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Sample records for northern european cattle

  1. The origin of European cattle: Evidence from modern and ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Beja-Pereira, Albano; Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Vernesi, Cristiano; Ferrand, Nuno; Casoli, Antonella; Goyache, Felix; Royo, Luis J.; Conti, Serena; Lari, Martina; Martini, Andrea; Ouragh, Lahousine; Magid, Ayed; Atash, Abdulkarim; Zsolnai, Attila; Boscato, Paolo; Triantaphylidis, Costas; Ploumi, Konstantoula; Sineo, Luca; Mallegni, Francesco; Taberlet, Pierre; Erhardt, Georg; Sampietro, Lourdes; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido; Luikart, Gordon; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    Cattle domestication from wild aurochsen was among the most important innovations during the Neolithic agricultural revolution. The available genetic and archaeological evidence points to at least two major sites of domestication in India and in the Near East, where zebu and the taurine breeds would have emerged independently. Under this hypothesis, all present-day European breeds would be descended from cattle domesticated in the Near East and subsequently spread during the diffusion of herding and farming lifestyles. We present here previously undescribed genetic evidence in contrast with this view, based on mtDNA sequences from five Italian aurochsen dated between 7,000 and 17,000 years B.P. and >1,000 modern cattle from 51 breeds. Our data are compatible with local domestication events in Europe and support at least some levels of introgression from the aurochs in Italy. The distribution of genetic variation in modern cattle suggest also that different south European breeds were affected by introductions from northern Africa. If so, the European cattle may represent a more variable and valuable genetic resource than previously realized, and previous simple hypotheses regarding the domestication process and the diffusion of selected breeds should be revised. PMID:16690747

  2. Peste des petits ruminants infection among cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Tiziana; Oura, Christopher; Parida, Satya; Hoare, Richard; Frost, Lorraine; Fyumagwa, Robert; Kivaria, Fredrick; Chubwa, Chobi; Kock, Richard; Cleaveland, Sarah; Batten, Carrie

    2013-12-01

    We investigated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection in cattle and wildlife in northern Tanzania. No wildlife from protected ecosystems were seropositive. However, cattle from villages where an outbreak had occurred among small ruminants showed high PPR seropositivity, indicating that spillover infection affects cattle. Thus, cattle could be of value for PPR serosurveillance. PMID:24274684

  3. Occurrence of haemoparasites in cattle in Monduli district, northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Haji, Isihaka J; Malele, Imna; Namangala, Boniface

    2014-01-01

    Haemoparasite infections are among the most economically important cattle diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study investigated the occurrence of haemoparasites in 295 indigenous cattle from five villages (Mswakini, Lake Manyara, Naitolia, Makuyuni and Nanja) of the Monduli district, a wildlife-domestic animal-human interface area in northern Tanzania. The data showed that the overall occurrence of haemoparasites in the sampled cattle was 12.5% (95% CI: 8.7% - 16.3%), involving single and mixed infections with Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei. The highest haemoparasite occurrence was recorded in Lake Manyara (18.3%; 95% CI: 8.5% - 28.1%), and the lowest was recorded in Nanja (6.5%; 95% CI: 0.4% - 12.6%). This preliminary study, furthermore, provided evidence of the possible arthropod vectors (ticks and tsetse flies) that may be involved in the transmission of haemoparasites to cattle in the Monduli district. It is envisaged that this survey will stimulate more studies to determine the prevalence of haemoparasites in livestock by using more sensitive molecular techniques. PMID:25685864

  4. Northern European adolescent attitudes toward dating violence.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Erica; Holdsworth, Emma; Leen, Eline; Sorbring, Emma; Helsing, Bo; Jaans, Sebastian; Awouters, Valère

    2013-01-01

    A focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes toward dating violence among 86 adolescents (aged 12-17) from four northern European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium). Four superordinate themes were identified from thematic analyses: gender identities, television as the educator, perceived acceptability of dating violence, and the decision to seek help/tell someone. Although violence in relationships was generally not condoned, when violence was used by females, was unintended (despite its consequences), or was in retaliation for infidelity, violence was perceived as acceptable. Adolescents indicated that their views were stereotypical and based solely on stereotypical television portrayals of violence in relationships. Stereotypical beliefs and portrayals generate barriers for victimized males to seek help because of fear of embarrassment. PMID:24047043

  5. Prevalence of paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pozzato, N; Capello, K; Comin, A; Toft, N; Nielsen, S S; Vicenzoni, G; Arrigoni, N

    2011-10-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects multiple ruminant species causing important economic losses. Therefore, control programmes at herd and regional levels have been established worldwide and prevalence estimates are needed for their implementation. Although different herd-level prevalence estimations for paratuberculosis have been reported in Europe, very few studies provided comparable and interpretable values, due to poor study designs and lack of knowledge about the accuracy of the diagnostic tests used. To overcome these problems we applied a latent class analysis to the results of two prevalence studies carried out in two neighbouring Northern Italian regions (Lombardy and Veneto) that account for over 50% of the Italian dairy cattle population. Serum samples from a randomly selected number of farms in the two regions were analyzed by different ELISA tests. The herd-level Apparent Prevalences (AP) were 48% (190/391) for Lombardy and 65% (272/419) for Veneto. Median within-herd APs were 2.6% and 4.0% for Lombardy and Veneto, respectively. Posterior estimates for the herd-level True Prevalences (TP) based on a Bayesian model were very similar between the two regions (70% for Lombardy and 71% for Veneto) and close to previous estimates of infected herds in Europe. The two 95% credibility intervals overlap each other, virtually showing only one distribution of the herd-level true prevalence for both regions. On the contrary, estimates of the within-herd TP distributions differed between the two regions (mean values: 6.7% for Lombardy and 14.3% for Veneto), possibly due to the different age distribution within the herds from the two regions. PMID:21807432

  6. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Northern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Northern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Scandinavia, the Soviet…

  7. Effects of selenium supplementation in cattle on aquatic ecosystems in northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, B.; Nader, G.; Oliver, M.; Delmas, R.; Drake, D.; George, H. )

    1992-09-15

    The potential impact on aquatic ecosystems of supplementing the diets of beef cattle with selenium (Se) was studied on 4 northern California ranches. All study sites included an area of concentrated use by cattle that had diets supplemented with Se. In each case, a stream flowed through the site and provided a control sampling area upstream and a treated sampling area downstream. Specimens of water, sediment, algae, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, and fish were analyzed fluorometrically for total Se content. Significant differences in Se concentration were not found between specimens from upstream control areas and those from downstream areas subjected to use by Se-treated cattle. Evidence was not found that Se supplementation in cattle at maximal permitted concentrations caused Se accumulation in associated aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Particulate matter concentrations for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. Producers may maintain a deep-bedded manure pack (Pack), they may remove all bedding/manure material from the pens weekly (Scrape), or use a combination of management styles...

  9. Systemic and local anti-Mullerian hormone reflects differences in the reproduction potential of Zebu and European type cattle.

    PubMed

    Carter, Anja Stojsin-; Mahboubi, Kiana; Costa, Nathalia N; Gillis, Daniel J; Carter, Timothy F; Neal, Michael S; Miranda, Moyses S; Ohashi, Otavio M; Favetta, Laura A; King, W Allan

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate plasma anti-Mullerian hormone (Pl AMH), follicular fluid AMH (FF AMH) and granulosa cell AMH transcript (GC AMH) levels and their relationships with reproductive parameters in two cattle subspecies, Bos taurus indicus (Zebu), and Bos taurus taurus (European type cattle). Two-dimensional ultrasound examination and serum collection were performed on Zebu, European type and crossbreed cows to determine antral follicle count (AFC), ovary diameter (OD) and Pl AMH concentration. Slaughterhouse ovaries for Zebu and European type cattle were collected to determine FF AMH concentrations, GC AMH RNA levels, AFC, oocyte number, cleavage and blastocyst rate. Additionally GC AMH receptor 2 (AMHR2) RNA level was measured for European type cattle. Relationship between AMH and reproductive parameters was found to be significantly greater in Zebu compared to European cattle. Average Pl AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 0.77±0.09 and 0.33±0.24ng/ml respectively (p=0.01), whereas average antral FF AMH mean±SE for Zebu and European cattle was 4934.3±568.5 and 2977.9±214.1ng/ml respectively (p<0.05). This is the first published report of FF and GC AMH in Zebu cattle. Levels of GC AMHR2 RNA in European cattle were correlated to oocyte number (p=0.01). Crossbred animals were found more similar to their maternal Zebu counterparts with respect to their Pl AMH to AFC and OD relationships. These results demonstrate that AMH reflects differences between reproduction potential of the two cattle subspecies therefore can potentially be used as a reproductive marker. Furthermore these results reinforce the importance of separately considering the genetic backgrounds of animals when collecting or interpreting bovine AMH data for reproductive performance. PMID:26898391

  10. Wolf-cattle interactions in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since gray wolf reintroduction in 1995, wolf populations in the northern Rocky Mountains have increased dramatically. Incidents of wolf predation on livestock have increased with wolf populations. Although rough tallies of livestock death or injury losses caused by wolf predation are made each yea...

  11. Diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. in cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Jehle, C; Dinkel, A; Sander, A; Morent, M; Romig, T; Luc, P V; De, T V; Thai, V V; Mackenstedt, U

    2009-12-23

    Our aim was to develop a method for species diagnosis and to obtain data on the prevalence of Sarcocystis infections in cattle and water buffalo in the Son La Province of Northern Vietnam. Meat samples of naturally infected animals were examined by light and electron microscopy as well as by molecular methods. A PCR of part of the 18S rDNA gene followed by RFLP analysis was modified to detect infections with different Sarcocystis spp. in cattle and water buffaloes slaughtered in the Son La Province. It showed to be an economical method to detect multiple infections with Sarcocystis spp. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons was performed with selected samples and the results were compared with published sequences. With these methods the following Sarcocystis spp. were identified in cattle: Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis cruzi and Sarcocystis hominis. Water buffaloes were infected with Sarcocystis fusiformis, S. cruzi, S. hominis and S. hirsuta. The results indicate that Sarcocystis spp. infecting cattle are also able to infect water buffaloes. So the validity of certain Sarcocystis spp. of water buffalo is discussed. Bovine lifestock in Northern Vietnam were commonly infected with Sarcocystis spp. PMID:19783101

  12. Dual Origins of Dairy Cattle Farming – Evidence from a Comprehensive Survey of European Y-Chromosomal Variation

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Ginja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Tresset, Anne; Stock, Frauke; Gama, Luis T.; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Nijman, Isaäc J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings Haplogroup data were collected for 2087 animals from 138 breeds. For 111 breeds, these were resolved further by genotyping microsatellites INRA189 (10 alleles) and BM861 (2 alleles). European cattle carry exclusively taurine haplotypes, with the zebu Y-chromosomes having appreciable frequencies in Southwest Asian populations. Y1 is predominant in northern and north-western Europe, but is also observed in several Iberian breeds, as well as in Southwest Asia. A single Y1 haplotype is predominant in north-central Europe and a single Y2 haplotype in central Europe. In contrast, we found both Y1 and Y2 haplotypes in Britain, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Y-chromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea and Baltic coasts and the spotted, yellow or brown breeds from Switzerland, respectively. The present Y1-Y2 contrast in central Europe coincides with historic, linguistic, religious and cultural boundaries. PMID:21253012

