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Sample records for north-central sri lanka

  1. Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharmaratne, Ranjith W

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka's CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in drinking water and in the locally grown food in the affected areas are the culprits of CKD in Sri Lanka. Fluoride excretion rate is considerably lower in children than adults, leading to renal damage of children living in areas with high fluoride. Adults who had renal damage due to fluoride in childhood are vulnerable to CKD with continued consumption of water from the same source. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. High content of fluoride in groundwater paves the way to excess fluoride in local food crops, consequently adding more fluoride to the systems of the consumers. People who work outdoors for prolonged periods consume excess water and tea, and are subjected to additional doses of fluoride in their system. In the mid-1980s, the increase in water table levels of the affected areas due to new irrigation projects paved the way to adding more fluorides to their system through drinking water and locally grown foods. PMID:25916575

  2. A study of snake bite among children presenting to a paediatric ward in the main Teaching Hospital of North Central Province of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snake bite is a common problem in the North Central province of Sri Lanka. Common krait (Bungarus careuleus), Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus), Cobra (Naja naja), Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii), Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) are the six species of venomous land snakes in Sri Lanka. A significant number of adults and children are bitten by snakes every year. However, the majority of research studies done in Sri Lanka and other countries show adults bitten by snakes and studies describing children bitten by snakes are very sparse. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was performed in the Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka from May 2010 to 2011 May to describe the characteristics associated with cases of snake bite. Results There were 24 males and 20 females. The highest numbers of bites (48%) were in the range of ages 6-12 years. The majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm to 6 am (59%).The foot was the most common bitten site (48%). Out of all the venomous bites, the Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number (44%) and Russell’s viper (Daboia ruselii) accounted for the second highest number (27%). A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoors while sleeping (22%). Antivenom serum was given to (39%) of venomous bites. Deaths occurred in (11%) of the venomous bites. Conclusions Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number of venomous bites. Majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm and 6 am. Foot was the most common bitten site. A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoor while sleeping. Antivenom serum was given to a significant number of venomous bites. Educating the public on making their houses snake proof and using a torch when going out during night time will help in the prevention of getting bitten by snakes. PMID:25073710

  3. Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka has an area of 25,332 square miles and the terrain consists of coastal plains, with hills and mountains in the south central area. Population stands at 16.8 million with a growth rate of 1.6% and ethnic groups include Sinhalese 74%, Tamils 18%, Muslims 7%, and other 1%. The religions are Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Languages include Sinhala, Tamil and English, and the literacy rate is 87%. 68.9 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 31/1000. The government is a republic with a president, parliament and a court system. The gross national product is $7.2 billion with a 2.7% growth rate and an inflation rate of 14%. Natural resources include limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, and phosphate. Agricultural products include tea, rubber, coconuts, rice, and spices. Industry consists of textiles and garments, chemicals and petroleum products, food processing, wood and wood products, basic metal products, paper and paper products. The British ejected the Dutch in 1796 and set up the crown colony of Ceylon. In 1931 the colony was allowed limited self rule, and in 1948 it became independent. It is a less developed country with a annual average per capita income of $430. In 1977 the government undertook reforms and eliminated price and foreign exchange controls, reduced consumer subsidies and promoted private sector development. The results showed a more than 5% growth rate during the decade and tourism and foreign investment increased. Recently the growth has slowed partly because of a communal conflict, a trade imbalance and serious structural imbalances. PMID:12178023

  4. Tsunami: Sri Lanka

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Deep Ocean Tsunami Waves off the Sri Lankan Coast     ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captured this image of deep ocean tsunami waves about 30-40 kilometers from Sri Lanka's southwestern coast. ... Tsunami: Sri Lanka location:  Asia Indian Ocean thumbnail:  ...

  5. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  6. Destination: Sri Lanka. Video Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legowski, Margaret

    This video guide was developed by the Peace Corps' Office of World Wise Schools. The activities it describes are designed to supplement elementary and secondary students' exploration of South Asia and to enhance their correspondence with a Peace Corps volunteer. Used in conjunction with the videotape "Destination: Sri Lanka," the activities in the…

  7. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  8. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Konradsen, F.; Steele, P.; Perera, D.; van der Hoek, W.; Amerasinghe, P. H.; Amerasinghe, F. P.

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of breeding habitats by flushing streams through seasonal release of water from upstream reservoirs was estimated to be cheaper than other preventive measures (Rs 27 (US$ 0.49) and Rs 13 (US$ 0.24) per individual protected, respectively). Inclusion of both operational and capital costs of treatment indicates that the most cost-effective intervention for the government was a centrally located hospital with a relatively large catchment area (Rs 71 (US$ 1.29) per malaria case treated). Mobile clinics (Rs 153 (US$ 2.78) per malaria case treated) and a village treatment centre (Rs 112 (US$ 2.04)) per malaria case treated) were more expensive options for the government, but were considerably cheaper for households than the traditional hospital facilities. This information can guide health planners and government decision-makers in choosing the most appropriate combination of curative and preventive measures to control malaria. However, the option that is cheapest for the government may not be so for the householders, and further studies are needed to estimate the effectiveness of the various preventive measures. PMID:10327708

  9. Management for Educational Development in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Neil, Ed.

    This document reports on 4 broad action programs, constituting a total of 15 projects, in 4 pilot districts in Sri Lanka. The programs, part of a larger effort by the Ministry of Education to actualize policy guidelines, have been attempts to bridge gaps between the capability and efficiency of the established school system and the multiple levels…

  10. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Panduka S.; Marston, Denise A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Wise, Emma L.; Karawita, Anjana C.; Breed, Andrew C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C.

    2016-01-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus. PMID:27434858

  11. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Panduka S; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Wise, Emma L; Karawita, Anjana C; Breed, Andrew C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R

    2016-08-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus. PMID:27434858

  12. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, L.

    2004-12-01

    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster

  13. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  14. Abortion in Sri Lanka: The Double Standard

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required. PMID:23327236

  15. Forecasts of Agricultural Drought in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the most frequent natural disaster in Sri Lanka, drought greatly affects crop production and livelihoods. Over half of all agricultural crop damage in Sri Lanka is currently due to drought; the frequency and severity of drought in the country is only expected to increase with the changing climate. Previous work indicates that the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are capable of capturing agricultural drought patterns (between 1881-2010) in the island nation. In this work, PDSI and SPI from 13 long-term meteorological stations will be projected into the future using a combination of artificial neural network and autoregressive integrated moving average models. The impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (such as the Niño 3.4 index, a measure of sea surface temperature) and lead times on projection accuracy will also be explored. Model projections will be compared to weather data since 2010 to determine if the 2014 drought could have been forecasted using these methods. Since agricultural systems are strongly influenced by both natural and human systems, it is important to frame these physical findings within a social context. This work is part of an interdisciplinary project that assesses the perceptions of and adaptations to drought by rice farmers in Sri Lanka; disciplines represented in the group include hydrology, social psychology, ethnography, policy, and behavioral economics. Insights from the diverse research perspectives within the group will be drawn upon to highlight the social implications of the physical results.

  16. Village School in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victoria J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes education in poor Sri Lankan villages, examining the effects of poverty (poor teacher training, lack of equipment, and inability of students to attend); the influence of ministerial-level traditional or negative attitudes (questioning the worth of investing in equal education in remote rural areas); and weaknesses in the system that…

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  18. The University System of Sri Lanka. Vision and Reality. ICES Sri Lanka Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Silva, K. M., Ed.; Peiris, G. H., Ed.

    This book reviews the history of university education in Sri Lanka, paying special attention to the University of Peradeniya, originally the University of Ceylon. The book focuses on how an institution of higher learning, modeled initially on the older universities of Britain, has been influenced by the challenges and constraints of continuing…

  19. Self poisoning in Sri Lanka: motivational aspects.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, J; Kodituwakku, G C

    1989-01-01

    Sri Lanka is a developing Asian country with high suicide rate due to self poisoning, related to a high fatality rate. A study of motivational aspects of self poisoning in 97 consecutive patients showed that there is no greater intention of suicide in them than those from the developed countries. Interpersonal disputes involving domestic problems and love affairs are the main precipitating causes. Improving family relations may help in the prevention of self-poisoning. However the impulsive nature of the act might prove prevention a difficult task. PMID:2767925

  20. Fossilized diatoms in meteorites from recent falls in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-09-01

    On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.

  1. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arambewela, L. S. R.; Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Kumaratunga, K. G; Dissanayake, D. S; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Kumarasingha, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373

  2. Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcote, Rebekah L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

  3. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, E. A. R. I. E.; Perera, P. A. J.; Sivakanesan, R.; Abeysekara, T.; Nugegoda, D. B.; Jayaweera, J. A. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of <3 L of water per day, and having a history of malaria were found to be having significant (P < 0.05) likelihood toward the development of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka. PMID:26060363

  4. Chronic kidney diseases of uncertain etiology (CKDue) in Sri Lanka: geographic distribution and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Itai, Kozuyoshi; Aturaliya, T N C; Dissanayake, C B; Abeysekera, Thilak; Harada, Kouji; Watanabe, Takao; Koizumi, Akio

    2011-06-01

    The increase in the number of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients from the north central region of Sri Lanka has become a environmental health issue of national concern. Unlike in other countries where long-standing diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of renal diseases, the majority of CKD patients from this part of Sri Lanka do not show any identifiable cause. As the disease is restricted to a remarkably specific geographical terrain, particularly in the north central dry zone of the country, multidisciplinary in-depth research studies are required to identify possible etiologies and risk factors. During this study, population screening in the prevalent region and outside the region, analysis of geoenvironmental and biochemical samples were carried out. Population screening that was carried out using a multistage sampling technique indicated that the point prevalence of CKD with uncertain etiology is about 2-3% among those above 18 years of age. Drinking water collected from high-prevalent and non-endemic regions was analyzed for their trace and ultratrace element contents, including the nephrotoxic heavy metals Cd and U using ICP-MS. The results indicate that the affected regions contain moderate to high levels of fluoride. The Cd contents in drinking water, rice from affected regions and urine from symptomatic and non-symptomatic patients were much lower indicating that Cd is not a contributing factor for CKD with uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. Although no single geochemical parameter could be clearly and directly related to the CKD etiology on the basis of the elements determined during this study, it is very likely that the unique hydrogeochemistry of the drinking water is closely associated with the incidence of the disease. PMID:20853020

  5. The Asian Tsunami in Sri Lanka: A Personal Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Chris

    2005-01-01

    AGU Fellow Chris Chapman experienced the devastating Asian tsunami firsthand in Sri Lanka. The following is his account, written in the immediate aftermath of the disaster; the footnotes were added later. Chapman is a scientific advisor at Schlumberger Cambridge Research and a specialist in theoretical seismology. At 9:30 A.M. local time (0330 GMT) on Boxing Day, 26 December, my wife, Lillian, and I were eating breakfast at the beachside Triton Hotel1 in Ahungalla, Sri Lanka (about 30 km north of Galle). The previous week we had toured Sri Lanka, ending our trip traveling through Yala National Park and Galle. These were places we hardly knew of before, but now images of them are indelibly imprinted on the world. Of about 150 staying at the Yala Safari Game Lodge, only 11 survived. The center of Galle, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, a sixteenth- to seventeenth-century Portuguese/Dutchfort and port, is essentially gone.

  6. Unemployment tables and unemployment-free working life: Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P

    1986-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of the life table model to depict gross and net tables of unemployment in a country, using Sri Lanka as an example. Age specific data on employment in Sri Lanka are analyzed using the lfe table technic. Unemployment-free working life declined for both males and females between 1963 and 1971, indicating deteriorating employment conditions. This measure shows the employment situation in a country better than the simple rates of unemployment or the conventional working life expectancy. It also shows working life from the point of view of the production of goods and services. PMID:12268132

  7. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean, with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side, and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. Aggregations of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) have been observed along the southern coast of Sri Lanka during the northeast (NE) monsoon, when satellite imagery indicates lower productivity in the surface waters. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 3 years to examine the seasonal and shorter-term (~10 days) variability. The results reproduced correctly the reversing current system, between the Equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv (mean over 2010-2012) and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.6 Sv during the NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the southern coast. During the SW monsoon, the island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward, whilst along the eastern coast, the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the southern coast, resulting from southward flow converging along the southern coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the

  8. A bedside test for methemoglobinemia, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Andrew H; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem Propanil is an aniline herbicide that is widely used for rice cultivation, but is also used for self-poisoning. Toxicity from propanil is largely due to methemoglobinemia. In resource-poor settings, the capacity to determine methemoglobin concentration is insufficient and prevents effective case management, which results in increased deaths from propanil poisoning. Approach Blood with a methemoglobin concentration greater than 15% of total haemoglobin levels appears brownish in colour. We introduced a colour reference chart that can be used to semiquantitatively determine methemoglobinemia. Each ward in three rural hospitals received a chart. Ward staff, medical officers and trainee doctors were given a presentation describing the test method and how it should be used with the relevant national treatment guidelines. Local setting In three rural hospitals in Sri Lanka, 401 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of propanil poisoning before the introduction of this test (2003–2007) and 262 patients after it was introduced (2008–2014), 46 of 663 patients died. Relevant changes The chart can be freely produced with any good-quality colour printer. In three rural hospitals, deaths from propanil poisoning fell from 10% of those admitted with this diagnosis in 2003–2007 (38/401) to 3% (8/262) in 2008–2014 and the use of methylene blue increased from 10% (13/136) to 55% (59/107) over this period. Lessons learnt This simple bedside test was associated with increased use of the first line treatment for propanil poisoning and improved survival. In 2011, the test was included in the national guidelines for the management of propanil poisoning. PMID:27516640

  9. Establishing a twin register in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sumathipala, A; Fernando, D J; Siribaddana, S H; Abeysingha, M R; Jayasekare, R W; Dissanayake, V H; De Silva, N

    2000-12-01

    Nearly all twin registers are based in developed countries and there is no twin register in the developing world. Our objectives were to initiate the process of establishing a nationwide twin register in Sri Lanka by starting a volunteer register first and working towards a population-based register. Regular newspaper advertisements, feature articles, radio talks, and television programmes were used to publicise a competition for twins, their parents/relatives and friends requesting them to participate by sending in details of twins. The competition ran from 28 March 1997 for a period of 3 months. It offered prizes for three winners selected by drawing lots. Advertisements highlighted the objective of the competition as establishing a twin register for future research and emphasised that informed consent would be obtained for individual research projects. Those who registered comprise 4602 twin pairs (same sex: male--1564, female--1885; different sex--1153), 80 sets of triplets (same sex: male--17, female--31; different sex--42) and two sets of quadruplets (different sex). The oldest twins, triplets, quadruplets are 85, 46, and 5 years old, respectively; 88.0% of twins are less than 30 years old. Although others have previously used media publicity to enrol twins in twin registers, we believe this to be the first time that twins have been enrolled through competition. We have more young twins, and our gender and zygosity proportions after applying Weinburg's rule do not match the proportions expected from a volunteer twin sample. Establishing a twin register for research purposes has proved possible in a developing country. PMID:11463139

  10. An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Irene

    2006-01-01

    What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

  11. Feeding Hungry Minds: Grassroots Library Services in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corea, Ishvari

    1991-01-01

    Describes three specific programs developed in Sri Lanka to provide library services to urban and rural poor people. Providing reading material to children to help raise literacy levels is emphasized, resources required for these extension services are examined, and the responsibility for the administration of the projects is considered. (LRW)

  12. Microorganisms in the Coloured Rain of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-02-01

    A variety of pigmented microorganisms have been identified in the red, yellow, blue and black rain that fell over Sri Lanka in December 2012 and January 2013. There is tentative evidence for the presence of similar organisms, including diatoms, in meteorites falling over the same time period. These microorganisms are likely to have served as nuclei for the condensation of rain drops.

  13. Can teachers cross continents? Experiences in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, D. H. H.; Varnam, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    We describe our experience of planning and running a workshop in Sri Lanka to prepare doctors for teaching a postgraduate diploma in general practice. We explore whether British models of education for general practice are applicable in other cultures and put forward a check-list of questions which teachers of general practice who are invited to work abroad should ask themselves. PMID:7328545

  14. The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…

  15. Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

  16. The Geodynamic Evolution Of Sri Lanka: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehelpannala, K.

    2006-12-01

    The high-grade basement of Sri Lanka exposes part of the middle-lower crust and is composed of three distinctly different crustal blocks amalgamated during the assembly of Gondwana in Pan-African. These blocks are known as the Wanni Complex (WC), the Highland Complex (HC) and the Vijayan Complex (VC). The centrally located Palaeoproterozoic HC, which was probably a microcontinent before it became part of Rodinia, is flanked by the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic WC to the west and by the 1100-1000 Ma old, juvenile VC to the east. The available isotopic and geochemical data suggest that the WC seems to have formed as part of a late Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Andean-type magmatic arc, possibly at the outer margin of Rodinia, whereas the VC may represents part of a possible 1100-1000 Ma old island arc that possibly extended to the ~1000 Ma Dronning Maud Land-L¨¹tzow Holm Bay belt of east Antarctica. These three different blocks were amalgamated by two separate collisions, possibly related to some arc accretion around Sri Lanka during the assembly of Gondwana at 610-550 Ma. The first collision occurred between the WC arc and the HC microcontinent and was responsible for D2-D4 deformations and the main granulite facies metamorphism in both these units. Shear sense indicators, such as shear band foliations, ¦Ä-type and ¦Ò-type objects, asymmetric and rotated boudins, sheath folds and asymmetric folds, in the high-grade mylonites found along the contact between the WC and the HC indicate that the former was emplaced from NNW on top of the latter. Almost all the ultrahigh temperature assemblages found in Sri Lanka are located along the boundary between the WC and the HC. The second collision was nearly E-W and brought the amalgamated WC/HC unit into contact with the VC island arc and caused D5 structures in both the WC and HC and all the major ductile structures, upper amphibolite facies metamorphism and migmatization in the VC. The arc accretion by these two

  17. The development of micro-catchments in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udawattage, U. D. S.

    1985-10-01

    This paper gives an informatory account of the development of micro-catchments in Sri Lanka for irrigation. Information for the paper comes from the experience of detailed investigation and preparation of technical proposals for the improvement of 170 existing micro-scale reservoir schemes in the Puttalam and Kurunegala districts, over a period of three years (January, 1982 through December, 1984), under a World Bank-financed project called "Integrated Rural Development (IRD) Project". Investigations were carried out by a private body called Planning Consultancy, a professional staff comprising a team of eight engineers from the Resources Development Consultants Ltd., Sir Lanka, under a contract with the Ministry of Plan Implementation and under the supervision of the Irrigation Department of Sri Lanka and a World Bank-recommended body called Supervisory Consultancy. The writer is a member of the Planning Consultancy team who personally investigated and designed 30 of these schemes.

  18. Mithuri users surveyed in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Sri Lanka completed a survey of Mithuri (oral contraceptive) users to determine consumer characteristics. The survey addressed issues such as purchasing habits, user patterns, dealer consumer relationships, levels of consumer satisfaction and motivation, prevalence of side effects, degree and level of medical consultations, and attitudes toward mass media product advertising. A mail survey was used to conduct this quantitative research to reduce the cost of collecting the data. Mail surveys offer the advantage of being able to reach a large number of respondents at a very reasonable cost, but they also require an accurate list of respondents who are representative of the population to be examined. Of the 681 questionnaires delivered, 442 were completed and returned. The majority of those surveyed (86%) purchased Mithuri at pharmacies that are within 5 miles of their residence. 73.2% of the women asked their husbands to make the purchase, and 67.6% purchased 2 cycles at a time. Most respondents reported experiencing no side effects from Mithuri. The majority of the few who experienced side effects considered them to be very slight. 2.7% of the respondents reported becoming pregnant while using Mithuri, 11 of whom ascribed the pregnancy to their failure to take the pill regularly. Most respondents said that they never missed a day. Husbands or "Western" medical practitioners were most often cited as the motivators to use Mithuri. Of the 82% of the respondents who had read the Mithuri newspaper advertisements, 87% indicated they approved of mass media advertising about contraceptives, primarily because they felt that making such information available was an urgent matter. Although advertisements and package circulars urged 1st time users to consult a physician before using Mithuri, less than half the respondents reported consulting any medical person, nurses, and midwives included. They also reported that the dealer gave no

  19. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  20. The Asian Tsunami and Problem-Based Learning for Postgraduate Students in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayawardana, A. K. L.; O'Donnell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Tsunami struck Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004. Sri Lanka was the second worst affected country after Indonesia, and this natural disaster killed in excess of 35,000 people and displaced over 1 million. The article explores the Tsunami Disaster Management Program developed by one Sri Lankan university: the Postgraduate Institute of…

  1. Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara

  2. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (∼10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the

  3. Description of Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bopage, Malaka M; Wewelwala, Krishan; Krvavac, Milivoje; Jovanovic, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Bogert & Senanayake, 1966) is a relatively abundant toad known from Southern and Southeastern Sri Lanka. It occurs from sea level up to ~200 m above sea level (IUCN 2014). For almost half a century since its original description there was no information on its life cycle; the only information available is related to its description and distribution (Dutta & Manamendra-Arachchi 1996; Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2006). PMID:26249461

  4. Determination of the geoid of central highlands in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, Herath Mudiyanselage Indika; Tantrigoda, Dhammika Ariyakumara

    2009-06-01

    The available geoid undulations on the WGS84 ellipsoid at over two hundred GPS stations are interpolated using a least-squares surface fitting technique to determine the geoid of the central highlands in Sri Lanka. However, it is not possible to interpolate these points directly to prepare a detailed map of the geoid surface as the geoid separation varies intense due to the rugged local topography making the interpolation inaccurate. The gravity potential and subsequently the undulation of the local geoid due to the topography have been calculated separately using a topographic model and removed from the available geoid undulations. This model was created using information obtained from 1:50 000 digital topographic maps provided by the Survey department of Sri Lanka. The resulting geoid separations were interpolated and three surface polynomials were employed to determine the geoid using the least-squares surface fitting technique. To avoid possible artefacts in regions without observations, an area including central highlands was selected to determine the geoid. Finally, the geoid undulations due to the topography were added back to the Bouguer co-geoid represented by three mathematical surfaces to create a detailed map of the geoid of Sri Lanka. A local positive geoid surface superimposing a large negative regional surface has been obtained and the local maximum value of the geoid undulation is about -92.05 m in the vicinity of Piduruthalagala peak.

