Science.gov

Sample records for northern coastal plain

  1. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  2. 40 CFR 81.149 - Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  3. Is there continental crust underneath the northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Coastal Plains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinweber, Volker Thor; Jokat, W.

    2011-07-01

    To draw conclusions about the crustal nature and history of the Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge, systematic potential field data were obtained during the AISTEK III cruise with R/V Pelagia in 2009. This paper presents and interprets the results of that expedition. The new magnetic data reveal a pattern of linear magnetic spreading anomalies, NW-SE trending in the southwestern part of the Mozambique Ridge and E-W trending on its central part. The Ariel Graben, which separates the Mozambique Ridge from the Northern Natal Valley, is represented by a pronounced negative anomaly in the magnetic- as well as the free-air gravity field. The Northern Natal Valley bears a complicated pattern of anomalies with mainly SW-NE trends. In the Northern Natal Valley, no indications for a continent-ocean-boundary between continental crust in the north and oceanic crust in the south exist, either in the free-air gravity or in the magnetic field. The magnetic wavelengths of the Mozambique Coastal Plains are similar to those of the Northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge. Particularly in the gravity data, the Mozambique coastal plains, the Northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge appear as one continuous geological province. We interpret the region from the Mateke-Sabi monocline in the north to the southwestern tip of the Mozambique Ridge as mainly being floored by thickened oceanic crust.

  4. Geohydrology of the Englishtown Formation in the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, W.D.

    1977-01-01

    The Englishtown Formation of the Matawan Group of Late Cretaceous age is exposed in the western part of the New Jeresy Coastal Plain along a northeast-southwest trending zone extending from Raritan Bay to Delaware Bay. In outcrop, in the northern part of the Coastal Plain, the Englishtown typically consists of a series of thin, cross-stratified, fine- to medium-grained lignitic quartz sand beds intercalated with thin beds of sandy silty clay and clayey silt, ranging in total thickness from about 140 feet (43 meters) near Raritan Bay to about 50 feet (15 meters) near Trenton. In the subsurface of the northern part of the Coastal Plain, the formation retains most of the lithologic characteristics displayed in outcrop. In northern and eastern Ocean County the Englishtown can be subdivided into three distinct lithologic units; upper and lower units of quartz sand with thin interbeds of dark sandy silt, separated by a thick sequence of sandy and clayey lignitic silt. The confined part of the aquifer in the Englishtown Formation is utilized as a source of water over an area of about 1,100 square miles (2,849 square kilometers) of the New Jersey Coastal Plain and is an important source of supply in Monmouth and northern Ocean Counties. The annual average rate of withdrawal from the aquifer in the two-county area increased from 5.5 million gallons per day (0.24 cubic meters per second) in 1959 to 9.5 million gallons per day (0.4 cubic meters per second) in 1970. Water levels in parts of this area were declining 8 to 12 feet (2.4 to 3.6 meters) per year as of 1970 and they declined as much as 140 feet (43 meters) between 1959 and 1970 near pumping centers. The aquifer transmissivity ranges from 2,400 square feet per day to 650 square feet per day (223 square meters per day to 60 square meters per day); the estimated hydraulic conductivity ranges from about 11 feet per day to 20 feet per day (3.3 meters per day to 6.1 meters per day); and the storage coefficient ranges from

  5. Forest statistics for the northern coastal plain of South Carolina, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.T.; Sheffield, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1986, the area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of South Carolina increased by 3 percent to 4.7 million acres. Nonindustrial private forest landowners control 67 percent of the region's timberland. Area classified as a pine type remained stable at 1.9 million acres. More than 116,000 acres were harvested annually, while 177,000 acres were regenerated by artificial and natural means. The volume of softwood growing stock decreased 26 percent to 2.5 billion cubic feet. The volume of hardwood growing stock declined 13 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet. Extremely high mortality drove net growth downward. Net annual growth of softwoods declined 84 percent to 28 million cubic feet. Hardwood growth dropped 77 percent to 23 million cubic feet. Annual removals of softwood growing stock increased 9 percent to 175 million cubic feet; hardwood removals jumped 18 percent to 87 million cubic feet. Annual mortality of softwood growing stock was up eight times the level recorded in 1986, whereas hardwood mortality was up four times the previous level.

  6. Shifting balance of thermokarst lake ice regimes across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Lu, Z.; Whitman, M. S.

    2012-08-01

    The balance of thermokarst lakes with bedfast- and floating-ice regimes across Arctic lowlands regulates heat storage, permafrost thaw, winter-water supply, and over-wintering aquatic habitat. Using a time-series of late-winter synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to distinguish lake ice regimes in two regions of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska from 2003-2011, we found that 18% of the lakes had intermittent ice regimes, varying between bedfast-ice and floating-ice conditions. Comparing this dataset with a radar-based lake classification from 1980 showed that 16% of the bedfast-ice lakes had shifted to floating-ice regimes. A simulated lake ice thinning trend of 1.5 cm/yr since 1978 is believed to be the primary factor driving this form of lake change. The most profound impacts of this regime shift in Arctic lakes may be an increase in the landscape-scale thermal offset created by additional lake heat storage and its role in talik development in otherwise continuous permafrost as well as increases in over-winter aquatic habitat and winter-water supply.

  7. Historical and contemporary imagery to assess ecosystem change on the Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, Ken D.; Pearce, John M.; Walworth, Dennis; Meixell, Brandt W.; Fondell, Tom F.; Gustine, David D.; Flint, Paul L.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Ward, David H.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we describe and make available a set of 61 georectified aerial images of the Arctic Coastal Plain (taken from 1948 to 2010) that were obtained by the USGS to inform research objectives of the USGS CAE Initiative. Here, we describe the origins, metadata, and public availability of these images that were obtained within four main study areas on the Arctic Coastal Plain: Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Chipp River, the Colville River Delta, and locations along the Dalton Highway Corridor between the Brooks Range and Deadhorse. We also provide general descriptions of observable changes to the geomorphology of landscapes that are apparent by comparing historical and contemporary images. These landscape changes include altered river corridors, lake drying, coastal erosion, and new vegetation communities. All original and georectified images and metadata are available through the USGS Alaska Science Center Portal (search under ‘Project Name’ using title of this report) or by contacting ascweb@usgs.gov.

  8. Preliminary delineation of salty ground water in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold

    1980-01-01

    Salty ground water underlies freshwater in the eastern part of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain. The transition zone between freshwater and saltwater is represented in this report by a series of maps showing the depths to chloride concentrations of 250, 1,000, 10,000, and 18,000 milligrams per liter. The maps are based on chloride concentrations obtained from self-potential logs as well as from water-quality analyses. Depths to the designated chloride concentrations generally increase inland from the coast except in New Jersey where they are greatest along the coast and in North Carolina where depths to the 10,000 and 18,000 milligrams per liter concentrations are greatest beneath Pamlico Sound. The transition zone between 250 and 18,000 milligrams per liter of chloride is generally 1,500 to 2,300 feet thick except in part of North Carolina, where it is less than 1,000 feet. Depths to 250 and 1,000 milligrams per liter of chloride are probably controlled by the natural flow pattern of fresh ground water. Areas where these concentrations are relatively shallow generally coincide with areas of natural ground-water discharge. Depths to 10,000 and 18,000 milligrams per liter of chloride, and the occurrence offshore of ground water that is fresher than seawater, is attributed to long-term hydrologic conditions during which sea level fluctuations of a few hundred feet recurred several times. The origin of ground water that is saltier than seawater is attributed to the leaching of evaporitic strata beneath the Continental Shelf and Slope followed by westward movement of the brines during periods of sea-level rise.

  9. Digital computer simulation model of the Englishtown aquifer in the northern coastal plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, W.D.

    1977-01-01

    Continued decline of water levels in the Englishtown aquifer, in New Jersey, has caused considerable concern regarding the ability of the aquifer to meet future yield demands. A detailed study of the capability of the aquifer to yield water entailed the use of a digital computer simulation model to evaluate aquifer and confining layer coefficients and to test alternative concepts of the hydrodynamics of the flow system. The modeled area includes about 750 square miles of the northern Coastal Plain of New Jersey and encompasses all the major centers of pumping from the Englishtown aquifer. The simulation model was calibrated by matching computed declines with historical water-level declines over the 12-year period, 1959-70. The volume of transient and steady leakage into the Englishtown aquifer from and through the adjacent confining layers equaled more than 90 percent of the total volume of water withdrawn from the aquifer between 1959 and 1970. The analytical estimate of transient leakage indicates that about 60 percent of the water withdrawn from the Englishtown between 1959 and 1970 was replaced by water released from storage in the adjacent confining beds. An additional 34 percent of the withdrawal over this time period was supported by steady leakage through the overlying confining bed from the Mount Laurel aquifer. Of the more than 30 billion gallons withdrawn from the aquifer over the 12-year period, about 2 billion gallons were obtained from storage in the aquifer. The values of aquifer and confining-layer coefficients used in the model are nearly the same as the average values obtained from field and laboratory data. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. The occurrence and geochemistry of salty ground water in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Meisler, H.

    1989-01-01

    Salty ground water underlies freshwater in the eastern part of the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain. The transition zone between freshwater and saltwater is represented in this report by a series of maps showing the depths to chloride concentrations of 250, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 18,000 milligrams per liter. The maps are based on chloride data obtained from water-quality analyses supplemented by interpretation of borehole spontaneous-potential and resistivity logs. They indicate that the transition zone between 250 and 18,000 milligrams of chloride per liter ranges in thickness from 400 to 2,200 feet. The saltwater-freshwater transition zone is shallowest in North Carolina and deepens northward, attaining its greatest depth in Maryland and New Jersey. It deepens inland from the coast except locally in North Carolina and in New Jersey, where it is deepest along the coast. Depth to the saltwater-freshwater transition zone is partly controlled by the natural flow pattern of fresh ground water; areas where the transition zone is relatively shallow commonly coincide with areas of natural ground-water discharge. The broad saltwater-freshwater transition zone is attributed to the mixing of freshwater and saltwater caused by large-scale sea-level fluctuations, probably during the late Tertiary and Quaternary. Mixing of freshwater with seawater predominates in North Carolina, whereas mixing with brine is more significant from Virginia to New Jersey. The most likely origin of the brine is from the leaching of evaporitic strata beneath the Continental Shelf and the westward movement of the brines, initially during basinal compaction and subsequently during periods of sea-level rise.

  11. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  12. Estimating contributions of nitrate and herbicides from groundwater to headwater streams, northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott; Denver, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater transport often complicates understanding of surface-water contamination. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected herbicides from groundwater to nontidal headwater streams of the Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) based on late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 streams. Sampled streams were selected randomly, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than on empirical models, which have been used previously for similar estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 headwater streams of the study area are an estimated 21,200 kg/day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kg/day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (and selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is <3% of the total base-flow flux of those compounds plus degradates. Base-flow flux of nitrate and herbicides as a percentage of applications is typically highest in well-drained areas and lowest in areas with abundant poor drainage and anoxic conditions. In Coastal Plain watersheds of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, <2% of applied nitrogen reaches headwater streams as base flow. On the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, more than 10% of such applications are transported through groundwater to streams, and base-flow nitrate flux represents 70% of total nitrogen flux in headwater streams.

  13. Methods to assess natural and anthropogenic thaw lake drainage on the western Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Eisner, Wendy R.; Cuomo, Chris J.; Beck, R.A.; Frohn, R.

    2007-01-01

    Thousands of lakes are found on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska and northwestern Canada. Developed atop continuous permafrost, these thaw lakes and associated drained thaw lake basins are the dominant landscape elements and together cover 46% of the 34,570 km2western Arctic Coastal Plain (WACP). Lakes drain by a variety of episodic processes, including coastal erosion, stream meandering, and headward erosion, bank overtopping, and lake coalescence. Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery from the mid-1970s to Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper (ETM+) imagery from around 2000 shows that 50 lakes completely or partially drained over the approximately 25 year period, indicating landscape stability. The lake-specific drainage mechanism can be inferred in some cases and is partially dependant on geographic settings conducive to active erosion such as riparian and coastal zones. In many cases, however, the cause of drainage is unknown. The availability of high-resolution aerial photographs for the Barrow Peninsula extends the record back to circa 1950; mapping spatial time series illustrates the dynamic nature of lake expansion, coalescence, and drainage. Analysis of these historical images suggests that humans have intentionally or inadvertently triggered lake drainage near the village of Barrow. Efforts to understand landscape processes and identify events have been enhanced by interviewing Iñupiaq elders and others practicing traditional subsistence lifestyles. They can often identify the year and process by which individual lakes drained, thereby providing greater dating precision and accuracy in assessing the causal mechanism. Indigenous knowledge has provided insights into events, landforms, and processes not previously identified or considered.

  14. Methods to assess natural and anthropogenic thaw lake drainage on the western Arctic coastal plain of northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Eisner, Wendy R.; Cuomo, Chris J.; Beck, Richard A.; Frohn, Robert

    2007-06-01

    Thousands of lakes are found on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska and northwestern Canada. Developed atop continuous permafrost, these thaw lakes and associated drained thaw lake basins are the dominant landscape elements and together cover 46% of the 34,570 km2 western Arctic Coastal Plain (WACP). Lakes drain by a variety of episodic processes, including coastal erosion, stream meandering, and headward erosion, bank overtopping, and lake coalescence. Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery from the mid-1970s to Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper (ETM+) imagery from around 2000 shows that 50 lakes completely or partially drained over the approximately 25 year period, indicating landscape stability. The lake-specific drainage mechanism can be inferred in some cases and is partially dependant on geographic settings conducive to active erosion such as riparian and coastal zones. In many cases, however, the cause of drainage is unknown. The availability of high-resolution aerial photographs for the Barrow Peninsula extends the record back to circa 1950; mapping spatial time series illustrates the dynamic nature of lake expansion, coalescence, and drainage. Analysis of these historical images suggests that humans have intentionally or inadvertently triggered lake drainage near the village of Barrow. Efforts to understand landscape processes and identify events have been enhanced by interviewing Iñupiaq elders and others practicing traditional subsistence lifestyles. They can often identify the year and process by which individual lakes drained, thereby providing greater dating precision and accuracy in assessing the causal mechanism. Indigenous knowledge has provided insights into events, landforms, and processes not previously identified or considered.

  15. Selective extinction and survival across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, W.B. )

    1991-10-01

    The inner Atlantic Coastal Plain in New Jersey and the Delmarva Peninsula is underlain by an Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary sequence of marine and paralic sand, clay, and glauconitic beds. Campanian, Maastrichtian, Danian, and Thanetian deposits are especially fossiliferous and yield a succession of marine faunas that reveal a pattern of selective extinction and survival across the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary in this area. Cretaceous benthic invertebrate communities are dominated by oysters and other semi-infaunal and infaunal molluscs with planktotrophic larval stages. These are replaced in the Danian by brachiopod-dominated communities that are composed of epifaunal benthos with a variety of nonplanktotrophic reproductive strategies. A similar pattern is observable in the nektonic cephalopod populations in this sequence; the typical ammonites of the Cretaceous became extinct at the K/T boundary, whereas the nautilids survived. Ammonites are thought to have had a planktotrophic larval stage, whereas nautilids are known to lay large lecithotrophic eggs. This pattern of differential survival is attributed to the planktonic population crash at the K/T boundary which placed planktotrophically reproducing species at a disadvantage while favoring the varied groups that practiced alternative reproductive strategies.

  16. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  17. Digital Elevations and Extents of Regional Hydrogeologic Units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifer System From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Jason P.; David C. Andreasen; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-01-01

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  18. The genus Krithe (Ostracoda) from the Campanian and Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) of the northern US Gulf Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    The ostracode genus Krithe is one of the most common genera in the Upper Cretaceous (late Santonian to Maastrichtian) deposits of the northern Gulf Coastal Plain of North America. Although it is never abundant, the genus occurs in sediments that were deposited under a wide range of palaeoenvironments, including nearshore sandy marls to offshore, nearly pure, chalk. The taxonomy of this taxon has been problematical, and what is herein considered to be a single species, K. cushmani, has been referred to in the literature under five different names. Two morphotypes were observed: relatively large individuals with 'mushroom'-shaped vestibules collected from chalk, and smaller individuals with pocket-shaped vestibules collected from nearshore deposits. Species of Krithe have been hypothesized to be useful in estimating dissolved oxygen concentration in ancient ocean floors, based on details of their morphology. Whereas the relationship between size and environment corroborates with previous predictions (larger individuals live in deeper water), the morphology of the vestibules contradicts predictions (the larger vestibules occur in the nearshore deposits and the smaller, more constricted vestibules occur in the chalk). A causal relationship between environment and morphology is discussed.

  19. Effect of eustatic sea-level changes on saltwater-freshwater relations in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold; Leahy, P. Patrick; Knobel, LeRoy L.

    1984-01-01

    A finite-difference computer model was used to analyze the effect of eustatic sea-level changes on the development of the transition zone between fresh ground water and underlying saltwater in the northern Atlantic Coastal Plain. The model simulates, in cross section, the sedimentary wedge from the Delaware River estuary in New Jersey to the Continental Slope. Simulated steady-state freshwater flow is separated from static saltwater by a sharp interface. The model was used to test the sensitivity of the simulated interface position to anisotropy as well as to sea-level elevation. Increasing anisotropy causes the interface to be shallower and extend farther offshore. Lowering sea level causes the interface to be deeper and to extend farther offshore. Simulations using hydraulic conductivities based on available data suggest that the transition zone is not in equilibrium with present sea level. The position of the transition zone probably reflects a long-term average sea level of between 50 and 100 ft below present sea level. The cyclic movement of salty ground water in response to sea-level fluctuations during the Quaternary and Late Tertiary caused the saltwater to mix with freshwater, thus producing a broad transition zone. The freshwater is predominantly sodium bicarbonate in character. The saltwater, from New Jersey to Virginia, probably is a sodium calcium chloride brine. In North Carolina, it is primarily seawater.

  20. Spatio-temporal analysis of gyres in oriented lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska based on remotely sensed images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhan, Shengan; Beck, Richard A.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Liu, Hongxing; Jones, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of oriented thermokarst lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska has been the subject of debate for more than half a century. The striking elongation of the lakes perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction has led to the development of a preferred wind-generated gyre hypothesis, while other hypotheses include a combination of sun angle, topographic aspect, and/or antecedent conditions. A spatio-temporal analysis of oriented thermokarst lake gyres with recent (Landsat 8) and historical (Landsat 4, 5, 7 and ASTER) satellite imagery of the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska indicates that wind-generated gyres are both frequent and regionally extensive. Gyres are most common in lakes located near the Arctic coast after several days of sustained winds from a single direction, typically the northeast, and decrease in number landward with decreasing wind energy. This analysis indicates that the conditions necessary for the Carson and Hussey (1962) wind-generated gyre for oriented thermokarst lake formation are common temporally and regionally and correspond spatially with the geographic distribution of oriented lakes on the Arctic Coastal Plain. Given an increase in the ice-free season for lakes as well as strengthening of the wind regime, the frequency and distribution of lake gyres may increase. This increase has implications for changes in northern high latitude aquatic ecosystems, particularly if wind-generated gyres promote permafrost degradation and thermokarst lake expansion.

  1. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  2. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of Vicksburgian Oligocene of northern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    The Vicksburg Group (Oligocene) is a predominantly carbonate unit that extends in a narrow belt from Rosefield, Louisiana, to western Florida. East of the LaSalle arch (eastern Louisiana) the carbonates of the Vicksburg Group are continental shelf in origin and display a sedimentary strike of approximately eastwest. The carbonate formations of the Vicksburg Group are demonstrated to be facies of one another and to constitute a single sedimentary cycle. The outcrop belt strikes west-northwest across the sedimentary strike displaying changes in the lithofacies of the group. The Byram Formation is redefined to include the silty sands and wackestones of a regressive carbonate shelf/destructional bank facies. The Glendon Formation is restricted to include only the skeletal grainstones and coarse sands of a carbonate shoal/shoreline. The Marianna Formation includes mudstones of an algal mud shelf bottom and silty sands of a back-bank facies. The Mint Spring Formation consists of silty sands of a destructional delta environment and includes those glauconite sands that overlie the prodelta clays of the Forest Hill Formation. The Rosefield Formation is probably a chenier plain silty clay with a coquina beach zone of fossils common to the Byram Formation. Penecontemporaneous or post-Vicksburg erosion on the crest of the Wiggins uplift apparently restricted or removed possible Vicksburgian coral-algal reef or nummulitic bank sediments. Limited subsurface data show that a nummulitic bank did develop on the north flank of the uplift. This bank migrated northward as the Marianna back-bank area shoaled and produced the Nummulites-Lepidocyclina grainstone/sand of the Glendon Formation at its type locality.

  3. Evolution of Pre-Jurassic basement beneath northern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Van Siclen, D.C.

    1990-09-01

    Data from the northern Gulf Coast region reveal a late Paleozoic wrench fault system along which North America (NA) moved southeast (present directions) alongside the northeastern edge of future South America (SA), to where collision with that continent converted a broad continental embankment off the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen into the Ouachita thrust belt. At the same time, Africa farther east, to which protruding SA was firmly joined, was continuing to advance the Appalachian thrusts on the opposite side of these faults. This relationship left no space between the American continents for the conventional remnant ocean or microcontinents. By Late Triassic time, however, extension south of the Ouachita Mountains was forming the series of Interior rift basins, at both ends of which new wrench faults transferred the extension southward to the DeSoto Canyon and South Texas rift basins. Genetically, the Ouachita thrusts are part of the subduction zone along the front of a former SA forearc basin, which continued to receive marine sediments into middle Permian. The Wiggins arch southeast of it is a sliver of that continent, left with NA when the Interior basin rifting jumped from that forearc basin southward across bordering outer basement highs to begin opening the deep Gulf of Mexico (GOM) basin. The Late Triassic crustal extension resulted from right-lateral translation of NA around the bulge of northwestern Africa. About 200 mi of this placed Cape Hatteras against Africa's Cap Blanc, in the configuration from which the magnetic data indicate spreading began in the Central North Atlantic Ocean. The reality of this translation is confirmed by widespread rifting at the same time in western North Africa and between all three northern Atlantic continents; this drew the tip of the Tethys sea southward to Cape Hatteras and led to deposition of voluminous Late Triassic red beds and evaporites along it.

  4. Widespread Degradation of Ice Wedges on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Northern Alaska in Response to the Recent Warmer Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Y.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Pullman, E. R.

    2003-12-01

    The continuous permafrost on the Arctic Coastal Plain in northern Alaska has been considered stable because permafrost temperatures remain low, even with an increase of several degrees during the last decades. Ice wedges, however, are particularly susceptible to degradation because only a very thin layer of permafrost (the transient layer) exists between the ice and the bottom of the active layer. An increase in the active layer during unusually warm periods causes the thawing front to encounter the underlying ice wedges and initiate degradation. Field observations and photogrammetric analysis of 1945, 1979, and 2001 aerial photography indicate that there has been widespread degradation of the ice wedges on the Arctic Coastal Plain west of the Colville Delta over the recent 57-year period, and indications are that most of the degradation occurred during the last two decades. Field sampling at 46 polygonal troughs and their intersections showed that ice wedge degradation has been relatively recent as indicated by newly drowned vegetation. We found thermokarst was widespread on a variety of terrain conditions, but most prevalent on, ice-rich centers of old drained lake basins and alluvial-marine terraces, which have the greatest ice wedge development in the studied landscape. Ice wedges on these terrains typically occupy from 10 to 20 % of the upper permafrost. We attributed the natural degradation to warm weather during the last decades, because disturbance of the ground surface, which could have similar impact on ice wedges, was not evident. While, ice-wedge degradation probably has been periodically occurring at low rates over the preceding centuries, it has greatly accelerated during the last several decades. We identified six stages of ice-wedge degradation and stabilization. They include: (1) the loss of transient layer of upper permafrost above ice wedges, leading to enhanced nutrient availability and vegetative growth; (2) thawing of ice wedges and surface

  5. Biogenic origin of coalbed gas in the northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, P.D.; Breland, F.C., Jr.; Hackley, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    New coal-gas exploration and production in northern Louisiana and south-central Mississippi, Gulf of Mexico Basin, is focused on the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene), where the depth to targeted subbituminous C to high volatile C bituminous coal beds ranges from 300 to 1680??m, and individual coal beds have a maximum thickness of about 6??m. Total gas content (generally excluding residual gas) of the coal beds ranges from less than 0.37??cm3/g (as-analyzed or raw basis; 1.2??cm3/g, dry, ash free basis, daf) at depths less than 400??m, to greater than 7.3??cm3/g (as-analyzed basis; 8.76??cm3/g, daf) in deeper (> 1,500??m) parts of the basin. About 20 Wilcox coal-gas wells in northern Louisiana produce from 200 to 6485??m3 of gas/day and cumulative gas production from these wells is approximately 25??million m3 (as of December, 2006). U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas resources in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, including northern and south-central Mississippi, indicates that coal beds of the Wilcox Group contain an estimated mean total 109.3??million m3 (3.86??trillion ft3) of producible natural gas. To determine the origin of the Wilcox Group coal gases in northern Louisiana, samples of gas, water, and oil were collected from Wilcox coal and sandstone reservoirs and from under- and overlying Late Cretaceous and Eocene carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. Isotopic data from Wilcox coal-gas samples have an average ??13CCH4 value of - 62.6??? VPDB (relative to Vienna Peedee Belemnite) and an average ??DCH4 value of - 199.9??? VSMOW (relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water). Values of ??13CCO2 range from - 25.4 to 3.42??? VPDB. Produced Wilcox saline water collected from oil, conventional gas, and coalbed gas wells have ??DH2O values that range from - 27.3 to - 18.0??? VSMOW. These data suggest that the coal gases primarily are generated in saline formation water by bacterial reduction of CO2. Shallow (< 150??m) Wilcox

  6. Early to middle Pleistocene Arctic coastal ice caps in the Northern Interior Plains of Canada, a comparison with northeastern Siberian coastal uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duk-Rodkin, A.; Barendregt, R. W.; Velichko, A. A.; Galloway, J. M.; McNeil, D.