  13. Prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle from Northern and Northeastern part of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Jiyipong, Tawisa; Thadtapong, Nalumon; Kengradomkij, Chanya; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis in feces of dairy cattle from the northern part and the northeastern part of Thailand. A total of 900 fecal samples were collected directly from rectum and examined by using zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis in dairy cows was 5.0 % (45/900) by zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation and 6.0 % (54/900) by PCR. Genotypes of G. duodenalis found in this study were Assemblage AI and E. The results indicated that dairy cattle may act as a potential risk of Giardia transmission among animals and humans (especially Assemblage AI). PMID:26204183

  14. Joubert syndrome: genotyping a Northern European patient cohort.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Hester Y; Monroe, Glen R; van der Zwaag, Bert; Duran, Karen J; de Kovel, Carolien G; van Roosmalen, Mark J; Harakalova, Magdalena; Nijman, Ies J; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Giles, Rachel H; Knoers, Nine V A M; van Haaften, Gijs

    2016-02-01

    Joubert syndrome (JBS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to the group of ciliary diseases. JBS is genetically heterogeneous, with >20 causative genes identified to date. A molecular diagnosis of JBS is essential for prediction of disease progression and genetic counseling. We developed a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for parallel sequencing of 22 known JBS genes plus 599 additional ciliary genes. This method was used to genotype a cohort of 51 well-phenotyped Northern European JBS cases (in some of the cases, Sanger sequencing of individual JBS genes had been performed previously). Altogether, 21 of the 51 cases (41%) harbored biallelic pathogenic mutations in known JBS genes, including 14 mutations not previously described. Mutations in C5orf42 (12%), TMEM67 (10%), and AHI1 (8%) were the most prevalent. C5orf42 mutations result in a purely neurological Joubert phenotype, in one case associated with postaxial polydactyly. Our study represents a population-based cohort of JBS patients not enriched for consanguinity, providing insight into the relative importance of the different JBS genes in a Northern European population. Mutations in C5orf42 are relatively frequent (possibly due to a Dutch founder mutation) and mutations in CEP290 are underrepresented compared with international cohorts. Furthermore, we report a case with heterozygous mutations in CC2D2A and B9D1, a gene associated with the more severe Meckel-Gruber syndrome that was recently published as a potential new JBS gene, and discuss the significance of this finding. PMID:25920555

  15. Genetic structure and relationships of 16 Asian and European cattle populations using DigiTag2 assay.

    PubMed

    Yonesaka, Riku; Sasazaki, Shinji; Yasue, Hiroshi; Niwata, Satoru; Inayoshi, Yousuke; Mukai, Fumio; Mannen, Hideyuki

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we genotyped 117 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms using a DigiTag2 assay to assess the genetic diversity, structure and relationships of 16 Eurasian cattle populations, including nine cattle breeds and seven native cattle. Phylogenetic and principal component analyses showed that Bos taurus and Bos indicus populations were clearly distinguished, whereas Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Polled clustered with European populations. Furthermore, STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated the distinct separation between Bos taurus and Bos indicus (K=2), and between European and Asian populations (K=3). In addition, Japanese Holstein exhibited an admixture pattern with Asian and European cattle (K=3-5). Mongolian (K=13-16) and Japanese Black (K=14-16) populations exhibited admixture patterns with different ancestries. Bos indicus populations exhibited a uniform genetic structure at K=2-11, thereby suggesting that there are close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations. However, the Bhutan and Bangladesh populations formed a cluster distinct from the other Bos indicus populations at K=12-16. In conclusion, our study could sufficiently explain the genetic construction of Asian cattle populations, including: (i) the close genetic relationships among Bos indicus populations; (ii) the genetic influences of European breeds on Japanese breeds; (iii) the genetic admixture in Japanese Holstein, Mongolian and Japanese Black cattle; and (iv) the genetic subpopulations in Southeast Asia. PMID:26260416

  16. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies.

    PubMed

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic. PMID:26630287

  17. Size Reduction in Early European Domestic Cattle Relates to Intensification of Neolithic Herding Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Katie; Timpson, Adrian; Shennan, Stephen; Crema, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Our analysis of over 28,000 osteometric measurements from fossil remains dating between c. 5600 and 1500 BCE reveals a substantial reduction in body mass of 33% in Neolithic central European domestic cattle. We investigate various plausible explanations for this phenotypic adaptation, dismissing climatic change as a causal factor, and further rejecting the hypothesis that it was caused by an increase in the proportion of smaller adult females in the population. Instead we find some support for the hypothesis that the size decrease was driven by a demographic shift towards smaller newborns from sub-adult breeding as a result of intensifying meat production strategies during the Neolithic. PMID:26630287

  18. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Bollongino, Ruth; Scheu, Amelie; Chamberlain, Andrew; Tresset, Anne; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Baird, Jillian F; Larson, Greger; Ho, Simon Y.W; Heupink, Tim H; Shapiro, Beth; Freeman, Abigail R; Thomas, Mark G; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Arndt, Betty; Bartosiewicz, László; Benecke, Norbert; Budja, Mihael; Chaix, Louis; Choyke, Alice M; Coqueugniot, Eric; Döhle, Hans-Jürgen; Göldner, Holger; Hartz, Sönke; Helmer, Daniel; Herzig, Barabara; Hongo, Hitomi; Mashkour, Marjan; Özdogan, Mehmet; Pucher, Erich; Roth, Georg; Schade-Lindig, Sabine; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Schulting, Rick J; Stephan, Elisabeth; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Vörös, István; Voytek, Barbara; Bradley, Daniel G; Burger, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius) was a large type of cattle that ranged over almost the whole Eurasian continent. The aurochs is the wild progenitor of modern cattle, but it is unclear whether European aurochs contributed to this process. To provide new insights into the demographic history of aurochs and domestic cattle, we have generated high-confidence mitochondrial DNA sequences from 59 archaeological skeletal finds, which were attributed to wild European cattle populations based on their chronological date and/or morphology. All pre-Neolithic aurochs belonged to the previously designated P haplogroup, indicating that this represents the Late Glacial Central European signature. We also report one new and highly divergent haplotype in a Neolithic aurochs sample from Germany, which points to greater variability during the Pleistocene. Furthermore, the Neolithic and Bronze Age samples that were classified with confidence as European aurochs using morphological criteria all carry P haplotype mitochondrial DNA, suggesting continuity of Late Glacial and Early Holocene aurochs populations in Europe. Bayesian analysis indicates that recent population growth gives a significantly better fit to our data than a constant-sized population, an observation consistent with a postglacial expansion scenario, possibly from a single European refugial population. Previous work has shown that most ancient and modern European domestic cattle carry haplotypes previously designated T. This, in combination with our new finding of a T haplotype in a very Early Neolithic site in Syria, lends persuasive support to a scenario whereby gracile Near Eastern domestic populations, carrying predominantly T haplotypes, replaced P haplotype-carrying robust autochthonous aurochs populations in Europe, from the Early Neolithic onward. During the period of coexistence, it appears that domestic cattle were kept separate from wild aurochs and introgression was extremely rare. PMID

  19. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentration and emission patterns for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mono-slope buildings are one type of roofed and confined cattle feeding facility that is becoming increasingly popular in the Northern Great Plains. In response to questions and concerns about the barn environment and air quality regulations, the objectives of this study were to determine gas concen...

  20. Site, environmental and airflow characteristics for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In conjunction with an emission monitoring study, long-term airflow and environmental data were collected from four regional producer-owned and -operated mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains. The barns were oriented east-west, with approximate dimensions of an 8-m south wal...

  1. Compilation of a panel of informative single nucleotide polymorphisms for bovine identification in the Northern Irish cattle population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal identification is pivotal in governmental agricultural policy, enabling the management of subsidy payments, movement of livestock, test scheduling and control of disease. Advances in bovine genomics have made it possible to utilise inherent genetic variability to uniquely identify individual animals by DNA profiling, much as has been achieved with humans over the past 20 years. A DNA profiling test based on bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers would offer considerable advantages over current short tandem repeat (STR) based industry standard tests, in that it would be easier to analyse and interpret. In this study, a panel of 51 genome-wide SNPs were genotyped across panels of semen DNA from 6 common breeds for the purposes of ascertaining allelic frequency. For SNPs on the same chromosome, the extent of linkage disequilbrium was determined from genotype data by Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. Minimum probabilities of unique identification were determined for each breed panel. The usefulness of this SNP panel was ascertained by comparison to the current bovine STR Stockmarks II assay. A statistically representative random sampling of bovine animals from across Northern Ireland was assembled for the purposes of determining the population allele frequency for these STR loci and subsequently, the minimal probability of unique identification they conferred in sampled bovine animals from Northern Ireland. Results 6 SNPs exhibiting a minor allele frequency of less than 0.2 in more than 3 of the breed panels were excluded. 2 Further SNPs were found to reside in coding areas of the cattle genome and were excluded from the final panel. The remaining 43 SNPs exhibited genotype frequencies which were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. SNPs on the same chromosome were observed to have no significant linkage disequilibrium/allelic association. Minimal probabilities of uniquely identifying individual animals from each of the breeds were

  2. A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate the status of brucellosis in cattle under various management systems in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, northern Nigeria. Using multi-stage sampling, serum samples of 4,745 cattle from 271 herds were tested using the Rose-Bengal plate-agglutination test (RBPT) and positives were confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Results Prevalence estimates were calculated by adjusting for sampling weights and where possible for test sensitivity and specificity. Thirty-seven percent of all animals were RBPT positive, and after confirmation with c-ELISA the overall animal-level prevalence, adjusted for sampling weights, was 26.3% (95% CI, 22.1%-31.0%). Of the herds sampled, 210 (77.5%; 95% CI, 68.6%-84.5%) had at least one animal positive to both tests; this did not differ significantly between states (P = 0.538). Mean within-herd seroprevalence in positive herds was 30.2% (95% CI, 25.3%-35.1%) and ranged from 3.1% to 85.7%. Overall animal-level seroprevalences of 29.2% (95% CI, 22.5%-36.9%) n = 1,827, 23.3% (95% CI, 18.9%-28.3%) n = 1,870 and 26.7% (95% CI, 18.8%-36.7%) n = 1,048 were observed in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, respectively (P = 0.496). A significantly higher seroprevalence was found in males (38.2%; 95% CI, 31.7%-45.2%) than in females (24.7%; 95% CI, 20.4%-29.5%) (P < 0.001) and in non-pregnant females (27.8%; 95% CI, 22.9%-33.5%) than in pregnant females (17.2%; 95% CI, 13.6%-21.5%) (P < 0.001). Seroprevalence increased with increasing age (P < 0.001), from 13.5% (95% CI, 8.9%-19.9%) in cattle <4 years to 35.0% (95% CI, 28.5%-42.3%) in cattle >7 years. Seroprevalence also varied between management systems (P < 0.001): pastoral systems 45.1% (95% CI, 38.6%-51.9%), zero-grazing systems 23.8% (95% CI, 6.8%-59.2%), agro-pastoral systems 22.0% (95% CI, 17.3%-27.8%), and commercial farms 15.9% (95% CI, 9.5%-25.5%). Seroprevalence did not differ

