCN concentrations increased by a factor of 2-6. While the CCN concentrations at S = 1.0 and 0.6% are primarily explained by the temporal change in aerosol total number concentrations, the aerosol size distribution becomes more important for the CCN concentration at S = 0.3 and 0.1%. For S = 1.0%, in addition to transport of anthropogenic aerosols from over the Asian continent, the new particle formation resulted from anthropogenic precursor gases and their subsequent growth are likely important to increase CCN number concentrations. For S = 0.1%, CCN number concentration generally correlated with CO concentration, and more than 80% of these aerosols contained refractory-core, suggesting that many of these CCN had been transported from over the Asian continent. These aerosols are considered to grow to the critical dry diameter of 130 nm through condensation of precursor gases and/or coagulation of aerosols.

  20. Observed changes in winter wheat phenology in the North China Plain for 1981-2009.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu; Liu, Yujie; Shi, Wenjiao; Wang, Meng; Liu, Fengshan; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Climate change in the last three decades could have major impacts on crop phenological development and subsequently on crop productivity. In this study, trends in winter wheat phenology are investigated in 36 agro-meteorological stations in the North China Plain (NCP) for the period 1981-2009. The study shows that the dates of sowing (BBCH 00), emergence (BBCH 10) and dormancy (start of dormancy) are delayed on the average by 1.5, 1.7 and 1.5 days/decade, respectively. On the contrary, the dates of greenup (end of dormancy), anthesis (BBCH 61) and maturity (BBCH 89) occur early on the average by 1.1, 2.7 and 1.4 days/decade, respectively. In most of the investigated stations, GP2 (dormancy to greenup), GP3 (greenup to anthesis) and GP0 (entire period from emergence to maturity) of winter wheat shortened during the period 1981-2009. Due, however, to early anthesis, grain-filling stage occurs at lower temperatures than before. This, along with shifts in cultivars, slightly prolongs GP4 (anthesis to maturity). Comparison of field-observed CERES (Crop Environment Resource Synthesis)-wheat model-simulated dates of anthesis and maturity suggests that climate warming is the main driver of the changes in winter wheat phenology in the NCP. The findings of this study further suggest that climate change impact studies should be strengthened to adequately account for the complex responses and adaptations of field crops to this global phenomenon. PMID:22562530

  1. Sources apportionment of PM2.5 in a background site in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Lingxiao; Yuan, Qi; Yan, Chao; Dong, Can; Meng, Chuanping; Sui, Xiao; Yang, Fei; Lu, Yaling; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-01-15

    To better understand the sources and potential source regions of PM2.5, a field study was conducted from January 2011 to November 2011 at a background site, the Yellow River Delta National Nature Reserve (YRDNNR) in the North China Plain. Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis and a potential source contribution function (PSCF) model were used to assess the data, which showed that YRDNNR experienced serious air pollution. Concentrations of PM2.5 at YRDNNR were 71.2, 92.7, 97.1 and 62.5 μg m(-3) in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively, with 66.0% of the daily samples exhibiting higher concentrations of PM2.5 than the national air quality standard. PM2.5 mass closure showed remarkable seasonal variations. Sulphate, nitrate and ammonium were the dominant fractions of PM2.5 in summer (58.0%), whereas PM2.5 was characterized by a high load of organic aerosols (40.2%) in winter. PMF analysis indicated that secondary sulphate and nitrate (54.3%), biomass burning (15.8%), industry (10.7%), crustal matter (8.3%), vehicles (5.2%) and copper smelting (4.9%) were important sources of PM2.5 at YRDNNR on an annual average. The source of secondary sulphate and nitrate was probably industrial coal combustion. PSCF analysis indicated a significant regional impact on PM2.5 at YRDNNR all year round. Local emission may be non-negligible at YRDNNR in summer. The results of the present study provide a scientific basis for the development of PM2.5 control strategies on a regional scale. PMID:26433327

  2. Eco-Compensation in Multi-District River Networks in North Jiangsu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Ninghong; Hu, Fenjuan

    2013-04-01

    Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes.

