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Sample records for northern chilean mummy

  1. Mummies.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Mummies are human remains with preservation of nonbony tissue. Mummification by natural influences results in so-called natural mummies, whereas mummification induced by active (human) intervention results in so-called artificial mummies, although many cultures practiced burial rites, which to some degree involved both natural and artificial mummification. Since they are so uniquely well-preserved, mummies may give many insights into mortuary practices and burial rites. Specifically, the presence of soft tissues may expand the scope of paleopathological studies. Many recent mummy studies focus on the development and application of nondestructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced three-dimensional visualizations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minimally-destructive chemical, physical, and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals, and DNA. This article discusses mummification and gives a presentation of various key mummy finds and a brief history of mummy studies. A description of the extant key technologies of natural and medical science that are applied in mummy studies is given; along with a discussion of some of the major results in terms of paleopathology. It is also shown how mummy studies have contributed much to the knowledge of the cultural habits and everyday life of past populations. Finally the impact of mummy studies on analyses of mortuary practices and cultural history is discussed. PMID:18046750

  2. Evidence of Sympatry of Clade A and Clade B Head Lice in a Pre-Columbian Chilean Mummy from Camarones

    PubMed Central

    Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Rivera, Mario A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Three different lineages of head lice are known to parasitize humans. Clade A, which is currently worldwide in distribution, was previously demonstrated to be present in the Americas before the time of Columbus. The two other types of head lice are geographically restricted to America and Australia for clade B and to Africa and Asia for clade C. In this study, we tested two operculated nits from a 4,000-year-old Chilean mummy of Camarones for the presence of the partial Cytb mitochondrial gene (270 bp). Our finding shows that clade B head lice were present in America before the arrival of the European colonists. PMID:24204678

  3. Recent advances in the characterization of hair of mummies from the Chilean Andean coast.

    PubMed

    Fresnais, M; Richardin, P; Gimat, A; Sepúlveda, M; Leize-Wagner, E; Charrié, A

    2015-04-01

    Two pre-Hispanic mummies from the Andean coast, belonging to a corpus of 16 mummies from the San Miguel de Azapa (Arica, Chile), were radiocarbon dated and analyzed in order to replace them in their historical context and to study the conservation state of the hair fibers and the heavy metal presence. The radiocarbon dating placed both mummies in the Formative period (1700 years BC to 500 years AD). Global and elemental analyses were performed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. These combined techniques enabled to prove the good global conservation state of the mummies' hair and to detect iron, lead, bromide and also arsenic in some cases, in significant amounts inside the hair fibers. Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy seemed to prove the good conservation state of the hair surface at a structural level that is why the conservation of hair proteins at a molecular level will be investigated by a proteomics approach in future work. PMID:25647693

  4. Mummies & Magic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Jeanne E.

    1989-01-01

    Covers the cultural and aesthetic significance of Egyptian mummies, as explained in an exhibition at Boston's Museum of Fine Arts. The display, "Mummies & Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt," allowed for restoration work which did much to advance modern knowledge of Egyptian culture and funerary art. (LS)

  5. [Buddhist mummies in Japan].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, I

    1993-08-01

    The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which

  6. Late Holocene environmental changes recorded in the sediments of Lago Thompson, Northern Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagel, Nathalie; Nuttin, Laurence; Bertrand, Sébastien; Borgniet, Geoffrey; Schmidt, Sabine; Araneda, Alberto; Torrejon, Fernando; Urrutia, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the sedimentary record of Lago Thompson, a small lake (area 1.1 km2, watershed ~8 km2) located at an elevation of 750 masl in Northern Chilean Patagonia (45.38 °S, 71.47°W). At Present, the climate conditions around the lake are relatively dry, with annual precipitation averaging 500 mm. The goal of this study is to evaluate the natural climate variability over the Last Millennium in Northern Chilean Patagonia and its impact on the environment. The coring site was selected after a bathymetric survey using an echo-sounder. Several short cores were retrieved in 2008 using an Uwitec gravity corer: the length of the cores ranges between 124 and 132 cm. The preliminary age model is based on 4 AMS radiocarbon ages measured on bulk sediment and organic macro-remains. The radiocarbon ages demonstrate that the sediment cores cover the last 850 to 950 years. This sediment record, which is characterized by accumulation rates ranging between 1 and 3 mm/yr, can therefore be studied at decennial to centennial resolution. To reconstruct past changes in climate and the environment, we conducted a multiproxy study combining sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical analyses (LOI 105, 550 and 950°C, biogenic silica content, magnetic susceptibility, tephrostratigraphy, bulk organic geochemistry, bulk mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, and inorganic geochemistry by ITRAX core scanner and ICP-AES). Visual descriptions and X-ray radiographies demonstrate that the sediment record is relatively undisturbed. The sediment is composed of light brown organic-rich clayey material. The lower part of the core (below 75 cm) is finely laminated whereas the upper part is more homogeneous. Magnetic susceptibility values highlight two tephra layers that represent explosive eruptions of volcanoes from the southern volcanic zone of Chile (Hudson, Cay, or Macá volcanoes). The biogenic silica content of the sediment retrieved in Lago Thompson is high (40 to 80%), and probably

  7. Crustal and Slab Related Seismicity in the Northern Chilean Coastal Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, N. W.; Kummerow, J.; Wigger, P.; Shapiro, S. A.; Salazar, P.

    2012-04-01

    The focus of this study is the high- resolution localization of more than 800 earthquakes in the Northern Chilean Salar Grande region at about 21°S within the Andean Costal Cordillera. The events have been recorded by a temporary local network in 2010. We find, that seismicity is not only related to the Nazca slab but also occurs widely scattered within the overlying continental crust. Our highly resolved locations with typical uncertainties below 200 meters image two distinct seismogenic zones at the top and deeper within the mantle of the Nazca slab, as well as the prominent Atacama Fault Zone. The latter could eventually penetrate the entire crust, possibly joining the subduction interface at a depth of about 40 kilometers. In our further investigation, we have applied a waveform cross-correlation approach by which we were able to identify clusters of similar events with respect to location and source mechanism. Within these clusters we took advantage of waveform similarity to further decrease location uncertainties. Most of the crustal seismicity clusters locate on a subvertical planar structure beneath the surface traces of the Atacama Fault Zone, which extends from close to the surface down to the slab. This could indicate that seismicity in the forearc is not only caused by subduction- related deformation, but also by fluid processes. The irregular spatial distribution of the Nazca slab related clusters may be a consequence of topographic variations within the downgoing slab.

  8. Myths, Mummies and Museums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norby, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Greek mythology, Egyptian mummies, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City are the focus of a one-semester course given at the Sea Girt (New Jersey) Elementary School. It is an interdisciplinary program wherein students (grade 8) study ancient civilizations and do projects related to their studies. (KC)

  9. Mummy berry disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mummy Berry is the most important disease of blueberry worldwide. It has not been as severe in the southeastern U.S. on rabbiteye blueberry has it is in other areas on highbush blueberry. However, it has caused severe losses on some farms in some years. This poster gives the symptoms, disease cyc...

  10. The last millenia sedimentary record of Lake Esponja, Northern Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagel, Nathalie; Araneda, Alberto; Alvarez, Denisse; Perfetti-Bolaño, Alessandra; Billy, Isabelle; Martinez, Philippe; Schmidt, Sabine; Urrutia, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    We evaluate the climate and environmental variability of Northern Chilean Patagonia during the Last Millennia, using a multi-proxy analysis of a sediment core from Lago Esponja (45°09'S, 72°08'W). The lake is located in the region of Aysen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, in NW Patagonia. The study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records. The longest core (150 cm long) was collected in 2014 at 40 m depth. The sediment, which is composed of light brown organic-rich clayey silt, was analyzed for sedimentology (grain size, magnetic susceptibility organic matter and biogenic silica content), mineralogy (X-ray diffraction) and geochemistry (elemental and isotopic analyses of C and N, XRF core-scaner at 1 mm resolution). The radiocarbon ages, measured on 3 macro-remains, demonstrate that the core covers the last 6.700 years. The sedimentation rate ranges between 0.1 mm/yr in the lower section (100-150 cm) and 0.4 mm/yr in the upper meter. Visual descriptions and Scopix radiographies show that the sediment record is finely laminated except a massive decimetric coarser and darker layer corresponding to a tephra (estimated age 700AD±50). Magnetic susceptibility (confirmed by scopix radiographies) highlights the presence of 8 additional millimetric tephra layers. The biogenic silica content of the sediment is low (mean 5%). Diatom assemblage is dominated by benthic and acidophilous species, with high saprobic values. None marked changes were observed regarding the dynamic of the lake. The high organic matter content (mean 15%) and its high C/N ratio (12.7) throughout the core indicate inputs of allochtonous and terrestrial organic matter. Such parameters present high sediment variability also marked by changes in the chemical composition. The laminations reflect changes in the allochtonous sedimentary inputs, with high terrestrial inputs during wetter conditions in relation with the Westerlies. The sedimentary records of Lago Esponja will be compared

  11. Holocene environmental changes in lake sediments from Northern Chilean Patagonia (45-48°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttin, L.; Fagel, N.; Bertrand, S.; Araneda, A.; Torrejon, F.; Urrutia, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Hemisphere has a crucial, but still not well constrained, role in global climatic fluctuations. In order to improve our understanding of the past climate changes in southern South America, we investigated the sedimentary record of three small lakes located between 45 and 48°S in Northern Chilean Patagonia. Our aim is to evaluate the occurrence of decennial-centennial scale climate events during the Late Holocene. In each lake, the coring site was chosen after a bathymetric survey using an echo-sounder. The short cores were retrieved using an Uwitec gravity corer. The length of the cores ranges from 60 to 140 cm. We conducted a multiproxy study combining sedimentological and geochemical analyses (LOI 105, 550 and 950°C, magnetic susceptibility, C/N ratio, bulk X-ray diffraction, and inorganic geochemistry by ICP-AES and ITRAX core scanning). According to preliminary age-depth models, the two southern lakes are characterised by very low sedimentation rates, averaging 0.06 and 0.2 mm/yr in Lago Larga (47°S) and Sitting Bull (46°S), respectively. On the opposite, the sedimentation rate in Lago Thompson (45°S) is much higher (1 mm/yr), allowing paleoreconstructions at decennial resolution. Macroscopic descriptions and smear slide observations reveal the occurrence of a few volcanic layers. In particular one 4 cm-thick layer is observed at the base of the core retrieved in Lago Larga. This layer probably corresponds to a major eruption of the Hudson volcano ˜8 kyr ago. The recent sediments of Lago Sitting Bull are characterised by a significant increase in C/N ratio, most likely related to the construction of a nearby major road in the eighties. Identification of biological assemblages (diatoms, chironomids, pollen) will be compared with sedimentological features to reconstruct paleoenvironmental and/or paleoclimatic changes over the last millenia. This research is funded by Fondecyt project # 1070508 and a CGRI Wallonie-Chile cooperation project.

  12. Reconstructing the life of an unknown (ca. 500 years-old South American Inca) mummy--multidisciplinary study of a Peruvian Inca mummy suggests severe Chagas disease and ritual homicide.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E; Pusch, Carsten M; Nerlich, Andreas G

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451-1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more "terrestric" nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual that

  13. Reconstructing the Life of an Unknown (ca. 500 Years-Old South American Inca) Mummy – Multidisciplinary Study of a Peruvian Inca Mummy Suggests Severe Chagas Disease and Ritual Homicide

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Stephanie; Peschel, Oliver; Haas-Gebhard, Brigitte; Bachmeier, Beatrice E.; Pusch, Carsten M.; Nerlich, Andreas G.

    2014-01-01

    The paleopathological, paleoradiological, histological, molecular and forensic investigation of a female mummy (radiocarbon dated 1451–1642 AD) provides circumstantial evidence for massive skull trauma affecting a young adult female individual shortly before death along with chronic infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). The mummy (initially assumed to be a German bog body) was localized by stable isotope analysis to South America at/near the Peruvian/Northern Chilean coast line. This is further supported by New World camelid fibers attached to her plaits, typical Inca-type skull deformation and the type of Wormian bone at her occiput. Despite an only small transverse wound of the supraorbital region computed tomography scans show an almost complete destruction of face and frontal skull bones with terrace-like margins, but without evidence for tissue reaction. The type of destruction indicates massive blunt force applied to the center of the face. Stable isotope analysis indicates South American origin: Nitrogen and hydrogen isotope patterns indicate an extraordinarily high marine diet along with C4-plant alimentation which fits best to the coastal area of Pacific South America. A hair strand over the last ten months of her life indicates a shift to a more “terrestric” nutrition pattern suggesting either a move from the coast or a change in her nutrition. Paleoradiology further shows extensive hypertrophy of the heart muscle and a distended large bowel/rectum. Histologically, in the rectum wall massive fibrosis alternates with residual smooth muscle. The latter contains multiple inclusions of small intracellular parasites as confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular ancient DNA analysis to represent a chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This case shows a unique paleopathological setting with massive blunt force trauma to the skull nurturing the hypothesis of a ritual homicide as previously described in South American mummies in an individual

  14. Late Holocene covariability of the southern westerlies and sea surface temperature in northern Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Sébastien; Hughen, Konrad; Sepúlveda, Julio; Pantoja, Silvio

    2014-12-01

    The climate of Chilean Patagonia is strongly influenced by the southern westerlies, which control the amount and latitudinal distribution of precipitation in the southern Andes. In austral summer, the Southern Westerly Wind Belt (SWWB) is restricted to the high latitudes. It expands northward in winter, which results in a strong precipitation seasonality between ˜35 and 45°S. Here, we present a new precipitation seasonality proxy record from Quitralco fjord (46°S), where relatively small latitudinal shifts of the SWWB result in large changes in precipitation seasonality. Our 1400 yr record is based on sedimentological and geochemical data obtained on a sediment core collected in front of a small river that drains the Patagonian Andes, which makes this site particularly sensitive to changes in river discharge. Our results indicate Fe/Al and Ti/Al values that are low between 600 and 1200 CE, increasing at 1200-1500 CE, and high between 1500 and 1950 CE. Increasing Fe/Al and Ti/Al values reflect a decrease in mean sediment grain-size from 30 to 20 μm, which is interpreted as a decrease in seasonal floods resulting from an equatorward shift of the SWWB. Our results suggest that, compared to present-day conditions, the SWWB was located in a more poleward position before 1200 CE. It gradually shifted towards the equator in 1200-1500 CE, where it remained in a sustained position until 1950 CE. This pattern is consistent with most precipitation records from central and southern Chile. The comparison of our record with published regional sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions for the late Holocene shows that equatorward shifts of the SWWB are systematically coeval with decreasing SSTs and vice versa, which resembles fluctuations over glacial-interglacial timescales. We argue that the synchronicity between SST and SWWB changes during the last 1400 years represents the response of the SWWB to temperature changes in the Southern Hemisphere.

  15. Diagnosing ancient diphyllobothriasis from Chinchorro mummies.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Karl; Urban, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium pacificum has been reported as a human parasite from coprolites and skeletons in Peru and Chile. Our analysis of Chinchorro mummies from Chile provides the oldest evidence of D. pacificum directly associated with human mummies. These mummies date between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago. The basis for our diagnosis is presented. We find that the size of the eggs in the mummies is smaller than other discoveries of D. pacificum. We suggest that this is due to the peculiar circumstances of preservation of parasite eggs within mummies and the release of immature eggs into the intestinal tract as the tapeworms decompose after the death of the host. This information is important to consider when making diagnoses from mummies. PMID:12687781

  16. Crustal Structure of the Northern Chilean Forearc from Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, D.; Carrizo, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Peyrat, S.; Arriaza, R.; Chi, R. K.; Baeza, S.

    2015-12-01

    In addition to being an excellent venue for investigating the tectonics of the Andean margin, northern Chile is of particular interest to seismologists because of its potential for an imminent megathrust earthquake. Such events often trigger destructive seismic activity in the populated forearc, as demonstrated for example in the aftermath of the 2010 Maule event. To investigate the nature of deformation in the forearc, we generated high resolution images of the subsurface from Rayleigh wave dispersion curves derived from cross correlation of ambient noise. The ambient noise data were recorded over a period of three years by 60 stations from three different networks of broad band stations. Because of the proximity of the stations to the Pacific Ocean, we estimated the bias in the estimated Green's functions caused by the asymmetry of the noise distribution using a technique based on that described by Yao and van der Hilst (2009). Our results suggest that this bias can be as large as 5% for some station pairs. The unbiased times are then used to refine phase velocity maps, from which we derived transit times to generate a 3D image of shear wavespeed (Vs) from the surface to about 50 km depth. To first order, low-Vs anomalies correlate well with the geometry of the Atacama Bench Structure (western foreland basin) where leaching processes are related to large incisions in the Atacama Desert (north of 19ºS). In addition, high Vs anomalies correlate with the locations of fossil magmatic arcs developed as trench-parallel belts from the coast to the Altiplano. For example, high Vs correlates with the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc along the coast, the Paleocene-Oligocene magmatic arc in the central depression, and the Eocene-Oligocene magmatic arc in the Frontal Cordillera. A continuous seismic anomaly of low-Vs, located between 15 - 25 km depth, may be evidence of a weak and/or hydrated zone within the lower continental crust, related to slab-linked upper plate

  17. Late Cenozoic Deformation of the Coastal Cordillera, Northern Chilean Forearc, 18- 25°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allmendinger, R. W.; González, G.; Loveless, J. P.; Carrizo, D.

    2004-12-01

    Overlying the only part of the South American continental crust that is in direct contact with the subducting Nazca Plate, the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile and southern Peru should provide the most complete geological record of the coupling between the two plates. This record of coupling is exquisitely preserved in the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This preservation is both one of the major advantages and major challenges of working in this region: On the positive side, exposure of geomorphic surfaces is complete and unencumbered by erosion or vegetation, and brittle saline soils preserve subtle deformation features that would quickly be obliterated in more humid environments. On the negative side, ancient geomorphic features are just as fresh as Recent one and the lack of organic material precludes radiocarbon dating, a traditional tool of paleoseismology. During the last several years, we have concentrated on documenting three fundamental characteristics of late Cenozoic forearc deformation: (1) NS shortening on reverse faults striking at a high angle to, and dextral-reverse faults striking oblique to, the continental margin; (2) N-striking normal faults of the forearc and their reactivation, locally, as reverse faults; and (3) extensive suites of tension cracks. Reverse faults striking at a high angle to the margin are present between 19 and 21.5°S, straddling the topographic symmetry plane that marks the axis of the Bolivian orocline. Limited dating of tuffs and surfaces shows that these structures have been active for at least the last 6 Ma. At least 5 of these structures -- Atajaña, Pisagua, Iquique north and south, and Barranco Alto -- cut the Pleistocene marine terraces of the coastal platform, producing 20 to 50 m of vertical offset. A forearc crustal earthquake just south of Pisagua in March 2007 demonstrates that margin parallel shortening continues to the present and that permanent deformation occurs during the interseismic part of the plate

  18. Late Cenozoic Deformation of the Coastal Cordillera, Northern Chilean Forearc, 18- 25°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allmendinger, R. W.; González, G.; Loveless, J. P.; Carrizo, D.

    2007-12-01

    Overlying the only part of the South American continental crust that is in direct contact with the subducting Nazca Plate, the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile and southern Peru should provide the most complete geological record of the coupling between the two plates. This record of coupling is exquisitely preserved in the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This preservation is both one of the major advantages and major challenges of working in this region: On the positive side, exposure of geomorphic surfaces is complete and unencumbered by erosion or vegetation, and brittle saline soils preserve subtle deformation features that would quickly be obliterated in more humid environments. On the negative side, ancient geomorphic features are just as fresh as Recent one and the lack of organic material precludes radiocarbon dating, a traditional tool of paleoseismology. During the last several years, we have concentrated on documenting three fundamental characteristics of late Cenozoic forearc deformation: (1) NS shortening on reverse faults striking at a high angle to, and dextral-reverse faults striking oblique to, the continental margin; (2) N-striking normal faults of the forearc and their reactivation, locally, as reverse faults; and (3) extensive suites of tension cracks. Reverse faults striking at a high angle to the margin are present between 19 and 21.5°S, straddling the topographic symmetry plane that marks the axis of the Bolivian orocline. Limited dating of tuffs and surfaces shows that these structures have been active for at least the last 6 Ma. At least 5 of these structures -- Atajaña, Pisagua, Iquique north and south, and Barranco Alto -- cut the Pleistocene marine terraces of the coastal platform, producing 20 to 50 m of vertical offset. A forearc crustal earthquake just south of Pisagua in March 2007 demonstrates that margin parallel shortening continues to the present and that permanent deformation occurs during the interseismic part of the plate

  19. The Tres Ventanas Mummies of Peru.

    PubMed

    Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido; Ojeda, Bernadino; Benfer, Robert A; Rivera, Ricardo; Finch, Caleb E; Thomas, Gregory S; Thompson, Randall C

    2015-06-01

    The Tres Ventanas mummies of Peru are thought to be among the oldest mummies in existence, dating to between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these mummies for use in future research on mummified remains. Although the Tres Ventanas cave and the four mummies were explored and then excavated by Frederic Engel in 1966-67, and the project is named in his honor as the "Engel Study Group", the importance of both the physical remains and the context in which they were found has only come to light in the last few years. Most important is the paleopathological examination of these remains, since these mummies are found in a high altitude area of Peru where adaptation to the limited partial pressure of oxygen is perhaps a key component in broadening our understanding of human diversity in past populations. PMID:25998637

  20. The museum's mummies: an inside view.

    PubMed

    Mininberg, D T

    2001-07-01

    We applied medical and scientific methodology in a study of the mummies in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, New York, by computed tomographic scanning and other radiographic methods. These noninvasive procedures allow us to "unwrap" these mummies without unwrapping them. This is, in effect, technology transfer of routine diagnostic techniques used in medicine to Egyptology. After this noninvasive information-gathering procedure, the mummies are preserved intact for possible future investigations that may be more sophisticated and more informative. The data are presented and put into perspective by a review of pertinent literature. PMID:11440442

  1. Computed tomography of ancient Egyptian mummies.

    PubMed

    Harwood-Nash, D C

    1979-12-01

    This first report of the application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of ancient mummies, the desiccated brain of a boy and the body of a young woman within her cartonnage, shows that CT is uniquely suitable for the study of such antiquities, a study that does not necessitate destruction of the mummy or its cartonnage. Exquisite images result that are of great paleoanatomical, paleopathological, and archeological significance. PMID:389964

  2. Imaging of Ancient Egyptian Animal Mummies.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Lidija M; Atherton-Woolham, Stephanie D; Adams, Judith E

    2015-01-01

    Human mummies have long been studied by using imaging as a primary investigative method. Mummified animal remains from ancient Egypt are less well researched, yet much can be learned about species diversity and the methods of preservation. Noninvasive imaging methods enable mummy bundles to remain intact, with no detrimental physical effects, thus ensuring protection of a valuable archaeological resource. This article is based on the research experience gathered during 13 years (2000-2012) with 152 animal mummies held in the collections of 17 museums in the United Kingdom. Conventional radiography, computed radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography (CT) available in the clinical setting were used to assess the value of each imaging modality in the study of animal mummies and related material. Radiography proved to be an excellent research method that provided initial insight into the contents of the mummy bundle, and CT contributed additional useful detail in some cases. Paleoradiologic analyses enabled information on mummy bundle contents to be proved, including the nature of the skeletal remains and the methods of mummification. An optimum method involving radiography and CT is described. PMID:26562240

  3. The mummy's curse: historical cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Mark R

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine survival of individuals exposed to the “mummy's curse” reputedly associated with the opening of the tomb of Tutankhamen in Luxor, Egypt, between February 1923 and November 1926. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants 44 Westerners identified by Howard Carter as present in Egypt at the specified dates, 25 of whom were potentially exposed to the curse. Main outcome measures Length of survival after date of potential exposure. Results In the 25 people exposed to the curse the mean age at death was 70 years (SD 12) compared with 75 (13) in those not exposed (P=0.87 for difference). Survival after the date of exposure was 20.8 (15.2) v 28.9 (13.6) years respectively (P=0.95 for difference). Female sex was a predictor for survival (P=0.02). Conclusions There was no significant association between exposure to the mummy's curse and survival and thus no evidence to support the existence of a mummy's curse. What is already known on this topicThe methods of evidence based medicine have not been used to investigate the reality of the “mummy's curse”The arguments against the curse have been as anecdotal as the contemporary newspapers that reported itWhat this study addsThere was no association between potential exposure to the mummy's curse during the excavation of Tutankamen's tomb and death within 10 yearsNo evidence was found for the existence of a mummy's curse PMID:12493675

  4. The anatomy of the mummy: mortui viventes docent--when ancient mummies speak to modern doctors.

    PubMed

    Monge, Janet M; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    There is almost a universal fascination with prehistoric, protohistoric, and historic human remains that preserve the soft tissues (nonskeletal) of the body (general definition of a mummy). While most people within the general public engage with mummies as part of a museum exhibit process, many scientists have taken that fascination much further. Starting as a general fascination with mummification, the scientific process involved in the study of mummies began in earnest in the late 18th Century AD. This issue of the Anatomical Record was conceived and formulated to bring together a series of researchers to highlight their most groundbreaking research on the scientific advances that surround the 21st Century AD study of these preserved biological beings including an illumination of the cultural processes that purposefully or inadvertently are preserved either within their tissues or are present within the context (archaeological) in which they are found (excavated). Twenty-six research articles are presented in this volume on a variety of topics all related to the rich transdisciplinary fields that are now directing their research efforts to the state-of-the art analysis of human mummified remains. PMID:25998629

  5. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests. PMID:9041734

  6. Paleoradiology: advanced CT in the evaluation of nine Egyptian mummies.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Heidi; Torres, William E; Ernst, Randy D

    2002-01-01

    Axial thin-collimation state-of-the-art spiral computed tomography (CT) was combined with sagittal and coronal reformatting, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, and virtual "fly-through" techniques to nondestructively study nine Egyptian mummies. These techniques provided important paleopathologic and historical information about mummification techniques, depicted anatomy in the most informative imaging plane, illustrated the soft-tissue preservation and physical appearance of mummies in superb detail, and generated an intriguing virtual tour through hollow mummified remains without harming the specimens themselves. Images generated with these methods can help archaeologists and Egyptologists understand these fascinating members of mankind and can serve as adjunct visual aids for laypersons who are interested in mummies. CT has emerged as the imaging modality of choice for the examination of Egyptian mummies due to its noninvasive cross-sectional nature and inherently superior contrast and spatial resolution. As multi-detector row CT and postprocessing tools evolve, the capabilities and applications of CT will continue to proliferate, attesting to the expanded versatility and utility of CT as a noninvasive research tool in the multidisciplinary study of Egyptian mummies. PMID:11896227

  7. Severe head lice infestation in an Andean mummy of Arica, Chile.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Bernardo; Orellana, Nancy C; Barbosa, Helene S; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Araújo, Adauto; Standen, Vivien

    2012-04-01

    Pediculus humanus capitis is an ancient human parasite, probably inherited from pre-hominid times. Infestation appears as a recurrent health problem throughout history, including in pre-Columbian populations. Here, we describe and discuss the occurrence of pre-Columbian pediculosis in the Andean region of the Atacama Desert. Using a light microscope and scanning electron microscopy, we studied a highly infested Maitas Chiribaya mummy from Arica in northern Chile dating to 670-990 calibrated years A.D. The scalp and hair of the mummy were almost completely covered by nits and adult head lice. Low- and high-vacuum scanning electron microscopy revealed a well-preserved morphology of the eggs. In addition, the excellent preservation of the nearly 1,000-yr-old adult head lice allowed us to observe and characterize the head, antennae, thorax, abdomen, and legs. Leg segmentation, abdominal spiracles, and sexual dimorphism also were clearly observed. The preservation of the ectoparasites allowed us to examine the micromorphology using scanning electron microscopy; the opercula, aeropyles, and spiracles were clearly visible. This case study provides strong evidence that head lice were a common nuisance for Andean farmers and herders. Head lice are transmitted by direct head-to-head contact; thus, this ancient farmer and herder was potentially infesting other people. The present study contributes to the body of research focusing on lice in ancient populations. PMID:22010860

  8. Environmental conditions, early life stages distributions and larval feeding of patagonian sprat Sprattusfuegensis and common sardine Strangomerabentincki in fjords and channels of the northern Chilean patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Tabit; Castro, Leonardo R.; Montecinos, Sandra; Gonzalez, Humberto E.; Soto, Samuel; Muñoz, Maria I.; Palma, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    We assessed ontogenetic changes in distribution and feeding of the Patagonian sprat Sprattus fuegensis and common sardine Strangomera bentincki, and their association with environmental characteristics (hydrography, larval food, gelatinous zooplankton predators), and actual feeding from inshore to offshore areas of the Chilean Patagonia. During the springs of 2007 and 2008, S. bentincki egg and larvae were present north of the Taitao Peninsula (47°S) and S. fuegensis was found to the south of the peninsula. Along the inshore-offshore axis, distributions also differed: while eggs and early larval stages of S. bentincki occurred inshore and seawards, larger larvae occurred mostly seawards. The opposite was observed in S. fuegensis. However, distributions of both species followed the same rule, determined by the size of their prey: eggs and early larval stages occurred in areas of higher abundance of small prey sizes, and larger larvae coincided with the highest abundances of larger prey sizes. No relationship was detected between potential gelatinous predators and the egg and larval distributions of both fish species. Mean ingested prey sizes in both species increased as larvae grew, while maintaining the capacity to feed on small sized items. This ontogenetic feeding pattern and the distributions linked to prey seem to be beneficial in order to take advantage of short term food pulses and to overcome the strong changes in environmental conditions east to west from fjords to open waters.