  3. The Influence of European Pollution on Ozone in the Near East and Northern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, B. N.; West, J. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Fiore, A. M.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution) of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average greater than 120 micrograms per cubic meters or approximately 60 ppbv) in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000) in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  4. Global prostate cancer incidence and the migration, settlement, and admixture history of the Northern Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Kristin; Wang, Christopher Y.; Wang, Ruoxiang

    2012-01-01

    The most salient feature of prostate cancer is its striking ethnic disparity. High incidences of the disease are documented in two ethnic groups: descendents of the Northern Europeans and African Americans. Other groups, including native Africans, are much less susceptible to the disease. Given that many risk factors may contribute to carcinogenesis, an etiological cause for the ethnic disparity remains to be defined. By analyzing the global prostate cancer incidence data, we found that distribution of prostate cancer incidence coincides with the migration and settlement history of Northern Europeans. The incidences in other ethnic groups correlate to the settlement history and extent of admixture of the Europeans. This study suggests that prostate cancer has been spread by the transmission of a genetic susceptibility that resides in the Northern European genome. PMID:21167803

  5. Effects of cattle management on oak regeneration in northern Californian Mediterranean oak woodlands.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Schroeder, John; Roig, Sonia; Sobral, Mar; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Oak woodlands of Mediterranean ecosystems, a major component of biodiversity hotspots in Europe and North America, have undergone significant land-use change in recent centuries, including an increase in grazing intensity due to the widespread presence of cattle. Simultaneously, a decrease in oak regeneration has been observed, suggesting a link between cattle grazing intensity and limited oak regeneration. In this study we examined the effect of cattle grazing on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) regeneration in San Francisco Bay Area, California. We studied seedling, sapling and adult density of coast live oak as well as vertebrate herbivory at 8 independent sites under two grazing conditions: with cattle and wildlife presence (n = 4) and only with wildlife (n = 4). The specific questions we addressed are: i) to what extent cattle management practices affect oak density, and ii) what is the effect of rangeland management on herbivory and size of young oak plants. In areas with cattle present, we found a 50% reduction in young oak density, and plant size was smaller, suggesting that survival and growth young plants in those areas are significantly limited. In addition, the presence of cattle raised the probability and intensity of herbivory (a 1.5 and 1.8-fold difference, respectively). These results strongly suggest that the presence of cattle significantly reduced the success of young Q. agrifolia through elevated herbivory. Given the potential impact of reduced recruitment on adult populations, modifying rangeland management practices to reduce cattle grazing pressure seems to be an important intervention to maintain Mediterranean oak woodlands. PMID:25126939

  6. Effects of Cattle Management on Oak Regeneration in Northern Californian Mediterranean Oak Woodlands

    PubMed Central

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Schroeder, John; Roig, Sonia; Sobral, Mar; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Oak woodlands of Mediterranean ecosystems, a major component of biodiversity hotspots in Europe and North America, have undergone significant land-use change in recent centuries, including an increase in grazing intensity due to the widespread presence of cattle. Simultaneously, a decrease in oak regeneration has been observed, suggesting a link between cattle grazing intensity and limited oak regeneration. In this study we examined the effect of cattle grazing on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) regeneration in San Francisco Bay Area, California. We studied seedling, sapling and adult density of coast live oak as well as vertebrate herbivory at 8 independent sites under two grazing conditions: with cattle and wildlife presence (n = 4) and only with wildlife (n = 4). The specific questions we addressed are: i) to what extent cattle management practices affect oak density, and ii) what is the effect of rangeland management on herbivory and size of young oak plants. In areas with cattle present, we found a 50% reduction in young oak density, and plant size was smaller, suggesting that survival and growth young plants in those areas are significantly limited. In addition, the presence of cattle raised the probability and intensity of herbivory (a 1.5 and 1.8-fold difference, respectively). These results strongly suggest that the presence of cattle significantly reduced the success of young Q. agrifolia through elevated herbivory. Given the potential impact of reduced recruitment on adult populations, modifying rangeland management practices to reduce cattle grazing pressure seems to be an important intervention to maintain Mediterranean oak woodlands. PMID:25126939

  7. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey

    PubMed Central

    Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region sequence data from a total of 81 animals. Both microsatellite and mtDNA analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation in the studied breeds. In Romanian Grey a total of 100 alleles were found, the mean number of observed alleles per locus was 9.091; the average observed heterozygosity was 0.940; the Wright’s fixation index (FIS) was negative (-0.189) and indicates that there is no inbreeding and no selection pressure. MtDNA analysis revealed 52 haplotypes with 67 variable sites among the Romanian cattle breeds without any insertion or deletion. Haplotype diversity was 0.980 ± 0.007 and ranged from 0.883 ± 0.056 (Brown) to 0.990 ± 0.028 (Spotted and Black and White). The highest genetic variability of the mtDNA was recorded in the Grey breed, where 18 haplotypes were identified. The most frequent mtDNA D-loop region belonged to T3 haplogroup (80.247%), which was found across all studied breeds, while T2 haplotypes (16.049%) was only found in Grey, Spotted and Black and White genotypes. The T1 haplotypes (3.704%) were found in the Grey and Spotted. The current results contribute to the general knowledge on genetic diversity found in Eastern European cattle breeds and could prove a valuable tool for the conservation efforts of animal genetic resources (FAnGR). PMID:26398563

  8. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Daniela Elena; Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra; Kusza, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region sequence data from a total of 81 animals. Both microsatellite and mtDNA analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation in the studied breeds. In Romanian Grey a total of 100 alleles were found, the mean number of observed alleles per locus was 9.091; the average observed heterozygosity was 0.940; the Wright's fixation index (FIS) was negative (-0.189) and indicates that there is no inbreeding and no selection pressure. MtDNA analysis revealed 52 haplotypes with 67 variable sites among the Romanian cattle breeds without any insertion or deletion. Haplotype diversity was 0.980 ± 0.007 and ranged from 0.883 ± 0.056 (Brown) to 0.990 ± 0.028 (Spotted and Black and White). The highest genetic variability of the mtDNA was recorded in the Grey breed, where 18 haplotypes were identified. The most frequent mtDNA D-loop region belonged to T3 haplogroup (80.247%), which was found across all studied breeds, while T2 haplotypes (16.049%) was only found in Grey, Spotted and Black and White genotypes. The T1 haplotypes (3.704%) were found in the Grey and Spotted. The current results contribute to the general knowledge on genetic diversity found in Eastern European cattle breeds and could prove a valuable tool for the conservation efforts of animal genetic resources (FAnGR). PMID:26398563

  9. Bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer virus serotypes in northern Colombian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Homan, E. J.; Taylor, W. P.; de Ruiz, H. L.; Yuill, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    There is recent evidence of bluetongue (BT) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus infection of cattle in the American tropics, including BT group reactive antibody in Colombian cattle. These observations prompted a study to determine serologically the specific BT and EHD virus types present, and time of infection and to collect Culicoides spp. as potential vectors. A prospective study of BT and EHD virus infection was done on two farms in the Colombian department of Antioquia. Sequential sampling of young cattle indicated acquisition of neutralizing antibody to BT virus serotypes 12, 14 and 17, and EHD virus serotypes 1 and 2. Insect captures showed a high association of Culicoides insignis with infected cattle. PMID:2991365

  10. Control of the bush tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) with Zebu x European cattle.

    PubMed

    Dicker, R W; Sutherst, R W

    1981-02-01

    Brahman x Hereford cattle carried only one-quarter as many engorging adult bush ticks (Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) longicornis) as Hereford. Simmental x Hereford or Friesian x Hereford cattle when grazed together on the north coast of New South Wales. Fourteen percent of a Brahman x Hereford herd carried half of the engorging ticks suggesting that infestation levels would be further reduced by culling procedures. The results indicate an additional advantage to those already established for Brahman x Hereford cattle on the north coast of New South Wales and have important implications for tick control. PMID:7259646

  11. Genetic relationships of Asians and Northern Europeans, revealed by Y-chromosomal DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Zerjal, T; Dashnyam, B; Pandya, A; Kayser, M; Roewer, L; Santos, F R; Schiefenhövel, W; Fretwell, N; Jobling, M A; Harihara, S; Shimizu, K; Semjidmaa, D; Sajantila, A; Salo, P; Crawford, M H; Ginter, E K; Evgrafov, O V; Tyler-Smith, C

    1997-01-01

    We have identified a new T-->C transition on the human Y chromosome. C-allele chromosomes have been found only in a subset of the populations from Asia and northern Europe and reach their highest frequencies in Yakut, Buryats, and Finns. Examination of the microsatellite haplotypes of the C-allele chromosomes suggests that the mutation occurred recently in Asia. The Y chromosome thus provides both information about population relationships in Asia and evidence for a substantial paternal genetic contribution of Asians to northern European populations such as the Finns. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9150165

  12. Serological Evidence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulation in Domestic Cattle and African Buffalo in Northern Botswana (2010-2011).

    PubMed

    Jori, Ferran; Alexander, Kathleen A; Mokopasetso, Mokganedi; Munstermann, Suzanne; Moagabo, Keabetswe; Paweska, Janusz T

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and is responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. During the last decade, several outbreaks have occurred in Southern Africa, with a very limited number of cases reported in Botswana. To date, published information on the occurrence of RVF in wild and domestic animals from Botswana is very scarce and outdated, despite being critical to national and regional disease control. To address this gap, 863 cattle and 150 buffalo sampled at the interface between livestock areas and the Chobe National Park (CNP) and the Okavango Delta (OD) were screened for the presence of RVF virus (RVFV) neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were detected in 5.7% (n = 863), 95% confidence intervals (CI) (4.3-7.5%) of cattle and 12.7% (n = 150), 95% CI (7.8-19.5%) of buffalo samples. The overall prevalence was significantly higher (p = 0.0016) for buffalo [12.7%] than for cattle [5.7%]. Equally, when comparing RVF seroprevalence in both wildlife areas for all pooled bovid species, it was significantly higher in CNP than in OD (9.5 vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.0004). Our data provide the first evidence of wide circulation of RVFV in both buffalo and cattle populations in Northern Botswana and highlight the need for further epidemiological and ecological investigations on RVF at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in this region. PMID:26664990

  13. Serological Evidence of Rift Valley Fever Virus Circulation in Domestic Cattle and African Buffalo in Northern Botswana (2010–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Jori, Ferran; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Mokopasetso, Mokganedi; Munstermann, Suzanne; Moagabo, Keabetswe; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is endemic in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and is responsible for severe outbreaks in livestock characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high neonatal mortality. During the last decade, several outbreaks have occurred in Southern Africa, with a very limited number of cases reported in Botswana. To date, published information on the occurrence of RVF in wild and domestic animals from Botswana is very scarce and outdated, despite being critical to national and regional disease control. To address this gap, 863 cattle and 150 buffalo sampled at the interface between livestock areas and the Chobe National Park (CNP) and the Okavango Delta (OD) were screened for the presence of RVF virus (RVFV) neutralizing antibodies. Antibodies were detected in 5.7% (n = 863), 95% confidence intervals (CI) (4.3–7.5%) of cattle and 12.7% (n = 150), 95% CI (7.8–19.5%) of buffalo samples. The overall prevalence was significantly higher (p = 0.0016) for buffalo [12.7%] than for cattle [5.7%]. Equally, when comparing RVF seroprevalence in both wildlife areas for all pooled bovid species, it was significantly higher in CNP than in OD (9.5 vs. 4%, respectively; p = 0.0004). Our data provide the first evidence of wide circulation of RVFV in both buffalo and cattle populations in Northern Botswana and highlight the need for further epidemiological and ecological investigations on RVF at the wildlife–livestock–human interface in this region. PMID:26664990