  3. Origin and geochemical evolution of porewater in clay aquitards in North Jiangsu coastal plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qin; Liang, Xing; Li, Jing; Ma, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Decline of groundwater levels, resulting in water pressure decreasing, skeleton pressure increasing and porewater releasing from clay aquitards under these conditions, may cause the change of groundwater quality. This study provides insights into the origins and geochemical interactions of porewater in unoxidized and nonfractured aquitards under the influence of groundwater declining. Field investigations were conducted and a borehole was drilled with a depth of 250m in North Jiangsu coastal plain, China. 138 porewater samples were collected for isotope analysis, and 44 water samples were extracted from the clay for major ion analysis. Porewater, changing with the TDS tested, showed large variations with depth through the aquitards from 0.3g/l to 26.0g/l. The water type could be classified into fresh water (3.0g/l, Cl-Na; 3-35m). The changing trend of salt-porewater was mostly accordant with the mixing line between fresh porewater and seawater end-members. Nevertheless molar Br/Cl ratios (3.7-6.5*10-3) were larger than those of seawater (1.5*10-3), and δ2H and δ18O values showed depleted isotopic signatures (between -1.0o and -3.5o and -19.1o and -29.3o respectively) compared to modern seawater, indicating that salt-porewater evolved from paleo-seawater that was more saline and subsequently diluted with fresher water over the long-term. However, fresh and brackish porewater did not coincide with the mixing line; δ2H and δ18O values were much lower than salt-porewater and below the global meteoric water line. Also, molar Br/Cl ratios (0-7.3) and the trend of δ18O with chloride contents manifested evapotranspiration might be the dominate mechanism of brackish formation. The deltas values of Na+ (0), and molar Na/Cl ratios (

  4. [Nitrogen and water cycling of typical cropland in the North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Pei, Hong-wei; Shen, Yan-jun; Liu, Chang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Intensive fertilization and irrigation associated increasing grain production has led to serious groundwater depletion and soil/water pollution in the North China Plain (NCP). Intensive agriculture changes the initial mass and energy balance, and also results in huge risks to the water/soil resources and food security regionally. Based on the research reports on the nitrogen cycle and water cycle in typical cropland (winter wheat and summer corn) in the NCP during the past 20 years, and the meteorological data, field experiments and surveys, we calculated the nitrogen cycle and water-cycle for this typical cropland. Annual total nitrogen input were 632 kg N . hm-2, including 523 kg N . hm-2 from commercial fertilizer, 74 kg N . hm-2 from manure, 23 kg N . hm-2 from atmosphere, and 12 kg N . hm-2 from irrigation. All of annual outputs summed to 532 kg N . hm-2 including 289 kg N . hm-2 for crop, 77 kg N . hm-2 staying in soil profile, leaching 104 kg N . hm-2, 52 kg N . hm-2 for ammonia volatilization, 10 kg N . hm-2 loss in nitrification and denitrification. Uncertainties of the individual cases and the summary process lead to the unbalance of nitrogen. For the dominant parts of the field water cycle, annual precipitation was 557 mm, irrigation was 340 mm, while 762 mm was for evapotranspiration and 135 mm was for deep percolation. Considering uncertainties in the nitrogen and water cycles, coupled experiments based on multi-disciplines would be useful for understanding mechanisms for nitrogen and water transfer processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum (SPAC) , and the interaction between nitrogen and water, as well as determining the critical threshold values for sustainability of soil and water resources in the NCP. PMID:25985681

  5. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism under isobaric heating: New evidence from the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiong-Yan; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, Toshiaki