    2012-12-01

    A stratigraphic record of four to five ice-cap developments during the last 2.6 myr was discovered along the Northern Interior Plains (NIP) of the Canadian Continental Arctic Coast below 500 m elevation. Paleomagnetism, macrofossils, foraminifera, till fabrics and pebble lithologies were obtained from outcrops. This glacial stratigraphic record is less extensive than that found west of the continental divide in the Northern Canadian Cordillera, where at least 11 glaciations occurred in the last 2.7 Ma and where uplift along the south side of NW North America during the Pliocene set the stage for large scale glaciations. These coastal mountains and the continental divide created a double rain shadow effect that limited Pacific moisture reaching the NIP. East of the continental divide, moisture supply was only sufficient to form valley glaciers in five of the glacial periods that affected the Cordillera. The NIP was also affected by five glaciations. Ice-caps developed periodically and in the late Pleistocene, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered all of the NIP. During interglacial times, the NIP experienced dry steppe conditions, similar to modern northern climates found in regions of extreme continentality. The geographic setting along the eastern Siberian coast is comparable to conditions of the NIP, but no record of glaciations exists from upland areas near the Arctic Ocean. Moisture supply and temperature were likely insufficient to form local ice caps at low coastal elevations (<600 m) during the Pleistocene; only in the mountains to the south did glaciers form. Climatic conditions leading to the formation of ice-caps in the NIP may be related to local influences, such as an open or partially open Arctic Ocean. Ice caps may have formed during interglacial times when warm waters periodically entered the Arctic Ocean. There is sufficient data linking marine life from the Bering Sea to western Canadian Arctic to support the idea that warm waters from the NE Pacific

  7. A regional classification of the effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport to surface waters in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; Sekellick, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen from nonpoint sources contributes to eutrophication, hypoxia, and related ecological degradation in Atlantic Coastal Plain streams and adjacent coastal estuaries such as Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound. Although denitrification in depressional (non-riparian) wetlands common to the Coastal Plain can be a significant landscape sink for nitrogen, the effectiveness of individual wetlands at removing nitrogen varies substantially due to varying hydrogeologic, geochemical, and other landscape conditions, which are often poorly or inconsistently mapped over large areas. A geographic model describing the spatial variability in the likely effectiveness of depressional wetlands in watershed uplands at mitigating nitrogen transport from nonpoint sources to surface waters was constructed for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP), from North Carolina through New Jersey. Geographic and statistical techniques were used to develop the model. Available medium-resolution (1:100,000-scale) stream hydrography was used to define 33,799 individual watershed catchments in the study area. Sixteen landscape metrics relevant to the occurrence of depressional wetlands and their effectiveness as nitrogen sinks were defined for each catchment, based primarily on available topographic and soils data. Cluster analysis was used to aggregate the 33,799 catchments into eight wetland landscape regions (WLRs) based on the value of three principal components computed for the 16 original landscape metrics. Significant differences in topography, soil, and land cover among the eight WLRs demonstrate the effectiveness of the clustering technique. Results were used to interpret the relative likelihood of depressional wetlands in each WLR and their likely effectiveness at mitigating nitrogen transport from upland source areas to surface waters. The potential effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport varies substantially over different parts of the NACP

  8. Shot Ingestion by Wintering Female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) in the Texas Coastal Plain, 2012-14.

    PubMed

    Huck, Nathaniel R; Ballard, Bart M; Fedynich, Alan M; Kraai, Kevin J; Castro, Mauro E

    2016-01-01

    Historically, lead poisoning through lead shot ingestion was one of the largest health issues affecting waterfowl in North America. Lead shot was banned for use in waterfowl hunting in the US in 1991 and was banned in Canada in 1997. However, biologists need to understand how, and if, lead shot remaining in the environment will continue to impact waterfowl. Our goal was to estimate lead and nontoxic shot consumption by female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) wintering along the Texas coast. We found shot or metal fragments (or both) in the gizzards of 39 (17%) of 227 female Northern Pintails collected along the Texas coast. Of these, lead shot was found in seven gizzards, steel shot was found in 24 gizzards, and other metal and fragments were found in 20 gizzards. Some females consumed multiple shot types. Overall, shot (lead and nontoxic combined) ingestion rates were similar to those found prior to the lead shot ban in Texas (14%) and Louisiana (17%); however, lead shot ingestion rates were considerably lower, suggesting that it is becoming less available over time. All Northern Pintails that had lead shot in their gizzards were collected from coastal habitats. While it seems that lead shot ingestion by Northern Pintails has decreased since the ban was put in place, monitoring lead shot ingestion rates from different regions will provide insight into its availability in different habitats and under various environmental conditions. PMID:26555108

  9. Geophysical modeling of the northern Appalachian Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes under the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maguire, T.J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Volkert, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A regional terrane map of the New Jersey Coastal Plain basement was constructed using seismic, drilling, gravity and magnetic data. The Brompton-Cameron and Central Maine terranes were coalesced as one volcanic island arc terrane before obducting onto Laurentian, Grenville age, continental crust in the Taconian orogeny [Rankin, D.W., 1994. Continental margin of the eastern United States: past and present. In: Speed, R.C., (Ed.), Phanerozoic Evolution of North American Continent-Ocean Transitions. DNAG Continent-Ocean Transect Volume. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 129-218]. Volcanic island-arc rocks of the Avalon terrane are in contact with Central Maine terrane rocks in southern Connecticut where the latter are overthrust onto the Brompton-Cameron terrane, which is thrust over Laurentian basement. Similarities of these allochthonous island arc terranes (Brompton-Cameron, Central Maine, Avalon) in lithology, fauna and age suggest that they are faulted segments of the margin of one major late Precambrian to early Paleozoic, high latitude peri-Gondwana island arc designated as "Avalonia", which collided with Laurentia in the early to middle Paleozoic. The Brompton Cameron, Central Maine, and Avalon terranes are projected as the basement under the eastern New Jersey Coastal Plain based on drill core samples of metamorphic rocks of active margin/magmatic arc origin. A seismic reflection profile across the New York Bight traces the gentle dipping (approximately 20 degrees) Cameron's Line Taconian suture southeast beneath allochthonous Avalon and other terranes to a 4 sec TWTT depth (approximately 9 km) where the Avalonian rocks are over Laurentian crust. Gentle up-plunge (approximately 5 degrees) projections to the southwest bring the Laurentian Grenville age basement and the drift-stage early Paleozoic cover rocks to windows in Burlington Co. at approximately 1 km depth and Cape May Co. at approximately 2 km depths. The antiformal Shellburne

  10. Geohydrology and digital-simulation model of the Farrington aquifer in the northern coastal plain of New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farlekas, George M.

    1979-01-01

    A two-dimensional digital-computer flow model was developed to simulate the Farrington aquifer in the northern part of the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The area of detailed study includes approximately 500 square miles in Middlesex and Monmouth Couties where the aquifer provides a large part of the municipal and industrial water supply. The area modeled is much larger, extending seaward as well as northeastward into Long Island. The aquifer consists chiefly of the Farrington Sand Member of the Raritan Formation and is composed of sand and some gravel. It thickens from a featheredge in outcrop to more than 170 feet, 11 miles to the southeast. The confining unit between the Farrington and the overlying Old Bridge Sand Member of the Magothy Formation consists primarily of the Woodbridge Clay Member of the Raritan Formation and has a maximum thickness of 244 feet. The model simulates both water-table and artesian conditions. The confining unit overlying the Farrington aquifer is simulated as having a variable thickness and vertical hydraulic conductivity. The effect of a declining water level in the overlying Old Bridge aquifer on the Farrington aquifer is also simulated by the model. Values used to describe the hydraulic properties of the Farrington aquifer are: a hydraulic conductivity of 105 feet per day, a storage coefficient of 1.6 x 10-4 for artesian conditions, and a specific yield of 0.25 for water-table conditions. Values for the overlying confining unit are: a vertical hydraulic conductivity ranging from 4.2 x 10-7 to 1.0 x 10-10 feet per second and a specific storage of 4 x 10-5 feet-1. Aquifer simulation for the 15-year period, 1959-73, was used to calibrage the model. The model was calibrated by comparing the observed potentiometric surface of November 1973 with the simulated potentiometric surface. In addition, hydrographs for selected wells were compared with model results. Ground-water withdrawals for 1959 and 1973 were 12.1 and 28.5 milion gallons per

  11. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate changes and to anthropogenic interventions, saltwater intrusion is affecting the aquifers and the surface water of the Po plain along the Adriatic coast. During the last decade, we recognized in this area a pattern of climate change: precipitations are less frequent and the yearly amount of rain is concentrated in a few strong storm events. This pattern results in an increase of gales strength during the winter, which causes shoreline retreat and an erosion of the coastal dunes. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The wide sandy beaches are now retreating and the dune system (only a few meters in height) is almoust destroyed, because of tourism development and of disaggregated rivers and shorelines management. A still active dune system is preserved in our study area, a coastal plain included between the Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers near the city of Ravenna. As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters have been contaminated by seawater. Despite its value for the natural ecosystem and the agricultural soil, the phreatic aquifer is not considered of interest by the regional authorities responsible for water management. A detailed hydrogeological survey was performed by our research group during the Summer 2008 within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. In this survey 29 auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we measured the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore

  12. Estimating the Regional Flux of Nitrate and Agricultural Herbicide Compounds from Groundwater to Headwater Streams of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ator, S.; Denver, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is common in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP, including New Jersey through North Carolina), and groundwater discharge provides nitrogen (primarily in the form of nitrate) and herbicide compounds from agricultural sources along with the majority of flow to NACP streams. Poor water quality has contributed to ecological degradation of tidal streams and estuaries along much of the adjacent mid-Atlantic coast. Although statistical models have provided estimates of total instream nutrient flux in the Coastal Plain, the regional flux of nitrogen and herbicides during base flow is less well understood. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected commonly used herbicide compounds from groundwater to non-tidal headwater streams of the NACP on the basis of late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 such streams. Sampled streams were selected using an unequal-probability random approach, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than empirical models, which are commonly used for such estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 NACP non-tidal headwater streams are an estimated 21,200 kilograms per day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kilograms per day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (including selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is dominated by degradates; flux of parent compounds is less than 3 percent of the total flux of parent plus degradates. Base-flow flux of nitrate and herbicides as a percentage of applications generally varies predictably with regional variations in hydrogeology. Abundant nonpoint (primarily agricultural) sources and hydrogeologic conditions, for example, contribute to particularly large base-flow flux from the Delmarva Peninsula to Chesapeake Bay. In the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Watershed, more than 10 percent of total nonpoint nitrogen applications is transported through groundwater to stream base flow

  13. Modelling water-table depth in a primary aquifer to identify potential wetland hydrogeomorphic settings on the northern Maputaland Coastal Plain, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbe, Bruce E.; Grundling, Althea T.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2016-02-01

    The primary aquifer on the Maputaland Coastal Plain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is the principal source of water for rivers, lakes and most of the wetlands in dry periods, and is recharged by these systems in wet periods. Modelling hydrologic conditions that control regional water-table depth can provide insight into the spatial patterns of wetland occurrence and of the persistence of wet conditions that control their character. This project used a groundwater model (MODFLOW) to simulate 10-year water-table fluctuations on the Maputaland Coastal Plain from January 2000 to December 2010, to contrast the conditions between wet and dry years. Remote sensing imagery was used to map "permanent" and "temporary" wetlands in dry and wet years to evaluate the effectiveness of identifying the suitable conditions for their formation using numerical modelling techniques. The results confirm that topography plays an important role on a sub-regional and local level to support wetland formation. The wetlands' extent and distribution are directly associated with the spatial and temporal variations of the water table in relation to the topographical profile. Groundwater discharge zones in the lowland (1-50 masl) areas support more permanent wetlands with dominantly peat or high organic soil substrates, including swamp forest and most of the permanent open water areas. Most temporary wetlands associated with low-percentage clay occurrence are through-flow low-lying interdune systems characterised by regional fluctuation of the water table, while other temporary wetlands are perched or partially perched. The latter requires a more sophisticated saturated-unsaturated modelling approach.

  14. Reconstructing conditions during dolomite formation on a Carnian coastal sabkha/alluvial plain using 87Sr/86Sr isotopes - Travenanzes Formation, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Maximilian; Wegner, Wencke; Horschinegg, Monika; Preto, Nereo; Breda, Anna; Klötzli, Urs; Peckmann, Jörn; Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    indicated by oxygen isotopes. The marine 87Sr/86Sr values have been reconstructed for most of the Phanerozoic and are nearly constant in the Carnian (McArthur et al., 2012), while the age of the dolomite beds of the Travenanzes Formation is constrained by their stratigraphic position in the measured section (Dibona Section; Preto et al., 2015). The continental Sr isotope signal is governed by weathering rates, especially during silicate weathering of the source rock in the catchment area (McArthur et al., 2012). Through 87Sr/86Sr isotope investigation of primary dolomite in beds and nodules of the coastal sabkha or alluvial plain environment, the influence of marine or continental conditions can be determined. The finding of celestine SrSO4 and Sr-rich barite BaSO4 within the cemented dolomite by SEM indicates enrichment of Sr, possibly during strong evaporative conditions. Hence, the generation of phase-specific Sr-isotope data will allow for a more precise reconstruction of the conditions that led to dolomite formation in the Triassic shallow coastal sabkha/alluvial plain environment. McArthur et al. (2012) Strontium isotope stratigraphy. In: "The geologic time scale" (F.M Gradstein et al., eds.), Elsevier, p. 127-144. Preto et al. (2015) Primary dolomite in the Late Triassic Travenanzes Formation Dolomites, Northern Italy: Facies control and possible bacterial influence. Sedimentology 62, p. 697-716.

  15. Geology, geochemistry, and tectonostratigraphic relations of the crystalline basement beneath the coastal plain of New Jersey and contiguous areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Volkert, Richard A.; Drake, Avery Ala, Jr.; Sugarman, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    Coastal plain sediments are underlain by pre-Mesozoic crystalline rocks. The inner coastal plain is underlain by schist that is correlated with the Potomac Terrane, as well as by mafic rocks probably equivalent to the Wilmington or Bel Air-Rising Sun terranes. The northern and central outer coastal plain is underlain by metasedimentary rocks similar to the Brompton-Cameron Terrane. Rocks beneath the southern coastal plain probably correlate with those of the Chopawamsic and Roanoke Rapids terranes.

  16. Assessment of pingo distribution and morphometry using an IfSAR derived digital surface model, western Arctic Coastal Plain, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, G.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Arp, C.D.; Walker, S.; Beck, R.A.; Galloway, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Pingos are circular to elongate ice-cored mounds that form by injection and freezing of pressurized water in near-surface permafrost. Here we use a digital surface model (DSM) derived from an airborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) system to assess the distribution and morphometry of pingos within a 40,000km2 area on the western Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. We have identified 1247 pingo forms in the study region, ranging in height from 2 to 21m, with a mean height of 4.6m. Pingos in this region are of hydrostatic origin, with 98% located within 995 drained lake basins, most of which are underlain by thick eolian sand deposits. The highest pingo density (0.18km-2) occurs where streams have reworked these deposits. Morphometric analyses indicate that most pingos are small to medium in size (<200m diameter), gently to moderately sloping (<30??), circular to slightly elongate (mean circularity index of 0.88), and of relatively low height (2 to 5m). However, 57 pingos stand higher than 10m, 26 have a maximum slope greater than 30??, and 42 are larger than 200m in diameter. Comparison with a legacy pingo dataset based on 1950s stereo-pair photography indicates that 66 may have partially or completely collapsed over the last half-century. However, we mapped over 400 pingos not identified in the legacy dataset, and identified only three higher than 2m to have formed between ca. 1955 and ca. 2005, indicating that caution should be taken when comparing contemporary and legacy datasets derived by different techniques. This comprehensive database of pingo location and morphometry based on an IfSAR DSM may prove useful for land and resource managers as well as aid in the identification of pingo-like features on Mars. ?? 2011.

  17. Assessment of pingo distribution and morphometry using an IfSAR derived digital surface model, western Arctic Coastal Plain, Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Walker, Shane; Beck, Richard A.; Galloway, John P.

    2012-02-01

    Pingos are circular to elongate ice-cored mounds that form by injection and freezing of pressurized water in near-surface permafrost. Here we use a digital surface model (DSM) derived from an airborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) system to assess the distribution and morphometry of pingos within a 40,000 km 2 area on the western Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska. We have identified 1247 pingo forms in the study region, ranging in height from 2 to 21 m, with a mean height of 4.6 m. Pingos in this region are of hydrostatic origin, with 98% located within 995 drained lake basins, most of which are underlain by thick eolian sand deposits. The highest pingo density (0.18 km - 2 ) occurs where streams have reworked these deposits. Morphometric analyses indicate that most pingos are small to medium in size (< 200 m diameter), gently to moderately sloping (< 30°), circular to slightly elongate (mean circularity index of 0.88), and of relatively low height (2 to 5 m). However, 57 pingos stand higher than 10 m, 26 have a maximum slope greater than 30°, and 42 are larger than 200 m in diameter. Comparison with a legacy pingo dataset based on 1950s stereo-pair photography indicates that 66 may have partially or completely collapsed over the last half-century. However, we mapped over 400 pingos not identified in the legacy dataset, and identified only three higher than 2 m to have formed between ca. 1955 and ca. 2005, indicating that caution should be taken when comparing contemporary and legacy datasets derived by different techniques. This comprehensive database of pingo location and morphometry based on an IfSAR DSM may prove useful for land and resource managers as well as aid in the identification of pingo-like features on Mars.

  18. NITROGEN EXPORT FROM COASTAL PLAIN FIELD DITCHES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successfully mitigating the adverse impact of agricultural N and P applications will depend on a sound understanding of transport mechanisms and flow pathways (from fields). The objective of this study was to evaluate N losses from ditches for a Coastal Plain landscape on the Maryland Eastern Shore,...

  19. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  20. Heat-flow reconnaissance of the Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    Most of the 46 new values of heat flow determined for the Gulf Coastal Plain are in the low to normal range, but heat-flow values averaging 1.8 heat-flow unit (HFU) were obtained in Claiborne, Ouachita, and Union parishes, Louisiana. Moreover, a zone of relatively high heat-flow values and steep thermal gradients (35 to 46/sup 0/C/km) extends from northern Louisiana into southwestern Mississippi. Also near Pensacola, Florida, temperatures of 50/sup 0/C at 1-km depth have been extrapolated from thermal gradients. Future development of low-grade geothermal resources may be warranted in these areas.

  1. Electrical methods (VES and ERT) for identifying, mapping and monitoring different saline domains in a coastal plain region (Alt Empordà, Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarroca, Mario; Bach, Joan; Linares, Rogelio; Pellicer, Xavier M.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe spatial variability through time of the degree of salinity of soils and groundwater is a major issue concerning the sustainable management of water resources. The problem is accentuated in coastal plain areas where saline bodies of different origin coexist. We present an extensive geoelectrical resistivity dataset collected in the Alt Empordà clastic coastal aquifer system (NE Spain) integrating the results of field campaigns undertaken within a period of more than two decades. The dataset is unique in the literature and comprises highly valuable information for the investigation of saline domains. The joint application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) methods allowed the identification of saline domains and monitoring their evolution through time. Geophysical data gathered during field campaigns in 1982, 2002 and 2010 were calibrated and interpreted on the basis of soil and groundwater physico-chemical analyses and hydrogeological, stratigraphic and geomorphological data. The results illustrate the potential of electrical resistivity methods at differentiating saline domains in coastal aquifer areas and at modelling their configuration and evolution. Although the VES data processing allows solving the one-dimensional resistivity structure of the subsurface, the inversion imposes a 1D layered model, thus interpretation of two-dimensional structures is subject to the interpolation between discrete measures. In contrast, ERT data offer a continuous 2D-image of the resistivity distribution, both laterally and in depth. Given that the bulk resistivity of the medium is extremely sensitive to salt content, the ERT profiles permitted identifying and determining the geometry of hyper-saline areas (characterized by resistivities of less than 5 Ω m). The study demonstrates the efficiency of the electrical methods to map subsurface conductive zones and illustrates how the accurate knowledge of the hydrogeological

  2. Basins and Sedimentation Within the Martian Northern Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; MacKinnon, D. J.

    1999-03-01

    MOLA data show that six basins and sedimentary plains make up the northern plains of Mars. Four types of plains units are deposited in them, in the following stratigraphic order: marginal, level-top, basin-floor, and downslope units.

  3. Calibrating northern Texas High Plains groundwater model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Northern High Plains of Texas, irrigated crop production accounts for a major portion of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer. The concern is that diminishing groundwater supplies will severely reduce regional crop and animal production, which in turn would impact the regional ec...

  4. Depopulation of the Northern Plains Natives.

    PubMed

    Decker, J F

    1991-01-01

    Nine major epidemics of acute infectious diseases swept the Northern Plains of the Western Interior of Canada between 1774 and 1839. The Blackfeet, Plains Cree and Assiniboin, Atsina and Saulteaux who exploited the Plains were differentially exposed to these epidemics of smallpox, measles, whooping cough and influenza. Mortality estimates from these epidemics were used in assessing the degree to which a series of epidemics contributed to depopulation of the Plains Natives. A criteria was established to determine an epidemic from a depopulation epidemic, which involved among other factors, the determination of age-selective mortality. The analysis concludes that despite the fact several Native groups exploited, and in some cases co-resided in a similar ecological area, they suffered differential mortality and depopulation rates. PMID:1948151

  5. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207 Section 9.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.207 Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of...

  6. Hydrogeochemical characterization of the phreatic system of the coastal wetland located between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers in the southern Po plain (Northern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, V.; Dinelli, E.; Antonellini, M.; Capaccioni, B.; Balugani, E.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    A hydrogeochemical study has been undertaken on the phreatic system of the coastal area included between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers (in the southern part of the Po plain, near the city of Ravenna) within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. It is one of the first attempt in the area to characterize the shallow groundwater water system and to investigate if the arsenic anomaly, known in deeper groundwater (about 100 µg/l according to recent Annual Groundwater Quality Reports of Emilia-Romagna Region), occurs also in the phreatic system. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The study area is recognized as a protected area at european (ZPS and SIC, site code number: IT 14070009), national and regional level (Po delta Park area). As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters (drainage ditches and ponds) have been contaminated by seawater and by deeper groundwater. Samples representative of the top of the water table were collected in Summer 2008 in 22 auger-holes and in 3 shallow piezometers (6 m deep) documenting the deeper layers of the phreatic groundwater system. Temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and Eh of the groundwater and of the surface water were measured on site using portable instruments. Samples were filtered directly in the field, an aliquot was acidified with diluted HCl for metal analysis. Cations were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption (thermo S-series spectrometer), anions by ion chromatography (Dionex ICS-90), Fe, As, Si, B by ICP-OES (Thermo iCAP6000). The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present at the top of the phreatic aquifer in the backshore area and that the

  7. Chinese Tallow: Invading the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain. Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management. When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests. In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist. Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  8. A scheme for the uniform mapping and monitoring of earth resources and environmental complexes: An assessment of natural vegetation, environmental, and crop analogs. [Sierra-Lahontan and Colorado Plateaus, Northern Great Valley (CA), and Louisiana Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulton, C. E.; Welch, R. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A study was performed to develop and test a procedure for the uniform mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems in the semi-arid and wood regions of the Sierra-Lahontan and Colorado Plateau areas, and for the estimating of rice crop production in the Northern Great Valley (Ca.) and the Louisiana Coastal Plain. ERTS-1 and high flight and low flight aerial photos were used in a visual photointerpretation scheme to identify vegetation complexes, map acreages, and evaluate crop vigor and stress. Results indicated that the vegetation analog concept is valid; that depending on the kind of vegetation and its density, analogs are interpretable at different levels in the hierarchical classification from second to the fourth level. The second level uses physiognomic growth form-structural criteria, and the fourth level uses floristic or taxonomic criteria, usually at generic level. It is recommended that analog comparisons should be made in relatively small test areas where large homogeneous examples can be found of each analog.

  9. Northern Plains Textures Visible Near the Terminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Each day, Mars Global Surveyor makes 12 orbits around the red planet. On each orbit at the present time (April 1999), the spacecraft passes from daylight into night somewhere over the northern plains of Mars, and re-emerges into daylight over the southern cratered highlands. The illumination conditions near the martian terminator--the line between night and day--are perfect for observing surface texture and topography. This picture shows a common, rough and bumpy texture that MOC has revealed on the northern plains of Mars. Note the eroded impact crater at the bottom right--small black dots along its rim are interpreted to be boulders. This image covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 8 kilometers (5 miles) long and is illuminated by the sun shining low from the northeastern horizon (from the upper right).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  10. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  11. Campanian coastal plain sediments in southeastern Missouri and southern Illinois - Significance to the early geologic history of the northern Mississippi Embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, R.W.; Litwin, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Basal Cretaceous deposits in the northernmost part of the Mississippi Embayment in southeastern Missouri and southern Illinois have been correlated previously with the Tuscaloosa Formation of Alabama. New palynological data indicate that these clastic deposits comprise non-marine and marine sections of middle to late Campanian age. They consist of a lower non-marine deposit, the herein newly proposed Post Creek Formation, and an upper marine deposit that we correlate in part with the Coffee Sand of Tennessee. These Campanian deposits overlie a diachronous Mesozoic paleosol, Little Bear Formation, and are progressively overlain by the McNairy Sand of early to middle Maastrichtian age, the Owl Creek Formation of middle to late Maastrichtian age, and the Porters Creek Clay of late Paleocene age. Outcrops and subsurface occurrences of the Post Creek Formation are widespread around the northern margin of the Mississippi Embayment. In contrast, the Coffee Sand is more restricted in distribution, and is present in southeast Missouri only as an outlier. Extensive occurrences of the Coffee Sand are found in Tennessee and further south in the embayment. This study shows that (1) the basal Cretaceous deposits in the northern Mississippi Embayment are not equivalent to the Tuscaloosa Formation, but are entirely separate stratigraphic units, (2) the shallow Cretaceous Interior Seaway occupied the northernmost part of the present Mississippi Embayment by the late Campanian, and (3) a large part of the northern embayment may have experienced an episode of uplift and erosion during the latest Campanian or earliest Maastrichtian, prior to deposition of McNairy Sand. ?? 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  12. Turonian (Eaglefordian) stratigraphy of the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, P. C.