  14. Ectoparasite loads in sympatric urban populations of the northern white-breasted and the European hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Dziemian, Sylwia; Sikora, Bożena; Piłacińska, Barbara; Michalik, Jerzy; Zwolak, Rafał

    2015-06-01

    We investigated abundance and prevalence of ticks and fleas infesting urban populations of two species of hedgehogs: the northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). The hedgehogs were captured in the city of Poznań (western Poland) over the period of 4 years. Both species of hedgehogs were infested with the castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus), the hedgehog tick (Ixodes hexagonus), and the hedgehog flea (Archeopsylla erinacei). The northern white-breasted hedgehog had higher loads of I. ricinus and A. erinacei than the European hedgehog. The abundance and prevalence of I. hexagonus were similar on both species of hosts. Co-infestation with the two species of ticks was more frequent on the northern white-breasted hedgehog than on the European hedgehog. Therefore, these two closely related species of hedgehogs differ in their importance as hosts of arthropod vectors of pathogens in urban areas and might play a different role in the dynamics of zoonotic diseases. PMID:25820646

  15. BMP2/BMP4 colorectal cancer susceptibility loci in northern and southern European populations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Palles, Claire; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Peterlongo, Paolo; Nici, Carmela; Veneroni, Silvia; Pinheiro, Manuela; Teixeira, Manuel R; Moreno, Victor; Lamas, Maria-Jesus; Baiget, Montserrat; Lopez-Fernandez, L A; Gonzalez, Dolors; Brea-Fernandez, Alejandro; Clofent, Juan; Bujanda, Luis; Bessa, Xavier; Andreu, Montserrat; Xicola, Rosa; Llor, Xavier; Jover, Rodrigo; Castells, Antoni; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Carracedo, Angel; Tomlinson, Ian; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara

    2013-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified 20 colorectal cancer susceptibility loci. Amongst these, four of the signals are defined by tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on regions 14q22.2 (rs4444235 and rs1957636) and 20p12.3 (rs961253 and rs4813802). These markers are located close to two of the genes involved in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling (BMP4 and BMP2, respectively). By investigating these four SNPs in an initial cohort of Spanish origin, we found substantial evidence that minor allele frequencies (MAFs) may be different in northern and southern European populations. Therefore, we genotyped three additional southern European cohorts comprising a total of 2028 cases and 4273 controls. The meta-analysis results show that only one of the association signals (rs961253) is effectively replicated in the southern European populations, despite adequate power to detect all four. The other three SNPs (rs4444235, rs1957636 and rs4813802) presented discordant results in MAFs and linkage disequilibrium patterns between northern and southern European cohorts. We hypothesize that this lack of replication could be the result of differential tagging of the functional variant in both sets of populations. Were this true, it would have complex consequences in both our ability to understand the nature of the real causative variants, as well as for further study designs. PMID:23161572

  16. Experiencing Inclusion within a Northern Ireland Secondary School: The Perspectives of Migrant Students from Four European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Una; Wakefield, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses upon a small-scale research project undertaken in a Northern Ireland secondary school. Using a questionnaire, the article explores the views of a sample of young people from four European countries who are enrolled at the school, regarding the school's inclusive policy and associated practices. In recent years, Northern Ireland…

  17. Determination of the prevalence of trypanosome species in cattle from Monduli district, northern Tanzania, by loop mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Haji, Isihaka Juma; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kajino, Kiichi; Malele, Imna; Simukoko, Humphrey; Chitambo, Harrison; Namangala, Boniface

    2015-08-01

    Bovine African trypanosomosis (BAT) remains one of the major vector-borne diseases with serious impediment to cattle production and economic advancement in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study evaluated the performance of the trypanosome-species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), using parasite DNA obtained from 295 indigenous Tanzanian short horn Zebu (TSHZ) and Boran crosses in Monduli district within northern Tanzania, against routine microscopy on Giemsa-stained blood films. Compared to parasitological data in which the prevalence of BAT was estimated at 2.4% (95% CI 0.7-4.1%), LAMP increased the prevalence to 27.8% (95% CI 22.3-32.5%), of which 11.9% (95% CI 8.2-15.6%) were monolytic infections with Trypanosoma vivax, while 13.6% (95% CI 9.7-17.5%) were coinfections of either T. vivax and Trypanosoma brucei subspecies or T. vivax and Trypanosoma congolense, respectively. Among the T. brucei subspecies detected, 0.7% (95% CI 0-1.7%) were human-infective Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Our study is in concordance with previous reports and suggests that LAMP is a potential tool for routine diagnosis of trypanosomes in domestic animals in BAT endemic regions. According to LAMP, T. vivax seems to be the predominant trypanosome species circulating among the indigenous Monduli cattle. Importantly, the detection of T. b. rhodesiense in cattle in such wildlife-domestic-animal-human-interface areas poses a risk of contracting human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) by local communities and tourists. Continuous trypanosome surveillances in domestic animals, humans, and tsetse flies using sensitive and specific tests such as LAMP are recommended. PMID:25953023

  18. Infection by Neospora caninum in dairy cattle belonging to family farmers in the northern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boas, Ricardo Vilas; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura; Pacheco, Richard de Campos

    2015-01-01

    Neosporosis is considered a major cause of abortion among cattle worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and correlate them with possible risk factors on 63 small farms (family farms) in the municipality of Ji-Paraná, the main milk-producing region of the state of Rondônia, northern Brazil. For this purpose, 621 serum samples were collected from cows and were evaluated by means of the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The overall herd prevalence of N. caninum antibodies among the farms (38/63; 60.31%) showed that N. caninum are widespread among the dairy herds in this region, despite only infecting a small proportion of animals (66/621, 10.62%). Occurrences of abortion and birth of weak calves were the only variables that showed as risk factors for the presence of N. caninum. The result from the spatial lag model strongly indicated that birth of weak calves and presence of N. caninum are occurring on farms that are located close to each other, indicating aggregation of disease occurrence. PMID:26154960

  19. PRNP haplotype associated with classical BSE incidence in European Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease of cattle. The bovine prion gene (PRNP) contains regions of both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) that appear to be conserved across Bos taurus populations. The region of high LD, which spans the pro...

  20. Incremental effect of natural tick challenge on the infection and treatment method-induced immunity against T. parva in cattle under agro-pastoral systems in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kazungu, Yvette E M; Mwega, Elisa; Neselle, Moses Ole; Sallu, Raphael; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the incremental effect of natural tick challenge on the infection and treatment method-induced immunity against T. parva under agro-pastoral systems in Simanjiro district, Northern Tanzania. T. parva specific antibody percent positivity and prevalence of T. parva parasites were studied in relation to duration post vaccination and proximity to Tarangire National park. A total of 381 cattle were included in this study, of which 127 were unvaccinated and 254 had been vaccinated at different time points between 2008 and 2014. Antibody percent positivity (PP) determined by the PIM-based T. parva ELISA and the prevalence of T. parva parasites detected by a nested PCR based on the p104 gene were used to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle. Results showed that seroprevalence was significantly higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated cattle (OR 10.89, p = 0.0341). Only 1.6% (6/381) of all cattle were seronegative and 5/6 of these were unvaccinated. Prevalence of T. parva parasites was significantly higher in vaccinated (50.39%) than unvaccinated (19.69%) cattle (OR 2.03, p = 0.0144). While there was a positive association between PP and duration post vaccination but the latter was inversely associated with T. parva parasite prevalence. This study also showed that cattle which were closer to the park had higher antibody PP and T. parva prevalence. It is concluded that duration post vaccination as well as proximity from the wildlife in Tarangire National park together may exert an incremental effect on the outcome of ECF vaccination by influencing stronger antibody immunity of cattle and ability to withhold high T. parva infection pressure under constant field tick challenge. Further, the high seroprevalence in vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle suggests a likely state of endemic stability to T. parva in the study area. PMID:26005108

  1. Unexpected finding of feline-specific Giardia duodenalis assemblage F and Cryptosporidium felis in asymptomatic adult cattle in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Guillermo A; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Cano, Lourdes; de Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2015-04-30

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are common enteric protozoan parasites in production animals, including cattle. Typically, both the clinical outcome of these infections and the distribution of G. duodenalis assemblages and Cryptosporidium species are age-dependent, with the occurrence of diarrhoeal disease being mainly associated with young animals and sub-clinical, low intensity infections being predominantly found in adult animals. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in asymptomatic adult cattle, a total of 362 faecal samples were collected in four farms in the province of Álava, Northern Spain, between November 2011 and December 2012. The presence of G. duodenalis was estimated by real-time PCR, and the assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Overall, G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 68 (18.8%) and 45 (12.4%), respectively, of the 362 animals tested. Strikingly, four isolates representing two novel sub-types of G. duodenalis assemblage F were identified at the gdh, but not the bg, locus. This is the first report describing the presence of the feline-specific G. duodenalis assemblage F in bovine isolates. Additionally, five (three novel and two known) sub-types of G. duodenalis assemblage E were also identified at the gdh locus and a single one (assigned to sub-assemblage EII) at the bg locus. Of nine Cryptosporidium isolates, four (including a novel sub-type) were assigned to the cat-specific C. felis, two were typed as C. bovis, and the remaining three were only characterized at the genus level. Data presented here provide epidemiological and molecular evidence demonstrating that the host range specificity of G. duodenalis

  2. Contrasting red bed diagenesis: the southern and northern margin of the Central European Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöner, Robert; Gaupp, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    We compare the diagenetic evolution of deeply buried Rotliegend (Permian) red bed sandstones at the southern and northern margin of the Central European Basin (CEB) in Germany. Main target is to evaluate the influence of maturation products from hydrocarbon (HC) source rocks during red bed diagenesis. At the southern margin of the CEB, thick coal-bearing Carboniferous source rocks are omnipresent beneath the Rotliegend. They contain dominantly gas-prone terrigenous organic material and some oil source rocks. Hydrocarbons were generated from Late Carboniferous onwards throughout most of basin subsidence. At the northern margin of the CEB, source rocks are almost absent due to deep erosion of Carboniferous rocks and a low TOC of local Lower Carboniferous relics. Early diagenetic processes are comparable at both basin margins. Significant differences in burial diagenetic evolution are spatially correlated to the occurrence of hydrocarbon source rocks. Burial diagenesis at the southern margin of the CEB is characterized especially by bleaching of red beds, major dissolution events, pervasive illite formation, impregnation of pore surfaces with bitumen, and formation of late Fe-rich cements. Almost none of these features were detected at the northern basin margin. Instead, relatively early cements are preserved down to maximum burial depths. This suggests that major diagenetic mineral reactions in deeply buried red bed sandstones are controlled by the presence or absence of maturing hydrocarbon source rocks.

  3. Early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production systems: II. Development of replacement heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate effects of weaning heifer calves early (approx. 80-d) or at the normal (approx. 215-d) weaning age on BW gain to 215-d, subsequent BW gain, luteal activity, and pregnancy rate in two herds located in the Northern Great Plains. In exp. 1 and 2, heifer calves fr...