    2014-12-01

    The Khondalite Belt within Inner Mongolia Suture Zone (IMSZ) in the North China Craton (NCC) preserves evidence for extreme crustal metamorphism under ultra-high temperature (UHT) conditions at ca. 1.92 Ga, associated with the subduction-collision tectonics between the Yinshan and Ordos Blocks. Here we report a new locality in Hongsigou where cordierite- and spinel-bearing granulites record UHT metamorphism. The prograde, peak, and retrograde mineral assemblages in these pelitic granulites have been identified based on petrography and mineral chemistry as: Bt1 + Grt1 + Sil1 + Kfs1 + Pl1 + Ilm + Qtz1, Grt1 + Sil2 + Kfs2 + Pl2 + Spl + Ilm + Qtz2 + Liq, and Crd + Grt2 + Sil3 + Kfs2 + Pl2 + Ilm + Qtz2 respectively. The peak metamorphic conditions of the pelitic granulite were estimated as 930-1050 °C and 6.5-7.5 kbar based on pseudosection analysis in the system NCKFMASHTO, suggesting extreme thermal metamorphism. We report LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data from the granulite which show weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 1881 ± 6.6 Ma, marking the timing of UHT metamorphism. Lu-Hf analyses of the zircons show εHf(t) values within a restricted range of -4.2 to 0.3 and together with Hf model ages, a Paleoproterozoic arc magmatic source is inferred for the detrital zircons. The estimated P-T path for the UHT granulite suggests isobaric heating followed by cooling and decompression along a clockwise trajectory, different from the anti-clockwise P-T paths defined in earlier studies for the 1.92 Ga UHT rocks from the IMSZ. The younger age and the isobaric heating trajectory suggest that the Hongsigou UHT rocks are related to heat input from underplated mafic magmas following continental collision.

  6. Formation and Evolution Process of Typical Alluvial fan in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongmei, Z.; Hua, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Through Quaternary scientific drilling, well-logging, sampling and testing at Hutuo River Alluvial Fan in North China Plain, combined with existing lithology and lithofacies data of borehole, and comprehensive analysises with approaches of sedimentology, palaeontology, climatostratigraphy, we have identified the formation and evolution process of Hutuo River Alluvial Fan, our results indicate that: 1) There are three phases of large-scale alluvial fan during Quaternary period in the Hutuo River alluvial fan, which were buried in the depth of 40 ~ 70m, 70 ~ 130m, 130 ~ 160m respectively, with corresponding geological age are middle Pleistocene, early and mid-term of early Pleistocene, early-term of early Pleistocene. The leading edge of Hutuo River Alluvial Fan reached to counties of Ning jin, Hengshui, Wuqiang and, Raoyang. 2) The sedimentary facies of Hutuo River Alluvial Fan include alluvial facies and lake - swamp facies. Alluvial facies have been widely distributed from the piedmont area to Xinji county, including two sub-facies of river bed and alluvial flat facies. Lake-swamp facies mainly appeared at Shen county and it's east, and also scattered in the piedmont and the central of the fan. 3) On the basis of the lithology, lithofacies characteristics and stratigraphic cycles, and combined with biostratigraphic characteristics and luminescence age, we can definite the division of Quaternary geological boundary of Hutuo River Alluvial Fan as follows: Q4 / Q3 - -8.85m; Q3 / Q2 -32.68 m; Q2 / Q1 -73.84m; Q1 / N2 - 157.04m.

  7. Variation of CCN activity during new particle formation events in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Nan; Zhao, Chunsheng; Tao, Jiangchuan; Wu, Zhijun; Kecorius, Simonas; Wang, Zhibin; Größ, Johannes; Liu, Hongjian; Bian, Yuxuan; Kuang, Ye; Teich, Monique; Spindler, Gerald; Müller, Konrad; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Hu, Min; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to obtain a better understanding of the variability of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity during new particle formation (NPF) events in an anthropogenically polluted atmosphere of the North China Plain (NCP). We investigated the size-resolved activation ratio as well as particle number size distribution, hygroscopicity, and volatility during a 4-week intensive field experiment in summertime at a regional atmospheric observatory in Xianghe. Interestingly, based on a case study, two types of NPF events were found, in which the newly formed particles exhibited either a higher or a lower hygroscopicity. Therefore, the CCN activity of newly formed particles in different NPF events was largely different, indicating that a simple parameterization of particle CCN activity during NPF events over the NCP might lead to poor estimates of CCN number concentration (NCCN). For a more accurate estimation of the potential NCCN during NPF events, the variation of CCN activity has to be taken into account. Considering that a fixed activation ratio curve or critical diameter are usually used to calculate NCCN, the influence of the variation of particle CCN activity on the calculation of NCCN during NPF events was evaluated based on the two parameterizations. It was found that NCCN might be underestimated by up to 30 % if a single activation ratio curve (representative of the region and season) were to be used in the calculation; and might be underestimated by up to 50 % if a fixed critical diameter (representative of the region and season) were used. Therefore, we suggest not using a fixed critical diameter in the prediction of NCCN in NPF. If real-time CCN activity data are not available, using a proper fixed activation ratio curve can be an alternative but compromised choice.