  9. Impact: development of a radiological mummy database.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew John; Wade, Andrew David

    2015-06-01

    The Internet Mummy Picture Archiving and Communication Technology (IMPACT) radiological and context database, is a large-scale, multi-institutional, collaborative research project devoted to the digital preservation and scientific study of mummified remains, and the mummification traditions that produced them, using non-destructive medical imaging technologies. Owing to the importance of non-destructive analyses to the study of mummified human remains, the IMPACT database, website, and wiki provide a basis for anthropological and palaeopathological investigations, grounded in the most current technological imaging and communication standards, accessible through any internet connection, and protected against rapidly changing media standards. Composed of paired online radiographic and contextual databases, the IMPACT project is intended to provide researchers with large-scale primary data samples for anthropological and palaeopathological investigations. IMPACT addresses the limitations of the case-study approach to mummified human remains and contributes to the development of standards of practice in imaging of mummified remains. Furthermore, IMPACT allows researchers a greater appreciation of, and engagement with, patterns of health and disease in ancient times as well as the variability present in the mummification traditions of ancient Egypt and other cultures that sought to preserve their dead for eternity. PMID:25998630

  10. What can ancient mummies teach us about atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Wann, Samuel; Thomas, Gregory S

    2014-10-01

    Ancient mummies have captivated a wide variety of audiences for centuries. In order to better understand the evolution and causative features of atherosclerosis, the Horus group is applying modern scientific methods to study ancient mummies. We have used CT scanning to detect calcification in arteries as an indication of the presence of atherosclerosis, and are correlating these results with cultural and lifestyle features of various populations of ancient people as represented by their ancient mummified remains. We are also pursuing related studies of ancient DNA to define genotypes associated with atherosclerotic phenotypes. PMID:25106086

  11. Mummies, Vampires and Things That Go Bump in the Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bunnie

    1994-01-01

    Describes two interdisciplinary programs developed for middle school students that focus on mummies and vampires and include social studies, art, language arts, creative dramatics, and media production skills. Content, multimedia, new and interesting information, and student participation are emphasized. (11 references) (LRW)

  12. Transcriptome analysis of the blueberry-mummy berry pathosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mummy berry disease of blueberry, casual agent Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, has two distinct phases- a blight stage of young foliage and flowers and a flower infection stage that leads to mummified fruit (pseudoscelrotia). The flower infections stage requires conidia to germinate on the style and g...

  13. Complex organic chemical balms of Pharaonic animal mummies.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Stephen A; Clark, Katherine A; Evershed, Richard P

    2004-09-16

    Millions of votive mummies of mammals, birds and reptiles were produced throughout ancient Egypt, with their popularity increasing during the reign of Amenhotep III (1400 bc) and thereafter. The scale of production has been taken to indicate that relatively little care and expense was involved in their preparation compared with human mummies. The accepted view is that animals were merely wrapped in coarse linen bandages and/or dipped in 'resin' before death. However, as with human mummification there was a range of qualities of treatments, and visual inspection of animal mummies suggests that the procedures used were often as complex as those used in humans (for example, evisceration and elaborate bandaging). Moreover, the ancient Egyptians treated animals with great respect, regarding them both as domestic pets and representatives of the gods; for example, the cat symbolized the goddess Bastet; the hawk, Horus; the ibis, Thoth, and so on. We report here the results of chemical investigations of tissues and wrappings from Pharaonic cat, hawk and ibis mummies using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analyses reveal the presence of highly complex mixtures of n-alkyl and cyclic biomarker components characteristic of fats, oils, beeswax, sugar gum, petroleum bitumen, and coniferous, Pistacia and possibly cedar resins. The mixture of balms is of comparable complexity to those used to mummify humans from the same period. PMID:15372029

  14. Groundwater flow in a closed basin with a saline shallow lake in a volcanic area: Laguna Tuyajto, northern Chilean Altiplano of the Andes.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio; Chong, Guillermo; Lambán, Luis Javier; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Wilke, Hans; Jódar, Jorge; Urrutia, Javier; Urqueta, Harry; Sarmiento, Alvaro; Gamboa, Carolina; Lictevout, Elisabeth

    2016-01-15

    Laguna Tuyajto is a small, shallow saline water lake in the Andean Altiplano of northern Chile. In the eastern side it is fed by springs that discharge groundwater of the nearby volcanic aquifers. The area is arid: rainfall does not exceed 200mm/year in the rainiest parts. The stable isotopic content of spring water shows that the recharge is originated mainly from winter rain, snow melt, and to a lesser extent from some short and intense sporadic rainfall events. Most of the spring water outflowing in the northern side of Laguna Tuyajto is recharged in the Tuyajto volcano. Most of the spring water in the eastern side and groundwater are recharged at higher elevations, in the rims of the nearby endorheic basins of Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas to the East. The presence of tritium in some deep wells in Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas indicates recent recharge. Gas emission in recent volcanoes increase the sulfate content of atmospheric deposition and this is reflected in local groundwater. The chemical composition and concentration of spring waters are the result of meteoric water evapo-concentration, water-rock interaction, and mainly the dissolution of old and buried evaporitic deposits. Groundwater flow is mostly shallow due to a low permeability ignimbrite layer of regional extent, which also hinders brine spreading below and around the lake. High deep temperatures near the recent Tuyajto volcano explain the high dissolved silica contents and the δ(18)O shift to heavier values found in some of the spring waters. Laguna Tuyajto is a terminal lake where salts cumulate, mostly halite, but some brine transfer to the Salar de Aguas Calientes-3 cannot be excluded. The hydrogeological behavior of Laguna Tuyajto constitutes a model to understand the functioning of many other similar basins in other areas in the Andean Altiplano. PMID:26410705

  15. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in a Mexican Pre-Columbian Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Cerbón, Marco A; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies showed that Helicobacter pylori existed in the New World prior to the arrival of Columbus. The purpose of the present study was to detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori in pre-Columbian mummies from Northern Mexico. Methods Six samples were studied (four samples of gastric remains, tongue-soft palate, and brain remained as negative controls) from two of the six naturally mummified corpses studied (adult male and infant male). Samples were taken from tissues suitable for DNA amplification by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted and H. pylori detection was carried out by PCR and hybridized with the pHp probe from 16S rRNA gene. The purified PCR products were cloned and sequenced in both directions. DNA sequences were analyzed with ALIGN and BLAST software. A second amplification was performed using ureB gene by real-time PCR. Results From four samples of gastric remnant, only two were H. pylori-positive for amplification of a 109 bp DNA fragment; the remaining two were negative, as were the tongue-soft palate and the brain biopsies as well. These PCR products were hybridized with a pHp probe. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed homology with H. pylori in 98 of 99% when compared with the gene bank nucleotide sequence. Only one sample of gastric remnant H. pylori-positive with 16S rRNA gene was also positive for ureB gene from H. pylori. Conclusion This data supported infection with H. pylori in Mexican pre-Columbian mummies dating from approximately 1,350 AC. PMID:18627597

  16. Paleoparasitological Studies on Mummies of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Chai, Jong Yil

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the application of conventional or molecular investigative techniques to archeological samples in order to reveal parasitic infection patterns among past populations. Although pioneering studies already have reported key paleoparasitological findings around the world, the same sorts of studies had not, until very recently, been conducted in sufficient numbers in Korea. Mummified remains of individuals dating to the Korean Joseon Dynasty actually have proved very meaningful to concerned researchers, owing particularly to their superb preservation status, which makes them ideal subjects for paleoparasitological studies. Over the past several years, our study series on Korean mummies has yielded very pertinent data on parasitic infection patterns prevailing among certain Joseon Dynasty populations. In this short review, we summarized the findings and achievements of our recent paleoparasitological examinations of Joseon mummies and discussed about the prospects for future research in this vein. PMID:25031462

  17. PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Matheny, R. T.

    1996-04-01

    Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modern hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

  18. Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging for the study of mummies.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Guerrini, Andrea; Carnieri, Emiliano; Salvadori, Piero A

    2016-07-01

    Nondestructive diagnostic imaging for mummies study has a long tradition and high-resolution images of the samples morphology have been extensively acquired by using computed tomography (CT). However, although in early reports no signal or image was obtained because of the low water content, mummy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was demonstrated able to generate images of such ancient specimens by using fast imaging techniques. Literature demonstrated the general feasibility of nonclinical MRI for visualizing historic human tissues, which is particularly interesting for archeology. More recently, multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was demonstrated able to detect numerous organic biochemicals from such remains. Although the quality of these images is not yet comparable to that of clinical magnetic resonance (MR) images, and further research will be needed for determining the full capacity of MR in this topic, the information obtained with MR can be viewed as complementary to the one provided by CT and useful for paleoradiological studies of mummies. This work contains an overview of the state of art of the emerging uses of MRI in paleoradiology. PMID:26979539

  20. Radiological evaluation of the evisceration tradition in ancient Egyptian mummies.

    PubMed

    Wade, A D; Nelson, A J

    2013-02-01

    Descriptions of the preparation of ancient Egyptian mummies that appear in both scientific and popular literature are derived largely from accounts by the Greek historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus. Our reliance on these normative descriptions obscures the wide range of techniques practised, and so stifles the study of geographic, chronological, and social variations in the practice. Using published descriptions in the literature for 150 mummies and 3D reconstructions from computed tomography data for 7 mummies, this study compares empirical data with classical descriptions of evisceration, organ treatment, and body cavity treatment. Techniques for accessing the body cavity, removal and treatment of the organs, and treatment of the eviscerated body cavity vary with time period, sex, and status, and are discussed in relation to their treatment in the literature and their radiological appearance. The Herodotean and Diodorean stereotypes, including the restriction of transabdominal evisceration to the elite and cedar oil enema evisceration to commoners, are falsified by the data. The transperineal forms are present only in elites, and chemical evisceration is not apparent at all. Additionally, the dogmatic contention that the heart was universally retained in situ, or replaced if accidentally removed, is also greatly exaggerated. PMID:23290862

  1. First insights into the metagenome of Egyptian mummies using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Khairat, Rabab; Ball, Markus; Chang, Chun-Chi Hsieh; Bianucci, Raffaella; Nerlich, Andreas G; Trautmann, Martin; Ismail, Somaia; Shanab, Gamila M L; Karim, Amr M; Gad, Yehia Z; Pusch, Carsten M

    2013-08-01

    We applied, for the first time, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology on Egyptian mummies. Seven NGS datasets obtained from five randomly selected Third Intermediate to Graeco-Roman Egyptian mummies (806 BC-124AD) and two unearthed pre-contact Bolivian lowland skeletons were generated and characterised. The datasets were contrasted to three recently published NGS datasets obtained from cold-climate regions, i.e. the Saqqaq, the Denisova hominid and the Alpine Iceman. Analysis was done using one million reads of each newly generated or published dataset. Blastn and megablast results were analysed using MEGAN software. Distinct NGS results were replicated by specific and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols in ancient DNA dedicated laboratories. Here, we provide unambiguous identification of authentic DNA in Egyptian mummies. The NGS datasets showed variable contents of endogenous DNA harboured in tissues. Three of five mummies displayed a human DNA proportion comparable to the human read count of the Saqqaq permafrost-preserved specimen. Furthermore, a metagenomic signature unique to mummies was displayed. By applying a "bacterial fingerprint", discrimination among mummies and other remains from warm areas outside Egypt was possible. Due to the absence of an adequate environment monitoring, a bacterial bloom was identified when analysing different biopsies from the same mummies taken after a lapse of time of 1.5 years. Plant kingdom representation in all mummy datasets was unique and could be partially associated with their use in embalming materials. Finally, NGS data showed the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii DNA sequences, indicating malaria and toxoplasmosis in these mummies. We demonstrate that endogenous ancient DNA can be extracted from mummies and serve as a proper template for the NGS technique, thus, opening new pathways of investigation for future genome sequencing of ancient Egyptian individuals. PMID:23553074

  2. Is atherosclerosis fundamental to human aging? Lessons from ancient mummies.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Emily M; Thompson, Randall C; Allam, Adel H; Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Cox, Samantha L; Soliman, Muhammad Al-Tohamy; Abd el-Maksoud, Gomaa; Badr, Ibrahem; Miyamoto, Michael I; Frohlich, Bruno; Nur el-din, Abdel-Halim; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Narula, Jagat; Zink, Albert R; Finch, Caleb E; Michalik, David E; Thomas, Gregory S

    2014-05-01

    Case reports from Johan Czermak, Marc Ruffer, and others a century or more ago demonstrated ancient Egyptians had atherosclerosis three millennia ago. The Horus study team extended their findings, demonstrating that atherosclerosis was prevalent among 76 ancient Egyptian mummies and among 61 mummies from each of the ancient cultures of Peru, the American Southwest, and the Aleutian Islands. These findings challenge the assumption that atherosclerosis is a modern disease caused by present day risk factors. An extensive autopsy of an ancient Egyptian teenage male weaver named Nakht found that he was infected with four parasites: Schistosoma haematobium, Taenia species, Trichinella spiralis, and Plasmodium falciparum. Modern day patients with chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and human immunodeficiency virus experience premature atherosclerosis. Could the burden of chronic inflammatory disease have been a risk factor for atherosclerosis in these ancient cultures? The prevalence of atherosclerosis in four diverse ancient cultures is consistent with atherosclerosis being fundamental to aging. The impact of risk factors in modern times, and potentially in ancient times, suggests a strong gene-environmental interplay: human genes provide a vulnerability to atherosclerosis, the environment determines when and if atherosclerosis becomes manifest clinically. PMID:24582386

  3. Scenes from the past: multidetector CT of Egyptian mummies of the Redpath Museum.

    PubMed

    Wade, Andrew D; Garvin, Gregory J; Hurnanen, Jaana H; Williams, Licd Lana; Lawson, Barbara; Nelson, Andrew J; Tampieri, Donatella

    2012-01-01

    As a nondestructive method of historical and anthropologic inquiry, imaging has played an important role in mummy studies over the past several decades. Recent technologic advances have made multidetector computed tomography (CT) an especially useful means for deepening the present understanding of ancient cultures by examining preserved human remains. In April 2011, three ancient Egyptian human mummies from the Redpath Museum of McGill University were examined with 320-section multidetector CT as part of the IMPACT Radiological Mummy Database project headquartered at the University of Western Ontario. Whole-body scanning was performed with a section thickness of 0.5 mm and a peak voltage of 120 kVp, and the raw CT datasets were postprocessed by using smooth body and high-resolution bone convolution filters. Two of the mummies were scanned at different energy levels (80 and 135 keV). The high-resolution CT scans revealed the details of mummification and allowed observations about the socioeconomic and health status of the human subjects based on both the mummification technique used and the appearance of the remains, particularly the bones and teeth. The paleopathologic information obtained from the scans confirmed some findings in studies performed in the same mummies in the late 19th and 20th centuries. The CT scans also demonstrated a high degree of variability in Egyptian mortuary practice, variability that is not generally recognized in the literature. Unusual features that were observed included a relatively uncommon retained heart in mummy RM2718, retained lungs in a mummy from which the heart had been extracted (RM2720), and a cartonnage plaque placed over the left abdomen of a mummy that had been eviscerated transperineally (RM2717). PMID:22787004

  4. CT-Based Assessment of Relative Soft-Tissue Alteration in Different Types of Ancient Mummies.

    PubMed

    Sydler, Christina; Öhrström, Lena; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Woitek, Ulrich; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Mummification leads to alteration of soft-tissue morphology. No research has focused specifically on differences in soft-tissue shrinkage depending on mummification type. This study evaluated whether soft-tissue alteration is dependent on type of mummification. A total of 17 human mummies have been investigated by computed tomography (CT). Samples included artificially embalmed ancient Egyptian mummies, naturally mummified South American corpses, ice mummies (including the Iceman, South Tyrol Museum of Archeology, Bolzano, Italy, ca. 3,300 BC), bog bodies and a desiccated mummy of possibly Asian provenance. The acquired data were compared to four contemporary bodies. The extent of soft-tissue shrinkage was evaluated using CT data. Shrinkage was defined as soft-tissue relative to area of bone (in number of voxels). Measurements were taken at 13 anatomically defined locations. Ice mummies show the highest degree of preservation. This finding is most likely explained due to frozen water within tissues. All other types of mummies show significantly (at P < 0.05) smaller relative area of preserved soft-tissue. Variation between different anatomical structures (e.g., upper lip vs. mid-femur) is significant, unlike variation within one compartment (e.g., proximal vs. distal humerus). Mummification type strongly affects the degree of soft-tissue alteration, surprisingly mostly independent of overall historical age. These results highlight the unique morphological impact of taphonomy on soft-tissue preservation and are of particular interest in tissue research as well as in forensics. PMID:25998649

  5. Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Rafaella; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Santiago, Juliana M F Dutra; Ferreira, Luis F; Nerlich, Andreas G; Souza, Sheila Maria Mendonça de; Giuffra, Valentina; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Bastos, Otilio Maria; Travassos, Renata; Souza, Wanderley de; Araújo, Adauto

    2015-02-01

    Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition. PMID:25742276

  6. Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy

    PubMed Central

    Bianucci, Rafaella; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Santiago, Juliana MF Dutra; Ferreira, Luis F; Nerlich, Andreas G; de Souza, Sheila Maria Mendonça; Giuffra, Valentina; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Bastos, Otilio Machado; Travassos, Renata; de Souza, Wanderley; Araújo, Adauto

    2015-01-01

    Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition. PMID:25742276

  7. 76 FR 65559 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Mummy: Secrets of the Tomb”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Mummy: Secrets of the Tomb'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Mummy: Secrets of the Tomb'' imported from abroad for...

  8. A radiologic study of an ancient Egyptian mummy with a prosthetic toe.

    PubMed

    Brier, Bob; Vinh, Phuong; Schuster, Michael; Mayforth, Howard; Johnson Chapin, Emily

    2015-06-01

    A radiologic examination (both CT and traditional X-ray) of two mummies curated at the Albany Institute of History and Art revealed the identity of the mummified remains as well as details of the person's life style parameters (markers of occupational stress). These mummies, brought to the Institute over 100 years ago, were unstudied until 1989. This preliminary study led to the misappropriation of the remains, and subsequent switching of the remains within their coffins. Recent and more detailed analyses lead to the correct identification of sex, a re-association of the remains to their interment coffins, as well as a detailed analysis of occupational markers. A prosthetic toe was identified in one of the mummies which lead to the functional exploration of prosthetics in the past including their use as part of funerary processing in ancient Egypt. Finally, details of the embalming process place the wrapped mummy within the time frame identified on the coffin of the mummy identified as Ankhefenmut as well as confirming his social status. PMID:25998639

  9. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries.

    PubMed

    Kurushima, Jennifer D; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California - Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies' mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  10. Ultramicroscopic study on the hair of newly found 15th century mummy in Daejeon, Korea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Byung Soo; Uhm, Chang Sub; Park, Chang Hyun; Kim, Han Kyeom; Lee, Gui Young; Cho, Han Hee; Chung, Yoon Hee; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2006-09-01

    Recent reports on the medieval mummies in Korea have been an invaluable source for the studies on the physical characteristics of medieval Koreans. Though the histological observations on the medieval mummy found in Korea were actively reported by researchers, it could not be said that all the queries on the mummies had been completely answered at the present time. In this study, we tried to add the novel data on the ultramicroscopic characteristics of the hair taken from the recently discovered 15th century mummy, the oldest one ever found in Korea. Even comparing with the hair from living individual, the hair of 15th century mummy showed very intact appearances during observation with electron microscope because the scales on the surface of the mummified hair were not damaged, which were not easily maintained even in living individuals. As to the cause of the excellent preservation of 15th century mummified hair, the presence of surface coat on the hair should be considered. That is, just like the complete sealing effect of lime-soil mixture barrier around the coffin, the presence of the surface coat including calcium and sodium might inhibit the water or fungal infiltrations into the hair shaft. PMID:16999207

  11. The Chilean nitrate deposits.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The nitrate deposits in the arid Atacama desert of northern Chile consist of saline-cemented surficial material, apparently formed in and near a playa lake that formerly covered the area. Many features of their distribution and chemical composition are unique. The author believes the principal sources of the saline constituents were the volcanic rocks of late Tertiary and Quaternary age in the Andes and that the nitrate is of organic origin. Possible sources of the nitrate, iodate, perchlorate and chromate are discussed. -J.J.Robertson

  12. AN AUTOPSIC ART: DRAWINGS OF 'DR GRANVILLE'S MUMMY' IN THE ROYAL SOCIETY ARCHIVES.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Christina

    2016-06-20

    In 1821 Augustus Bozzi Granville FRS unwrapped and dissected an ancient Egyptian mummy, presenting the results of his examination to the Royal Society in 1825. He commissioned artist Henry Perry to draw the process in stages; these drawings were subsequently engraved by James Basire for publication in Philosophical Transactions. This article presents the original drawings for the first time, allowing comparison with their engravings. Taken together with Granville's accounts of the unwrapping of the mummy, the drawings demonstrate the significant role of illustration and other visual practices in anatomical argumentation in the early nineteenth century, as well as the prestige that commissioned illustrations lent to the performance and dissemination of scientific expertise. Moreover, the drawings include one of the key visual tropes of race science--a skull in left-facing profile, mapped with a facial angle--and thus indicate the early incorporation of Egyptian mummies into typologies of race. PMID:27386713

  13. The mummy returns… and sheds new light on old questions.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M T P

    2011-10-01

    Whether as the ancient Egyptian crocodile-god Sobek, a terrifying predator of African waterways, or simply as a premium handbag leather, the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) has long held the fascination of mankind. Despite 200 years of study, however, uncertainty remains as to its taxonomy. While resolving such issues are key to understanding the origins and biogeography of the so-called true crocodiles of genus Crocodylus, given widespread ongoing range contraction, such issues are paramount for design of future conservation strategies. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Hekkala et al. (2011) apply analysis of modern, historic and ancient DNA (aDNA) to the questions, with far-reaching implications. First they demonstrate that, as currently described, the Nile crocodile is paraphyletic, with individuals from the east and western clades separated by a number of New World crocodile species. The consequences of this finding are as important for conservation efforts as for their impact on crocodile taxonomy. Furthermore, they strike at the heart of the long-standing debate over whether aDNA analysis of ancient Egyptian mummies is scientifically sound. PMID:24137623

  14. Mummy Restoration Project Among the Anga of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Ronald G; Nelson, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We report on a unique Mummy restoration project among the anga of papua new guinea. Moimango was a village leader who had gone through the smoked body mummification process about 50 years ago. His smoked body has been displayed, alongside other ancestors, on a cliff niche gallery 308 m (1011 feet) above Koke Village. Although somewhat protected by an overhang, Moimango suffered a great deal of deterioration as he has been unprotected and exposed to the elements. The goals of our 2010 expedition to Koke Village was to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts applied to Moimango initiated by the authors and villagers of Koke in 2008. The restoration process used materials native to the local jungles. We examined Moimango for additional restoration challenges that may have arisen since the 2008 expedition. We discovered that many of the restoration techniques developed and applied in 2008 held up well. We found that the anatomical supports developed from native tapa and kumaka sap were still in place and effective, as well as our lichen eradication method of a suca slurry applied in 2008. Of particular importance was the stability of Moimago's head, which prior to restoration, was held in place by only the mummified muscle and integument of the lateral and posterior neck region. Endoscopic evaluation demonstrated disarticulated C1 and C2 vertebrae. New restoration challenges included construction of a new display chair, realignment and securing of the mandible, replacing and securing a loose tooth, repatching, and recoating with ritualistic red ochre clay. PMID:25998636

  15. Autopsy of an Egyptian mummy (Nakht--ROM I).

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Autopsy of a 3200-year-old Egyptian mummy by an international multidisciplinary team yielded much information about diseases of the ancient past. Major contributions were made by the disciplines of anatomy, dentistry, genetics, hematology, histology, microbiology, nuclear medicine, occupational medicine, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, pathology, pediatrics, plastic surgery, radiology and virology. Scientists from Toronto, Detroit, Philadelphia and Cardiff participated in the investigation. The following were the main findings of medical interest: skeleton, infection or malnutrition as suggested by Harris's lines in distal femoral metaphyses; muscle (intercostal), cyst of Trichinella spiralis; lungs, deposits of anthracotic pigment and granite particles; spleen, enlargement with evidence of possible rupture; liver, early cirrhosis and calcified ova of Schistosoma sp.; kidney, calcified ova of Schistosoma sp.; and large and small intestines, calcified ova of Schistosoma and Taenia spp. This autopsy demonstrated the value of well coordinated efforts by specialists in various medical disciplines. Such efforts are essential when such a rare scientific endeavour is to yield a maximum of useful and reliable information. PMID:332299

  16. [Stone age deerfly (Lipoptena cervi) found with a mummy in a glacier].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Schöl, H

    1996-12-01

    In hair samples from the accompanying equipment of a human mummy preserved in glacial ice in South Tyrol for more than 5000 years, numerous remains of insects were found. These fragments corresponded in form, size and structural organization to the features of the deer ked, Lipoptena cervi. Considering the biology and ecology of L. cervi with regard to the finding place of the mummy at an altitude of 3210 m above sea level in a glacier it is concluded that the deer keds invaded the equipment before and not after the death of the Stone Age man. PMID:9139418

  17. Elemental concentrations in bones from an ancient Egyptian mummy and from a recent man

    SciTech Connect

    Cholewa, M.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Jones, K.W.; Schidlovsky, G.; Paschoa, A.S.; Miller, S.C.; Pecotte, J.