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN SELECTED AREAS OF SRI LANKA.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, S A S C; Abeyewicreme, W; Dotson, E M; N D Karunaweera

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in Sri Lanka. Studies on vector aspects, although important for better understanding of disease transmission dynamics, are still limited. The present study describes the species distribution and behavioral patterns of sandflies within selected disease-prevalent zones in the country. Adult sandflies were collected from several field sites over a two-year duration in Sri Lanka using cattle-baited net traps, CDC light traps and manual methods. Species identification was performed using standard keys. Leishmania donovani and source of blood meal in blood-fed female sandflies DNA were identified using PCR-based methods. Aggregation period of adult sandflies during overnight collections was also noted. The collected sandflies were identified as Phlebotomus argentipes glaucus (previously known as morphospecies A) and a non-vector species, Sergentomyia zeylanica. Presence of L. donovani DNA was found in 2/634 female sandflies. The parasite ITS1 region of SSU rDNA had 99% sequence similarity with L. donovani from Bangladesh and India. The peak aggregation period of sandflies within cattle-traps was between 8:00 PM to 11:00 PM, indicating that vector control strategies could be conducted during this time period. As Sergentomyia zeylanica is likely to be merely a biting nuisance and showed more of an anthropophilic behavior, whereas the probable vector of CL in Sri Lanka (P. argentipes glaucus) demonstrated zoophilic behavior, has implications for the planning of future vector control strategies. PMID:26867357

  6. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol's role in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally self-harmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15–25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. Ethics and dissemination The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners. PMID:25293385

  7. Delineation of Tsunami Risk Zones for Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The coastal belts of several Indian Ocean countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand suffered massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the great earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1-9.3 in the Andaman-Sunda subduction zone on December 26, 2004. In Sri Lanka, 13 of the 14 administrative districts lying along the coastal belt were affected: the death toll was over 35,000 with 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings either completely or partially damaged leaving half a million people homeless and causing massive disruption to livelihoods. However, it was clear in the immediate aftermath of the tsunami that the degree of damage along the coastal belt of Sri Lanka was not uniform: some areas suffered more damage, some less, and in certain other areas, often not far away, there was no damage at all. This suggests that the level of risk for coastal communities from future events of tsunami exhibits considerable variation even along a short stretch of the shoreline. The high cost and the scarcity of coastal lands in many areas demand an accurate assessment of the tsunami risk rather than arbitrary conservative zonation. Moreover, information relating to the spatial distribution of tsunami risk is essential in formulating post-tsunami coastal land use plans as well as in planning of evacuation of people during tsunami warnings. However, neither comprehensive probabilistic assessments of the tsunami hazard nor detailed information pertaining to the vulnerability of coastal communities are available at present for the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. Consequently, the methodology adopted in the present paper is to use field observations and numerical simulations of the December 2004 tsunami, which may be considered a worst-case scenario, in order to obtain the variation along the coastline of three parameters that quantify the tsunami impact. These three parameters are the tsunami height, the horizontal

  8. Losing Ground: A Critical Analysis of Teachers' Agency for Peacebuilding Education in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.; Hoeks, Celine C. M. Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the "agency" of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between "context"--education policies and governance--and "agent"--teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006 and…

  9. Completed Suicide among Sinhalese in Sri Lanka: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…

  10. The Role of UK Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, J.; Little, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de facto"…

  11. Cultural Revitalization, Participatory Nonformal Education, and Village Development in Sri Lanka: The Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, N.J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reports results of a study of the Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement in Sri Lanka. Sarvodaya is a nonprofit, nongovernment community education-cum-development movement working in nearly 3,000 villages in Sri Lanka. "Sarvodaya" means universal awakening and "Shramadana" means sharing of one's time, energy, and thought for the good of all. (Author)

  12. Equity in Education: Opportunities and Challenges In A Changing Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Equity is a major concern for all development actors. Although Sri Lanka has successfully addressed equity issues in education sector there are unresolved factors and variables those perpetuate inequity. There are emerging new equity issues those that Sri Lanka needs to address. The changing population dynamics and the huge middle class population…

  13. Returns to Education in Sri Lanka: A Pseudo-Panel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himaz, Rozana; Aturupane, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    This study employs a pseudo-panel approach to estimate the returns to education among income earners in Sri Lanka. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from nine repeated cross sections of Sri Lanka's Labor Force Survey data from 1997 to 2008, for workers born during 1953-1974. The results show that for males, one extra year of education increases…

  14. Language Policy, Ethnic Tensions and Linguistic Rights in Post War Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herath, Sreemali

    2015-01-01

    As in many former colonies, language policy and planning in Sri Lanka has been largely shaped by and continues to be overshadowed by its history of colonial rule. Sri Lanka experienced colonization under three different western powers for over four centuries. This situation was further muddied by the three-decades long ethnic-based civil war which…

  15. The Changing Times: General Education and the Vocational Training System in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is widening its scope for vocational education sub-sector. The emerging global trends and the aspirations of the emerging Sri Lanka after defeating terrorism demands the preparation of the graduating youth at different stages of the education system for employment. Vocational education faces many challenges. Though there are…

  16. Ethnic models of fertility behaviour in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Abeykoon, A T

    1987-12-01

    Ethnic differences in fertility behavior confirm that socioeconomic variables exert a strong influence on demographic and family planning variables in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. To explain the effects of ethnicity on fertility behavior, predictive path models were developed for the 4 ethnic groups in Sri Lanka--Sinhalese, Tamils, Moors, and Indian Tamils. The path models used in developing predictive models utilized a series of ordinary least squares regression equations. The data were drawn from the 1982 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Current residence had direct negative effects on education for all 4 ethnic groups, with women in urban areas achieving higher levels of education than those in rural or estate areas; current residence further had a direct positive effect on husband's occupation, with higher socioeconomic status reported for women from urban areas. Age at marriage--the most important determinant of children ever born-- had strong negative effects on fertility for all ethnic groups, but the effect was most marked among Sri Lankan Tamils. Contraceptive knowledge had the same effect on the effectiveness of contraceptive use in all ethnic groups, suggesting that informational campaigns would enhance the decline of fertility in the country as a whole. 47% of the variance in additional children desired was explained by children ever born (negative effect), ideal family size (positive effect), and child mortality (positive effect). 11% of the variance in contraceptive usage was contributed by education (positive effect), children ever born (positive effect), and husband's occupation (negative effect), while 24% of the variance in effectiveness of contraceptive use was explained by additional children wanted (negative effect) and contraceptive knowledge (positive effect). Overall, these findings suggest that socioeconomic assimilation, with consequent higher levels of education, will facilitate more modern behaviors such as later age at

  17. Phosphate fertilizer is a main source of arsenic in areas affected with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasumana, Channa; Fonseka, Saranga; Fernando, Ashvin; Jayalath, Kumudika; Amarasinghe, Mala; Siribaddana, Sisira; Gunatilake, Sarath; Paranagama, Priyani

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has escalated into an epidemic in North Central Province (NCP) and adjacent farming areas in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Studies have shown that this special type of CKD is a toxic nephropathy and arsenic may play a causative role along with a number of other heavy metals. We investigated the hypothesis that chemical fertilizers and pesticide could be a source of arsenic. 226 samples of Fertilizers and 273 samples of pesticides were collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic and other heavy metals in two university laboratories. Almost all the agrochemicals available to the farmers in the study area are contaminated with arsenic. The highest amount was in triple super phosphate (TSP) with a mean value of 31 mg/kg. Also TSP is a rich source of other nephrotoxic metals including Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and V. Annually more than 0.1 million tons of TSP is imported to Sri Lanka containing approximately 2100 kg of arsenic. The next highest concentration was seen in the rock phosphate obtained from an open pit mine in NCP (8.56 mg/kg). Organic fertilizer contained very low amounts of arsenic. Arsenic contamination in pesticides varied from 0.18 mg/kg to 2.53 mg/kg although arsenic containing pesticides are banned in Sri Lanka. Glyphosate the most widely used pesticide in Sri Lanka contains average of 1.9 mg/kg arsenic. Findings suggest that agrochemicals especially phosphate fertilizers are a major source of inorganic arsenic in CKDu endemic areas. Organic fertilizer available in Sri Lanka is comparatively very low in arsenic and hence the farmers in CKDu endemic areas in Sri Lanka should be encouraged to minimize the use of imported chemical fertilizer and use organic fertilizers instead. PMID:25763302

  18. Viper bites complicate chronic agrochemical nephropathy in rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Snakebite is a common occupational health hazard among Sri Lankan agricultural workers, particularly in the North Central Province. Viperine snakes, mainly Russell’s viper envenomation, frequently lead to acute renal failure. During the last two decades, an agrochemical nephropathy, a chronic tubulointerstitial disease has rapidly spread over this area leading to high morbidity and mortality. Most of the epidemiological characteristics of these two conditions overlap, increasing the chances of co-occurrence. Herein, we describe four representative cases of viperine snakebites leading to variable clinical presentations, in patients with chronic agrochemical nephropathy, including two patients presented with acute and delayed anuria. These cases suggest the possibility of unusual manifestations of snakebite in patients with Sri Lankan agrochemical nephropathy, of which the clinicians should be aware. It could be postulated that the existing scenario in the Central America could also lead to similar clinical presentations. PMID:25136354

  19. Determinants of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is becoming a major public health threat in Sri Lanka as well as in other countries. We designed a case control study to determine the factors associated with local transmission of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka, in order to identify major modifiable determinants of leptospirosis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study protocol in detail prior to the publishing of the study results, so that the readership will be able to understand and interpret the study results effectively. Methods A hospital based partially matched case control design is proposed. The study will be conducted in three selected leptospirosis endemic districts in central Sri Lanka. Case selection will include screening all acute fever patients admitted to selected wards to select probable cases of leptospirosis and case confirmation using an array of standard laboratory criteria. Age and sex matched group of acute fever patients with other confirmed diagnosis will be used as controls. Case to control ratio will be 1:2. A minimum sample of 144 cases is required to detect 20% exposure with 95% two sided confidence level and 80% power. A pre tested interviewer administered structured questionnaire will be used to collect data from participants. Variables included in the proposed study will be evaluated using conceptual hierarch of variables in three levels; Exposure variables as proximal; reservoir and environmental variables as intermediate; socio-demographic variables as distal. This conceptual hierarch hypothesised that the distal and intermediate variables are mediated through the proximal variables but not directly. A logistic regression model will be used to analyse the probable determinants of leptospirosis. This model will evaluate the effect of same level and upper level variables on the outcome leptospirosis, using three blocks. Discussion The present national control programme of leptospirosis is hampered by lack of baseline data on leptospirosis disease

  20. Occurrence of toxigenic cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayatissa, L P; Silva, E I L; McElhiney, J; Lawton, L A

    2006-03-01

    A previous pioneering study of freshwater bodies in Sri Lanka revealed the presence of toxic cyanobacteria in three out of four water bodies tested. It was therefore important to perform a more detailed investigation into the presence of cyanobacteria and their toxins throughout Sri Lanka. The country has a long history of well-planned water management with the agricultural economy and drinking water supply still dependent on thousands of man-made tanks. Seventeen reservoirs from different user categories and different climatic zones were selected to study variations in phytoplankton communities with relation to major nutrients, with particular emphasis on cyanobacteria. The study was carried out during a two-year period and heavy growths or blooms of cyanobacteria observed during the study period were tested for microcystins. The results clearly categorised the 17 reservoirs into four groups parallel to the classification based on the user categories of water bodies. Biomass of total phytoplankton, the abundance of cyanobacteria, the dominance of Microcystis spp. and concentration of nitrate (N) and total phosphorous (P) were the lowest in drinking water bodies and the highest in aesthetic water bodies. Irrigation water bodies showed the second lowest values for phytoplankton biomass, and concentration of N and P, while hydropower reservoirs showed the second highest values for the same parameters. The fraction of cyanobacteria in irrigation waters was higher than that in hydropower reservoirs, but surprisingly the dominance of Microcystis spp. was reversed. Possible reasons for these variations are discussed. More than half of the bloom material tested contained microcystins up to 81microgl(-1). Our findings indicate the potential for high-risk situations due to toxigenic cyanobacterial blooms in susceptible freshwaters of Sri Lanka. PMID:16464697

  1. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  2. Ayurveda, malaria and the indigenous herbal tradition in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, K T

    1991-01-01

    Using key informants and available records, the way in which inhabitants of purana villages in Nuwarakalaviya, Sri Lanka coped with malaria during the pre-DDT era is examined. This study found that the Nuwarakalaviya peasants responded to endemic malaria through a localized herbal tradition, which was to some extent independent of the scholarly ayurveda system common to the whole of South Asia. The relevant herbal tradition, consisting of a combination of antiparasite and antivector strategies using locally available natural resources, represented an effective adaptation to the local ecosystem. PMID:1887278

  3. Indian Ocean, Maldive Islands, India, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This scene shows a fantastic view of the Indian Ocean with oblique views of the southern portion of India, Palk Strait and Sri Lanka (1.5N, 77.5E). The bottom portion of the photo shows the complete chain of the Maldive Islands. This is a rare detailed view of the atolls that form the Maldives. The dusty atmosphere over India is clearly visible as it extends towards the Bay of Bengal but the atmosphere over the Maldives appears to be clear at this time.

  4. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

    2008-06-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal

  5. Escalating chronic kidney diseases of multi-factorial origin in Sri Lanka: causes, solutions, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2014-11-01

    During the last two decades, Sri Lanka, located close to the equator, has experienced an escalating incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown aetiology (CKDue) in dry zonal areas. Similar incidences of unusual CKDs have been reported in the dry zonal, agricultural areas of several other equatorial countries. In Sri Lanka, the incidence of CKDue is highest in the North Central Province (NCP), where approximately 45 % of the country's paddy fields are located. However, in recent years, the disease has spread into areas adjacent to as well as distant from the NCP. The cause of CKD in Sri Lanka is unknown, and may likely due to interactions of different potential agents; thus, CKD is of multi-factorial origin (CKD-mfo). These factors include, the negative effects from overuse of agrochemicals. Nevertheless, the potential interactions and synergism between probable agents have not been studied. This systematic review discusses the proposed hypotheses and causes of CKD-mfo in Sri Lanka, and ways to decrease the incidence of this disease and to eradicate it, and provide some recommendations. During the past decade, a number of groups have investigated this disorder using different methodologies and reported various correlations, but failed to find a cause. Research has focussed on the contamination of water with heavy metals, agrochemicals, hard water, algae, ionicity, climate change, and so forth. Nevertheless, the levels of any of the pollutants or conditions reported in water in NPC are inconsistent not correlated with the prevalence of the disease, and are too low to be the sole cause of CKD-mfo. Meanwhile, several nephrotoxins prevalent in the region, including medications, leptospirosis, toxic herbs, illicit alcohol, locally grown tobacco, and petrochemicals, as well as the effects of changed habits occured over the past four decades have not been studied to date. Taken together, the geographical distribution and overall findings indicate that

  6. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: is cadmium a likely cause?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and subsequent end stage renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy has profound consequences for affected individuals and health care resources. This community based study was conducted to identify potential predictors of microalbuminuria in a randomly selected sample of adults from the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, where the burden of CKD is pronounced and the underlying cause still unknown. Methods Exposures to possible risk factors were determined in randomly recruited subjects (425 females and 461 males) from selected areas of the NCP of Sri Lanka using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Sulphosalicylic acid and the Light Dependent Resister microalbumin gel filtration method was used for initial screening for microalbuminuria and reconfirmed by the Micral strip test. Results Microalbumnuria was detected in 6.1% of the females and 8.5% of the males. Smoking (p < 0.001), alcohol use (p = 0.003), hypertension (p < 0.001), diabetes (p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (UTI) (p = 0.034) and consumption of water from wells in the fields (p = 0.025) were associated with microalbuminuria. In the binary logistic regression analysis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, drinking well water in the fields, smoking and pesticide spraying were found to be significant predictors of microalbuminuria. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, UTI, and smoking are known risk factors for microalbuminuria. The association between microalbuminuria and consumption of well water suggests an environmental aetiology to CKD in NCP. The causative agent is yet to be identified. Investigations for cadmium as a potential causative agent needs to be initiated. PMID:21726464

  7. A feasibility study for the establishment of a national wildlife health centre in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Valeix, S; Lokugalappatti, L G S; Abeynayake, P; Prasad, T; Chandrasiri, A D N; Daniel, S L A; Stephen, C; Leighton, F A

    2011-12-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical nation within a zoogeographic zone that is at high risk for infectious disease emergence. In 2010, a study was conducted on the feasibility of enhancing capacity in Sri Lanka to manage wildlife diseases through the establishment of a national wildlife health centre. The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre was assessed as a potential model for adaptation in Sri Lanka. Interviews and group meetings were conducted with potential key participants from the Sri Lankan Departments of Wildlife Conservation and Animal Production and Health, and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of Peradeniya. In addition, site visits were made to potentially participating facilities and the literature on best practices in building scientific capacity was consulted. With strategic enhancements in education and training, additional personnel, improvements in transportation and diagnostic facilities, and central coordination, Sri Lanka appears very well positioned to establish a sustainable wildlife health centre and programme. PMID:22435187

  8. Intimate partner violence in Sri Lanka: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Guruge, S; Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, V; Gunawardena, N; Perera, J

    2015-12-01

    South Asia is considered to have a high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Therefore the World Health Organisation has called for context-specific information about IPV from different regions. A scoping review of published and gray literature over the last 35 years was conducted using Arksey and O'Malley's framework. Reported prevalence of IPV in Sri Lanka ranged from 20-72%, with recent reports of rates ranging from 25- 35%. Most research about IPV has been conducted in a few provinces and is based on the experience of legally married women. Individual, family, and societal risk factors for IPV have been studied, but their complex relationships have not been comprehensively investigated. Health consequences of IPV have been reported, with particular attention to physical health, but women are likely to underreport sexual violence. Women seek support mainly from informal networks, with only a few visiting agencies to obtain help. Little research has focused on health sector responses to IPV and their effectiveness. More research is needed on how to challenge gendered perceptions about IPV. Researchers should capture the experience of women in dating/cohabiting relationships and women in vulnerable sectors (post-conflict areas and rural areas), and assess how to effectively provide services to them. A critical evaluation of existing services and programmes is also needed to advance evidence informed programme and policy changes in Sri Lanka. PMID:26778392

  9. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C.; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:27178645

  10. Surveillance for antibodies to Leishmania spp. in dogs from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, A C; Tripp, S; Kinlaw, C; Hailemariam, S; Tidwell, R R; Lindsay, D S; Rajapakse, R P V J; Sreekumar, C; Dubey, J P

    2010-02-01

    The global distribution of leishmaniasis is rapidly expanding into new geographic regions. Dogs are the primary reservoir hosts for human visceral leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania infantum. Natural infections with other Leishmania spp. can occur in dogs, but their role as reservoir hosts for other species of Leishmania is uncertain. Leishmania donovani is traditionally considered a visceralizing anthroponotic species; however, cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani has been reported in Sri Lanka. In the present study, sera from 114 dogs in Sri Lanka were examined for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. Sera were tested by the canine immunochromatographic strip assays based on recombinant K39 antigen. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detectable in 1 of 114 (0.9%) dogs from Sri Lanka. Nonetheless, serological evidence suggests that leishmaniasis may be an emerging zoonosis in Sri Lanka. PMID:19803542

  11. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Duminda

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment. PMID:26085764

  12. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Duminda

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment. PMID:26085764

  13. Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.

    2005-12-01

    Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income

  14. Coral poaching worsens tsunami destruction in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, H. J. S.; McCulley, J. L.; Mendis, S. G.; Perera, K.

    Observations of the trail of destruction of the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 indicate remarkable, small-scale spatial variations, of the order of a few kilometers, of water inundation and destruction in southwestern Sri Lanka [Shiermeier, 2005; Liu et al., 2005] that are much smaller than the tsunami wavelength of ˜100 km.For example, the town of Peraliya, was awash with an approximately 1.5-km water inundation from a wave of 10 m in height; the inundation there carried the passenger train Samudra Devi (the “Ocean Queen”) inland some 50 m, killing 1700 people. Yet,˜3 km south, in Hikkaduwa, there was a mere 2-3 m wave height, 50-m inundation and no deaths.

  15. Biological response of the sea around Sri Lanka to summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayachandran, P. N.; Chauhan, P.; Mohan, M.; Nayak, S.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorophyll-a concentration (chl a) maps derived from the Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) on board Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-P4) and Seaviewing Wide field of View sensor (SeaWiFS) show increased chl a in the waters around Sri Lanka during summer monsoon. Physical processes that can lead to the phytoplankton bloom are investigated using upper ocean temperature profiles and satellite derived winds, sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level anomalies (SLA). There is a chl a bloom attached to the southern coast of Sri Lanka accompanied by cool SST, low SLA and upsloping of isotherms towards the coast. Coastal upwelling driven by monsoon winds is identified as the physical mechanism causing nutrient enrichment in the surface layer. The Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) which flows eastward south of Sri Lanka and then into the Bay of Bengal advects the upwelled water eastward along its path. The chl a rich waters from the Indian coast also advects along with the SMC towards Sri Lanka. East of Sri Lanka the open ocean upwelling associated with the Sri Lanka Dome is also found to be an important process that upwell nutrients.

  16. Supporting elephant conservation in Sri Lanka through MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Kithsiri; Tateishi, Ryutaro

    2012-10-01

    The latest national elephant survey of Sri Lanka (2011) revealed Sri Lanka has 5,879 elephants. The total forest cover for these elephants is about 19,500 sq km (2012 estimation) and estimated forest area is about 30% of the country when smaller green patches are also counted. However, studies have pointed out that a herd of elephants need about a 100 sq km of forest patch to survive. With a high human population density (332 people per sq km, 2010), the pressure for land to feed people and elephants is becoming critical. Resent reports have indicated about 250 elephants are killed annually by farmers and dozens of people are also killed by elephants. Under this context, researchers are investigating various methods to assess the elephant movements to address the issues of Human-Elephant-Conflict (HEC). Apart from various local remedies for the issue, the conservation of elephant population can be supported by satellite imagery based studies. MODIS sensor imagery can be considered as a successful candidate here. Its spatial resolution is low (250m x 250m) but automatically filters out small forest patches in the mapping process. The daily imagery helps to monitor temporal forest cover changes. This study investigated the background information of HEC and used MODIS 250m imagery to suggest applicability of satellite data for Elephant conservations efforts. The elephant movement information was gathered from local authorities and potentials to identify bio-corridors were discussed. Under future research steps, regular forest cover monitoring through MODIS data was emphasized as a valuable tool in elephant conservations efforts.