  4. Seasonal weather-related decision making for cattle production in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High inter-annual variability of seasonal weather patterns can greatly affect forage and therefore livestock production in the Northern Great Plains. This variability can make it difficult for ranchers to set yearly stocking rates, particularly in advance of the grazing season. To better understand ...

  5. Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans.

    PubMed

    Machowetz, Anja; Poulsen, Henrik E; Gruendel, Sindy; Weimann, Allan; Fitó, Montserrat; Marrugat, Jaume; de la Torre, Rafael; Salonen, Jukka T; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Mursu, Jaakko; Nascetti, Simona; Gaddi, Antonio; Kiesewetter, Holger; Bäumler, Hans; Selmi, Hany; Kaikkonen, Jari; Zunft, Hans-Joachim F; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-01-01

    High consumption of olive oil in the Mediterranean diet has been suggested to protect DNA against oxidative damage and to reduce cancer incidence. We investigated the impact of the phenolic compounds in olive oil, and the oil proper, on DNA and RNA oxidation in North, Central, and South European populations. In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover intervention trial, the effect of olive oil phenolic content on urinary oxidation products of guanine (8-oxo-guanine, 8-oxo-guanosine and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine) was investigated. Twenty-five milliliters of three olive oils with low, medium, and high phenolic content were administered to healthy males (n=182) daily for 3 wk. At study baseline the urinary excretion of 8-oxo-guanosine (RNA oxidation) and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (DNA oxidation) was higher in the Northern regions of Europe compared with Central and Southern European regions (P=0.035). Urinary excretion of the 8 hydroxylated forms of guanine, guanosine, deoxyguanosine and their nonoxidized forms were not different when comparing olive oils with low, medium, and high phenolic content given for 2 wk. Testing the effect of oil from urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine changes from baseline to post-treatment showed a reduction of DNA oxidation by 13% (P=0.008). These findings support the idea that ingestion of olive oil is beneficial and can reduce the rate of oxidation of DNA. This effect is not due to the phenolic content in the olive oil. The higher DNA and RNA oxidation in Northern European regions compared with that in Central and Southern regions supports the contention that olive oil consumption may explain some of the North-South differences in cancer incidences in Europe. PMID:17110467

  6. Molecular detection of Leptospira spp. in the urine of cattle in northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shafighi, T; Zahraei Salehi, T; Abdollahpour, G; Asadpour, L; Akbarein, H; Salehzadeh, A

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by Leptospira interrogans and is considered as an emerging global public health problem. Transmission usually results from direct or indirect exposure to the urine or other body fluids of leptospiruric animals which may become a source of infection for human or other animals. Having a humid climate with plenty of annual rainfall, Guilan province is a suitable environment for maintaining Leptospira spp. Hence, early detection of Leptospira spp. in the host prompts control and protection, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a suitable method. The present report aimed to demonstrate the PCR analysis of bovine urine for detection of leptospiral DNA. A total of 98 urine samples were randomly collected from cattle bladder in Rasht abattoir of Iran and the presence of leptospiral DNA was assayed by PCR amplification of rrs (16S rRNA) gene and the results confirmed by nested PCR. Out of 98 urine samples in 42 samples leptospires DNA was identified with the frequency of 43%. The high presence of the organism in the urine of carriers is a serious threat to the dairy farms and to the public health which requires an effective control measure in the north provinces of Iran. PMID:27175139

  7. Host-plant-associated genetic differentiation in Northern French populations of the European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Martel, C; Réjasse, A; Rousset, F; Bethenod, M-T; Bourguet, D

    2003-02-01

    The phytophagous insects that damage crops are often polyphagous, feeding on several types of crop and on weeds. The refuges constituted by noncrop host plants may be useful in managing the evolution in pest species of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis toxins produced by transgenic crops. However, the benefits of these refuges may be limited because host-plant diversity may drive genetic divergence and possibly even host-plant-mediated sympatric speciation. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the main pest of maize in Europe and North America, where it was introduced early in the 20th century. It has a wide host range but feeds principally on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). O. nubilalis is found on mugwort only in the northern part of France, whereas it is found on maize throughout France. The extent of genetic variation at allozyme markers was investigated in populations collected from the two host plants over the entire geographical distribution of the European corn borer on mugwort in France. Allelic differentiation between pairs of populations and hierarchical analyses of pools of samples from each host plant indicate that the group of populations feeding on maize differed from the group of populations feeding on mugwort. Our results suggest (1) host-plant-related divergent selection at the genomic region surrounding the Mpi locus and (2) limited gene flow between the populations feeding on mugwort and those infesting maize fields. These data indicate that adults emerging from mugwort would not be useful for managing the evolution of resistance to the B. thuringiensis toxins in European corn borer populations. PMID:12634820

  8. Dairy cattle management factors that influence on-farm density of European starlings in Ohio, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Medhanie, Genet A; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Guerin, Michele T; Jardine, Claire M; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-15

    Potential dairy farm management and environmental factors that attract European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to dairy farms were explored. During the period from 2007 to 2009, 150 dairy farms were each visited twice (once during the summer and again in the fall) and the number of starlings was recorded. Risk factors were assessed for possible association with the number of starlings per milking cow (starling density), using a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Starling density was higher on farms visited in 2007 compared to those visited in 2008 or 2009. The interaction term between feeding method and feeding site was significantly associated with starling density on farm; generally, feeding outdoors was associated with increased starling density. The odds of a zero starling count (compared to a count greater than zero) was higher on farms that removed manure from barns weekly or less frequently than weekly compared to those that removed manure daily or after every milking. The odds of a zero starling count decreased with increasing distance of a farm from the closest night roost. Identifying on farm risk factors that expose farms to starlings will help farmers develop strategies that minimize the number of birds on their farms and thereby reduce physical damage to the farms as well as the potential for pathogen transmission from birds to cattle and humans. PMID:25940010

  9. Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis and Bovine Leukemia Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Commercial Dairy and Beef Cattle in Northern and Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Lv, Wen-Fa; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) are important pathogens, commonly responsible for economical loss to cattle farms all over the world, yet their epidemiology in commercial dairy and beef cattle in China is still unknown. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with MAP and BLV infection. The source sample was 3674 cattle from 113 herds in northern and northeastern China. Antibodies against MAP and BLV were detected using ELISA tests. At animal-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 11.79% (433/3674) and 18.29% (672/3674), respectively. At herd-level, the seroprevalence of antibodies against MAP and BLV was 20.35% and 21.24% (24/113), respectively. Herd size was identified to be associated with MAP infection while herd size and presence of cattle introduced from other farms were significantly associated with BLV infection. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and improve the knowledge of the epidemiology of these two pathogens in these regions and elsewhere in China. PMID:26504798

  10. Life-cycle assessment of the beef cattle production system for the northern great plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, David E; Benning, Jennifer L; Stone, James J

    2013-09-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to estimate the environmental impacts associated with four different U.S. Northern Great Plains (NPG) beef production systems. The LCA model followed a "cradle-to-gate" approach and incorporated all major unit processes, including mineral supplement production. Four distinct operation scenarios were modeled based on production strategies common to the NGP, and a variety of impacts were determined. The scenarios include a normal operation, early weaning of the calf, fast-tack backgrounding, and grassfed. Enteric emissions and manure emissions and handling were consistently the largest contributors to the LCA impacts. There was little variability between production scenarios except for the grassfed, where the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 37% higher due to a longer finishing time and lower finishing weight. However, reductions to GHG emissions (15-24%) were realized when soil organic carbon accrual was considered and may be a more realistic estimate for the NGP. Manure emissions and handing were primary contributors to potential eutrophication and acidification impacts. Mitigation strategies to reduce LCA impacts, including diet manipulation and management strategies (i.e., treatment of manure), were considered from a whole-systems perspective. Model results can be used for guidance by NGP producers, environmental practitioners, and policymakers. PMID:24216416

  11. Risk factors for failure to detect bovine tuberculosis in cattle from infected herds across Northern Ireland (2004-2010).

    PubMed

    Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; McNair, James; Skuce, Robin; McBride, Stewart; Allen, Michelle; Strain, Sam A J; Menzies, Fraser D; McDowell, Stanley J W; Byrne, Andrew W

    2016-08-01

    Correctly identifying animals that are truly infected with a pathogen using ante-mortem tests is the cornerstone of any disease eradication programme. Failure to identify all infected animals will impede the progress towards controlling and eradicating disease and may also have unforeseen consequences when specific prevention measures are in place to avoid animal-to-animal transmission. In the case of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), the screening ante-mortem test, the Single Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test (SCITT), can exhibit moderate sensitivity which can result in a "hidden burden" of infection residing within the population. Using an animal-level dataset relating to the disclosure of infected cattle with Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bTB within infected herds in Northern Ireland, we investigated what factors influenced the probability of an animal being a false-negative when truly infected (using post-mortem (PM) microbiological culture confirmation results to assess infection status). We found that different risk factors affected the probability of a test-negative outcome on infected animals depending on the ante-mortem test or their combination (SICTT and/or interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ) testing). Using multivariable models, SCITT disclosure performance varied significantly by age, location (region), and production type. The IFN-ɣ tests were significantly affected by region or season, but these effects depended on the cut-off used during interpretation of the test which affected the tests characteristics. Parallel use of SCITT and IFN-ɣ tests resulted in the least number of false-negatives, and their disclosure was affected by season and age-class. Understanding the factors that lead to the non-disclosure of infected animals is essential to optimise large-scale bTB disease eradication programmes. PMID:27474001

  12. A forensic DNA profiling system for Northern European brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Andreassen, R; Schregel, J; Kopatz, A; Tobiassen, C; Knappskog, P M; Hagen, S B; Kleven, O; Schneider, M; Kojola, I; Aspi, J; Rykov, A; Tirronen, K F; Danilov, P I; Eiken, H G

    2012-12-01

    A set of 13 dinucleotide STR loci (G1A, G10B, G1D, G10L, MU05, MU09, MU10, MU15, MU23, MU26, MU50, MU51, MU59) were selected as candidate markers for a DNA forensic profiling system for Northern European brown bear (Ursus arctos). We present results from validation of the markers with respect to their sensitivity, species specificity and performance (precision, heterozygote balance and stutter ratios). All STRs were amplified with 0.6ng template input, and there were no false bear genotypes in the cross-species amplification tests. The validation experiments showed that stutter ratios and heterozygote balance was more pronounced than in the tetranucleotide loci used in human forensics. The elevated ratios of stutter and heterozygote balance at the loci validated indicate that these dinucleotide STRs are not well suited for interpretation of individual genotypes in mixtures. Based on the results from the experimental validations we discuss the challenges related to genotyping dinucleotide STRs in single source samples. Sequence studies of common alleles showed that, in general, the size variation of alleles corresponded with the variation in number of repeats. The samples characterized by sequence analysis may serve as standard DNA samples for inter laboratory calibration. A total of 479 individuals from eight Northern European brown bear populations were analyzed in the 13 candidate STRs. Locus MU26 was excluded as a putative forensic marker after revealing large deviations from expected heterozygosity likely to be caused by null-alleles at this locus. The remaining STRs did not reveal significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations except for loci G10B and MU10 that showed significant deviations in one population each, respectively. There were 9 pairwise locus comparisons that showed significant deviation from linkage equilibrium in one or two out of the eight populations. Substantial genetic differentiation was detected in some of the pairwise