    1986-06-01

    Differences in elemental concentrations in bones taken from an ancient Egyptian mummy and a contemporary man were investigated by using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) in combination with Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Remarkable differences were noticed in the Fe/Ca and Pb/Ca relative concentrations, which were consistently higher in the contemporary man. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Solving the Mystery of Mock Mummies: Using Scientific Inquiry Skills in an Integrated Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgopal, Meena; Cornwall, Shaun; Gill-Robinson, Heather; Reinhart, Damien S.

    2009-01-01

    When the nature of science (NOS) is reinforced, middle school students will be able to appreciate scientific inquiry processes and communication, as outlined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). To this end, the authors developed a mummy-making and dissection activity to help sixth- and seventh-grade students learn more about…

  19. Ranking cultivated blueberry for Mummy Berry Blight and Fruit Infection Incidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated the resistance of more than 100 blueberry cultivar to both phases of the disease...

  20. Reflections about bizarre mummification practices on mummies at Egypt's Dakhleh oasis: a review.

    PubMed

    Aufderheide, Arthur C

    2009-12-01

    About 100 mummified human remains were excavated from the Dakhleh Oasis in Egypt's Western Desert. Of these, less than half were examined by dissection. These dated to the Late Ptolemaic and Roman Periods. Initially, a confusing pattern of mortuary mummification practices was encountered that was identified ultimately as a product of primarily initial spontaneous mummification by desiccation. This was followed by tomb robbing in antiquity with unwrapping; body disarticulation followed, in turn, by mummy body reconstruction with atypical use of resin applications. Some of the resin was shown to be contaminated by bitumen that was responsible for inappropriately old radiocarbon dates of mummy tissue samples. Chemical reconstruction of diet using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen characterized their diet to be primarily that of C3 plants, consistent with trading records excavated from that site. Analysis of the mummy coprolites also enabled the first finding of the intestinal parasite Enterobius vermicularis in either ancient or modern Egyptian human coprolites. The principal focus of this report is to demonstrate and verify the value of including visceral dissection as part of a mummy examination whenever possible. PMID:20440958

  1. Organic chemistry of balms used in the preparation of pharaonic meat mummies

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Katherine A.; Ikram, Salima; Evershed, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The funeral preparations for ancient Egyptian dead were extensive. Tomb walls were often elaborately painted and inscribed with scenes and objects deemed desirable for the afterlife. Votive objects, furniture, clothing, jewelry, and importantly, food including bread, cereals, fruit, jars of wine, beer, oil, meat, and poultry were included in the burial goods. An intriguing feature of the meat and poultry produced for the deceased from the highest levels of Egyptian society was that they were mummified to ensure their preservation. However, little is known about the way they were prepared, such as whether balms were used, and if they were used, how they compared with those applied to human and animal mummies? We present herein the results of lipid biomarker and stable carbon isotope investigations of tissues, bandaging, and organic balms associated with a variety of meat mummies that reveal that treatments ranged from simple desiccation and wrapping in bandages to, in the case of the tomb of Yuya and Tjuia (18th Dynasty, 1386–1349 BC), a balm associated with a beef rib mummy containing a high abundance of Pistacia resin and, thus, more sophisticated than the balms found on many contemporaneous human mummies. PMID:24248384

  2. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    PubMed Central

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  3. Mummy of the "Elder Lady" in the tomb of Amenhotep II: Egyptian museum catalog number 61070.

    PubMed

    Harris, J E; Wente, E F; Cox, C F; Nawaway, I E; Kowalski, C J; Storey, A T; Russell, W R; Ponitz, P V; Walker, G F

    1978-06-01

    An unidentified female mummy found in a cache of great kings and queens in 1898 in the Valley of the Kings was examined from the viewpoint of Egyptology, x-ray cephalometry, biostatistics, and biochemistry. The result was the identification of Queen Tiye, of the Eighteenth Dynasty, wife of Amenhotep III and mother of Akhenaton. PMID:349693

  4. Hypoxia in Chilean Patagonian Fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nelson; Vargas, Cristian A.

    2014-12-01

    Chilean Patagonia is one of the largest estuarine systems in the world. It is characterized by a complex geography of approximately 3300 islands, a total surface area of 240,000 km2, and 84,000 km of coast line, including islands, peninsulas, channels, fjords, and sounds. The Chilean Patagonia Interior Sea is filled with a mixture of sea, estuarine, and fresh waters, and is characterized by a two layer vertical general circulation. Dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions in these fjords were analyzed based on historic salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient data from 1200 oceanographic stations. Horizontal advection of adjacent well oxygenated Subantarctic Waters (5-6 mL L-1) was the mayor source of DO in the deep layers of the Interior Sea. Incoming DO was consumed by the respiration of autochthonous and allochthonous particulate organic matter, as ocean water flows towards the continental fjord heads, reaching near-hypoxic (2-3 mL L-1) or hypoxic levels (<2 mL L-1). As DO declined nutrient concentrations increased towards the fjord heads (from ∼1.6 μM PO4-3 and ∼16 μM NO3- to ∼2.4 μM PO4-3 and ∼24 μM NO3-). Overall, DO conditions in the Interior Sea were mostly the result of a combination of physical and biogeochemical processes. In all eastern channels and fjords, a low DO zone developed near the fjord heads (<4 mL L-1) as a result of larger allochthonous particulate organic matter inputs transported by local rivers. This enhanced organic matter input to the deep layer increased DO consumption due to respiration and overwhelmed the oxygen supplied by horizontal advection. Out of the 90 Chilean Patagonian gulfs, channels and fjords analyzed, 86 systems were oxic (>2 mL L-1) and four hypoxic (<2 mL L-1), but only at their heads. None were found to be anoxic (0 mL L-1). We found these DO conditions to be permanent features of the Chilean Patagonia Interior Sea.

  5. Joseon funerary texts tested using ancient DNA analysis of a Korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Seok; Koh, Bou-Ja; Yoo, Dong Soo; Park, Jun Bum; Min, So Ri; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, Sang Sup; Ge, Jianye; Seo, Seung Bum; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-06-01

    In Korea, ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis has been applied to investigations into the genetic affiliations of mummies found in Joseon Dynasty tombs (1392-1910 CE), becoming now indispensable tool for researches studying human remains from archaeological sites. In the course of our recent examinations on a Korean mummy of Joseon Dynasty, we discovered many teeth contained in a pouch. And in fact, the historical literature on the topic of Joseon funerals contain general accounts of pouches in which an individual's lost teeth were collected over the course of a lifetime and, after death, placed in the coffin with the body. To test the veracity of the historical texts, the present study undertook aDNA analyses and compared the results between specifically questioned (Q) samples (teeth) and known (K) samples (brain and bone) from the mummy to ensure that they came from the same individual. Although the Q-K comparison of autosomal short tandem repeat results did not show full concordance due to allelic drop-outs in some loci, our statistical calculation indicated that the teeth in the pouch are highly likely those of the mummy. Additionally, Q-K comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequence results showed 100% matches between samples. There results, in short, could not gainsay the conjecture that the teeth samples originated from the person buried in the tomb; and if so, he must have kept his teeth for a long time after their loss. As the application of aDNA analysis to Korean mummy studies develops, there will be other opportunities to test historical documents, particularly those referring to funerary rites. PMID:25998652

  6. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-01-01

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided. PMID:25781249

  7. NASA Provides Assistance to Trapped Chilean Miners

    NASA Video Gallery

    Responding to a request received through the U.S. Department of State from the Chilean minister of health, NASA will provide advice in nutritional and behavioral sciences to assist miners trapped a...

  8. Chilean Volcano: June 24-26

    NASA Video Gallery

    This GOES-13 satellite imagery shows the Chilean caldera still emitting a steady stream of ash, three weeks after the initial eruption on June 4, 2011. The cold winter wind from the south carries i...

  9. [The Ignuda Morte of Ruysch mummie: bodily knowledge and poetics in Giacomo Leopardi].

    PubMed

    Conforti, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Leopardi's 'Operette Morali' can be read on the background of developments in medicine and the sciences in the early 19th century. Among the topics most frequently dealt with by the Italian poet, the duration of biological life and the attempts at its prolongation; the possibility of a complete extinction of the human species, and more generally the question of death and its meaning. The dialogue 'Federico Ruysch e le sue mummie' shows a remarkable awareness of the modern debate on mummies and other embalming techniques. With the help of classical motifs, medical and anatomical prowess in preserving dead bodies--as other promises of the medical art--are satyrised and at the same time affectionately staged in a very human and living vision of the afterlife. PMID:21563473

  10. Scanning electron microscope study of ancient parasite eggs recovered from Korean mummies of the Joseon Dynasty.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Lim, Do-Seon; Choi, Ki-Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Myeung Ju; Lee, In Sun; Kim, Seok Bae; Shin, Jeong Eun; Bok, Gi Dae; Chai, Jong Yil; Seo, Min

    2009-02-01

    We have previously shown that parasite eggs have been identified in the coprolites of Korean mummies. These eggs have shed light on parasitic infection patterns in Korean populations living several hundred years ago. We conducted a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study on ancient Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Metagonimus yokogawai, Paragonimus westermani, and Gymnophalloides seoi eggs recovered from Korean mummies of the Joseon Dynasty. We anticipated that the taphonomic conditions of mummification would alter the eggs of certain species but not of others. Our SEM data show that each species of ancient egg exhibited different degrees of preservation. Thus, some of them, for example, M. yokogawai, exhibited a better preservation status than others, suggesting that they should be the first candidates considered when choosing subjects for future paleoparasitological studies. PMID:18601576

  11. CT of a Ptolemaic period mummy from the ancient Egyptian City of Akhmim.

    PubMed

    Chan, Steve S; Elias, Jonathan P; Hysell, Mark E; Hallowell, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Mummies associated with the ancient city of Akhmim in Egypt provide an important portal for radiologic research concerning the ancient Egyptian population. As part of an ongoing investigation, a mummy of Akhmimic derivation owned by the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was scanned with a 16-detector row computed tomographic scanner. The resultant images helped confirm that the mummy was that of a female in her late teens. Although the deliberate omission of hieroglyphic texts on the painted coffin rendered the deceased individual anonymous, it is noteworthy that great care had been taken in preparing the corpse for burial. The mummy represents conscientious work by the embalmers, work that is broadly consistent with methods used during the early Ptolemaic period for well-to-do persons. Features of bodily decomposition, including the rotary dissociation of the C1 and C2 vertebral bodies and a missing right patella, point to neglect of the body prior to its recovery and mummification. The fact that the body was well prepared but thinly wrapped and interred in an uninscribed coffin further suggests that the deceased was not of the community that eventually performed the mummification. This evidence is not inconsistent with a scenario involving the body's postmortem immersion in water. Although it cannot be determined with certainty whether the deceased was a drowning victim, it appears that the treatment of the body followed protocols developed in connection with an ancient Egyptian tradition that persons dying in, or retrieved from, the Nile River were embalmed with special care. PMID:19001656

  12. Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Stephanie; Mc Coy, Mark R.; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Zink, Albert R.; Augat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist for standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation in human mummies based on whole-body computed tomography examinations, and to add a scoring system to facilitate quantitative comparison of mummies. Computed tomography examinations of 23 mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily (17 adults, 6 children; 17 anthropogenically and 6 naturally mummified) and 7 mummies from the crypt of the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit of Vilnius, Lithuania (5 adults, 2 children; all naturally mummified) were used to develop the checklist following previously published guidelines. The scoring system was developed by assigning equal scores for checkpoints with equivalent quality. The checklist was evaluated by intra- and inter-observer reliability. The finalized checklist was applied to compare the groups of anthropogenically and naturally mummified bodies. The finalized checklist contains 97 checkpoints and was divided into two main categories, “A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System” and “B. Organs and Organ Systems”, each including various subcategories. The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%. Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories. In conclusion, the developed checklist allows for a standardized assessment and documentation of soft tissue preservation in whole-body computed tomography examinations of human mummies. The scoring system facilitates a quantitative comparison of the soft tissue preservation status between single mummies or mummy collections. PMID:26244862

  13. Ethyl glucuronide findings in hair samples from the mummies of the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Brockmann, Christopher; Madea, Burkhard; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2013-10-10

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies: friars, priests and laypeople including men, women, and children. The bodies were accessible to family members who could visit the deceased and commemorate them through prayers. The "Sicily Mummy Project" analyzed hair samples from 38 mummies to determine the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) using a routine procedure in our accredited laboratory of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification was 2.3 pg/mg. The hair samples were from 1.5 to 12 cm in length. All samples were analyzed in 2 segments (seg. A 0-3 cm and seg. B the remainder). Samples <4 cm in length were cut in half. In 31 out of 76 segments positive results were obtained for EtG, with concentrations between 2.5 and 531.3 pg/mg (mean 73.8, median 13.3 pg/mg). In 14 cases positive results were obtained for both segments. In one sample a positive result was obtained for segment A but not for segment B and in a further two samples only for segment B. The results indicate that EtG analyses can be performed on mummy hair samples even several hundred years after death to identify evidence for significant alcohol consumption during life. PMID:24053883

  14. Common and unexpected findings in mummies from ancient Egypt and South America as revealed by CT.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, Christian; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has proved to be a valuable investigative tool for mummy research and is the method of choice for examining mummies. It allows for noninvasive insight, especially with virtual endoscopy, which reveals detailed information about the mummy's sex, age, constitution, injuries, health, and mummification techniques used. CT also supplies three-dimensional information about the scanned object. Mummification processes can be summarized as "artificial," when the procedure was performed on a body with the aim of preservation, or as "natural," when the body's natural environment resulted in preservation. The purpose of artificial mummification was to preserve that person's morphologic features by delaying or arresting the decay of the body. The ancient Egyptians are most famous for this. Their use of evisceration followed by desiccation with natron (a compound of sodium salts) to halt putrefaction and prevent rehydration was so effective that their embalmed bodies have survived for nearly 4500 years. First, the body was cleaned with a natron solution; then internal organs were removed through the cribriform plate and abdomen. The most important, and probably the most lengthy, phase was desiccation. After the body was dehydrated, the body cavities were rinsed and packed to restore the body's former shape. Finally, the body was wrapped. Animals were also mummified to provide food for the deceased, to accompany the deceased as pets, because they were seen as corporal manifestations of deities, and as votive offerings. Artificial mummification was performed on every continent, especially in South and Central America. PMID:18794321

  15. The complete mitogenome of a 500-year-old Inca child mummy

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Catelli, Laura; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Roewer, Lutz; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In 1985, a frozen mummy was found in Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina). Archaeological studies identified the mummy as a seven-year-old Inca sacrifice victim who lived >500 years ago, at the time of the expansion of the Inca Empire towards the southern cone. The sequence of its entire mitogenome was obtained. After querying a large worldwide database of mitogenomes (>28,000) we found that the Inca haplotype belonged to a branch of haplogroup C1b (C1bi) that has not yet been identified in modern Native Americans. The expansion of C1b into the Americas, as estimated using 203 C1b mitogenomes, dates to the initial Paleoindian settlements (~18.3 thousand years ago [kya]); however, its internal variation differs between Mesoamerica and South America. By querying large databases of control region haplotypes (>150,000), we found only a few C1bi members in Peru and Bolivia (e.g. Aymaras), including one haplotype retrieved from ancient DNA of an individual belonging to the Wari Empire (Peruvian Andes). Overall, the results suggest that the profile of the mummy represents a very rare sub-clade that arose 14.3 (5–23.6) kya and could have been more frequent in the past. A Peruvian Inca origin for present-day C1bi haplotypes would satisfy both the genetic and paleo-anthropological findings. PMID:26561991

  16. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice.

    PubMed

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2015-01-01

    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers. PMID:26345378

  17. Frozen Mummies from Andean Mountaintop Shrines: Bioarchaeology and Ethnohistory of Inca Human Sacrifice

    PubMed Central

    Ceruti, Maria Constanza

    2015-01-01

    This study will focus on frozen mummies of sacrificial victims from mounts Llullaillaco (6739 m), Quehuar (6130 m), El Toro (6160 m), and the Aconcagua massif. These finds provide bioarchaeological data from mountaintop sites that has been recovered in scientifically controlled excavations in the northwest of Argentina, which was once part of the southern province of the Inca Empire. Numerous interdisciplinary studies have been conducted on the Llullaillaco mummies, including radiological evaluations by conventional X-rays and CT scans, which provided information about condition and pathology of the bones and internal organ, as well as dental studies oriented to the estimation of the ages of the three children at the time of death. Ancient DNA studies and hair analysis were also performed in cooperation with the George Mason University, the University of Bradford, and the Laboratory of Biological Anthropology at the University of Copenhagen. Ethnohistorical sources reveal interesting aspects related to the commemorative, expiatory, propitiatory, and dedicatory aspects of human sacrifice performed under Inca rule. The selection of the victims along with the procedures followed during the performance of the capacocha ceremony will be discussed, based on the bioarchaeological evidences from frozen mummies and the accounts recorded by the Spanish chroniclers. PMID:26345378

  18. Taxonomic and predicted metabolic profiles of the human gut microbiome in pre-Columbian mummies.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Dowd, Scot E; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Cano, Raul J

    2016-11-01

    Characterization of naturally mummified human gut remains could potentially provide insights into the preservation and evolution of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, and metabolic profiles. We characterized the gut microbiome of two pre-Columbian Andean mummies dating to the 10-15th centuries using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics, and compared them to a previously characterized gut microbiome of an 11th century AD pre-Columbian Andean mummy. Our previous study showed that the Clostridiales represented the majority of the bacterial communities in the mummified gut remains, but that other microbial communities were also preserved during the process of natural mummification, as shown with the metagenomics analyses. The gut microbiome of the other two mummies were mainly comprised by Clostridiales or Bacillales, as demonstrated with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, many of which are facultative anaerobes, possibly consistent with the process of natural mummification requiring low oxygen levels. Metagenome analyses showed the presence of other microbial groups that were positively or negatively correlated with specific metabolic profiles. The presence of sequences similar to both Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania donovani could suggest that these pathogens were prevalent in pre-Columbian individuals. Taxonomic and functional profiling of mummified human gut remains will aid in the understanding of the microbial ecology of the process of natural mummification. PMID:27559027

  19. The complete mitogenome of a 500-year-old Inca child mummy.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Catelli, Laura; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Roewer, Lutz; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In 1985, a frozen mummy was found in Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina). Archaeological studies identified the mummy as a seven-year-old Inca sacrifice victim who lived >500 years ago, at the time of the expansion of the Inca Empire towards the southern cone. The sequence of its entire mitogenome was obtained. After querying a large worldwide database of mitogenomes (>28,000) we found that the Inca haplotype belonged to a branch of haplogroup C1b (C1bi) that has not yet been identified in modern Native Americans. The expansion of C1b into the Americas, as estimated using 203 C1b mitogenomes, dates to the initial Paleoindian settlements (~18.3 thousand years ago [kya]); however, its internal variation differs between Mesoamerica and South America. By querying large databases of control region haplotypes (>150,000), we found only a few C1bi members in Peru and Bolivia (e.g. Aymaras), including one haplotype retrieved from ancient DNA of an individual belonging to the Wari Empire (Peruvian Andes). Overall, the results suggest that the profile of the mummy represents a very rare sub-clade that arose 14.3 (5-23.6) kya and could have been more frequent in the past. A Peruvian Inca origin for present-day C1bi haplotypes would satisfy both the genetic and paleo-anthropological findings. PMID:26561991

  20. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 2 - critical changes in emission profiles as a result of increasing the water activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent field trapping studies ground pistachio and almond mummies were reported to attract adult navel orangeworm moths, which showed a slight preference for the dry pistachio mummy matrix depending on the year evaluated. Recent work in these laboratories has demonstrated that the water activity ...

  1. Evaluating the Biodeterioration Enzymatic Activities of Fungal Contamination Isolated from Some Ancient Yemeni Mummies Preserved in the National Museum

    PubMed Central

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Abdullah, Qais Yusuf M.; AL-Zaqri, Aida Qaseem M.; Alghalibi, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Sophisticated mummification using chemical preservation was prevalent in ancient Yemeni civilization as noted in the 4th century B.C. mummies of the National Museum of Yemen, Sana'a, used in this study. Five of these mummies were used to evaluate hydrolytic enzymes produced as a result of fungal contamination. Forty-seven fungal species were isolated, thereby reflecting a high degree of contamination which may have resulted from the poor ventilation and preservation system. Aspergillus was the most common genus isolated (48.9%). Fifteen isolates exhibited ability to produce cellulase (EC; 3.2.1.4), Aspergillus candidus being the highest cellulose-producer. Pectin lyase (PL, EC; 4.2.2.2) and pectin methyl esterase (PME, EC; 3.1.1.11) were produced by Trichoderma hamatum, whereas chitinase (EC; 3.2.1.14) was produced by Aspergillus niger. Protease activity was noted by only Cladosporium herbarum. The higher activities of these fungal hydrolytic enzymes represent the major threats of biodeterioration including deteriorating linen bandages as well as the mummy bodies. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the preservation system of the mummies at the National Museum to minimize the contamination up to the lowest level and protect the mummies from biodeterioration. PMID:25478228

  2. HLA antigens in cardiomyopathic Chilean chagasics.

    PubMed Central

    Llop, E; Rothhammer, F; Acuña, M; Apt, W

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of HLA antigens in a sample of 124 Chagas serologically positive Chilean individuals was studied. The sample was subdivided according to the presence or absence of chagasic cardiomyopathy, in order to search for genetic differences associated with this pathological condition. The frequency of antigen B40 in the presence of antigen Cw3 was found to be significantly lower in subjects with cardiomyopathy. We tentatively suggest that the presence of these antigens among noncardiomyopathics is associated with a decreased susceptibility to develop chagasic cardiomyopathy in the Chilean population. PMID:3189340

  3. Ground-penetrating radar exploration for ancient monuments at the Valley of Mummies -Kilo 6, Bahariya Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, Fathy A.; Abbas, Abbas M.; Atya, Magdy A.; Hafez, Mahfouz A.

    2009-06-01

    A Valley of Mummies was discovered recently by an Egyptian team at Bahariya Oasis, located about 380 km west of the pyramids. Four tombs were excavated, and inside them were found one hundred and five mummies (105), many of them beautifully gilded. These mummies, many sumptuously decorated with religious scenes, are the very best Roman-Period mummies ever found in Egypt. These remains are around 2000 years old, but they are in remarkable condition. A Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) had proved successful in detecting the cavities in resistive soil in which the mummies were found. The GPR survey conducted near the earlier-discovered tombs at Kilo-6 El-Bahariya to Farafra Oasis road is the focus of this paper. The GPR survey was conducted using the SIR-2000 attached to a 200 MHz monostatic antenna. The two areas to be surveyed were selected by the archaeologists in situ. Area one was 40 m × 40 m and Area two was 30 m × 15 m. A grid pattern survey in one direction; with one-meter profile spacing was done to both areas. In addition, a focusing survey was undertaken over the entire Area one. In addition, twenty long GPR profiles were conducted in an attempt to determine the outer, expected limits of the burial area. After the data acquisition, Reflex software was used for data processing and presentation. The final results of the radar survey: in the form of 2D radar records, time slices and 3D block diagrams; were used to guide the archaeologists during the excavation process. The excavation processes have been completed by the archaeologists, and many tombs and mummies were discovered. It is worthy to mention that, the excavations and location of tombs and cavities matched strongly with the GPR results.

  4. ICT & Learning in Chilean Schools: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    By the early nineties a Chilean network on computers and education for public schools had emerged. There were both high expectancies that technology could revolutionize education as well as divergent voices that doubted the real impact of technology on learning. This paper presents an evaluation of the Enlaces network, a national Information and…

  5. Fostering Teaching Quality in Chilean Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman Cruzat, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explain the strategies that have been carried out by three Chilean universities in order to advance the quality of their teaching. The studied institutions are the Universidad de los Andes, the Universidad de Talca and the Universidad Catolica de Chile. In each of these three cases the analysis included, both the policies…

  6. Examining Text Environments in Elementary Chilean Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana-Garcia, Pelusa; Sailors, Misty

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the social practices related to literacy in classrooms in Chile in order to examine school-based literacy practices. We also examined the constraints and affordances literacy learning offered Chilean students. Through our case study and cross-case analysis, we discovered that although the classrooms contained an…

  7. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  8. Chilean Universities and Institutional Quality Assurance Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Daniel A.; Rojas, Maria J.; López, Boris A.; López, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the university accreditation processes in Chilean universities. The aim is to determine the effects of the different variables, especially the type of institutions (state- and privately owned, with and without state financial support) on the results obtained.…

  9. Mummy Berry Fruit Rot and Shoot Blight Incidence in Blueberry: Prediction, Ranking, and Stability in a Long-term Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mummy berry is an important disease of cultivated blueberry. The disease has two distinct phases; a blighting phase initiated by ascospores and a fruit infection stage initiated by conidia. In this study we investigated blueberry cultivar resistance to both phases of the disease and, utilizing ‘stan...