  17. Historical Evolution and Present Status of Family Medicine in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ramanayake, R. P. J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Sri Lankan health system consists of Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and several other systems of medicine and allopathic medicine is catering to the majority of the health needs of the people. As in many other countries, Sri Lankan health system consists of both the state and the private sector General practitioners, MOs in OPDs of hospitals and MOs of central dispensaries, provide primary medical care in Sri Lanka. Most of the general practices are solo practices. One does not need postgraduate qualification or training in general practice to start a general practice. There is no registered population for any particular health care institution in the state sector or in the private sector and there is no strict referral procedure from primary care to secondary or tertiary care. Family doctors have been practicing in Sri Lanka for well over 150 years. The first national organization of general practitioners was Independent Medical Practitioner (IMPA)'s organization which was founded in 1929 and the College of General Practitioners of Sri Lanka was founded in 1974. College conducts its own Membership Course and Examination (MCGP) since 1999. Family Medicine was introduced to undergraduate curriculum in Sri Lanka in early 1980s and now almost all the medical faculties in the country have included Family Medicine in their curricula. In 1979, General Practice/Family Medicine was recognized as a specialty in Sri Lanka by the postgraduate institute of Medicine. Diploma in Family Medicine (DFM) and MD Family Medicine are the pathways for postgraduate training in Sri Lanka. At present 50 to 60 doctors enroll for DFM every year and the country has about 20 specialists (with MD) in Family Medicine. The author's vision for the future is that all the primary care doctors to have a postgraduate qualification in Family Medicine either DFM, MD, or MCGP which is a far cry from the present status. PMID:24479065

  18. E-waste issues in Sri Lanka and the Basel Convention.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Inoka

    2016-03-01

    E-waste is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. The management of e-waste is considered a serious challenge in both developed and developing countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Due to significant growth in the economy and investments and other reasons the consumption of electronic and electrical equipment in Sri Lanka has increased over the years resulting in significant generation of e-waste. Several initiatives such as introduction of hazardous waste management rules, ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992 and the introduction of a National Corporate E-waste Management Program have been undertaken in Sri Lanka to manage e-waste. Strengthening policy and legislation, introducing methods for upstream reduction of e-waste, building capacity of relevant officers, awareness raising among school children and the general public and development of an e-waste information system are vital. Research on e-waste needs to be developed in Sri Lanka. The health sector could play a leading role in the provision of occupational health and safety for e-waste workers, advocacy, capacity building of relevant staff and raising awareness among the general public about e-waste. Improper e-waste management practices carried out by informal sector workers need to be addressed urgently in Sri Lanka. PMID:26943598

  19. 77 FR 69592 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Sri Lanka (Colombo) February 3-8, 2013, published at 77 FR 48499, August 14, 2012 to revise the... Mission to Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka on February 3-8, 2013, published at 77 FR 48499, August 14, 2012, as previously amended by notice at 77 FR 59899 (Oct. 1, 2012)...

  20. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face. PMID:12321536

  1. Molecular characterisation and disease severity of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Kanchana Kumari; Weerasekera, Manjula; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Ranasinghe, Nilantha; Marasinghe, Chamil; Fernando, Neluka

    2015-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible that several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure. PMID:26061234

  2. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. PMID:25689145

  3. Managing shallow aquifers in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sood, Aditya; Manthrithilake, Herath; Siddiqui, Salman; Rajah, Ameer; Pathmarajah, S

    2015-07-01

    This study looks at the groundwater issues in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and shows how the use of remote sensing with high-resolution images can help in groundwater management. A new approach is developed for automatic extraction of the location of agro-wells using high-spatial-resolution satellite imageries. As an example, three pilot sites in three different aquifer systems in the country are considered, and their high-resolution images are analyzed over two temporal time periods. The analysis suggests that the well density in all three regions has increased over the last few years, indicating higher levels of groundwater extraction. Using the well inventory developed by this new approach, the water budgeting was prepared for the mainland of Jaffna Peninsula. The analysis shows a wide variation in well density in the Jaffna Peninsula, ranging from (as little as) less than 15 wells per square kilometer to (as high as) more than 200 wells per square kilometer. Calculations made for the maximum allowable water extraction in each administrative division of Jaffna show that less than 3 h of daily extraction per well is possible in some districts. This points to an increasing pressure on groundwater resources in the region and thus highlights the importance of understanding groundwater budgets for sustainable development of the aquifers. PMID:26041062

  4. Molecular characterisation and disease severity of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Bandara, Kanchana Kumari; Weerasekera, Manjula; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Ranasinghe, Nilantha; Marasinghe, Chamil; Fernando, Neluka

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease all over the world, important in tropical and subtropical areas. A majority of leptospirosis infected patients present as subclinical or mild disease while 5-10% may develop severe infection requiring hospitalisation and critical care. It is possible that several factors, such as the infecting serovar, level of leptospiraemia, host genetic factors and host immune response, may be important in predisposition towards severe disease. Different Leptospira strains circulate in different geographical regions contributing to variable disease severity. Therefore, it is important to investigate the circulating strains at geographical locations during each outbreak for epidemiological studies and to support the clinical management of the patients. In this study immunochromatography, microscopic agglutination test and polymerase chain reaction were used to diagnose leptospirosis. Further restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to identify the circulating strains in two selected geographical regions of Sri Lanka. Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri strains were identified to be circulating in western and southern provinces. L. interrogans was the predominant species circulating in western and southern provinces in 2013 and its presence was mainly associated with renal failure. PMID:26061234

  5. A modern terrestrial phosphorite-an example from Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahanayake, Kapila; Subasinghe, S. M. N. D.

    1989-02-01

    At Eppawala in Central Sri Lanka, a thick weathering profile is mined for use as phosphate fertilizer. Recent tropical subaerial weathering processes have produced a phosphate-enriched horizon in the weathering profile which has developed on a Precambrian apatite marble formation. The enriched horizon with P 2O 5 compositions ranging from 10 to 40% is formed essentially of laminar phoscretes occurring in a network of sinkholes. Detailed examination of the laminar phoscretes reveals that primary metamorphic apatite crystals occur in association with phosphatic allochems such as coated grains, ooids, pisoids and intraclasts in a finely layered groundmass. It has been observed that the primary apatite grains released from the parent apatite marble due to tropical weathering processes have been deposited in sinkholes where nutrient-rich percolating meteoric waters were precipitating secondary apatite. Subsequent diagenetic processes active in such sinkhole sedimentary environments have produced the phosphatic allochems characteristic of secondary phosphate mineralization. The allochems together with their mineralized groundmass and the associated primary apatite grains have given rise to the Eppawala phosphorite deposit.

  6. Problems of Illiteracy in a Literate Developing Society: Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardena, Chandra

    1997-09-01

    With 87.0% of its population literate, Sri Lanka occupies a high ranking position among South and South-East Asian nations in educational development. The high percentage of literacy achieved through progressive measures in education spanning half a century, however, has led to a state of complacency and less priority being given to efforts at eradicating illiteracy. This paper will focus on a recent study conducted on the incidence of illiteracy in specific disadvantaged communities in the country which indicated that in the present era of technological advancement, lack of literacy will continue to affect the life-chances of people in these communities where the rate of literacy remains much lower than the national average. The study investigates into the factors associated with illiteracy, and the attitudes and perceptions of the communities themselves towards literacy programmes and regarding the modalities and strategies of providing literacy. The implications of the study and the final recommendations drawn up in consultation with the policy makers at national and provincial levels in governmental and non-governmental sectors are also discussed in the paper.

  7. USE OF AND ATTITUDES TOWARD TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL AMONG ADULTS IN SOUTHERN SRI LANKA

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Østbye, Truls

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and drinking frequently relate to social and image-based motivators. Women may be especially susceptible to the influence of peer pressure in social situations. Public health efforts should consider the use of demographic-specific anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol messages, as the motivators driving behavior appear to differ across gender and age groups. PMID:24437324

  8. Leishmania donovani causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a wolf in sheep's clothing?

    PubMed

    Karunaweera, Nadira D

    2009-10-01

    Research involving leishmaniasis, a newly established disease in Sri Lanka, has focused mostly on parasitological and clinical factors, with inadequate understanding of other aspects, including its epidemiology and vector. The escalation in the spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases within Sri Lanka and the close resemblance (genotypic and phenotypic) between the local parasite Leishmania donovani MON-37 and the parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis in India (L. donovani MON-2), underscored by the more recent case reports of autochthonous cases of visceral and mucocutaneous-like disease, are clear warnings to the health authorities, scientists and policy makers. An effective control strategy is needed to contain further spread of cutaneous disease and avert a more-virulent form of leishmaniasis becoming endemic in Sri Lanka. PMID:19734098

  9. Use of and attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol among adults in southern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Ostbye, Truls

    2013-09-01

    The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and drinking frequently relate to social and image-based motivators. Women may be especially susceptible to the influence of peer pressure in social situations. Public health efforts should consider the use of demographic-specific anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol messages, as the motivators driving behavior appear to differ across gender and age groups. PMID:24437324

  10. The assistant medical officer in Sri Lanka: mid-level health worker in decline.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Vijitha; Strand de Oliveira, Justine; Liyanage, Mahinda; Østbye, Truls

    2013-09-01

    The history of Assistant Medical Officers (AMOs) in Sri Lanka can be traced back to the 1860s. Their training from the beginning followed an allopathic, 'evidence based' model. AMOs have played a key role in rural and peripheral health care, through staffing of government central dispensaries and maternity homes and may have contributed to Sri Lanka's favorable health outcomes. While there are currently approximately 2000 AMOs, their training course was discontinued in 1995. It was argued that the quality of care provided by the AMOs is substandard relative to that of physicians. The success, rapid expansion and integration of physician assistant programs into the US health care system have recently spurred other countries to introduce similar programs. This paper reviews Sri Lanka's move in the opposite direction, phasing out the AMO profession, without any research into their contributions to access to interprofessional primary health care and positive health outcomes. PMID:23659623

  11. Preventing ragging: outcome of an integrated programme in a medical faculty in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lekamwasam, Sarath; Rodrigo, Mahinda; Wickramathilake, Madhu; Wijesinghe, Champa; Wijerathne, Gaya; Silva, Aruna De; Napagoda, Mayuri; Attanayake, Anoja; Perera, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    Ragging is prevalent in higher educational institutes in Sri Lanka and the deaths of some new entrants in the past have been directly linked to physical and emotional torture caused by cruel acts of ragging. Although there are general anti-ragging rules in place, the effectiveness of these measures is unknown. We developed an action plan to prevent ragging by integrating the views of the major stakeholders, implemented the plan and assessed its success. This article highlights the action plan and its success in a medical faculty in southern Sri Lanka. PMID:26322639

  12. Molecular characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in Lake Gregory, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika; Wanigatunge, Rasika; Liyanage, Madhushankha

    2011-07-01

    Eutrophication or the process of nutrient enrichment of stagnant waters due to excessive use of fertilizer is becoming a critical issue worldwide. Lake Gregory, an artificial lake situated in Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka was once a very attractive landscape feature and recreational area attracting a large number of visitors. Rapid urbanization in surrounding areas and the consequent intensification of agricultural and industrial activities led to eutrophication and siltation in the lake. Present study was conducted to detect cyanobacterial diversity and their ability to produce hepatotoxic microcystins using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Twenty five water samples (surface and bottom) were collected from the lake and total nitrogen and total carbon were estimated. Cyanobacterial cultures were grown in appropriate media and microscopic observations were used to determine the morphological diversity of cyanobacteria isolated from different sites. Genomic DNA was isolated and purified from cyanobacteria using Boom's method. DNA samples were analyzed by PCR with oligonucleotide primers for 16S rRNA gene and mcyA gene of the operon that encodes a microcystin synthetase. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the presences of cyanobacteria belong to Synechococcus sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Calothrix sp., Leptolyngbya sp., Limnothrix sp., order Oscillatoriales and order Chroococcales. The sequences obtained from this study were deposited in the database under the accession numbers (GenBank: GU368104-GU368116). PCR amplification of mcyA primers indicated the potential for toxin formation of isolated M. aeruginosa from Lake Gregory. This preliminary study shows that the Lake Gregory is under the potential risk of cyanobacterial toxicity. Clearly more work is needed to extend this finding and clarify if other cyanobacterial isolates have genetic potential to produce microcystin since this lake is utilized for recreational activities.

  13. Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Thilakaratne, I D S I P; Rajapaksha, G; Hewakopara, A; Rajapakse, R P V J; Faizal, A C M

    2003-03-31

    A total of 1520 ornamental fish of 13 species from 26 export farms in Sri Lanka were collected between October 1999 and March 2000 and examined for parasites. Fish species examined were guppy Poecilia reticulata, goldfish Carassius auratus, platy Xiphophorus maculatus, molly Poecilia sphenops, angel Pterophyllum scalare, swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, tetras Hyphessobrycon species, barbs Capeota and Puntius spp., gourami Colisa sp., carp Cyprinus carpio, fighters Betta spelendens and others (Brachydanio and Astronotus spp.). Nine species of monogenean trematodes (Dactylogyrus extensus, Dactylogyrus cf. extensus, D. vastator, Dactylogyrus cf. vastator Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus turnbulli, G. katherineri, Gyrodactylus cf. katherineri, Gyrodactylus spp.), 7 protozoan species (Trichodina nigra, Trichodina spp., Tetrahymena corlissi, T. pyriformis, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Ichthyobodo necator, Piscinoodinium spp.), 3 species of copepod arthropods (Lernaea cyprinacea, Ergasilus ceylonensis, Argulus foliaceus), 1 metacercarial stage of a digenean trematode (Centrocestus spp.) and 1 nematode (Capillaria spp.) were identified. Parasites were found in fish from 23 of the 26 farms with an overall prevalence of parasitism in 45.3% of fish. The variation in farm prevalence among different parasites was significant (p < 0.01). Fish infection rates with monogenean trematodes, protozoans, copepod crustaceans, digenean trematodes and nematodes were 28.3, 18.4, 4.8, 0.8 and 0.4%, respectively. In all, 50 out of 590 (50/590) guppies were infected with Tetrahymena, compared with 13/930 for all other species, which is a statistically significant result (p < 0.01). Similarly, 13/44 and 18/44 carp were infected with Argulus foliaceus and Lernaea cyprinacea, compared with 7/1476 and 15/1476, respectively, for all other species combined (p < 0.01). Capillaria spp. was found only in guppies (4/590) and angel fish (3/92) while Centrocestus spp. was found in goldfish (12/153) only

  14. Differences in selected lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease between Sri Lankans in Oslo, Norway, and in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Meyer, Haakon E

    2015-03-01

    Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between 1145 Sri Lankans living in Oslo and 678 Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower. Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy. PMID:23666830

  15. Incorporating environmental concerns into power sector decision-making: A case study of Sri Lanka. World Bank Environment Paper 6

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.; Munasinghe, M.; Team, S.L.S.

    1994-04-01

    Weighs Sri Lanka`s options for addressing environmental concerns during the planning stages of energy policymaking. Here is a holistic approach to analyzing the environmental impact of various power systems. Unlike standard impact studies that begin at the project level, this method calls for environmental assessments that start at the planning stage of a national framework for energy policymaking. The framework would take into account the energy needs of Sri Lanka`s total economy. It also would make it easier to incorporate environmental goals into power sector decisionmaking at the critical investment stage. Sri Lanka`s development options for the power sector are reviewed in detail. Topics include alternative ways to assess the economic value of a power plant`s impact on biodiversity, human health, and air and water pollution. The study also assesses which energy planning options work best and recommends ways in which the Ceylon Electricity Board can improve its environmental policies.

  16. A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs were obtained from a series of patients admitted to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka with a history of acute paracetamol overdose. Evidence on effectiveness was obtained from a systematic review of the literature. Death due to hepatotoxicity was used as the primary outcome of interest. Analysis and development of decision tree models was done using Tree Age Pro 2008. Results An affordable treatment threshold of Sri Lankan rupees 1,537,120/death prevented was set from the expected years of productive life gained and the average contribution to GDP. A cost-minimisation analysis was appropriate for patients presenting within 10 hours and methionine was the least costly antidote. For patients presenting 10-24 hours after poisoning, n-acetylcysteine was more effective and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio of Sri Lankan rupees 316,182/life saved was well under the threshold. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analysis also supported methionine for patients treated within 10 hours and n-acetylcysteine for patients treated within 10-24 hours as preferred antidotes. Conclusions Post ingestion time is an important determinant of preferred antidotal therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka. Using n-acetylcysteine in all patients is not cost effective. On economic grounds, methionine should become the preferred antidote for Sri Lankan patients treated within 10 hours of the acute ingestion and n-acetylcysteine should continue to be given to patients treated

  17. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  18. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  19. Mass Communication in Sri Lanka: An Annotated Bibliography. Asian Mass Communication Bibliography Series 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goonetileke, H. A. I., Comp.; And Others

    Published and unpublished materials dealing with the multidisciplinary field of mass communication in Sri Lanka are listed in this bibliography. The 362 entries are grouped into 20 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory and research methods; general communication; media development and characteristics; newspapers;…

  20. Maternal employment and income affect dietary calorie adequacy in households in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Ishara M; Weerahewa, Jeevika

    2005-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies among children and mothers in lower-income households in Sri Lanka continue to be a major obstacle to the country's social and economic development. This study investigates the factors affecting dietary caloric adequacy in Sri Lanka, paying special attention to maternal income. An econometric analysis was performed using a household data set collected from a sample of 183 low-income households in the urban, rural, and estate sectors. The results showed that on average, mothers and children in the sample did not consume adequate levels of calories according to the recommendations of the Medical Research Institute of Sri Lanka. The mother's income and educational status, the number of children and adults in the family, and the ages, sexes, and birth orders of the children significantly influenced household and individual caloric adequacy. Specifically, the mother's income had a significant positive effect on the total caloric intake (CI) and caloric adequacy ratio (CAR) of the household, mother, and children and a significant negative effect on the relative caloric allocation (RCA) of the children. The results imply that when maternal employment generates extra income, the CIs of all individuals increase, yet the allocation of calories to the children of the household is reduced. Thus, provision of employment opportunities for mothers, along with adequate child-care facilities and nutritional educational programs, is a possible strategy to improve caloric adequacy among low-income households in Sri Lanka. PMID:16060223

  1. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from Sri Lanka and genetic characterization of the parasite isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 86 unwanted dogs obtained in two batches (36 in batch 1, 50 in batch 2) from Sri Lanka was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 58 (67.4%) of 86 dogs with titers of 1:20 in seven, 1:40 in four, ...

  2. Speaking Conflict: Ideological Barriers to Bilingual Policy Implementation in Civil War Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christina P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…

  3. Mathematics Performance and Principal Effectiveness: A Case Study of Some Coastal Primary Schools in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study is situated in the school effectiveness research paradigm to examine the correlation between the effectiveness of urban, primary school principals and their students' performance in mathematics. Nine, urban, primary schools from Negombo, a coastal fishing area in Sri Lanka, were selected; their student achievements…

  4. Deployable laboratory response to emergence of melioidosis in central Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Timothy J J; Merritt, Adam; Montgomery, Joanne; Jayasinghe, Indika; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; McInnes, Russell

    2008-10-01

    A portable molecular diagnostic laboratory was used to provide molecular confirmation of suspected melioidosis cases seen at Peradeniya Hospital, central Sri Lanka. Soil supernatants from rice field and rubber plantation samples also produced PCR-positive results. These procedures could be used for melioidosis field work in other remote locations. PMID:18716231

  5. Women and Management in Higher Education. CHESS Workshop (Colombo, Sri Lanka, January 5-11, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka).

    The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) 1997 Workshop was designed to promote the professional development of women in leadership positions in higher education. Participants were drawn from senior university academics and administrators from five countries: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Specific objectives…

  6. Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Punzel, Michael; Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Caglayik, Dilek Yagci; Menemenlioglu, Dilek; Bozdag, Sinem Civriz; Tekgündüz, Emre; Altuntaş, Fevzi; Campos, Renata de Mendonca; Burde, Bernd; Günther, Stephan; Tappe, Dennis; Cadar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Three days after donation of peripheral blood stem cells to a recipient with acute myeloblastic leukemia, dengue virus was detected in the donor, who had recently traveled to Sri Lanka. Transmission to the recipient, who died 9 days after transplant, was confirmed. PMID:25062084

  7. Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

  8. Grassroots Empowerment of Women: Portraits of Four Villages in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeris, Laurel; Gajanayake, Jaya; Ismail, Jesima; Ebert, Seela; Peris, Amara; Wanasundara, Leelangi; Diyadawagamage, Nalika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a participatory research (PR) project encompassing a capacity-development programme and advocacy skill-building initiative for rural women. The project actively engaged four prominent women's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Sri Lanka: Agromart Foundation, Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR), Sarvodaya Women's…

  9. Distribution and ecological aspects of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ozbel, Yusuf; Sanjoba, Chizu; Alten, Bulent; Asada, Masahito; Depaquit, Jerome; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Demir, Samiye; Siyambalagoda, R R M L R; Rajapakse, R P V J; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu

    2011-03-01

    Human indigenous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani complex is endemic in Sri Lanka. We performed an entomological survey to determine the distribution of probable vector species. Sand flies were collected in districts in the dry zone, in the wet zone highlands, and in the wet zone coastal belt of Sri Lanka using CDC light traps, sticky traps and cattle-baited net traps during July, 2005. The survey was reconducted in February, 2006. Overall, 584 sand flies belonging to Phlebotomus (266 specimens, 2 species) and Sergentomyia (318 specimens, 8 species) genera were collected. A total of 266 Phlebotomus was identified as P. argentipes (258/266; 97%) and P. stantoni (8/266; 3%) . The identification studies of Sergentomyia specimens showed that there are at least 8 species in Sri Lanka. Higher number of Phlebotomus sand flies (76/266) were caught in the southern part of the country compared to the other parts probably due to different ecological aspects. P. argentipes were widely distributed throughout the island whereas P. stantoni were collected only in four districts. Since P. argentipes is known to be the vector of L. donovani responsible of visceral leishmaniasis in India, this species may be incriminated as the most possible vector of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. PMID:21366784

  10. Education Participation in Sri Lanka--Why All Are Not in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunatilake, Nisha

    2006-01-01

    Despite Sri Lanka's 1990 commitment to provide 10-11 years of free education to all, only 93% of children in the 5-14-year-old age group were in school by the year 2000. Moreover, the education participation rates are not equitable across the country, varying by socio-economic groups. This paper examines the determinants of school…

  11. Financing and Educational Policy in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Financing Educational Systems: Country Case Studies-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallak, Jacques

    The retrospective case study presented is part of a research project undertaken to determine ways in which developing nations can best allocate resources to education in light of their social and economic levels. Past socioeconomic trends in Sri Lanka and its economy in the 1970's are considered first. The case study then moves into descriptions…

  12. Human Bocavirus in Patients with Encephalitis, Sri Lanka, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Daisuke; Ranawaka, Udaya; Yamada, Kentaro; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Miya, Kazushi; Perera, Harsha Kumara Kithsiri; Matsumoto, Takashi; Dassanayake, Malka; Mitui, Marcelo Takahiro; Mori, Hisashi; Nishizono, Akira; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We identified human bocavirus (HBoV) DNA by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid from adults and children with encephalitis in Sri Lanka. HBoV types 1, 2, and 3 were identified among these cases. Phylogenetic analysis of HBoV1 strain sequences found no subclustering with strains previously identified among encephalitis cases in Bangladesh. PMID:24188380

  13. Peace Education in Conflict Zones--Experience from Northern Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick

    2008-01-01

    In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…

  14. Atlas of Microorganisms in Coloured Rains and Meteorites in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, K.; Karunanayake, S. P. D.

    2013-02-01

    As a continuation of our earlier studies we present here an atlas of microscope images of organisms that we have discovered in a variety of coloured rain samples and meteorites that fell over Sri Lanka in December 2012 and January 2013.