  13. The sequestration sink of soot black carbon in the Northern European Shelf sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SáNchez-GarcíA, Laura; Cato, Ingemar; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2012-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that ocean margin sediments are a key final repository in the large-scale biogeospheric cycling of soot black carbon (soot-BC), an extensive survey was conducted along the ˜2,000 km stretch of the Swedish Continental Shelf (SCS). The soot-BC content in the 120 spatially distributed SCS sediments was 0.180.130.26% dw (median with interquartile ranges), corresponding to ˜5% of total organic carbon. Using side-scan sonar constraints to estimate the areal fraction of postglacial clay sediments that are accumulation bottoms (15% of SCS), the soot-BC inventory in the SCS mixed surface sediment was estimated at ˜4,000 Gg. Combining this with radiochronological constraints on sediment mass accumulation fluxes, the soot-BC sink on the SCS was ˜300 Gg/yr, which yielded an area-extrapolated estimate for the Northern European Shelf (NES) of ˜1,100 Gg/yr. This sediment soot-BC sink is ˜50 times larger than the river discharge fluxes of soot-BC to these coastal waters, however, of similar magnitude as estimates of atmospheric soot-BC emission from the upwind European continent. While large uncertainties remain regarding the large-scale to global BC cycle, this study combines with two previous investigations to suggest that continental shelf sediments are a major final repository of atmospheric soot-BC. Future progress on the soot-BC cycle and how it interacts with the full carbon cycle is likely to benefit from14C determinations of the sedimentary soot-BC and similar extensive studies of coastal sediment in complementary regimes such as off heavily soot-BC-producing areas in S and E Asia and on the large pan-Arctic shelf.

  14. The sequestration sink of soot black carbon in the Northern European Shelf sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-García, L.; Cato, I.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    The present study contributes to assess the role of marine sediments in removing soot black carbon (soot-BC) from the atmosphere and large-scale biogeospheric cycling, by constraining the inventory and sediment flux of soot-BC for both the Swedish Continental Shelf (SCS) and the entire Northern European Shelf (NES). An extensive survey was conducted along the ~2,000 km stretch of the SCS, where the soot-BC content in 120 spatially-distributed sediments showed a median value of 0.18 %dw (interquartile range of 0.13-0.26 %dw). The soot-BC concentrations corresponding to ~5% of total organic carbon (TOC) (interquartile range of 3-6 %TOC) were toward the high end of reports for other shelf surface sediments and attests to the substantial soot-BC influx from the highly industrialized and densely populated regions upwind of NES. Using side-scan sonar constraints to estimate the areal fraction of postglacial clay sediments that are accumulation bottoms (15% of SCS), the soot-BC inventory in the SCS mixed surface sediment was estimated at ~4,000 Gg. Combining this with radiochronological constraints on sediment mass accumulation fluxes, the soot-BC sink on the SCS was ~300 Gg/yr, which yielded an area-extrapolated estimate for the NES of ~1,100 Gg/yr. This sediment soot-BC sink is ~50 times larger than the river discharge fluxes of soot-BC to these coastal waters, however, of similar magnitude as estimates of atmospheric soot-BC emission from the upwind European continent. While large uncertainties remain regarding the large-scale to global BC cycle, this study combines with two previous investigations ([1, 2]) to suggest that continental shelf sediments are a major final repository of atmospheric soot-BC.

  15. Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Fossen, Erlend I; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    strongly suggest that Hydrobius arcticus and the three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes are separate species and Hydrobius rottenbergii Gerhardt, 1872, stat. n. and Hydrobius subrotundus Stephens, 1829, stat. n. are elevated to valid species. An identification key to northern European species of Hydrobius is provided. PMID:27081333

  16. Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fossen, Erlend I.; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Nilsson, Anders N.; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    evidence strongly suggest that Hydrobius arcticus and the three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes are separate species and Hydrobius rottenbergii Gerhardt, 1872, stat. n. and Hydrobius subrotundus Stephens, 1829, stat. n. are elevated to valid species. An identification key to northern European species of Hydrobius is provided. PMID:27081333

  17. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in wild European starlings at a Kansas cattle feedlot.

    PubMed

    Gaukler, Shannon M; Linz, George M; Sherwood, Julie S; Dyer, Neil W; Bleier, William J; Wannemuehler, Yvonne M; Nolan, Lisa K; Logue, Catherine M

    2009-12-01

    The prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from the feces of wild European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) humanely trapped at a feedlot in central Kansas was assessed. All E. coli and Salmonella isolates recovered were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System panels and the E. coli isolates were classified as to their content of genes associated with pathogenic E. coli of birds and cattle, including cvaC, iroN2, ompTp, hlyF2, eitC, iss, iutA, ireA, papC, stxI, stxII, sta, K99, F41, and eae. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were not detected and Salmonella was isolated from only three samples, two of which displayed antimicrobial resistance. Approximately half of the E. coli isolates were resistant to antimicrobial agents with 96% showing resistance to tetracycline. Only one isolate was positive for a single gene associated with bovine pathogenic E. coli. An interesting finding of this study was that 5% of the E. coli isolates tested met the criteria established for identification as avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). Thus these findings suggest that starlings are not a significant source of Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, E. coli O157, or other shiga toxin-producing E. coli in this feedlot. However, they may have the potential to spread APEC, an important pathogen of poultry and a potential pathogen to human beings. PMID:20095155

  18. Passive Seismic Experiment "13 BB Star" in the Margin of the East European Craton, Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, M.; Grad, M.; Wilde-Piórko, M.; Suchcicki, J.; Arant, T.

    2014-12-01

    Passive experiment "13 BB star" is dedicated to study deep structure of the Earth's interior in the marginal zone of the East European Craton in northern Poland. The seismic network consists of 13 broadband stations on the area of c. 120 km in diameter. The network is located in the area well recognized from the point of view velocities of sedimentary cover and crustal structure. Good records obtained since summer 2013, and expected during next 1.5 years long recording campaign, should yield images of detailed structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), „410", "?520", and „660" km discontinuities, as well as mantle-core boundary and inner core. The LAB is investigated recently very effectively, mostly using seismic methods because their deep penetration and relatively good resolution. The nature of LAB is still debated, particularly under "cold" Precambrian shields and platforms. We show examples of local and teleseismic records, array transfer function of "13 BB star" network and preliminary noise analysis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC- 2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  19. Conservation, Spillover and Gene Flow within a Network of Northern European Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Huserbråten, Mats Brockstedt Olsen; Moland, Even; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland; André, Carl; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2013-01-01

    To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs) benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus) is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50%) for almost a year (363 days) within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km2). Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7%) of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810) to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%). Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated FST of less than 0.0001 over a ≈ 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages. PMID:24039927

  20. Association of Synapsin 2 with schizophrenia in families of Northern European ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Saviouk, Viatcheslav; Moreau, Michael P; Tereshchenko, Irina V; Brzustowicz, Linda M

    2007-01-01

    The synapsin 2 (Syn2) gene (3p25) is implicated in synaptogenesis, neurotransmitter release, and the localization of nitric oxide synthase to the proximity of its targets. In this study we investigated linkage and association between the Syn2 locus and schizophrenia. 37 pedigrees of Northern European ancestry from the NIMH Human Genetics Initiative collection were used. Four microsatellites and twenty SNPs were genotyped. Linkage (FASTLINK) and association (TRANSMIT, PDTPHASE) between markers and schizophrenia were evaluated. A maximum heterogeneity LOD of 1.93 was observed at marker D3S3434 with a recessive mode of inheritance. Significant results were obtained for association with schizophrenia using TRANSMIT (minimum nominal p=0.0000005) and PDTPHASE (minimum nominal p=0.014) using single marker analyses. Haplotype analysis using markers in introns 5 and 6 of Syn2 provided a single haplotype that is significantly associated with schizophrenia using TRANSMIT (nominal p<0.00000001) and PDTPHASE (nominal p=0.02). Simulation studies confirm the global significance of these results, but demonstrate that the small p-values generated by the bootstrap routine of TRANSMIT can be consistently anticonservative. Review of the literature suggests that Syn2 is likely to be involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of schizophrenia. PMID:17766091

  1. Admixture and Gene Flow from Russia in the Recovering Northern European Brown Bear (Ursus arctos)

    PubMed Central

    Kopatz, Alexander; Eiken, Hans Geir; Aspi, Jouni; Kojola, Ilpo; Tobiassen, Camilla; Tirronen, Konstantin F.; Danilov, Pjotr I.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2014-01-01

    Large carnivores were persecuted to near extinction during the last centuries, but have now recovered in some countries. It has been proposed earlier that the recovery of the Northern European brown bear is supported by migration from Russia. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining for the first time continuous sampling of the whole Finnish bear population, which is located centrally between the Russian and Scandinavian bear populations. The Finnish population is assumed to experience high gene flow from Russian Karelia. If so, no or a low degree of genetic differentiation between Finnish and Russian bears could be expected. We have genotyped bears extensively from all over Finland using 12 validated microsatellite markers and compared their genetic composition to bears from Russian Karelia, Sweden, and Norway. Our fine masked investigation identified two overlapping genetic clusters structured by isolation-by-distance in Finland (pairwise FST = 0.025). One cluster included Russian bears, and migration analyses showed a high number of migrants from Russia into Finland, providing evidence of eastern gene flow as an important driver during recovery. In comparison, both clusters excluded bears from Sweden and Norway, and we found no migrants from Finland in either country, indicating that eastern gene flow was probably not important for the population recovery in Scandinavia. Our analyses on different spatial scales suggest a continuous bear population in Finland and Russian Karelia, separated from Scandinavia. PMID:24839968

  2. Geographical, linguistic, and cultural influences on genetic diversity: Y-chromosomal distribution in Northern European populations.