  8. Reassessing carbon sequestration in the North China Plain via addition of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenxu; Duan, Yongmei; Wang, Yuying; Hu, Chunsheng

    2016-09-01

    Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) exerts a strong influence on the carbon (C) sequestered in response to nitrogen (N) additions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, but limited information is available on in situ SIC storage and dissolution at the field level. This study determined the soil organic/inorganic carbon storage in the soil profile at 0-100cm depths and the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in soil leachate in 4N application treatments (0, 200, 400, and 600kgNha(-1)yr(-)(1)) for 15years in the North China Plain. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on total amount of carbon sequestration and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 in an agricultural system. Results showed that after 15years of N fertilizer application the SOC contents at depths of 0-100cm significantly increased, whereas the SIC contents significantly decreased at depths of 0-60cm. However, the actual measured loss of carbonate was far higher than the theoretical maximum values of dissolution via protons from nitrification. Furthermore, the amount of HCO3(-) and the HCO3(-)/(Ca(2+)+Mg(2+)) ratio in soil leachate were higher in the N application treatments than no fertilizer input (CK) for the 0-80cm depth. The result suggested that the dissolution of carbonate was mainly enhanced by soil carbonic acid, a process which can absorb soil or atmosphere CO2 and less influenced by protons through the nitrification which would release CO2. To accurately evaluate soil C sequestration under N input scenarios in semi-arid regions, future studies should include both changes in SIC storage as well as the fractions of dissolution with different sources of acids in soil profiles. PMID:27135576

  9. Geology and timing of mineralization at the Cangshang gold deposit, north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, X.; Cawood, Peter A.; Wilde, S.A.; Liu, R.; Song, H.; Li, W.; Snee, L.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Cangshang gold deposit of the northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula contains reserves of greater than 50 tonnes (t) and is developed by the largest open pit gold mine in China. This deposit is a Jiaojia-style (i.e. disseminated-and-veinlet) deposit. It is controlled by the San-Cang fault zone, which trends ???040?? and dips 40-75??SE at the mine site. The main (no. 1) orebody lies between a hanging wall of Precambrian metamorphic rocks (mainly amphibolite) of the Fenzishan Group and a footwall composed of the Mesozoic Linglong granitoid. The ore zone is mainly composed of pyritized, sericitized and silicified granitoid, which has undergone variable degrees of cataclasis. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon indicates that the protolith of the hanging wall amphibolite was formed at 2530 ?? 17 Ma and underwent metamorphism at 1852 ?? 37 Ma. The footwall granodiorite has been dated at 166 ?? 4 Ma, whereas zircons from the ore zone yield a younger age of 154 ?? 5 Ma. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the granodiorite and ore zone show oscillatory zonation indicative of an igneous origin for both and the ages of these zircons, therefore, are all interpreted to be representative of magmatic crystallization. Dating of sericite by 40Ar-39Ar has been used to directly determine the timing of formation of the Cangshang deposit, providing the first time absolute age on formation of the Jiaojia-style gold deposits. The well-defined age of 121.3 ?? 0.2 Ma provides the precise timing of gold mineralization at the Cangshang deposit. This age is consistent with those of Linglong-style (vein type) gold mineralization, also from the north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, at between 126 and 120 Ma. Therefore, our work indicates that both styles of gold deposits in the Jiaodong Peninsula were formed during the same mineralization event.

  10. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g−1 dw to 0.457 μg g−1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g−1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  11. Impacts of thickening unsaturated zone on groundwater recharge in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guoliang; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Han, Dongmei; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-06-01