  15. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but much vaunted…

  16. Malaria Control and Elimination in Sri Lanka: Documenting Progress and Success Factors in a Conflict Setting

    PubMed Central

    Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R.; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Smith Gueye, Cara; Kahn, James G.; Feachem, Richard G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has a long history of malaria control, and over the past decade has had dramatic declines in cases amid a national conflict. A case study of Sri Lanka's malaria programme was conducted to characterize the programme and explain recent progress. Methods The case study employed qualitative and quantitative methods. Data were collected from published and grey literature, district-level and national records, and thirty-three key informant interviews. Expenditures in two districts for two years – 2004 and 2009 – were compiled. Findings Malaria incidence in Sri Lanka has declined by 99.9% since 1999. During this time, there were increases in the proportion of malaria infections due to Plasmodium vivax, and the proportion of infections occurring in adult males. Indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets have likely contributed to the low transmission. Entomological surveillance was maintained. A strong passive case detection system captures infections and active case detection was introduced. When comparing conflict and non-conflict districts, vector control and surveillance measures were maintained in conflict areas, often with higher coverage reported in conflict districts. One of two districts in the study reported a 48% decline in malaria programme expenditure per person at risk from 2004 to 2009. The other district had stable malaria spending. Conclusions/Significance Malaria is now at low levels in Sri Lanka – 124 indigenous cases were found in 2011. The majority of infections occur in adult males and are due to P. vivax. Evidence-driven policy and an ability to adapt to new circumstances contributed to this decline. Malaria interventions were maintained in the conflict districts despite an ongoing war. Sri Lanka has set a goal of eliminating malaria by the end of 2014. Early identification and treatment of infections, especially imported ones, together with effective surveillance and response, will

  17. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  18. Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Dushantha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories. PMID:25299511

  19. Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

  20. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

    2011-12-01

    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain <63μm fraction. Bioavailable, exchangeable and residual fractions were 0.01M CaCl2, 1M NaOAc, pH 8.2 and microwave digestion using HF, HNO3 and HClO4. Filtered samples were analyzed for As, Co, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Fe using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GBC 933AA). Total digestion results in different layers indicated that heavy metals show an increasing pattern with depth. About 4 gem bearing gravel layers were consist of high concentrations of Ni (>150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as <5mg/kg. Total arsenic analysis is under investigation. Highest concentrations for bioavailable and exchangeable (leach to water) metals were Fe>Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High

  1. Stabilising a victor's peace? Humanitarian action and reconstruction in eastern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Goodhand, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on the 'Sri Lankan model' of counter-insurgency and stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian and development actors. The Sri Lanka case shows that discourses, policies and practices associated with 'stabilisation' are not confined to 'fragile state' contexts in which there is heavy (and often militarised) international engagement--even though exemplars such as Afghanistan and Iraq have tended to dominate debates on this issue. Rather than being a single template, the 'stabilisation agenda' takes on very different guises in different contexts, presenting quite specific challenges to humanitarian and development actors. This is particularly true in settings like Sri Lanka, where there is a strong state, which seeks to make aid 'coherent' with its own vision of a militarily imposed political settlement. Working in such environments involves navigating a highly-charged domestic political arena, shaped by concerns about sovereignty, nationalism and struggles for legitimacy. PMID:20846349

  2. A new canopy-dwelling species of Dendrelaphis (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Sinharaja, World Heritage Site, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Dendrelaphis, Dendrelaphis sinharajensis sp. nov. is described, the sixth species of the genus known from Sri Lanka. The new species is readily distinguished from all other congeners by its colour pattern and scalation. The species is a canopy-dweller known only from the Sinharaja World Heritage Site and its vicinity, in the lowland wet zone of Sri Lanka. PMID:27615987

  3. Chikungunya as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Akoroda, Ufuoma; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikaarachchi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Chua, Robert; Hou, Yan'an; Chow, Angelia; Sessions, October M.; Østbye, Truls; Gubler, Duane J.; Woods, Christopher W.; Bodinayake, Champica

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK) in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled febrile patients ≥ 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797) patients without acute dengue virus (DENV) infection, 64.3% (18/28) of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007) showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5%) patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka. PMID:24312651

  4. Sri Lanka in global medical research: a scientific analysis of the Sri Lankan research output during 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Scientific research is an essential component in guiding improvements in health systems. There are no studies examining the Sri Lankan medical research output at international level. The present study evaluated the Sri Lankan research performance in medicine as reflected by the research publications output between years 2000-2009. Methods This study was based on Sri Lankan medical research publication data, retrieved from the SciVerse Scopus® from January 2000 to December 2009. The process of article selection was as follows: Affiliation - 'Sri Lanka' or 'Ceylon', Publication year - 'January 2000 to December 2009' and Subject area - 'Life and Health Sciences'. The articles identified were classified according to disease, medical speciality, institutions, major international collaborators, authors and journals. Results Sri Lanka's cumulative medical publications output between years 2000-2009 was 1,740 articles published in 160 different journals. The average annual publication growth rate was 9.1%. Majority of the articles were published in 'International' (n = 950, 54.6%) journals. Most articles were descriptive studies (n = 611, 35.1%), letters (n-345, 19.8%) and case reports (n = 311, 17.9%). The articles were authored by 148 different Sri Lankan authors from 146 different institutions. The three most prolific local institutions were Universities of; Colombo (n = 547), Kelaniya (n = 246) and Peradeniya (n = 222). Eighty four countries were found to have published collaborative papers with Sri Lankan authors during the last decade. UK was the largest collaborating partner (n = 263, 15.1%). Malaria (n = 75), Diabetes Mellitus (n = 55), Dengue (n = 53), Accidental injuries (n = 42) and Lymphatic filariasis (n = 40) were the major diseases studied. The 1,740 publications were cited 9,708 times, with an average citation of 5.6 per paper. The most cited paper had 203 citations, while there were 597 publications with no citations. The Sri Lankan authors

  5. Girls' identity formation in the changing social structure of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    de Silva, S; Stiles, D A; Gibbons, J L; Gibbon, J L

    1992-06-01

    Adolescent girls (N = 118) from diverse social backgrounds in Sri Lanka described their views of womanhood. Qualities of the ideal woman considered most important were kindness and honesty, liking children, intelligence, and having a good job. Although the traditional role of the Sri Lankan woman is that of homemaker, most girls in the study (55%) drew the ideal woman working outside the home, often as a teacher or a doctor. Nevertheless, adolescent girls emphasized traditional qualities of the woman at both work and home as self-sacrificing and serving others. PMID:1512588

  6. "Education Is All about Opportunities, Isn't It?": A Biographical Perspective on Learning and Teaching English in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, David Hayes explores the language learning and teaching experiences of a teacher of English in Sri Lanka. He shows how the acquisition of English enabled the teacher to access the social capital available to speakers of English, which holds a divisive place in postcolonial Sri Lankan society. In his reflections on his career, this…

  7. Groundwater overuse and farm-level technical inefficiency: evidence from Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athukorala, Wasantha; Wilson, Clevo

    2012-08-01

    Extraction of groundwater for onion and other cash crop production has been increasing rapidly during the last two decades in the dry zone areas of Sri Lanka. As a result of overuse, the quantity of available groundwater is gradually declining, while water quality is deteriorating. The deteriorating water quality has a negative impact on agricultural production, especially for crops (such as onions) that are sensitive to increases in salinity levels. This issue is examined with respect to onion production in Sri Lanka. A stochastic frontier production function (SFPF) is used, in which technical efficiency and the determinants of inefficiencies are estimated simultaneously. The results show that farmers are overusing groundwater in their onion cultivation, which has resulted in decreasing yields. Factors contributing to inefficiency in production are also identified. The results have important policy implications.

  8. Sri Lanka field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, James; Liu, Philip L-F.; Higman, Bretwood; Morton, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Fernando, Haindra; Lynett, Patrick; Fritz, Hermann; Synolakis, Costas; Fernando, Starin

    2006-01-01

    An International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) consisting of scientists from the United States, New Zealand, and Sri Lanka evaluated the impacts of the 26 December 2004 transoceanic tsunami in Sri Lanka two weeks after the event. Tsunami runup height, inundation distance, morphological changes, and sedimentary characteristics of deposits were recorded and analyzed along the southwest and east coasts of the country. Preliminary results show how local topography and bathymetry controlled the limits of inundation and associated damage to the infrastructure. The largest wave height of 8.71 m was recorded at Nonagama, while the greatest inundation distance of 390 m and runup height of 12.50 m was at Yala. At some sites, human alterations to the landscape increased the damage caused by the tsunami; this was particularly evident in areas of coral poaching and of sand dune removal.

  9. A hazards-model analysis of the covariates of infant and child mortality in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Trussell, J; Hammerslough, C

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to provide a complete self-contained exposition of estimating life tables with covariates through the use of hazards models, and (b) to illustrate this technique with a substantive analysis of child mortality in Sri Lanka, thereby demonstrating that World Fertility Survey data are a valuable source for the study of child mortality. We show that life tables with covariates can be easily estimated with standard computer packages designed for analysis of contingency tables. The substantive analysis confirms and supplements an earlier study of infant and child mortality in Sri Lanka by Meegama. Those factors found to be strongly associated with mortality are mother's and father's education, time period of birth, urban/rural/estate residence, ethnicity, sex, birth order, age of the mother at the birth, and type of toilet facility. PMID:6832431

  10. Detection of variant infectious bronchitis viruses in Sri Lanka (2012-2015).

    PubMed

    Ball, Christopher; Forrester, Anne; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2016-06-01

    Poultry production is an important sector of agriculture in Sri Lanka; however, there is a lack of information regarding circulation of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). RNA was extracted from chicken tissues, subjected to IBV S1 RT-PCR, and sequenced. Overall, 19 out of 34 (55.88 %) samples were IBV positive and contained the genotype 793B (n = 13; 68.42 %), D274 (n = 4; 21.05 %) or Massachusetts (n = 2; 10.53 %). All three genotypes contained at least one strain with less than 99 % nucleotide sequence identity to the corresponding vaccine strains. This report identified co-circulation of IBV strains 793B, Massachusetts and D274, in Sri Lanka that are divergent from the respective vaccine strains. PMID:27020570

  11. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. PMID:26957344

  12. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.

    2014-09-01

    The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  13. The economic, demographic, sociocultural and political setting for emigration from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunatilleke, G

    1995-01-01

    This study of emigration from Sri Lanka is introduced by a brief review of the situation during the colonial period and an overview of recent migration experience. The second section of the paper deals with data collection and sources for labor migration, political migration, and estimates of total net migration. The third section looks at economic and demographic trends in terms of the growth of the economy, population growth and social well-being, the growth of the labor force, unemployment, the structure of the work force, internal migration and access to agricultural lands, and income distribution and poverty. The sociocultural setting is then explored by considering exposure to the international environment, ethnicity and cultural affinity, the formation of information and job placement networks, the supportive role of the family, and the impact of success and failure. Moving on the influence of the political setting, the paper then discusses the government policy of foreign employment promotion as well as the influence of political developments on migration. In conclusion, the paper notes that future demand for domestic service workers will likely increase, and that Sri Lanka will continue to have a surplus of workers to fill this demand until the end of the 1990s, when a tightening domestic labor market and increased real wages will ease the push for migration. Political factors will continue to favor migration, however, unless a liberal democratic regime becomes the governing force in Sri Lanka. PMID:12347013

  14. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Farming Systems in Northwestern Sri Lanka. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, Sarath P.; Weerakoon, W. M. W.; Herath, Dumindu I.; Karunaratne, Asha S; Prabodha, A. S. M.; Agalawatte, M. B.; Herath, Rasnayaka; Yahiya, S. Zeenas; Punyawardhene, B. V. R.; Vishwanathan, Janan; Delpitiya, Punya; Wijekoon, A. Erandika N.; Gunaratna, Janaka; Chandrasekara, Sewwandhi S. K.; Wickramagamage, P.; Weerasinghe, K. D. N.; Navaratne, Champa M.; Perera, Ruchika S.; Gunesekara, Asela I.; Kumara, G. M. Pradeep; Wallach, Daniel; Valdivia, Roberto O.; McDermid, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka has achieved tremendous progress since 1950 in crop production and food availability. Yields grew at an impressive rate until leveling off in the mid-eighties. Sri Lanka's population is anticipated to grow in the coming decades, creating an ever-greater demand for food security on the household, sub-district, regional, and national scales.The agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is vulnerable to climate shocks. An unusual succession of droughts and floods from 2008 to 2014 has led to both booms and busts in agricultural production, which were reflected in food prices. In both instances, the majority of farmers and consumers were adversely affected.At present the rice-farming systems are under stress due to inadequate returns for the farmers and difficulty in coping with shocks due to climate, pests, and diseases, and prices for produce. There are government price-support mechanisms, fertilizer-subsidy schemes, and crop insurance schemes, but the levels of the supports are modest and often do not effectively reach the farmers.

  15. Resistance Towards the Language of Globalisation - The Case of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punchi, Lakshman

    2001-07-01

    This paper relates the contemporary educational reforms in Sri Lanka to the processes of globalisation. The international monetary organisations such as the IMF and the World Bank and the regional organisations like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) play a dominant role in influencing the debt-receiving countries when it comes to their educational practice. The intensity of the influence of these organisations can vary depending on the existing educational policy of the aid receiving countries. This paper, after a brief introduction on globalisation, examines its effects on the education policy in Sri Lanka with a special emphasis on the current language policy. Equity in education is usually advocated at primary level based on the universal primary education concept so highly upheld by the World Bank. However, the present high human development indicators are undoubtedly due to Sri Lanka's free education policy in native languages. The paper concludes stressing the importance to retain the national education policy as a means of empowerment and liberation of its masses and creating stronger ethnic harmony.

  16. Characterization of imported malaria, the largest threat to sustained malaria elimination from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharmawardena, Priyani; Premaratne, Risintha G; Gunasekera, W M Kumudunayana T de A W; Hewawitarane, Mihirini; Mendis, Kamini; Fernando, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka has reached zero indigenous malaria cases in November 2012, two years before its targeted deadline for elimination. Currently, the biggest threat to the elimination efforts are the risk of resurgence of malaria due to imported cases. This paper describes two clusters of imported malaria infections reported in 2013 and 2014, one among a group of Pakistani asylum-seekers resident in Sri Lanka, and the other amongst local fishermen who returned from Sierra Leone. The two clusters studied reveal the potential impact of imported malaria on the risk of reintroducing the disease, as importation is the only source of malaria in the country at present. In the event of a case occurring, detection is a major challenge both amongst individuals returning from malaria endemic countries and the local population, as malaria is fast becoming a "forgotten" disease amongst health care providers. In spite of a very good coverage of diagnostic services (microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests) throughout the country, malaria is being repeatedly overlooked by health care providers even when individuals present with fever and a recent history of travel to a malaria endemic country. Given the high receptivity to malaria in previously endemic areas of the country due to the prevalence of the vector mosquito, such cases pose a significant threat for the reintroduction of malaria to Sri Lanka. The challenges faced by the Anti Malaria Campaign and measures taken to prevent the resurgence of malaria are discussed here. PMID:25902716

  17. Caregiving expectations and challenges among elders and their adult children in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Perera, Bilesha; Østbye, Truls; Ranabahu, Shyama; Rajapakse, Harshini; Maselko, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The elderly population in Sri Lanka is growing rapidly. Elders are traditionally cared for in the homes of their adult children, but the shifting socio-economic environment in Sri Lanka challenges this arrangement. This paper describes the dynamics of elder-caregiver relationships in Southern Sri Lanka. Data included 4 focus group discussions and 5 in-depth interviews with elderly, and 10 in-depth interviews with adult children of the elderly. Discussion guide topics included caregiving arrangements, and roles/responsibilities of elders and caregivers. Using a grounded theory approach, a comprehensive analytic memo was developed and discussed to explore emerging themes on the caregiver dynamic. Both elders and caregivers felt that elders should be taken care of in the home by their children. They pointed to a sense of duty and role modeling of parental caregiving that is passed down through generations. Even as elders desired support from their children, they feared losing their independence, and saw financial autonomy as important for maintaining relationship balance. Caregiving challenges included: households where both the adult child and his/her spouse worked outside the home; households where elders had a disproportionate amount of household work; economically stressed households; and lack of direct communication between elders and caregivers regarding conflicts. Results point to strong values around caring for elderly in the home, but identify challenges to this arrangement in the future. PMID:25152553

  18. Occupational risk factors for low back pain among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Misa; Malhotra, Rahul; DeSilva, Vijitha; Sapukotana, Pasindu; DeSilva, Asela; Kirkorowicz, Jacob; Allen, John; Østbye, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 5% of all households in Sri Lanka operate a three-wheeler as their primary source of income. However, very little is known about the occupational health risks associated with driving these vehicles. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess occupational risk factors, including the number of hours worked associated with the 4-week prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among drivers of three-wheelers. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to 200 full-time drivers of three-wheelers from the Galle District in Sri Lanka. Occupational, psychological, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the correlation between occupational risk factors of the prevalence of LBP. Results: 15.5% of respondents reported experiencing LBP in the previous 4 months. Univariate analysis revealed that the number of hours worked per week, feeling pressure to compete with other drivers, and perceived stress scale scores were significantly associated with the 4-week prevalence of LBP. Multivariate analysis found that the number of hours worked per week and engine type were significantly associated with LBP. Conclusions: LBP is common among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka. Long work hours and two-stroke engines were significantly associated with LBP. Results from this study point towards a role for educational, behavioral health, and policy interventions to help prevent and reduce LBP among these drivers. PMID:25133353

  19. Antivenom for snakebite envenoming in Sri Lanka: the need for geographically specific antivenom and improved efficacy.

    PubMed

    Keyler, D E; Gawarammana, I; Gutiérrez, J M; Sellahewa, K H; McWhorter, K; Malleappah, R

    2013-07-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical developing island nation that endures significant economic and medical burden as a result of snakebite envenomation, having not only a high prevalence of envenomations, but also one of the highest incidence rates (200 snakebites/100,000 people/year) of venomous snakebite in the world (Kasturiratne et al., 2005). Ironically, the very snakes responsible for this human morbidity and mortality are a valuable biomedical and ecological national resource, despite the medical and economic consequences of envenomation. Currently, no snake antivenom is produced using venoms from native Sri Lankan snakes as immunogens, and there is a true need for an efficacious Sri Lanka, poly-specific snake antivenom. An approach to fulfilling this need via combining the scientific, technological and economical resources from Costa Rica and the United States with the knowledge and talent of Sri Lankan official governmental agencies, legal counsels, environmental, medical and veterinary academic institutions, and religious and cultural leaders has been initiated, coordinated and funded by Animal Venom Research International (AVRI), a nonprofit charity. This bridging of nations and the cooperative pooling of their resources represents a potential avenue for antivenom development in a developing country that suffers the consequences of few specific resources for the medical management of venomous snakebite. The desired final outcome of such an endeavor for Sri Lanka is, most importantly, improved medical outcomes for snakebite patients, with enhanced and expanded science and technology relating to snake venoms and antivenoms, and the collateral benefits of reduced economic cost for the country. PMID:23454626

  20. Saw-scaled viper bites in Sri Lanka: is it a different subspecies? Clinical evidence from an authenticated case series.

    PubMed

    Gnanathasan, Ariaranee; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Peranantharajah, Thambipillai; Coonghe, Anthonia

    2012-02-01

    The saw-scaled viper (SSV) (Echis carinatus) is considered to be a highly venomous snake in Sri Lanka despite any published clinical justification. Being a rarity, the clinical profile of SSV bites is not well established in Sri Lanka. We report a series of 48 (n-48) SSV bites from the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The majority (65%) of victims had evidence of local envenoming at the site of the bite; however, 29% showed spontaneous bleeding and 71% had coagulopathy. There were no deaths in the series. The envenoming was mild in contrast to the mortality and significant morbidity associated with SSV bites in West Africa and some parts of India. These observations need to be further explored with laboratory studies to identify the venom components, study of morphological characteristics, and genetic profiling of the Sri Lankan SSV to see if it is different from the subspecies found elsewhere. PMID:22302858

  1. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review. PMID:27194920

  2. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Alahakoon, Amali U; Jo, Cheorun; Jayasena, Dinesh D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review. PMID:27194920

  3. Application of Modis Data to Assess the Latest Forest Cover Changes of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, K.; Herath, S.; Apan, A.; Tateishi, R.

    2012-07-01

    Assessing forest cover of Sri Lanka is becoming important to lower the pressure on forest lands as well as man-elephant conflicts. Furthermore, the land access to north-east Sri Lanka after the end of 30 years long civil war has increased the need of regularly updated land cover information for proper planning. This study produced an assessment of the forest cover of Sri Lanka using two satellite data based maps within 23 years of time span. For the old forest cover map, the study used one of the first island-wide digital land cover classification produced by the main author in 1988. The old land cover classification was produced at 80 m spatial resolution, using Landsat MSS data. A previously published another study by the author has investigated the application feasibility of MODIS and Landsat MSS imagery for a selected sub-section of Sri Lanka to identify the forest cover changes. Through the light of these two studies, the assessment was conducted to investigate the application possibility of MODIS 250 m over a small island like Sri Lanka. The relation between the definition of forest in the study and spatial resolution of the used satellite data sets were considered since the 2012 map was based on MODIS data. The forest cover map of 1988 was interpolated into 250 m spatial resolution to integrate with the GIS data base. The results demonstrated the advantages as well as disadvantages of MODIS data in a study at this scale. The successful monitoring of forest is largely depending on the possibility to update the field conditions at regular basis. Freely available MODIS data provides a very valuable set of information of relatively large green patches on the ground at relatively real-time basis. Based on the changes of forest cover from 1988 to 2012, the study recommends the use of MODIS data as a resalable method to forest assessment and to identify hotspots to be re-investigated. It's noteworthy to mention the possibility of uncounted small isolated pockets of

  4. International Enterprise Education in Sri Lanka: A Blended Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasturiratne, Dulekha; Lean, Jonathan; Phippen, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how enterprise education was adapted from a UK higher education institution (HEI) setting into an international context through collaboration with two Sri Lankan universities. It demonstrates the value of enterprise education in different cultures, and presents learning from the challenges faced by…

  5. Culture, Gender, and Suicidal Behavior in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marecek, Jeanne

    1998-01-01

    The current pattern of suicides, including sex differences, is described. Institutional practices, material conditions, and social norms are explored. A study inquiring into Sri Lankan's perceptions of the problem is presented. Gender differences and cultural meanings of suicide are discussed, and questions addressing the source of suicidal…

  6. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  7. The Pearl of Great Price: Achieving Equitable Access to Primary and Secondary Education and Enhancing Learning in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aturupane, Harsha

    2009-01-01

    The experience of public policy in Sri Lanka has had a profound impact on the thinking of the global development community in relation to the role of education in economic development. In particular, the example of Sri Lanka helped to persuade policy makers around the world that governments can successfully develop a general education system to…

  8. An assessment of CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model simulations over Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; McGregor, J. L.; Katzfey, J.; Hoffmann, P.; Suppiah, R.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present an assessment of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) 50 km simulations forced by the sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration of six global climate models (GCMs) (ACCESS1-0, CCSM4, GFDL-CM3, NorESM, MPI-ESM and CNRM-CM5) from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over South Asia, centred on Sri Lanka. The model simulations were compared with the data provided by the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resource (APHRODITE) project and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) over a broad region centred on Sri Lanka. This broad region includes South Asia and northern Indian Ocean. Statistical measures such as pattern correlations, mean biases and root mean square errors were calculated separately for the four seasons. Results based on statistical tests indicate that the current CCAM simulations capture the spatial patterns of 10 m wind speed, mean sea level pressure, temperature and rainfall over a broad region over South Asia fairly well. The annual cycles of temperature and rainfall were also compared against observations over the northern and southern regions of Sri Lanka by taking the field average of each model and the observed data. The characteristics of the observed annual variations of rainfall and temperature over the smaller domains are not very well captured by the CCAM simulations. There are differences in the magnitudes of the temperature and rainfall in the six member CCAM simulations. Comparatively, the two CCAM simulations CNRM-CM5 and GFDL-CM3 show slightly better agreement over the Sri Lankan region.