  10. Organic chemistry of embalming agents in Pharaonic and Graeco-Roman mummies.

    PubMed

    Buckley, S A; Evershed, R P

    2001-10-25

    Chemical treatments were an essential element of ancient Egyptian mummification. Although the inorganic salt natron is recognized as having a central role as a desiccant, without the application of organic preservatives the bodies would have decomposed in the humid environment of the tombs. The nature of the organic treatments remains obscure, because the ancient Egyptians left no written record of the process. Secondary textual evidence for mummification is provided by Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo and Pliny. The most important account is that of Herodotus (about 450 yr bc), although archaeological evidence shows that by this time the process had declined significantly and the best results had been achieved centuries before. His account mentions myrrh, cassia, palm wine, 'cedar oil' (still widely disputed) and 'gum'; however, it is vague with respect to the specific natural products used. Here we report the results of chemical investigations of a substantial collection of samples of tissues, wrappings and 'resinous/bituminous' materials from provenanced and dated Egyptian mummies. We focused on examples of the 'classic' mummy-making culture of the Pharaonic or dynastic period, from which we can begin to track the development of mummification chronologically. PMID:11677605

  11. Radiological Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, In Sun; Jung, Go-Un; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Yoo, Dong Su; Lee, Won-Joon; Lee, Eunju; Cha, Soon Chul; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect of the diaphragm resulting in pulmonary sequelae that threaten the lives of infants. In computed tomography (CT) images of a 17th century middle-aged male mummy (the Andong mummy), we observed that the abdominal contents had protruded into the right thoracic cavity through the diaphragmatic defect, accompanied by a mediastinal shift to the left. On autopsy, the defect in the right posterolateral aspect of the diaphragm was reconfirmed, as was the herniation of the abdominal organs. The herniated contents included the right lobe of the liver, the pyloric part of the stomach, a part of the greater omentum, and the right colic flexure connecting the superior part of the ascending colon and the right part of the transverse colon. Taking our CT and autopsy results together, this case was diagnosed as the Bochdalek-type CDH. Herein we make the first ever report of a CT-assisted diagnosis of a pre-modern historical case of CDH. Our results show the promising utility of this modality in investigations of mummified human remains archaeologically obtained. PMID:24988465

  12. Evidence of Helminth Infection in Guanche Mummies: Integrating Paleoparasitological and Paleogenetic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Gijón-Botella, Herminia; Del Carmen Del Arco-Aguilar, María; Martín-Oval, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Maffiotte, Conrado; Del Arco-Aguilar, Mercedes; Araújo, Adauto; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2016-04-01

    The Guanches, ancient inhabitants of the Canary Islands, Spain, practiced mummification of their dead. A paleoparasitological and paleogenetic analysis was conducted on mummified bodies (n = 6) (AD 1200, Cal BP 750) belonging to the Guanche culture from Gran Canaria Island. Coprolite and sediment samples (n = 19) were removed from below the abdominal region or sacral foramina. The samples were rehydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution for 72 hr at 4 C, and the paleoparasitological investigation was conducted by spontaneous sedimentation method and microscopic examination. The results revealed the presence of well-preserved eggs of Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura , Enterobius vermicularis , and hookworms. Ancient DNA was extracted from sediment samples to elucidate the ancestry of the mummies and for molecular detection of Ascaris sp. infection. Results of paleogenetic analysis demonstrated Ascaris sp. infection using 2 molecular targets, cytb and nad1. The mtDNA haplotypes U6b, U6b1, and HV were identified, which confirmed records of Guanche ancestry. The excellent preservation of Guanche mummies facilitated the paleoparasitological and paleogenetic study, the results of which contribute to our knowledge of Guanche culture and their health status. PMID:26641720

  13. Detecting the Immune System Response of a 500 Year-Old Inca Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Corthals, Angelique; Koller, Antonius; Martin, Dwight W.; Rieger, Robert; Chen, Emily I.; Bernaski, Mario; Recagno, Gabriella; Dávalos, Liliana M.

    2012-01-01

    Disease detection in historical samples currently relies on DNA extraction and amplification, or immunoassays. These techniques only establish pathogen presence rather than active disease. We report the first use of shotgun proteomics to detect the protein expression profile of buccal swabs and cloth samples from two 500-year-old Andean mummies. The profile of one of the mummies is consistent with immune system response to severe pulmonary bacterial infection at the time of death. Presence of a probably pathogenic Mycobacterium sp. in one buccal swab was confirmed by DNA amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. Our study provides positive evidence of active pathogenic infection in an ancient sample for the first time. The protocol introduced here is less susceptible to contamination than DNA-based or immunoassay-based studies. In scarce forensic samples, shotgun proteomics narrows the range of pathogens to detect using DNA assays, reducing cost. This analytical technique can be broadly applied for detecting infection in ancient samples to answer questions on the historical ecology of specific pathogens, as well as in medico-legal cases when active pathogenic infection is suspected. PMID:22848450

  14. Invasive versus Non Invasive Methods Applied to Mummy Research: Will This Controversy Ever Be Solved?

    PubMed Central

    Moissidou, Despina; Day, Jasmine; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the application of non invasive techniques to mummified remains have shed new light on past diseases. The virtual inspection of a corpse, which has almost completely replaced classical autopsy, has proven to be important especially when dealing with valuable museum specimens. In spite of some very rewarding results, there are still many open questions. Non invasive techniques provide information on hard and soft tissue pathologies and allow information to be gleaned concerning mummification practices (e.g., ancient Egyptian artificial mummification). Nevertheless, there are other fields of mummy studies in which the results provided by non invasive techniques are not always self-explanatory. Reliance exclusively upon virtual diagnoses can sometimes lead to inconclusive and misleading interpretations. On the other hand, several types of investigation (e.g., histology, paleomicrobiology, and biochemistry), although minimally invasive, require direct contact with the bodies and, for this reason, are often avoided, particularly by museum curators. Here we present an overview of the non invasive and invasive techniques currently used in mummy studies and propose an approach that might solve these conflicts. PMID:26345295

  15. Uniparental ancestry markers in Chilean populations.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Machado, Camilla Dutra; Tostes, Maluah; Alves, Gabrielle; Nazer, Julio; Martinez, Liliana; Wettig, Elisabeth; Pizarro Rivadeneira, Oscar; Diaz Caamaño, Marcela; Larenas Ascui, Jessica; Pavez, Pedro; Dutra, Maria da Graça; Castilla, Eduardo Enrique; Orioli, Ieda Maria

    2016-08-01

    The presence of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans has led to the development of a multi-ethnic, admixed population in Chile. This study aimed to contribute to the characterization of the uniparental genetic structure of three Chilean regions. Newborns from seven hospitals in Independencia, Providencia, Santiago, Curicó, Cauquenes, Valdívia, and Puerto Montt communes, belonging to the Chilean regions of Santiago, Maule, and Los Lagos, were studied. The presence of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and two markers present in the non-recombinant region of the Y chromosome, DYS199 and DYS287, indicative of Native American and African ancestry, respectively, was determined. A high Native American matrilineal contribution and a low Native American and African patrilineal contributions were found in all three studied regions. As previously found in Chilean admixed populations, the Native American matrilineal contribution was lower in Santiago than in the other studied regions. However, there was an unexpectedly higher contribution of Native American ancestry in one of the studied communes in Santiago, probably due to the high rate of immigration from other regions of the country. The population genetic sub-structure we detected in Santiago using few uniparental markers requires further confirmation, owing to possible stratification for autosomal and X-chromosome markers. PMID:27494198

  16. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    The Chilean Physics Symposium is the main gathering of Physics in Chile, and its organization is one of the central activities of the Chilean Physical Society (Sociedad Chilena de Física, SOCHIFI). The Symposium assembles the largest number of Chilean and foreign physicists resident in the country. Recent advances in the various research areas in Physics are presented, by researchers from Universities and national research centres. At the same time this is an occasion for the participation of Physics students from both the pre- and post-graduate programs. The Symposium has gathered continuously every two years, since 1978. The organization of the XV symposium was in charge of the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, and it took place on 15-17 November 2006, at La Reina Nuclear Studies Centre, in the city of Santiago, Chile. During this symposium the relation of research in Physics with education and with the productive sector in the country was also analysed. During the Symposium, 121 abstracts were submitted, from 255 authors. All authors were invited to submit articles for publication in the Symposium Proceedings. The articles received were reviewed by the Symposium Scientific Committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focussed on the demand for a consistent piece of research, and a clear statement of results. Most of the articles received report the work of research groups where advanced students and young investigators are prominent. Thanks to their enthusiasm, 52 articles are presented in this issue. We would like to express our appreciation to their authors. Finally, my personal apology is in order regarding my delay in publishing these proceedings. A sequence of personal and professional highly demanding circumstances have been in the way. I would like to thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series for providing very fast publication of the proceedings, having published them online less than 4 weeks after my

  17. Glacial Retreat in Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The San Quintin Glacier is the largest outflow glacier of the Northern Patagonian Ice Field in southern Chile. Its terminus is a piedmont lobe just short of the Golfo de Penas on the Pacific Ocean and just north of 47oS. Like many glaciers worldwide during the twentieth century, San Quintin appears to be losing mass and possibly retreating. Such a change is evident in these two photographs taken by astronauts only seven years apart. The first was taken by the crew of STS-068 in October1994 and the second by the Increment 4 crew of the International Space Station in February 2002. Even with the reversal of season and different lighting conditions of these two acquisitions, a loss of mass and change of structure, particularly in the lobe, are strikingly evident in these comparative photos. Glaciers are one of the special topics identified as scientific objectives for monitoring with photography from the International Space Station. Astronaut photography is a complimentary source of remote sensing data available for use with other sensor systems being used to monitor and study glaciers (see an ASTER image of the San Quintin Glacier). They also provide strong, visual context information on glacier environments and processes using a familiar medium, the camera. Images STS068-260-73 and ISS004-E-7267 were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  18. Short report: cysticercosis in an Egyptian mummy of the late Ptolemaic period.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Fabrizio; Masetti, Massimo; Locci, Maria Teresa; Ciranni, Rosalba; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-04-01

    We describe here an ancient case of cysticercosis that was discovered in an Egyptian mummy of a young woman of about 20 years of age who lived in the late Ptolemaic period (second to first centuries b.c.). On removal of the stomach and its rehydration, a cystic lesion in the stomach wall was observed by naked eye. Microscopical examination of sections of this lesion revealed a cystic structure, with a wall, with numerous projecting eversions, a characteristic feature of the larval stage (cysticercus) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium (or "pig tapeworm"). Immunohistochemical testing with serum from a T. solium-infected human confirmed the identity of the cyst. This finding is the oldest on record of the antiquity of this zoonotic parasite. This observation also confirms that, in Hellenistic Egypt, the farming of swine, along with man an intermediate host of this parasite, was present, and supports other archeological evidence. PMID:16606991

  19. Enterobius vermicularis eggs discovered in coprolites from a medieval Korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Min

    2011-09-01

    While the presence of pinworm eggs in archaeological samples has been reported by many researchers in the New World, those have been detected very scarcely in the Old World, especially in East Asian countries. In fact, many parasite species were recovered from the archeological remains in Korea, eggs of Enterobius vermicularis had not been found. Recently, a female mummy buried in the 17th century was discovered in the Joseon tomb from Dangjin-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. After rehydration process for 12 days, investigations were carried on the luminal surface of the colon. From them, 3 eggs of E. vermicularis were recovered. They were elliptical, transparent with a thin egg shell, 50.3±5.2 µm (length) and 28.2±3.9 µm (width) in size. This is the first discovery of E. vermicularis eggs in East Asia. PMID:22072838

  20. The changing pattern of parasitic infection among Korean populations by paleoparasitological study of Joseon Dynasty mummies.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jeong, Mi Sook; Hong, Sung Woo; Seo, Young-Min; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-02-01

    In the coprolites of 4 recently discovered Joseon mummies of Korea, we found Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , Metagonimus yokogawai , Paragonimus westermani , and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. The current finding was compared with previous paleoparasitological data, and with recent national survey data from Korea. For A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura , similar patterns of infection prevalence were observed between the national survey of 1961 and our current Joseon data. Some of the trematode species (C. sinenesis and P. westermani) showed much higher infection prevalences among the Joseon Koreans than among their 1960s descendants. The present results indicate that the decrease in trematode infection rates might have begun earlier than was the case for nematode infection. PMID:24011353

  1. Some Thoughts on the Evaluation of the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Many papers describe the Chilean voucher system as the "textbook" voucher case. But this is mistaken and has prevented research to undertake the key question of how the particular design of the Chilean voucher system determines the results obtained in Chile. This also prevents discussion of how a voucher system with a different design could lead…

  2. Language, Identity, Education, and Transmigration: Chilean Adolescents in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall; Ganuza, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    This article examines patterns of national, cultural, and linguistic identification among Chilean-Swedish transmigrant adolescents in and around Stockholm, Sweden. Drawing from ethnographic interviews and observations, analysis focuses on adolescents' (a) views on ethnic and national identity; (b) general perceptions of Chileans and Swedes; and…

  3. Anatomical Confirmation of Computed Tomography-Based Diagnosis of the Atherosclerosis Discovered in 17th Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok; Go, Jai-Hyang; Lee, In Sun; Park, Won-Kyu; Cho, Seok-Min; Kim, Soon-Kwan; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    In the present study on a newly discovered 17th century Korean mummy, computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple aortic calcifications within the aortic wall that were indicative of ancient atherosclerosis. The CT-based findings were confirmed by our subsequent post-factum dissection, which exhibited possible signs of the disease including ulcerated plaques, ruptured hemorrhages, and intimal thickening where the necrotic core was covered by the fibrous cap. These findings are strong indicators that the mummy suffered from aortic atherosclerosis during her lifetime. The present study is a good example of how CT images of vascular calcifications can be a useful diagnostic tool in forming at least preliminary diagnoses of ancient atherosclerosis. PMID:25816014

  4. Detection of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Variant Predisposing to Colorectal Cancer in an 18th Century Hungarian Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Michal; Hershkovitz, Israel; Sklan, Ella H.; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Pap, Ildikó; Szikossy, Ildikó; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are common and strongly associated with the development of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. While extensively studied in modern populations, reports on visceral tumors in ancient populations are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, genetic characterization of mutations associated with colorectal cancer in ancient specimens has not yet been described. In this study we have sequenced hotspots for mutations in the APC gene isolated from 18th century naturally preserved human Hungarian mummies. While wild type APC sequences were found in two mummies, we discovered the E1317Q missense mutation, known to be a colorectal cancer predisposing mutation, in a large intestine tissue of an 18th century mummy. Our data suggests that this genetic predisposition to cancer already existed in the pre-industrialization era. This study calls for similar investigations of ancient specimens from different periods and geographical locations to be conducted and shared for the purpose of obtaining a larger scale analysis that will shed light on past cancer epidemiology and on cancer evolution. PMID:26863316

  5. Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air

    PubMed Central

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was recently performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes, and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and – as a result of salt emanating from the walls – on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair, and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic Bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, was detected on bone. Finally, the high concentration of airborne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors. PMID:23772650

  6. Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air.

    PubMed

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-11-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was recently performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes, and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and - as a result of salt emanating from the walls - on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair, and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic Bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, was detected on bone. Finally, the high concentration of airborne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors. PMID:23772650

  7. Radiological and archaeological investigation of a mummy from Roman Egypt curated in the National Museum of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Snitkuvienė, Aldona; Rutkauskas, Tadas; Sutherland, M Linda

    2016-01-01

    Among the collections belonging to the National Museum of Lithuania at Vilnius, resides an ancient Egyptian coffin containing a mummified human body. The coffin and its occupant are believed to have belonged to the King of Poland and to have been located in his palace at Warsaw. At the turn of the last century, Egyptologists dated the coffin to the end of the 21st dynasty (1070 BC-945 BC), and described the item as coming from Thebes, belonging to Hori, priest of Amun-Ra. However, no investigation was ever carried out on the human body associated with the coffin. Within the framework of the Lithuanian Mummy Project, the preserved human remains underwent computed tomographic investigation in order to reconstruct the biological profile of the subject and to determine the embalming method employed. This led to the identification of a young adult male. Additionally, the mummy shroud was stylistically assessed in order to determine the mummy's chronology in Egyptian history. Interestingly, the body could be ascribed to the Roman period of Egypt (30 BC-395 AD) due to analogies with the burial shrouds of the Soter group. This indicates a reuse of the coffin at some point in history. PMID:26954562

  8. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Two teachers from the town of San Pedro de Atacama, in the northern desert of the South American nation of Chile, arrive in Magdalena, New Mexico, Sunday, January 28, for a two-week visit that is part of a Sister Cities program sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), the nonprofit research corporation that operates the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). They will be accompanied by their town's mayor. Myriam Nancy Rivera Mercado, Head of the high school in San Pedro, Gabriela Fernanda Rodriguez Moraleda, a tourism teacher there, and San Pedro Mayor Sandra Berna Martinez will begin a visit that includes classroom observations in the Magdalena schools, a reception hosted by the Magdalena Village Council, and a Mayor's Breakfast with Magdalena Mayor Jim Wolfe. They also will meet local residents, tour the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge with a second-grade class, visit an area ranch, tour the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, and see Socorro's Community Arts Party. "These teachers will learn much about New Mexico, the United States, and our educational system, and will take this new knowledge back to their students and their community," said NRAO Education Officer Robyn Harrison. The visit is part of a Sister Cities program initiated and funded by AUI, which operates the NRAO for the U.S. National Science Foundation. Radio astronomy is a common link between San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena. San Pedro is near the site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project now under construction with funding by major partners in North America, Europe, and Japan. Magdalena is near the site of NRAO's VLA radio telescope. In Magdalena, the Village Council and Mayor Wolfe formalized their participation in the Sister Cities program last September, and San Pedro ratified the program in December. In San Pedro, the ceremony ratifying the agreement was attended by U.S. Ambassador to Chile Craig K

  9. Microsatellite Markers Reveal Strong Genetic Structure in the Endemic Chilean Dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alvarez, María José; Olavarría, Carlos; Moraga, Rodrigo; Baker, C. Scott; Hamner, Rebecca M.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding genetic differentiation and speciation processes in marine species with high dispersal capabilities is challenging. The Chilean dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia, is the only endemic cetacean of Chile and is found in two different coastal habitats: a northern habitat with exposed coastlines, bays and estuaries from Valparaíso (33°02′S) to Chiloé (42°00′S), and a southern habitat with highly fragmented inshore coastline, channels and fjords between Chiloé and Navarino Island (55°14′S). With the aim of evaluating the potential existence of conservation units for this species, we analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of the Chilean dolphin along its entire range. We genotyped 21 dinucleotide microsatellites for 53 skin samples collected between 1998 and 2012 (swab: n = 8, biopsy: n = 38, entanglement n = 7). Bayesian clustering and spatial model analyses identified two genetically distinct populations corresponding to the northern and southern habitats. Genetic diversity levels were similar in the two populations (He: 0.42 v/s 0.45 for southern and northern populations, respectively), while effective size population was higher in the southern area (Ne: 101 v/s 39). Genetic differentiation between these two populations was high and significant (FST = 0.15 and RST = 0.19), indicating little or no current gene flow. Because of the absence of evident geographical barriers between the northern and southern populations, we propose that genetic differentiation may reflect ecological adaptation to the different habitat conditions and resource uses. Therefore, the two genetic populations of this endemic and Near Threatened species should be considered as different conservation units with independent management strategies. PMID:25898340

  10. Are Chileans exposed to dietary furan?

    PubMed

    Mariotti, María S; Toledo, Carla; Hevia, Karen; Gomez, J Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Rosowski, Jaime; Castillo, Oscar; Pedreschi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Chilean consumer preferences include foods that may contain considerable amounts of furan, a potential human carcinogen. However, there is no information regarding dietary exposure to furan in Chile. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the Chilean exposure to dietary furan. To accomplish this objective, the furan concentration of 14 types of commercial foods processed at high temperature were analysed based on a modified headspace-GC/MS (HS-GC/MS) method in which the limits of detection for different food matrices ranged from 0.01 to 0.6 ng g(-1). In addition, a risk assessment was made with exposure estimates based on dietary data from national studies on different age groups (9-month-old babies, school children, adults and elderly people). Of the food items surveyed "American"-type coffee (espresso coffee plus hot water) obtained from automatic coffee machine (936 ng g(-1)) and low moisture starchy products like crisps and "soda"-type crackers showed the highest furan concentrations (259 and 91 ng g(-1), respectively). Furthermore, furan was also found in samples of breakfast cereals (approximately 20 ng g(-1)), jarred fruit baby foods (8.5 ng g(-1)) and orange juice (7.0 ng g(-1)). School children (aged 9-13 years) represented the highest intake of furan (about 500 ng kg(-1)(bw) day(-1)), with margins of exposure of 2479 and 2411, respectively, which points to a possible public health risk. PMID:23875686

  11. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies. PMID:25329920

  12. 'NASA Helps Chilean Miners' Tops This Week @NASA

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA experts journeyed to Chile to assist the Chilean government on everything from what the trapped miners should eat and drink to how they could best adapt to their cramped, prolonged confinement...

  13. Are Mummies and Adults of Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Compatible With Modern Insecticides?

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Del Mar; Medina, Pilar; Fereres, Alberto; Smagghe, Guy; Viñuela, Elisa

    2015-10-01

    The parasitic wasp Eretmocerus mundus (Mercet) is an important natural enemy of the widespread key pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). The toxicity of 11 modern insecticides applied at their maximum field recommended rate in Spain was tested in two life stages of E. mundus: adults and mummies. Laboratory and persistence tests were conducted and effects assessed not only in terms of mortality but on reproductive performance as well. Some insecticides caused the same effect to both life stages: flubendiamide, methoxyfenozide, spiromesifen, and flonicamid were harmless, while spinosad and sulfoxaflor were harmful. The last two insecticides cannot be used jointly with E. mundus under any condition because they were highly persistent. The rest of tested insecticides (spirotetramat, metaflumizone, deltamethrin, abamectin, and emamectin) caused some direct mortality to one or both life stages and/or affected reproduction of the parasitic wasp and their harmful effect in the field ranged from short lived (metaflumizone and spirotetramat) to slightly persistent (emamectin) and to moderately persistent (abamectin and deltamethrin). Therefore, they could be recommended for use in integrated pest management programs together with the natural enemy if appropriate safety intervals after insecticide application are observed. PMID:26453715

  14. Egyptian mummies record increasing aridity in the Nile valley from 5500 to 1500 yr before present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touzeau, Alexandra; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Amiot, Romain; Fourel, François; Martineau, François; Cockitt, Jenefer; Hall, Keith; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions were measured in teeth (n=29) and bones (n=41) from Egyptian mummies of humans (n=48) in order to track the δ18O evolution of the Nile from 5500 to 1500 B.P. The combination of δ18O values of apatite carbonate and phosphate was used to filter the database for post mortem alteration of bioapatites, while 87Sr/86Sr ratios were used to detect potential allochthonous people buried in the various archeological sites located along the Nile. This approach led to only five apatite samples out of seventy to be discarded from the database. The remaining oxygen isotope compositions of both tooth and bone phosphates from ancient Egyptians were converted into the composition of ingested water ultimately originating from the Nile. It was found that δ18O of Nile waters increases progressively from -1.6 to +1.5 (‰ VSMOW) from the Predynastic (∼5500 B.P.) through the Late Period (∼2550 B.P.). This trend towards higher Nile δ18O values acquired in more recent times is coherent with a general drying trend in Northeast Africa, which was not limited to a drying spell at the end of the Nabtian Pluvial (ca. 12,000 B.P. -ca. 6000 B.P.), but extended far into the following millennia nearly to the beginning of the Common Era (1950 B.P.).

  15. MUMMY, A UDP-N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE, MODULATES DPP SIGNALING IN THE EMBRYONIC EPIDERMIS OF DROSOPHILA

    PubMed Central

    HUMPHREYS, GREGORY B.; JUD, MOLLY C.; MONROE, KATHRYN M.; KIMBALL, SUZANNE S.; HIGLEY, MATTHEW; SHIPLEY, DANIELLE; VRABLIK, MARIE CLOUGHERTY; BATES, KATHERINE L.; LETSOU, ANTHEA

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved JNK/AP-1 (Jun N-terminal kinase/activator protein 1) and BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) signaling cascades are deployed hierarchically to regulate dorsal closure in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In this developmental context, the JNK/AP-1 signaling cascade transcriptionally activates BMP signaling in leading edge epidermal cells. Here we show that the mummy (mmy) gene product, which is required for dorsal closure, functions as a BMP signaling antagonist. Genetic and biochemical tests of Mmy’s role as a BMP-antagonist indicate that its function is independent of AP-1, the transcriptional trigger of BMP signal transduction in leading edge cells. pMAD (phosphorylated Mothers Against Dpp) activity data show the mmy gene product to be a new type of epidermal BMP regulator – one which transforms a BMP ligand from a long- to a short-range signal. mmy codes for the single UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase in Drosophila, and its requirement for attenuating epidermal BMP signaling during dorsal closure points to a new role for glycosylation in defining a highly restricted BMP activity field in the fly. These findings add a new dimension to our understanding of mechanisms modulating the BMP signaling gradient. PMID:23796903

  16. Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Dowd, Scot E; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Cano, Raul J

    2015-01-01

    The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses. PMID:26422376

  17. Gut Microbiome of an 11th Century A.D. Pre-Columbian Andean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Dowd, Scot E.; Toranzos, Gary A.; Marota, Isolina; Cano, Raul J.