    A stratigraphic analysis of 14 localities from new England to Georgia and of 1 well from the type area of the Eaglefordian Stage at Dallas, Tex., has resulted in a reevaluation of the ages of both formal and informal stratigraphic units previously established for the Atlantic and eastern Gulf Coastal Plains. Lower Turonian strata, once thought to be absent beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, are present. The study focused on a stratigraphic interval that is characterized by the presence of distinctive calcareous nannofossil and pollen floras. The Complesiopollis-atlantopollis pollen assemblage zone, widespread throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains and previously dated as late Cenomanian, is now shown to be late Cenomanian-early Touronian on the Gulf Coast on the basis of its occurrence with calcareous nonfossils, planktic foraminifers, and mollusks of that age.

  13. Tidal variability of lateral advection in a coastal plain estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdurak, N. B.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tidal variability of lateral advection of momentum (vuy, where u and v are along-estuary and lateral flows, respectively, and the subindex indicates differentiation with respect to the cross-estuary direction) was investigated in a coastal plain estuary with observations at Hampton Roads, which is the transition between the James River and Chesapeake Bay. Towed current velocity profiles and hydrographic profiles were captured during 9 expeditions in 2004 and 2005, to determine the intratidal and spatial changes in lateral advection of momentum and its contribution to along-channel flow. Curvature effects and lateral density gradients were important in driving lateral circulation and in modifying intratidal lateral advection of momentum. Lateral advection had the same order of magnitude as the baroclinic pressure gradient. Its contribution to the along-channel momentum balance was greatest during or just after peak flood and weakest at the end of ebb. During peak flood and peak ebb, the spatial distribution of vuy was seaward at the southern (left) side near surface and at the northern side (right) near bed (looking up-estuary), and landward in the rest of the channel. During slack periods the vuy structures were mostly landward. Observations were in good agreement with analytical model results during peak ebb and flood, but inconsistent during slack periods. The discrepancies between model results and field measurements can be attributed to bathymetry-density gradient interactions, which enhanced ebb-to-flood asymmetries in the along-channel and lateral flow.

  14. Hydrologic impacts of strip tillage for a Coastal Plain soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strip till is a growing practice among many Coastal Plain cotton growers which can lead to reduced surface runoff and reduced transport of sediment and agrichemicals. This research examines nine years of rainfall-runoff data from a paired conventional till / strip till research site. Annual water ...

  15. Amendments to increase aggregation in SE Coastal Plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many southeastern Coastal Plain soils have a cemented subsurface hard layer that restricts root growth into the subsoil and decreases productivity. Soil properties are usually improved by tillage but might also be improved by amending the soil. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residue and polyacrylamide...

  16. Phosphorus in drainage waters of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain region has had a long history of experimental and applied efforts to exclude phosphorus (P) from drainage waters. Early research focusing upon the chemical controls of soil and sediment P has given way to field studies aimed at refining our understanding of hydrologic path...

  17. SWAT application in low-gradient Coastal Plain landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-gradient coastal plain watersheds present unique challenges for watershed modeling. Broad low-gradient floodplains with considerable in-stream vegetation contribute to low-velocity streamflow. In addition, direct interaction between streamflow and surficial aquifers must also be considered. H...

  18. BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS HEADWATER STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of using landscape variables in conjunction with water quality and benthic data to efficiently estimate stream condition of select headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains. Eighty-two streams with riffle sit...

  19. Geohydrologic framework of the coastal plain aquifers of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, Walter R.; Davis, Marvin E.; Speiran, Gary K.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of investigations of aquifers throughout the United States as a part of the RASA (Regional Aquifer System Analysis) program. These investigations provide a comprehensive regional understanding of groundwater resources throughout the Nation. The Coastal Plain aquifers in South Carolina are being studied as a part of this program. An important part of a description of the groundwater resources is the development of a geohydrologic framework. Such a framework delineates the aquifers through which groundwater flows and the confining units which retard the flow of groundwater between aquifers. The Coastal Plain of South Carolina is underlain by a wedge of sediments that thickens from its inner margin, the Fall Line, to the coast and consists of sand, silt, clay, and limestone of Late Cretaceous to Holocene age. These sediments are underlain by pre-Cretaceous rocks consisting of consolidated sedimentary rocks of Triassic age and a complex of metamorphic and igneous rocks similar to those found near the surface in the Piedmont province of the State. The geohydrologic framework that divides the sediments of the South Carolina Coastal Plain into the Coastal Plain aquifer system is delineated by eleven geohydrologic sections and four maps showing the configuration of the top or base of individual aquifers. Although flow within the Coastal Plain aquifer system is three dimensional, simplifying the system by dividing it into a framework of discrete hydrologic units can aid significantly in understanding the hydrology of the system. This framework is the basis for the aquifers used in potentiometric mapping, transmissivity mapping, geochemical analysis, and groundwater flow modeling for the South Carolina RASA program. (Lantz-PTT)

  20. Geophysical monitoring and evaluation of coastal plain aquifers.

    PubMed

    Land, Lewis A; Lautier, Jeff C; Wilson, Nathaniel C; Chianese, Gabrielle; Webb, Steven

    2004-01-01

    We use time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings to monitor ground water conditions beneath the coastal plain in eastern North Carolina. The TDEM method measures the earth's response to an induced electromagnetic field. The resulting signal is converted, through a complex inversion process, to apparent resistivity values, which can be directly correlated to borehole resistivity logs. TDEM soundings are used to map the interface between fresh and salt water within coastal aquifers, and estimate depth to basement when siting new monitoring wells. Focused TDEM surveys have identified areas of salt water encroachment caused by high volumes of discharge from local supply wells. Electromagnetic sounding, when used in tandem with the state's network of monitoring wells, is an accurate and inexpensive tool for evaluating fresh water/salt water relationships on both local and regional scales within coastal plain aquifers. PMID:14763617

  1. Statistical Downscaling for the Northern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, J.

    2014-12-01

    The need for detailed, local scale information about the warming climate has led to the use of ever more complex and geographically realistic computer models as well as the use of regional models capable of capturing much finer details. Another class of methods for ascertaining localized data is known as statistical downscaling, which offers some advantages over regional models, especially in the realm of computational efficiency. Statistical downscaling can be described as the process of linking coarse resolution climate model output to that of fine resolution or even station-level data via statistical relationships with the purpose of correcting model biases at the local scale. The development and application of downscaling has given rise to a plethora of techniques which have been applied to many spatial scales and multiple climate variables. In this study two downscaling processes, bias-corrected statistical downscaling (BCSD) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA), are applied to minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation for the Northern Great Plains (NGP, 40 - 53°N and 95 - 120°W) region at both daily and monthly time steps. The abilities of the methods were tested by assessing their ability to recreate local variations in a set of both spatial and temporal climate metrics obtained through the analysis of 1/16 degree station data for the period 1950 to 2000. Model data for temperature, precipitation and a set of predictor variables were obtained from CMIP5 for 15 models. BCSD was applied using direct comparison and correction of the variable distributions via quadrant mapping. CCA was calibrated on the data for the period 1950 to 1980 using a series of model-based predictor variables screened for increasing skill, with the derived model being applied to the period 1980 to 2000 so as to verify that it could recreate the overall climate patterns and trends. As in previous studies done on other regions, it was found that the CCA method recreated

  2. Arctic Refuge coastal plain terrestrial wildlife research summaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    In 1980, when the U.S. Congress enacted the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA), it also mandated a study of the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Section 1002 of ANILCA stated that a comprehensive inventory of fish and wildlife resources would be conducted on 1.5 million acres of the Arctic Refuge coastal plain (1002 Area). Potential petroleum reserves in the 1002 Area were also to be evaluated from surface geological studies and seismic exploration surveys. Results of these studies and recommendations for future management of the Arctic Refuge coastal plain were to be prepared in a report to Congress. In 1987, the Department of the Interior published the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, Coastal Plain Resource Assessment - Report and Recommendations to the Congress of the United States and Final Environmental Impact Statement. This report to Congress identified the potential for oil and gas production (updated* most recently by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2001), described the biological resources, and evaluated the potential adverse effects to fish and wildlife resources. The 1987 report analyzed the potential environmental consequences of five management alternatives for the coastal plain, ranging from wilderness designation to opening the entire area to lease for oil and gas developement. The report's summary recommended opening the 1002 Area to an orderly oil and gas leasing program, but cautioned that adverse effects to some wildlife populations were possible. Congress did not act on this recommendation nor any other alternative for the 1002 Area, and scientists continued studies of key wildlife species and habitats on the coastal plain of the Arctic Refuge and surrounding areas. This report contains updated summaries of those scientific investigations of caribou, muskoxen, predators (grizzly bears, wolves, golden eagles), polar bears, snow geese, and their wildlife habitats. Contributions to this report were

  3. The oligocene stratigraphic framework of the coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Huddlestun, P.F. )

    1993-03-01

    Four lithostratigraphic associations are recognized in the Oligocene of the southeastern Coastal Plain: (1) an eastern Gulf of Mexico stratigraphic association, (2) a Gulf Trough stratigraphic association, (3) a Florida Bank stratigraphic association and (4), an Atlantic continental shelf stratigraphic association. Oligocene formations and faunal provinces appear to be directly related to the stratigraphic associations. The Vicksburg Group is restricted to the eastern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf stratigraphic association and to the Coastal Plain north and west of the Gulf Trough. The Gulf Trough stratigraphic association includes the Ochlockonee Formation, Wolf Pit Dolostone, Okapilco Limestone, and Bridgeboro Limestone (the Bridgeboro Limestones occurs only on and adjacent to the northern and southern flanks of the trough). The Florida Bank stratigraphic association is largely restricted to the area south of the Gulf Trough and includes the Ellaville Limestone, Suwannacoochee Dolostone, and Suwannee Limestone (the Suwannee Limestone also occurs immediately north of the Gulf Trough in the central Georgia Coastal Plain). The Cooper and Lazaretto Creek Formations are restricted to the Atlantic continental shelf stratigraphic association and occur only in the coastal area of Georgia, South Carolina, and beneath the continental shelf. Three faunal provinces (or subprovinces) are recognized in the southeastern Coastal Plain during the Oligocene: (1) a Gulf of Mexico continental shelf faunal province that characterizes the Gulf Trough and the region north and west of the trough, (2) a Florida province characteristic and largely restricted to the Florida Bank and (3), an Atlantic continental shelf faunal province. Through the Early Oligocene, the trough marked the limits of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida provinces.

  4. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2005-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  5. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  6. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.

    This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.

    This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large

  7. Mercury dynamics in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from multiple models and empirical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, H. E.; Knightes, C. D.; Conrads, P. A.; Davis, G. M.; Feaster, T.; Benedict, S.; Journey, C.; Brigham, M. E.; Bradley, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions among atmospherically deposited mercury, abundant wetlands, and surface waters with elevated acidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) often lead to widespread mercury-related fish consumption advisories in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States (US). However, the science behind understanding mercury dynamics in these mixed land cover, Coastal Plain watersheds is just beginning to emerge. Watershed models are important tools for answering questions related to watershed mercury cycling - including the spatial and temporal variations in surface water mercury concentrations and fluxes - particularly when limited data exist and multiple models with different underlying dynamics are available. We quantify total mercury (HgT) concentrations and fluxes to the outlet of McTier Creek Watershed, located in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, US, an area with more diverse land cover, a larger drainage area, and different geophysical setting than many previous mercury studies in North America (primarily from small forested headwater boreal or northern forested catchments). We apply three independently developed watershed mercury models with distinct mathematical frameworks that emphasize different system processes. Because spatially-explicit watershed scale mercury modeling is a recent advancement, the use of multiple models combined with data affords broader insights to HgT dynamics in the watershed. As a result, we employ a spatially-explicit grid based watershed mercury model (GBMM), the spatially-explicit VELMA-Hg model, and the semi-empirical TOPLOAD-Hg model for HgT concentration and flux calculations. We use the S-LOADEST model for seasonal HgT fluxes, while measured in-stream HgT concentrations and fluxes provide additional insights and data for model calibrations. Our findings begin to elucidate important abiotic processes controlling HgT, areas within the landscape where HgT at the outlet is derived, and potential governing dynamics

  8. Ice in the northern plains: Relic of a frozen ocean?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Viking images revealed many features in the northern plains and along their boundary that early investigators believed to be formed by ice-related processes. The features are possible pingos, pseudocraters, table mountains and moberg ridges, thermokarst depressions, moraines, patterned ground, and lobate aprons that suggest viscous flow such as that of ice or rock glaciers. More recently, many of these features were reinterpreted as related to sedimentation in hypothetical former polar lakes, oceans, or alluvial plains or as shoreline features of associated water bodies. Some evidence that points toward the existence of former bodies of standing water in the northern plains, but is also consistent with the idea that these bodies were ice covered or completely frozen is reviewed.

  9. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  10. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  11. Amphibians of the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Euliss, Ned H.; Lannoo, Michael J.; Mushet, David M.

    1998-01-01

    No cry of alarm has been sounded over the fate of amphibian populations in the northern grasslands of North America, yet huge percentages of prairie wetland habitat have been lost, and the destruction continues. Scarcely 30% of the original mixedgrass prairie remains in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota (See Table 1 in this chapter). If amphibian populations haven’t declined, why haven’t they? Or, have we simply failed to notice? Amphibians in the northern grasslands evolved in a boom-or-bust environment: species that were unable to survive droughts lasting for years died out long before humans were around to count them. Species we find today are expert at seizing the rare, wet moment to rebuild their populations in preparation for the next dry season. When numbers can change so rapidly, who can say if a species is rare or common? A lot depends on when you look.

  12. Estimating canopy fuel parameters for Atlantic Coastal Plain forest types.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2007-01-15

    Abstract It is necessary to quantify forest canopy characteristics to assess crown fire hazard, prioritize treatment areas, and design treatments to reduce crown fire potential. A number of fire behavior models such as FARSITE, FIRETEC, and NEXUS require as input four particular canopy fuel parameters: 1) canopy cover, 2) stand height, 3) crown base height, and 4) canopy bulk density. These canopy characteristics must be mapped across the landscape at high spatial resolution to accurately simulate crown fire. Currently no models exist to forecast these four canopy parameters for forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a region that supports millions of acres of loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine forests as well as pine-broadleaf forests and mixed species broadleaf forests. Many forest cover types are recognized, too many to efficiently model. For expediency, forests of the Savannah River Site are categorized as belonging to 1 of 7 broad forest type groups, based on composition: 1) loblolly pine, 2) longleaf pine, 3) slash pine, 4) pine-hardwood, 5) hardwood-pine, 6) hardwoods, and 7) cypress-tupelo. These 7 broad forest types typify forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain region, from Maryland to Florida.

  13. Connecting Indigenous Knowledge to Thaw Lake Cycle Research on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, W. R.; Cuomo, C. J.; Hinkel, K. M.; Jones, B. M.; Hurd, J.

    2005-12-01

    Thaw lakes cover about 20% of the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Another 26% is scarred by basins that form when lakes drain, and these drained thaw-lake basins are sites for preferential carbon accumulation as plant biomass. Recent studies in the continuous permafrost zone of Western Siberia suggest that lakes have been expanding in the past several decades in response to regional warming. Anticipated regional warming would likely mobilize sequestered soil organic carbon, resulting in the emission of CO2 and CH4. Our understanding of the processes leading to thaw lake formation, expansion, and drainage in northern Alaska has been limited because models are specific to the flat, young Outer (seaward) Coastal Plain comprising 1/3 of the region. Furthermore, spatial and temporal analysis of lake dynamics is largely restricted to the period since 1948, when aerial photographs first became available across large regions of the Coastal Plain. In order to fill these gaps, we have been interviewing Iñupiaq elders, hunters, and berry pickers from the villages of Atqasuk and Barrow. The objective of these interviews is to obtain accounts of lake formation, expansion and drainage that have occurred within living or oral memory, and extend the record back several generations. To date, we have interviewed fifteen Iñupiat; most of these are people who travel the tundra frequently and have done so for decades. They have first-hand experience of lake drainage, sea cliff and river bank erosion, permafrost degradation, and other landscape changes. Many informants expressed concern that landscape changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. They have identified lakes that have drained, areas where the permafrost is thawing, and places where the sea and river coastline is eroding. We have been able to corroborate reports of lake drainage from our informants with a series of aerial photographs, satellite images, and radiocarbon dates. In many instances, the elders have

  14. Data-driven models of groundwater salinization in coastal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felisa, G.; Ciriello, V.; Antonellini, M.; Di Federico, V.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Salinization of shallow coastal aquifers is particularly critical for ecosystems and agricultural activities. Management of such aquifers is an open challenge, because predictive models, on which science-based decisions are to be made, often fail to capture the complexity of relevant natural and anthropogenic processes. Complicating matters further is the sparsity of hydrologic and geochemical data that are required to parameterize spatially distributed models of flow and transport. These limitations often undermine the veracity of modeling predictions and raise the question of their utility. As an alternative, we employ data-driven statistical approaches to investigate the underlying mechanisms of groundwater salinization in low coastal plains. A time-series analysis and auto-regressive moving average models allow us to establish dynamic relations between key hydrogeological variables of interest. The approach is applied to the data collected at the phreatic coastal aquifer of Ravenna, Italy. We show that, even in absence of long time series, this approach succeeds in capturing the behavior of this complex system, and provides the basis for making predictions and decisions.

  15. Coastal vulnerability assessment of the Northern Gulf of Mexico to sea-level rise and coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Barras, J.A.; Williams, S.J.; Twichell, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise along the Northern Gulf of Mexico from Galveston, TX, to Panama City, FL. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rate, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable are combined and an index value is calculated for 1-kilometer grid cells along the coast. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. The CVI assessment presented here builds on an earlier assessment conducted for the Gulf of Mexico. Recent higher resolution shoreline change, land loss, elevation, and subsidence data provide the foundation for a better assessment for the Northern Gulf of Mexico. The areas along the Northern Gulf of Mexico that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are parts of the Louisiana Chenier Plain, Teche-Vermillion Basin, and the Mississippi barrier islands, as well as most of the Terrebonne and Barataria Bay region and the Chandeleur Islands. These very high vulnerability areas have the highest rates of relative sea-level rise and the highest rates of shoreline change or land area loss. The information provided by coastal vulnerability assessments can be used in long-term coastal management and policy decision making.

  16. Groundwater and microbial processes of Alabama coastal plain aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Elizabeth; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Morton, Cynthia

    2003-11-01

    We integrate groundwater geochemistry, microbiology, and numerical modeling techniques to study the origin of elevated salinity and chemical evolution of groundwaters in the coastal plain aquifers of Alabama. Our field data indicate that chemical composition of groundwater evolves by various geochemical and microbial processes as it moves deeper into the subsurface. Sequential peaks of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ along flow paths indicate that separation of ions may be driven by cation exchange. Microbial-mediated reactions are important for the formation of several discrete hydrochemical zones containing Fe2+, Mn2+, Sr2+, and SO42- rich groundwaters. Elevated Fe2+, Mn2+, and Sr2+ concentrations may be derived from bacterial iron and manganese reduction. High sulfate concentrations observed a short distance from the recharge may be partly explained by microbial sulfur oxidation and nitrate reduction (denitrification). The presence of denitrifying and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in water further supports these reactions. Major ion compositions and δD and δ18O values are used to determine the source of salinity and the nature of mixing of different groundwaters. Three water types were identified; these include carbonate groundwater, brines associated with evaporites, and groundwater of meteoric origin. Groundwater age differences and flow velocities were calculated using the 36Cl/Cl ratios. Calculated groundwater flow velocities within the Eutaw and Tuscaloosa aquifers are about 0.20 m/yr and 0.15 m/yr, respectively. We modeled basin-scale hydrologic and solute transport processes in a cross section extending from the aquifer outcrops to the Gulf Coast. The modeling result shows that the buried Jurassic Louann Salt can significantly increase groundwater salinity in the overlying coastal plain aquifers by density-driven advection and hydrodynamic dispersion. The modeling results are consistent with Cl/Br ratios and O/H isotope signatures, which indicate that salinity of

  17. Effects of fire in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kruse, Arnold D.; Piehl, James L.

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a review of selected literature about prescribed burning in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) for management of wildlife. It also will be useful to other resource managers and researchers and to persons interested in the NGP. It is more 'descriptive' than 'interpretative.'The publication is a joint effort of the South Dakota State Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (SDCFWRU), South Dakota State University, Brookings; the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC), Jamestown, N.D.; and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Fergus Falls, Minn. Manuscript typing and library services were shared between SDCFWRU and NPWRC.This publication (EC 761) is the second of three SDSU Extension circulars on grassland fires. EC 760 is Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains; EC 762 is Annotated bibliography of fire literature relative to northern grasslands in South-Central Canada and North-Central United States and contains many more citations than presented in this publication. All three circulars may be obtained from either the Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Department; SDSU Box 2206; ph (605) 688-6121; or from the Ag Communications Bulletin Room; SDSU Box 2231; ph (605) 688-5628; both in Brookings, S.D. 57007.

  18. Effect of fire in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Kruse, A.D.; Piehl, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a review of selected literature about prescribed burning in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) for management of wildlife. It also will be useful to other resource managers and researchers and to persons interested in the NGP. It is more 'descriptive' than 'interpretative.'The publication is a joint effort of the South Dakota State Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (SDCFWRU), South Dakota State University, Brookings; the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC), Jamestown, N.D.; and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Fergus Falls, Minn. Manuscript typing and library services were shared between SDCFWRU and NPWRC.This publication (EC 761) is the second of three SDSU Extension circulars on grassland fires. EC 760 is Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains; EC 762 is Annotated bibliography of fire literature relative to northern grasslands in South-Central Canada and North-Central United States and contains many more citations than presented in this publication. All three circulars may be obtained from either the Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Department; SDSU Box 2206; ph (605) 688-6121; or from the Ag Communications Bulletin Room; SDSU Box 2231; ph (605) 688-5628; both in Brookings, S.D. 57007.

  19. Estimation of Dust Emission from the Western Coastal Plains of Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Anatolii; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed at quantifying local-scale dust emission from the coastal areas of western Arabian Peninsula. The dust emitted from these areas is frequently deposited directly to the Red Sea, acting as an important component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. Most chemicals including iron, phosphorus, and nitrogen are introduced to the Red Sea with airborne dust. This process is especially significant for the oligotrophic northern Red Sea, where nutrients from the Indian Ocean cannot reach and the nutrient supply from land river discharge is negligible. The dust deposition to the Red Sea associated with major dust storms was recently estimated to be about 6 Tg/yr, but this estimate does not account for local, small-scale dust outbreaks occurring during fair weather conditions or moderate winds. The seasonality and the magnitude of this nutrient supply are largely unknown. In the present study, we quantify dust emissions using the fine-scale off-line version-4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4) with the high-resolution datasets as input parameters. We examine the model sensitivity to the spatial resolution of input land cover and vegetation data, and compare the results with weather station observations and reanalysis to choose the best model configuration. The model results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with station visibility measurements and the frequency of dust event reports. To improve the spatial characteristics of dust emission, we apply two state-of-the-art dust source functions. We found that the source function based on measurements from SEVIRI satellite substantially improves the simulation results, being in good agreement with both reanalysis data and station measurements. We identify the major dust source hot-spot areas over the coastal plain and analyze the seasonal and diurnal variability of dust emissions. The annual dust generation from the 145000 km2 coastal area reaches 6 Tg/yr. Roughly half of emitted dust could be

  20. Composite refraction-reflection stack sections: Tracing faults in the Atlantic coastal plain sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, D.E.; Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.

    1993-05-01

    Seismic data from the Atlantic Coastal Plain are reprocessed and composite refraction-reflection stack sections produced to investigate basement faults that penetrate upward into Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments in South Carolina. Reprocessing recovered reflections from within the deep crust to the Moho as well as from within thin veneer (300) of the Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. One of the major objectives of this paper is to discuss the use of shallow refracted arrivals to construct a composite refraction- reflection stack that allows better imaging of the subsurface at shallow depths.

  1. Indications of Subsurface Ice: Polygons on the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Someone's kitchen floor? A stone patio?This picture actually does show a floor--the floor of an old impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. Each 'tile' is somewhat larger than a football field. Polygonal patterns are familiar to Mars geologists because they are also common in arctic and antarctic environments on Earth. Typically, such polygons result from the stresses induced in frozen ground by the freeze-thaw cycles of subsurface ice. This picture was taken by MOC in May 1999 and is illuminated from the lower left.