  9. The process and costs of publishing medical journals in Sri Lanka: an economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Y S; Abeygunasekara, A M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Medical journals have contributed to the advancement of medicine by helping to disseminate scientific knowledge and providing a forum for medical communities to debate issues in depth. To the authors' knowledge, there are no studies examining the process of medical journal publication in developing Asian countries. The authors analysed the process and costs of publishing medical journals in Sri Lanka, a developing country in South Asia. Methods Data were collected by interviewing the editors and perusing the records at the editorial offices of the respective medical journals. Articles published in 2009 (or 2008 for journals not published in 2009) were analysed by perusing the respective journals. Results A total of 44 medical journals were published in Sri Lanka's history, of which only 28 journals remained in publication after 2007. A majority (54%) of the journals published after 2007 were published once per year. Seventeen journals in publication after 2007 were published in paper version only, and 11 journals were also available online. The mean cost of printing one issue was Sri Lankan Rupees (LKR) 97 720 (US$888) (range LKR 28 000–270 000). The cost of distribution ranged from LKR 2000 to 140 000 (US$18–1273). The mean cost of publishing one article was LKR 6646 (US$60). A total of 456 articles were published in 2009 (/2008). The total number of pages published was 1723. Conclusion The infrastructure for medical journal publishing in Sri Lanka has many good qualities such as free access, minimum charges for authors and potential for online availability. The journals are solely academic (non-profit), but the costs remain high. PMID:22021741

  10. Diffusion of a Sustainable Farming Technique in Sri Lanka: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Gilligan, J. M.; Carrico, A. R.; Truelove, H. B.; Hornberger, G.

    2012-12-01

    We live in a changing world - anthropogenic climate change is disrupting historic climate patterns and social structures are shifting as large scale population growth and massive migrations place unprecedented strain on natural and social resources. Agriculture in many countries is affected by these changes in the social and natural environments. In Sri Lanka, rice farmers in the Mahaweli River watershed have seen increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation. In addition, a government led resettlement project has altered the demographics and social practices in villages throughout the watershed. These changes have the potential to impact rice yields in a country where self-sufficiency in rice production is a point of national pride. Studies of the climate can elucidate physical effects on rice production, while research on social behaviors can illuminate the influence of community dynamics on agricultural practices. Only an integrated approach, however, can capture the combined and interactive impacts of these global changes on Sri Lankan agricultural. As part of an interdisciplinary team, we present an agent-based modeling (ABM) approach to studying the effects of physical and social changes on farmers in Sri Lanka. In our research, the diffusion of a sustainable farming technique, the system of rice intensification (SRI), throughout a farming community is modeled to identify factors that either inhibit or promote the spread of a more sustainable approach to rice farming. Inputs into the ABM are both physical and social and include temperature, precipitation, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), community trust, and social networks. Outputs from the ABM demonstrate the importance of meteorology and social structure on the diffusion of SRI throughout a farming community.

  11. Cardiac involvement in dengue virus infections during the 2004/2005 dengue fever season in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Dominic; Kularatne, Senanayake; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Wijesinghe, Sriyal; Brattig, Norbert W; Abel, Walter; Burchard, Gerd D

    2009-07-01

    Sri Lanka experienced a dramatic increase in dengue cases (15,400) in the 2004 - 2005 season. We carried out a prospective study to investigate cardiac involvement in dengue virus infected patients during the 2004 - 2005 season in Peradeniya, Central Province, Sri Lanka. Cardiac involvement was defined as elevated levels of myoglobin, creatine kinase-muscle brain-type, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein and troponin T. Twenty-five percent of dengue virus infected patients had one or more of the above tests with abnormal results. PMID:19842405

  12. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts. PMID

  13. Quantitative and Public Perception of Landslide Risk in Badulla, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekera, R.; Bandara, R. M. S.; Mallawatantri, A.; Saito, K.

    2009-04-01

    Landslides are often triggered by intense precipitation and are exacerbated by increased urbanisation and human activity. There is a significant risk of large scale landslides in Sri Lanka and when they do occur, they have the potential to cause devastation to property, lives and livelihoods. There are several high landslide risk areas in seven districts (Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Ratnapura, Kegalle, Kandy, Matale and Kalutara) in Sri Lanka. These are also some of the poorest areas in the country and consequently the recovery process after catastrophic landslides become more problematic. Therefore landslide risk management is an important concern in poverty reduction strategies. We focused on the district of Badulla, Sri Lanka to evaluate the a) quantitative scientific analysis of landslide risk and b) qualitative public perception of landslides in the area. Combining high resolution, hazard and susceptibility data we quantified the risk of landslides in the area. We also evaluated the public perception of landslides in the area using participatory GIS techniques. The evaluation of public perception of landslide risk has been complemented by use of Landscan data. The framework of the methodology for Landscan data is based on using the second order administrative population data from census, each 30 arc-second cell within the administrative units receives a probability coefficient based on slope, proximity to roads and land cover. Provision of this information from these complementary methods to the regional planners help to strengthen the disaster risk reduction options and improving sustainable land use practices through enhanced public participation in the decision making and governance processes.

  14. Characterisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Matara district, southern Sri Lanka: evidence for case clustering.

    PubMed

    Kariyawasam, K K G D U L; Edirisuriya, C S; Senerath, U; Hensmen, D; Siriwardana, H V Y D; Karunaweera, N D

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. Transmission patterns are different in Southern and Northern Sri Lanka. Current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of CL in Matara District, Southern Sri Lanka. Total of 2260 individuals from four District Secretariat divisions (DSDs) were screened by house to house surveys using an interviewer administered questionnaire. The study population had an age range of 1-90 years (median  =  43  ±  17.31), low monthly income ( < 20 000 LKR, 52.8%) and a male to female ratio of 1 : 2. Thirty eight patients were diagnosed by light microscopy, culture and/or PCR with a disease prevalence of 1.68%. Spatial mapping provided evidence for significant case clustering, which tended to be more prominent with proximity to forest areas. The risk factors identified were un-plastered brick walls, absence or low usage of protective measures against insect bites, low income and excessive time (>4 hours/day) spent outdoors. However, exposure of limbs while outdoors, unawareness about the disease, type of occupation, common water source as the mode of water supply and presence of animal shelters within 200 m were not associated with the risk of acquiring the disease. Peri-domestic transmission is likely to contribute to the observed case clustering with all age groups at risk of acquiring the infection. Human behavioural habits coinciding with that of the vector, sand fly are likely to enable host-vector contact promoting its spread. Appropriate vector control measures, improvement of housing conditions, public education regarding preventive measures are required to contain the spread of disease. PMID:26345305

  15. Environmental and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Dengue Fever in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipre, Meghan; Luvall, Jeffrey; Haque, Akhlaque; McClure, Leslie; Zaitchik, Ben; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has increased exponentially in Sri Lanka, from 24.4 cases per 100,000 in 2003 to 165.3 per 100,000 population in 2013. Although early warning systems using predictor models have been previously developed in other settings, it is important to develop such models in each local setting. Further, the ability of these models to be applicable at smaller geographic units will enhance current vector control and disease surveillance measures. The aim of this paper was to identify environmental and socio-economic status (SES) risk factors that may predict dengue fever at the Gram Niladhari Divisions (GND) level (smallest administrative unit) in Colombo city, Sri Lanka. These factors included landcover classes, amount of vegetation, population density, water access and neighborhood SES as determined by roof type. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to develop the prediction model. A total 55 GND units covering an area of 37 sq km were investigated. We found that GND units with decreased vegetation, higher built-up area, higher population density and poor access to tap-water supply were associated with high risk of dengue; the pertinent GND units were concentrated in the center of the city. This is the first study in Sri Lanka to include both environmental and socio-demographic factors in prediction models for dengue fever. The methodology may be useful in enhancing ongoing dengue fever control measures in the country, and to be extended to other countries in the region that have an increasing incidence of dengue fever.

  16. Mapping the Risk of Snakebite in Sri Lanka - A National Survey with Geospatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ediriweera, Dileepa Senajith; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Gunawardena, Nipul Kithsiri; Wijayawickrama, Buddhika Asiri; Jayamanne, Shaluka Francis; Isbister, Geoffrey Kennedy; Dawson, Andrew; Giorgi, Emanuele; Diggle, Peter John; Lalloo, David Griffith; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of robust epidemiological data on snakebite, and data available from hospitals and localized or time-limited surveys have major limitations. No study has investigated the incidence of snakebite across a whole country. We undertook a community-based national survey and model based geostatistics to determine incidence, envenoming, mortality and geographical pattern of snakebite in Sri Lanka. Methodology/Principal Findings The survey was designed to sample a population distributed equally among the nine provinces of the country. The number of data collection clusters was divided among districts in proportion to their population. Within districts clusters were randomly selected. Population based incidence of snakebite and significant envenoming were estimated. Model-based geostatistics was used to develop snakebite risk maps for Sri Lanka. 1118 of the total of 14022 GN divisions with a population of 165665 (0.8%of the country’s population) were surveyed. The crude overall community incidence of snakebite, envenoming and mortality were 398 (95% CI: 356–441), 151 (130–173) and 2.3 (0.2–4.4) per 100000 population, respectively. Risk maps showed wide variation in incidence within the country, and snakebite hotspots and cold spots were determined by considering the probability of exceeding the national incidence. Conclusions/Significance This study provides community based incidence rates of snakebite and envenoming for Sri Lanka. The within-country spatial variation of bites can inform healthcare decision making and highlights the limitations associated with estimates of incidence from hospital data or localized surveys. Our methods are replicable, and these models can be adapted to other geographic regions after re-estimating spatial covariance parameters for the particular region. PMID:27391023

  17. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka: Are leptospirosis and Hantaviral infection likely causes?

    PubMed

    Gamage, Chandika Damesh; Sarathkumara, Yomani Dilukshi

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) has been a severe burden and a public health crisis in Sri Lanka over the past two decades. Many studies have established hypotheses to identify potential risk factors although causative agents, risk factors and etiology of this disease are still uncertain. Several studies have postulated that fungal and bacterial nephrotoxins are a possible etiological factor; however, the precise link between hypothesized risk factors and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease has yet to be proven in prior studies. Leptospirosis and Hantavirus infections are important zoonotic diseases that are naturally maintained and transmitted via infected rodent populations and which present similar clinical and epidemiological features. Both infections are known to be a cause of acute kidney damage that can proceed into chronic renal failure. Several studies have reported presence of both infections in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic Leptospira or Hantavirus are possible causative agents of acute kidney damage which eventually progresses to chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. The proposed hypothesis will be evaluated by means of an observational study design. Past infection will be assessed by a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of IgG antibodies with further confirmatory testing among chronic kidney disease patients and individuals from the community in selected endemic areas compared to low prevalence areas. Identification of possible risk factors for these infections will be followed by a case-control study and causality will be further determined with a cohort study. If the current hypothesis is true, affected communities will be subjected for medical interventions related to the disease for patient management while considering supportive therapies. Furthermore and possibly enhance their preventive and control measures to improve vector control to decrease the risk of infection. PMID:27142134

  18. A geoarchaeological perspective on the rise and fall of the ancient capital of Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebermeier, Wiebke; Kohlmeyer, Kay; Meister, Julia; Reimann, Tony; Wagalawatta, Thusitha; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Anuradhapura, the ancient capital of the Ceylonese kings (4th century BCE - 11th century CE) is located in the north-central Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Covering an area of c. 40 km² Anuradhapura is one of the key sites for the development of an urban civilisation in South Asia. The settlement history of Anuradhapura can be traced back to the beginnings of the Protohistoric Iron Age (c. 900-500 BCE). During its existence, the centre of the ancient capital, the so-called Citadel, accumulated c. 10 meters of cultural sediments. Although archaeological research dated back to the beginning of the 20th century, none of the numerous excavations succeeded to extract an undisturbed archaeological sequence covering all periods of the city history. The objective of the presented study is to reconstruct natural surface processes, which went along with the formation and abandonment of the Citadel; possibly even triggering it. Based on sediment analysis (bulk parameters, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition) and the application of dating techniques (radiocarbon, OSL) environmental conditions during and after the abandonment of the Citadel were reconstructed. The results reveal information about four phases of the city history: i) Lower Early Historic Period (500-250 BCE), ii) Mid-Early Historic Period (250-0 BCE), iii) the end of the Anuradhapura period (11th century CE) and iv) after its abandonment (after the 11th century CE). In the first phase mainly wattle and daub constructions characterise the architecture of the site. The facies of correlate sediment layers point to eolian and fluvial facies with intercalated occupation layers. It is concluded, that these layer reflect a typical mix of natural processes and processes induced by humans as typical for rural settlements. With the beginning of the 1st century BCE human made terraces seem to build the base for stone and brick constructions in order to protect them from surface runoff during the rainy seasons

  19. Field Survey of Tsunami Effects in Sri Lanka due to the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of December 26, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shusaku; Wijeyewickrema, Anil C.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Miura, Hiroyuki; Gunaratna, Priyantha; Madurapperuma, Manoj; Sekiguchi, Toru

    2007-03-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that registered a moment magnitude (M w ) of 9.1 was one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900. The devastating tsunami that resulted from this earthquake caused more casualties than any previously reported tsunami. The number of fatalities and missing persons in the most seriously affected countries were Indonesia - 167,736, Sri Lanka - 35,322, India - 18,045 and Thailand - 8,212. This paper describes two field visits to assess tsunami effects in Sri Lanka by a combined team of Japanese and Sri Lankan researchers. The first field visit from December 30, 2004 January 04, 2005 covered the western and southern coasts of Sri Lanka including the cities of Moratuwa, Beruwala, Bentota, Pereliya, Hikkaduwa, Galle, Talpe, Matara, Tangalla and Hambantota. The objectives of the first field visit were to investigate the damage caused by the tsunami and to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times. The second field visit from March 10 18, 2005 covered the eastern and southern coasts of Sri Lanka and included Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Arugam Bay, Yala National Park and Kirinda. The objectives of the second visit were mainly to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times and inundation data, and to take relevant measurements using GPS instruments.

  20. Laboratory studies of Miocene limestone for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali

    2016-04-01

    Geologically ten percent of Sri Lanka is made up of Miocene limestone which covers northern and north-western coastal belt of the Island. It is used as a raw material for various industries but only cement and lime are being used for the construction industry. Except its chemical composition there is no available literature to study about other properties. Therefore the author carried out a series of laboratory tests to find out the mechanical properties of limestone in Sri Lanka. The objective of this paper is to make a note on the various properties of Miocene limestone and describe its suitability to use as an aggregate for the construction industry in Sri Lanka. Borehole samples (NX size) of limestone were obtained from various drilling sites in Northern Province of Sri Lanka and selected samples were prepared for different laboratory tests after visual observations. The tests were carried out according to ASTM Standards at the geotechnical and materials testing laboratories. The number of samples per each test was different. The range (and average result) for each property can be mentioned here as bulk density 2213-2643 (2452) kg/m3, water absorption 2.2-4.5 (1.91)%, porosity 1-15 (6.5)%, specific gravity 2.58-2.68(2.62), ultrasonic pulse velocity P wave 4480-6338 (5668) m/s and S wave 2688-3802 (3400) m/s, uniaxial compressive strength 11-92 (35)MPa, point load strength 1.2-7.1 (3.7)MPa, aggregate impact value, AIV 25-30 (28)%, LAAV 35-38 (36)%, and Brazilian tensile strength 2.1-4.4 (3.2)MPa. Poisson's ratio 0.12-0.68 (0.22) and modulus of elasticity 42-85 (62) GPa were obtained by using P and S ultrasonic wave velocity values. According to LAAV and AIV this limestone may be suitable as the base course material for road construction but may not be suitable for surface material of highways and rail road ballasts. Ultrasonic velocity waves indicate that limestone is highly compacted and solid. According to the compressive strength of solid limestone rock a few

  1. Health changes in Sri Lanka: benefits of primary health care and public health.

    PubMed

    Karunathilake, Indika Mahesh

    2012-07-01

    The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean that has achieved a unique status in the world with health indicators that are comparable with those of developed countries. This is illustrated, among others, by the reduction in both child and maternal mortality in the country. This achievement is the result of a range of long-term interventions, including providing education and health care free of charge, training of health care workers, developing public health infrastructure in rural areas, and adopting steps to improve sanitation, nutrition, and immunization coverage. PMID:22815304

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in captive elephants (Elephaus maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dangolla, A; Ekanayake, D K; Rajapakse, R P V J; Dubey, J P; Silva, I D

    2006-04-15

    Serum samples collected during August 2003-June 2004 from 45 privately owned captive and 8 elephants from the Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage were tested for the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the direct modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in sera of 14 of 45 (32%) privately owned elephants with titers of 1:25 in three, 1:50 in three, 1:100 in three, 1:200 in three, and 1:400 in three elephants. The elephants from Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage were seronegative. This is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in elephants in Sri Lanka. PMID:16414192

  3. Religious beliefs, possession States, and spirits: three case studies from sri lanka.

    PubMed

    Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni; Yoosuf, Alam; Karunaratne, Sanjeewani; de Silva, Pushpa

    2012-01-01

    We describe three patients from different religious backgrounds in Sri Lanka whose possession states were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. Patient A was a Buddhist who claimed to have special powers given by a local deity named Paththini. Patient B was a Catholic who experienced spirits around her whom she believed were sent by Satan. Patient C was a Muslim and believed she was possessed by spirits. The religious beliefs also influenced the help-seeking behaviour and the rituals or treatments to which they responded. PMID:22970398

  4. Religious Beliefs, Possession States, and Spirits: Three Case Studies from Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni; Yoosuf, Alam; Karunaratne, Sanjeewani; de Silva, Pushpa

    2012-01-01

    We describe three patients from different religious backgrounds in Sri Lanka whose possession states were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. Patient A was a Buddhist who claimed to have special powers given by a local deity named Paththini. Patient B was a Catholic who experienced spirits around her whom she believed were sent by Satan. Patient C was a Muslim and believed she was possessed by spirits. The religious beliefs also influenced the help-seeking behaviour and the rituals or treatments to which they responded. PMID:22970398

  5. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Method Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Results Among all food and beverages–related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P < .05). None of the advertisements contained disclaimers. Conclusion and recommendations The Ministry of Health needs to pursue all food and beverages–focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. PMID:26658325

  6. Spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome as a sequelae of dengue viral infection: a case series from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weeratunga, Praveen N; Caldera, H P Manjula C; Gooneratne, I Kishara; Gamage, Ranjanie; Perera, W Sujith P; Ranasinghe, Gayan V; Niraj, Mahboob

    2014-06-01

    Sri Lanka is hyperendemic for dengue viral infection. Dengue has a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations including previously reported Sri Lankan cases with a 6th nerve palsy and a cerebellar syndrome from a co-infection with dengue and Epstein-Barr virus. This series describes a spontaneously resolving cerebellar syndrome following a dengue viral infection. Dengue is potentially an important cause of cerebellar syndromes in countries hyperendemic for the disease; patients need further studies to identify the responsible serotypes. PMID:23840070

  7. Molecular mechanisms of β-lactam resistance in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jarrad M; Corea, Enoka; Sanjeewani, H D Anusha; Inglis, Timothy J J

    2014-08-01

    Carbapenemases are increasingly important antimicrobial resistance determinants. Little is known about the carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Sri Lanka. We examined 22 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka to determine their β-lactam resistance mechanisms. The predominant resistance mechanisms we detected in this study were OXA-181, NDM-1 carbapenemases and extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-15. All isolates were then genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable-number tandem repeat sequence analysis and multilocus sequence typing, and seven distinct genotypes were observed. Five OXA-181-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were genotypically related to an isolate of Indian origin. Multilocus sequence typing found that these related isolates belong to ST-14, which has been associated with dissemination of OXA-181 from the Indian subcontinent. Other genotypes we discovered were ST-147 and ST-340, also associated with intercontinental spread of carbapenemases of suspected subcontinental origin. The major porin genes ompK35 and ompK36 from these isolates had insertions, deletions and substitutions. Some of these were exclusive to strains within single pulsotypes. We detected one ompK36 variant, ins AA134-135GD, in six ST-14- and six ST-147, blaOXA-181-positive isolates. This porin mutation was an independent predictor of high-level meropenem resistance in our entire Sri Lankan isolate collection (P=0.0030). Analysis of the Sri Lankan ST-14 and ST-147 ins AA134-135GD-positive isolates found ST-14 was more resistant to meropenem than other isolates (mean MIC: 32±0 µg ml(-1) and 20±9.47 µg ml(-1), respectively, P=0.0277). The likely international transmission of these carbapenem resistance determinants highlights the need for regional collaboration and prospective surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:24855071

  8. Impacts of the 2004 tsunami on groundwater resources in Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Illangasekare, T.; Tyler, S.W.; Clement, T.P.; Villholth, K.G.; Perera, A.P.G.R.L.; Obeysekera, J.; Gunatilaka, A.; Panabokke, C.R.; Hyndman, D.W.; Cunningham, K.J.; Kaluarachchi, J.J.; Yeh, W.W.-G.; Van Genuchten, M. T.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami caused widespread destruction and contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. From February through September 2005, a team of United States, Sri Lankan, and Danish water resource scientists and engineers surveyed the coastal groundwater resources of Sri Lanka to develop an understanding of the impacts of the tsunami and to provide recommendations for the future of coastal water resources in south Asia. In the tsunami-affected areas, seawater was found to have infiltrated and mixed with fresh groundwater lenses as indicated by the elevated groundwater salinity levels. Seawater infiltrated through the shallow vadose zone as well as entered aquifers directly through flooded open wells. Our preliminary transport analysis demonstrates that the intruded seawater has vertically mixed in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection. Widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but overpumping has led to upconing of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. We estimate that groundwater recharge from several monsoon seasons will reduce salinity of many sandy Sri Lankan coastal aquifers. However, the continued sustainability of these small and fragile aquifers for potable water will be difficult because of the rapid growth of human activities that results in more intensive groundwater pumping and increased pollution. Long-term sustainability of coastal aquifers is also impacted by the decrease in sand replenishment of the beaches due to sand mining and erosion. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Reconstruction of health service systems in the post-conflict Northern Province in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mari; Abraham, Sandirasegaram; Okamoto, Miyoko; Kita, Etsuko; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2007-09-01