    2015-01-01

    The process of natural mummification is a rare and unique process from which little is known about the resulting microbial community structure. In the present study, we characterized the microbiome of paleofeces, and ascending, transverse and descending colon of an 11th century A.D. pre-Columbian Andean mummy by 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics. Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial group, with Clostridium spp. comprising up to 96.2% of the mummified gut, while Turicibacter spp. represented 89.2% of the bacteria identified in the paleofeces. Microbiome profile of the paleofeces was unique when compared to previously characterized coprolites that did not undergo natural mummification. We identified DNA sequences homologous to Clostridium botulinum, Trypanosoma cruzi and human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Unexpectedly, putative antibiotic-resistance genes including beta-lactamases, penicillin-binding proteins, resistance to fosfomycin, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, macrolides, sulfa, quinolones, tetracycline and vancomycin, and multi-drug transporters, were also identified. The presence of putative antibiotic-resistance genes suggests that resistance may not necessarily be associated with a selective pressure of antibiotics or contact with European cultures. Identification of pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes in ancient human specimens will aid in the understanding of the evolution of pathogens as a way to treat and prevent diseases caused by bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses. PMID:26422376

  18. A Possible Case of Cherubism in a 17th-Century Korean Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Spigelman, Mark; Sarig, Rachel; Lim, Do-Sun; Lee, In Sun; Oh, Chang Seok; May, Hila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, Soong Deok; Peled, Nathan; Kim, Myeung Ju; Toledano, Talya; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2014-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign fibro-osseous disease of childhood limited specifically to the maxilla and mandible. The progressive replacement of the jaw bones with expansile multilocular cystic lesions causes eventual prominence of the lower face, and hence the classic “cherubic” phenotype reflecting variable extents of jaw hypertrophy. Histologically, this condition has been characterized as replacement of the normal bone matrix with multicystic pockets of fibrous stroma and osteoclastic giant cells. Because of radiographic features common to both, primarily the presence of multiloculated lucencies with heterogeneous “ground-glass” sclerosis on CT imaging, cherubism was long mistaken for a craniofacial subtype of fibrous dysplasia. In 1999, however, the distinct genetic basis for cherubism was mapped to chromosome 4p16.3 and the SH-3 binding protein SH3BP2. But while there are already three suspected cases of fibrous dysplasia amongst archaeological populations, no definitive cases of cherubism have yet been reported in historical populations. In the current study we describe micro- and macro-structural changes in the face of a 17th century Joseon Dynasty Korean mummy which may coincide with the clinic-pathologic and radiologic features of cherubism. PMID:25093864

  19. Young people's relationships with sugar daddies and sugar mummies: what do we know and what do we need to know?

    PubMed

    Kuate-Defo, Bartbelemy

    2004-08-01

    This paper critically synthesises available research that examines young people's relationships with sugar daddies and mummies. It considers definitional, measurement and analytical issues involved in assessing these relationships, their magnitude, patterns, determinants and consequences. The review compares and contrasts the experiences of young people in a variety of settings in developing countries versus developed countries, and identifies key associated factors perpetuating those relationships. The implications of this endeavour for data needs and future research and intervention studies targeted at promoting young people's health and well being are discussed within the contexts of globalisation and localisation and recommendations for dealing with these experiences. PMID:15623116

  20. An ancient icon reveals new mysteries: mummy DNA resurrects a cryptic species within the Nile crocodile.

    PubMed

    Hekkala, Evon; Shirley, Matthew H; Amato, George; Austin, James D; Charter, Suellen; Thorbjarnarson, John; Vliet, Kent A; Houck, Marlys L; Desalle, Rob; Blum, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an ancient icon of both cultural and scientific interest. The species is emblematic of the great civilizations of the Nile River valley and serves as a model for international wildlife conservation. Despite its familiarity, a centuries-long dispute over the taxonomic status of the Nile crocodile remains unresolved. This dispute not only confounds our understanding of the origins and biogeography of the 'true crocodiles' of the crown genus Crocodylus, but also complicates conservation and management of this commercially valuable species. We have taken a total evidence approach involving phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear markers, as well as karyotype analysis of chromosome number and structure, to assess the monophyletic status of the Nile crocodile. Samples were collected from throughout Africa, covering all major bioregions. We also utilized specimens from museum collections, including mummified crocodiles from the ancient Egyptian temples at Thebes and the Grottes de Samoun, to reconstruct the genetic profiles of extirpated populations. Our analyses reveal a cryptic evolutionary lineage within the Nile crocodile that elucidates the biogeographic history of the genus and clarifies long-standing arguments over the species' taxonomic identity and conservation status. An examination of crocodile mummy haplotypes indicates that the cryptic lineage corresponds to an earlier description of C. suchus and suggests that both African Crocodylus lineages historically inhabited the Nile River. Recent survey efforts indicate that C. suchus is declining or extirpated throughout much of its distribution. Without proper recognition of this cryptic species, current sustainable use-based management policies for the Nile crocodile may do more harm than good. PMID:21906195

  1. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex DNAs from Egyptian Mummies by Spoligotyping

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Albert R.; Sola, Christophe; Reischl, Udo; Grabner, Waltraud; Rastogi, Nalin; Wolf, Hans; Nerlich, Andreas G.

    2003-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue samples from 85 ancient Egyptian mummies were analyzed for the presence of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (aDNA) and further characterized by spoligotyping. The specimens were obtained from individuals from different tomb complexes in Thebes West, Upper Egypt, which were used for upper social class burials between the Middle Kingdom (since ca. 2050 BC) and the Late Period (until ca. 500 BC). A total of 25 samples provided a specific positive signal for the amplification of a 123-bp fragment of the repetitive element IS6110, indicating the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. Further PCR-based tests for the identification of subspecies failed due to lack of specific amplification products in the historic tissue samples. Of these 25 positive specimens, 12 could be successfully characterized by spoligotyping. The spoligotyping signatures were compared to those in an international database. They all show either an M. tuberculosis or an M. africanum pattern, but none revealed an M. bovis-specific pattern. The results from a Middle Kingdom tomb (used exclusively between ca. 2050 and 1650 BC) suggest that these samples bear an M. africanum-type specific spoligotyping signature. The samples from later periods provided patterns typical for M. tuberculosis. This study clearly demonstrates that spoligotyping can be applied to historic tissue samples. In addition, our results do not support the theory that M. tuberculosis originated from the M. bovis type but, rather, suggest that human M. tuberculosis may have originated from a precursor complex probably related to M. africanum. PMID:12517873

  2. A serological and histological study of the Egyptian mummy 'Iset Iri Hetes' from the Ptolemaic period III-I B.C.

    PubMed

    Kłys, M; Opolska-Bogusz, B; Próchnicka, B

    1999-01-25

    Serological and histological examinations of the muscles of the calf of an Egyptian mummy dated between the third and first centuries B.C. were performed. Human protein was identified, the ABO phenotype was determined as type B, and morphological disruption of the cells was observed. PMID:10098261

  3. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  4. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers' village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated "recipes", whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  5. Shedding New Light on the 18th Dynasty Mummies of the Royal Architect Kha and His Spouse Merit

    PubMed Central

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Habicht, Michael E.; Buckley, Stephen; Fletcher, Joann; Seiler, Roger; Öhrström, Lena M.; Vassilika, Eleni; Böni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The mummies of Kha and his wife Merit were found intact in an undisturbed tomb in western Thebes near the ancient workers’ village of Deir el-Medina. Previous MDCT (this abbreviation needs spelling out) investigations showed that the bodies of Kha and Merit did not undergo classical royal 18th Dynasty artificial mummification, which included removal of the internal organs. It was, therefore, concluded that the retention of the viscera in the body, combined with an absence of canopic jars in the burial chamber, meant the couple underwent a short and shoddy funerary procedure, despite their relative wealth at death. Nevertheless, all internal organs - brain, ocular bulbs/ocular nerves, thoracic and abdominal organs - showed a very good state of preservation, which contradicts the previous interpretation above. In order to better understand the type of mummification used to embalm these bodies, both wrapped mummies were reinvestigated using new generation X-ray imaging and chemical microanalyses Here we provide evidence that both individuals underwent a relatively high quality of mummification, fundamentally contradicting previous understanding. Elucidated “recipes”, whose components had anti-bacterial and anti-insecticidal properties, were used to treat their bodies. The time and effort undoubtedly employed to embalm both Kha and Merit and the use of imported costly resins, notably Pistacia, do not support the previously held view that the two individuals were poorly mummified. Despite a lack of evisceration, the approach clearly allowed their in situ preservation as well as affording a fairly successful mummification. PMID:26200778

  6. Forecasting the Chilean Tsunami, February 27 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, K.; Knight, W.; Whitmore, P.

    2010-12-01

    . Throughout the event, the models exhibited good agreement and supplied timely guidance. The Chilean tsunami forecast results presented are threefold: 1) the initial pre-computed best-fit forecast, 2) the refined forecast achieved by utilizing sea-level observations in real-time during the event, and 3) the post-event forecast using the USGS CMT earthquake parameters and incorporating the sea-level observations from the event. In this manner, improvements to the forecasting accuracy can be reviewed as the forecast fluctuations are analyzed. The Chilean tsunami forecasting experience provided many lessons-learned for real-time warning. Forecasting advancements for future events are discussed and include: increasing the number of locations for which forecasted amplitudes are provided, expanding the forecast to international locations, including estimates of uncertainty, and delivering inundation maps to the website.

  7. Tools for evaluating Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in the field: Effects of host aphid and host plant on mummy location and color plus improved methods for obtaining adults

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.; Hoy, M.A.

    2007-03-15

    Lipolexis oregmae Gahan was introduced into Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), on citrus. Prior to evaluating distribution, host range, and potential nontarget effects of L. oregmae in Florida, we evaluated the role of other potential host aphids and host plants on mummy production and location. Under laboratory conditions, this parasitoid produced the most progeny on the target pest, the brown citrus aphid on citrus. This parasitoid, unlike the majority of aphidiids, did not produce mummies on any of the host plants tested when reared in black citrus aphid T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) on grapefruit, spirea aphid Aphis spiraecola Patch on grapefruit and pittosporum, cowpea aphid A. craccivora Koch on grapefruit and cowpeas, or melon aphid A. gossypii Glover on grapefruit and cucumber. Thus, sampling for L. oregmae mummies of these host aphids and host plants must involve holding foliage in the laboratory until mummies are produced. This parasitoid requires high relative humidity to produce adults because no adults emerged when mummies were held in gelatin capsules, but high rates of emergence were observed when mummies were held on 1.5% agar plates. In addition, we compared the color of 6 aphid hosts and the color of mummies produced by L. oregmae when reared in them to determine if color of mummies could be used to identify L. oregmae . Mummy color varied between aphid hosts and tested host plants, and is not a useful tool for identifying L. oregmae for nontarget effects. (author) [Spanish] Lipolexis oregmae Gahan fue introducida en Florida por medio de un programa de control biologico clasico dirigido contra el afido pardo de los citricos, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), sobre Citrus. Prioritario a la evaluacion de la distribucion, el rango de los hospederos y los efectos potenciales de L. oregmae sobre los organismos que no son el enfoque de control en la Florida

  8. The 2011 Chilean Student Movement against Neoliberal Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristián; Cabalin, Cristian; Orellana, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the 2011 Chilean student movement, the most relevant social mobilisation in Chile since the restoration of democracy in 1990. Based on available material and secondary sources, it describes the main features of this student movement, analyses the key components of the students' discourse and its relationship with the…

  9. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P < 0.0001), "emotional overeating" (P < 0.001) and "food responsiveness" (P < 0.0001). Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile. PMID:21985269

  10. "PRE-COLUMBIAN MOULAGES". HUACOS, MUMMIES AND PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTROVERSY OVER PRECOLUMBIAN DISEASES, 1894-1910.

    PubMed

    Farro, Máximo; Podgorny, Irina

    2015-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century an international controversy arose referred to the probable existence of certain diseases such as leprosy, syphilis and lupus in pre-Columbian America. Led by the American physician Albert Sidney Ashmead (1850-1911), it brought together scholars from Europe and the Americas. In this context, certain types of Peruvian archaeological pottery and "mummies", along with series of photographs illustrating the effects of these diseases in contemporary patients, met a prominent role as comparative evidence. In this article we analyze how this type of collections were used as evidence in the debates about pathologies of the past, an issue that from a historical standpoint have received considerably little attention. PMID:26946605

  11. Full waveform modelling of aftershock seismicity in the Chilean subduction zone using the VERCE platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garth, T.; Hicks, S. P.; Fuenzalida Velasco, A. J.; Casarotti, E.; Spinuso, A.; Rietbrock, A.

    2014-12-01

    The VERCE platform allows high resolution waveforms to be simulated through an interactive web-based portal. The platform runs on a variety of HPC clusters, and waveforms are calculated using SPECFEM3D. We use the full waveform modelling techniques supported on the VERCE platform to test the validity of a number of subduction zone velocity models from the Chilean subduction zone. Waveforms are calculated for aftershocks of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule (central Chile) and the Mw 8.1 2014 Pisagua (Northern Chile) earthquakes. For the Maule region, we use a 2D tomographic model of the rupture area (Hicks et al., 2012), and the focal mechanisms of Agurto et al., (2012). For the Pisagua earthquake, we use a 2.5D composite velocity model based on tomographic studies of the region (e.g. Husen et al., 2000, Contreras-Reyes et al., 2012) and Slab1.0 (Hayes et al., 2012). Focal mechanisms for the Pisagua aftershock sequence are produced from waveforms recorded on the IPOC network using the program ISOLA (Sokos and Zahradnik, 2008). We also test a number of synthetic velocity models. The simulated waveforms are directly compared to waveforms recorded on the temporary deployment for the Maule earthquake aftershocks, and waveforms recorded on the IPOC network for the Pisagua earthquake aftershocks. The waveforms produced by the 3D full waveform simulations are also compared to the waveforms produced by the focal mechanism inversion, which assume a 1D velocity model. The VERCE platform allows waveforms from the full 3D model to be produced easily, and allows us to quantifiably assess the validity of both the velocity model and the source mechanisms. In particular the dependence of the dip of the focal mechanism on the velocity model used is explored, in order to assess the reliability of current models of the plate interface geometry in the Chilean subduction zone.

  12. Holocene earthquake-triggered turbidites from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chilean margin) fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Chapron, Emmanuel; Mulsow, Sandor; Salas, Marcos; Debret, Maxime; Foucher, Anthony; Mulder, Thierry; Desmet, Marc; Costa, Pedro; Ghaleb, Bassam; Locat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Fjords are unique archives of climatic and environmental changes, but also of natural hazards. They can preserve thick sedimentary sequences deposited under very high sediment accumulation rates, making them ideally suited to record historical and pre-historical sedimentological events such as major landslides, floods or earthquakes. In fact, by carefully characterizing and dating the sediments and by comparing the basin fill seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary records with historical events, it is possible to "calibrate" recent rapidly deposited layers such as turbidites with a trigger mechanism and extend these observations further back in time by using seismic reflection profiles and longer sediment cores. Here, we will compare earthquake-triggered turbidites in fjords from the Southern and Northern Hemispheres: the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi fjords (southern Chilean margin). In both settings, we will first look at basin fill geometries and at the sedimentological properties of historical events before extending the records further back in time. In both fjords, several turbidites were associated with large magnitude historic and pre-historic earthquakes including the 1663 AD (M>7) earthquake in the Saguenay Fjord, and the 1960 (M 9.5), 1837 (M~8) and 1575 AD major Chilean subduction earthquakes in the Reloncavi Fjord. In addition, a sand layer with sea urchin fragments and the exoscopic characteristics typical of a tsunami deposit was observed immediately above the turbidite associated with the 1575 AD earthquake in the Reloncavi Fjord and supports both the chronology and the large magnitude of that historic earthquake. In both fjords, as well as in other recently recognized earthquake-triggered turbidites, the decimeter-to meter-thick normally-graded turbidites are characterized by a homogeneous, but slightly fining upward tail. Finally, new radiocarbon results will be presented and indicate that at least 19 earthquake-triggered turbidites were

  13. Calcified Pulmonary Nodules Identified in a 350-Year-Old-Joseon Mummy: the First Report on Ancient Pulmonary Tuberculosis from Archaeologically Obtained Pre-modern Korean Samples

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We found calcified pulmonary nodules in a middle-aged female mummy discovered from 350-yr-old Joseon tomb of Korea. In the CT scan, we found six radiopaque nodules in right lung, through the levels of thoracic vertebrae 1 to 6. We also found presumptive pleural adhesions in right thoracic cavity of CT images. We re-confirmed radiological findings by our post-factum dissection on the same mummy. By the differential diagnosis, we speculate that the radiopaque calcification nodules and associated pleural adhesion could have been caused by tuberculosis. This is the first-ever report on the pulmonary tuberculosis identified in archaeologically obtained, pre-modern Korean samples. PMID:26770051

  14. Implementation of ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography for inspecting the Greco-Roman Necropolis at Kilo 6 of the Golden Mummies Valley, Bahariya Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Abbas M.; Ghazala, Hosni H.; Mesbah, Hany S.; Atya, Magdy A.; Radwan, Ali; Hamed, Diaa E.

    2016-06-01

    Bahariya Oasis is one of the lately inspected spots in Egypt and has a long historical record extending from the old kingdom till the emergence of Islam. Since June 1999, the Valley of the Golden Mummies near Bawiti (at kilometer 6 on the road leads to Farafra Oasis) became significant due to the discoveries of amazing mummies of gelded faces. The archeologists believe that the Valley has more valuable tombs that still unrevealed. Also, the possibility that the Greco-Roman Necropolis extends to areas other than Kilo-6 is sustainable. The ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography are two geophysical tools that have successful applications in archeological assessment. The two techniques were used in integration plan to assert the archeological potentiality of the studied site and to map the feasible tombs. Sum of 798 GPR profiles and 19 ERT cross sections was carried out over the study area. The results of them were analyzed to envisage these results in archeological terms.

  15. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces. PMID:11910721

  16. [The National Museum of Chilean Medicine: I. The Colonial period].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1989-09-01

    The first museum of Chilean Medicines was founded by Dr Enrique Laval in 1955. The new museum is a fusion of this one and patrimony of the School of Medicine and the ancient San Vicente Hospital. It was created in 1987 by the present Dean, Aleksandar Goic. The present article describes one of the halls, the Colony. Pictures of Governors and Conquerors who founded the first hospitals are in display. The period of Religious Medicine (1616-1823) is represented by pictures and religious objects, as well as hospital utensils. The times of the University of San Felipe and the "Protomedicato" (1756-1839) includes pictures and documentation from the first colonial physicians. Chilean medicine at that time stayed at a medieval level, lacking the influence of the Renaissance, the Barroque and other movements enlighting european medicine. PMID:2519478

  17. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns.

    PubMed

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography. PMID:25778948

  18. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns

    PubMed Central

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I.; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography. PMID:25778948

  19. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    PubMed

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles. PMID:12347712

  20. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. PMID:26545537

  1. Associations between sociocultural pressures to be thin, body distress, and eating disorder symptomatology among Chilean adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Ferrer-García, Marta; Toro, José; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Peñaloza, Claudia; Cuadros-Sosa, Yasna; Gálvez-Madrid, Ma José

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between perceived sociocultural pressure to fulfill the thin beauty ideal, body distress, and the presence of eating disorder symptoms. Participants were 437 Chilean adolescent girls from Arica, northern Chile, aged 13-18. Results showed significant associations between perceived pressure from social agents to be thin and the presence of disrupted eating attitudes and behavior. The perceived influence of advertising, verbal messages and social situations related to eating and dieting emerged as the strongest predictors of eating disorders symptoms. Influence of advertising was also the strongest predictor of body image distress. Age differences emerged in perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin, with older participants reporting higher sociocultural pressure to fulfill the slender beauty ideal. This paper provides information about body distress and associated disturbances, a phenomenon which has seldom been studied in non-Western countries, but which has important health implications. PMID:21147054

  2. Bayesian exploration of recent Chilean earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duputel, Zacharie; Jiang, Junle; Jolivet, Romain; Simons, Mark; Rivera, Luis; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Liang, Cunren; Agram, Piyush; Owen, Susan; Ortega, Francisco; Minson, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The South-American subduction zone is an exceptional natural laboratory for investigating the behavior of large faults over the earthquake cycle. It is also a playground to develop novel modeling techniques combining different datasets. Coastal Chile was impacted by two major earthquakes in the last two years: the 2015 M 8.3 Illapel earthquake in central Chile and the 2014 M 8.1 Iquique earthquake that ruptured the central portion of the 1877 seismic gap in northern Chile. To gain better understanding of the distribution of co-seismic slip for those two earthquakes, we derive joint kinematic finite fault models using a combination of static GPS offsets, radar interferograms, tsunami measurements, high-rate GPS waveforms and strong motion data. Our modeling approach follows a Bayesian formulation devoid of a priori smoothing thereby allowing us to maximize spatial resolution of the inferred family of models. The adopted approach also attempts to account for major sources of uncertainty in the Green's functions. The results reveal different rupture behaviors for the 2014 Iquique and 2015 Illapel earthquakes. The 2014 Iquique earthquake involved a sharp slip zone and did not rupture to the trench. The 2015 Illapel earthquake nucleated close to the coast and propagated toward the trench with significant slip apparently reaching the trench or at least very close to the trench. At the inherent resolution of our models, we also present the relationship of co-seismic models to the spatial distribution of foreshocks, aftershocks and fault coupling models.

  3. Latitudinal Environmental Niches and Riverine Barriers Shaped the Phylogeography of the Central Chilean Endemic Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Viruel, Juan; Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene glaciations and geographical barriers on the phylogeographic patterns of lowland plant species in Mediterranean-climate areas of Central Chile are poorly understood. We used Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae), a dioecious geophyte extending 530 km from the Valparaíso to the Bío-Bío Regions, as a case study to disentangle the spatio-temporal evolution of populations in conjunction with latitudinal environmental changes since the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG) to the present. We used nuclear microsatellite loci, chloroplast (cpDNA) sequences and environmental niche modelling (ENM) to construct current and past scenarios from bioclimatic and geographical variables and to infer the evolutionary history of the taxa. We found strong genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci between the two subspecies of D. humilis, probably predating the LIG. Bayesian analyses of population structure revealed strong genetic differentiation of the widespread D. humilis subsp. humilis into northern and southern population groups, separated by the Maipo river. ENM revealed that the ecological niche differentiation of both groups have been maintained up to present times although their respective geographical distributions apparently fluctuated in concert with the climatic oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene. Genetic data revealed signatures of eastern and western postglacial expansion of the northern populations from the central Chilean depression, whereas the southern ones experienced a rapid southward expansion after the LGM. This study describes the complex evolutionary histories of lowland Mediterranean Chilean plants mediated by the summed effects of spatial isolation caused by riverine geographical barriers and the climatic changes of the Quaternary. PMID:25295517

  4. Chilean Family Reminiscing about Emotions and Its Relation to Children's Self-Regulation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyva, Diana; Nolivos, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the relation between Chilean parents' narrative participatory styles (i.e., the way in which parents scaffold children's participation in conversations) and children's self-regulation skills. A total of 210 low-income Chilean parent-child dyads participated in the study. Dyads were videotaped talking about a…

  5. Chilean Student Movements: Sustained Struggle to Transform a Market-Oriented Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian; Cabalin, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, Chilean society was shaken by sharply critical and powerful student movements: secondary students led the 2006 "Penguin Revolution" and university students led the 2011 "Chilean Winter." This article describes and analyzes these student movements to illustrate how students can be highly relevant…

  6. Ötzi's last meals: DNA analysis of the intestinal content of the Neolithic glacier mummy from the Alps

    PubMed Central

    Rollo, Franco; Ubaldi, Massimo; Ermini, Luca; Marota, Isolina

    2002-01-01

    Samples of the intestinal content were collected from the ileum and colon of the Neolithic glacier mummy popularly known as the Tyrolean Iceman, or Ötzi. DNA was extracted from the samples and PCR amplified, using a variety of primer pairs designed to bind to different genes (mammal mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene, plant/fungal nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene, plant chloroplast ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene). This made it possible to distinguish between animal and plant food residues (macroremains) and pollen (microremains). According to the DNA reconstruction, the man's last meal was composed of red deer (Cervus elaphus) meat, and, possibly, cereals; this meal had been preceded by another one based on ibex (Capra ibex), different species of dicots, and cereals. The DNA spectrum corresponding to pollen residues in the colon, on the other hand, fits with the hypothesis that the last journey of the Neolithic hunter/warrior was made through a subalpine coniferous forest to the site at over 3,200 m above sea level, where his mummified body was to be discovered 5,000 years later. PMID:12244211

  7. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio A; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°-41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°-53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  8. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast

    PubMed Central

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°–41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°–53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  9. Origin of components in Chilean thermal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, François; Fritz, Bertrand; Hauser, Arturo

    2011-02-01

    Thermal waters of northern (18°-27°S) and southern (37°-45°S) Chile occur in two very different climatic, geologic and hydrologic environments: arid closed basins with abundant evaporites in the north; humid climate and well drained valleys in the south. The origin and behavior of the main components of the two groups of waters are examined and compared to each other. The modeling of the alteration of volcanic rocks leads to water compositions very different from those observed both in the north and south. In addition to hydrothermal alteration and deep emanations, the Cl/Br ratio reveals a major contribution of saline waters to the two groups: infiltrating brines from salt lakes in the north; seawater in the south. In the north, concentrations of Cl, Br, Na, K, Ca, SO4, Li, B, Si result from the mixing of alteration waters with recycled brines. Hydrothermal alteration is obscured by this massive saline input, except for Mg. δ34S values are consistent with an origin of sulfate from salar brines, which are themselves derived from deep Tertiary gypsum. In the south, two processes account for the composition of thermal waters: mixing of alteration waters with seawater and deep magmatic contribution. The mixing process controls the concentration of Cl, Br, Na, Alk, Si, K, Ca, Mg. Magmatic inputs are detectable for SO4, Li and B. δ34S suggests that sulfate stems from the mixing of alteration waters with either marine SO4 in coastal waters or with deep SO2 in inland waters. In both the north and south, the Mg concentration is drastically lowered (<1 μmol/L) by the probable formation of a chlorite-type mineral. In the south, very small amounts of seawater (<1% in volume) are sufficient to imprint a clear signature on thermal waters. Not only coastal springs are affected by seawater mixing, but also remote inland springs, as far as 150 km from the sea. Subduction of marine sediments in the accretive margin could be the source of the marine imprint in thermal waters

  10. Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Navia, Rodrigo; Bezama, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The new "Hazardous Waste Management Regulation" was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on 12 June 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., 12 June 2004). During the next 180 days after its publication (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was obligated to present a "Hazardous Waste Management Plan" if the facility generates more than 12 ton/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. Based on the Chilean industrial figures and this new regulation, hazardous waste management plans were carried out in three facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood remanufacturing facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified in all facilities. Used oil and oil-contaminated materials were determined to be the most important hazardous wastes generated. Minimization measures were implemented and re-use and recycling options were analyzed. The use of used oil as alternative fuel in high energy demanding facilities (i.e., cement facilities) and the re-refining of the used oil were found to be the most suitable options. In the Zn and Pb mine facility, the most important measure was the beginning of the study for using spent oils as raw material for the production of the explosives used for metals recovery from the rock. In Chile, there are three facilities producing alternative fuels from used oil, while two plants are nowadays re-refining oil to recycle it as hydraulic fluid in industry. In this sense, a proper and sustainable management of the used oil appears to be promissory. PMID:18337002

  11. Chilean Earthquakes: Aquifer Responses at the Russian Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besedina, Alina; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Gorbunova, Ella; Svintsov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    We studied hydrogeological responses to the passage of seismic waves from the Chilean earthquakes with Ms ≥7.6 at epicentral distances of about 126°. The variation in the levels of confined and unconfined aquifers was analyzed under platform conditions at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory near Moscow, Russia. Synchronous recording of seismic and hydrogeological data enabled us to evaluate the amplitude-frequency response of aquifers. The study shows that medium response to dynamic impact depends on various physical parameters of the aquifers.