    PubMed

    Zerjal, T; Beckman, L; Beckman, G; Mikelsaar, A V; Krumina, A; Kucinskas, V; Hurles, M E; Tyler-Smith, C

    2001-06-01

    We analyzed 10 Y-chromosomal binary markers in 363 males from 8 populations in Northern Europe and 5 Y microsatellites in 346 of these individuals. These populations can be grouped according to cultural, linguistic, or geographical criteria, and the groupings are different in each case. We can therefore ask which criterion best corresponds to the distribution of genetic variation. In an AMOVA analysis using the binary markers, 13% of the Y variation was found between populations, indicating a high level of differentiation within this small area. No significant difference was seen between the traditionally nomadic Saami and the neighboring, historically farming, populations. When the populations were divided into Uralic speakers and Indo-European speakers, 8% of the variation was found between groups, but when they were divided according to geographical location, 14% of the variation was between groups. Geographical factors have thus been the most important in limiting gene flow between these populations, but linguistic differences have also been important in the east. PMID:11371596

  3. Experienced Harm from Other People’s Drinking: A Comparison of Northern European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Moan, Inger Synnøve; Storvoll, Elisabet E; Sundin, Erica; Lund, Ingunn Olea; Bloomfield, Kim; Hope, Ann; Ramstedt, Mats; Huhtanen, Petri; Kristjánsson, Sveinbjörn

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study addresses how experienced harm from other people’s drinking varies between six Northern European countries by comparing 1) the prevalence of experienced harm and 2) the correlates of harm. METHOD The data comprise 18–69-year olds who participated in general population surveys in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Scotland during the period 2008–2013. Comparative data were available on five types of harm: physical abuse, damage of clothes/belongings, verbal abuse, being afraid, and being kept awake at night. RESULTS This study shows that harms from other’s drinking are commonly experienced in all six countries. Being kept awake at night is the most common harm, while being physically harmed is the least common. The proportions that reported at least one of the five problems were highest in Finland and Iceland and lowest in Norway, but also relatively low in Sweden. Across countries, the level of harm was highest among young, single, urban residents, and for some countries among women and those who frequently drank to intoxication themselves. CONCLUSIONS The study revealed large differences in the prevalence of harm in countries with fairly similar drinking cultures. However, the correlates of such experiences were similar across countries. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including differences in study design. PMID:26609236

  4. Molecular epidemiology and public health relevance of Campylobacter isolated from dairy cattle and European starlings in Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Sanad, Yasser M; Closs, Gary; Kumar, Anand; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2013-03-01

    Dairy cattle serve as a potential source for Campylobacter infection in humans. Outbreaks associated with consumption of either Campylobacter contaminated raw milk or contaminated milk after treatment were previously recorded in the United States. Further, starlings have been implicated in the spread of bacterial pathogens among livestock. Here, we determined the prevalence, genotypic, and phenotypic properties of Campylobacter isolated from fecal samples of dairy cattle and starlings found on the same establishment in northeastern Ohio. Campylobacter were detected in 83 (36.6%) and 57 (50.4%) out of 227 dairy and 113 starling fecal samples, respectively. Specifically, 79 C. jejuni, five C. coli, and two other Campylobacter spp. were isolated from dairy feces, while all isolates from starlings (n=57) were C. jejuni. Our results showed that the prevalence of C. jejuni in birds was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in dairy cattle. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that C. jejuni were genotypically diverse and host restricted; however, there were several shared genotypes between dairy cattle and starling isolates. Likewise, many shared clonal complexes (CC) between dairy cattle and starlings were observed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. As in humans, both in cattle and starlings, the CC 45 and CC 21 were the most frequently represented CCs. As previously reported, CC 177 and CC 682 were restricted to the bird isolates, while CC 42 was restricted to dairy cattle isolates. Further, two new sequence types (STs) were detected in C. jejuni from dairy cattle. Interestingly, cattle and starling C. jejuni showed high resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. In conclusion, our results highlight starlings as potential reservoirs for C. jejuni, and they may play an important role in the epidemiology of clinically important C. jejuni in dairy population. PMID:23259503

  5. Intra-Species Diversity and Panmictic Structure of Cryptosporidium parvum Populations in Cattle Farms in Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Ana; Quílez, Joaquín; Monteagudo, Luis; Del Cacho, Emilio; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2016-01-01

    The intra-herd and intra-host genetic variability of 123 Cryptosporidium parvum isolates was investigated using a multilocus fragment typing approach with eleven variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci and the GP60 gene. Isolates were collected from intensively farmed diarrheic pre-weaned calves originating from 31 dairy farms in three adjoining regions in northern Spain (País Vasco, Cantabria and Asturias). The multilocus tool demonstrated an acceptable typeability, with 104/123 samples amplifying at all twelve loci. The ML2, TP14, GP60 and the previously un-described minisatellite at locus cgd2_3850 were the most discriminatory markers, while others may be dismissed as monomorphic (MSB) or less informative (CP47, ML1 and the novel minisatellites at loci Cgd1_3670 and Cgd6_3940). The 12-satellite typing tool provided a Hunter-Gaston index (HGDI) of 0.987 (95% CI, 0.982–0.992), and differentiated a total of 70 multilocus subtypes (MLTs). The inclusion of only the four most discriminatory markers dramatically reduced the number of MLTs (n: 44) but hardly reduced the HGDI value. A total of 54 MLTs were distinctive for individual farms, indicating that cryptosporidiosis is an endemic condition on most cattle farms. However, a high rate of mixed infections was detected, suggesting frequent meiotic recombination. Namely, multiple MLTs were seen in most farms where several specimens were analyzed (90.5%), with up to 9 MLTs being found on one farm, and individual specimens with mixed populations being reported on 11/29 farms. Bayesian Structure analysis showed that over 35% of isolates had mixed ancestry and analysis of evolutionary descent using the eBURST algorithm detected a high rate (21.4%) of MLTs appearing as singletons, indicating a high degree of genetic divergence. Linkage analysis found evidence of linkage equilibrium and an overall panmictic structure within the C. parvum population in this discrete geographical area. PMID:26848837

  6. Seasonal and Interseasonal Dynamics of Bluetongue Virus Infection of Dairy Cattle and Culicoides sonorensis Midges in Northern California – Implications for Virus Overwintering in Temperate Zones

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Christie E.; Mullens, Bradley A.; Reisen, William K.; Osborne, Cameron J.; Gibbs, E. Paul J.; Gardner, Ian A.; MacLachlan, N. James

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the cause of an economically important arboviral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The occurrence of BTV infection of livestock is distinctly seasonal in temperate regions of the world, thus we determined the dynamics of BTV infection (using BTV-specific real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) among sentinel cattle and vector Culicoides sonorensis (C. sonorensis) midges on a dairy farm in northern California throughout both the seasonal and interseasonal (overwintering) periods of BTV activity from August 2012 until March 2014. The data confirmed widespread infection of both sentinel cattle and vector midges during the August – November period of seasonal BTV transmission, however BTV infection of parous female midges captured in traps set during daylight hours also was detected in February of both 2013 and 2014, during the interseasonal period. The finding of BTV-infected vector midges during mid-winter suggests that BTV may overwinter in northern California by infection of long-lived female C. sonorensis midges that were infected during the prior seasonal period of virus transmission, and reemerged sporadically during the overwintering period; however the data do not definitively preclude other potential mechanisms of BTV overwintering that are also discussed. PMID:25215598

  7. High prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in Asturiana de la Montaña beef cattle kept in extensive conditions in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Ibarra, Jesús A; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; García-Peña, Francisco J; Rojo-Montejo, Silvia; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A; San Miguel-Ibáñez, Elena; Navarro-Lozano, Vanesa; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Osoro, Koldo; Collantes-Fernandez, Esther

    2012-07-01

    Bovine trichomonosis (BT) and bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC) are sexually transmitted diseases that can be important infectious causes of reproductive failure in extensively managed beef cattle where natural mating is a common practice. However, their prevalence in Europe was thought to be insignificant or very low. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with BT and BCG in a representative beef cattle breed, Asturiana de la Montaña (AM), which is usually managed extensively in the mountain areas of Northern Spain and putative risk factors associated with the two diseases are present on most farms holding AM cattle. Preputial smegma samples were collected from 103 bulls belonging to 65 herds. Pathogen detection was undertaken using culture and PCR. Two scraping methods for sample collection (AI pipette and plastic scraper), as well as different culture media and DNA extraction methods were evaluated on field samples. Campylobacter fetus veneralis infection was not detected in any animal in any herd. However, Tritrichomonas foetus infection was demonstrated in 32% (33/103) and 41.5% (27/65) of bulls and herds tested, respectively. AM bulls older than 3 years (39.7%) were more likely to be infected than young bulls (16%) (OR=3.45, CI=1.07-11.19). An increase in repeat breeder cows was reported in herds from which T. foetus was detected (OR=5.2, CI=1.5-17.18). These findings highlight the re-emergence of this disease in extensively managed beef cattle in Spain. For routine diagnosis, the use of a culture technique and PCR in combination is advisable for testing smegma samples under field conditions. PMID:22178360

  8. Assessment of the physical disturbance of the northern European Continental shelf seabed by waves and currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, J. N.; Parker, E. R.; Bricheno, L. M.; Green, S. L.; van der Molen, J.

    2015-10-01

    Natural seabed disturbance was quantified by estimating the number of days in a year that movement of the seabed occurred due to waves and currents. Disturbance over gravel substrates was based on the concept of a critical threshold for bed movement. For mud substrates disturbance was assessed on the basis of bed failure under extreme hydrodynamic stress. For sand beds the disturbance frequency was calculated by reference to the predicted occurrence of small scale bedforms using established relationships for estimating ripple and megaripple height. The method was applied to the northern European Continental Shelf (48°N to 58.5°N and 10°W to 10°E) using modelled annual wave and current forcing with a temporal resolution of one hour and spatial resolution of approximately 11 km. Highest levels of disturbance occurred in areas of high tidal stress where dune/megaripple type bedforms were predicted and in shallow regions exposed to waves with large fetch. However, the detailed distribution of disturbance showed a complex relationship between water depth, tidal stress, wave fetch and grain size. An assessment of the uncertainty in the results was made by use of a simple Monte Carlo approach. In most locations this indicated a large uncertainty in disturbance frequency values suggesting that present predictive relationships need improvement if assessments of natural disturbance are to be made with confidence. Nevertheless the results give a broad understanding of the location and intensity of natural physical bed disturbance and the ability to compare the relative intensity between different regions. This has applications to management of the seabed where human impacts have to be assessed in the context of the underlying natural disturbance. Recommendations are given for further research that might help decrease the uncertainty in natural disturbance prediction.

  9. Geochemistry of mantle metasomatism related to formation of kimberlites in the northern East European Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargin, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    The geochemistry of mantle metasomatism related to the formation of kimberlites and allied rocks in the northern East European Platform (EEP) is considered with allowance for chemical systematics and geodynamic position. The Paleoproterozoic kimberlites of Kimozero, Mesoproterozoic orangeites of Karelia, Neoproterozoic kimberlites of Finland, and Devonian kimberlites of the Arkhangel'sk diamond province (ADP) are the objects of this research. Kimberlites from the EEP are characterized by wide variations in contents of rock-forming oxides and trace elements caused by secondary alteration, belonging to different lithofacies and specific sources. The diversity of kimberlites from the EEP is explained by the interaction of asthenospheric protokimberlitic melt with depleted or metasomatically enriched lithospheric mantle. A (Zr/Sm) n -Cr/Ni diagram has been proposed to identify specific attributes of mantle metasomatism. Comparison of the geodynamic setting of kimberlite formation in the EEP with the revealed geochemical features of mantle metasomatism shows that kimberlites having sources with the participation of MARID-type meta-somatic assemblages were formed under conditions of changing supercontinental cycles, when the breakdown of large supercontinent coincided in time with the initial stage of assembly of a new supercontinent. This is characteristic of the Kimozero kimberlites, orangeites of Karelia, and kimberlites from the ADP. Kimberlites of Finland were formed under geodynamic conditions characterized by supercontinent breakdown coeval with abundant within-plate mafic magmatism. These kimberlites bear geochemical features inherent to an asthenospheric source. The economic Devonian diamond-bearing kimberlites from the ADP display a subordinate role of the metasomatic lithospheric as a component of their source against the background of a significant interaction of melted asthenospheric material with the depleted lithospheric mantle.