    Public health problems in armed conflicts have been well documented, however, effective national health policies and international assistance strategies in transition periods from conflict to peace have not been well established. After the long lasted conflicts in Sri Lanka, the Government and the rebel LTTE signed a cease-fire agreement in February 2002. As the peace negotiation has been disrupted since April 2003, a long-term prospect for peace is yet uncertain at present. The objective of this research is to detect unmet needs in health services in Northern Province in Sri Lanka, and to recommend fair and effective health strategies for post-conflict reconstruction. First, we compared a 20-year trend of health services and health status between the post-conflict Northern Province and other areas not directly affected by conflict in Sri Lanka by analyzing data published by Sri Lankan government and other agencies. Then, we conducted open-ended self-administered questionnaires to health care providers and inhabitants in Northern Province, and key informant interviews in Northern Province and other areas. The major health problems in Northern Province were high maternal mortality, significant shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and inadequate water and sanitation systems. Poor access to health facilities, lack of basic health knowledge, insufficient health awareness programs for inhabitants, and mental health problems among communities were pointed by the questionnaire respondents. Shortage of HRH and people's negligence for health were perceived as the major obstacles to improving the current health situation in Northern Province. The key informant interviews revealed that Sri Lankan HRH outside Northern Province had only limited information about the health issues in Northern Province. It is required to develop and allocate HRH strategically for the effective reconstruction of health service systems in Northern Province. The empowerment of inhabitants

  10. Evolution of dengue in Sri Lanka-changes in the virus, vector, and climate.

    PubMed

    Sirisena, P D N N; Noordeen, F

    2014-02-01

    Despite the presence of dengue in Sri Lanka since the early 1960s, dengue has become a major public health issue, with a high morbidity and mortality. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the vectors responsible for the transmission of dengue viruses (DENV). The four DENV serotypes (1, 2, 3, and 4) have been co-circulating in Sri Lanka for more than 30 years. The new genotype of DENV-1 has replaced an old genotype, and new clades of DENV-3 genotype III have replaced older clades. The emergence of new clades of DENV-3 in the recent past coincided with an abrupt increase in the number of dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases, implicating this serotype in severe epidemics. Climatic factors play a pivotal role in the epidemiological pattern of DF/DHF in terms of the number of cases, severity of illness, shifts in affected age groups, and the expansion of spread from urban to rural areas. There is a regular incidence of DF/DHF throughout the year, with the highest incidence during the rainy months. To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with DF/DHF, it is important to implement effective vector control programs in the country. The economic impact of DF/DHF results from the expenditure on DF/DHF critical care units in several hospitals and the cost of case management. PMID:24334026

  11. A descriptive profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Black, M L; Sinha, S; Agarwal, S; Colah, R; Das, R; Bellgard, M; Bittles, A H

    2010-09-01

    Thalassaemia is a common and debilitating autosomal recessive disorder affecting many populations in South Asia. To date, efforts to create a regional profile of β-thalassaemia mutations have largely concentrated on the populations of India. The present study updates and expands an earlier profile of β-thalassaemia mutations in India, and incorporates comparable data from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Despite limited data availability, clear patterns of historical and cultural population movements were observed relating to major β-thalassaemia mutations. The current regional mutation profiles of β-thalassaemia have been influenced by historical migrations into and from the Indian sub-continent, by the development and effects of Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim and Sikh religious traditions, and by the major mid-twentieth century population translocations that followed the Partition of India in 1947. Given the resultant genetic complexity revealed by the populations of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, to ensure optimum diagnostic efficiency and the delivery of appropriate care, it is important that screening and counselling programmes for β-thalassaemia mutations recognise the underlying patterns of population sub-division throughout the region. PMID:22460247

  12. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India) and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100%) is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs. PMID:20507558

  13. Physics of the environment: possible Sumatra Tsunami warning times for large animals in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, David G.; Scheifele, Peter M.; Vonwinkle, William A.

    2005-04-01

    There has previously been significant anecdotal evidence that animals can anticipate or sense seismic events. It is known that large animals, specifically elephants, sense and utilize low frequency sound. The object of this paper is to estimate the possible warning times that large animals in Sri Lanka could have had of the Sumatra Tsunami, assuming they could sense low frequency wave transmission from the initial earthquake arriving by either atmospheric, ocean, or bottom paths. The atmospheric path appears to be the least efficient due to relatively high attenuation and poor coupling to the source. It would also give the shortest warning time: approximately 30 minutes. The ocean path via the deep sound channel, which has been shown by a previous Bermuda experiment to be an efficient means of coupling seismic energy to an island, would give a warning time of more than 1.5 hours. The bottom path(s), which gave strong received signals at a Sri Lanka seismic station, would give a warning time of about 2 hours. These estimates should provide a context for animal behavior reports.

  14. Ompok argestes, a new species of silurid catfish endemic to Sri Lanka (Teleostei: Siluridae).

    PubMed

    Sudasinghe, Hiranya; Meegaskumbura, Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Ompok argestes, a new species of silurid catfish, is described from the southwestern lowlands of Sri Lanka. The new species is distinguished from all other species of Ompok in the Indian subcontinent by a combination of the following characters: body color pattern mottled; predorsal profile uniformly convex; maxillary barbels reach or extend slightly beyond base of dorsal fin; eye diameter 14.2-17.1% head length (HL); body depth at anus 19.8-22.3% standard length (SL); head width 14.3-16.8% SL; caudal peduncle depth 5.6-6.5% SL. Callichrous ceylonensis Günther is shown to be a valid species that is apparently restricted to Sri Lanka, distinguished by a combination of the following characters: distinct concavity in predorsal profile; origin of pelvic fin beneath or slightly posterior to the origin of the dorsal fin; maxillary barbels 108-166 % HL; mandibular barbels 16.1-33.7 % HL; and 58-66 anal-fin rays. PMID:27615884

  15. Situation Report--Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Somoa. Information is provided under three topics, statistical information, general background information,…

  16. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  17. Sustainability and local people's participation in coastal aquaculture: regional differences and historical experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn (Penneaus monodon) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab (Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating < or =10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically. PMID:17929084

  18. Formula Funding and Decentralized Management of Schools--Has It Improved Resource Allocation in Schools in Sri Lanka?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunatilake, Nisha; Jayawardena, Priyanka

    2010-01-01

    Using the experience of the Educational Quality Inputs (EQI) Scheme in Sri Lanka the paper examines the distributional aspects of formula-based funding and efficiency of decentralized management of education funds in a developing country setting. The study finds that the EQI fund distribution is largely pro-poor. However, results show that to…

  19. A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

  20. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  1. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  2. Molecular characterization of banana bunchy top virus isolate from Sri Lanka and its genetic relationship with other isolates.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W A R T; Shankarappa, K S; Rangaswamy, K T; Maruthi, M N; Rajapakse, R G A S; Ghosh, Saptarshi

    2016-06-01

    Bunchy top disease of banana caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus family Nanoviridae) is one of the most important constraints in production of banana in the different parts of the world. Six genomic DNA components of BBTV isolate from Kandy, Sri Lanka (BBTV-K) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers using total DNA extracted from banana tissues showing typical symptoms of bunchy top disease. The amplicons were of expected size of 1.0-1.1 kb, which were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of sequence data revealed the presence of six DNA components; DNA-R, DNA-U3, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C for Sri Lanka isolate. Comparisons of sequence data of DNA components followed by the phylogenetic analysis, grouped Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate in the Pacific Indian Oceans (PIO) group. Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate of BBTV is classified a new member of PIO group based on analysis of six components of the virus. PMID:27366766

  3. Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

  4. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  5. Population genetic structure of the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sajani; Wickramarachchi, Thilan; Sahabandu, Imeshi; Escalante, Ananias A; Udagama, Preethi V

    2013-04-15

    Molecular methods elucidate evolutionary and ecological processes in parasites, where interaction between hosts and parasites enlighten the evolution of parasite lifestyles and host defenses. Population genetics of Plasmodium vivax parasites accurately describe transmission dynamics of the parasites and evaluation of malaria control measures. As a first generation vaccine candidate against malaria, the Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) has demonstrated significant potential in P. falciparum. Extensive polymorphism hinders the development of a potent malaria vaccine. Hence, the genetic diversity of Pvcsp was investigated for the first time in 60 Sri Lankan clinical isolates by obtaining the nucleotide sequence of the central repeat (CR) domain and examining the polymorphism of the peptide repeat motifs (PRMs), the genetic diversity indices and phylogenetic relationships. PCR amplicons determined size polymorphism of 610, 700 and 710 bp in Pvcsp of Sri Lanka where all amino acid sequences obtained were of the VK210 variant, consisting variable repeats of 4 different PRMs. The two most abundant PRMs of the CR domain, GDRADGQPA and GDRAAGQPA consisted ~2-4 repeats, while GNRAAGQPA was unique to the island. Though, different nucleotide sequences termed repeat allotypes (RATs) were observed for each PRM, these were synonymous contributing to a less polymorphic CR domain. The genetic diversity of Pvcsp in Sri Lanka was due to the number of repetitive peptide repeat motifs, point mutations, and intragenic recombination. The 19 amino acid haplotypes defined were exclusive to Sri Lanka, whereas the 194 Pvcsp sequences of global isolates generated 57 more distinct a.a. haplotypes of the VK210 variant. Strikingly, the CR domain of both VK210 and VK247 variants was under purifying selection interpreting the scarcity of CSP non-synonymous polymorphisms. Insights to the distribution of RATs in the CR region with geographic clustering of the P. vivax VK210 variant were revealed. The

  6. Chemical Characterization of Gallstones: An Approach to Explore the Aetiopathogenesis of Gallstone Disease in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Weerakoon, Harshi; Navaratne, Ayanthi; Ranasinghe, Shirani; Sivakanesan, Ramaiah; Galketiya, Kuda Banda; Rosairo, Shanthini

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Records on gallstones and associated ailments in Sri Lankan community are scarce, despite frequent detection of gallstone disease. Identification of the chemical composition of gallstones in the local setting is important in defining aetiopathogenic factors which in turn are useful in implementing therapeutic and preventive strategies. This study aimed to describe the chemical composition of gallstones and the socio-demographic factors of a cohort of Sri Lankan patients with gallstone disease. Materials and Methods Data on clinical and socio-demographic factors, and gallstones removed at surgery were collected from patients with cholelithiasis admitted to Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka from May 2011 to December 2012. External and cross sectional morphological features of gallstones were recorded by naked eye observation. Compositional analysis was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X - ray Powder Diffraction, and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to identify the microstructure of gallstones. Results Data of 102 patients were analyzed. Of them majority (n = 77, 76%) were females with a female: male ratio of 3:1. Mean age of the study group was 46.1±11.6 years. All the patients had primary gallbladder stones. According to the physical and chemical analysis, majority (n = 54, 53%) were pigment gallstones followed by mixed cholesterol gallstones (n = 38, 37%). Only 10 (9%) had pure cholesterol gallstones. Calcium bilirubinate, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate were the commonest calcium salts identified in pigment gallstones and core of mixed cholesterol gallstones. Conclusion Presence of a pigment nidus in gallstones is a common feature in majority of Sri Lankan patients denoting the possible role of elevated unconjugated bilirubin in bile on the pathogenesis of GS. Hence it is imperative to explore this further to understand the aetiopathogenesis of GS among Sri Lankans. PMID

  7. Regional differences of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: observations from a flood-associated outbreak in 2011.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Dahanayaka, Niroshan J; Bandaranayaka, Anoma K; Perera, Manoj; Priyankara, Sumudu; Weerawansa, Prasanna; Matthias, Michael A; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is known to be an important cause of weather disaster-related infectious disease epidemics. In 2011, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred in the relatively dry district of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka where diagnosis was resisted by local practitioners because leptospirosis was not known in the area and the clinical presentation was considered atypical. To identify the causative Leptospira associated with this outbreak, we carried out a cross-sectional study. Consecutive clinically suspected cases in this district were studied during a two-and-a-half-month period. Of 96 clinically suspected cases, 32 (33.3%) were confirmed by qPCR, of which the etiological cause in 26 cases was identified using 16S rDNA sequencing to the species level. Median bacterial load was 4.1 × 10(2)/mL (inter-quartile range 3.1-6.1 × 10(2)/mL). In contrast to a 2008 Sri Lankan leptospirosis outbreak in the districts of Kegalle, Kandy, and Matale, in which a predominance of Leptospira interrogans serovars Lai and Geyaweera was found, most cases in the 2011 outbreak were caused by Leptospira kirschneri. Seven (21.9%) confirmed cases had acute renal failure; five (15.6%) had myocarditis; severe thrombocytopenia (<20,000/uL) was seen in five (15.6%) cases. This outbreak of leptospirosis in the relatively dry zone of Sri Lanka due primarily to L. kirschneri was characterized by markedly different clinical presentations and low leptospiremia. These observations and data demonstrate the public health relevance of molecular diagnostics in such settings, possibly related to the microgeographic variations of different Leptospira species, but of particular value to public health intervention in what appears to have been a regionally neglected tropical disease. PMID:24454971

  8. Gender-specific socioeconomic impacts of development programs in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, J; Sirisena, N L

    1988-10-01

    Data from a Sri Lanka national sample survey -- 3597 households stratified on the basis of development program areas -- were analyzed to compare impacts of 3 national development programs and their combinations upon the occupational and income status of females and males in Sri Lanka. These programs, implemented over the last 30 years, are guaranteed price schemes that develop markets for agricultural produce, land settlement schemes that include irrigation, and rural electrification. To date, no attempt has been made to assess the gender-specific socioeconomic impacts of these individual programs and their combinations. It was hypothesized that the utilization of development program outputs will exert a gender-differential impact upon occupational and income status, but the magnitude and direction of the impacts remain to be determined. Path analysis was applied to estimate the model for each development program and their mixes for males and females separated. A multistage stratified sampling design was utilized. All of the development programs and their mixes exhibited significant effect of educational attainment upon participation in nonagricultural occupations. Rural electrification (RE) was the only program whose effect was positive; in combinations with education it accounted for 15% of the variation in occupation. Among the programs that were negatively related to male participation in nonagricultural occupations, the most important predictors were the land settlement (LS) and guarantee price scheme (GPS) programs. Each program contributed to over 1/5 of the variation in occupation net of educational attainment. RE was the only program that was not significantly related to female participation in nonhousehold occupations. All of the remaining programs exerted a positive effect upon occupation. 3 of these programs -- RE + LS, GPS, and LS + GPS -- were of almost equally high importance in predicting participation of females in nonhousehold occupations, and in

  9. Change in Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Seroprevalence Rates in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jeewandara, Chandima; Gomes, Laksiri; Paranavitane, S. A.; Tantirimudalige, Mihiri; Panapitiya, Sumedha Sandaruwan; Jayewardene, Amitha; Fernando, Samitha; Fernando, R. H.; Prathapan, Shamini

    2015-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has been affected by epidemics of dengue infections for many decades and the incidence and severity of dengue infections have been rising each year. Therefore, we investigated the age stratified seroprevalence of dengue infections in order to facilitate future dengue vaccine strategies. In addition, since the symptomatic dengue infections have increased during the past few decades, we also investigated the possible association with Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) antibody seropositivity with symptomatic dengue in a community cohort in Sri Lanka. Methods 1689 healthy individuals who were attending a primary health care facility were recruited. Dengue and JEV antibody status was determined in all individuals and JEV vaccination status was recorded. Results 1152/1689 (68.2%) individuals were seropositive for dengue and only 133/1152 (11.5%) of them had been hospitalized to due to dengue. A significant and positive correlation was observed for dengue antibody seropositivity and age in children (Spearmans R = 0.84, p = 0.002) and in adults (Spearmans R = 0.96, p = 0.004). We observed a significant rise in the age stratified seroprevalence rates in children over a period of 12 years. For instance, in year 2003 the annual seroconversion rate was 1.5% per annum, which had risen to 3.79% per annum by 2014. We also found that both adults (p<0.001) and in children (p = 0.03) who were hospitalized due to dengue were more likely to be seropositive for JEV antibodies. However, 244 (91.4%) of adults who were seropositive for JEV had not had the JEV vaccine. Conclusions Dengue seroprevalence rates have risen significantly over the last 12 years in Sri Lanka, possibly due to increased transmission. As individuals who were hospitalized due to dengue were more likely to be seropositive for JEV, the possibility of cross-reactive assays and/or of JEV infection on immunity to the DENV and clinical disease severity should be further investigated. PMID:26696417

  10. Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M.; Karunarathna, Ayanthi; Buckley, Nick A.; Manuweera, Gamini; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Eddleston, Michael

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due to poisoning doubled, and admissions due to pesticide poisoning increased by more than 50%. At the same time, the case fatality proportion (CFP) fell for total poisonings and for poisonings due to pesticides. In 1991_92, 72% of pesticide-induced deaths in Anuradhapura were caused by organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides - in particular, the WHO class I OPs monocrotophos and methamidophos. From 1991, the import of these pesticides was reduced gradually until they were banned for routine use in January 1995, with a corresponding fall in deaths. Unfortunately, their place in agricultural practice was taken by the WHO class II organochlorine endosulfan, which led to a rise in deaths from status epilepticus - from one in 1994 to 50 in 1998. Endosulfan was banned in 1998, and over the following three years the number of endosulfan deaths fell to three. However, at the end of the decade, the number of deaths from pesticides was at a similar level to that of 1991, with WHO class II OPs causing the most deaths. Although these drugs are less toxic than class I OPs, the management of class II OPs remains difficult because they are, nevertheless, still highly toxic, and their toxicity is exacerbated by the paucity

  11. Secondary phosphate mineralization in a karstic environment in Central Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahanayake, Kapila; Subasinghe, S. M. N. D.

    1989-07-01

    At Eppawala in central Sri Lanka secondary phosphate mineralization is intimately associated with laminated fabrics within depressions (sinkholes and smaller cavities) formed in the thick weathering profiles of a hilly terrain underlain by a Precambrian apatite-bearing formation. The lowermost levels of the profile show extensive zones of leaching where derived apatite crystals occur within fine-grained, laminated stromatolite sequences. The stromatolitic groundmass, which diagenetically formed by percolating oxygenated phosphate and carbonate-rich groundwaters, is impregnated by the phosphate minerals francolite and collophane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that fine filaments, characteristic of microorganisms, are associated with the secondary phosphate mineralization. Continuous degradation and fragmentation of the stromatolitic mat has produced pellets, peloids, and intraclasts all enriched in secondary apatite. Degrading recrystallization around the edges of the primary apatite crystals has developed coated grains. The widespread occurrence of phosphate-enriched allochems in stromatolitic groundmasses is a unique development of a modern phosphorite in a karstic environment.

  12. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  13. Housing anxiety and multiple geographies in post-tsunami Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Boano, Camillo

    2009-10-01

    Tsunami intervention has been an extraordinary and unprecedented relief and recovery operation. This article underlines the complexities posed by shelter and housing intervention in post-tsunami Sri Lanka, revealing a pragmatic, reductionist approach to shelter and housing reconstruction in a contested and fragmented environment. Competition, housing anxiety and buffer zone implementation have resulted in compulsory villagisation inland, stirring feelings of discrimination and tension, and becoming major obstacles to equitable rebuilding of houses and livelihoods. A new tsunami geography has been imposed on an already vulnerable conflict-based geography, in which shelter has been conceived as a mono-dimensional artefact. An analysis of the process and outcomes of temporary and permanent post-tsunami housing programmes yields information about the extent to which shelter policies and programmes serve not only physical needs but 'higher order' objectives for a comprehensive and sustainable recovery plan. PMID:19459904

  14. An evaluation of the undergraduate teaching programme in ophthalmology in Sri Lanka and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dias, P L

    1987-07-01

    The knowledge and clinical and minor surgical skills acquired by 257 medical students in three universities in Sri Lanka and Malaysia were assessed by a questionnaire after they had completed their training period in ophthalmology. This study showed that many medical students graduating from these universities lacked the basic clinical and minor surgical skills essential for a doctor practising in a community in south-east Asia. The responses also indicated that teaching by consultants in all three universities was inadequate and due to these inadequacies the students requested that the duration of their training period be doubled. Ophthalmology is an important component of clinical practice and proper education in this subject is important. An urgent revision of the aims and objectives of the curriculum in ophthalmology is essential to place greater emphasis on this important and much neglected subject, for which very little curricular time is allotted. PMID:3626901

  15. Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vidanaarachchi, Chandana K. . E-mail: c.vidanaarachchi@civenv.unimelb.edu.au; Yuen, Samuel T.S.; Pilapitiya, Sumith

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting.

  16. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  17. Dataset for an analysis of tourism and economic growth: A study of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Stauvermann, Peter Josef

    2016-09-01

    We use the sample from 1978 to 2014 for the paper (doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2016.05.005). The data on GDP at constant 2005 USD (US dollar), and the gross fixed capital formation at constant 2005 USD are extracted from the World Bank (2015). The labour stock which includes direct and indirect employment and the tourism receipts (in USD) are sourced from the Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (http://www.sltda.lk/statistics). Tourism receipts as a per cent of GDP is used to measure tourism demand. The capital stock data is computed using perpetual inventory method, where a depreciation rate of 8 per cent is assumed with the initial capital stock as 1.05 times the GDP of 1969 at constant 2005 USD. The output per worker and capital per worker is computed by dividing the GDP and capital stock by the labour stock, respectively. PMID:27508224

  18. The problem of privacy in transcultural research: reflections on an ethnographic study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Monshi, Bardia; Zieglmayer, Verena

    2004-01-01

    Western laws and codes of ethics frequently require that private health information be treated confidentially. However, cross-cultural research shows that it is not always easy to determine what members of a culture consider to be private or how they wish private information to be handled. This article begins by presenting an ethnographic study of patient-healer relationships in Sri Lanka; researchers were surprised to find that participants' views of health and privacy differed greatly from typical Western views, and that the privacy protections they had put in place caused discomfort among participants. Building on this ethics case study, the article explores two main questions. First, can a single definition of privacy possibly do justice to the cultural variations that exist, or does a conceptual definition inevitably run the risk of ethnocentrism? Second, to what extent is strict compliance with research regulations or ethics codes ethically justifiable when following the rules will obviously cause unease in international participants? PMID:16622990

  19. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism. PMID:25119535

  20. Ethnicity, politics and inequality: post-tsunami humanitarian aid delivery in Ampara District, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri de Silva, M W

    2009-04-01

    The provision of humanitarian aid at times of disaster in multi-ethnic community settings may lead to conflict, tension and even the widening of the distance between various ethnic groups. That aid agencies distribute humanitarian aid directly to affected communities, to speed up recovery, may often lead to chaos and the intensification of ethnic sentiments. The new distribution mechanisms introduced for the delivery of tsunami aid in Ampara District, Sri Lanka, did not recognise local networks and the culture of the ethnically mixed community setting. This paper analyses post-tsunami aid distribution in Ampara and shows how such an extemporised effort in an ethnically cognisant context increased ethnic division, inequality and disorder, while marginalising the poor segments of the affected population. It recommends the inclusion of local networks in aid dissemination as a measure for improving ethnic neutrality and social harmony in disaster-hit multi-ethnic communities. PMID:18717702

  1. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. De; J Sonnadara, D. U.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869-2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed trend is estimated using the Mann-Kendall statistic. The results clearly show that there is a statistically significant decrease in annual rainfall in the western slopes of the central highlands. Throughout the last century, the annual reduction of rainfall in Nuwara Eliya which is at an altitude of 1895 m was 5.2 mm/year. The decrease is largely due to the reduction in southwest monsoon rainfall which contributes to 75% of the total reduction. No significant change was observed on the eastern side of the central highlands which receives rainfall predominantly from the northeast monsoons. The mean annual temperature in the mountainous region shows a uniform increasing trend which is in line with the 100-year global temperature increase of 0.8 ± 0.2∘C. Kandy, which is at an altitude of 477 m and closely linked with the rainfall climatology of Nuwara Eliya, showed no significant change in the mean annual temperature. If the current trend continues, in another 100 years, western and eastern slopes of central highlands will receive the same amount of rainfall from the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon which will have far reaching consequences for Sri Lanka's economy and the ecology of the hill country.