  12. Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villlegas, Natalia; De Oliveira, Giovanna; Hires, Kimberly; Gattamorta, Karina; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To investigate if socio-demographic factors, religiosity, HIV-related knowledge, Marianismo, history of having been tested for HIV, knowing someone who died of AIDS and HIV risk perception were predictive factors to HIV enacted stigma predictors among Chilean women. Background HIV infection is the number one cause of death among women during their reproductive years. In Chile, studies with people living with HIV demonstrate the existence of HIV-related stigma. However, limited evidence is available about the underlying causes of HIV enacted stigma that results in stigmatisation and discrimination. Design The current cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data collected to assess the impact of an HIV prevention intervention (Mano a Mano-Mujer) designed for Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used in the original study. Methods This study was conducted in two communities in Santiago, Chile. The sample for this study consisted of 496 Chileans between ages 18–49. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for the analysis. Results Participants in the study reported high levels (77·8%) of HIV enacted stigma. Higher levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with lower levels of HIV enacted stigma. Women with higher education had lower levels of HIV enacted stigma than women with elementary education. In addition, greater levels of marianismo (cultural belief that women should be passive, faithful, and devoted to family) were associated with higher HIV enacted stigma scores. Conclusions The findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence-based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels

  13. Grandparenting and psychosocial health among older Chileans: A longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Emily M.; Albala, Cecilia; Allen, Elizabeth; Dangour, Alan D.; Elbourne, Diana; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate factors associated with Chilean grandparents’ provision of help to grandchildren and associations between provision of such help and grandparents’ mental well-being two years later. Methods: Data are drawn from a representative sample of 2000 people aged 66–68 resident in low- or middle-income areas of Santiago who were surveyed in 2005 and re-interviewed two years later. Multivariable analyses were used to investigate factors associated with provision of help to grandchildren at baseline and associations between providing such help and life satisfaction, SF36-Mental Component Summary scores, and depression two years later. Results: 41% of grandparents lived with one or more grandchildren and over half provided four or more hours per week of help to grandchildren. Models controlling for baseline mental health, grandchild characteristics, marital and household characteristics, socio-economic status and functional health showed that grandfathers who provided four or more hours per week of help to grandchildren had better life satisfaction two years later and that those providing material help had higher SF36 MCS scores at follow-up. Grandmothers providing four or more hours of help a week had lower risks of depression. Conclusion: Older Chileans make important contributions to their families through the provision of help to grandchildren and these appear to have some benefits for their own psychosocial health. Gender differences in the pattern of associations may reflect differences in overall family responsibilities and merit further investigation. PMID:22690765

  14. Positive discrimination in education: Its justification and a Chilean example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo S.

    1994-05-01

    Educational policies in Latin America have centred on two main issues: raising the quality of education, and improving the equity of its distribution. Access to schooling was until recently at the heart of the debate, the degree of justice of the educational systems being measured by their capacity to enrol and retain the population. Attention is now concentrated on the strength of the cultural resources offered by schools and the effectiveness of provision. Learning is the priority of education policy. This article develops the theme of equity, examining the concept and describing a programme which focuses on improving the equity of the Chilean educational system. It is suggested that educational equity should no longer mean equality of access but equality of results. A just system therefore needs to concentrate on raising the quality of schools serving the poorest sectors of society. The Chilean "900 Schools Programme" is an example. Its aim was to raise levels of achievement by improving the learning of poor children from 1st to 4th grade in reading, writing and mathematics. To do so, it improved the school environment, textbooks and methodologies, and offered support to children outside school hours by the work of community monitors.

  15. Molecular identification of falciparum malaria and human tuberculosis co-infections in mummies from the Fayum depression (Lower Egypt).

    PubMed

    Lalremruata, Albert; Ball, Markus; Bianucci, Raffaella; Welte, Beatrix; Nerlich, Andreas G; Kun, Jürgen F J; Pusch, Carsten M

    2013-01-01

    Due to the presence of the lake Quarun and to the particular nature of its irrigation system, it has been speculated that the Fayum, a large depression 80 kilometers south-west of modern Cairo, was exposed to the hazards of malaria in historic times. Similarly, it has been speculated that, in the same area, also human tuberculosis might have been far more widespread in the antiquity than in its recent past. If these hypotheses were confirmed, it would imply that frequent cases of co-infection between the two pathogens might have occurred in ancient populations. To substantiate those speculations, molecular analyses were carried out on sixteen mummified heads recovered from the necropolis of Abusir el Meleq (Fayum) dating from the 3(rd) Intermediate Period (1064-656 BC) to the Roman Period (30 BC-300 AD). Soft tissue biopsies were used for DNA extractions and PCR amplifications using well-suited protocols. A partial 196-bp fragment of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 gene and a 123-bp fragment of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex insertion sequence IS6110 were amplified and sequenced in six and five of the sixteen specimens, respectively. A 100% concordance rates between our sequences and those of P. falciparum and M. tuberculosis complex ones were obtained. Lastly, concomitant PCR amplification of P. falciparum and M. tuberculosis complex DNA specific fragments was obtained in four mummies, three of which are (14)C dated to the Late and Graeco-Roman Periods. Our data confirm that the hydrography of Fayum was extremely conducive to the spread of malaria. They also support the notion that the agricultural boom and dense crowding occurred in this region, especially under the Ptolemies, highly increased the probability for the manifestation and spread of tuberculosis. Here we extend back-wards to ca. 800 BC new evidence for malaria tropica and human tuberculosis co-occurrence in ancient Lower Egypt. PMID:23565222

  16. Molecular Identification of Falciparum Malaria and Human Tuberculosis Co-Infections in Mummies from the Fayum Depression (Lower Egypt)

    PubMed Central

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Welte, Beatrix; Nerlich, Andreas G.; Kun, Jürgen F. J.; Pusch, Carsten M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the presence of the lake Quarun and to the particular nature of its irrigation system, it has been speculated that the Fayum, a large depression 80 kilometers south- west of modern Cairo, was exposed to the hazards of malaria in historic times. Similarly, it has been speculated that, in the same area, also human tuberculosis might have been far more widespread in the antiquity than in its recent past. If these hypotheses were confirmed, it would imply that frequent cases of co-infection between the two pathogens might have occurred in ancient populations. To substantiate those speculations, molecular analyses were carried out on sixteen mummified heads recovered from the necropolis of Abusir el Meleq (Fayum) dating from the 3rd Intermediate Period (1064- 656 BC) to the Roman Period (30 BC- 300 AD). Soft tissue biopsies were used for DNA extractions and PCR amplifications using well-suited protocols. A partial 196-bp fragment of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 gene and a 123-bp fragment of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex insertion sequence IS6110 were amplified and sequenced in six and five of the sixteen specimens, respectively. A 100% concordance rates between our sequences and those of P. falciparum and M. tuberculosis complex ones were obtained. Lastly, concomitant PCR amplification of P. falciparum and M. tuberculosis complex DNA specific fragments was obtained in four mummies, three of which are 14 C dated to the Late and Graeco-Roman Periods. Our data confirm that the hydrography of Fayum was extremely conducive to the spread of malaria. They also support the notion that the agricultural boom and dense crowding occurred in this region, especially under the Ptolemies, highly increased the probability for the manifestation and spread of tuberculosis. Here we extend back-wards to ca. 800 BC new evidence for malaria tropica and human tuberculosis co-occurrence in ancient Lower Egypt. PMID:23565222

  17. A checklist of Branchiopoda (Anostraca and Cladocera) of Chilean continental waters.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Patricio De Los Rios; Kotov, Alexey A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to represent an annotated checklist of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) reported from Chilean inland waters. Only Anostraca and Cladocera are found in Chile, while there are no reports on Notostraca and "Conchostraca". Our checklist contains 85 valid taxa, among which nine anostracans and 76 cladocerans. Such "low" biodiversity of the branchiopods in Chile is in reality an artifact of insufficient sampling. Our work indicates that more faunistic, taxonomic and biogeographical studies of Chilean branchiopods are necessary, especially in areas with subtropical climate, Atacama desert, Southern Patagonia, and central Chilean ephemeral pools. PMID:26624185

  18. Non-invasive computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction of the dentition of a 2,800-year-old Egyptian mummy exhibiting extensive dental disease.

    PubMed

    Melcher, A H; Holowka, S; Pharoah, M; Lewin, P K

    1997-07-01

    A second CT scan of the mummy Djedmaatesankh, which is housed in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, has been undertaken after an interval of some 15 years. The image data set of her dentition and the associated tissues acquired from 3 mm thick x 3 mm spacing slices was transferred to an ISG Allegro work station where two-dimensional reformats and three-dimensional reconstructions were produced. This non-invasive examination provided information on dental disease that is, in a number of respects, an advance on that which previously could be obtained from mummies by the traditional methods of visual inspection after unwrapping and by two-dimensional radiography. The two- and three-dimensional images reveal that: three molars are missing and the right maxillary canine is impacted; the rest of the dentition is afflicted by severe attrition, caries and periodontal disease; and, of the 28 teeth present in the mouth, 24 exhibit exposure of their dental pulps and 18 are afflicted by periapical lesions including five that could have contributed to a large secondarily infected radicular cyst. The cyst have displaced the maxillary antrum and enlarged the maxilla on its lateral aspect and the vault of the palate on its medial aspect. Pus from the cyst may have drained through five different sinuses. In life, Djedmaatesankh's widespread dental infection probably caused her considerable pain, personal distress and malaise, and possibly resulted in her death. PMID:9261496

  19. Scenes from the past: CT-guided endoscopic recovery of a foreign object from the cranial cavity of an ancient Egyptian mummy.

    PubMed

    Cavka, Mislav; Petaros, Anja; Boščić, Drago; Kavur, Lovro; Janković, Ivor; Despot, Radovan; Trajković, Jelena; Brkljačić, Boris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the value of computed tomography (CT)-guided endoscopy in the scientific study of mummified remains and the recovery of unidentified objects from ancient mummified remains. CT-guided endoscopy was performed on an Egyptian mummy from the Late Period to help retrieve an unidentified object from its skull. The combined use of CT and endoscopy facilitated the recovery of the object, minimizing further damage to the remains and to the object itself. The successful recovery of the brittle object allowed detailed analysis of the item to be performed in an attempt to determine the nature of its presence in the cranial cavity. It was confirmed that the object was a monocotyledon stem fragment. Relying on the existing literature on mummification and excerebration methods in ancient Egypt, we concluded that the stick was probably used for transnasal removal of the brain. The results of this study demonstrate the great potential of CT-guided endoscopy for minimally invasive recovery of small unidentified items from mummies that could yield important information about mummification procedures and the materials used to preserve bodies. PMID:23150862

  20. [The Chilean Health Care System: the task ahead].

    PubMed

    Goic, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    The most important event in Chilean public health in the XXth Century was the creation of the National Health Service (NHS), in 1952. Systematic public policies for the promotion of health, disease prevention, medical care, and rehabilitation were implemented, while a number of more specific programs were introduced, such as those on infant malnutrition, complementary infant feeding, medical control of pregnant women and healthy infants, infant and adult vaccination, and essential sanitation services. In 1981, a parallel private health care system was introduced in the form of medical care financial institutions, which today cover 15% of the population, as contrasted with the public system, which covers about 80%. From 1952 to 2014, public health care policies made possible a remarkable improvement in Chile's health indexes: downward trends in infant mortality rate (from 117.8 to 7.2 x 1,000 live births), maternal mortality (from 276 to 18.5 x 100,000), undernourished children < 5 years old (from 63% to 0.5%); and upward trends in life expectancy at birth (from 50 to 79,8 years), professional hospital care of births (from 35% to 99.8%), access to drinking water (from 52% to 99%), and access to sanitary sewer (from 21% to 98.9%). This went hand in hand with an improvement in economic and social indexes: per capita income at purchasing power parity increased from US$ 3,827 to US$ 20,894 and poverty decreased from 60% to 14.4% of the population. Related indexes such as illiteracy, average schooling, and years of primary school education, were significantly improved as well. Nevertheless, compared with OECD countries, Chile has a relatively low public investment in health (45.7% of total national investment), a deficit in the number of physicians (1.7 x 1,000 inhabitants) and nurses (4.8 x 1,000), in the number of hospital beds (2.1 x 1,000), and in the availability of generic drugs in the market (30%). Chile and the USA are the two OECD countries with the lowest

  1. Classification of Chilean gravel-bed rivers: a proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iroumé, Andrés; Vergara, Gastón; Mao, Luca; Sandoval, Víctor

    2015-04-01

    Investigations on fluvial morphodynamics in Chilean rivers are still scarce, and up to date very little attempts have been made in order to generate a classification scheme. However, the latitudinal variation in vegetation and climatic conditions and the geography of the country offer an almost unique opportunity to study gravel-bed river variations with both latitude and extreme geophysical events. We studied channel reaches of twenty Chilean gravel-bed rivers from semi-arid Mediterranean to rainy temperate conditions (latitudinal range from 30°19' to 39°56'S) to generate a classification based on geomorphic indicators. Reaches were selected to measure 20 times the width of the active channel, and morphologic features within the active channels were identified through a direct interpretation of aerial photos and remotely sensed images and the use of GIS. Also, river basin topographic conditions were derived from existing digital elevation models and discharge was obtained from national data bases. We used normalized active channel width (W*) and slope (S*), mean elevation, percentage of active channel occupied by islands and number of islands per km, catchment mean slope, and the 2-year return period flood (Q2) as indicators. By means of a hierarchical clustering analysis method and using the squared Euclidean distance metric we classified the study channels in five types. Type I comprises the two northernmost reaches and presents by far the lowest Q2; Type II groups only one reach noticeably different than all the other types, and located just south and with smaller W* but higher S* than Type I channels; Type III includes two channels with higher Q2 than Types I and II, and compared with all other types they feature very low percentage of active channel occupied by islands and number of islands per km and relatively high S*; Type IV includes 12 channels in the latitudinal range from 34°36' to 39°56'S; and finally, the three channels of Type V differ from Type

  2. Tectonics of the Argentine and Chilean Andes: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folguera, Andrés; Alvarado, Patricia; Arriagada, César; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    This Special Issue gathers a series of contributions derived from presentations at the 19° Congreso Geológico Argentino held in Córdoba in 2-6 June 2014. Specific subjects cover a wide variety of topics and regions of the Argentine and Chilean Andes, varying from sedimentological analyses and U/Pb dating of detrital zircons in different rocks to determine source areas for different times and regions along the southern Andes; satellite gravity data for monitoring earthquakes at the subduction zone to understand their complex rupture structure; fission track data from the Andes to the foreland region; use of seismic tomographies and conventional seismic reflection data for analyzing crustal structure; to paleomagnetic data and structural and morphological analyses (Fig. 1).

  3. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism. PMID:27468052

  4. Biological properties of the Chilean native moss Sphagnum magellanicum.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Gloria; Portaluppi, Mariana C; Salas, Francisco A; Díaz, María F

    2009-01-01

    An ethanol extract prepared from the gametophyte Chilean native moss Sphagnum magellanicum was dried out, weighed and dissolved in distilled water. This extract was then assayed for its antibacterial activity against the G(-) bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and the G(+) bacteria Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, and Streptococcus type beta. The growth of the cultures of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, and V. cholerae was inhibited at a concentration of 581 microg/ml of extract, while the cultures of E. coli, S. typhi and Streptococcus type beta were inhibited at a concentration of 1.16 microg/mL of extract. The concentration of phenolic compounds was 4.294 mg/mL; the presence of vanillic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, gallic, 3-4 hydrozybenzoic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids was identified using RP- High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. PMID:19746269

  5. Comprehensive antibiotic susceptibility profiling of Chilean Piscirickettsia salmonis field isolates.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, P; Kaiser, M; Bohle, H; Bustos, P; Mancilla, M

    2016-04-01

    Antibiotics have been extensively used against infections produced by Piscirickettsia salmonis, a fish pathogen and causative agent of piscirickettsiosis and one of the major concerns for the Chilean salmon industry. Therefore, the emergence of resistant phenotypes is to be expected. With the aim of obtaining a landscape of the antimicrobial resistance of P. salmonis in Chile, the susceptibility profiles for quinolones, florfenicol and oxytetracycline (OTC) of 292 field isolates derived from main rearing areas, different hosts and collected over 5 years were assessed. The results allowed for the determination of epidemiological cut-off values that were used to characterize the pathogen population. This work represents the first large-scale field study addressing the antimicrobial susceptibility of P. salmonis, providing evidence of the existence of resistant types with a high incidence of resistance to quinolones. Remarkably, despite the amounts and frequency of therapies, our results disclosed that the issue of resistance to florfenicol and OTC is still in the onset. PMID:26660665

  6. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  7. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent <0.5 h at a depth near the pycnocline (∼10 m) and then swam downward to depths between ∼20 and ∼60 m. After congregating at those depths during night-time, organisms swam upward again toward the pycnocline at sunrise, spent <1 h near the pycnocline and swam downward to their day-time depths (>100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  8. Bayesian spatiotemporal interpolation of rainfall in the Central Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Water availability in the populous and economically significant Central Chilean region is governed by complex interactions between precipitation, temperature, snow and glacier melt, and streamflow. Streamflow prediction at daily time scales depends strongly on accurate estimations of precipitation in this predominantly dry region, particularly during the winter period. This can be difficult as gauged rainfall records are scarce, especially in the higher elevation regions of the Chilean Andes, and topographic influences on rainfall are not well understood. Remotely sensed precipitation and topographic products can be used to construct spatiotemporal multivariate regression models to estimate rainfall at ungauged locations. However, classical estimation methods such as kriging cannot easily accommodate the complicated statistical features of the data, including many 'no rainfall' observations, as well as non-normality, non-stationarity, and temporal autocorrelation. We use a separable space-time model to predict rainfall using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference, using the gridded CHIRPS satellite-based rainfall dataset and digital elevation models as covariates. We jointly model both the probability of rainfall occurrence on a given day (using a binomial likelihood) as well as amount (using a gamma likelihood or similar). Correlation in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model if desired. It is possible to evaluate the GMRF at relatively coarse temporal resolution to speed up computations, but still produce daily rainfall predictions. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, which we use to objectively select from competing models with various combinations of temporal smoothing, likelihoods, and autoregressive model orders.

  9. Pleistocene glaciation leaves deep signature on the freshwater crab Aegla alacalufi in Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawu; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Jara, Carlos G; Crandall, Keith A

    2009-03-01

    Quaternary glacial cycles have played an important role in shaping the biodiversity in temperate regions. This is well documented in Northern Hemisphere, but much less understood for Southern Hemisphere. We used mitochondrial DNA and nuclear elongation factor 1α intron sequences to examine the Pleistocene glacial impacts on the phylogeographical pattern of the freshwater crab Aegla alacalufi in Chilean Patagonia. Phylogenetic analyses, which separated the glaciated populations on eastern continent into a north group (seven populations) and a south group (one population), revealed a shallow phylogenetic structure in the north group but a deep one in the non-glaciated populations on western islands, indicating the significant influence of glaciation on these populations. Phylogenies also identified the Yaldad population on Chiloé Island as a potentially unrecognized new species. The non-glaciated populations showed higher among population genetic divergence than the glaciated ones, but lower population genetic diversity was not detected in the latter. The two glaciated groups, which diverged from the non-glaciated populations at ~96,800-29,500 years ago and ~104,200-73,800 years ago, respectively, seem to have different glacial refugia. Unexpectedly, the non-glaciated islands did not serve as refugia for them. Demographic expansion was detected in the glaciated north group, with a constant population increase after the last glacial maximum. Nested clade analyses suggest a possible colonization from western islands to eastern continent. After arriving on the continent and surviving the last glacial period there, populations likely have expanded from high to low altitude, following the flood of melting ice. Aegla alacalufi genetic diversity has been primarily affected by Pleistocene glaciation and minimally by drainage isolation. PMID:19207249

  10. Mercury in feathers from Chilean birds: Influence of location, feeding strategy, and taxonomic affiliation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ochoa-Acua, H.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    This study reports baseline concentrations of mercury (Hg) in feathers from different species of birds sampled at various locations off the Chilean coast (Southeastern Pacific). Hg concentrations were evaluated in relation to geographic location, taxonomic affiliation, and feeding strategies. Between January and March of 1995, we collected mature contour feathers from 116 birds belonging to 22 species, mostly seabirds. Birds were collected from 10 different locations (26??09???S, 70??40???W to 54??56???S, 67??37???W). Feather Hg concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 13 ??gg-1 dry weight. We found differences in feather Hg concentrations across taxonomic groups, with highest concentrations in petrels, shearwaters, and albatrosses (Procellaridae), followed by boobies (Sulidae), gulls, terns, skuas (Laridae) and cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae). Ibises and oystercatchers (Threskiornithidae and Charadriidae) had intermediate values, whereas ducks and geese (Anatidae) contained the least amount of Hg. Oceanic species preying on mesopelagic fish (the Procellariformes albatrosses, petrels, and fulmars) had over twice as much Hg (overall average of 3.9 ??gg-1) when compared to the rest of the species sampled (overall average of 1.5 ??gg-1). We did not find higher Hg concentrations in birds inhabiting the more heavily industrialized and urbanized areas of the country (central and northern regions), but in birds inhabiting the remote Juan Ferna??ndez Archipelago. This is not surprising, since all the Procellariformes (the group with highest Hg values in this study) were collected from these islands. Except for Hg in Kermadec petrels (mean of 12 ??gg-1), the range of Hg values reported here (0.11-7.3 ??gg-1) fell below those known to cause adverse health and reproductive effects in birds. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mercury in feathers from Chilean birds: Influence of location, feeding strategy and taxonomic affiliation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ochoa-Acuna, H.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    This study reports baseline concentrations of mercury (Hg) in feathers from different species of birds sampled at various locations off the Chilean coast (Southeastern Pacific). Hg concentrations were evaluated in relation to geographic location, taxonomic affiliation, and feeding strategies. Between January and March of 1995, we collected mature contour feathers from 116 birds belonging to 22 species, mostly seabirds. Birds were collected from 10 different locations (26?09'S, 70?40'W to 54?56'S, 67?37'W). Feather Hg concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 13 ?g g-1 dry weight. We found differences in feather Hg concentrations across taxonomic groups, with highest concentrations in petrels, shearwaters, and albatrosses (Procellaridae), followed by boobies (Sulidae), gulls, terns, skuas (Laridae) and cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae). Ibises and oystercatchers (Threskiornithidae and Charadriidae) had intermediate values, whereas ducks and geese (Anatidae) contained the least amount of Hg. Oceanic species preying on mesopelagic fish (the Procellariformes albatrosses, petrels, and fulmars) had over twice as much Hg (overall average of 3.9 ?g g-1) when compared to the rest of the species sampled (overall average of 1.5 ?g g-1). We did not find higher Hg concentrations in birds inhabiting the more heavily industrialized and urbanized areas of the country (central and northern regions), but in birds inhabiting the remote Juan Fernandez Archipelago. This is not surprising, since all the Procellariformes (the group with highest Hg values in this study) were collected from these islands. Except for Hg in Kermadec petrels (mean of 12 ?g g-1), the range of Hg values reported here (0.11-7.3 ?g g-1) fell below those known to cause adverse health and reproductive effects in birds.

  12. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia. PMID:18663216

  13. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA

    PubMed Central

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Mobegi, Victor A.; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A.; Matus, Jose T.; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J.; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J.; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-01-01

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of ≈1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and China and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia. PMID:18663216

  14. The Vallenar Discontinuity and the Maipo Orocline: Regional significance of clockwise vertical-axis rotations in the central Chilean Andes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.; Mpodozis, C.; Charrier, R.; Yanez, G.; Farias, M.

    2009-05-01

    One of the most prominent tectonic features of the Andes is the Central Andean Rotation Pattern (CARP), which is closely related to the Bolivian Orocline and characterized by paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations in northern Chile and counterclockwise rotations in southern Peru (Arriagada et al., 2008). Along the Chilean margin, between 29°S and 38°S, three prominent curvatures are observed. The Vallenar Discontinuity near ˜29°S corresponds to the southern limit of the Bolivian Orocline. North of 29°S the major structural elements (Paleozoic basement highs and thrusts) are NNE oriented while from 29°S down to 32°S the structures are mainly NS. The central Chilean margin presents also significant bends near Santiago (˜33°S, Maipo Orocline) and in the Arauco region (˜38°S). Near Santiago, the Maipo bend coincides with the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge (JFR). During the last five years we have undertaken new paleomagnetic and structural studies along the forearc of northern and central Chile in order to understand the origin of the bends in the Chilean margin and the consequence of its indentation by the JFR. Clockwise rotations are, consistently large (30°S- 45°) north of the Vallenar discontinuity, but south of the Vallenar discontinuity, the segment between 29°S to 32°S was not subjected to significant clockwise rotation. South of ˜33°S, significant clockwise deflections up to 39° of the declinations are again observed. Rotations occur both in Mesozoic rocks of the Coastal Cordillera and Tertiary rocks of the Main Cordillera. Whereas most of the CARP rotations, involving bending of the Bolivian Orocline and clockwise rotations north of the Vallenar Discontinuity, occurred essentially during the Paleogene, the paleomagnetic rotations obtained in Tertiary formations of central Chile constrain the maximum possible age for the occurrence of rotations of the Maipo Orocline to the Miocene. Neogene shortening in the foreland belt

  15. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    American Red Cross Multi-Disciplinary Team

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  16. Analysis of RCP8.5 Projections of Precipitation and Temperatures in Chilean Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, X.; Lagos Zuniga, M. A.; Vasquez, N. A.; Cepeda, J. A.; Bobadilla, M. P.; Uribe, F.; Silva, V.