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Abby; Wright, C. Wayne; Travers, Laurinda J.; Lebonitte, James

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived coastal topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey areas for the purposes of geomorphic change studies following major storm events. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program's National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project is a multi-year undertaking to identify and quantify the vulnerability of U.S. shorelines to coastal change hazards such as effects of severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat. Airborne Lidar surveys conducted during periods of calm weather are compared to surveys collected following extreme storms in order to quantify the resulting coastal change. Other applications of high-resolution topography include habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, volumetric change detection, and event assessment. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal areas, acquired on September 19, 2004, immediately following Hurricane Ivan. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532 nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking RGB (red-green-blue) digital camera, a high-resolution multi

  3. Mid Pliocene sea levels along the southeast US coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Hearty, P. J.; Raymo, M. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Inglis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Proxy data suggest that during the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP) atmospheric CO2 levels were roughly similar to today (between 350 and 450 ppmv) and that global average temperature was elevated by as much as 3°C with respect to preindustrial values. Estimates of sea level (SL) during the MPWP range from +10 m to >+40 m relative to present, reflecting uncertainties in our knowledge of the sensitivity to modest climate warming of the East Antarctic, West Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. A primary objective of the PLIOMAX project (www.pliomax.org) is to combine models of paleosea-level signals with geological observations to significantly improve constraints on eustatic sea level during the MPWP. In this regard, the southeast US coastal plain is of strategic importance in MPWP sea level studies (Dowsett and Cronin, Geology, 1990). In fact, it is one of the few places where predicted glacio-isostatic effects are expected to exhibit a significant geographic variation (in this case, north-to-south). The coastal plain may also be influenced by dynamic topography driven by mantle convective flow. In this area, two factors drive the up-to-the-west dynamic tilting of the coast. The first is the descent of the Farallon slab, now located under the mid-part of the North American continent. The other is upwelling return flow under the east coast (Moucha et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2008). That is, over the last few million years, dynamic topography is responsible for potentially tens of meters of uplift (sea-level fall) of the Pliocene shoreline along the southeast US coastal plain. We have mapped an almost continuous MPWP shoreline cut into Miocene and older formations. However, as a result of multiple inter-state investigations extending over the last century, both the geomorphic escarpment and the associated deposits have been named differently across the region. In Virginia, the Chippenham Thornburg scarp is associated with the Moore House formation; in North and

  4. Late Pleistocene braided rivers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, David S.; Srivastava, Pradeep; Brook, George A.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared Landsat imagery (band 4) clearly reveals braided river patterns on late Pleistocene terraces of unglaciated rivers in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States, a region that presently exhibits meandering patterns that have existed throughout the Holocene. These Pleistocene braided patterns provide a unique global example of river responses to late Quaternary climate changes in an unglaciated humid subtropical region at 30-35° north latitude. Detailed morphological and chronological results are given for the Oconee-Altamaha River valley in Georgia and for the Pee Dee River valley in South Carolina, including 15 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates and four radiocarbon dates. Correlative examples are drawn from additional small to large rivers in South- and North Carolina. OSL and radiocarbon ( 14C) dates indicate distinct braiding at 17-30 ka, within oxygen isotope stage 2 (OIS 2), and braiding probably existed at least during parts of OIS 3 and possibly OIS 4 back to ca 70 ka. The chronology suggests that braiding is the more common pattern for the late Quaternary in the southeastern United States. Braided terraces appear to have been graded to lower sea-levels and are onlapped by Holocene floodplain deposits up to 10-60 km from the coast. The braiding probably reflects the response of discharge and sediment yield to generally cooler and drier paleoclimates, which may have had a pronounced runoff season. Sedimentation of eolian dunes on the braid plains is coeval with braiding and supports the conclusion of dry soils and thin vegetation cover during the late Pleistocene. Our chronological data contribute to a body of literature indicating that reliable OSL age estimates can be obtained from quartz-rich bed load sand from braided rivers, based on good correlations with both radiocarbon dates from braided fluvial sediment and OSL dates from stratigraphically correlative eolian sand.

  5. Stratigraphy of Glen Rose Formation, Gulf coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, J.G. )

    1989-09-01

    Strata of the Glen Rose Formation and equivalent units crop out in a continuous band across the Edwards Plateau, the area of outcrop skirting the Llano uplift, the Lampasas cut plain, north-central Texas, southeastern Oklahoma, and southwestern Arkansas. These rocks dip into the subsurface of the Gulf coastal plain. Although the Glen Rose interval has been studied on outcrop and in the subsurface in these areas through numerous investigations of local scale and several regional review papers, a synthesis integrating subsurface with outcrop across the broad region and a more detailed lithostratigraphic framework are needed. On outcrop on the Edwards Plateau, the Glen Rose is divided into upper and lower members by the Corbula bed, a thin but widespread accumulation of the minute clam Carycorbula matinae. In this region, the Corbula bed lies beneath anhydrite and gypsum beds (dissolution zones on outcrop), which may be traced through laterally equivalent limestones in the subsurface around the Llano uplift to thin anhydrite stringers above the Ferry Lake Anhydrite in northeastern Texas. These stringers may be traced to the lower part of the Thorp Springs Member of the Glen Rose din the subsurface and outcrop area of north-central Texas. In the Paluxy River Valley, the Corbula bed occurs beneath the Thorp Springs. This specific correlation allows clear demarcation between beds of the upper and lower Glen Rose members in the region. Correlation of this type within the Glen Rose interval allows a detailed understanding of the depositional history of this sequence and provides a more explicitly defined lithostratigraphic framework into which future studies may be integrated.

  6. Effects of Concrete Channels on Stream Biogeochemistry, Maryland Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; Gilbert, L.; Phemister, K.

    2005-05-01

    In the 1950's and 60's, extensive networks of cement-lined channels were built in suburban watersheds near Washington, D.C. to convey storm water to downstream locations. These cement-lined stream channels limit interactions between surface and groundwater and they provide sources of alkalinity in Maryland Coastal Plain watersheds that normally have low alkalinity. This project was designed to 1) compare base flow water chemistry in headwater reaches of urban and non-urban streams, and 2) to evaluate downstream changes in water chemistry in channelized urban streams in comparison with non-urban reference streams. During a drought year, headwater streams in both urban and non-urban sites had significant concentrations of Fe(II) that were discharged from groundwater sources and rapidly oxidized by iron-oxidizing bacteria. During a wet year, the concentrations of Fe(II) were higher in headwater urban streams than in the non-urban streams. This suggests that impervious surfaces in headwater urban watersheds prevent the recharge of oxygen-rich waters during storm events, which maintains iron-rich groundwater discharge to the stream. Downstream changes in water chemistry are prominent in cement-lined urban channels because they are associated with distinctive microbial communities. The headwater zones of channelized streams are dominated by iron-ozidizing bacteria, that are replaced downstream by manganese-oxidizing zones, and replaced further downstream by biofilms dominated by photosynthesizing cyanobacteria. The reaches dominated by cyanobacteria exhibit diurnal changes in pH due to uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis. Diurnal changes range from 7.5 to 8.8 in the summer months to 7.0 to 7.5 in the cooler months, indicating both the impact of photosynthesis and the additional source of alkalinity provided by concrete. The dissolved oxygen, pH, and other characteristics of tributaries dominated by cyanobacteria are similar to the water chemistry characteristics observed in

  7. THE EFFECTS OF RIPARIAN MANAGEMENT ON DETRITUS PROCESSING AND INVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES IN COASTAL PLAIN INTERMITTENT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silviculture is the primary land use within many Coastal Plain watersheds of the southeastern United States, where most forested wetlands are found along headwater intermittent streams. Our study compared invertebrate assemblages and breakdown of buried detritus (leaves, wood, a...

  8. Invertebrate colonization of leaves and roots within sediments of intermittent coastal plain streams across hydrologic phases

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared benthic invertebrate assemblages colonizing three types of buried substrates (leaves, roots and plastic roots) among three intermittent Coastal Plain streams over a one year period. Invertebrate density was significantly lower in root litterbags than in plastic root l...

  9. Reprocessed COCORP southern Appalachian reflection data: Root zone to Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, William P.; Smithson, Scott B.

    1983-07-01

    COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) seismic reflection data from the Atlantic Coastal Plain and eastern Piedmont in Georgia have been reprocessed and interpreted. Dipping events correlated with the master decollement root zone may be the only features that can be correlated with other reflection lines. Farther southeast on the Coastal Plain the shallow section is improved to produce reflections corresponding to the base of the Coastal Plain. A Triassic basin is confirmed to be more than 2 km deep and is the only major basin accurately revealed by the seismic lines. Improvement of the shallow seismic data is important to understanding the deep data. Some apparently deep reflections are probably produced from within the shallow Coastal Plain. Even though these shallow data have been improved, the Augusta fault is not interpreted as a major reflective feature. *Present address: Sohio Research and Development, One Lincoln Center, Dallas, Texas, 75240

  10. Mercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed: insights from multiple models and empirical data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions among atmospherically deposited mercury, abundant wetlands, and surface waters with elevated acidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) often lead to widespread mercury-related fish consumption advisories in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States (US). H...

  11. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  12. Water-Level Measurements for the Coastal Plain Aquifers of South Carolina Prior to Development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, Walter R.; Speiran, Gary K.

    1984-01-01

    Tabulations of water-level measurements for the Coastal Plain aquifers of South Carolina representing water levels prior to man-made development are presented. Included with the tabulations are local well number, location, land-surface altitude, well depth, screened interval, depth to water, water- level altitude, and date measured. These water-level measurements were used in compiling regional potentiometric maps for the Coastal Plain aquifers. This data set will be useful in the planning for future water-resource development.

  13. Organized Stone Stripes in the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    Polygonally-patterned ground at scales of meters to tens of meters is nearly ubiquitous in the northern plains of Mars. Collections of cobble to boulder-sized clasts are commonly found superimposed on polygonal terrain in a regular pattern that resembles the surface of a basketball [Mellon et al., 2008; Malin and Edgett, 2001]. Here we describe a variation of this basketball terrain, dubbed "stone stripes," in which piles of clastic debris are arranged into a series of parallel to subparallel ridges spaced at intervals of ~40 m. Stone stripes appear to be continuous or nearly continuous over areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometers. This type of landform is most prevalent poleward of ~70°N latitude, at the northern margin of Utopia Planitia . We hypothesize that the orientation of stone stripes is controlled by regional structures, such as wrinkle ridges. First results from a survey of THEMIS VIS images within the area from 60°N-80°N and from 70°E-130°E show no obvious correlation between wrinkle ridge orientation and the orientation of stone stripes. Work is ongoing to further characterize the orientation of stone stripes in relation to regional structures and local and regional topographic slopes. Mellon et al., (2008), Periglacial landforms at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2007JE003039, in press. Malin and Edgett, (2001), Mars global surveyor mars orbiter camera: Interplanetary cruise through primary mission, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 23429-23570.

  14. Ground-water flow in the Coastal Plain aquifers of South Carolina.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, W.R.; Speiran, G.K.

    1985-01-01

    The Coastal Plain aquifers are recharged primarily by precipitation in their outcrop areas. Groundwater flows from these areas of recharge, through the aquifers, and discharges to upper Costal Plain rivers, overlying aquifers as upward leakage, and wells. Ground-water flow in the Floridan aquifer system and the Tertiary sand aquifer prior to development is generally perpendicular to the coast.-from Authors

  15. Groundwater discharge along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaSage, D.M.; Sexton, J.L.; Mukherjee, A.; Fryar, A.E.; Greb, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    SciTech Connect

    LaSage, Danita M; Sexton, Joshua L; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E; Greb, Stephen F

    2015-10-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  17. Groundwater discharge along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaSage, Danita M.; Sexton, Joshua L.; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E.; Greb, Stephen F.

    2008-10-01

    SummaryIn the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  18. Shallow Groundwater Mercury Supply in a Coastal Plain Stream

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Fluvial methylmercury (MeHg) is attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas. This hypothesis depends on efficient wetland-to-stream hydraulic transport under nonflood and flood conditions. Fluxes of water and dissolved (filtered) mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) were quantified in April and July of 2009 in a reach at McTier Creek, South Carolina to determine the relative importance of tributary surface water and shallow groundwater Hg transport from wetland/floodplain areas to the stream under nonflood conditions. The reach represented less than 6% of upstream main-channel distance and 2% of upstream basin area. Surface-water discharge increased within the reach by approximately 10%. Mean FMeHg and FTHg fluxes increased within the reach by 23–27% and 9–15%, respectively. Mass balances indicated that, under nonflood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric Hg deposition. These results illustrate the importance of riparian wetland/floodplain areas as sources of fluvial MeHg and of groundwater Hg transport as a fundamental control on Hg supply to Coastal Plain streams. PMID:22734594

  19. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  20. 75 FR 47678 - Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Soo Line Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Soo Line Railroad Company... authority to determine whether to issue notices of exemption for lease transactions under 49 U.S.C. 10902... notice of lease and operation exemption should be issued, and does so here. Northern Plains Railroad,...

  1. Agroecosystem diversity and pollinator ecosystem services on the northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The northern Great Plains provide critical habitat to pollinators. In 2012, North and South Dakota produced one-third of the total honey in the U.S. According to large scale analyses, crop diversity in the northern Great Plains has increased during the past 35 years. Increased diversity, greater com...

  2. Biostratigraphic correlation of Pleistocene marine deposits and sea levels, Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.

    1980-01-01

    Marine ostracodes from 50 localities were studied to determine the age and elevation of Pleistocene sea levels in the Atlantic coastal plain from Maryland to northern Florida. Using ostracode taxon and concurrent ranges, published planktic biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and radiometric data, ostracode assemblage zones representing early (1.8-1.0 my), middle (0.7-0.4 my), and late (0.3-0.01 my) Pleistocene deposition were recognized and used as a basis for correlation. Ostracode biofacies signifying lagoonal, oyster bank, estuarine, open sound, and inner sublittoral environments provided estimated ranges of paleodepths for each locality. From these data the following minimum and maximum Pleistocene sea-level estimates were determined for the southeastern coastal plain: late Pleistocene, 2-10 m from Maryland to northern Florida; middle Pleistocene, 6-15 m in northern South Carolina; early Pleistocene, 4-22 m in central North Carolina, 13-35 m in southern North Carolina, and 6-27 m in South Carolina. Climatically induced glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations adequately account for the late Pleistocene sea-level data, but other factors, possibly differential crustal uplift, may have complicated the early Pleistocene record. ?? 1980.

  3. Dissolved phosphorus retention and release from southeastern USA Coastal Plain in-stream wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern USA Coastal Plain region, many inland surface water systems will meander through flat or depressional landscape areas prior to discharge into coastal estuaries. Slow water flow through these areas often causes flooding that promotes formation of in-stream wetlands with dense vege...

  4. Rates of Microbial Metabolism in Deep Coastal Plain Aquifers

    PubMed Central

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Lovley, Derek R.

    1990-01-01

    Rates of microbial metabolism in deep anaerobic aquifers of the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina were investigated by both microbiological and geochemical techniques. Rates of [2-14C]acetate and [U-14C]glucose oxidation as well as geochemical evidence indicated that metabolic rates were faster in the sandy sediments composing the aquifers than in the clayey sediments of the confining layers. In the sandy aquifer sediments, estimates of the rates of CO2 production (millimoles of CO2 per liter per year) based on the oxidation of [2-14C] acetate were 9.4 × 10−3 to 2.4 × 10−1 for the Black Creek aquifer, 1.1 × 10−2 for the Middendorf aquifer, and <7 × 10−5 for the Cape Fear aquifer. These estimates were at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than previously published estimates that were based on the accumulation of CO2 in laboratory incubations of similar deep subsurface sediments. In contrast, geochemical modeling of groundwater chemistry changes along aquifer flowpaths gave rate estimates that ranged from 10−4 to 10−6 mmol of CO2 per liter per year. The age of these sediments (ca. 80 million years) and their organic carbon content suggest that average rates of CO2 production could have been no more than 10−4 mmol per liter per year. Thus, laboratory incubations may greatly overestimate the in situ rates of microbial metabolism in deep subsurface environments. This has important implications for the use of laboratory incubations in attempts to estimate biorestoration capacities of deep aquifers. The rate estimates from geochemical modeling indicate that deep aquifers are among the most oligotrophic aquatic environments in which there is ongoing microbial metabolism. PMID:16348227

  5. Rates of microbial metabolism in deep coastal plain aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Lovley, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Rates of microbial metabolism in deep anaerobic aquifers of the Atlantic coastal plain of South Carolina were investigated by both microbiological and geochemical techniques. Rates of [2-14C]acetate and [U-14C]glucose oxidation as well as geochemical evidence indicated that metabolic rates were faster in the sandy sediments composing the aquifers than in the clayey sediments of the confining layers. In the sandy aquifer sediments, estimates of the rates of CO2 production (millimoles of CO2 per liter per year) based on the oxidation of [2-14C]acetate were 9.4 x 10-3 to 2.4 x 10-1 for the Black Creek aquifer, 1.1 x 10-2 for the Middendorf aquifer, and <7 x 10-5 for the Cape Fear aquifer. These estimates were at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than previously published estimates that were based on the accumulation of CO2 in laboratory incubations of similar deep subsurface sediments. In contrast, geochemical modeling of groundwater chemistry changes along aquifer flowpaths gave rate estimates that ranged from 10-4 to 10-6 mmol of CO2 per liter per year. The age of these sediments (ca. 80 million years) and their organic carbon content suggest that average rates of CO2 production could have been no more than 10-4 mmol per liter per year. Thus, laboratory incubations may greatly overestimate the in situ rates of microbial metabolism in deep subsurface environments. This has important implications for the use of laboratory incubations in attempts to estimate biorestoration capacities of deep aquifers. The rate estimates from geochemical modeling indicate that deep aquifers are among the most oligotrophic aquatic environments in which there is ongoing microbial metabolism.

  6. Potentiometric surfaces of the coastal plain aquifers of South Carolina prior to development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aucott, Walter R.; Speiran, Gary K.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics of the Coastal Plains aquifers of South Carolina are being studied as a part of the Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis program of the U.S. Geological Survey. A framework has been developed to best represent the hydrology of the Coastal Plain aquifers by dividing them into a system of five aquifers. This framework includes a surficial aquifer consisting of coastal terrace deposits, a limestone and stratigraphically equivalent sand aquifer of Eocene age, and three sand aquifers of Cretaceous age. This report presents a general description of the aquifer framework, potentiometric maps for the aquifers of Eocene and Cretaceous age prior to development, and a general description of the flow system prior to development. In the lower Coastal Plain, flow in the aquifer of Eocene age is generally perpendicular to the coast but is almost parallel to the coast in the aquifers of Cretaceous age. (USGS)

  7. Fractures/Pits in Northern Plains (Utopia Plains: 44.9 N, 274.7 W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Although northern plains are often called 'flat' or 'featureless' by people who study altimetry data, clearly this isn't true. This area has an indurated (strong or cemented) crust that has been subjected to directional stress (that's why the beaded-pitted fractures are almost all aligned the same direction) and that has been undermined (hence the pitting at both the small scale--the beaded fractures--and the large scale--the large irregular depressions.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  9. Dendroclimatic potential of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) from the Northern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmonson, Jesse; Friedman, Jonathan; Meko, David; Touchan, Ramzi; Scott, Julian; Edmonson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A new 368-year tree-ring chronology (A.D. 1643–2010) has been developed in western North Dakota using plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) growing on the relatively undisturbed floodplain of the Little Missouri River in the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. We document many slow-growing living trees between 150–370 years old that contradict the common understanding that cottonwoods grow fast and die young. In this northern location, cottonwood produces distinct annual rings with dramatic interannual variability that strongly crossdate. The detrended tree-ring chronology is significantly positively correlated with local growing season precipitation and soil moisture conditions (r  =  0.69). This time series shows periods of prolonged low radial tree growth during the known droughts of the instrumental record (e.g. 1931–1939 and 1980–1981) and also during prehistory (e.g. 1816–1823 and 1856–1865) when other paleoclimate studies have documented droughts in this region. Tree rings of cottonwood will be a useful tool to help reconstruct climate, streamflow, and the floodplain history of the Little Missouri River and other northern river systems.

  10. The Magilligan beach ridge plain (Northern Ireland, UK): A detailed sedimentary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Tanja; Surmann, Kirstin; Cooper, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Beach ridges are a common geological feature on prograded sandy coasts . Beach ridges and their subsurface deposits record past coastal processes and are indicators of previous shoreline position, shape and sea level. This work presents preliminary results and provides new information about the late Holocene development of the Magilligan Foreland in Northern Ireland (UK). The triangular beach-ridge plain of Magilligan was formed in the early and mid-Holocene as a consequence of land and sea level change and sediment abundance. The focus of the investigations is a detailed grain size analysis of beach ridge deposits using the settling tube method. The main aim is to distinguish the beach ridge deposits from the aeolian dune sand cover and to draw conclusions about the development and sedimentary formation of the beach ridges. A semi-continuous outcrop of the upper units of the beachridge plain is preserved along the coastline. The geological descriptions in the field show significant differences between adjacent outcrops and grain size analysis was undertaken to distinguish aeolian and swash-lain sediemnts. Buried soil layers and unconformities helped to define the palaeotopography which consist of a sequence of beach ridge crests and inter-ridge depressions. The beach ridges of the subsurface are independent of the modern dune topography. There are more beach ridges than previously thought.

  11. Lacustrine carbonates of the northern Great Plains of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Last, Fawn M.; Last, William M.

    2012-11-01

    The northern Great Plains of western Canada, a vast region stretching from the Precambrian Shield east of Winnipeg, Manitoba, westward for some 1600 km to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, contains literally millions of lakes and wetlands. Although often characterized as a saline, Na-SO4 system, in fact the wide range of water chemistries exhibited by the lakes results in an unusually large diversity of sediment composition. Despite a long history of limnogeological study, it is only recently that the spectrum of carbonate minerals and sedimentological processes in these lakes has been realized. About 30 species of carbonate minerals have been reported from the modern and Holocene sediment of about 50 basins in the region. The ubiquity of detrital calcite and dolomite is a legacy of the carbonate bedrock and carbonate-rich glacial sediments. Elevated salinities of the lakes, together with high alkalinities, productivity, and pH values, act in concert to create thermodynamically saturated or supersaturated conditions with respect to many carbonate minerals. The most common non-detrital components are Mg-calcite, aragonite and non-stoichiometric dolomite. Many of the basins whose brines have very high Mg/Ca ratios also contain hydromagnesite, magnesite, and nesquehonite. Although not common, sodium carbonates, including trona, natron and nahcolite, also occur in some of the hypersaline lakes. Because of their great range of formative conditions, carbonates have been the workhorse for much of the physical and geochemical paleolimnology in the Canadian Great Plains. However, the often-difficult task of distinguishing endogenic lacustrine carbonates from allogenic and authigenic minerals has limited the use of carbonate stratigraphy in the region. Despite this problem, the carbonates have been useful in deciphering (i) past changes in hydrology and drainage basin characteristics, (ii) lake level and water column stratification fluctuations, and (iii) water chemistry

  12. Contrasting soils and landscapes of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markewich, H.W.; Pavich, M.J.; Buell, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces comprise 80 percent of the Atlantic Coastal states from New Jersey to Georgia. The provinces are climatically similar. The soil moisture regime is udic. The soil temperature regime is typically thermic from Virginia through Georgia, although it is mesic at altitudes above 400 m in Georgia and above 320 m in Virginia. The soil temperature regime is mesic for the Piedmont and Coastal Plain from Maryland through New Jersey. The tightly folded, structurally complex crystalline rocks of the Piedmont and the gently dipping "layer-cake" clastic sedimentary rocks and sediments of the Coastal Plain respond differently to weathering, pedogenesis, and erosion. The different responses result in two physiographically contrasting terrains; each has distinctive near-surface hydrology, regolith, drainage morphology, and morphometry. The Piedmont is predominantly an erosional terrain. Interfluves are as narrow as 0.5 to 2 km, and are convex upward. Valleys are as narrow as 0.1 to 0.5 km and generally V-shaped in cross section. Alluvial terraces are rare and discontinuous. Soils in the Piedmont are typically less than 1 m thick, have less sand and more clay than Coastal Plain soils, and generally have not developed sandy epipedons. Infiltration rates for Piedmont soils are low at 6-15 cm/h. The soil/saprolite, soil/rock, and saprolite/rock boundaries are distinct (can be placed within 10 cm) and are characterized by ponding and/or lateral movement of water. Water movement through soil into saprolite, and from saprolite into rock, is along joints, foliation, bedding planes and faults. Soils and isotopic data indicate residence times consistent with a Pleistocene age for most Piedmont soils. The Coastal Plain is both an erosional and a constructional terrain. Interfluves commonly are broader than 2 km and are flat. Valleys are commonly as wide as 1 km to greater than 10 km, and contain numerous alluvial and estuarine terrace

  13. Workshop on the Martian Northern Plains: Sedimentological, Periglacial, and Paleoclimatic Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S. (Editor); Moore, Jeffrey (Editor); Parker, Timothy (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on the Martian Northern Plains: Sedimentological, Periglacial, and Paleoclimatic Evolution, on 12-14 Aug. 1993 in Fairbanks, Alaska are included. Topics covered include: hydrological consequences of ponded water on Mars; morphological and morphometric studies of impact craters in the Northern Plains of Mars; a wet-geology and cold-climate Mars model: punctuation of a slow dynamics approach to equilibrium; the distribution of ground ice on Mars; and stratigraphy of the Martian Northern Plains.

  14. Estuarine infill and coastal progradation, southern van diemen gulf, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Mulrennan, M. E.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    There are several estuaries associated with the pronouncedly seasonal rivers which drain northwards from the Middle Proterozoic sandstone Arnhem Land plateau, and the Tertiary Koolpinyah land surface, into the macrotidal van Diemen Gulf, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Holocene development of these, investigated in greatest detail for the South Alligator River with an upland catchment of > 10,000 km 2. through drilling, palynology and radiocarbon dating, comprises both estuarine infill and coastal progradation. Three phases of estuarine infill can be recognised: (i) a transgressive phase (8000-6800 years B.P.) of marine incursion; (ii) a big swamp phase (6800-5300 years B.P.) of widespread mangrove forest development; and (iii) a sinuous/cuspate phase of floodplain development since 5300 years B.P., during which the tidal river has meandered and reworked earlier estuarine sediments. Since 6000 years B.P., the South Alligator coastal plain has prograded at a decelerating rate, with two phases of chenier ridge formation. A similar pattern of estuarine infill, and decelerating coastal plain progradation, is demonstrated for the Adelaide and Mary Rivers, both with catchments of > 6000 km 2. The southern shore of van Diemem Gulf appears to have changed its overall position little during the last 2000 years. The major source for the clay, silt and fine sands which have infilled the estuary and coastal plain has been from seaward. Dispite the similarity of development, coastal sediment build up has had different effects on the morphology of each tidal river. The Adelaide has undergone a major diversion and no longer flows directly into van Diemen Gulf, but occupies a former fluvial course, and the Mary has been blocked entirely, and its former estuarine palaeochannels have been infilled with tide-transported sediment.