    Unsustainable groundwater development shown by rapid groundwater depletion in the North China Plain (NCP) underscores the need to quantify spatiotemporal variability in groundwater recharge for improved management of the resource. The objective of this study was to assess spatiotemporal variability in recharge in response to thickening of the unsaturated zone in the NCP. Recharge was estimated by linking a soil water balance (SWB) model, on the basis of monthly meteorological data, irrigation applications, and soil moisture monitoring data (1993-2008), to the water table using a deep unsaturated zone flow model. The dynamic bottom boundary (water table) position was provided by the saturated zone flow component, which simulates regional pumping. The model results clearly indicate the effects of unsaturated zone thickening on both temporal distribution and magnitude of recharge: smoothing temporal variability in recharge, and increasing unsaturated storage and lag time between percolation and recharge. The thickening unsaturated zone can result in average recharge reduction of up to ∼70% in loam soils with water table declines ⩾30 m. Declining groundwater levels with irrigation sourced by groundwater converts percolation to unsaturated zone storage, averaging 14 mm equivalent water depth per year in mostly loam soil over the study period, accounting for ∼30% of the saturated groundwater storage depletion. This study demonstrates that, in thickening unsaturated zones, modeling approaches that directly equate deep drainage with recharge will overestimate the amount and underestimate the time lag between percolation and recharge, emphasizing the importance of more realistic simulation of the continuity of unsaturated and saturated storage to provide more reliable estimates of spatiotemporal variability in recharge.

  12. Study of Groundwater Resources Components in the North China Plain based on Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater and induced environmental problems in the North China Plain (NCP) has drawn more and more concerns. Here, we chose three typical hydrogeological units in the NCP, which are Hutuo River alluvial fan (HR), the Tianjin Plain in the central alluvial fan (TJ), and the Yellow river aquifer system (YR). Relying on groundwater numerical models through MODFLOW, the water balances were calculated and analyzed accordingly, especially for quantifying individual recharge and discharge contributing terms. Specifically, (1) In the HR, both natural steady-state flow and transient flow models under human activities were implemented. Results indicated groundwater level decreased by around 40m with extensive exploitation, where the total recharge rate, discharge rate, and over-exploitation rate were calculated. (2) In the TJ, groundwater and land subsidence coupled model was established, where the maximum subsidence rate and decrease of groundwater level was estimated. (3) In the YR, the exploitation rate of the groundwater and recharge rate of the aquifer by the Yellow River were calculated. We found that there are big differences among the components of groundwater recharge of the three typical hydrogeological units. Human activities have a clear effect on the recharge and discharge processes. Thus, rational development and protection policies should be issued. In the piedmont alluvial fan, the groundwater was severely over-exploited. Therefore, reduction of groundwater exploitation and groundwater artificial recharge are needed to get the recharge and discharge balanced. In the middle alluvial fan of the NCP, the confined aquifer has been over-exploited and has resulted in regional land subsidence. It suggests the withdrawal of confined aquifer should be strictly limited, especially at the place where alternative water resources are accessible. In the hydrogeological unit of the YR, the groundwater storage is potentially large for exploitation.

  13. Pacific slab subduction-induced carbonatite mantle metasomatism in the eastern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L. L.; Liu, Y.; Gao, S.

    2014-12-01

    Trace element and Sr-Li isotopic compositions of pyroxene and olivine in mantle peridotite xenoliths entrained by the Cenozoic Changle basalt from the eastern block of the North China Craton (NCC) were analyzed by LA-(MC)-ICPMS. Calcite and carbonatitic melt inclusions occur in clinopyroxene and olivine. Clinopyroxene in these xenoliths generally have a relatively higher Mg# (92.3-93.0) than that of olivine (Mg# = 90.8). Clinopyroxene is characterized by enrichments in LREE and zonations of REE, Li and Sr increasing from the cores to the rims. Furthermore, they have high Ca/Al (8.4-8.7), Zr/Hf (69.9-78.4) and (La/Yb)N (21-36) ratios and low Ti/Eu (618-755) ratios, which are features of mantle peridotite metasomatized by carbonatitic melt. These observations indicate that the peridotitic mantle beneath the Changle area could have suffered a carbonatitic metasomatism. Clinopyroxene, othopyroxene and olivine in these peridotites exhibit variably low δ7Li (+3.9 to -27.2‰) and slightly high 87Sr/86Sr (0.7030-0.7036), suggesting involvement of recycled crustal material. It has been previously suggested that the Mesozoic destruction of the eastern NCC was closely related to the hydration and mantle upwelling associated with Pacific plate subduction. The Cenozoic Changle basalt locates at the eastern margin of the NCC. Thus, we suggest that the carbonatitic metasomatism of the lithopheric mantle beneath the Changle area could have been induced by the westward subduction of the Pacific plate. The subduction-related carbonatitic metasomatism can transform the depleted harzburgite/dunite mantle to clinopyroxne/orthopyroxene-rich mantle, which could have played an important role in the lithospheric thinning of the NCC.