    2015-12-01

    In order to explain the uncertainty of future water availability in Chilean basins we study time series of daily precipitation and mean daily temperature projected by global circulation models (GCMs) in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP 8.5, characterized by increasing greenhouse gas emissions over time is taken for the analysis. Data from four GCMs (MPI-ESM-LR, CSIRO-MK3.6, CMCC-CMS, BCC-CSM1.1) is used and downscaled spatial and temporally to local gages sites using standard statistical procedures. The model selection procedure was based on the preservation of the observed precipitation and temperature regimes for the base line period through the comparison of the average monthly values of the observed and spatial downscaled variables normalized respect to annual values for one of the sites. Base line data is defined for the period 1975-2005 and two future periods are studied: near future stands for 2015-2045 and far ahead future stands for 2045-2075. For the analysis we consider hydrologic year starting on April and ending on March of following year. We analyse the behaviour of daily time series of precipitation and temperature for gages located at -33.5° latitude, -70.5° longitude to -37.7° latitude, -72° longitude. Mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, the number of days with precipitation, the number of days with precipitation less or greater than specific values, the mean temperature during rainy days and in extreme events, for each period (base line, near and far ahead future) are determined for each site. Special attention is given to the effect of temperatures on rainy days on the elevation of 0°C isotherm on representative watersheds and to the occurrence of extreme events during the snowmelt period with high elevation of 0°C isotherm. In general, results show a spatial decay of annual precipitation from north to south from base line to future being

  17. Role of Salmonella enterica exposure in Chilean Crohn's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Pizarro, Daniela P; Palavecino, Christian E; Espinoza, Abner; Sebastián, Valentina P; Alvarado, Juan C; Ibañez, Patricio; Quintana, Carlos; Díaz, Orlando; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between exposure to Salmonella enterica (SE) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and its clinical implications in Chilean patients. METHODS: Ninety-four unrelated Chilean CD patients from CAREI (Active Cohort Registry of Inflammatory Bowel Disease) presenting to a single inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unit of a University Hospital were prospectively included in this study. A complete clinical evaluation, including smoking history, was performed at the initial visit, and all the important data of clinical evolution of CD were obtained. Blood samples from these CD patients and 88 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were analyzed for exposure to SE and for their NOD2/CARD15 gene status using the presence of anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide antibodies [immunoglobulin-G type (IgG)] and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We also evaluated exposure to SE in 90 sex- and age-matched patients without CD, but with known smoking status (30 smokers, 30 non-smokers, and 30 former smokers). RESULTS: CD patients comprised 54 females and 40 males, aged 35.5 ± 15.2 years at diagnosis with a mean follow-up of 9.0 ± 6.8 years. CD was inflammatory in 59 patients (62.7%), stricturing in 24 (25.5%) and penetrating in 15 (15.5%). Thirty cases (31.9%) had lesions in the ileum, 29 (30.8%) had ileocolonic lesions, 32 (34.0%) had colonic lesions and 23 (24.4%) had perianal disease. Sixteen CD patients (17%) were exposed to SE compared to 15 (17%) of 88 healthy control subjects (P = 0.8). Thirty-one CD patients (32.9%) were smokers, and 7 (7.4%) were former smokers at diagnosis. In the group exposed to SE, 10 of 16 patients (62.5%) were active smokers compared to 21 of 78 patients (26.9%) in the unexposed group (P = 0.01). On the other hand, 10 of 31 smoking patients (32%) were exposed to SE compared to 5 of 56 nonsmoking patients (9%), and one of the seven former smokers (14%) (P = 0.01). In the group of 90 patients without CD, but whose

  18. CT Scan of Thirteen Natural Mummies Dating Back to the XVI-XVIII Centuries: An Emerging Tool to Investigate Living Conditions and Diseases in History

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Enrico; Piciucchi, Sara; Feletti, Francesco; Barone, Domenico; Piraccini, Antonella; Minghetti, Caterina; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Poletti, Venerino; Bertocco, Mauro; Traversari, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To correlate the radiologic findings detected with computed tomography scan with anthropological data in 13 naturally mummified bodies discovered during works of recovery of an ancient church in a crypt in Roccapelago, in the Italian Apennines. Methods From a group of about sixty not-intentionally mummified bodies, thirteen were selected to be investigated with volumetric computed tomography (CT). Once CT scan was performed, axial images were processed to gather MPR and Volume Rendering reconstructions. Elaborations of these images provided anthropometric measurements and a non-invasive analysis of the residual anatomical structures. For each body the grade of preservation and the eventual pathological changes were recorded. Furthermore, in order to identify nutritional and occupational markers, radiologic signs of bone tropism and degenerative changes were analysed and graded. Results Mummies included seven females and six males, with an estimated age ranging from 20 to 60 years. The first relevant finding identified was a general low grade of preservation, due to the lack of anatomic tissues different from bones, tendons and dehydrated skin. The low grade of preservation was related to the natural process of mummification. Analysing bone degenerative changes on CT scan, the majority of the bodies had significant occupational markers consisting of arthritis in the spine, lower limbs and shoulders even in young age. Few were the pathological findings identified. Among these, the most relevant included a severe bilateral congenital hip dysplasia and a wide osteolytic lesion involving left orbit and petrous bone that was likely the cause of death. Conclusions Although the low grade of preservation of these mummies, the multidisciplinary approach of anthropologists and radiologists allowed several important advances in knowledge for the epidemiology of Roccapelago. First of all, a profile of living conditions was delineated. It included occupational and

  19. Dental fluorosis in Chilean children: evaluation of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Villa, A E; Guerrero, S; Icaza, G; Villalobos, J; Anabalón, M

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the association between very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis and exposure during early childhood to fluoridated water, mainly through ingestion of powdered milk. Analysis was performed on 136 residents of the optimally fluoridated community of San Felipe in the Chilean Fifth Region, who were categorised into one of three groups according to their age when water fluoridation was introduced in 1986: Group I was born after 1986; Group II was 16-24 months old in 1986; and Group III was >24 months of age. The case and control subjects were selected on the basis of a clinical examination given in July 1996. Dean's scoring system was used to determine fluorosis status. Risk factor exposure was ascertained by a questionnaire used in interviews with mothers of participating children. Logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for confounding variables, revealed that very-mild-to-moderate enamel fluorosis of permanent central maxillary incisors (CMI) was strongly associated both with the age of the subjects when water fluoridation began and with breast-feeding duration for children belonging to Group I. Subjects in Group I were 20.44 times more likely (95% CI: 5.00-93.48) to develop CMI fluorosis than children who were older than 24 months (Group III) when fluoridation began. Subjects who were between 16 and 24 months old when water fluoridation began were 4.15 times more likely (95% CI: 1.05-16.43) to have CMI fluorosis than children older than 24 months. An inverse association was found with breastfeeding duration (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.75-0.98) among Group I subjects but not in Groups II and III. Results obtained suggest that the current fluoride concentration in drinking water may be contributing to fluorosis. Further studies will be necessary to determine the relative competing risks of dental fluorosis and dental caries in Chilean children in order to establish the most appropriate water fluoridation level in

  20. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  1. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cinthya Lee; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Torres, Jose Sulla; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  2. Revealing latitudinal patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity in Chileans.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Moreno, Fabián; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Martinón-Torres, Federico; García-Magariños, Manuel; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Aguirre-Morales, Eugenia; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The territory of Chile is particularly long and narrow, which combined with its mountainous terrain, makes it a unique scenario for human genetic studies. We obtained 995 control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from Chileans representing populations living at different latitudes of the country from the North to the southernmost region. The majority of the mtDNA profiles are of Native American origin (∼88%). The remaining haplotypes are mostly of recent European origin (∼11%), and only a minor proportion is of recent African ancestry (∼1%). While these proportions are relatively uniform across the country, more structured patterns of diversity emerge when examining the variation from a phylogeographic perspective. For instance, haplogroup A2 reaches ∼9% in the North, and its frequency decreases gradually to ∼1% in the southernmost populations, while the frequency of haplogroup D (sub-haplogroups D1 and D4) follows the opposite pattern: 36% in the southernmost region, gradually decreasing to 21% in the North. Furthermore, there are remarkable signatures of founder effects in specific sub-clades of Native American (e.g. haplogroups D1j and D4p) and European (e.g. haplogroups T2b3 and K1a4a1a+195) ancestry. We conclude that the magnitude of the latitudinal differences observed in the patterns of mtDNA variation might be relevant in forensic casework. PMID:26517175

  3. Microcystin in cyanobacterial blooms in a Chilean lake.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Wirsing, B; Neumann, U; Weckesser, J

    1999-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. occurred in lake Rocuant ("marisma", near Concepción/Chile) in February 1995 and 1996. In the bloom samples collected in both years the hepatotoxin microcystin was detected by RP-HPLC in both samples and in the sample of 1995 also by a toxicity assay using primary rat hepatocytes. In the bloom of 1995, the microcystin content of the dry bloom biomass was determined to be 130 micrograms/g on the basis of the RP-HPLC peak area and 800 micrograms/g on the basis of the rat hepatotoxicity assay, respectively. In the bloom of 1996, RP-HPLC analysis revealed a microcystin content of 8.13 micrograms/g bloom material dry weight. In this year no hepatotoxicity was measured using a concentration range up to 0.8 mg (d. w.) of bloom material per ml in the rat hepatotoxicity assay. This is the first report on the detection of microcystins in Chilean water bodies. PMID:10390867

  4. Case Report: Strawberry Disease in Farmed Chilean Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Carlos; Infante, Jorge; Abad, Jessica; Ferguson, Hugh W; Paredes, Enrique; Valdebenito, Samuel; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Ilardi, Pedro; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    Strawberry disease is a chronic, nonlethal skin condition that affects Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the United States and several European countries, where it is also known as red-mark syndrome. We provide the first identification and characterization of three strawberry disease outbreaks occurring at two aquaculture farms in southern Chile. Clinically affected fish weighing an average of 400 g presented multiple bright-red, usually raised, skin lesions on the flank, ventral surface, and dorsal surface. A PCR using Rickettsia-like-organism (RLO)-specific primers was performed on nine affected fish, and all skin samples were positive for the RLO 16S ribosomal RNA sequence. All PCR results for Flavobacterium psychrophilum and other bacterial and viral pathogens were negative. Histopathological examination of the skin lesions revealed extensive dermatitis, with severe lymphocytic infiltration in advanced cases. This report is the first to describe strawberry disease in farmed Chilean Rainbow Trout. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the risk for Rainbow Trout culture; fish challenge experiments should be performed to fulfill Koch's postulates and to demonstrate that RLO is the cause of this disease. Received December 27, 2014; accepted October 23, 2015. PMID:26913369

  5. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  6. Social Representations of Older Adults Among Chilean Elders of Three Cities with Different Historical and Sociodemographic Background.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ximena; Sánchez, Hugo; Huerta, Martín; Albala, Cecilia; Márquez, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The study was aimed to explore social representations of older adults among Chilean people aged 70 or more, living in three cities with differences in historical, geographic, and sociodemographic characteristics and to explore the importance of the local context on their shaping. Multiple correspondence analysis was employed to analyze the terms produced through free-word association technique, by 741 people. The two first dimensions explained 62.4 % of the inertia and showed that the contribution of city of residence was several times higher than the average; the contribution of gender and educational level was higher than average as well. The northern city representations were characterized by positive terms, whereas more negative contents were characteristic of the city of the center, and terms without an explicitly positive or negative assessment were associated to the southern city. These findings reinforce the relevance of the local sociocultural context in shaping social representations of old age and stress the importance of considering particular regional features in the design of policies and interventions aimed to recognize and integrate older adults in Chile. PMID:26993801

  7. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV. PMID:18432428

  8. Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy beach coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Sergio A; Yáñez-Navea, Katherine; Muñoz, Mauricio

    2014-06-15

    The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean beaches. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy beaches. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several beaches along the northern Chilean coast. Beaches were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an "Urbanization Index" based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on beaches with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy beaches, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments. PMID:24768173

  9. [Cooperation between Chili and France in management training in the Chilean public health sector].

    PubMed

    Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes Cárcamo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    A cooperation programme launched in 1999 by the Chilean Health Department and the French National College of Public Health (ENSP France) has now been running for four years. Its aim was to create and validate a national scheme for manager and executive training within the Chilean public hospital systems. Developed in partnership with the Public Health National College of Rio de Janeiro (Fondation Oswaldo Cruz) with whom ENSP France has teamed up for 10 years, this cooperation was designed by the Chilean partner as a contribution to the definition and implementation of a national policy on Human Resources which might follow the vast reform of the health system currently underway in the country. The scheme which gained international support is backed by a network of 5 universities (7 in 2004) associated with the Chilean Health Department, in a joint national development project for in-house management training for the management teams already in office. More than 100 manager and senior executives et 150 intermediate executives were thus trained between 2000 and 2003. The present scheme est presently being modified to meet new challenges arising from the need to support important changes occurring in the management of Chilean public hospitals, to give them more independence, while encouraging a network of all carers. The ENSP input concerns a line of transfer of competence in training and teaching engineering for all the Chilean partners involved. A module on know-how development support in 'remote control' open training engineering was added in 2002, resulting in the French ENSP concluding a collaboration agreement with the Université de Technologie de Compiègne (France). Moreover, support for implementing an accreditation scheme for management training for the Chilean health sector is under way, linking both French and Brazilian ENSP. Designed from the start on a regional South Cone/Brazil basis, a new expansion phase will be added to this international programme

  10. Coupling, fluids and foreshocks - preparing megathrust ruptures at the Chilean plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oncken, O.; Moreno, M.; Schurr, B.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that geodetic locking at convergent plate boundaries is closely related to slip distribution of subsequent megathrust earthquakes. The nature of locking and its evolution towards rupture, however, remains a matter of debate. The international initiative IPOC (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile; ipoc-network.org) addresses these goals at the Chilean margin. We explore geophysical and geodetic data collected in the decade before an event to identify the petrophysical state as well as change along the plate interface leading up to a megathrust event. Seismological data exhibit well defined changes of reflectivity and Vp/Vs ratio along the plate interface that released the M=8.8Maule earthquake of 2010. High Vp/Vs domains, interpreted as zones of elevated pore fluid pressure, spatially correlate with lower locking degree, and exhibit higher background seismicity as expected for partly creeping domains. In turn, unstable slip associated to a higher degree of locking is promoted in lower pore fluid pressure domains. We speculate that hydraulic loading during the terminal stage of a seismic cycle to close to lithostatic pore pressure with an equivalent reduction of effective strength may be as relevant for earthquake triggering as stress loading from long-term plate convergence. In contrast to the Maule earthquake, the Pisagua Mw=8.1 earthquake of 2014, while also rupturing a geodetically well-defined major asperity, was preceded by a protracted series of foreshocks. Since July 2013 three seismic clusters hit this part of the plate boundary with increasing magnitudes in a domain that was transitional between a fully locked and a creeping portion. Leading up to this earthquake the b-value of the foreshocks gradually dropped during the years prior to the earthquake, reversing its trend a few days before the Pisagua earthquake. We conclude that gradual weakening of the central part of the Northern Chile seismic gap accentuated by the

  11. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

  12. Maximal oxygen uptake in Chilean workers of normal nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Donoso, H

    1988-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured directly and predicted from cardiac frequency measurements in 54 healthy Chilean industrial workers aged 20 to 55 years, together with assessment of their dietary intake, body composition and blood chemistry. Measurement of VO2 was performed on a motor-driven treadmill. The predicted VO2max was obtained using a cycle ergometer by two methods: 1) the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and 2) the linear relationship between "steady state" heart rate (HR) and submaximum work, with subsequent extrapolation to "maximum" heart rate. Extrapolation of the HR/load regression line to 170 bpm permitted determination of the physical working capacity at 170 bpm (W170). VO2max for the 20-29 year group (Group I) averaged 3624 ml.min-1 and decreased to 3066 ml.min-1 in the 50-55 year group (Group IV). Lower values were obtained using the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and HR/load regression (-15% and -9% respectively). W170 was also affected by age (Group I: 190.6 W and Group IV: 158.5 W). No significant correlation were found between VO2max and plasma variables, with the exception of cholesterol (r = 0.59). On the contrary, anthropometric variables showed significant correlations with VO2max, which permitted the prediction of VO2max using multiple regression equations. The two best correlations were: 1. VO2max = 0.800 - 0.0225.(A) +0.0189.(W)+1.26.(H) (r = 0.87; p less than 0.001) 2. VO2max = 0.996 - 0.0176.(A) + 0.025.(W) + 0.838.(H) + 0.0255.(LBM) (r = 0.88; p less than 0.001) where A = years of age; W = body weight in kg; H = height in m and LBM = lean body mass in kg. PMID:3342789

  13. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  14. Springtime size-fractionated primary production across hydrographic and PAR-light gradients in Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Bárbara G.; Tapia, Fabián J.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, Jose L.; Montero, Paulina; Sobarzo, Marcus; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2014-12-01

    We combined on-deck and in situ measurements and satellite-derived data to study the spatial variability of springtime size-fractionated primary production and chlorophyll-a biomass along gradients of hydrographic conditions and surface PAR in central and northern Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S). This extensive and fragmented region encompasses numerous fjords and channels, as well as the northern and southern icefields (46-47°S, 48-52°S). Primary production displayed a latitudinal pattern decreasing southwards (6-fold lower), particularly toward areas influenced by rivers with a nival regime. Micro-phytoplankton (>20 μm) dominated the primary production (57-93%) and chlorophyll-a (43-91%) of northern sites, where warmer and more saline surface waters exhibit greater PAR irradiance. Small phytoplankton cells (<2 μm; 2-20 μm) contributed > 50% of carbon fixation and chlorophyll-a in the southernmost sites, especially those located near glaciers and major rivers, where surface temperature, salinity, and PAR irradiance were lowest. The long-term (2002-2012) average field of springtime PAR derived from satellite imagery showed a southward increase in longitudinal gradients, which indicates that spatial changes in surface light attenuation along this region are largely driven by glacier-derived freshwater inputs. A principal component analysis of surface temperature, salinity, and PAR produced an ordination of sites that was consistent with spatial changes in the balance of oceanic versus riverine influence on surface conditions along this region. Total primary production was significantly correlated (r = 0.61, p = 0.007) with the first principal component, which explained 65% of joint variability in hydrographic conditions and PAR. The same principal component clearly separated sites in northern Patagonia where micro-phytoplankton dominated total primary production - along the Reloncavi fjord and Inner Sea of Chiloe - from those located further south where other size

  15. Did Francis Drake bring Chilean potatoes to the British Isles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R.N Salaman, in 1937, speculated that the first potatoes cultivated in Great Britain and northern Europe were obtained by Francis Drake at Cartagena, Colombia and brought to the British Isles in the 1570-80’s. Presumably S. andigenum tubers would have been brought down the 500 miles from Bogotá to C...

  16. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  17. Remaking Education from Below: The Chilean Student Movement as Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the Chilean student movement and its ten-year struggle for public education as an example of public pedagogy. Secondary and university students, along with the parents, teachers, workers and community members who have supported them, have engaged in the most sustained political activism seen in Chile since the democratic…

  18. The CAF Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire in a Sample of Chilean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Leandro Navas; Llorca, Jose Antonio Soriano; Tello, Francisco Pablo Holgado

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to verify whether the six-dimension structure of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire is maintained with Chilean students, and to assess its psychometric qualities in this population. Method: One thousand seven hundred sixty-seven students took part in this research, from Central and South Chile; 45.8%…

  19. Uneven Distribution of Novice Teachers in the Chilean Primary School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckes, Lorena; Bascope, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the allocation of novice primary teachers in Chilean schools, looking at their characteristics and at the attributes of the schools at which they are hired after having completed their initial teacher training. The study reveals that in Chile, more qualified novice teachers are more prone to get jobs in socio-economically…

  20. The Influence of Ethnicity on Warfarin Dosage Requirements in the Chilean Population

    PubMed Central

    Subiabre, Valeska; Palomo, Ivan; Guzmán, Neftalí; Retamales, Eduardo; Henríquez, Hugo; Gonzalez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin K antagonists are drugs that are widely prescribed around the world and their use has helped improve the prognosis of patients with thromboembolic disease. However, a high interindividual variability has been observed in dosage requirements to reach the desired anticoagulation range that could be due to environmental and genetic factors. Studies suggest that ethnicity influences coumarin response, supporting the observed differences in dose requirements across various populations. Studies using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers have suggested that the Chilean population has a predominantly Amerindian genetic pool. Objective To evaluate the influence of ethnicity, defined by the presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups, on the variability in therapeutic response to warfarin in the Chilean population. Methods A total of 191 patients treated with warfarin were included in this study. Analysis of the mitochondrial genome for detecting the presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups was performed using polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The evaluation of warfarin requirements according to each haplogroup was performed by ANOVA with a 95% CI and assuming statistical significance at P < 0.05. Results Based on the presence of an mtDNA haplogroup, 91% of the Chilean population had an Amerindian background. There were no significant differences in warfarin dosage requirements among the different Amerindian haplogroups (P = 0.083). Conclusions The presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroup does not influence warfarin dosage requirements in the Chilean population. PMID:25709720

  1. New English Cultures and Learner Autonomy for Intrinsic Motivation and Democratic Empowerment in the Chilean Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Katharina; Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilean youth are currently demanding access to better-quality education for all: greater democracy and curricula that respect the country's indigenous cultural roots form part of their petitions. This article puts forward a twofold pedagogical proposal for English Language Teaching intended to foster intrinsic motivation and democratic…

  2. Convergent Validity Evidence regarding the Validity of the Chilean Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Taut, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes convergent validity evidence regarding the mandatory, standards-based Chilean national teacher evaluation system (NTES). The study examined whether NTES identifies--and thereby rewards or punishes--the "right" teachers as high- or low-performing. We collected in-depth teaching performance data on a sample of 58 teachers who…

  3. Educational Effectiveness in Chilean Secondary Education: Comparing Different "Value Added" Approaches to Evaluate Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz-Chereau, B.; Thomas, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an original investigation into school performance measures and the multilevel nature of pupil achievement data in the Chilean school system using a sample of 177,461 students, nested within 7146 classrooms, 2283 secondary schools and 313 municipalities. The data-set comprised Year 10 students' 2006 SIMCE test's results in two…

  4. The Class and Culture-Based Exclusion of the Chilean Neoliberal Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavieres, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I analyze the class- and cultural-based exclusion produced by the Chilean neoliberal educational reform, carried out during the period from 1990 to 2010. This educational reform follows the same neoliberal model applied to the economy of the country. Although some indicators improved in relation to coverage and public spending in…

  5. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic…

  6. External Technical Support for School Improvement: Critical Issues from the Chilean Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osses, Alejandra; Bellei, Cristián; Valenzuela, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To what extent school improvement processes can be initiated and sustained from the outside has been a relevant question for policy-makers seeking to increase quality in education. Since 2008, the Chilean Government is strongly promoting the use of external technical support (ETS) services to support school improvement processes, as part of the…

  7. The Dad in the Che Guevara T-Shirt: Narratives of Chilean English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Building on previous critical research regarding student resistance to English Language Teaching (ELT), this paper illustrates Chilean high-school English teachers' use of narrative to make sense of ideological challenges from students. While the government of Chile is promoting English in connection with the nation's export-oriented economic…

  8. The Impact of Powerful Oral Language Lab on Chilean EFL Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Hsuying Chiou; Andruske, Cynthia Lee

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative case study reports the impact of using a public-speaking structure (Powerful Oral Language Lab [POLL]) in teaching preservice Chilean English pedagogy students. It describes how this task-based method of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher training is related to language strategic competence. Twenty students…

  9. Home and Instruction Effects on Emergent Literacy in a Sample of Chilean Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Katherine; Lissi, Maria Rosa

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the home literacy experiences, emergent literacy skills, and instructional experiences of a sample of Chilean kindergarten children (n = 126) and kindergarten families (n = 188) nested in 12 kindergarten classrooms from different socioeconomic status groups and types of schools. Descriptive information is given showing the level…

  10. Higher Education Policy in Authoritarian Regimes: Comparative Perspectives on the Chilean Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel

    A Chilean case study of higher education under an authoritarian regime is presented. The study restricts itself to the most prevalent sub-type of the authoritarian regime which is "bureaucratic-authoritarianism" (BA). The BA designation refers to regimes which exert considerable repressive control over societies that have undergone substantial…

  11. Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizala, Alejandra; Torche, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic stratification of achievement in the Chilean voucher system using a census of 4th and 8th graders, a multilevel methodology, and accounting for unobserved selectivity into school sector. Findings indicate that the association between the school's aggregate family socioeconomic status (SES) and test scores is…

  12. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Van Cleemput, O.; Oyarzún, C.; Godoy, R.

    2005-06-01

    Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2) than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2) was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively) were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer). In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use sites. Al

  13. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05) and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001). Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05), simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001) and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05) were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05) and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001) were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  14. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers ( D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions: at ˜23 °S off Antofagasta and at ˜36 °S off Concepción. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon (%T AAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%T AAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated into the sediment. Reactivity of organic matter in the sediment was also assessed using the Degradation Index (DI) developed by [Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J.J., 1998. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.43, pp. 782-798.]. Off Concepción, DI was successfully applied to examine the degradation status of sedimentary organic matter at different water depths. However, unexpected results were obtained at the Antofagasta stations as DI increased with sediment depth, suggesting more degraded organic matter at the surface than deeper in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for a progressively larger fraction of THAA at increasing water depths (up to >26%). Further, the contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA increased with

  15. Geographical Variation in Health-Related Physical Fitness and Body Composition among Chilean 8th Graders: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Michael D.; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Results Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05). Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Conclusion Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention. PMID:25255442

  16. New Seismic and Magmatic Constraints on the Geometry and Timing of Shallowing of the Central Andean Chilean-Pampean Flatslab Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, S. M.; Mulcahy, P.; Chen, C.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-05-01

    The shape and evolution of the Central Andean Chilean-Pampean flatslab segment provide modern analogues in numerous studies of flatslab segments of subducting oceanic plates. A revised geometry for the Wadati-Benioff Zone of the Chilean-Pampean flatslab that incorporates 271 well-constrained mantle earthquakes recorded during the 2007-2009 southern Puna seismic experiment (25°-28°S; 70°-65°W) shows that the northern boundary of the flatslab shoals more abruptly southward giving a more symmetric form with a more northerly bend to the flatslab than seen in previous models. The prime evidence for a sharper bend to the north comes from the three distinctive earthquake hypocenter clusters at 110 to 160 km, which form the so-called Pipanaco earthquake nest under the region at 27.5° to 29°S and 68° to 66°W, and whose origins can be attributed to local bending stresses in the subducting plate. This northern bend also passes under the Incapillo Caldera arc volcanic complex near 28°S, which is the southernmost center in the Central Volcanic Zone with post-Pliocene activity until reaching the Tupungato in the Southern Volcanic Zone on the southern side of the flat-slab at 33°S. Support for this northern bend forming largely after near normal subduction of the Juan Fernandez ridge began on the Nazca plate in the middle of the shallowing flatslab at ~10 Ma comes from the ~9-3 Ma Pircas Negras glassy andesites and related lavas at 27° to 28°S, whose chemistry and locations have been suggested to reflect the bending. Further support for the flatslab principally forming at this time comes from the ~45-50 km eastward displacements of the volcanic arcs on both the northern and southern margins of the present flat-slab at ~ 9-3 Ma and the magmatic and deformational history recorded above the area of the flat-slab region. At the same time, the Albarracín region ignimbrites in the central Argentine Precordillera above the main part of the flatslab have recently confirmed

  17. New data on the internal organs of a frozen Yukagir bison mummy (Bison priscus Bojanus, 1827), Yakutia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Serdyuk, N V; Potapova, O R; Kharlamova, A S; Maschenko, E N; Kirikov, K S; Pavlov, I S; Protopopov, A V; Plotnikov, V V; Kolesov, S D; Klimovskii, A I

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the first morphological description of the internal organs of a frozen corpse of the steppe bison Bison priscus (Bojanus, 1827) from the Holocene of northern Yakutia. Necropsy revealed that most of the internal organs, including the brain, heart with the main vessels, and reproductive system were well preserved. It demonstrated that the anatomy of this bison was close to that of the genera Bos and Bison. Trauma or pathological changes in the organs were not detected. The cause of death of the bison remains unknown. PMID:27193884

  18. A new alcyonacean octocoral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia) from Chilean fjords.

    PubMed

    Breedy, Odalisca; Cairns, Stephen D; Häussermann, Verena

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Swiftia comauensis, is described from Chile. It occurs in shallow waters from 18 to 59 m in the Patagonian fjord region and seems to be endemic to the northern part of the region. The species is characterized by having straggly colonies with sparse branching and long drooping branches, prominent polyp mounds, and long, thin spindles; the colonies are bright orange with pale yellow polyp mounds. A sharp decline in colony abundance was observed between 2003 and 2013, and in January 2014 a proposal was submitted to the IUCN for the addition of this taxon to the Red List of Threatened Species. PMID:25781130

  19. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness. PMID:25733067

  20. Protection of Northern Chile as an ICOMOS/IAU ``Window to the Universe''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm G.