  15. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  16. Episodic acidification of a coastal plain stream in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Brien, A. K.; Eshleman, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the episodic acidification of Reedy Creek, a wetland-influenced coastal plain stream near Richmond, Virginia. Primary objectives of the study were to quantify the episodic variability of acid- base chemistry in Reedy Creek, to examine the seasonal variability in episodic response and to explain the hydrological and geochemical factors that contribute to episodic acidification. Chemical response was similar in each of the seven storms examined, however, the ranges in concentrations observed were commonly greater in summer/fall storms than in winter/spring storms. An increase in SO4/2- concentration with discharge was observed during all storms and peak concentration occurred at or near peak flow. Small increases in Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ concentrations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were observed during most storms. At the same time, ANC, Na+ and Cl- concentrations usually decreased with increasing discharge. In summer/fall storms, the absolute increase in SO4/2- concentration was one-third to 15 times the increase observed in winter/spring storms; the decrease in ANC during summer/fall storms was usually within the range of the decrease observed in winter/spring storms. In contrast, the decrease in Na+ and Cl- concentrations during winter/spring storms was much greater than that observed during summer/fall storms. Data show that while base flow anion deficit was higher in summer/fall than in winter/spring, anion deficit decreased during most summer/fall storms. In contrast, base flow anion deficit was lower in spring and winter, but increased during winter/spring storms. Increased SO4/2- concentration was the main cause of episodic acidification during storms at Reedy Creek, but increased anion deficit indicates organic acids may contribute to episodic acidification during winter/spring storms. Changes in SO4/2- concentration coincident with the hydrograph rise indicate quick routing of water through the watershed. Saturation overland flow

  17. Influence of the Atchafalaya River on recent evolution of the chenier-plain inner continental shelf, northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, A.E.; Kineke, G.C.; Velasco, D.W.; Allison, M.A.; Prime, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the Atchafalaya River, a major distributary of the Mississippi River, on stratigraphic evolution of the inner continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Sedimentary, geochemical, and shallow acoustic data are used to identify the western limit of the distal Atchafalaya subaqueous delta, and to estimate the proportion of the Atchafalaya River's sediment load that accumulates on the inner shelf seaward of Louisiana's chenier-plain coast. The results demonstrate a link between sedimentary facies distribution on the inner shelf and patterns of shoreline accretion and retreat on the chenier plain. Mudflat progradation on the eastern chenier-plain coast corresponds to the location of deltaic mud accumulation on the inner shelf. On the central chenier-plain shelf, west of the subaqueous delta, relict sediment is exposed that was originally deposited between ???1200 and 600 years BP during activity of the Lafourche lobe of the Mississippi Delta complex. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the eastern chenier-plain inner shelf and coastal zone form a sink for 7??2% of the sediment load carried by the Atchafalaya River. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prediction of episodic acidification in Maryland Coastal Plain streams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsen, J.; Dietz, J.; Wilson, H.T.; Janicki, A.J.

    1989-12-01

    Episodic acidification from acidic precipitation in Coastal Plain streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed is a potential threat to spawning and survival of anadromous fish species. The study is part of a process of selection of streams for mitigation of acidic episodes to increase the spawning success of anadromous fish stocks. It describes the development of practical, empirical models to predict the chemical response of Coastal Plain streams during precipitation events. One of the design criteria for the models was that they predict the response of a stream to precipitation events using data that are relatively easy to obtain. Data used to build and test the models were from several intensive studies of episodic acidification in the Maryland Coastal Plain. Regression models were developed to predict minimum pH during an event, change in pH during an event and minimum ANC (alkalinity) during an event. Two models were developed for each dependent variable.

  19. Ground water contamination and costs of pesticide restrictions in the southeastern coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, L.E.; Carlson, G.A.; Liu, S.; Weber, J.B.; Warren, R.

    1993-01-01

    The project developed new methodology for estimating: (1) groundwater contamination potential (GWCP) in the Southeast Coastal Plain, and (2) the potential economic impacts of selected policies that restrict pesticide use. The potential for ground water contamination was estimated by use of a simple matrix for combining ratings for both soil leaching potential and pesticide leaching potential. Key soil variables included soil texture, soil acidity and organic matter content. Key pesticide characteristics included Koc, pesticide half-life, the rate of application and the fraction of the pesticide hitting the soil. Comparisons of pesticide use from various farmer and expert opinion surveys were made for pesticide groups and for individual pesticide products. Methodology for merging the GWCP changes and lost benefits from selected herbicide cancellations was developed using corn production in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Economic evaluations of pesticide cancellations for corn included national and Coastal Plain estimates for atrazine; metolachlor; dicamba; dicamba and atrazine; and dicamba, atrazine and metolachlor.

  20. Calculating crop water use in the northern Texas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Plains Evapotranspiration network (NPET) has been in operation providing meteorological and crop water use (evapotranspiration or ET) data to producers for over 14 years. Recently, the NPET and South Plains ET (SPET) merged to form the Texas High Plains ET network (TXHPET). Each of the r...

  1. Avian associations of the Northern Great Plains grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Kologiski, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The grassland region of the northern Great Plains was divided into six broad subregions by application of an avian indicator species analysis to data obtained from 582 sample plots censused during the breeding season. Common, ubiquitous species and rare species had little classificatory value and were eliminated from the data set used to derive the avian associations. Initial statistical division of the plots likely reflected structure of the dominant plant species used for nesting; later divisions probably were related to foraging or nesting cover requirements based on vegetation height or density, habitat heterogeneity, or possibly to the existence of mutually similar distributions or shared areas of greater than average abundance for certain groups of species. Knowledge of the effects of grazing, mostly by cattle, on habitat use by the breeding bird species was used to interpret the results of the indicator species analysis. Moderate grazing resulted in greater species richness in nearly all subregions; effects of grazing on total bird density were more variable.

  2. Soil chemistry and phosphorus retention capacity of North Carolina coastal plain swamps receiving sewage effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.J.; Walbridge, M.R.; Burns, A.

    1988-11-01

    Several hundred freshwater swamps in North Carolina currently receive municipal waste-water inputs. In the study researchers examined three Coastal Plain wetlands to (1) characterize their soil chemical properties, (2) determine short-term and long-term effects of effluent additions on soil chemistry, (3) estimate the phosphorus sorption capacities of these swamp soils and determine the relationship between P sorption capacity and soil chemistry, and (4) develop a predictive index to evaluate the P sorption potentials of other N.C. Coastal Plain swamps.

  3. Historical Influences on Contemporary Tobacco Use by Northern Plains and Southwestern American Indians.

    PubMed

    Kunitz, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    There are great differences in smoking- and tobacco-related mortality between American Indians on the Northern Plains and those in the Southwest that are best explained by (1) ecological differences between the two regions, including the relative inaccessibility and aridity of the Southwest and the lack of buffalo, and (2) differences between French and Spanish Indian relations policies. The consequence was the disruption of inter- and intratribal relations on the Northern Plains, where as a response to disruption the calumet (pipe) ceremony became widespread, whereas it did not in the Southwest. Tobacco was, thus, integrated into social relationships with religious sanctions on the Northern Plains, which increased the acceptability of commercial cigarettes in the 20th century. Smoking is, therefore, more deeply embedded in religious practices and social relationships on the Northern Plains than in the Southwest. PMID:26691134

  4. Historical Influences on Contemporary Tobacco Use by Northern Plains and Southwestern American Indians

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There are great differences in smoking- and tobacco-related mortality between American Indians on the Northern Plains and those in the Southwest that are best explained by (1) ecological differences between the two regions, including the relative inaccessibility and aridity of the Southwest and the lack of buffalo, and (2) differences between French and Spanish Indian relations policies. The consequence was the disruption of inter- and intratribal relations on the Northern Plains, where as a response to disruption the calumet (pipe) ceremony became widespread, whereas it did not in the Southwest. Tobacco was, thus, integrated into social relationships with religious sanctions on the Northern Plains, which increased the acceptability of commercial cigarettes in the 20th century. Smoking is, therefore, more deeply embedded in religious practices and social relationships on the Northern Plains than in the Southwest. PMID:26691134

  5. Importance of Small Isolated Wetlands for Herpetofaunal Diversity in Managed, Young Growth Forests in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.R.; Guynn, D.C., Jr.; Hanlin, H.G.

    2002-03-27

    Assessment and comparison of richness, abundance and difference of herpetofauna at five small isolated wetlands located within a commercial forest landscape in the South Carolina Coastal Plain. Data indicates small isolated wetlands are focal points of herpetofaunal richness and abundance in managed coastal plain forest and contribute more to regional biodiversity than is implied by their small size or ephemeral hydrology.

  6. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic Coastal Plain and Outer Continental Shelf in 1985 and 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, R.V.

    1987-10-01

    Drilling activity for 1985 was not reported previously due to the low level of activity. No exploratory drilling took place on the Atlantic outer continental shelf in 1985 or 1986. One shallow well was drilled onshore in Georgia on the Atlantic coastal plan in 1985, and 2 wells were completed in Georgia in 1986. Texaco drilled 6 core holes on the Virginia coastal plain in 1986. 2 tables.

  7. Hydrogeologic Factors Influencing Denitrification in Atlantic Coastal Plain Surficial Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckett, L. J.

    2001-05-01

    A series of flow system studies were conducted in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina to examine the potential for removal of nitrate by denitrification in settings that differed from those previously examined at a site in Maryland. Surficial aquifers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain consist primarily of late Tertiary and Quaternary marine deposits of sand and silty sand. These aquifers generally are less than 15 m thick over much of their extent, but may be thicker in the Delmarva Peninsula and Florida. Typically these aquifers contain little buried organic matter and soil organic carbon content is also low. Most organic rich soils and sediments are limited to alluvial valleys. The combination of relatively flat terrain, highly permeable sediments, little organic matter, and moderate excess precipitation and nitrogen inputs, results in aquifers that are susceptible to nitrate contamination. At the Georgia site, median nitrate concentration was 1.6 mg/L in ground water, 7.3 mg/L in ditches and drains, below detection under the stream, and 1.1 mg/L in the stream. Clay layers in the sandy residuum at the Georgia site prevented nitrate from leaching into the ground water, routing it instead through drains and ditches to the stream. At the South Carolina site, the median nitrate concentration was 5.8 mg/L in ground water, 3.3 mg/L under the stream, and 1.8 mg/L in the stream. Denitrification took place at some locations at the South Carolina site, but nitrate passed under a riparian forest and discharged into the stream. In North Carolina, the median nitrate concentration was 21.5 mg/L in ground water, below detection under the stream, and 1.8 mg/L in the stream. Organic rich sediments near the stream at the North Carolina site contributed to complete denitrification in ground water before it reached the stream. At the comparison site in Maryland, median nitrate concentrations were 9.8 mg/L in ground water, 4.7 mg/L under the stream, and 9.6 mg/L in the stream

  8. InSAR detects possible thaw settlement in the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rykhus, R.P.; Lu, Zhiming

    2008-01-01

    Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has proven to be an effective tool for monitoring surface deformation from volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, and groundwater withdrawal. This paper seeks to expand the list of applications of InSAR data to include monitoring subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement over the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. To test our hypothesis that InSAR data are sufficiently sensitive to detect subsidence associated with thaw settlement, we acquired all Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) L-band data available for the summers of 1996, 1997, and 1998 over two sites on the Alaska North Slope. The least amount of subsidence for both study sites was detected in the interferograms covering the summer of 1996 (2-3 cm), interferograms from 1997 and 1998 revealed that about 3 cm of subsidence occurred at the northern Cache One Lake site, and about 5 cm of subsidence was detected at the southern Kaparuk River site. These preliminary results illustrate the capacity of the L-band (24 cm) wavelength JERS-1 radar data to penetrate the short Arctic vegetation to monitor subsidence possibly associated with thaw settlement of the active layer and (or) other hydrologic changes over relatively large areas. ?? 2008 CASI.

  9. Late Cenozoic fluvial development within the Sea of Azov and Black Sea coastal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoshko, A.; Gozhik, P.; Semenenko, V.

    2009-09-01

    Late Cenozoic terrestrial deposits are widespread across the northern coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and represent diverse fluvial, estuarine and deltaic environments. The dating and correlation of these deposits rely on stratigraphically-associated marine index beds, mammalian and molluscan faunas and magnetostratigraphy. In detail the geometries of these sediment bodies are extremely complex, typically varying between localities and representing many cycles of incision and aggradation. However, the overall disposition of the sediments reflects the transition from the uplifting sediment source region to the north and the subsiding depocentre in the interior of the Black Sea to the south. Since the Middle Miocene the area of the Paratethys/Black Sea depocentre has decreased significantly, but since the Middle Pliocene the hinge zone between uplift and subsidence has been located close to the modern coastline. A combination of regional and local differential crustal movements has given rise to the great variety of fluvial sediment bodies, to the erosion-aggradation cycles, different phases and river activity and to the various fluvial landforms that have all been important in landscape development in this region during the past 12 Ma. The fluvial erosion-accumulation cycles (during the upper Serravillian-Messinian, the Zanclean-late Gelasian, and the Pleistocene) and corresponding cycles of relief dissection and planation are reconstructed against a background of local sea-level changes and climatic variations determined from palaeobotanical data. The maximum fluvial incision occurred in the early Zanclean time with alluvial coastal plains, unique in this area, developing in the Gelasian. Increased climatic aridity during the Pleistocene caused a reduction of fluvial activity in comparison with the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The sea-level oscillations and Pleistocene glaciations affected fluvial processes in different ways. The most remarkable

  10. Catastrophic failure of the Northern Great Plains: A unifying hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.N. . Science Div.)

    1992-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains, at peak Laurentide glaciation, was a 1,600 km thick barrier between meltwater sources and the lower Missouri Valley. Meltwater and floodwaters flowed along the ice margin, moved between the Black Hills and Laurentide ice. Water was trapped between ice to the N and E and mountains to the W and S. The Pine Ridge Escarpment began as the S wall of a W-trending headcut while other headcuts eroded N, parallel to the ice margin. Sheetflow from the west and northwest stripped the easily-eroded surface between major headcuts. The Cheyenne Valley headcut then captured sheetflow from the eastern Powder River Basin, both N and S of the Black Hills. Sheetflow moving through the western Powder River Basin, however, continued to spill over the southern wall of the initial headcut, carving the upper White River Valley. These floodwaters filled the lower White River Valley, including the Scenic and Sage Creek Basins, and breached divides by spilling over into the newly formed Cheyenne Valley. Another W-trending headcut next initiated the upper Little Missouri Valley by diverting sheetflow from the northeastern Powder River Basin. The Little Missouri Valley was extended northward by diversion of flow to a fourth major headcut and then again by diversion to the Missouri Valley headcut. Sheetflow, moving SE into the Powder River Basin, was progressively captured and diverted as SW-trending headcuts formed the Yellowstone-Powder, Yellowstone-Tongue, and Yellowstone-Bighorn valleys. At the same time sheetflow was progressively captured and diverted by a northerly set of SW-trending headcuts which eroded the Redwater, Big Dry, and Musselshell valleys. Major spillways finally breached the 1,600 km thick barrier by cutting between the Highwood and Bearpaw Mountains and between Milk River Ridge and the Cypress Hills.

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions from natural, converted, and restored wetlands of the Mid-atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, wetlands have often been drained and converted to agricultural use. Recent efforts by the Natural Resources Conservation Service have attempted to restore some of the prior-converted farmland back to their natural state. These restored wetlands...

  12. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer, M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Kilgo, John C.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; McCracken, Gary F.

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of bat activity levels in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina among 5 habitat types: forested riparian areas, clearcuts, young pine plantations, mature pine plantations and pine savannas, using time expansion radio-microphones and integrated detectors to simultaneously monitor bat activity at three heights in each habitat type.

  13. Impact of dredging on dissolved phosphorus transport in agricultural drainage ditches of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage ditches can be a key conduit of phosphorus (P) between agricultural soils of the Atlantic coastal plain and local surface waters, including the Chesapeake Bay. This study sought to quantify the effect of a common ditch management practice, sediment dredging, on fate of P in drainage ditches...

  14. Nitrogen Mineralization of Broiler Litter Applied to Southeastern Coastal Plain Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (clayey, kaoliniti...

  15. MINERALIZATION OF NITROGEN FROM BROILER LITTER AS AFFECTED BY SOIL TEXTURE IN THE SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted during 2004-2005 to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (...

  16. Research from the Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia, to minimize contamination in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists with the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service and scientists with the University of Georgia located at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, Georgia have been conducting research on aflatoxin contamination of peanut since the early 1960's. Ear...

  17. Impact of biochar amendment on fertility of a southeastern Coastal Plain soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soils in the southeastern USA Coastal Plain region have meager soil fertility characteristics due to their sandy textures, acidic pH values, kaolinitic clays, low cation exchange capacities (CEC), and diminutive soil organic carbon (SOC) contents. We hypothesized that biochar additions ...

  18. Spatial yield response of corn and cotton on a Coastal Plain loamy sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A substantial amount of the yield variation in many coastal plain fields in the southeast is related to soil differences in and around poorly drained depression areas. We conducted a six-year study to evaluate the influence of management system and soil map unit on corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gos...

  19. ASSESSING THE HYDROGEOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN STREAMS USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing classification systems that describe natural variation across regions is an important first step for developing indicators. We evaluated a hydrogeologic framework for first order streams in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain as part of the LIPS-MACS (Landscape Indicators f...

  20. Projected climate change for the coastal plain region of Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatic patterns for the Coastal Plain region of Georgia, USA, centered on Tifton, Georgia (31 28 30N, 83 31 54W) were examined for long term patterns in precipitation and air temperature. Climate projections based upon output from seven Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and three future Green Hous...

  1. Antecedent Water Content Effects on Runoff and Sediment Yields From Two Coastal Plain Utisols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highly-weathered, low-carbon, intensively cropped, drought-prone Coastal Plain soils of Georgia are susceptible to runoff and soil loss, especially at certain times of the year when soil water contents are elevated. Our objective was to quantify the effects of antecedent water content (AWC) on r...

  2. Geostatistical Modeling of the Spatial Distribution of Sediment Oxygen Demand Within a Coastal Plain Blackwater Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackwater streams of the Georgia Coastal Plain are often listed as impaired due to chronically low DO levels. Previous research has shown that high sediment oxygen demand (SOD) values, a hypothesized cause of lowered DO within these waters, are significantly positively correlated with TOC within th...

  3. Field application of PAM as an amendment in deep-tilled US southeastern Coastal Plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) was added to sandy coastal plain soils to improve physical properties and yield. Soils were amended with 8 treatments of linear and cross-linked PAMs or controls. Treatments and controls included the following: 1. spraying a 600 mg/kg solution of linear PAM behind a subsoil shan...

  4. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone-hosted uranium resources in the Texas Coastal Plain, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hall, Susan M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Tureck, Kathleen R.; Hannon, Mark T.; Breit, George N.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Elliott, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 220 million pounds of recoverable uranium oxide (U3O8 ) remaining as potential undiscovered resources in southern Texas. This estimate used a geology-based assessment method for Tertiary sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in the Texas Coastal Plain sedimentary strata (fig.1).

  5. Seasonal Hydrologic Impacts of Conservation Tillage for a Coastal Plain Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage has proven to be an effective water management tool for cotton production on sandy, drought-prone soils throughout the Coastal Plain. Conservation tillage increases crop residue at the surface, leading to reduced evaporation, reduced raindrop impact, increased infiltration, red...

  6. Comparison of Conservation and Conventional Tillage Effects on Water Quality in a Coastal Plain Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted from 2000-2004 on a Coastal Plain soil to determine the effect of tillage method (strip versus conventional) on surface runoff and shallow groundwater quality. Six 0.2 ha plots (three strip till and three conventional till) on a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, plinthic, Kandiud...

  7. Stormflow Response as a Function of Alluvial Storage in a Small Atlantic Coastal Plain Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total available groundwater storage in alluvial floodplains has been shown to have a significant impact upon stormflow within larger (16.7 to 50 km2) watersheds within the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Groundwater and streamflow data from a small (0.5 km2) watershed were examined to evaluate the temporal...

  8. Air Emissions from Organic Soil Burning on the Coastal Plain of North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of trace gases and particles <10 and 2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) from fires during 2009-2011 on the North Carolina coastal plain were collected and analyzed. Carbon mass balance techniques were used to quantify emission factors (EFs)....

  9. Multi-site Evaluation of Hydrology Component of SWAT in the Coastal Plain of Southwest Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many concerns have been raised about the potential impacts of land use changes and development in ungaged watersheds. In this study, the feasibility of using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for predicting the hydrology of ungaged watersheds within the Coastal Plain of southwest Georgia was ev...

  10. Changing hydrology under a changing climate for a Coastal Plain Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of climate data from the Little River Experimental Watershed near Tifton, Georgia, in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of the U.S.A. indicate air temperatures will increase (0.15 to 0.41°C decade-1) along with a slight increase in total annual precipitation in the 21st century. The greates...

  11. Conservation practices to enhance soil carbon sequestration across southeastern Coastal Plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coastal Plain soils consist of highly weathered Ultisols with coarse textures, poor structure, and soil organic carbon (SOC) contents below 0.5 %, which decreases crop productivity across the region. Two separate experiments were established in Central (Prattville) and Southeast (Wiregrass) Alabama...

  12. Forest transpiration from sap flux density measurements in a Southeastern Coastal Plain riparian buffer system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forested riparian buffers are prevalent throughout the Southeastern Coastal Plain Region of the United States (US). Because they make up a significant portion of the regional landscape, transpiration within these riparian buffers is believed to have an important impact on the hydrologic budget of r...

  13. Soil organic carbon dynamics in a sod-based rotation on coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A frequently used cropping system in the southeastern Coastal Plain is an annual rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under conventional tillage (CT). The traditional peanut-cotton rotation (TR) often results in erosion and loss of soil organic carbon (SOC). In...

  14. Characteristics of Human Resources in the Rural Southeast Coastal Plain...With Emphasis on the Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElveen, Jackson V.; And Others

    The objectives of this study were to determine the anatomy, typology, and conditions surrounding low incomes in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and to determine the measures most suitable to reduce low income within the area. A sample of 1,000 households was selected and stratified among the 10 counties and between the open-country rural area…

  15. Rural Poverty in Three Southern Regions: Mississippi Delta, Ozarks, Southeast Coastal Plain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John L.

    The focus of this report is on poverty and its relationships to certain individual characteristics as distributed across 3 regions: the Ozarks, Mississippi Delta, and Southeast Coastal Plain. After a broad description of these areas, the study looks at (1) age of household heads, (2) number of persons in households, (3) housing quality (running…

  16. Characterizing mercury concentrations and flux dynamics in a coastal plain watershed using multiple models and data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury-related fish consumption advisories are widespread in the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S., where atmospherically deposited mercury interacts with an abundance of wetlands and high-dissolved organic carbon (DOC), acidic waters. Recent trends in decision making proce...

  17. Aggregation and Aggregate Carbon in a Forested Southeastern Coastal Plain Spodosol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil aggregation is influenced by the soil environment and is a factor in soil carbon sequestration. Sandy Coastal Plain soils often do not have the clay to promote aggregation nor have been considered soils with high levels of aggregation. This study was conducted to examine the aggregate morpholog...

  18. APPLICATION OF A MULTIPURPOSE UNEQUAL-PROBABILITY STREAM SURVEY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified random sample with unequal-probability selection was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for data from the survey include unbiased estimates of regional stream conditions, and adequate coverage of un...

  19. 40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  20. Exploring the Coastal Plain of the Carolinas in Search of Heirloom Collard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commonly grown vegetable in the coastal plain region of North and South Carolina is collard, a leafy green type of Brassica oleracea L. (Acephala Group) closely related to common heading cabbage. Although it is widely grown commercially and as a garden crop in the Southeast, collard is not indige...

  1. Hydrogeologic setting and potential for denitrification in ground water, coastal plain of southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krantz, David E.; Powars, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The types and distribution of Coastal Plain sediments in the Patuxent River Basin may contribute to relatively low concentrations of nitrate (typically less than 1 milligram per liter) in stream base flow because of the chemical reduction of dissolved nitrate (denitrification) in ground water. Water chemistry data from synoptic stream base-flow surveys in the Patuxent River Basin show higher dissolved nitrate concentrations in the Piedmont than in the Coastal Plain section of the watershed. Stream base flow reflects closely the chemistry of ground water discharging from the surficial (unconfined) aquifer to the stream. Because land use in the sampled subbasins is virtually the same in each section, differences in the physical and geochemical characteristics of the surficial aquifer may explain the observed differences in water chemistry. One possible cause of lower nitrate concentrations in the Coastal Plain is denitrification within marine sediments that contain chemically reduced compounds. During denitrification, the oxygen atoms on the nitrate (N03-) molecule are transferred to a reduced compound and N gas is produced. Organic carbon and ferrous iron (Fe2+), derived from the dissolution of minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) and glauconite (an iron aluminosilicate clay), can act as reducing substrates; these reduced chemical species are common in the marine and estuarine deposits in Southern Maryland. The spatial distribution of geologic units and their lithology (sediment type) has been used to create a map of the potential for denitrification of ground water in the surficial aquifer of the Coastal Plain in Southern Maryland.

  2. An analysis of the link between strokes and soils in the South Carolina coastal plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Stroke Belt is a geographical region of the southeastern United States where resident individuals suffer a disproportionately higher rate of strokes than the rest of the population. While the “buckle” of this Stroke Belt coincides with the southeastern Coastal Plain region of North and South Car...

  3. Multi-site evaluation of hydrology component of SWAT in the Coastal Plain of Southwest Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use changes and development within mixed use watersheds can result in adverse or positive environmental impacts. In this study, the feasibility of using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed model to predict hydrologic responses in watersheds within the Coastal Plain of southwest Geo...