  14. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  15. Eruption Mechanism of the 10th Century Eruption in Baitoushan Volcano, China/North Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimano, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Ban, M.; Maeno, F.; Nishimoto, J.; Jien, X.; Taniguchi, H.

    2005-12-01

    Baitoushan volcano, China/North Korea, is one of the most active volcanoes in Northeastern Asia, and the 10th century eruption was the most voluminous eruption in the world in recent 2000 years. The sequence of the eruption reconstructed recently consists mainly of 6 units of deposits (Miyamoto et al., 2004); plinian airfall (unit B), large pyroclastic flow (unit C), plinian airfall with some intra- plinian pyroclastic flows (unit D), sub-plinian airfall (unit E), and large pyroclastic flow (unit F) with base surge (unit G) in ascending order. The magma erupted during steady eruption in earlier phase was comendite (unit B-C; Phase 1), whereas the magma during fluctuating eruptions in later phase is characterized by trachyte to trachyandesite with various amount of comendite (unit D-G; Phase 2). The wide variety in composition and occurrence of banded pumices strongly indicate mixing or mingling of the two magmas just prior to or during the eruption. The initial water contents had been determined for comendite by melt inclusion analyses (ca. 5.2 wt.%; Horn and Schmincke, 2000). Although the initial water content of the trachytic magma has not been correctly determined yet, the reported water contents of trachytic melt inclusions are lower (3-4 wt.%) than those of comenditic melt (Horn and Schmincke, 2000). We investigated juvenile materials of the eruption sequentially in terms of vesicularity, H2O content in matrix glass and textural characteristics. The vesicularity of pumices are generally high (>0.75) for all units. The residual water contents of the comenditic pumices during Phase 1 are relatively uniform (1.6 wt.%), whereas those of the trachytic scoria during Phase 2 and gray pumices during Phase 1 are low (ca. 0.7-1.3 wt.%). These facts may indicate that the difference in the initial water content, rather than the ascent mechanism of magma, controls the steadiness or fluctuation in eruption styles and the mass flux during the eruption.

  16. Polybromobenzene pollutants in the atmosphere of North China: levels, distribution, and sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Tong

    2013-11-19

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are important persistent organic pollutants. Analysis of BFRs in atmospheric samples in a previous study led us to suspect the presence of unidentified organic bromides, other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the atmosphere. In this study, we identified and quantified polybromobenzenes, a group of organic bromides, in air samples collected through passive sampling in gridded observations in North China. We investigated their concentrations and spatial distribution, and estimated the proportion due to different sources. We detected seven species of polybromobenzenes, including hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromobenzene (PeBB), tetrabromobenzenes (TeBBs), and tribromotoluene (TrBT), in all or most of the field samples, indicating widespread occurrence of this class of pollutants. The median concentrations of each pollutant ranged from 20.0 to 144 pg/sample (or from 0.07 to 1.16 pg/m(3)), with relatively high concentrations found near e-waste recycling sites, BFR manufacturing sites, and areas of high population density. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis revealed that ∼70% of HBB, PBT, PBEB, and PeBB was from commercial products, while ∼80% of 1,2,3,5-TeBB, 1,2,4,5-TeBB, and 2,4,5-TrBT was linked with BFR manufacturing. This study provides essential information on widespread polybromobenzene pollutants in the atmosphere, particularly TeBBs and TrBT, for which this is the first report of their presence as atmospheric pollutants. PMID:24144297