    2015-03-01

    Over the last two decades, La Serena's population has increased by about 70 percent. A site description of the AURA Observatory in Chile as a ``Window to the Universe`` is now available on the recently-launched UNESCO-IAU Astronomical Heritage Web Portal, www.astronomicalheritage.net This can serve as an example of possible material for the Chilean authorities, should they wish to propose the dark skies over much of northern Chile for protection as a World Scientific Heritage site. Some of the steps involved are discussed briefly here.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Socially Disadvantaged Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged Chilean women. A correlational analysis with data from the NIH-funded project, “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women,” was conducted. Two hundred and sixtyone women were included in this analysis (n = 261). Those women who had experienced any type of IPV in the past 3 months had significantly higher risk for HIV than those who had not (t = −2.016, p < .05). Also a linear trend was found among those women who had experienced more than one type of IPV in the past 3 months and HIV risk. PMID:21486859

  2. Socioeconomic Status and Internalizing Symptoms in Chilean Children: Does Reserve Capacity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Informed by the reserve capacity model, we examined pathways between socioeconomic status (SES) and internalizing symptoms (IS) in 1119 Chilean 10-year-olds. Mediators included parental disciplinary style and reserve capacity resources (RCR), namely home environment, parent-child engagement, and self-esteem, and conduct problems. Using structural equation modeling, the model was stratified by gender. For boys, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment and parental disciplinary style. For girls, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment, parent-child engagement, self-esteem, and conduct problems. Findings suggest different RCR may protect against IS in a sample of Chilean children. PMID:27123471

  3. Heavy metals in molluscan, crustacean, and other commercially important Chilean marine coastal water species

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, A.G.; Gonzalez, M.; Santa Maria, I.

    1987-03-01

    The work reported here is part of a general program to monitor the marine chemical pollution along the Chilean coast. The present investigation was designated to provide information on the nature and levels of the heavy metals present in the marine species commonly consumed by the population, and to learn whether these levels may constitute a hazard to consumers. The authors report here the typical contents of 10 heavy metals in 12 commercially significant marine species from the Chilean coastal waters (Valparaiso, Concepcion and Puerto Montt). The analyzed species included 7 molluscs, 3 curstacea, and 2 other shellfish species of wide consumption. The metals chosen for analysis were copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, antimony, selenium, iron and chromium.

  4. The origin of brines and salts in Chilean salars: a hydrochemical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risacher, François; Alonso, Hugo; Salazar, Carlos

    2003-11-01

    Northern Chile is characterized by a succession of north-south-trending ranges and basins occupied by numerous saline lakes and salt crusts, collectively called salars. Fossil salt crusts are found to the west in the extremely arid Central Valley, while active salars receiving permanent inflows fill many intravolcanic basins to the east in the semiarid Cordillera. Sea salts and desert dust are blown eastward over the Cordillera, where they constitute an appreciable fraction of the solute load of very dilute waters (salt content<0.1 g/l). The weathering of volcanic rocks contributes most components to inflow waters with salt content ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 g/l. However, the average salt content of all inflows is much higher: about 3.2 g/l. Chemical composition, Cl/Br ratio, and 18O- 2H isotope contents point to the mixing of very dilute meteoric waters with present lake brines for the origin of saline inflows. Ancient gypsum in deep sedimentary formations seems to be the only evaporitic mineral recycled in present salars. Saline lakes and subsurface brines are under steady-state regime. The average residence time of conservative components ranges from a few years to some thousands years, which indicates a permanent leakage of the brines through bottom sediments. The infiltrating brines are recycled in the hydrologic system where they mix with dilute meteoric waters. High heat flow is the likely driving force that moves the deep waters in this magmatic arc region. Active Chilean salars cannot be considered as terminal lakes nor, strictly speaking, as closed basin lakes. Almost all incoming salts leave the basin and are transported elsewhere. Moreover, the dissolution of fossil salt crusts in some active salars also carries away important fluxes of components in percolating brines. Evaporative concentration of inflow waters leads to sulfate-rich or calcium-rich, near-neutral brines. Alkaline brines are almost completely lacking. The alkalinity/calcium ratio of inflow

  5. Perceived and objective breast cancer risk assessment in Chilean women living in an underserved area

    PubMed Central

    Banegas, Matthew P.; Püschel, Klaus; Martinez, Javiera; Anderson, Jennifer C.; Thompson, Beti

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among Chilean women and an increasingly significant public health threat. This study assessed the accuracy of breast cancer risk perception among underserved, Chilean women. Methods Women aged 50 to 70 years, with no mammogram during the last two years, were randomly selected from a community clinic registry in Santiago, Chile (n=500). Perceived risk was measured using three methods: absolute risk, comparative risk and numerical risk. Risk comprehension was measured by comparing women’s perceived and objective risk estimates. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess overestimation of perceived risk. Results Women at high risk of breast cancer were more likely than average risk women to perceive themselves at high or higher risk, using absolute and comparative risk approaches (p<0.001). The majority of participants (67%) overestimated their breast cancer risk, based on risk comprehension; although, participants achieved higher accuracy with comparative risk (40%) and absolute risk (31.6%) methods. [Age, breast cancer knowledge and Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) 5-year risk were significantly associated (p<0.01) with accuracy of perceived risk]. Conclusion Chilean women residing in an underserved community may not accurately assess their breast cancer risk, though risk perception and level of accuracy differed between perceived risk measures. Comparative and absolute risk methods may better reflect women’s interpretation and accuracy of risk perception. Impact Improving our understanding of Chilean women’s perceptions of developing breast cancer may lead to the development of culturally relevant efforts to reduce the breast cancer burden in this population. PMID:22837144

  6. Original footage of the Chilean miners with manganism published in Neurology in 1967.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marcelo; Bustamante, M Leonor; Mena, Francisco; Lees, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    Manganism has captured the imagination of neurologists for more than a century because of its similarities to Parkinson disease and its indirect but seminal role in the "l-dopa miracle." We present unpublished footage of the original case series reported in Neurology® in 1967 by Mena and Cotzias depicting the typical neurologic signs of manganism in 4 Chilean miners and their response to high doses of l-dopa. PMID:26668239

  7. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  8. [Position paper from the Department of Ethics of the Chilean College of Physicians about conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Salas, Sofía P; Besio, Mauricio; Bórquez Estefó, Gladys; Salinas, Rodrigo A; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Micolich, Constanza; Novoa Sotta, Fernando; Bernier Villarroel, Lioniel; Montt M, Julio; Misseroni Raddatz, Adelio

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean bill that regulates abortion for three cases (Bulletin Nº 9895-11) includes the possibility that health professionals may manifest their conscientious objection (CO) to perform this procedure. Due to the broad impact that the issue of C O had, the Ethics Department of the Chilean College of Physicians considered important to review this concept and its ethical and legal basis, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health. In the present document, we define the practical limit s of CO, both for the proper fulfillment of the medical profession obligations, and for the due respect and non-discrimination that the professional objector deserves. We analyze the denial of some health institutions to perform abortions if it is legalize d, and we end with recommendations adjusted to the Chilean reality. Specifically, we recognize the right to conscientious objection that all physicians who directly participate in a professional act have. But we a lso recognize that physicians have ineludib le obligations towards their patients, including the obligation to inform about the existence of this service, how to access to it and -as set out in our code of ethics- to ensure that another colleague will continue attending the patient. PMID:27299826

  9. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  10. Effect of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Fei; Huang, Rui-Ji; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Xuxia; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack mackerel samples of AI group displayed higher pH values than those of AA and SH groups. TVB-N, TMA and TBARS values of all samples increased with the storage time, and these values of AI had a lower increase than AA and SH. Moreover, samples of AI had a better sensory score than AA and SH during storage. It can be concluded that slaughter method of asphyxia in ice water for Chilean jack mackerel exhibit the better efficiency on maintaining the fish quality during refrigerated storage on board. PMID:25745250

  11. The geometry of the Chilean continental wedge: Tectonic segmentation of subduction processes off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymowicz, Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Based on high-resolution bathymetry and geophysical observations, the precise continental wedge geometry along the Chilean margin is analyzed. The data show complex patterns in continental wedge geometry that challenge the most frequently used classification methodology for the convergent margin tectonics. A detailed modeling of the parameters involved in the Non-Cohesive Coulomb Wedge theory reveals a tectonic latitudinal segmentation of the Chilean offshore subduction zone. This segmentation is characterized by a sequence of broad segments with different basal effective friction coefficient and/or internal fluid pressure conditions, which are limited by the presence of bathymetric oceanic highs, fracture zones and Peninsulas. The results suggest a general increase of the fluid pressure inside the continental wedge north of 33°S, which is interpreted as a result of a more pervasive fracturing due to tectonic erosion at the base and within the continental wedge. The tectonic segmentation proposed here shows a close spatial relation with the short-term deformation process associated to the coseismic ruptures of large earthquakes in the Chilean margin.

  12. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni.

    PubMed

    Correa, Margarita C G; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  13. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Cappellacci, Marcelo; Leyton, Fernanda Aleitte; Carreño, Joshua Durán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries. PMID:26815160

  14. Impact of Mano a Mano Mujer, an HIV Prevention Intervention, on Depressive Symptoms among Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Villegas, Natalia; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, an in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviors that protect them against HIV. Objectives To analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M) on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of MM-M, an HIV prevention intervention. The research was conducted in Santiago- Chile, a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n = 182; control group, n = 218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health model. The intervention consists of six two-hour sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face to face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3 months follow-up Results At 3 months post-intervention, Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased their reported depressive symptoms. Conclusions MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. This study offers a model that address depression, a risk factor for HIV. It uses nurses as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. PMID:22452388

  15. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Margarita C. G.; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  16. Intra and Inter-Population Morphological Variation of Shape and Size of the Chilean Magnificent Beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis in the Baker River Basin, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Hugo A.; Briones, Raúl; Jerez, Viviane

    2011-01-01

    The alteration of habitat generates different degrees of stress in insects. It has been suggested that the degrees of phenotypic disturbances reflect the ability of an individual to overcome the effects of stress. The Baker River Basin in the Aysén Region, Chilean Patagonia has a very fragmented landscape, due to the destruction of the native forest and the use of land for agriculture and animal husbandry. This alteration should generate different degrees of disturbances in the insect communities, whose effects may be quantified by geometric morphometric tools. We analyzed morphological differences in 244 males and 133 females of the the Chilean magnificent beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected in January, 2007, in mixed forests of Nothofagus dombeyi Mirbel (Ørsted) (Fagales: Nothofagaceae) and N. nitida Hofmus and in Second-growth forest of N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser. Males were generally wider in the pronotum, while females had wider abdominal sternites. Although there were significant differences in shape and size between mature forests and second-growth forest, these were less significant among the sites within each type of vegetal formation. Individuals had more shape variations in the mature forest. We suggest that differences in shape are due at least in part to the isolation of the habitat. The differences found between sexes raises the question of how morphological variations and sexual dimorphism may be affected spatially by natural selection. PMID:21870986

  17. Contemporary habitat discontinuity and historic glacial ice drive genetic divergence in Chilean kelp

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background South America's western coastline, extending in a near-straight line across some 35 latitudinal degrees, presents an elegant setting for assessing both contemporary and historic influences on cladogenesis in the marine environment. Southern bull-kelp (Durvillaea antarctica) has a broad distribution along much of the Chilean coast. This species represents an ideal model taxon for studies of coastal marine connectivity and of palaeoclimatic effects, as it grows only on exposed rocky coasts and is absent from beaches and ice-affected shores. We expected that, along the central Chilean coast, D. antarctica would show considerable phylogeographic structure as a consequence of the isolating effects of distance and habitat discontinuities. In contrast, we hypothesised that further south - throughout the region affected by the Patagonian Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) - D. antarctica would show relatively little genetic structure, reflecting postglacial recolonisation. Results Mitochondrial (COI) and chloroplast (rbcL) DNA analyses of D. antarctica from 24 Chilean localities (164 individuals) revealed two deeply divergent (4.5 - 6.1% for COI, 1.4% for rbcL) clades from the centre and south of the country, with contrasting levels and patterns of genetic structure. Among populations from central Chile (32° - 44°S), substantial phylogeographic structure was evident across small spatial scales, and a significant isolation-by-distance effect was observed. Genetic disjunctions in this region appear to correspond to the presence of long beaches. In contrast to the genetic structure found among central Chilean populations, samples from the southern Chilean Patagonian region (49° - 56°S) were genetically homogeneous and identical to a haplotype recently found throughout the subantarctic region. Conclusions Southern (Patagonian) Chile has been recolonised by D. antarctica relatively recently, probably since the LGM. The inferred trans-oceanic ancestry of

  18. Residual Circulation in a Chilean Equatorward Facing Embayment: Tongoy Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraga-Opazo, J.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2006-12-01

    Underway current velocity profiles were measured along a pair of transects during a period of 48 hours in an equatorward facing bay with the objective of characterizing the impact of circulation in bay aquaculture activities. The bay is Tongoy, located in north-central Chile (30° 15´S, 71° 35´W) and oriented northward. The bay entrance is oriented in the east-west direction and its width is 12 km while its maximum depth is 100 m. The bay is near a permanent upwelling focus that is likely to supply nutrients. The eastern portion of the bay is used for aquaculture (suspended system) of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus and is the most important aquaculture area in northern Chile. The velocity measurements were obtained during austral autumn and spring, in April and December 2005. Mean flows showed inflow over the eastern side of the entrance and outflow on the western side, following the bay's morphology. The mean flows were almost unidirectional in the autumn but changed more dramatically with depth in the spring. Results of a simple analytical model that compares the relative influence of frictional and Earth's rotational effects suggest that these mean circulations were close to being in geostrophic balance. This meant that frictional influences were negligible, corresponding to a low Ekman number regime. The mean circulation suggested that larvae should be concentrated near the coastline, in depths < 20 m, with greatest abundances to the southwest of the bay.

  19. North Chilean forearc tectonics and cenozoic plate kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddin, Tim S.; Stimpson, Ian G.; Williams, Graham D.

    1993-04-01

    The continental forearc of northern Chile has been subjected to contemporaneous extension and compression. Here, cross-sections constructed across the forearc are presented which show that since initial shortening, deformation of the forearc has occurred in two tectonically distinct areas. These inner and outer forearc areas are separated by the strain discontinuity of the Atacama fault system and the tectonically neutral Central Depression. The outer forearc, the Coastal Cordillera, exhibits extensional tectonics, with large (up to 300 m) normal fault scarps preserved. These faults cut the earlier thrusts responsible for the elevation of Jurassic rocks at the coast above their regional elevation. The normal faults have been re-activated, displacing Quaternary salt deposits in the Salar Grande. This re-activation of the basement faults is probably due to the subduction of anomalously thick oceanic crust, producing an isostatic imbalance in the outer forearc. In the inner forearc, cross-sections through the Sierra del Medio and Cordillera de Domeyko show that structures of the Pre-Cordillera are best explained by a thick-skinned thrust system, with localized thin-skinned tectonics controlled by evaporite detachment horizons. Current forearc deformation features indicate a strong degree of correlation between subduction zone geometry and forearc tectonics. The timing of Cenozoic tectonism also fits well with established plate motion parameters, and the spatial and temporal variation in the state of stress of the forearc shows a close relationship throughout the Cenozoic to the plate kinematics and morphology of the subducting Nazca plate.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies. PMID:25915644

  1. The response of nitrifying microbial assemblages to ammonium (NH4+) enrichment from salmon farm activities in a northern Chilean Fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Hernández, Klaudia; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Olsen, Lasse Mork; Molina, Verónica

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of aquaculture include alterations in nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments that may lead to ecosystem degradation. Herein salmon aquaculture release of ammonium (NH4+) to the water column and its effects on natural archaea and bacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOA and AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) community structure were studied in the Comau fjord using molecular approaches, such as: cloning (AOA and AOB richness), qPCR for C. Nitrosopumilus maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. (NOB) abundance (DNA) and RT-qPCR only for Nitrospina sp activity (RNA). Sampling was carried out in brackish (0.7-25 salinity, <5 m depth) and marine (>30 salinity, 25 m depth) waters during contrasting salmon production periods: rest (winter 2012), growth and harvest (summer and winter 2013). During the rest period, the highest NH4+ concentration was observed at Vodudahue River, whereas during productive periods NH4+ accumulated in the brackish layer inside salmon cages and in the vicinty (up to 700 m distance from the cages). The nitrifier community from the fjord reference station (Stn-C) was characterized by C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrosomonas sp. (AOB) sequences affiliated with cosmopolitan ecotypes (e.g., marine, freshwater, hydrothermal), maxima abundances of C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. and extreme ranges of Nitrospina sp. activity occurred in the brackish layer. During productive periods, abundances of C. N. maritimus were co-varied with NH4+ concentrations inside salmon cages (summer) and the adjacent areas (winter). Productive periods were characterized by lower abundances but more homogeneity between brackish and marine areas than for the Stn-C nitrifiers. The physiological state of Nitrospina sp. estimated from cDNA:DNA ratios indicated higher growth during winter 2013 associated with NH4+ enrichment derived from production and river input. Our results suggest that in Comau Fjord, NH4+ enrichment events occur during salmon production and also naturally by river inputs, supporting an abundant and active nitrifying community potentially processing only part of the extra NH4+ that occurs, predominantly outside the salmon cages. Our work highlights the abundance and activities of nitrifying communities and identifies these communities as being sensitive to increased loads of NH4+ .

  2. The Image of E-Learning: Perceptions about a Chilean University and the E-Learning System in the Context of Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farcas, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the image of a Chilean university, as perceived by those inside and outside of the institution, in contrast with the general image of the e-learning system in Chile. The internal perceptions are those of current students and graduates of this Chilean university, while the external perceptions are those…

  3. Free Education! A "Live" Report on the Chilean Student Movement 2011-2014--Reform or Revolution? [A Political Sociology for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the main research question: are the student protests for reform or revolution? The research data was collected during October 2013 before the Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using the methodology of…

  4. Use of remote sensing to model ungauged Chilean basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Nicolas; Vargas, Ximena

    2016-04-01

    Calibration of hydrological models is usually performed in gauged basins with streamflow data, which is the result of the hydrological cycle processes, due to a poor monitoring system of other processes like melting, infiltration, evapotranspiration or sublimation. This approach can generate several parameters combinations with similar streamflow results and choosing a reliable set of parameters can be challenging, especially in ungauged basins. Remote sensing can be useful because is an additional source of ungauged variables, and is distributed in space and time. This is valuable information related to the processes of hydrological cycle, and it helps to represent the basin with physically based models where the focus is on the processes, such as the Cold Regional Hydrological Model (CRHM). There are several satellites products related to the hydrological cycle such as snow covered area, albedo, evapotranspiration or surface temperature, in the case of MODIS, rain rate from TRMM, Soil moisture from SMOS or snow water equivalent (SWE) from AMSR, and these can be used to improve the representation of the processes in a basin or, in the case of this work, to estimate stream flow using remote sensing only. The study area is Elqui River, in northern Chile, with a semi-arid mediterranean climate and a snow driven regime due to the Andes, where snow accumulation and snowmelt control water availability and the maximum snow covered area reach 50% of the total basin. Several satellite products related principally to snow are considered to represent the variation of the snowpack in space and time as inputs to the model or as state variables.

  5. Bloom of the Yessotoxin producing dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae) in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Díaz, Rosario; Braun, Mauricio; Mariño, Carmen; Blanco, Juan

    2011-05-01

    In summer 2007, a dinoflagellate preliminarily identified as Protoceratium reticulatum bloomed in Bahía Mejillones, northern Chile. Phytoplankton samples were analyzed in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy revealing the presence of resting cyst and motile cells of P. reticulatum. Oceanographic and phytoplankton data suggest that the bloom was initiated offshore by motile cells and germinated cysts during an upwelling pulse. These cells were advected into the bay when upwelling relaxed and grew without any relevant competitor. Phytoplankton net samples were found to contain yessotoxin as the only toxin in an estimated proportion of 0.2 and 0.4 pg cell - 1 , thus confirming that P. reticulatum is a source of yessotoxin in northern Chilean waters and consequently that it poses a risk for human health and mollusk exploitation in the area.

  6. Identification of High Frequency Pulses from Earthquake Asperities Along Chilean Subduction Zone Using Strong Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, S.; Kausel, E.; Campos, J.; Saragoni, G. R.; Madariaga, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Chilean subduction zone is one of the most active of the world with M = 8 or larger interplate thrust earthquakes occurring every 10 years or so on the average. The identification and characterization of pulses propagated from dominant asperities that control the rupture of these earthquakes is an important problem for seismology and especially for seismic hazard assessment since it can reduce the earthquake destructiveness potential. A number of studies of large Chilean earthquakes have revealed that the source time functions of these events are composed of a number of distinct energy arrivals. In this paper, we identify and characterize the high frequency pulses of dominant asperities using near source strong motion records. Two very well recorded interplate earthquakes, the 1985 Central Chile (Ms = 7.8) and the 2007 Tocopilla (Mw = 7.7), are considered. In particular, the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake was recorded by a network with absolute time and continuos recording. From the study of these strong motion data it is possible to identify the arrival of large pulses coming from different dominant asperities. The recognition of the key role of dominant asperities in seismic hazard assessment can reduce overestimations due to scattering of attenuation formulas that consider epicentral distance or shortest distance to the fault rather than the asperity distance. The location and number of dominant asperities, their shape, the amplitude and arrival time of pulses can be one of the principal factors influencing Chilean seismic hazard assessment and seismic design. The high frequency pulses identified in this paper have permitted us to extend the range of frequency in which the 1985 Central Chile and 2007 Tocopilla earthquakes were studied. This should allow in the future the introduction of this seismological result in the seismic design of earthquake engineering.

  7. Adaptation and Validation of the Instrument Treatment Outcomes Profile to the Chilean Population.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro; Marín, José D; Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Donoso, María Paz; Piñol, Diego; San Martín, Juan; Huepe, David; Alvarado, Rubén; Eastwood, Brian; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the treatment outcomes profile (TOP), an instrument that can be used by treatment centers to monitor the results of drug and alcohol treatments. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity, change sensitivity and discriminant and construct validity of this instrument. The TOP was modified to reflect the Chilean context and then applied in three successive stages: an initial application at the beginning of treatment, a retest after 1week, and a follow up after a month. The sample was composed of 411 users of different types of drugs who were in treatment centers in the three largest regions of the country. The TOP reliability was greater than .75 for most items. Regarding concurrent validity, all the coefficients were in the expected direction and statistically significant. Change over time, as measured by Cohen's d statistic and the Reliable Change Index, was significant for most items. Users in treatment for less than 3months showed higher alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR]=1.07; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.01-1.13), poorer psychological health (OR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.87-1.00), fewer days worked (0.56; 0.95-0.99) and poorer housing conditions (OR=2.76; 95% CI: 1.22-6.23) than did their counterparts who had more than 3months of treatment. Researchers extracted six components with eigenvalues greater than one, accounting for 69.0% of the total variance. In general, the Chilean TOP is a reliable and valid mechanism to monitor outcomes of people treated for problems with drug and alcohol abuse in Chile, but further validation work is required in some dimensions. PMID:25858760

  8. HIV-related symptoms and patient clusters among Chileans living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Araya, A. X.; Norr, K. F.; Levy, J.A.; Pérez, C.M.; Park, C.G.; Kim, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying both HIV-related and co-morbid symptoms experienced by people living with HIV (PLWH) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy treatment (ART) is a major challenge for health care providers globally. Yet little research to date has examined the symptoms of illness experienced by PLWH including patients living in Central and South American. To address this gap, this study was designed to identify symptoms of HIV by socio-demographic and/or clinical characteristics among Chilean patients living with the virus. A convenience sample of 209 Chilean PLWH was recruited from an outpatient clinic in Santiago, Chile. A structured interview was used to elicit socio-demographic information and HIV symptoms status. Additional clinical information was obtained through a review of the participants’ medical records. Results show that patients’ most commonly reported HIV-related symptoms were fear/worries (66%), anxiety (52%), gas/bloating (50%), and thirst (50%). Multivariate analysis revealed a positive association between the number of reported HIV-related symptoms and number of years living with HIV. Having completed college was negatively associated with number of symptoms. Latent class analysis indicated that PLWH in the sample who had completed college were two times more likely to experience a mild intensity of HIV-related symptoms than their lesser educated counterparts. Similarly, logistic regression revealed that college-educated PLWH were twice as likely to be classified in the subgroup reporting mild intensity of symptoms than those who lacked a college degree. Overall, the study’s results reveal that many Chilean PLWH, even those with high CD4 counts and low or undetectable viral loads, are not symptom free. The findings point to the need for clinicians to tailor a plan of care for individuals living with HIV that is based on their symptomatology. PMID:22909386

  9. Insulin Resistance in Chileans of European and Indigenous Descent: Evidence for an Ethnicity x Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañes, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Hormazabal, Edison; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. Methodology/Principal Findings 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant “ethnicity x environment” interaction for HOMAIR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p(interaction) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMAIR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004) with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMAIR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions/Significance Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance. PMID:21931814

  10. HMGCR rs17671591 SNP Determines Lower Plasma LDL-C after Atorvastatin Therapy in Chilean Individuals.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Alejandro; Fernández, César; Ferrada, Luis; Zambrano, Tomás; Rosales, Alexy; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-04-01

    Lipid-lowering response to statin therapy shows large interindividual variability. At a genome-wide significance level, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PCSK9 and HMGCR have been implicated in this differential response. However, the influence of these variants is uncertain in the Chilean population. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of PCSK9 rs7552841 and HMGCR rs17671591 SNPs as genetic determinants of atorvastatin response in Chilean hypercholesterolaemic individuals. One hundred and one hypercholesterolaemic patients received atorvastatin 10 mg/day for 4 weeks. Plasma lipid profile (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG) was determined before and after statin treatment, and SNPs were identified by allelic discrimination using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping Assays. Adjusted univariate and multivariate analyses' models were used for statistical analyses, and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. From baseline (week 0) to the study end-point (week 4), significant reductions were observed in plasma TC, LDL-C and TG (p < 0.001), while HDL-C levels were increased (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed no association between lipid levels and atorvastatin therapy for the PCSK9 variant. However, the HMGCR rs17671591 T allele contributed to basal HDL-C concentration variability along with a higher increase in this lipid fraction after statin medication. In addition, this allele determined greater plasma LDL-C reductions after therapy with atorvastatin. Our data suggest that the HMGCR rs17671591 polymorphism can constitute a genetic marker of lower plasma LDL-C and enhanced HDL-C concentration after atorvastatin therapy in the Chilean population. PMID:26408409