  4. Tsunami Recurrences in the Ryukyu Arc-trench System: Geological Records in the Jinshan Coastal Plain of North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, N. T.; Yen, J. Y.; Lin, L. H.; Liu, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Active continental margin like the Ryukyu arc-trench system poses high tsunami risk, which however remains poorly assessed due to the sparse historic records and geological studies. In order to better understand the tsunami risk in northern Taiwan of the southernmost Ryukyu active margin, borehole cores of the Jinshan Coastal Plain were investigated for the tsunami deposits of 1867 event and possibly its precursors. Based on facies characteristics, two decimeter-thick marine event sand beds are identified intercalated with the fluvial gravelly deposit that has been accumulated in a microtidal barred estuary over the past millennium. Distributed all over the coastal plain except the coastal sand spits, the fluvial deposit are predominantly sourced from the Pleistocene arc andesite, and thus commonly reddish in color due to the high iron content. The marine beds are rich in quartz sand and granule, whitish gray in color, and rounded to subangular in grain shape, indicating a sediment source from the coastal sand spits which receive longshore drift from the nearby rocky coasts dominated by the Oligocene and Miocene quartzose sandstone and mudstone. The facies succession of marine bed is characterized by erosion base, planar lamination, normal grading, soft-sediment deformation, and variations in magnetic susceptibility, Si, K, Ti, and Fe. The succession reflects the sedimentary processes from incoming wave erosion, rapid marine deposition, backflow reworking, and suspension fall-out. The marine beds are traceable landward based on the facies characteristics and C14 dating over a distance up to two kilometers before thinning out and grading into carbonaceous mud. According to the C14 dating, the two marine beds are linked to the 1867 tsunami and an earlier event in the late 17th century. Based on their ages and distributions, the two event beds further suggest two marine incursions of similar extant in an approximate recurrence interval of ~170 yr.

  5. Artesian water in the Malabar coastal plain of southern Kerala, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1964-01-01

    The present report is based on a geological and hydrological reconnaissance during 1954 of the Malabar Coastal Plain and adjacent island area of southern Kerala to evaluate the availability of ground water for coastal villages and municipalities and associated industries and the potentialities for future development. The work was done in cooperation with the Geological Survey of India and under the auspices of the U.S. Technical Cooperation Mission to India. The State of Kerala, which lies near the southern tip of India and along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, contains a total area of 14,937 square miles. The eastern part of the state is s rugged mountainous highland which attains altitudes of more than 6,000 feet. This highland descends westward through piedmont upland to s narrow coastal plain, which reaches a maximum width of about 16 miles in the latitude of Shertalli. A tropical monsoon rain-forest climate prevails in most of Kerala, and annual rainfall ranges from 65 to 130 inches in the southern part of the coastal plain to as much a 200 inches in the highland. The highland and piedmont upland tracts of Kerala are underlain by Precambrian meamorphic and igneous rocks belonging in large parabola-the so-called Charnockite Series. Beneath ahe coastal plain are semiconsolidated asunconsolidated sedimentary deposits whose age ranges from Miocene to Recent. These deposits include sofa sandstone and clay shale containing some marl or limestone and sand, and clay and pea containing some gravel. The sofa sandstone, sand, and gravel beds constitute important aquifers a depths ranging from a few tens of feet to 400 feet or more below the land surface. The shallow ground war is under water-able or unconfined conditions, but the deeper aquifers contain water under artesian pressure. Near the coast, drilled wells tapping the deeper aquifers commonly flow with artesian heads as much as 10 to 12 feet above the land surface. The draft from existing wells in the

  6. Patterns of Seasonal Abundance and Social Segregation in Inland and Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrows in a Delaware Tidal Marsh

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens, CPSS) breeds in the coastal brackish marshes of the North American Mid-Atlantic States. During the non-breeding season, coastal brackish marshes are occupied by both this subspecies and two far more widespread inte...

  7. The Northern Plains MSATT Meeting, and a call for a field-oriented successor to MSATT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The workshop was devoted to a review of our knowledge of the Martian northern plains and presentation of recent ideas pertaining to the geologic and climatic evolution of this interesting region. The meeting was held in Fairbanks to allow easy access to Mars-like terrains in central and northern Alaska. There is no place on Earth that is a close analog of the Martian northern plains, but parts of Alaska come reasonably close in some respects, so we may expect that some of the processes occurring there are similar to processes that have occurred on Mars.

  8. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... May, Atlantic, and Ocean Counties and portions of Salem, Gloucester, Camden, Burlington, and Monmouth... Joline Avenue; then (20) Proceed northeasterly on Joline Avenue to the Atlantic Ocean shoreline; then (21) Follow the Atlantic Ocean shoreline south, encompassing all coastal islands, onto the Trenton,...

  9. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... May, Atlantic, and Ocean Counties and portions of Salem, Gloucester, Camden, Burlington, and Monmouth... Joline Avenue; then (20) Proceed northeasterly on Joline Avenue to the Atlantic Ocean shoreline; then (21) Follow the Atlantic Ocean shoreline south, encompassing all coastal islands, onto the Trenton,...

  10. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... May, Atlantic, and Ocean Counties and portions of Salem, Gloucester, Camden, Burlington, and Monmouth... Joline Avenue; then (20) Proceed northeasterly on Joline Avenue to the Atlantic Ocean shoreline; then (21) Follow the Atlantic Ocean shoreline south, encompassing all coastal islands, onto the Trenton,...

  11. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  12. High eustatic sea level during the middle Pliocene: Evidence from the southeastern U. S. Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Dowsett, H.J.; Cronin, T.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The middle Pliocene, {approximately}3.5-2.5 Ma, was a period of global warmth preceding the growth of major Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. The authors report on eustatic sea level for the middle Pliocene based on microspaleontologic study of marine deposits of the Duplin Formation of South Carolina and North Carolina. The Duplin was deposited during a middle Pliocene marine transgression that formed the Orangeburg scarp, a prominent wave-cut geomorphic paleoshoreline of the southeastern U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain. They concluded that (1) the scarp in South Carolina was formed mostly during the middle Pliocene (3.5-3.0 Ma), (2) eustatic sea level was about 35 {plus minus} 18 m higher than modern sea level (the scarp has been uplifted about 50-65 m since the middle Pliocene), and (3) ocean-water temperatures along eastern North America were warmer when the scarp was formed that they are at present.

  13. Pleistocene glacial refugia across the Appalachian Mountains and coastal plain in the millipede genus Narceus: Evidence from population genetic, phylogeographic, and paleoclimatic data

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Matt J; Stockman, Amy K; Marek, Paul E; Bond, Jason E

    2009-01-01

    Background Species that are widespread throughout historically glaciated and currently non-glaciated areas provide excellent opportunities to investigate the role of Pleistocene climatic change on the distribution of North American biodiversity. Many studies indicate that northern animal populations exhibit low levels of genetic diversity over geographically widespread areas whereas southern populations exhibit relatively high levels. Recently, paleoclimatic data have been combined with niche-based distribution modeling to locate possible refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Using phylogeographic, population, and paleoclimatic data, we show that the distribution and mitochondrial data for the millipede genus Narceus are consistent with classical examples of Pleistocene refugia and subsequent post-glacial population expansion seen in other organismal groups. Results The phylogeographic structure of Narceus reveals a complex evolutionary history with signatures of multiple refugia in southeastern North America followed by two major northern expansions. Evidence for refugial populations were found in the southern Appalachian Mountains and in the coastal plain. The northern expansions appear to have radiated from two separate refugia, one from the Gulf Coastal Plain area and the other from the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Distributional models of Narceus during the Last Glacial Maximum show a dramatic reduction from the current distribution, with suitable ecological zones concentrated along the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. We found a strong correlation between these zones of ecological suitability inferred from our paleo-model with levels of genetic diversity derived from phylogenetic and population estimates of genetic structuring. Conclusion The signature of climatic change, during and after the Pleistocene, on the distribution of the millipede genus Narceus is evident in the genetic data presented. Niche-based historical distribution modeling strengthens the

  14. Corrosiveness of ground water in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Kish, G.R.; Velnich, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water from the unconfined part of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the New Jersey Coastal Plain typically is corrosive-- that is, it is acidic, soft, and has low concentrations of alkalinity. Corrosive ground water has the potential to leach trace elements and asbestos fibers from plumbing materials used in potable- water systems, thereby causing potentially harmful concentrations of these substances in drinking water. Corrosion indices were calculated from water-quality data for 370 wells in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Values of the Langelier Saturation Index are predominantly negative, indicating that the water is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate, and, therefore, is potentially corrosive. Values of the Aggressive Index, a similar estimator of the corrosiveness of water, range from 3.9 (highly corrosive) to 11.9 (moderately corrosive). The median Aggressive Index value calculated for the 370 wells is 6.0, a value that indicates that the water is highly corrosive. Moderately corrosive ground water is found in some coastal areas. Isolated instances of moderately corrosive water are found in northern Ocean County, and in Burlington, Camden, and Salem Counties. In the vicinity of Ocean County corrosion-index values change little with depth, but in Atlantic, Burlington, and Salem Counties the corrosiveness of ground water generally appears to decrease with depth. Analyses of standing tap water from newly constructed homes in the Coastal Plain show concentrations of lead and other trace elements are significantly higher than those in ambient ground water. The elevated trace-element concentrations are attributed to the corrosion of plumbing materials by ground water. Results of the tap-water analyses substantiate the corrosiveness of Kirkwood-Cohansey ground water, as estimated by corrosion-index values.

  15. Prioritizing Watersheds for Conservation Actions in the Southeastern Coastal Plain Ecoregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Taeil; Vellidis, George; Kurkalova, Lyubov A.; Boll, Jan; Hyman, Jeffrey B.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to apply and evaluate a recently developed prioritization model which uses the synoptic approach to geographically prioritize watersheds in which Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce water quality problems resulting from erosion and sedimentation. The model uses a benefit-cost framework to rank candidate watersheds within an ecoregion or river basin so that BMP implementation within the highest ranked watersheds will result in the most water quality improvement per conservation dollar invested. The model was developed to prioritize BMP implementation efforts in ecoregions containing watersheds associated with the USDA-NRCS Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). We applied the model to HUC-8 watersheds within the southeastern Coastal Plain ecoregion (USA) because not only is it an important agricultural area but also because it contains a well-studied medium-sized CEAP watershed which is thought to be representative of the ecoregion. The results showed that the three HUC-8 watersheds with the highest rankings (most water quality improvement expected per conservation dollar invested) were located in the southern Alabama, northern Florida, and eastern Virginia. Within these watersheds, measures of community attitudes toward conservation practices were highly ranked, and these indicators seemed to push the watersheds to the top of the rankings above other similar watersheds. The results, visualized as maps, can be used to screen and reduce the number of watersheds that need further assessment by managers and decision-makers within the study area. We anticipate that this model will allow agencies like USDA-NRCS to geographically prioritize BMP implementation efforts.

  16. Age and correlation of emerged pliocene and pleistocene deposits, U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Bybell, L.M.; Poore, R.Z.; Blackwelder, B. W.; Liddicoat, J.C.; Hazel, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Paleontologic and paleomagnetic investigations were conducted on several hundred Pliocene and Pleistocene marine samples from five regions of the emerged Atlantic Coastal Plain: (1) the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) eastern Virginia, (3) central and northern North Carolina, (4) southern North Carolina and northeastern South Carolina, and (5) the Charleston area, South Carolina. Molluscan and ostracode interval and assemblage zonations, which are the primary means of regional correlation, have been calibrated using planktic biochronologic, paleomagnetic, radiometric and amino-acid recemization data. These multiple dating criteria were used to determine the age and, where possible, the duration of marine transgressive/regressive sequences. A correlation chart illustrates the age relationships of 27 formations from five regions. One important conclusion is some of the Yorktown Formation of Virginia and North Carolina (including the "Duplin" Formation), and some of the Raysor of South Carolina are late Pliocene in age. The late Pliocene Chowan River Formation of North Carolina is older than the early Pleistocene Waccamaw Formation of South Carolina, which in turn may be older than the James City Formation of North Carolina. During the last 1.0 million years, multiple marine transgressions occurred in each region, but the age of these middle and late Pleistocene formations often may differ from one area to the next. A significant result of the study is the evidence for the lack of time equivalence of formations in the five different regions; that is, the sequence of marine transgressions in one region does not necessarily correspond to that in another. This appears to be the result of differing subsidence and uplift histories, the patchiness of the depositional record, and the limitations of the dating techniques in light of the rapidity and frequency of sea-level fluctuations. ?? 1984.

  17. Prioritizing watersheds for conservation actions in the southeastern coastal plain ecoregion.

    PubMed

    Jang, Taeil; Vellidis, George; Kurkalova, Lyubov A; Boll, Jan; Hyman, Jeffrey B

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to apply and evaluate a recently developed prioritization model which uses the synoptic approach to geographically prioritize watersheds in which Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce water quality problems resulting from erosion and sedimentation. The model uses a benefit-cost framework to rank candidate watersheds within an ecoregion or river basin so that BMP implementation within the highest ranked watersheds will result in the most water quality improvement per conservation dollar invested. The model was developed to prioritize BMP implementation efforts in ecoregions containing watersheds associated with the USDA-NRCS Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). We applied the model to HUC-8 watersheds within the southeastern Coastal Plain ecoregion (USA) because not only is it an important agricultural area but also because it contains a well-studied medium-sized CEAP watershed which is thought to be representative of the ecoregion. The results showed that the three HUC-8 watersheds with the highest rankings (most water quality improvement expected per conservation dollar invested) were located in the southern Alabama, northern Florida, and eastern Virginia. Within these watersheds, measures of community attitudes toward conservation practices were highly ranked, and these indicators seemed to push the watersheds to the top of the rankings above other similar watersheds. The results, visualized as maps, can be used to screen and reduce the number of watersheds that need further assessment by managers and decision-makers within the study area. We anticipate that this model will allow agencies like USDA-NRCS to geographically prioritize BMP implementation efforts. PMID:25528594

  18. Paleoenvironmental analyses of an organic deposit from an erosional landscape remnant, Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, W R; Bockheim, J G; Hinkel, K M; Brown, T A; Nelson, F E; Peterson, K M; Jones, B M

    2005-01-02

    The dominant landscape process on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is the formation and drainage of thaw lakes. Lakes and drained thaw lake basins account for approximately 75% of the modern surface expression of the Barrow Peninsula. The thaw lake cycle usually obliterates lacustrine or peat sediments from previous cycles which could otherwise be used for paleoecological reconstruction of long-term landscape and vegetation changes. Several possible erosional remnants of a former topographic surface that predates the formation of the thaw lakes have been tentatively identified. These remnants are characterized by a higher elevation, a thick organic layer with very high ground ice content in the upper permafrost, and a plant community somewhat atypical of the region. Ten soil cores were collected from one site, and one core was intensively sampled for soil organic carbon content, pollen analysis, and {sup 14}C dating. The lowest level of the organic sediments represents the earliest phase of plant growth and dates to ca. 9000 cal BP. Palynological evidence indicates the presence of mesic shrub tundra (including sedge, birch, willow, and heath vegetation); and microfossil indicators point to wetter eutrophic conditions during this period. Carbon accumulation was rapid due to high net primary productivity in a relatively nutrient-rich environment. These results are interpreted as the local response to ameliorating climate during the early Holocene. The middle Holocene portion of the record contains an unconformity, indicating that between 8200 and 4200 cal BP sediments were eroded from the site, presumably in response to wind activity during a drier period centered around 4500 cal BP. The modern vegetation community of the erosional remnant was established after 4200 cal BP, and peat growth resumed. During the late Holocene, carbon accumulation rates were greatly reduced in response to the combined effects of declining productivity associated with climatic

  19. A conceptual model to facilitate amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushnet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    As pressures on agricultural landscapes to meet worldwide resource needs increase, amphibian populations face numerous threats including habitat destruction, chemical contaminants, disease outbreaks, wetland sedimentation, and synergistic effects of these perturbations. To facilitate conservation planning, we developed a conceptual model depicting elements critical for amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains. First, we linked upland, wetland, and landscape features to specific ecological attributes. Ecological attributes included adult survival; reproduction and survival to metamorphosis; and successful dispersal and recolonization. Second, we linked ecosystem drivers, ecosystem stressors, and ecological effects of the region to each ecological attribute. Lastly, we summarized information on these ecological attributes and the drivers, stressors, and effects that work in concert to influence the maintenance of viable and genetically diverse amphibian populations in the northern Great Plains. While our focus was on the northern Great Plains, our conceptual model can be tailored to other geographic regions and taxa.

  20. Influence of inherited topography on the Holocene sedimentary evolution of coastal systems: An example from Arno coastal plain (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Veronica; Amorosi, Alessandro; Sarti, Giovanni; Potenza, Miriam

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the relative control exerted by autogenic factors, such as changes in sediment supply, local subsidence and inherited topography, is of crucial interest for a thorough comprehension of the sedimentary evolution of late Quaternary coastal systems. Through an example from the Arno coastal plain, in Tuscany, we show to what extent sedimentation of the Holocene succession, even after the time of maximum marine ingression, was influenced by the presence of a buried 5-7 km-wide incised-valley system, generated by the Arno River during the late Pleistocene in response to the last glacial sea-level fall. A prominent stratigraphic marker (locally known as " pancone"), ca. 5-15 m thick, made up of extremely soft and homogeneous organic-rich clays, is reported from the upper 20-30 m of the mid-Holocene succession buried beneath the Arno coastal plain. High-resolution stratigraphy, integrated with microfossil investigations, enables detailed facies characterization and mapping of this marker horizon. At proximal-most locations, " pancone" consists of thin lagoonal deposits sandwiched between backswamp clays. Around the city of Pisa and at more distal locations, this stratigraphic marker is made up almost entirely of lagoonal clays with lateral transition to backswamp deposits. The development of " pancone" was triggered by an abrupt transgressive pulse that led to the ultimate flooding of the Arno paleovalley. This transgressive event occurred shortly after a widespread episode of sub-aerial exposure and climate deterioration related to the 8200 yr BP cold event. Confinement of the mid-Holocene (" pancone") lagoon into an area formerly occupied by the post-glacial Arno incised-valley system, along with transition to backswamp facies in coincidence of the former interfluves, is interpreted to reflect the higher compaction of the less indurated valley-fill relative to the adjacent, stiff Pleistocene substratum. The local increase in land subsidence contributed to

  1. ERTS-1 applied for structural and morphological investigtions case studies. 1: Los Angeles, California. 2: Coastal plain, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, E. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Two major earth's resources management problems, the application of ERTS-1 imagery for geomorphotectonics, and subsequently seismic-risk, earthquake, and mineral exploration applications are discussed. Case studies are presented for Los Angeles, California, and New Jersey coastal plain.

  2. Geographic and stratigraphic distribution of coastal Quaternary aminozones across the Cape Fear Arch, U. S. Atlantic Geology Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Wehmiller, J.F.; York, L.L. ); Krantz, D.E. . Coll. of Marine Studies)

    1992-01-01

    The interpretation of the regional aminostratigraphy of Coastal Plain Quaternary units from North and South Carolina is potentially affected by sampling biases, variable preservation of coastal records, reoccupation of coastal environments by multiple transgressions, geochemical alteration of samples, variable thermal histories of specific samples, and intergeneric and interlaboratory differences in analytical results.Two primary models for the correlation of emergent Coastal Plain units diverge significantly in southeastern North Carolina. New data from fresh exposure (1990--1991) at emergent sites between Wilmington, NC and Charleston, SC, from previous onshore collections in this region, and from submergent samples between Cape Lookout, NC and Cape Romain, SC provide insight into the nature of these correlation issues. Although sampling of the area is not uniform, these results fill a major gap between regions of previous aminostratigraphy study. Inferred early-to-middle Pleistocene aminozones dominate the emergent coastal region between Cape Lookout and Romain, and late Pleistocene aminozones in this area are represented by subsurface samples beneath barrier islands or in shallow inner shelf cores, but have not been found onshore. A map view of the distribution of aminozones along the coast between northeastern NC and central SC mimics that of pre-Quaternary units that thin or disappear over the axis of the Cape Fear Arch, suggesting that the sampled Quaternary record reflects the combination of processes responsible for the preservation of the pre-Quaternary record. This perspective should provide a model for resolution of various geochronological controversies that have arisen because of limited stratigraphic or geochemical data.

  3. Stable isotope enrichment in paleowaters of the southeast atlantic coastal plain, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, L.N. )

    1993-12-24

    Paleowaters from the Floridan aquifer system in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain have higher D/H and [sup 18]O/[sup 16]O ratios than local Holocene groundwater. Maximum [delta][sup 18]O enrichments in groundwater having adjusted radiocarbon ages of 20,000 to 26,000 years are 0.7 to 2.3 per mil. The trend in isotopic enrichment in paleowaters is the reverse of that normally observed in continental glacial age groundwater. Dissolved nitrogen and argon concentrations indicate, however, that the average recharge temperature was 5.3[degrees]C cooler than that today. The data indicate cool conditions in the southeast Atlantic coastal plain during the last glacial maximum, with recharge limited primarily to late summer tropical cyclones and hurricanes.

  4. Diversity and distribution of zooplankton in ponds on the Southeastern coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Debiase, A.E.; Taylor, B.E. )

    1994-06-01

    The Southeastern coastal plain is scattered with numerous Carolina bays and other isolated temporary wetlands, which are unstudied in comparison to wetlands in other regions of the United States. We studied 88 Carolina bays and other temporary ponds on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. These ponds support diverse planktonic communities, including several species as yet undescribed. Species distribution and diversity were most strongly linked to hydrology, rather than factors such as pond area or past disturbance. Ponds with longer duration were more diverse, mainly in the number of cladocerans. Correlations between species distribution and vegetation type or geomorphic region were observed for some species. Assemblage similarity decreased with distance between ponds, suggesting that dispersal is poor.

  5. Recharge and sustainability of a coastal aquifer in northern Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumanova, X.; Marku, S.; Fröjdö, S.; Jacks, G.

    2014-06-01

    The River Mati in Albania has formed a coastal plain with Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The outer portion of the plain is clay, with three underlying aquifers that are connected to an alluvial fan at the entry of the river into the plain. The aquifers supply water for 240,000 people. Close to the sea the aquifers are brackish. The brackish water is often artesian and found to be thousands of years old. Furthermore, the salinity, supported by δ18O results, does not seem to be due to mixing with old seawater but due to diffusion from intercalated clay layers. Heavy metals from mines in the upstream section of River Mati are not an immediate threat, as the pH buffering of the river water is good. Moreover, the heavy metals are predominantly found in suspended and colloidal phases. Two sulphur isotope signatures, one mirroring seawater sulphate in the brackish groundwater (δ34S >21 ‰) and one showing the influence of sulphide in the river and the fresh groundwater (δ34S <10 ‰), indicate that the groundwater in the largest well field is recharged from the river. The most serious threat is gravel extraction in the alluvial fan, decreasing the hydraulic head necessary for recharge and causing clogging of sediments.

  6. Surficial aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain : Significance to resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the interaction between human activities and the Nation's surficial (water-table) aquifers is critical to maintaining the quantity and quality of our water resources and the health of the ecosystems they support. In recognition of the importance of these aquifers, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing a program to study the surficial aquifers of the New Jersey Coastal Plain.

  7. Heat flow in the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costain, J. K.; Speer, J. A.; Glover, L., III; Perry, L.; Dashevsky, S.; McKinney, M.

    1986-02-01

    Seventy-four new heat flow values have been determined at sites from New Jersey to Georgia, mostly in the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain provinces. Relatively high heat flows are characteristic of synmetamorphic and postmetamorphic granites exposed in the Piedmont and occurring in the basement beneath the sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The Piedmont heat flow and heat generation values, determined in granites, metagranites, and one Slate Belt site, lie in a belt approximately parallel to major structural trends in the Appalachians. These values fall on or near the regression line: q(mW/m2) = 29.8 ± 1.5(mW/m2) + 7.8(km) ± 0.475A(μW/m3) (R = 0.97477). It is proposed that the occurrence of a thrust fault that truncates granites at a depth, D, of 7.8 km is directly responsible for this linear relation in the eastern Piedmont. Basement core from beneath the sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain was recovered at ten sites. Results from five of these sites plus one site in the Baltimore Gabbro define a second linear relation with a slope (D = 8.0±0.380 km; R = 0.99550) approximately parallel to the Piedmont relation, but with an intercept of 48.2±0.8 mW/m2. These two relations may represent different heat flow provinces in the southeastern United States or the linear relations may simply be a consequence of differences in the thicknesses of the upper heat-producing layer at least as far east as postmetamorphic granites sampled under the Coastal Plain.

  8. Distribution, abundance, and habitat affinities of the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.; Greenberg, R.; Droege, S.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2003-01-01

    We examined the distribution and abundance of the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens) at previously occupied sites and points within potential habitat. We found Swamp Sparrows throughout their formerly documented range except in southern Chesapeake Bay. Swamp Sparrows were most common in the Mullica River region of New Jersey where we detected individuals at 78% of systematically chosen points with a mean count of 4.1 birds/point. The percentages of points with positive detections in. the regions of Delaware River (39%), eastern Delaware Bay (23%), western Delaware Bay (34%), and Tuckahoe River (31%) were lower. The mean count of birds/point was between 0.4 and 0.6 in these regions. A higher resolution Poisson model of relative abundance suggested that the greatest concentrations of Swamp Sparrows occurred not only in the Mullica River area but also along northwestern Delaware Bay. Regression analysis of Swamp Sparrow counts and habitat features identified shrubs (Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia) as a key habitat component. By applying density estimates generated by DISTANCE (Thomas et al. 1998) to the approximate area of potential shrub habitat along Delaware Bay, we estimated that the core population of Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrows was less than 28,000 pairs. We recommend that the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow be listed as a subspecies of concern by state and local governments because of its relatively small population size, restricted distribution in the mid-Atlantic region, and narrow habitat requirements.

  9. Achieving conservation goals in managed forests of the southeastern coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Loehle, Craig; Wigley, T Bently; Schilling, Erik; Tatum, Vickie; Beebe, John; Vance, Eric; Van Deusen, Paul; Weatherford, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Managed forests are a primary land use within the Coastal Plain of the southern United States. These forests are generally managed under standards, guidelines, or regulations to conserve ecosystem functions and services. Economic value of commercial forests provides incentives for landowners to maintain forests rather than convert them to other uses that have substantially reduced environmental benefits. In this review, we describe the historical context of commercial forest management in the southern United States Coastal Plain, describe how working forests are managed today, and examine relationships between commercial forest management and maintenance of functional aquatic and wetland systems and conservation of biological diversity. Significant challenges for the region include increasing human population and urbanization and concomitant changes in forest area and structure, invasive species, and increased interest in forest biomass as an energy feedstock. Research needs include better information about management of rare species and communities and quantification of relationships between ecosystem attributes and forest management, including biomass production and harvest. Incentives and better information may help commercial forest managers in the Coastal Plain more efficiently contribute to landscape-scale conservation goals. PMID:19856021

  10. Coastal morphodynamics and Chenier-Plain evolution in southwestern Louisiana, USA: A geomorphic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Randolph A.; Taylor, Matthew J.; Byrnes, Mark R.