  17. Effects of additional HONO sources on visibility over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; An, Junling; Gultepe, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to better understand the impacts of the additional sources of nitrous acid (HONO) on visibility, which is an aspect not considered in current air quality models. Simulations of HONO contributions to visibility over the North China Plain (NCP) during August 2007 using the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model were performed, including three additional HONO sources: (1) the reaction of photo-excited nitrogen dioxide (NO * 2) with water vapor; (2) the NO2 heterogeneous reaction on aerosol surfaces; and (3) HONO emissions. The model generally reproduced the spatial patterns and diurnal variations of visibility over the NCP well. When the additional HONO sources were included in the simulations, the visibility was occasionally decreased by 20%-30% (3-4 km) in local urban areas of the NCP. Monthly-mean concentrations of NO{3/-}, NH{4/+}, SO{4/2-} and PM2.5 were increased by 20%-52% (3-11 μg m-3), 10%-38%, 6%-10%, and 6%-11% (9-17 μg m-3), respectively; and in urban areas, monthly-mean accumulationmode number concentrations (AMNC) and surface concentrations of aerosols were enhanced by 15%-20% and 10%-20%, respectively. Overall, the results suggest that increases in concentrations of PM2.5, its hydrophilic components, and AMNC, are key factors for visibility degradation. A proposed conceptual model for the impacts of additional HONO sources on visibility also suggests that visibility estimation should consider the heterogeneous reaction on aerosol surfaces and the enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity due to additional HONO sources, especially in areas with high mass concentrations of NO x and aerosols.

  18. Crust structure of the North China Craton from a long-range seismic wide-angle-reflection/refraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Zelt, Colin A.; Wang, Fuyun; Jia, Shixu; Liu, Qiaoxia

    2014-11-01

    We present an interpretation of a 1530-km-long wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profile that extends across the North China Craton (NCC) approximately from east to west. This profile is the longest and the densest wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profile in China up to now. Parameterizing the velocity model as layers with variable thickness, we perform seismic travel time tomography to resolve the velocity variation within layers and velocity contrast across Moho. Our model shows crustal thickness that varies from 35 km under the Shandong peninsula, to 30 km under the North China Plain (NCP) and 32-40 km under central NCC, to 45 km under the Ordos plateau. These results indicate obvious crustal thinning beneath the NCP in comparison with the ~ 35 km crustal thicknesses typical of most cratonic regions. In particular, an abrupt Moho step of ∼ 10 km is detected at the junction of the eastern block and western block of the NCC. These crustal characteristics are consistent with studies of lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) with the method of receiver function migration, and they indicate a close correlation with lithospheric thickness and surface tectonics of the northeastern NCC. These results provide robust seismological evidence that the lithosphere from NCC to the western edge of the Taihang Mountain, might have been widely affected and thinned since its formation in the Archean era.

  19. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Rhizobia Associated with Soybean Plants Grown in the North China Plain ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan Ming; Li, Ying; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, En Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yun Zeng; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-01-01

    As the putative center of origin for soybean and the second largest region of soybean production in China, the North China Plain covers temperate and subtropical regions with diverse soil characteristics. However, the soybean rhizobia in this plain have not been sufficiently studied. To investigate the biodiversity and biogeography of soybean rhizobia in this plain, a total of 309 isolates of symbiotic bacteria from the soybean nodules collected from 16 sampling sites were studied by molecular characterization. These isolates were classified into 10 genospecies belonging to the genera Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, including four novel groups, with S. fredii (68.28%) as the dominant group. The phylogeny of symbiotic genes nodC and nifH defined four lineages among the isolates associated with Sinorhizobium fredii, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, B. japonicum, and B. yuanmingense, demonstrating the different origins of symbiotic genes and their coevolution with the chromosome. The possible lateral transfer of symbiotic genes was detected in several cases. The association between soil factors (available N, P, and K and pH) and the distribution of genospecies suggest clear biogeographic patterns: Sinorhizobium spp. were superdominant in sampling sites with alkaline-saline soils, while Bradyrhizobium spp. were more abundant in neutral soils. This study clarified the biodiversity and biogeography of soybean rhizobia in the North China Plain. PMID:21784912

  20. Lidar observations of the middle atmospheric thermal structure over North China and comparisons with TIMED/SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jihong; Yang, Guotao; Du, Lifang; Yue, Chuan; Wang, Zelong; Jiao, MS. Jing

    According to the observational data for over 120 nights of the Rayleigh/Na lidar located in Beijing, China (40.5N, 116.2E), the middle atmospheric thermal structure over North China was obtained. Lidar observation results show good agreements with SABER temperature data sets, which justify that both the two instruments are reliable. Lidar results show significant difference with the NRLMSISE-00 empirical model and negative deviations (lidar minus model) hold most of the observational time. which may be due to the associations of high level of solar activity, greenhouse gases and the haze weather in North China. To characterize the seasonal variations of the temperature structure over Beijing, the amplitude and phase profiles of the annual, semi-annual and 3-month sinusoidal oscillations were extracted by multi-parameter sinusoidal regression. A stratospheric warming event and a long-term mesospheric temperature inversion are observed in the early winter of 2012/2013. These temperature anomalies may be mainly due to anomalous propagations of planetary waves and gravity waves.