  2. Characteristics of Narrow Bipolar Pulses observed from lightning in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekara, T. A. L. N.; Fernando, M.; Sonnadara, U.; Cooray, V.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed study on electric field characteristics of Narrow Bipolar Pulses (NBP) observed in Sri Lanka is presented here. NBPs analyzed in this work were recorded at a coastal location in the Southern part of Sri Lanka (Matara: 5.95 °N, 8.53 °E), from five highly active consecutive thunderstorm days during the month of May in 2013. The waveforms were recorded with a 10 ns resolution within a 100 ms time window. Both positive and negative NBPs were observed in this study with the negative type being the most frequent. Parameters presented in this study were the rise time (Tr), zero crossing time (Tz), the duration of slow front (Ts), the full width of half maximum (FWHM), the pulse duration and the ratio of amplitude of overshoot to the corresponding peak amplitude (Os/Pa). The corresponding average values of negative NBPs for these parameters were found to be 0.58 μs, 3.01 μs, 0.20 μs, 1.38 μs, 19.21 μs and 0.19 respectively. Similarly, for positive events corresponding values were 1.38 μs, 4.66 μs, 0.48 μs, 1.93 μs, 16.42 μs and 0.37 respectively. The above values conforms to a much narrower bipolar events when compared to previously reported values which is considered to be caused by the propagation effects of signals captured by the apparatus.

  3. Road traffic crashes, injury and fatality trends in Sri Lanka: 1938–2013

    PubMed Central

    Dharmaratne, Samath D; Jayatilleke, Achini C

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse trends in road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities over 75 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Data on road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities between 1938 and 2013 were obtained from the Police Statistics Unit. Rates per 100 000 population were calculated and trends were analysed using joinpoint regression analysis. Findings Road traffic crashes and injuries rose substantially between 1938 and 2013: annual crashes increased from 61.2 to 183.6 per 100 000 people; injuries, from 35.1 to 98.6 per 100 000; and fatalities, from 3.0 to 10.8 per 100 000 people per year. Joinpoint analysis showed large fluctuations in crashes and injuries over time but the fatalities rose almost continuously. These fluctuations paralleled the country’s political and economic development. In some years, better traffic law enforcement and improved public transportation may have been associated with reduced crashes and injuries, whereas rapid growth in vehicle numbers, especially two- and three-wheeled vehicles, may have contributed to increased crashes and injuries. In addition, insurance policies that did not require a police report to claim may have led to underreporting of crashes and allowed drivers to avoid prosecution. Conclusion Fluctuations over time in road traffic crashes and injuries in Sri Lanka are associated with changes in political, economic and traffic policy. There is potential for reducing road traffic crashes and injuries through better traffic law enforcement, restrictions on the importation of two- and three-wheeled vehicles and policies to improve road safety and prevent underreporting of crashes. PMID:26478628

  4. A deterministic analysis of tsunami hazard and risk for the southwest coast of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.

  5. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    PubMed

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles

  6. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-02-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers' knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers' knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; 'under-reporting' was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and 'selling FMD-infected animals' is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should be levied for

  7. State-society relations and electricity infrastructure: Negotiating national energy security in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, Cynthia Marie

    In this dissertation, I use electricity production and distribution and grid expansion as a lens to view and understand state-society relations. After discussing how electricity has resource-like characteristics and institutional characteristics as a field of organization, I examine how groups in society interact with state officials and their corresponding institutions over electricity production and distribution and the pursuit of national energy security. Taking Sri Lanka as the focus of my inquiry, I conducted a qualitative research project to: (1) identify how class, ethnicity, and locality (urban or rural location) are constitutive of and constituted by electricity-infrastructure development and grid expansion initiatives; (2) identify how grid expansion contributes to processes of social inclusion and exclusion by reconstituting on-grid and off-grid populations, and; (3) determine the effects of privatization and environmental regulation on relationships between the state and groups in society. The methodological approaches include analyses of open-ended interviews, participant observation, surveys of government documents, and speeches and sermons delivered at protests against power-plant sitings to examine how groups in society engage the state as a social force. The study finds that privatization occurring in Sri Lanka's energy sector may have the effect of maintaining exclusion from electricity access rather than increasing access to electricity as the neoliberal paradigm asserts. Environmental regulations enable groups in society to include their concerns into the development process and to challenge state decision making that have been made on their behalf by the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB). The research suggests that class, ethnic, and rural-urban relations are constitutive factors in electricity production and distribution that complement foci on the technical and economic dimensions of electricity-infrastructure planning.

  8. Determinants of contraceptive method choice in Sri Lanka: an update of a 1987 survey.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, A; Thapa, S

    1991-09-01

    This 1987 update study of the sociocultural and demographic determinants of contraceptive method choice in Sri Lanka reveals a striking consistency with previous investigations of the same issue. In 1975 and 1982, researchers conducted similar studies of the determinants of contraceptive method choice. These studies showed that method choice was primarily a function of demographic factors related to the couple's family-building stages rather than socioeconomic factors, suggesting that in Sri Lanka there were few socioeconomic barriers to accessibility and choice of contraceptive methods. For the update, researchers analyzed the data from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey, a sample which included 5,449 currently married women between the ages of 15-49. As in the previous studies, the 1987 study four possible outcomes of contraceptive choice: not currently using a method, using a traditional method, using a temporary modern method, and sterilization. The researchers employed a multinominal logistic model as the analytical technique. The results of the analysis reveal a remarkable consistency with the previous studies. Both demographic and socioeconomic factors were important determinants of contraceptive use, evident in the fact that those who use contraception are not only motivated by their family-building stage, but also more likely to be urban, Sinhalese, and better educated. However, the study also found that family-cycle goals, rather than socioeconomic factors, continue to have the greatest influence over method choice, which explains the fact that there is a virtual lack of differentials among users of temporary modern and traditional methods. These findings suggest that government programs have not succeeded in promoting the sue of temporary modern methods of contraception. PMID:12284856

  9. Strength of fertility motivation: its effects on contraceptive use in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Retherford, R D; Thapa, S; De Silva, V

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka's Rural Family Planning Survey (RFPS) was done between August of 1985 and February of 1986 by the Family Planning Association with the aid of Family Health International. A 2-stage stratified random sample design was used with probability proportional to size. 3253 interviews took place with currently married women age 20-44. The sample covered 30 rural villages but is not representative of rural Sri Lanka. The use of traditional and modern contraceptive methods is the dependent variable. Traditional methods include the "safe period method" and withdrawal. Sterilized women were excluded. The main independent variable is strength of fertility motivation. The mean desired family size is shown by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics for nonpregnant, fecund, currently married women age 20-44 who report relative preference intensity. Desired family size increases with the duration of marriage, age, and the number of living children. Desired family size is lower for more educated women. Contraceptive usage rates are shown for broad groups of methods. Overall use does not vary much by age, marital duration, number of children living, or age at 1st marriage. The more educated women have higher usage rates of traditional methods as do the more wealthy. Use of modern temporary methods goes down as wealth and education increase. For 5 of the 8 independent variables, there seems to be a "trade-off" between modern temporary methods and traditional methods. 2 alternative logistic models are included, based on relative preference intensity. Estimates of the probability of using contraception by each independent variable shown, the number of living children tends to increase contraceptive use up to about 4 and to decrease it at higher numbers, and age at 1st marriage has a slight negative effect on the use of contraception. PMID:12342629

  10. Mitigation of Sri Lanka Island Effects in Colombo Sounding Data during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Yoneyama, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign, upper-air soundings were launched at Colombo, Sri Lanka as part of the enhanced northern sounding array (NSA) of the experiment. The Colombo soundings were affected at low-levels by diurnal heating of this large island and by flow blocking due to elevated terrain to the east of the Colombo site. Because of the large spacing between sounding sites, these small-scale effects are aliased onto the larger scale impacting analyses and atmospheric budgets over the DYNAMO NSA. To mitigate these local island effects on the large-scale budgets, a procedure was designed which uses ECMWF-analyzed fields in the vicinity of Sri Lanka to estimate open-ocean conditions (i.e, as if this island were not present). These 'unperturbed' ECMWF fields at low-levels are then merged with observed Colombo soundings. This procedure effectively mutes the blocking effects and large diurnal cycle observed in the low-level Colombo fields. In westerly flow regimes, adjusted Colombo winds increase the low-level westerlies by 2-3 m/s with a similar increase of the low-level easterlies in easterly flow regimes. In general, over the NSA the impact of the adjusted Colombo winds results in more low-level divergence (convergence), more mid-level subsidence (rising motion) and reduced (increased) rainfall during the westerly (easterly) wind regimes. In comparison to independent TRMM rainfall estimates, both the mean budget-derived rainfall and its temporal correlation are improved by using the adjusted Colombo soundings. In addition, use of the 'unperturbed' fields result in a more realistic moisture budget analyses, both in its diurnal cycle and during the build-up phase of the November MJO when a gradual deepening of apparent drying was observed. Overall, use of the adjusted Colombo soundings appears to have a beneficial impact on the NSA analyses and budgets.

  11. Precipitant profile of acute heart failure: experience of a tertiary level cardiac centre in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Anne Thushara; Ekanayaka, Ruvan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and objectives Heart failure (HF) is a common cause of hospitalisation in most countries. Data on acute precipitants of HF and hospitalisation is not available in Sri Lanka. Background and methods A prospective study of 100 sequential admissions with HF to the cardiology unit (National Hospital of Sri Lanka) to describe the precipitants and clinical outcome of HF. Results Fifty-eight male and 42 female admissions were studied. Mean age was 60.66 years. Mean hospital stay was 5.5(SD 4.6) days. Sixty had de novo HF and 40 had pre-existing HF. The most common identifiable precipitants were acute ischaemia 37 (37%), anaemia 41 (41%), respiratory tract infection 10 (10%), arrhythmia 11 (11%), worsening renal function 11 (11%) and alcohol 5 (5.7%). Non-adherence to medication 4 (4.6%), smoking 3 (3.9%), exposure to environmental stress 3 (3.4%) and uncontrolled hypertension 1 (1%) were also observed as precipitants. The most common arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation. Out of 34 patients in whom angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-converting enzyme receptor blockers were indicated, 11% were not on the drug. Among 29 patients in whom spironolactone was indicated, seven patients were not on the drug. Conclusions Most precipitating factors of HF are preventable. Early identification and prevention of anaemia, preventing respiratory tract infection by vaccination, aggressive revascularisation for patients with ischaemia, monitoring of renal functions, and patient education regarding drug and diet compliance, would reduce the number of admissions. PMID:27326091

  12. Species Composition and Diversity of Malaria Vector Breeding Habitats in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilaka, Nayana; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Hapugoda, Menaka; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Mosquito larval ecology is important in determining larval densities and species assemblage. This in turn influences malaria transmission in an area. Therefore, understanding larval habitat ecology is important in designing malaria control programs. Method. Larval surveys were conducted in 20 localities under five sentinel sites (Padavisiripura, Gomarankadawala, Thoppur, Mollipothana, and Ichchallampaththu) in Trincomalee District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, between June 2010 and July 2013. The relationship between seven abiotic variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), and salinity) was measured. Results. A total of 21,347 anophelines were recorded representing 15 species. Anopheles subpictus 24.72% (5,278/21,347) was the predominant species, followed by 24.67% (5,267/21,347) of An. nigerrimus and 14.56% (3,109/21,347) of An. peditaeniatus. A total of 9,430 breeding habitats under twenty-one categories were identified. An. culcicifacies was noted to be highest from built wells (20.5%) with high salinity (1102.3 ± 81.8 mg/L), followed by waste water collections (20.2%) having low DO levels (2.85 ± 0.03 mg/L) and high TDS (1,654 ± 140 mg/L). Conclusion. This study opens an avenue to explore new breeding habitats of malaria vectors in the country and reemphasizes the requirement of conducting entomological surveillance to detect potential transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka under the current malaria elimination programme. PMID:26583136

  13. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Daya

    2007-01-01

    Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will

  14. The Importance of Poisoning vs. Road Traffic Injuries as a Cause of Death in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Udayakumara, Nilantha; Adhikari, Sriyantha; de Silva, Dhamika; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Waidyaratne, Dhananjaya L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Road traffic crashes are considered by the WHO to be the most important global cause of death from injury. However, this may not be true for large areas of rural Asia where road vehicles are uncommon. The issue is important, since emphasising the importance of road traffic crashes risks switching resources to urban areas, away from already underfunded rural regions. In this study, we compared the importance of road traffic crashes with other forms of injury in a poor rural region of South Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on all deaths from injury in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka (NCP; population 1,105,198 at 2001 census) over 18 months using coronial, hospital, and police data. We calculated the incidence of death from all forms of intentional and unintentional injury in the province. The annual incidence of death from injury in the province was high: 84.2 per 100,000 population. Half of the deaths were from self-harm (41.3/100,000). Poisoning (35.7/100,000)—in particular, pesticide self-poisoning (23.7/100,000)—was the most common cause of death, being 3.9-fold more common than road traffic crashes (9.1/100,000). Conclusions/Significance In poor rural regions of South Asia, fatal self-harm and pesticide self-poisoning in particular are significantly more important than road traffic injuries as a cause of death. It is possible that the data used by the WHO to calculate global injury estimates are biased towards urban areas with better data collection but little pesticide poisoning. More studies are required to inform a debate about the importance of different forms of injury and how avoidable deaths from any cause can be prevented. In the meantime, marked improvements in the effectiveness of therapy for pesticide poisoning, safer storage, reduced pesticide use, or reductions in pesticide toxicity are required urgently to reduce the number of deaths from self-poisoning in rural Asia. PMID:17622344

  15. Factors Affecting Mental Health of Local Staff Working in the Vanni Region, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol; Petit, Pilar; Ghitis, Frida; Sivilli, Teresa I.; Scholte, Willem F.; Ager, Alastair; Eriksson, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of the civil war that extended from 1983–2009, humanitarian organizations provided aid to the conflict-affected population of the Vanni region in northern Sri Lanka. In August, 2010, a needs assessment was conducted to determine the mental-health status of Sri Lankan national humanitarian aid staff working in conditions of stress and hardship, and consider contextual and organizational characteristics influencing such status. A total of 398 staff members from nine organizations working in the Vanni area participated in the survey, which assessed stress, work characteristics, social support, coping styles, and symptoms of psychological distress. Exposure to traumatic, chronic, and secondary stressors was common. Nineteen percent of the population met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 53% of participants reported elevated anxiety symptoms, and 58% reported elevated depression symptoms. Those reporting high levels of support from their organizations were less likely to suffer depression and PTSD symptoms than those reporting lower levels of staff support (OR =.23, p < .001) and (OR =.26, p < .001), respectively. Participants who were age 55 or older were significantly less likely to suffer anxiety symptoms than those who were between 15 and 34 years of age (OR =.13, p = .011). Having experienced travel difficulties was significantly associated with more anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.35, p < .001). It was recommended that organizations provide stress-management training and increase support to their staff. PMID:27099648

  16. The gift of disaster: the commodification of good intentions in post-tsunami Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Korf, Benedikt; Habullah, Shahul; Hollenbach, Pia; Klem, Bart

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the commodification of post-tsunami aid in Sri Lanka, a process that 'contaminated' the 'purity' of good intentions with the politics of patronage and international aid. It argues that gifts are not just material transfers of 'aid', but also embodiments of cultural symbolism, social power, and political affiliations. The tsunami gift re-enforced and reconfigured exchange relationships among different patrons and clients in Sri Lankan communities, perpetuating the political economy that has driven social conflict and discontent in the post-independence years. Beyond dominant rationales of ethnic or political party patronage, the paper finds that gifts by disingenuous patrons not only became patrimonial, but that the patrimonial rationale emerged as much from above as from below--a dynamic that became nearly inescapable and self-reinforcing. Through three case studies, we explore the intricate chain of relations, obligations, and expectations pertinent in the co-evolving, but often contradictory, gift rationales that permeate the practices, performances, and discourses of tsunami aid. PMID:19486354

  17. Reactogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™ in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India: A post-marketing surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Lulu; Chitraka, Amarjeet; Liu, Aixue; Choudhury, Jaydeep; Kumar, Kishore; Berezo, Lennie; Cimafranca, Leonard; Chatterjee, Pallab; Garg, Pankaj; Siriwardene, Prasanna; Bernardo, Rommel; Mehta, Shailesh; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Karkada, Naveen; Htay Han, Htay

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory bodies in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India require post-marketing surveillance to provide additional safety data on Rotarix™ in real-life settings. In such studies conducted in The Philippines (November 2006 to July 2012; NCT00353366), Sri Lanka (November 2008 to August 2009; NCT00779779), and India (August 2009 to April 2010; NCT00938327), 2 doses of Rotarix™ were administered according to the local prescribing information (PI). The occurrence of at least Grade “2”/”3” solicited adverse event (AE) (fever, vomiting, or diarrhea), within 15 days in The Philippines or 8 days in Sri Lanka and India; unsolicited AEs within 31 days and serious adverse events (SAEs) throughout the study were recorded. Of the 1494, 522, and 332 infants enrolled in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India, 14.7% 14.9% and 12.7% infants, respectively recorded at least Grade “2”/”3” solicited AEs. The most commonly reported solicited AEs were irritability in The Philippines (32.2% post-Dose-1; 23.5% post-Dose-2) and India (23.0% post-Dose-1; 13.2% post-Dose-2), and fever (18.0% post-Dose-1; 20.2% post-Dose-2) in Sri Lanka. Unsolicited AEs were recorded in 24.5% (The Philippines), 4.8% (Sri Lanka), and 6.9% (India) of infants. Forty-one SAEs were recorded in the Philippines of which 6 (decreased oral intake with increased sleeping time and constipation; pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and intussusception) were considered by the investigators as causally related to vaccination. One vaccine-unrelated SAE occurred in a Sri Lankan infant. All SAEs resolved and the infants recovered. Two doses of Rotarix™, administered to healthy infants according to local PI, were well tolerated in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India. PMID:25424932

  18. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain aetiology: adding vital piece of information to the national project team report of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayalal, T B Ananda

    2015-01-01

    In a recent study published by the National Project Team on chronic kidney diseases of unknown origin in Sri Lanka, identified cadmium as a major risk factor but strong conclusions were not made as the identified environmental toxins were within the permissible levels.Sri Lankan food consumption pattern is different so that approach of total exposure of cadmium by food and water been calculated. Such calculation point out that total exposure of cadmium exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake determined by international agencies. PMID:26701260

  19. Regression analysis of "current status" life tables on duration of breastfeeding in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P

    1985-01-01

    Provided that women report the dates of their children's births with reasonable accuracy, it is possible to derive good estimates of the duration of breastfeeding from women's breastfeeding status at the time of the interview. This paper illustrates the application of conventional regression techniques to the analysis of breastfeeding rates derived in this manner. Construction of current status rates is explained and a comparison between open interval, closed interval, and current status breastfeeding life tables is presented, indicating the extent of bias to which tables of the former types are open. Birth-weighted rates are used for WFS data from Sri Lanka; the variables entered into the regression equation include parity, educational level, residence, work experience since marriage and use of contraception since the birth. Contraception is not found to influence net breastfeeding rates in the 1st interval (1-16 months), although it is about as prevalent as in later intervals. The positive coefficients at intervals beyond the 1st also imply that contraceptive use is not a substitute for lactation in Sri Lanka or not a predominant one. Lifetime urban residence is associated with short durations of breastfeeding, and being an urban migrant is associated with intermediate durations relative to those of rural women. The effects of residence on breastfeeding are especially pronounced in the 1st interval. By parity as by contraception, differences in breastfeeding rates are not significant at short durations but become so with time as lower parity women reach pregnancy. Patterns by age are similar, but less sharp. Middle school attendance and work at home are both strongly associated with with lactation behavior, the former negatively and the latter to about an equal degree positively. Working outside the home seems not to influence breastfeeding to any great extent. In the multiple attribute regressions, middle schooling depresses breastfeeding durations about as

  20. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  1. On the road to eliminate malaria in Sri Lanka: lessons from history, challenges, gaps in knowledge and research needs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. Malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers during the past decade, Sri Lanka has launched a programme to eliminate malaria by year 2014. This article reviews the historical milestones associated with the malaria eradication programme that failed subsequently and the events that led to the launch of the ongoing malaria elimination plans at national-level and its strategies that are operational across the entire country. The existing gaps in knowledge are also discussed together with the priority areas for research to fill in these gaps that are posing as challenges to the envisaged goal of wiping out malaria from this island nation. PMID:24548783

  2. Homegardens as a multi-functional land-use strategy in Sri Lanka with focus on carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi

    2013-11-01

    This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability. PMID:23456780

  3. Use of Social Media in Facilitating Health Care Research Among Nursing and Allied Health Undergraduates in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, S N

    2016-01-01

    A mentoring program was designed to promote conduction, completion and dissemination of undergraduate research among Nursing and Allied Health students in Sri Lanka. Several social media platforms were used; mainly the Facebook, YouTube and Google Hangouts. Knowledge sharing, interaction and collaboration were promoted. Student motivation was also done. Research presentation skills and applying for conferences was also facilitated. Over 90% of the participated 262 students completed a research project and close to 50% presented them both locally and internationally. PMID:27332276

  4. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907

  5. Toxic polyneuropathy due to gingili oil contaminated with tri-cresyl phosphate affecting adolescent girls in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, N; Jeyaratnam, J

    1981-01-10

    An outbreak of acute polyneuropathy affected over 20 young females in Sri Lanka during 1977-78. The illness was restricted to girls attaining menarche and to women after childbirth. The cause of the neuropathy could be traced to tri-cresyl phosphate found as a contaminant in gingili oil. Contamination probably occurred during transport of the oil in containers previously used for storing mineral oils. PMID:6109132