    2007-08-01

    Using 28 topographic profiles, air-photo interpretation, and historical shoreline-change data, coastal processes were evaluated along the Chenier Plain to explain the occurrence, distribution, and geomorphic hierarchy of primary landforms, and existing hypotheses regarding Chenier-Plain evolution were reconsidered. The Chenier Plain of SW Louisiana, classified as a low-profile, microtidal, storm-dominated coast, is located west and downdrift of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This Late-Holocene, marginal-deltaic environment is 200 km long and up to 30 km wide, and is composed primarily of mud deposits capped by marsh interspersed with thin sand- and shell-rich ridges ("cheniers") that have elevations of up to 4 m. In this study, the term "ridge" is used as a morphologic term for a narrow, linear or curvilinear topographic high that consists of sand and shelly material accumulated by waves and other physical coastal processes. Thus, most ridges in the Chenier Plain represent relict open-Gulf shorelines. On the basis of past movement trends of individual shorelines, ridges may be further classified as transgressive, regressive, or laterally accreted. Geomorphic zones that contain two or more regressive, transgressive, or laterally accreted ridges are termed complexes. Consequently, we further refine the Chenier-Plain definition by Otvos and Price [Otvos, E.G. and Price, W.A., 1979. Problems of chenier genesis and terminology—an overview. Marine Geology, 31: 251-263] and define Chenier Plain as containing at least two or more chenier complexes. Based on these definitions, a geomorphic hierarchy of landforms was refined relative to dominant process for the Louisiana Chenier Plain. The Chenier Plain is defined as a first-order feature (5000 km 2) composed of three second-order features (30 to 300 km 2): chenier complex, beach-ridge complex, and spit complex. Individual ridges of each complex type were further separated into third-order features: chenier, beach

  11. 77 FR 67442 - Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Soo Line Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Northern Plains Railroad, Inc.--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Soo Line Railroad Company Soo Line Railroad Company (Soo Line), pursuant to a written agreement dated October 4, 2012, has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Northern Plains Railroad, Inc....

  12. Methane emission from fixed dome biogas plants in hilly and plain regions of northern India.

    PubMed

    Khoiyangbam, R S; Kumar, Sushil; Jain, M C; Gupta, Navindu; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Vinod

    2004-10-01

    Methane emissions from the slurry displacement chambers of different fixed dome type biogas plants (Capacity 2 m3) installed in hilly and plain regions of northern India were quantitatively estimated. The slurry temperature in the biogas plants in the hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh at an altitude of 1300 m above mean sea level remains below the lower mesophilic range (16-25 degrees C) during most part of the year. Difference in the ambient temperature under the two climatic conditions of Hills and plain regions affects the CH4 flux. Methane fluxes from the plants ranged between 7 and 120 gm(-2) d(-1). In northern plain, temperature remains warm (21-33 degrees C) throughout the year except during winter (December to January) when there is a steep fall. Seasonal emission of CH4 ranged between 10 and 178 gm(-2) d(-1). The annual average methane emission from the biogas plants in plain areas was 83.1 gm(-2) d(-1) as compared to 43.1 gm(-2) d(-1)in the hilly areas. Annual contribution per plant to the global methane budget from a fixed dome biogas plant (Cap 2 m3) in plain region of northern India was 53.2 kg as compared 22.3 kg in hilly area. PMID:15207292

  13. Geomorphic evidence for an eolian contribution to the formation of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars have many morphologic characteristics that are uncommon or absent on the rest of the planet. Mariner 9 and Viking images obtained north of latitude 30 deg N revealed 'smooth' and 'mottled' plains of an uncertain origin. Some or all of the northern plains were interpreted to consist of lava plains intermixed with eolian and volcanic materials thick eolian mantles that buried portions of the mid latitudes periglacial deposits resulting from the presence of ground ice and as water-transported sediments derived from fluvial runoff, lacustrine deposition in standing bodies of water, or glacial runoff. The highest-resolution Viking images show many intriguing details that may provide clues to the origin of this complex and distinctive terrain. Some of the informative features present in the best Viking images, comparing the observations to what may be expected from various hypotheses of formation, are reviewed. While the results are not conclusive for any single hypothesis, eolian processes have played a major role in the erosion (and possibly deposition) of the materials that make up the surface exposures in the Martian northern plains.

  14. National coal resource assessment: Fort Union coals of the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.; Ellis, M.S. |

    1996-12-31

    The present investigation assesses geologic controls on the distribution, resource occurrence, and quality of the Paleocene Fort Union and equivalent coals in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. Results of this investigation will assist in predicting areas wit h high quality coals that will be available for development. Published products will include digital output and hard copy readily accessible for analysis and utilization.

  15. Grasshopper responses to fire and postfire grazing in the northern Great Plains vary among species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland management practices such as burning and grazing management may affect grasshopper populations by impacting development, survival and reproduction. Experiments are lacking in the northern Great Plains examining the effects of fire and grazing intensity on grasshoppers. As part of a larger ...

  16. Genotypic diversity of Beauveria bassiana isolates in Acridids from the Northern Plains of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beauveria bassiana is naturally present in grasshopper populations of the U.S. Northern Plains. It is often rare in a population, but at times can reach a prevalence of 10-15%. One strain, GHA, is registered in the U.S. for use against grasshoppers as well as other insects. We explored the genotypic...

  17. Adaptation of Pulse Crops to the Changing Climate of the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate over the northern Great Plains has generally warmed over the last 60 yr. The rate of warming has varied temporally and spatially, confounding trend analysis for climate indicators such as increased length of the growing season. Change in precipitation has been even more variable. Despite thi...

  18. Evidence for Wind-Driven Rain Erosion on Sunflower Stubble Land in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-crop production systems in the northern Great Plains have undergone species diversification to include those with non-durable residues. To assess hazards when lands with such crops are tilled or fallowed, a wind erosion study was established in central North Dakota on silt loam soil (Haplustoll...

  19. Validating Northern Texas High Plains groundwater model with data from observation wells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diminishing groundwater supplies will severely reduce regional crop and animal production in the Northern High Plains of Texas where irrigated crop production accounts for a major portion of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer. The objective of this study was to develop, calibrate and...

  20. Global Warming Potential of Long-Term Grazing Management Systems in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing lands in the northern Great Plains of North America are extensive, occupying over 50 Mha. Yet grazing land contributions to, or mitigation of, global warming potential (GWP) is largely unknown for the region. The objective of this study was to estimate GWP for three long-term (70 to 90 yr)...

  1. Crop Diversification and Management System Influence Yield and Weeds in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Available water, depleted soil quality, and weed competition are major constraints to dryland crop production in the northern Great Plains. We initiated a trial in 2004 comparing four crop rotations, with each rotational component in a two-by-two matrix of tillage (conventional vs. zero tillage) an...

  2. Water-level records for the northern High Plains of Colorado, 1979-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blattner, Joe L.; Rasmuson, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Water-level measurements were made in 638 wells in the winter of 1982-83, in the northern High Plains of Colorado. The water-level measurements for the winter of 1982-83 and for four preceding winters are given in a table, which also contains the location, depth, land-surface elevation and the aquifer for each well. (USGS)

  3. Inmigrants to the Northern Great Plains: Survey Results from Nebraska and North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leistritz, F. Larry; Cordes, Sam; Sell, Randall S.; Allen, John C.; Filkins, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    A study of characteristics and motives of migrants to the Northern Great Plains surveyed 1,590 new residents in Nebraska and North Dakota. New arrivals were younger and had higher educational levels than existing residents. Most often cited reasons for moving were desire to be closer to relatives, safety concerns, and quality of the natural…

  4. USDA Northern Plains Regional Climate Hub assessment of climate change variability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers, farmers and forest land owners in the Northern Plains have experienced warmer temperatures (1 to 1.5 degrees F), longer growing seasons (about a week and a half) and generally more precipitation (5 to >15% increases over the eastern 2/3 of this region) over the past twenty years compared t...

  5. Groundwater levels in Northern Texas High Plains:Baseline for existing agricultural management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New groundwater policies are being debated for the northern High Plains of Texas due to the depletion of the underlying Ogallala Aquifer, the major source of water for irrigation, and they should be thoroughly evaluated using a calibrated groundwater model for assessing the impact on subsequent grou...

  6. Early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production systems: II. Development of replacement heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate effects of weaning heifer calves early (approx. 80-d) or at the normal (approx. 215-d) weaning age on BW gain to 215-d, subsequent BW gain, luteal activity, and pregnancy rate in two herds located in the Northern Great Plains. In exp. 1 and 2, heifer calves fr...

  7. Particulate matter concentrations for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. Producers may maintain a deep-bedded manure pack (Pack), they may remove all bedding/manure material from the pens weekly (Scrape), or use a combination of management styles...

  8. Developing the 18th indicator for interpreting indicators of rangeland health on Northern Great Plains rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National Resources Inventory (NRI) resource assessment report shows little to no departure on Rangeland Health for most Northern Great Plains Rangelands. This information is supported by Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) data collected at local to regional scales. There is however a...

  9. Seasonal weather-related decision making for cattle production in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High inter-annual variability of seasonal weather patterns can greatly affect forage and therefore livestock production in the Northern Great Plains. This variability can make it difficult for ranchers to set yearly stocking rates, particularly in advance of the grazing season. To better understand ...

  10. Low-dose glyphosate does not control annual bromes in the northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual bromes (downy brome and Japanese brome) have been shown to decrease perennial grass forage production and alter ecosystem functions in northern Great Plains rangelands. Large-scale chemical control might be a method for increasing rangeland forage production if low application rates confer co...

  11. Effects of sea level rise on deltaic coastal marshlands, Mississippi River deltaic plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.E.; Penland, S. ); Roberts, H.H.; Coleman, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Low-relief deltaic coastal plains commonly experience land loss because of the cumulative effects of natural and human-induced processes. Although it is difficult to separate the individual factors within the overall process, interplay between these factors can result in a rate of relative sea level rise greater than the natural rate of coastal-plain aggradation that causes land loss. Between 1956 and 1978, about 11,400 and 2,490 ha of marsh were lost in east Texas and Mississippi, respectively. Louisiana's loss was 18,755 ha. Relative sea level rise over the last 65 yr has averaged 0.23 cm/yr in the Gulf and as much as 1-1.5 cm/yr in the delta plain. The Environmental Protection Agency predicts the rate of sea level rise to increase over the next century. Rates of relative sea level rise for the Gulf of Mexico are expected to increase from 0.23-1.5 cm/yr to 0.6-3.7 cm/yr. The current rate of relative sea level rise and land loss in the subsiding Mississippi delta is a response that can be expected for many US coastal areas over the next century. With the predicted change, the Mississippi River delta complex will experience dramatically increased rates of land loss. Isles Dernieres will disappear by the year 2000, and Plaquemines and Terrebonne marshes will be gone between 2020 and 2080. Based on the lowest predicted sea level rise rate, by the year 2100, the delta plain could be reduced from 150.9 {times} 10{sup 3} ha to 29.8 x 10{sup 3} ha or to 4.9 {times} 10{sup 3} ha if calculations are based on the highest rate.

  12. Novel microsatellites for Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae) endemic to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of South America1

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Arias, Gustavo Adolfo; Mäder, Geraldo; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Freitas, Loreta B.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae) is a petunia species restricted to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of South America and presents a recent history of colonization from continental to coastal environments and diversification following the formation of the Coastal Plain during the Quaternary period. Methods and Results: This study reports a suite of 16 microsatellite loci for C. heterophylla. The applicability of these markers was assessed by genotyping 57 individuals from two natural populations. Of the 16 described loci, 12 were found to be polymorphic. Successful cross-amplification tests were obtained using 12 Calibrachoa species. Conclusions: The development of microsatellite markers will be useful to recover the contemporary history of the colonization of the Coastal Plain and to provide information for the conservation of this endemic species. PMID:26191462

  13. Geochemical evolution of the northern plains of Mars: Early hydrosphere, carbonate development, and present morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, M.W. )

    1990-08-30

    It is likely that early in Mars' history, abundant liquid water was available. Under a thick (several bars) carbon dioxide atmosphere, this water could have formed an ocean, located primarily in the lowlands of the northern hemisphere. An equilibrium geochemical model of this ocean and its interactions with the atmosphere and regolith of Mars was developed, and the results of this model were used to discuss the evolution of the volatile budget of Mars, including the deposition of large carbonate beds on the northern plains. Differential solutional weathering of these carbonate beds may have caused the formation of some of the enigmatic features seen on the northern plains of Mars, such as the thumbprint terrain and enclosed depressions.

  14. Age of fracturing and mesa development in the Elysium Area, northern Martian plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.

    1987-01-01

    One of the fundamental questions of Martian crustal history is the origin of the crustal dichotomy between northern plains and southern highlands. Hypotheses for the origin of the dichotomy may be constrained by global scale, geophysical considerations, or by detailed geological studies of the genesis and relative ages of materials and landforms in the northern plains of Mars and along the boundary between the plains and the highlands. This abstract summarizes progress on one aspect of a long-range geological study intended to constrain hypotheses for the dichotomy by tracing the history of the northern plains from the most recent events backward -- essentially the same approach used to understand old events in Earth history. Both the giant impact and the mantle convection models for the crustal dichotomy imply a major coeval fracturing event. As has been known for some time, the present dichotomy boundary lies well south of its original position, at least in some places. Nevertheless, there is severe fracturing of this present dichotomy boundary in many places. The specific objectives of this study are to determine the ages of fracturing along the present dichotomy boundary.

  15. Estimating SGD flux in the Pingtung Plain coastal area by using Radon and Radium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Chang, Yao; Chieh Su, Chih

    2015-04-01

    In the past two decades, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway to transport material into coastal area. Our study area is located at Pingtung Plain which is the second largest plain in Taiwan with three major rivers, including Gaoping, Donggang and Linbian Rivers, flow through the plain. The Gaoping River, which has the largest drainage area, flows throughout the central part of the plain. The Pingtung Plain composed by four aquifers in different depths (0, 50, 100, and 200 m) and each layer extends to coastal area. Groundwater is an important water resource for local agriculture and aquaculture. However, the long-term over-pumping induced subsidence problem makes salinization at some coastal area. Some previous studies pointed out the SGD accounts for 80% or more of the mass of freshwater in Fangshan coast, depends on salinity and stable isotopes research. In this study, the radioactive tracers, Radon (222Rn, T1/2=3.8 d) and short-lived Ra isotopes (223Ra, T1/2=11.4 d & 224Ra, T1/2=3.6 d) are used in tracing SGD off the Pingtung Plain. During 2013 to 2014, the terrestrial water samples were collected from Gaoping, Donggang, Linbian Rivers and springs in different seasons. We also conducted two coastal waters cruises by using R/V Ocean Researcher 3 (OR3-1768 and 1799 cruises in May and September 2014). Continuous 222Rn was measured by RAD7 equipped with RAD-AQUA system and large volume (20 L) seawater samples were collected by CTD/Rosette water sampler with Niskin sterile bottles. Water samples were flow through Mn-fiber (flow rate < 1 LPM) to concentrate the Ra isotopes, and counted via RaDeCC system. In spatial variation, our result shows the excess 224Ra in the downstream of Gaoping River (2.39 dpm 100L-1) is higher than upstream (1.09 dpm 100L-1). It indicates the groundwater input may play an important role at the downstream of Gaoping River. For temporal variation, excess 224Ra in the Gaoping River are higher in wet

  16. Coastal Evolution of the Mississippi River Chenier Plain: A Geomorphic Process-Response Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, R. A.; Taylor, M. J.; Byrnes, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    Using 28 topographic profiles, air-photo interpretation, and historical shoreline-change data, coastal processes were evaluated along the Mississippi River Chenier Plain to explain the occurrence, distribution, and geomorphic hierarchy of primary landforms. The Louisiana Chenier Plain, classified as a low-profile, microtidal, storm- dominated coast, is located west and downdrift of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. This late-Holocene, marginal-deltaic environment is 200 km long, less than 30 km wide, and composed of mud deposits capped by marsh interspersed with thin sand- and shell-rich ridges ("cheniers") that are less than 4 m in elevation. Most Chenier-Plain ridges represent open-Gulf paleoshorelines. Past shoreline morphodynamics allow ridges to be classified as transgressive (cheniers), regressive (beach ridges), or laterally accreted (spits). Geomorphic zones that contain two or more regressive, transgressive, or laterally accreted ridges are termed complexes. Consequently, we further refine the Chenier-Plain definition by Otvos and Price (1979, Marine Geology) and define Chenier Plain as containing at least two or more chenier complexes. As such, a geomorphic hierarchy of landforms is devised relative to dominant coastal process. The Chenier Plain is defined as a first-order feature (5000 km2) composed of three second-order features (30 to 300 km2): chenier complex, beach ridge complex, and spit complex. Individual ridges of each complex type were further separated into third-order features: chenier, beach ridge, and spit. To understand long-term evolution of the Chenier Plain, modern tidal-inlet processes operating at Sabine, Calcasieu, and Mermentau river entrances were also examined relative to the inlet-stability ratio. Prior to human modification and stabilization efforts, the Mermentau River entrance is classified as wave-dominated, Sabine Pass as tide-dominated, and Calcasieu Pass as tide-dominated to mixed. Hoyt (1969, American Association of

  17. Coastal Fog Sustains Summer Baseflow in Northern Californian Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, M.; Dufour, A.; Leonardson, R.; Thompson, S. E.; Dawson, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Mediterranean climate of Northern California imposes significant water stress on ecosystems and water resources during the dry summer months. During summer, frequently the only water inputs occur as occult precipitation, in the form of fog and dew. In this study, we characterized the role of coastal fog, a dominant feature of Northern Californian coastal ecosystems and a widespread phenomenon associated with deep marine upwelling in west coast, arid, and Mediterranean climates worldwide. We monitored fog occurrence and intensity, throughfall following canopy interception of fog, soil moisture, streamflow, and meteorological variables, and made visual observations of the spatial extent of fog using time-lapse imagery in Upper Pilarcitos Creek Watershed (managed by San Francisco Public Utilities Commission as part of the San Francisco area water supply). We adopted a stratified sampling design that captured the watershed's elevation gradient, forest-edge versus interior locations, and different vegetation cover. The point-scale observations of throughfall inputs and transpiration suppression, estimated from the Penman equation, were upscaled using such watershed features and the observed fog "footprint" identified from the time-lapse images. When throughfall input and fog-induced transpiration suppression were incorporated into the operational watershed model, they improved estimates of summer baseflow, which remained persistently higher than could be explained without the fog effects. Fog, although providing relatively small volumetric inputs to the water balance, appears to offer significant relief of water stress throughout the terrestrial and aquatic components of the coastal Californian ecosystem and thus should be accounted for when assessing water stress availability in dry ecosystems.

  18. Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and human evolution on the southern coastal plain of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, John S.

    2011-03-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where and how remain unclear. Here it is proposed that the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa may have served as a geographical point of origin through periodic expansion and contraction (isolation) in response to glacial/interglacial changes in sea level and climate. During Pleistocene interglacial highstands when sea level was above -75 m human populations were isolated for periods of 360-3400 25-yr generations on the SCP by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt, climate and vegetation barriers. The SCP expands five-fold as sea level falls from -75 to -120 m during glacial maxima to form a continuous, unobstructed coastal plain accessible to the interior. An expanded and wet glacial SCP may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds and resulted in the mixing of previously isolated groups. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Successful adaptations developed on an isolated SCP are predicted to widely disperse during glacial terminations when the SCP rapidly contracts or during the initial opening of the SCP in the transition to glacial maxima. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the SCP, as well as the coastal plain of North Africa, contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years (kyr) is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records. These records generally support the hypothesis, but more complete and well dated records are required to resolve the extent to which sea-level fluctuations influenced the complex history of human evolution.

  19. Reactivated basement structures in the central Savannah River area and their relationship to coastal plain deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbest, R.J.; Price, V. ); Temples, T.J. ); Fallaw, W.C. . Dept. of Geology); Snipes, D.S. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Structural surface mapping and geophysical studies have identified several faults in the crystalline basement and overlying Coastal Plain sedimentary sequences in the central Savannah River area. Major subsurface basement shear zones occur parallel to and near Upper Three Runs Creek and Tinker Creek and are associated with linear aeromagnetic anomalies. Reflection seismic imaging of the basement shows a band of southeast dipping events parallel to Upper Three Runs Creek. Drill core from basement contain phyllonites, mylonites, fault breccia and pseudotachylite. The magnetic anomalies also mark the boundary separating greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks from amphibolite facies felsic gneiss, schist, and amphibolite. These features are similar to those that characterize other Paleozoic faults of the Eastern Piedmont Fault system. Reflection seismic imaging shows the sub-Cretaceous unconformity as well defined and easily identified event as well as easily traced laterally extensive events in Coastal Plain sequences. The unconformity and sedimentary sequences are faulted or deformed in several locations which also coincide with changes in dip of the unconformity. In the vicinity of Upper Three Runs Creek the unconformity shows a broad warping across which the elevation drops to the southeast and sedimentary sequences show a marked rate of thickening southeast. This indicates deformation of the basement exerted a control on deposition of the Coastal Plain sediments with down to the southeast movement. The basement shear zones are closely associated with the Dunbarton basin and are probable reactivated Paleozoic structures associated with extensional basin development as commonly seen associated with extensional basins on the east coast of North America.

  20. Impacts of sewage effluent on tree survival, water quality and nutrient removal in coastal plain swamps

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenzler, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    An investigation was conducted of the impacts of sprayed municipal sewage on swamp tree survival and the effects of the swamp system on nutrient concentrations below the outfalls on two streams on the coastal plain of North Carolina. Effluent was discharged to one swamp stream by aerial spraying and to the other stream by way of a small ditch. Ninety-eight percent of the trees struck directly by the spray were dead within 18 months of the date spraying began. Both swamp systems removed sufficient quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus within a few kilometers to account for virtually all of the sewage nutrient load to the swamps.

  1. Potential Oil Production from Coastal Plain of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) received a letter (dated March 10, 2000) from Senator Frank H. Murkowski as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requesting an EIA Service Report with plausible scenarios for the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) supply development consistent with the most recent U.S. Geological Survey resource assessments. This service report is prepared in response to the request of Senator Murkowski. It focuses on the ANWR coastal plain, a region currently restricted from exploration and development, and updates EIA's 1987 ANWR assessment.

  2. Assessment of forest plantations from low altitude aerial photography. [North Carolina coastal plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical color, and color-infrared, aerial photography obtained from altitudes between 183 m and 915 m provide a cost effective method of determining tree survival and height growth in pine plantations on the North Carolina Coastal Plain. All interpretations were performed by professional forestry personnel from the original 70 mm color transparencies. Prompt assessment of tree survival is necessary if failed spots are to be successfully replanted. Counts of living trees made after the third growing season, and sometimes only two growing seasons after planting, are accurate enough to permit planning of replanting operations without extensive ground surveys.

  3. Late Cenozoic stages and molluscan zones of the U.S. Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwelder, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Pliocene to Holocene deposits of the U.S.Atlantic Coastal Plain from Maryland to Georgia are divided into four stages and four substages using molluscan biostratigraphic data. These divisions are the Wiltonian and Burwellian Stages (early Pliocene), Gouldian and Windyan Substages of the Colerainian Stage (late Pliocene to early Pleistocene), and Myrtlean and Yongesian Substages of the Longian Stage (late Pleistocene to Holocene). These stages may be recognized from Florida to as far north as Massachusetts and will facilitate correlation with other regions.-Author

  4. Distribution and altitude of the top of saline ground water in the southeastern coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Roger W.; DeJarnette, Sydney S.; Barker, Rene A.

    1986-01-01

    A map prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey shows the approximate distribution of saline water (greater than 10,000 mg/L as NaCl) in the Southeastern Coastal Plain. The primary distribution of saline water is in Cretaceous sediments and may be characterized as an extensive body of fluid whose upper surface generally slopes upward from inland toward coastal areas. Some freshwater appears to occupy parts of the deeper water-bearing zones in Georgia. A small amount of saline water appears to occupy a narrow upper zone of limited extent in lower Tertiary sediments in Georgia and parts of South Carolina. The freshwater-saline water interface for the lower zone lies offshore, east of the South Carolina coast. Consequently, the saline water distribution is inferred offshore. (USGS)

  5. The Pilbara coast: a riverine coastal plain in a tropical arid setting, northwestern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, V.

    1993-03-01

    The unifying feature of the Pilbara Coast of northwestern Australia is that it is a sedimentary repository for a range of rivers that drains a high-relief Precambrian rocky hinterland and discharges sediments along a coastal plain which fronts a wave-dominated environment in a tropical arid climate. The combination of fluvial and shoreline accretion processes, coastal cementation, coastal erosion, and ancestral landform architecture, such as residual Pleistocene limestone ridges and large outcrops of Precambrian bedrock, has produced a complex coastal system during the Quaternary. As a result, the coast is dominated by active deltas, beach/dune shores, inactive, eroding parts of deltas and their barriers, limestone barrier coasts, bays associated with eroded limestone barriers, and archipelago/ria coasts. Quaternary sediments throughout the area, while varied in their distribution and history at the smaller scales, exhibit a recurring pattern of lithotopes and lithologies in the region. There are three main Quaternary suites: Pleistocene red siliciclastic sediments (alluvium, deltaic sediments, and aeolian sand) that form an inland zone; Pleistocene limestones that form local barriers; and a Holocene system, within which are the sedimentary suites of deltas, beach/dunes, tidal-flats, and tidal-embayments.