  1. Research into the functional components and antioxidant activities of North China rice wine (Ji Mo Lao Jiu)

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuai; Mao, Xiangzhao; Liu, Pei; Lin, Hong; Du, Zuyuan; Lv, Ning; Han, Jichen; Qiu, Cuifang

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, considerable experimental evidence has supported the view that grape wine and South China rice wine are rich in diverse nutrients and have powerful antioxidant activity. However, little research has been carried out for North China rice wine, of which Ji Mo Lao Jiu (JMLJ) is the outstanding representative. In this study, the functional components and antioxidant activity of JMLJ were investigated. Twenty-eight free amino acids were found in JMLJ, much more than that previously reported in other Chinese rice wines (16–21). Functional oligosaccharides (5290.222 mg/L), total phenols (722.431 ± 10.970 mg/L), and mineral elements (9) were rich in JMLJ. When compared with synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), JMLJ showed effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing capacity. The results of this study lay the foundation for promoting the utilization of JMLJ and the development of North China rice wine in the food industry. PMID:24804035

  2. Stress Variation in North China before and after the 2011 Tohhoku-Oki Earthquake: Results and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Zhao, L.; Mao, S.; Ning, J.; Chen, Q.

    2013-12-01

    We determine the focal mechanism solutions (FMS) of earthquakes located in two different regions in North China: Northeast China (NEC) and Central North China Craton (CNCC), during 2009-2013 using the generalized Cut and Paste method (gCAP, Zhu & Ben-Zion, 2013). Moreover, we also employ gCAP to obtain the centroid depths of those earthquakes. Broadband waveforms from 298 stations including NECESSArray (2009-2011), NECsaids (2010-2013) and permanent records from CEA (2009-2012) are used to invert for the focal mechanism solutions. We employ the gCAP method to obtain not only similar results to the GCMT solutions for moderate earthquakes, but more importantly reliable FMS for events at the level of Mw≈3.0. We also use the FMS to invert for the stress field in both regions using the software SATSI (Hardebeck & Michael, 2006) and compare the results before and after the March 11th, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, to better understand how this great event influenced the stress fields in NEC and CNCC. Results show that the overall compression in E-W direction is lowered in both regions after the March 11th, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. However, the back azimuths of these two regions are quite different, which leads to distinct influences from the March 11th, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, therefore the changes in seismicity and FMS in those two regions also differ from each other.

  3. A precisely dated Proterozoic palaeomagnetic pole from the North China craton, and its relevance to palaeocontinental reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halls, Henry C.; Li, Jianghai; Davis, Don; Hou, Guiting; Zhang, Baoxing; Qian, Xianglin

    2000-10-01

    A palaeomagnetic pole position, derived from a precisely dated primary remanence, with minimal uncertainties due to secular variation and structural correction, has been obtained for China's largest dyke swarm, which trends for about 1000km in a NNW direction across the North China craton. Positive palaeomagnetic contact tests on two dykes signify that the remanent magnetization is primary and formed during initial cooling of the intrusions. The age of one of these dykes, based on U-Pb dating of primary zircon, is 1769.1+/-2.5Ma. The mean palaeomagnetic direction for 19 dykes, after structural correction, is D=36°, I=-5°, k=63, α95=4°, yielding a palaeomagnetic pole at Plat=36°N, Plong=247°E, dp=2°, dm=4° and a palaeolatitude of 2.6°S. Comparison of this pole position with others of similar age from the Canadian Shield allows a continental reconstruction that is compatible with a more or less unchanged configuration of Laurentia, Siberia and the North China craton since about 1800Ma

  4. PLAM - a meteorological pollution index for air quality and i