  6. Enhydrina schistosa (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) the most dangerous sea snake in Sri Lanka: three case studies of severe envenoming.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, S A M; Hettiarachchi, R; Dalpathadu, J; Mendis, A S V; Appuhamy, P D S A N; Zoysa, H D J; Maduwage, K; Weerasinghe, V S; de Silva, A

    2014-01-01

    Sea snakes are highly venomous and inhabit tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Enhydrina schistosa is a common species of sea snake that lives in the coastal waters, lagoons, river mouths and estuaries from the Persian Gulf through Sri Lanka and to Southeast Asia. It is considered one of the most aggressive sea snakes in Sri Lanka where fishermen and people wading are at high risk. However, sea snake bites are rarely reported. In this report, we describe three cases where E. schistosa was the offending species. These three patients presented to two hospitals on the west coast of Sri Lanka within the course of 14 months from November 2011 with different degrees of severity of envenoming. The first patient was a 26-year-old fisherman who developed severe myalgia with very high creatine kinase (CK) levels lasting longer than 7 days. The second patient was a 32-year-old fisherman who developed gross myoglobinuria, high CK levels and hyperkalaemia. Both patients recovered and their electromyographic recordings showed myopathic features. The nerve conduction and neuromuscular transmission studies were normal in both patients suggesting primary myotoxic envenoming. The third patient was a 41-year-old man who trod on a sea snake in a river mouth and developed severe myalgia seven hours later. He had severe rhabdomyolysis and died three days later due to cardiovascular collapse. In conclusion, we confirm that E. schistosa is a deadly sea snake and its bite causes severe rhabdomyolysis. PMID:24239658

  7. Impact of economic labour migration: a qualitative exploration of left-behind family member perspectives in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Adikari, Anushka; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Van Bortel, Tine; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-06-01

    Sri Lanka is a major labour sending country in Asia, with a high proportion of female labour migrants employed as domestic housemaids in the Middle East with increasing remittances. Despite such financial gains for families and national economy, health and social effects on the left-behind families have had limited exploration. This qualitative study was carried out across five districts with high labour migration rates in Sri Lanka. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with participants recruited through purposive sampling. Data was analysed using content and thematic analysis and emerging themes were mapped. Pre-migration socio-economic situation, economic difficulties and higher earning possibilities abroad were considered to be the major push and pull factors for labour migration. Post-migration periods were shown to be of mixed benefit to left-behind families and children suffer the negative effects of parental absence. The absence of support mechanisms for dealing with adverse events such as serious injury, death, abuse or imprisonment were cited as major concerns. Post-migration periods affect the health, well-being and family structures of left-behind families. Promoting economic prosperity while ensuring health and social protection is a formidable policy challenge for 'labour sending' countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:24242226

  8. Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka. PMID:27373421

  9. Estimating dengue type reproduction numbers for two provinces of Sri Lanka during the period 2013-14.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Tridip; Sasmal, Sourav Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2016-02-17

    Dengue is an endemic disease in the southeast Asian country Sri Lanka. Two seasonal peaks of dengue incidence were observed every year since 2002 onwards. In this study, we formulate a 2-strain dengue model for analyzing the monthly seasonal dengue incidence data from 2 provinces of Sri Lanka during the period April 2013 to September 2014. The seasonality is incorporated in the model in terms of mosquito biting rate, which we assume to be time periodic. We estimated 2 primary reproduction numbers and the basic reproduction number in a periodic environment using dengue incidence data from the western and the central provinces of Sri Lanka. We also estimated different time-average type reproduction numbers from the model using the data from these 2 provinces. Using univariate sensitivity analysis, we measured the sensitivity of the time average reproduction number ([Formula: see text]) When we vary different parameters of the proposed dengue model, we find the transmission probability of human susceptibility to strain-I infection and the mosquito mortality rate parameters are the most sensitive parameters in dengue transmission in these 2 provinces. PMID:26646355

  10. Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.

    2007-01-01

    We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.

  11. Morphology and surface topography of the schistosome Bivitellobilharzia nairi from the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, R P V J; Iwagami, M; Wickramasinghe, S; Walker, S M; Agatsuma, T

    2013-09-01

    Bivitellobilharzia nairi was first recorded from an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Berlin. Infections with this parasite have become increasingly important in E. maximus maximus populations in Sri Lanka. The present work is the first morphological description of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. A number of adult worms were recovered from a dead Asian elephant near the elephant orphanage, Pinnawala, in Sri Lanka. The observed clinical features of the infected elephant included emaciation, subventral oedema and anaemia. Post-mortem results indicated that the liver was enlarged and adult schistosomes were found in the blood vessels of the liver parenchyma. The total number of worms recovered from a portion of the liver was 129,870, which is an average of 22 worms per 100 g of liver. The present study uses both light microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques for the morphological and topographical characterization of this parasite and to permit comparison with other species of schistosomes. Morphologically, these worms correspond very well to the description of B. nairi by Dutt & Srivastava (1955). Moreover, it is clear that B. nairi is a distinctive species easily differentiated from other schistosomes. The SEM study of the tegument of male worms shows that the surface of B. nairi is smoother than in other schistosomes. PMID:22989615

  12. A new species of the genus Calotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from high elevations of the Knuckles massif of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, A A Thasun; Karunarathna, D M S Suranjan; Hallermann, Jakob; Fujinuma, Junichi; Grillitsch, Heinz; Campbell, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    A new species of agamid lizard, of the genus Calotes, is described based on morphological evidence. This species is restricted to the Knuckles massif (>900 m elevation) of Sri Lanka. The genus Calotes consists of seven species in Sri Lanka, five of which appear to form an endemic radiation. The new species most closely resembles C. liocephalus Günther, 1872 which has an isolated population in the central highlands and is only known from Pundaluoya (~1000m), Dickoya (~1200m), Upcot (~1400m), Agrapatanas (1665m) and Peak Wilderness (Sri Pada) (>1400m). The populations from Pundaluoya and Dickoya appear to be locally extinct from the wild and are known only from museum specimens collected over 120 years ago. Males of the new species are different from males of C. liocephalus because of the absence of a gular pouch; by having mid gular scales smaller in size than those of its counterpart; scales on the snout which are larger in size than those on the occipital and forehead; pectoral scales which are not enlarged; elongated subcaudal scales; slightly carinate and acuminate abdominal scales; and scales on venter which are somewhat larger in size than those on dorsum at the same level. Finally, we also redescribe Calotes liocephalus, and provide a key to the Sri Lankan species of genus Calotes. PMID:24872171

  13. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing

  14. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers’ knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers’ knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; ‘under-reporting’ was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and ‘selling FMD-infected animals’ is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should

  15. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

  16. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Jeuland, Marc; Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown ("u") cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples - from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) - contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. PMID:25782025

  17. Exposure to conflict and disaster: A national survey on the prevalence of psychotic experiences in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Keraite, Arune; Sumathipala, Athula; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Recent research conducted in high-income countries suggests psychotic experiences are common in the general population, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) remains limited. Sri Lanka is a LMIC affected by three decades of civil conflict and, in 2004, a devastating tsunami. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychotic experiences in a general population sample in Sri Lanka and associations with conflict- and tsunami-related trauma. This is a first National Mental Health Survey conducted in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional, multi-stage, cluster sampling design was used to estimate the prevalence of psychotic symptoms. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, conflict- and tsunami-related trauma, and psychotic experiences were collected using culturally validated measures in a sample of 5927 participants. The weighted prevalence of psychotic symptoms was 9.7%. Exposure to one or more conflict-related events (adj. OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.40-2.31, p<0.001) and loss or injury of a family member or friend through conflict (adj. OR, 1.83, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, p<0.001) were associated with increased odds of reporting psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were more common in individuals directly exposed to tsunami disaster (adj. OR, 1.68, 95% CI 1.04-2.73, P=0.035) and in those who had a family member who died or was injured as result of tsunami (adj. OR, 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94, p=0.029). Our findings suggest that psychotic experiences are common in the Sri Lankan population. Exposure to traumatic events in armed conflicts and natural disasters may be important socio-environmental factors in the development of psychotic experiences. PMID:26817400

  18. The age for the fossil-bearing Tabbowa beds in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. C.; Dassanayake, S.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Well-preserved terrestrial fossils, mainly including conifers, cycads and ferns, were discovered from the Tabbowa beds in northwestern Sri Lanka. The high diversity and abundance of plants and insects from these Jurassic sediments provide a unique window to understand floral evolution and plant-insect co-evolution in the Mesozoic. For example, unearthed fossils from the Tabbowa beds indicate that leaf feeding and dwelling insects played a significant role in the Jurassic ecosystem. For another example, feeding and chewing marks on leaves allow studying insect behavior and paleo-ecology. Additionally, the recent discoveries of Otozamites latiphyllus and Otozamites tabbowensis from these sediments provide evidence that Bennettitales, an extinct order of seed plants, widely spread in the Gondwana during the Jurassic period. Although most fossils are yet to be well studied, and only few of the fossil occurrences have been published in western journals, plant fossils from the Tabbowa beds have great potential for substantially increasing our knowledge of Jurassic terrestrial ecosystems. The fossil-bearing Tabbowa beds are mainly composed of sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone with occasional thin bands of nodular limestone. Until now, radio-isotopic age determinations for the fossil-rich Tabbowa beds are lacking. In this study, we investigate the geological and geochronological setting of this area by dating detrital zircons from the Tabbowa beds. The age data will allow testing several hypotheses regarding the plant evolution, the basin development of this region.

  19. Contemplating choice: attitudes towards intervening in human reproduction in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Simpson, B; Dissanayake, V H W; Jayasekara, R W

    2005-04-01

    To date, relatively little is known about the ethical, legal and social responses to recent advances in reproductive and genetic technology outside Europe and North America. This article reports on a survey carried out among doctors (n=278) and medical students (n=1256) in Sri Lanka to find out more about their responses to novel interventions in human reproduction such as In-Vitro Fertilization, Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis and genetic engineering. In the first part of the paper comparisons are drawn between this survey and a survey carried out in 1985 which also considered issues surrounding amniocentesis and therapeutic termination. The second part of the paper deals with more recent developments. The analysis reveals high levels of support for the use of new technologies in treating infertility and identifying genetic disorders. However, differences are apparent among the major religious communities represented in the sample and these are particularly in evidence in relation to prenatal genetic diagnosis. An important theme throughout both surveys is the continuing tension surrounding State policy and termination of pregnancy and the implications this has for the development of screening and counseling services where genetic disorders are concerned. PMID:16552923

  20. Sexual dimorphism in digital dermatoglyphic traits among Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender-wise diversity of digital dermatoglyphic traits in a sample of Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka. Findings Four thousand and thirty-four digital prints of 434 Sinhalese individuals (217 males and 217 females) were examined for their digital dermatoglyphic pattern distribution. The mean age for the entire group was 23.66 years (standard deviation = 4.93 years). The loop pattern is observed more frequently (n = 2,592, 59.72%) compared to whorl (n = 1,542, 35.53%) and arch (n = 206, 4.75%) in the Sinhalese population. Females (n = 1,274, 58.71%) have a more ulnar loop pattern than males (n = 1,231, 56.73%). The plain whorl pattern is observed more frequently in males (n = 560, 25.81%) compared to females (n = 514, 23.69%).The double loop pattern is observed more frequently on the right and left thumb (digit 1) of both males and females. Pattern intensity index, Dankmeijer index and Furuhata index are higher in males. Conclusions Ulnar loop is the most frequently occurring digital dermatoglyphic pattern among the Sinhalese. All pattern indices are higher in males. To some extent, dermatoglyphic patterns of Sinhalese are similar to North Indians and other Caucasoid populations. Further studies with larger sample sizes are recommended to confirm our findings. PMID:24377367

  1. Effect of Hydroxypropylation on Functional Properties of Different Cultivars of Sweet Potato Starch in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K. K. D. S.; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Starches obtained from different cultivars of sweet potatoes commonly consumed in Sri Lanka, were chemically modified with hydroxypropyl substitution, to analyze the changes in the physicochemical properties. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in the crude digestibility level, thermal properties, and the water separation (syneresis) of starch gels (7.0% db) during cold and frozen storage were observed due to the modification. Hydroxypropylation increased the gel stability, water solubility, digestibility, and storage stability of the native starches in the cold storage to a significant level. Lowered gelatinization and retrogradation enthalpies as well as gelatinization temperature were observed for derivatized starches compared to the native starch. Low levels of pasting stability with increased levels of breakdown and reduced cold paste viscosity were observed in the hydroxypropylated starch samples except for the Malaysian cultivar (S5). Chemically modified starch gels stored under cold storage did not show a syneresis for two weeks in the cycle and the frozen storage showed much improved stability in the starch gels within the four-week cycle. Chemical modification of sweet potato starch with hydroxyl propyl substitution can enhance the functional characteristics of the native starch which will improve its potential application in the food industry. PMID:26904619

  2. Trophic interactions in the coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka: An ECOPATH preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haputhantri, S. S. K.; Villanueva, M. C. S.; Moreau, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to assemble and summarize existing information in order to build a general representation of the trophic interactions within the shallow coastal ecosystem of Sri Lanka. A multispecific ecosystem-based approach on trophic relationships and their possible variations was performed using ECOPATH. Thirty-nine functional groups were considered representing all trophic levels in the food web. Time-dynamic simulation was carried out using the ECOSIM routine to evaluate the impact of the 1998 El Niño event on key functional groups. Results show that the time needed for any impacted functional group to recover to its initial abundance increased with the trophic level. Two time-series data sets derived from commercial catch and effort statistics were used for validation of ECOSIM results. The El Niño simulation results validated by the time-series data confirmed the ability of the proposed multispecies model to describe the sudden environmental changes. Possible impacts due to increase of fishing effort were also simulated by separately considering frequently used fishing gears. The analysis revealed that small-mesh gillnet fishery operates independently from the other existing developing fisheries in the same area and can be managed accordingly. Fishing-effort simulations suggest that the increase of fishing intensity by small-mesh gillnets would contribute to the decline of small pelagic catch. This was also found to influence the overall catch. The present level of exploitation of small pelagic fishery resources does not seem sustainable.

  3. Frontiers of the food-energy-water trilemma: Sri Lanka as a microcosm of tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Debra; Hornberger, George

    2016-01-01

    Food, energy, and water are three critical resources for humanity. As climate variability, population growth, and lifestyle changes amplify the stress placed on each of the resources, the interrelationships among food, energy, and water systems become more pronounced. Political conflict, social and cultural norms, and spatial and temporal distribution of the resources add additional layers of complexity. It is in this context that the significance of understanding the impacts of water scarcity on the decisions around food and energy productions has emerged. Our work establishes tradeoff frontiers (TFs) as a method useful in illustrating the system-level tradeoffs between allocating water for food and water for energy. This paper illustrates how TFs can be used to (1) show how scarcity in water resources affects the tradeoffs between food and energy and (2) explore the political and social constraints that can move production away from what is feasible technically. We use Sri Lanka, a country where water resources are variable both in space and time and a country with relatively self-contained energy and agricultural sectors, as a microcosm of the food security, energy security, and water security trilemma. Nevertheless, our application of tradeoff frontiers is applicable widely to other systems.

  4. Leptospirosis as Frequent Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Bodinayake, Champika; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikara-Arachichi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Flom, Judith E.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Woods, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the proportion of fevers caused by leptospirosis, we obtained serum specimens and epidemiologic and clinical data from patients in Galle, Sri Lanka, March–October 2007. Immunoglobulin M ELISA was performed on paired serum specimens to diagnose acute (seroconversion or 4-fold titer rise) or past (titer without rise) leptospirosis and seroprevalence (acute). We compared (individually) the diagnostic yield of acute-phase specimens and clinical impression with paired specimens for acute leptospirosis. Of 889 patients with paired specimens, 120 had acute leptosoirosis and 241 had past leptospirosis. The sensitivity and specificity of acute-phase serum specimens were 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2%–25.5%) and 69.2% (95% CI 65.5%–72.7%), respectively, and of clinical impression 22.9% (95% CI 15.4%–32.0%) and 91.7% (95% CI 89.2%–93.8%), respectively. For identifying acute leptospirosis, clinical impression is insensitive, and immunoglobulin M results are more insensitive and costly. Rapid, pathogen-based tests for early diagnosis are needed. PMID:21888794

  5. Hydrodynamic implications of textural trends in sand deposits of the 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Goff, J.R.; Nichol, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Field observations and sediment samples at a coastal-plain setting in southeastern Sri Lanka were used to document the erosional and depositional impacts of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes that produced an extensive sand-sheet deposit. Tsunami deposit thicknesses ranged from 6 to 22??cm with thickness being controlled partly by antecedent topography. The deposit was composed of coarse to medium sand organized into plane-parallel laminae and a few laminasets. Vertical textural trends showed an overall but non-systematic upward fining and upward thinning of depositional units with an upward increase in heavy-mineral laminations at some locations. Repeated patterns in the vertical textural trends (upward fining, upward coarsening, uniform) were used to subdivide and correlate the deposit into five hydro-textural stratigraphic units. The depositional units were linked to hydrodynamic processes and upcurrent conditions, such as rates of sediment supply and composition of the sediment sources. Vertical changes in grain-size distributions recorded the depositional phases associated with flow acceleration, initial unsteady pulsating flow, relatively stable and uniform flow, flow deceleration, slack water, and return flow or flow redirection. Study results suggest that vertical textural trends from multiple cross-shore sections can be used to interpret complex tsunami flow histories, but at the location examined, interpretation of the lateral textural trends did not provide a basis for identifying the correct sediment transport pathways because flow near the landward boundary was multidirectional.

  6. Characterization of the Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of the Dengue Epidemic in Northern Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anno, S.; Imaoka, K.; Tadono, T.; Igarashi, T.; Sivaganesh, S.; Kannathasan, S.; Kumaran, V.; Surendran, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue outbreaks are affected by biological, ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that vary over time and space. These factors have been examined separately, with limited success, and still require clarification. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal relationships between these factors and dengue outbreaks in the northern region of Sri Lanka. Remote sensing (RS) data gathered from a plurality of satellites: TRMM TMI, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W AMSR2, DMSP SSM/I, DMSP SSMIS, NOAA-19 AMSU, MetOp-A AMSU and GEO IR were used to develop an index comprising rainfall. Humidity (total precipitable water, or vertically integrated water vapor amount) and temperature (surface temperature) data were acquired from the JAXA Satellite Monitoring for Environmental Studies (JASMES) portal which were retrieved and processed from the Aqua/MODIS and Terra/MODIS data. RS data gathered by ALOS/AVNIR-2 were used to detect urbanization, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analyzed RS data and databases were integrated into geographic information systems, enabling both spatial association analysis and spatial statistical analysis. Our findings show that the combination of ecological factors derived from RS data and socio-economic and demographic factors is suitable for predicting spatial and temporal patterns of dengue outbreaks.

  7. Population structure and virulence content of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from outbreaks in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, D R A; Octavia, Sophie; Lan, Ruiting

    2014-01-31

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes economically significant infections in poultry. The genetic diversity of APEC and phylogenetic relationships within and between APEC and other pathogenic E. coli are not yet well understood. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST), PCR-based phylogrouping and virulence genotyping to analyse 75 avian E. coli strains, including 55 isolated from outbreaks of colisepticaemia and 20 from healthy chickens. Isolates were collected from 42 commercial layer and broiler chicken farms in Sri Lanka. MLST identified 61 sequence types (ST) with 44 being novel. The most frequent ST, ST48, was represented by only six isolates followed by ST117 with four isolates. Phylogenetic clusters based on MLST sequences were mostly comparable to phylogrouping by PCR and MLST further differentiated phylogroups B1 and D into two subgroups. Genotyping of 16 APEC associated virulence genes found that 27 of the clinical isolates and one isolate from a healthy chicken belonged to highly virulent genotype according to previously established classification schemes. We found that a combination of four genes, ompT, hlyF, iroN and papC, gave a comparable prediction to that of using five and nine genes by other studies. Four STs (ST10, ST48, ST117 and ST2016) contained APEC isolates from this study and human UPEC isolates reported by others, suggesting that these STs are potentially zoonotic. Our results enhanced the understanding of APEC population structure and virulence association. PMID:24388626

  8. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 4 in a patient from Sri Lanka with pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bachli, Esther B; Brack, Thomas; Eppler, Elisabeth; Stallmach, Thomas; Trüeb, Ralph M; Huizing, Marjan; Gahl, William A

    2004-06-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and a platelet storage pool deficiency. Some patients also develop fatal pulmonary fibrosis and some have granulomatous colitis. Six human genes HPS1, ADB3A, HPS3, HPS4, HPS5, and HPS6 have been identified as cause of the six known subtypes of HPS. While there exist nearly 500 Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican HPS-1 patients, very few HPS-4 patients have been reported, and most of these have not been described in detail. We now delineate the clinical characteristics of an HPS-4 patient homozygous for a novel HPS-4 mutation, P685delC. The patient, the first individual with HPS reported from Sri Lanka, had severe pulmonary fibrosis, typical of HPS-1 disease, without granulomatous colitis. We conclude that pulmonary fibrosis occurs as part of HPS-4 and that HPS should be considered in all ethnic groups. PMID:15108212

  9. Geologic impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, B.M.; Jaffe, B.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Morton, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a large submarine earthquake (magnitude ???9.1) with an epicenter located under the seafloor in the eastern Indian Ocean near northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The resulting tsunami was measured globally and had significant geologic impacts throughout the Indian Ocean basin. Observations of tsunami impacts, such as morphologic change, sedimentary deposits, and water-level measurements, are used to reconstruct tsunamogenic processes. Data from Sumatra, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives provide a synoptic view of tsunami characteristics from a wide range of coastal environments both near- and far-field from the tsunami origin. Impacts to the coast as a result of the tsunami varied depending upon the height of the wave at impact, orientation of the coast with regard to direction of wave approach, and local topography, bathymetry, geology, and vegetation cover. Tsunami deposits were observed in all the countries visited and can be generally characterized as relatively thin sheets (<80 cm), mostly of sand. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  10. Implementation of genomic medicine in Sri Lanka: Initial experience and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sirisena, Nirmala D; Neththikumara, Nilaksha; Wetthasinghe, Kalum; Dissanayake, Vajira H W

    2016-06-01

    The recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have made it possible to implement genomic medicine in developing countries such as Sri Lanka where capacity for utilization is limited. This paper aims to describe our initial experience and challenges faced in integrating genomic medicine into routine clinical practice. Using the Illumina MiSeq Next generation sequencing (NGS) platform and an in-house developed bioinformatics pipeline/workflow, we successfully implemented clinical exome sequencing for rare disorders, complex disorders with unusual coexisting phenotypes, and multigene cancer panel testing for inherited cancer syndromes. The advantages of implementing these tests, the challenges for bioinformatics analysis and reporting, the ethical, legal, and social implications of moving from genetic to genomic counseling, and special policy issues related to implementing these tests are further discussed. The implementation of genomic medicine into our routine clinical practice has facilitated improved care for our patients, attesting to the ability of resource limited countries to improve care using advanced genomic technology. PMID:27354939