  6. Coastal SAR Altimetry: An Experiment in the Northern Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2013-04-01

    backscattered power distribution vs. Doppler beam angle as achieved integrating the SAR STACK's power echoes. This RMSS parameter is an indicator of how much specular or diffusive is the surface illuminated by the radar. The RMSS parameter will be hence fed as input in the SAMOSA Physical Model in order to adapt the model itself automatically to the changed water scenario conditions, turning the model's classic long-tail SAR waveform into a very peaky waveform. THE SAMOSA model will be implemented in its full analytical formulation (zero-order and first-order term), neglecting only the effect of the water surface skewness. The benefit of this methodology is that we use either for open ocean conditions either for coastal still water conditions the same model and re-tracker scheme, avoiding hence any bias or discontinuity in height, typically occurring when one swaps waveform model or re-tracker scheme during the same pass. The experiment will be run at the wetlands of the Volga's Delta in the Northern Caspian Sea in summer time. CryoSat-2 is covering the area in SAR mode and along the passes, the instrument is facing an abrupt transition from diffusive open sea condition to very specular water conditions over the Volga's Delta wetlands. Hence, this seems to be the ideal environment where to test the proposed methodology.

  7. A New Strategy to Land Precisely on the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yang; Huertas, Andres

    2010-01-01

    During the Phoenix mission landing site selection process, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images revealed widely spread and dense rock fields in the northern plains. Automatic rock mapping and subsequent statistical analyses showed 30-90% CFA (cumulative fractional area) covered by rocks larger than 1 meter in dense rock fields around craters. Less dense rock fields had 5-30% rock coverage in terrain away from craters. Detectable meter-scale boulders were found nearly everywhere. These rocks present a risk to spacecraft safety during landing. However, they are the most salient topographic features in this region, and can be good landmarks for spacecraft localization during landing. In this paper we present a novel strategy that uses abundance of rocks in northern plains for spacecraft localization. The paper discusses this approach in three sections: a rock-based landmark terrain relative navigation (TRN) algorithm; the TRN algorithm feasibility; and conclusions.

  8. History of transcontinental railroads and coal mining on the Northern Plains to 1920

    SciTech Connect

    Bryans, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    This history examines the symbiotic relationship between three transcontinental railroads-the Union Pacific, Northern Pacific, and Great Northern-and coal mining in Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming through 1920. Throughout their dual existence, American railroads and the coal industry enjoyed a mutually beneficial association. On the Northern Plains, however, this partnership assumed new dimensions. There, the coal and rails exerted unique influences upon one another. The location of deposits determined many of the transcontinentals' early decisions, especially route selection. The native fuel also was used to promote settlement on railroad lands. Two of the roads, the Union Pacific and Northern Pacific, held land grants containing valuable deposits. The Great Northern, having no such subsidy, acquired coal lands in northern Montana. On these properties, the three railroads pioneered the region's commercial coal mining industry. Eventually, each formed subsidiaries to direct their coal operations. While much of their production supplied steam locomotives, some was sold to the public. Furthermore, the policies of the Northern Pacific and Great Northern especially enabled their coal to stimulate non-railroad enterprises. In addition, all three provided the transportation which made exploitation by others economically feasible.

  9. Geochemical evolution of the northern plains of Mars - Early hydrosphere, carbonate development, and present morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Martha W.

    1990-01-01

    An equilibrium geochemical model of the primitive Martian atmosphere-regolith-ocean system that could have existed early in the history of Mars is developed. The results of this model are used to examine the evolution of the volatile budget of Mars and the processes occurring in the Martian ocean that may have contributed to the deposition of large carbonate beds on the northern plains. Results of this model are compared to those of the Pollack et al. (1987) model.

  10. Geochronology of upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Tew, B.H. Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL )

    1994-03-01

    Four samples of glauconitic sand from upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain were analyzed for conventional potassium-argon (K-Ar) age determination. Results from these analyses are as follows: Coal Bluff Marl Member of the Naheola Formation of the Midway Group (58.2 [+-] 1.5 MA), Ostrea thirsae beds of the Nanafalia Formation of the Wilcox Group (56.3 [+-] 1.5 MA), upper Tuscahoma Sand of the Wilcox Group (54.5 [+-] 1.4 MA), and Bashi Marl Member of the Hatchetigbee Formation of the Wilcox Group (53.4 [+-] 1.4 MA). The Nanafalia Formation (Wilcox Group) disconformably overlies the Naheola Formation (Midway Group), and based on the data presented here, the age of this unconformity is bracketed between 59.7 and 54.8 MA. The Paleocene-Eocene Epoch boundary occurs in the Wilcox Group and coincides with the lithostratigraphic contact of the upper Paleocene Tuscahoma Sand with the lower eocene Hatchetigbee Formation. The age of this boundary, which is also an unconformity, can be placed between 55.9 and 52.0 MA. The K-Ar age dates for this boundary in the Gulf Coastal Plain compare favorably with the numerical limits placed on the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in the published literature. Generally, the Paleocene-Eocene Epoch boundary is reported as approximately 54 to 55 MA.

  11. Paleolimnological reconstruction of Holocene environments in wetland ponds of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Gaiser, E.E.; Taylor, B.E.

    1995-06-01

    The paleohydrology and paleoecology of Carolina bays and upland wetland ponds on the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina are being investigated to reconstruct environmental changes brought about by long-term variation in the climate of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain. Cores were taken in transacts through Flamingo Bay, a temporary pond on the SRS, to determine the vertical and horizontal sediment particle size and diatom, plant phytolith and sponge spicule microfossils. Stratigraphic data were used to construct a 3-dimensional map of the basin. In conjunction with archaeological data from the rim of the pond, physical stratigraphic data indicate a decrease in pond size and depth during the past 10,000 years. In order to infer past ecological settings from the fossil record, a survey to determine microhabitat requirements of regional diatom flora was undertaken in 43 temporary ponds throughout the coastal plain of South Carolina. The relationships between diatom assemblages and environmental variables were assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Variables contributing significantly to the diatom-environment relationship included surface core location (near shore or pelagic), water depth, hydroperiod, microhabitat substrate, and sampling date, in order of decreasing influence. Strong relationships of diatom assemblages to drought frequency within and among basins provides a reliable basis for water level reconstruction in upland temporary ponds.

  12. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  13. Salinization processes in an alluvial coastal lowland plain and effect of sea water level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, Nguyen Cao; Hang, Nguyen Thi Minh; Araki, Hiroyuki; Yamanishi, Hiroyuki; Koga, Kenichi

    2006-03-01

    In coastal areas, groundwater and aquifer systems are easily prone to pollution and contamination. Moreover, sea level rises also threaten the viability of many coastal zones and small islands. In the Shiroishi lowland plain, southwestern Kyushu Island of Japan, some environmental problems such as land subsidence and salinity intrusion due to over pumping of groundwater have long been recognized as water problems and become causes for public concern. In this study, an integrated surface and groundwater model was established and applied to the Shiroishi site to simulate groundwater flow hydraulics and predict the salinity intrusion process in the alluvial lowland plain. The simulated results show that groundwater levels in the aquifer greatly vary in response to varying climatic and pumping conditions. It is also found that sea water intrusion would be expected along the coast if the current rates of groundwater exploitation continue. Furthermore, sea water intrusion with a relative rise in sea water level due to aquifer compression and global climatic change was also considered. As a result, sea water intrusion appears to extend much farther in land from the coast compared to a reference case. The study also suggests a possible alternative to mitigate the inverse effects by pumping groundwater.

  14. Documentation of revisions to the regional aquifer system analysis model of the New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voronin, Lois M.

    2004-01-01

    The model, which simulates flow in the New Jersey Coastal Plain sediments, developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) program was revised. The RASA model was revised with (1) a rediscretization of the model parameters with a finer cell size, (2) a spatially variable recharge rate that is based on rates determined by recent studies and, (3) ground-water withdrawal data from 1981 to 1998. The RASA model framework, which subdivided the Coastal Plain sediments into 10 aquifers and 9 confining units, was preserved in the revised model. A transient model that simulates flow conditions from January 1, 1968 to December 31, 1998, was constructed using 21 stress periods. The model was calibrated by attempting to match the simulated results with (1) estimated base flow for five river basins, (2) measured water levels in long-term hydrographs for 28 selected observation wells, and (3) potentiometric surfaces in the model area for 1978, 1983, 1998, 1993, and 1998 conditions. The estimated and simulated base flow in the five river basins compare well. In general, the simulated water levels matched the interpreted potentiometric surfaces and the measured water levels of the hydrographs within 25 feet.

  15. Contribution of landbird migration to the biological diversity of the northwest gulf coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Hamilton, R.B.; Powell, M.A.; Ouchley, K.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined seasonal diversity and feeding behavior of those avian species utilizing that region of the Northwest Gulf Coastal Plain known as the Chenier Plain. Field observations were conducted at three forested locations on coastal cheniers for three years (1993-95) in the spring and at one location for three years (1996-98) in autumn to determine species presence and diet. One hundred and twenty-eight species were present during the spring and 103 species in autumn. The majority of these species were migrants (103 species in spring and 89 species in autumn) and the majority of these were Nearctic/Neotropical species (73 species in spring and 66 species in autumn). The diet of these migrants was more variable than expected. Many insectivorous species were observed to consume seeds, fruit and nectar as well as insects. Because of these varied diets, many species serve as seed dispersers, occasional pollinators and important predators of herbivorus insects. Wooded areas were found to be important in providing food, cover and water for migrating species. A review of historical changes in the landscape of this area is presented and management practices designed to restore wooded habitat to this area are proposed.

  16. Quaternary climates and sea levels of the U.S. atlantic coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Szabo, B. J.; Ager, T.A.; Hazel, J.E.; Owens, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium-series dating of corals from marine deposits of the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain coupled with paleodimatic reconstructions based on ostracode (marine) and pollen (continent) data document at least five relatively warm intervals during the last 500,000 years. On the basis of multiple paleoenvironmental criteria, we determined relative sea level positions during the warm intervals, relative to present mean sea level, were 7 ?? 5 meters at 188,000 years ago, 7.5 ??1.5 meters at 120,000 years ago, 6.5 ?? 3.5 meters at 94,000 years ago, and 7 ?? 3 meters at 72,000 years ago. The composite sea level chronology for the Atlantic Coastal Plain is inconsistent with independent estimates of eustatic sea level positions during interglacial intervals of the last 200,000 years. Hydroisostatic adjustment from glacial-interglacial sea level fluctuations, lithospheric flexure, and isostatic uplift from sediment unloading due to erosion provide possible mechanisms to account for the discrepancies. Alternatively, current eustatic sea level estimates for the middle and late Quaternary may require revision.

  17. Diversity and Life Histories in Freshwater Mussel Communities of the Gulf Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, W. R.; Warren, M. L.

    2005-05-01

    The Gulf Coastal Plain supports a diverse mussel fauna including many endemic species. Richness among drainages was associated strongly and positively with watershed size. Assemblage similarity among drainages identified three major faunal groupings: Pontchartrain-Pearl-Pascagoula-Mobile; Escambia-Choctawhatchee; and Apalachicola-Ochlockonee-Suwannee. The Escambia-Choctawhatchee showed greater affinity to the Apalachicola than to the Mobile Basin. Patterns of mussel assemblages among drainages were associated strongly with fish assemblages suggesting two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: 1) biogeographic history affected both groups similarly, and 2) the fish host relationship was important in shaping mussel communities. Based on interspecific variation in life history traits including host use, longevity, offspring size, and fecundity, we established seven guilds to represent regional diversity in life history strategies. The number of guilds decreased from west to east indicating reduced ecological complexity. For widely represented guilds, drainages showed either 1) similar guild composition because of replacement by ecologically similar species, or 2) a shift in dominance among guilds along a west-east continuum. This dichotomy cannot be reconciled currently because data are lacking for numerous species of Elliptio, a dominant genus in eastern Gulf Coastal Plain mussel communities. This information gap illustrates the abundant opportunities for ecological research in the region.

  18. Quaternary climates and sea levels of the u.s. Atlantic coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Cronin, T M; Szabo, B J; Ager, T A; Hazel, J E; Owens, J P

    1981-01-16

    Uranium-series dating of corals from marine deposits of the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain coupled with paleoclimatic reconstructions based on ostracode (marine) and pollen (continent) data document at least five relatively warm intervals during the last 500,000 years. On the basis of multiple paleoenvironmental criteria, we determined relative sea level positions during the warm intervals, relative to present mean sea level, were 7 +/- 5 meters at 188,000 years ago, 7.5 +/- 1.5 meters at 120,000 years ago, 6.5 +/- 3.5 meters at 94,000 years ago, and 7 +/- 3 meters at 72,000 years ago. The composite sea level chronology for the Atlantic Coastal Plain is inconsistent with independent estimates of eustatic sea level positions during interglacial intervals of the last 200,000 years. Hydroisostatic adjustment from glacial-interglacial sea level fluctuations, lithospheric flexure, and isostatic uplift from sediment unloading due to erosion provide possible mechanisms to account for the discrepancies. Alternatively, current eustatic sea level estimates for the middle and late Quaternary may require revision. PMID:17748008

  19. Estimated areal extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sidle, John G.; Johnson, D.H.; Euliss, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    During 1997-1998, we undertook an aerial survey, with an aerial line-intercept technique, to estimate the extent of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the northern Great Plains states of Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming. We stratified the survey based on knowledge of colony locations, computed 2 types of estimates for each stratum, and combined ratio estimates for high-density strata with average density estimates for low-density strata. Estimates of colony areas for black-tailed prairie dogs were derived from the average percentages of lines intercepting prairie dog colonies and ratio estimators. We selected the best estimator based on the correlation between length of transect line and length of intercepted colonies. Active colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied 2,377.8 km2 i?? 186.4 SE, whereas inactive colonies occupied 560.4 i?? 89.2 km2. These data represent the 1st quantitative assessment of prairie-dog colonies in the northern Great Plains. The survey dispels popular notions that millions of square kilometers of colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs exist in the northern Great Plains and can form the basis for future survey efforts

  20. Cancer Screening in Native Americans from the Northern Plains

    PubMed Central

    Pandhi, Nancy; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Kanekar, Shalini; Petereit, Daniel G.; Smith, Maureen A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Native Americans from the Northern Plains have the highest age-adjusted cancer mortality compared to Native Americans from any other region in the U.S. Purpose This study examined the utilization and determinants of cancer screening in a large sample of Native Americans from the Northern Plains. Methods A survey was administered orally to 975 individuals in 2004â2006 from three reservations and among the urban Native American community in the service region of the Rapid City Regional Hospital. Data analysis was conducted in 2007â2008. Results Forty-four percent of individuals reported ever receiving any cancer screening. Particularly low levels were found in breast, cervical, prostate, and colon cancer screening. In multivariate analyses, the strongest determinant of receiving cancer screening overall or cancer screening for a specific cancer site was recommendation for screening by a doctor or nurse. Other determinants associated with increased likelihood of ever having cancer screening included older age, female gender, and receiving physical exams more than once a year. Increased age was a determinant of breast cancer screening and receiving physical exams was associated with cervical cancer screening. Conclusions Cancer screening was markedly underutilized in this sample of Native Americans from the Northern Plains. Future research should evaluate the potential for improving cancer screening. PMID:20307807

  1. Extent, age, and resurfacing history of the northern smooth plains on Mercury from MESSENGER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrach, Lillian R.; Robinson, Mark S.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Strom, Robert G.; Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-04-01

    MESSENGER orbital images show that the north polar region of Mercury contains smooth plains that occupy ~7% of the planetary surface area. Within the northern smooth plains (NSP) we identify two crater populations, those superposed on the NSP ("post-plains") and those partially or entirely embayed ("buried"). The existence of the second of these populations is clear evidence for volcanic resurfacing. The post-plains crater population reveals that the NSP do not exhibit statistically distinguishable subunits on the basis of crater size-frequency distributions, nor do measures of the areal density of impact craters reveal volcanically resurfaced regions within the NSP. These results suggest that the most recent outpouring of volcanic material resurfaced the majority of the region, and that this volcanic flooding emplaced the NSP over a relatively short interval of geologic time, perhaps 100 My or less. Stratigraphic embayment relationships within the buried crater population, including partial crater flooding and the presence of smaller embayed craters within the filled interiors of larger craters and basins, indicate that a minimum of two episodes of volcanic resurfacing occurred. From the inferred rim heights of embayed craters, we estimate the NSP to be regionally 0.7-1.8 km thick, with a minimum volume of volcanic material of 4 × 106 to 107 km3. Because of the uncertainty in the impact flux at Mercury, the absolute model age of the post-plains volcanism could be either ∼3.7 or ∼2.5 Ga, depending on the chronology applied.

  2. Sediment deposition in the flood plain of Stemple Creek Watershed, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Jerry C.; Finney, Vernon L.; Oster, Kenneth J.; Ritchie, Carole A.

    2004-08-01

    Over the past 150 years, major land use changes have occurred in the Stemple Creek Watershed in northern California that have caused erosion to move soils from the upland to the flood plain, stream channels, and the bay. The purpose of this study is to document the recent (1954 to present) sediment deposition patterns in the flood plain area adjacent to Stemple Creek using the 137Cesium technique. Sediment deposition ranged from 0.26 to 1.84 cm year -1 for the period from 1964 to 2002 with an average of 0.85±0.41 cm year -1. Sediment deposition rates were higher for the 1954 to 1964 period with a range of 0.31-3.50 cm year -1 and an average of 1.29±1.04 cm year -1. These data indicate that sediment deposition in the flood plain has decreased since the middle 1950s, probably related to reduction in row crop agriculture and an increase in pasturelands. This study shows that the flood plains in the Stemple Creek Watershed are a significant sink for the soils being eroded from the upland area. Given the significance of the flood plain for trapping eroded materials before they reach the stream channels or the bay, efforts need to be made to manage these flood plain areas to insure that they do not change and become a source rather than a sink for eroded materials as improved management practices on the upland areas reduce sediment input to the flood plain.

  3. Mapping the northern plains of Mars: origins, evolution and response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Costard, François; Gallagher, Colman; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hauber, Ernst; Johnsson, Andreas; Kereszturi, Akos; Platz, Thomas; Ramsdale, Jason; Reiss, Dennis; Séjourné, Antoine; Skinner, James; Swirad, Zuzanna

    2014-05-01

    An ISSI (International Space Science Institute) international team has been convened to study the Northern Plain of Mars. The northern plains are extensive, geologically young, low-lying areas that contrast in age and relief to Mars' older, heavily cratered, southern highlands. Mars' northern plains are characterised by a wealth of landforms and landscapes that have been inferred to be related to the presence of ice or ice-rich material near, beneath, or at the surface. Such landforms include 'scalloped' pits and depressions, polygonally-patterned grounds, and viscous flow features similar in form to terrestrial glacial or ice-sheet landforms. Furthermore, new (within the last few years) impact craters have exposed ice in the northern plains, and spectral data from orbiting instruments have revealed the presence of tens of percent by weight of water within the upper most ~50 cm of the martian surface at high latitudes. The northern plains comprise three linked zones: Acidalia Planitia, Utopia Planitia and Arcadia Planitia. Each region consists of a shallow basin, with the three areas are separated by low topographic divides. Our aim is to study the ice-related geomorphology of each region in order to understand the origins, evolution and response to climate change of ice on Mars. In particular, by comparing and contrasting the three separate basins we hope to determine if the processes that created the ice-related terrains are regional (perhaps basin limited) or global in scope, and whether the differing geology of each basin has an effect on the ice-related features observed there. The ISSI team is using planetary geomorphological mapping to meet this aim. Three long strips, each about 250 km wide and spanning the ~30N to ~80N latitude range have been defined and sub-teams are each mapping a single area. The group contains experts in mapping, GIS and crater counting (details in the size-frequency distribution of impact craters on a planetary surface can reveal

  4. Groundwater freshening following coastal progradation and land reclamation of the Po Plain, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, M.; Allen, D. M.; Mollema, P. N.; Capo, D.; Greggio, N.

    2015-08-01

    Many coastal areas historically were inundated by seawater, but have since undergone land reclamation to enable settlements and farming. This study focuses on the coastal unconfined aquifer in the Po Plain near Ravenna, Italy. Freshwater is present as isolated thin (1-5 m) lenses on top of brackish to saline water. Historical maps show large areas of sea inundation until approximately 150-200 years ago when coastal progradation and construction of the drainage canals began. Since then, the aquifer has been freshening from recharge. A three-dimensional SEAWAT model is used to simulate a 200-year freshening history, starting with a model domain that is saturated with seawater, and applying recharge across the top model layer. Calibration to the observed concentrations for discrete depths within many monitoring wells is remarkably good. The current distribution of freshwater is largely controlled by the drainage network. Within and adjacent to the drains, the groundwater has high salinity due to up-coning of salt water. Between drains, the surface layers of the aquifer are fresh due to the flushing action of recharge. The modeling results are consistent with cation exchange processes revealed in the groundwater chemistry and with freshwater lenses identified in electrical resistivity soundings.

  5. Greenhouse gas fluxes in southeastern U.S. coastal plain wetlands under contrasting land uses.

    PubMed

    Morse, Jennifer L; Ardón, Marcelo; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2012-01-01

    Whether through sea level rise or wetland restoration, agricultural soils in coastal areas will be inundated at increasing rates, renewing connections to sensitive surface waters and raising critical questions about environmental trade-offs. Wetland restoration is often implemented in agricultural catchments to improve water quality through nutrient removal. Yet flooding of soils can also increase production of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide and methane, representing a potential environmental trade-off. Our study aimed to quantify and compare greenhouse gas emissions from unmanaged and restored forested wetlands, as well as actively managed agricultural fields within the North Carolina coastal plain, USA. In sampling conducted once every two months over a two-year comparative study, we found that soil carbon dioxide flux (range: 8000-64 800 kg CO2 x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) comprised 66-100% of total greenhouse gas emissions from all sites and that methane emissions (range: -6.87 to 197 kg CH4 x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) were highest from permanently inundated sites, while nitrous oxide fluxes (range: -1.07 to 139 kg N2O x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) were highest in sites with lower water tables. Contrary to predictions, greenhouse gas fluxes (as CO2 equivalents) from the restored wetland were lower than from either agricultural fields or unmanaged forested wetlands. In these acidic coastal freshwater ecosystems, the conversion of agricultural fields to flooded young forested wetlands did not result in increases in greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:22471089

  6. Socioeconomic factors, attitudes and practices associated with malaria prevention in the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mexico is in the malaria pre-elimination phase; therefore, continuous assessment and understanding of the social and behavioural risk factors related to exposure to malaria are necessary to achieve the overall goal. The aim of this research was to investigate socio-economic backgrounds, attitudes and practices related with malaria in rural locations from the coastal plain of Chiapas. Methods In January 2012, 542 interviews were conducted to householders from 20 villages across the coastal plain of Chiapas. Questions were about housing conditions, protection from mosquito bites and general information of householders. Chi2 analyses were performed to see whether there was a dependence of those reported having malaria with their house conditions and their malaria preventive practices. Results were discussed and also compared statistically against those obtained 17 years ago from the same area. Results Most households had 2–5 people (73.6%), 91.6% of houses had 1–3 bedrooms. The physical structure of the houses consisted of walls mainly made of block or brick 72.3%, the floor made of cement 90.0%, while the roof made of zinc sheet 43.9%, and straw or palm 42.2%. A 23.1% of the interviewed completed elementary school and 16.6% was illiterate. A 9.9% of the residents reported at least one family member having had malaria. A 98.1% of families used some method to prevent mosquito bites; those using bed nets were 94.3%. Almost 72% of families bought products for mosquito protection. A total of 537 out of 542 families agreed with the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide and a frequency of application as often as every two months was preferred. Conclusion Housing conditions and malaria preventive practices have improved in these rural areas in 17 years, which could be in favor of malaria elimination in this area. Information generated by this study could help in the decision making about whether to use insecticide as indoor residual spraying or to

  7. Hydrologic characteristics of soils in the High Plains, northern Great Plains, and Central Texas Carbonates Regional Aquifer Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Hobbs, Ryne D.; Ihm, Laurie A.

    1990-01-01

    Certain physical characteristics of soils, including permeability, available water capacity, thickness, and topographic position, have a measurable effect on the hydrology of an area. These characteristics control the rate at which precipitation infiltrates or is transmitted through the soil, and thus they have an important role in determining the rates of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), groundwater recharge, and surface runoff. In studies of groundwater hydrology, it is useful to differentiate soils spatially according to their physical characteristics and to assign values that indicate their hydrologic responses.The principal purpose of this report is to describe the relation between the hydrologic characteristics of the soils in the study area and those environmental factors that affect the development and distribution of the soils. This objective will be achieved by (1) defining both qualitatively and quantitatively those soil characteristics that affect hydrology, and (2) classifying and delineating the boundaries of the soils in the study area according to these hydrologic characteristics.The study area includes the High Plains, Northern Great Plains, the Central Texas Carbonates, and parts of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer Systems as described by the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program (Sun, 1986, p.5and Sun, personal commun., June 1985) and shown in figures 1 through 5. The spatial patterns of the soils classified according to their quantifiable hydrologic characteristics will subsequently serve as an integral component in the analysis of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), consumptive irrigation requirements, and potential ground-water recharge of the study area.The classification system used to describe the soils in this report is compatible with that of Dugan (1986). Dugan described the same characteristics of soils that are immediately underlain by principal aquifers of

  8. Comparison of soil amendments to decrease high strength in SE USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy decision-making analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cemented subsurface layers restrict root growth in many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils. Though cementation is usually reduced by tillage, soil amendments can offer a more permanent solution if they develop aggregation. To increase aggregation, we amended 450 g of a Norfolk soil blend of 90% E ...

  9. Soil carbon sequestration with continuous no-till management of grain cropping systems in the Virginia coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon sequestration in agroecosystems represents a significant opportunity to offset a portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Climatic conditions in the Virginia coastal plain and modern production practices make it possible for high annual photosynthetic CO2 fixation. There is potential to seques...

  10. DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF A STRATIFIED UNEQUAL-PROBABILITY STREAM SURVEY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified random sample with unequal probability selection within strata was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for data from the survey include unbiased estimates of regional headwater watershed condition...