  10. Characterizing adsorptive properties and DOC concentrations in soils of Northern European Russian tundra and taiga.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; Temminghoff, Erwin; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2010-05-01

    Subarctic river basins have an enormous potential to mobilize and transport terrestrial OC to the Arctic Ocean, because 23-48% of the worlds soils organic carbon (SOC) is stored in the high latitude region. Currently the Arctic drainage basin (~24 x 106 km2) processes about 11% of the global dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is exported to the ocean. About 10-25% of annual C input to the organic surface layer with litter is leached from the organic surface layers. As climate changes, the amount and chemical composition of DOC exported from these basins are expected to change. Adsorption of DOC on mineral phases is the key geochemical process for the release and removal of DOC from this potentially soluble carbon pool. Most DOC leached from organic horizons is adsorbed and retained in the subsoils. The adsorption depends much on the content of sesquioxides and amount of carbon previously accumulated in soils. Besides adsorption, polyvalent metal ions in solution, such as Al and Ca, can cause precipitation of DOC. Along with the decrease of DOC concentrations on its passage through mineral soil, there are major biochemical alterations of DOC composition. Hydrophobic compounds (humic and fulvic acids) of high molecular weight that are rich in acidic functional groups and aromatic compounds adsorb most strongly. Hydrophilic compounds can contribute to DOC adsorption but are also easily desorbed because of the weaker bonding strength. The aim of this study was to characterize the DOC concentrations and their chemical composition as well as the DOC adsorptive properties of soils found in a tundra and taiga catchment of Northern Russia. We sampled soil and soil solution from two catchments in the Komi Republic of European Northern Russia: a tundra (67N/62E) and a taiga (62N/50E). The soil samples were analysed for total organic carbon (Ct) and the content of sequioxides. By extracting soil samples with water we got an impression of the potentially extractable organic

  11. Effects of Supplemental Ground Flaxseed Fed to Beef Cattle Grazing Summer Native Range on the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted simultaneously to evaluate the effects of supplemental ground flaxseed on site and extent of digestion and growth performance in beef cattle grazing summer native range. Six Angus heifers (avg initial BW 367 ± 8.0 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were use...

  12. Long-term cattle gain responses to stocking rate and grazing systems in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of stocking rate and grazing system on gains of yearling beef cattle grazing rangelands have largely been addressed in short-term (<10 yr) studies, and often stocking rates are confounded within grazing systems with higher stocking rates for short-duration rotational grazing systems comp...

  13. First data on the composition of atmospheric dust responsible for yellow snow in Northern European Russia in March 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Korobov, V. B.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Aleshinskaya, A. S.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Goryunova, N. V.; Grishchenko, I. V.; Dara, O. M.; Zavernina, N. N.; Kurteeva, E. I.; Novichkova, E. A.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Sapozhnikov, F. V.

    2010-04-01

    The descent of a large quantity of dust responsible for bright colors of atmospheric precipitation in the temperate, subpolar, and polar zones of the northern hemisphere is rarely observed [1-5]. In the twentieth century and in the beginning of the twenty-first century in the northern part of European Russia, such events had not been registered right up to March 25-26, 2008. At that time in some parts of the Arkhangelsk region, Komi Republic, and Nenets Autonomous Area, atmospheric precipitation as moist snow and rain responsible for sand and saffron colors of ice crust formation on the snow surface was observed. Thus, due to detailed mineralogical, geochemical, pollen, diatom, and meteorological investigations, it was established that the main source of the yellow dust is the semidesert and steppe regions of the Northwest Kazakhstan, and the Volgograd and Astrakhan regions, Kalmykia.

  14. A 2cM Genome-Wide Scan of European Holstein Cattle Affected by Classical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissibl...

  15. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) naturally infecting introduced European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in northern Patagonia: phenotype, prevalence and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Pablo F; Cataldo, Sophia Di; Fantozzi, M Cecilia; Deis, Erika; Isenrath, Gabriela Diaz; Viberti, Gabriela; Artigas, Patricio; Peixoto, Raquel; Valero, M Adela; Sierra, Roberto Mera Y; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2015-09-01

    Fascioliasis has recently been included in the WHO list of Neglected Zoonotic Diseases. Besides being a major veterinary health problem, fascioliasis has large underdeveloping effects on the human communities affected. Though scarcely considered in fascioliasis epidemiology, it is well recognized that both native and introduced wildlife species may play a significant role as reservoirs of the disease. The objectives are to study the morphological characteristics of Fasciola hepatica adults and eggs in a population of Lepus europaeus, to assess liver fluke prevalence, and to analyze the potential reservoir role of the European brown hare in northern Patagonia, Argentina, where fascioliasis is endemic. Measures of F. hepatica found in L. europaeus from northern Patagonia demonstrate that the liver fluke is able to fully develop in wild hares and to shed normal eggs through their faeces. Egg shedding to the environment is close to the lower limit obtained for pigs, a domestic animal whose epidemiological importance in endemic areas has already been highlighted. The former, combined with the high prevalence found (14.28%), suggest an even more important role in the transmission cycle than previously considered. The results obtained do not only remark the extraordinary plasticity and adaptability of this trematode species to different host species, but also highlight the role of the European brown hare, and other NIS, as reservoirs capable for parasite spillback to domestic and native cycle, representing a potentially important, but hitherto neglected, cause of disease emergence. PMID:26204194

  16. Effect of deforestation and introduction of exotic grasses as livestock forage on the population dynamics of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Mangold, Atilio J

    2013-12-01

    The effect of deforestation and the introduction of exotic grasses on the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northern Argentina was analysed. Biological parameters that were measured included proportion of females ovipositing, pre-oviposition period, incubation period of eggs, proportion of egg clusters hatching, larval longevity and total non-parasitic period. No significant differences were observed in proportion of females ovipositing and in pre-oviposition period between forested and grassland areas. Regarding the other parameters, in the majority of the temporal series there were no significant differences. In the cases where differences with statistical significance were detected, they were not unidirectional. The replacement of native forest by grasses can potentially increase tick abundance not by the modification of microclimatic conditions, but by increasing the tick-host encounter rate due to a higher cattle density. The hypothesis that deforestation and introduction of exotic grasses affects the non-parasitic phase of R. microplus in northern Argentina was not supported. PMID:24140239

  17. Observations of sylvatic rabies in Northern Argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).

    PubMed

    Delpietro, H A; Lord, R D; Russo, R G; Gury-Dhomen, F

    2009-10-01

    During rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in Argentina associated with the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (Mazama americana), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (Cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus). Rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savanna fox represent a risk for humans; both species exhibit aggressiveness and fury when infected. PMID:19901391

  18. Analysis of biogenic amines in northern and southern European sausages and role of flora in amine production.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, D; Montel, M C; Rokka, M; Talon, R; Eerola, S; Rizzo, A; Raemaekers, M; Demeyer, D

    2002-06-01

    The biogenic amine contents, microbial counts and flora producing amines were investigated in four types of fermented sausages. Southern type European sausages (Italian and Belgian) showed higher tyramine and phenylethylamine values than northern type ones (Norwegian and Belgian). The spontaneous non-starter lactic acid bacteria could be responsible for the production of these amines in the Italian products, and the cocci Gram positive in the Belgian South ones. The Norwegian sausages showed the lowest total amine content of those studied. The two Belgian types were characterised by the highest putrescine contents, associated with high counts of Enterococcus. The production of amines in vitro by the starter cultures used in the manufacture of the sausages revealed that none of the Lactobacillus species produced any amines and only Kocuria varians and Staphylococcus carnosus showed phenylethylamine and tryptamine production. High correlations were found between the content of putrescine, histamine and cadaverine. PMID:22064002

  19. A large Northern European observational study of follitropin alpha filled-by-mass pre-filled pen.

    PubMed

    Hovatta, Outi; McVeigh, Enda; Lass, Amir; Homburg, Roy

    2009-04-01

    This prospective observational post-marketing survey aimed at studying the efficacy and convenience of the follitropin alpha filled-by-mass (FbM) pre-filled pen for patients in routine use. These data were analysed among 3196 non-selected treatment cycles and couples in seven Northern European countries. Valuable information was also obtained regarding the routine assisted reproduction treatment protocols used in Northern Europe. Out of 3196 cycles, human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) was administered in 3104 (97.2%), and an embryo transfer was carried out in 2766 cycles (86.5%). A positive HCG was recorded in 997 cycles (31.2% per started cycle and 36.0% per embryo transfer). The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 23.1% (738/3196) and per embryo transfer it was 26.7% (738/2766), with a miscarriage rate of 3.4% (95/2766) per embryo transfer or 9.5% (95/997) per positive HCG. Among the 732 elective single embryo transfers (eSET), the rate of positive HCG was 38.0% and the clinical pregnancy rate was 29.6%, suggesting that eSET is a valuable option in routine assisted reproduction. Although minor differences were observed between countries, the follitropin alpha FbM pre-filled pen proved clinically effective, was generally well tolerated, and both the women and nurses/midwives found the training easy. PMID:19400991

  20. Low frequency variability of European weather patterns and its impact on power generation in northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masato, Giacomo; Slavov, Georgi

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that Europe is becoming increasingly reliant on the power generation from the solar and wind sources. Germany is a leader in such a trend - it is then interesting to study to what extent the low-frequency variability of the European weather patterns impacts the power production in this country. Rather than identifying such patterns starting from the weather angle, four weather regimes are identified that maximize and minimize the production of solar and wind power. The analysis of their past occurrence and trends allows us to estimate the potential amount of energy produced for any given year (assuming a constant installed capacity). It is found that the sole change in such weather regimes over the recent years is able to drive up to a 20% annual difference in power generation. This also throws an interesting challenge at the scientific community, whereby the future projection of these regimes can heavily influence both the short- and long-term Eurozone plans in terms of European renewable energy targets.

  1. Admixture mapping of tuberculosis and pigmentation-related traits in an African–European hybrid cattle population

    PubMed Central

    Kassahun, Yonas; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Ameni, Gobena; Hailu, Elena; Aseffa, Abraham; Young, Douglas B.; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Vordermeier, H. Martin; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Admixture mapping affords a powerful approach to genetic mapping of complex traits and may be particularly suited to investigation in cattle where many breeds and populations are hybrids of the two divergent ancestral genomes, derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus. Here we design a minimal genome wide SNP panel for tracking ancestry in recent hybrids of Holstein–Friesian and local Arsi zebu in a field sample from a region of high bovine tuberculosis (BTB) endemicity in the central Ethiopian highlands. We first demonstrate the utility of this approach by mapping the red coat color phenotype, uncovering a highly significant peak over the MC1R gene and a second peak with no previously known candidate gene. Secondly, we exploit the described differential susceptibility to BTB between the ancestral strains to identify a region in which Bos taurus ancestry associates, at suggestive significance, with skin test positivity. Interestingly, this association peak contains the toll-like receptor gene cluster on chromosome 6. With this work we have shown the potential of admixture mapping in hybrid domestic animals with divergent ancestral genomes, a recurring condition in domesticated species. PMID:26124773

  2. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  3. A microsatellite-based analysis for the detection of selection on BTA1 and BTA20 in northern Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Microsatellites surrounding functionally important candidate genes or quantitative trait loci have received attention as proxy measures of polymorphism level at the candidate loci themselves. In cattle, selection for economically important traits is a long-term strategy and it has been reported that microsatellites are linked to these important loci. Methods We have investigated the variation of seven microsatellites on BTA1 (Bos taurus autosome 1) and 16 on BTA20, using bovine populations of typical production types and horn status in northern Eurasia. Genetic variability of these loci and linkage disequilibrium among these loci were compared with those of 28 microsatellites on other bovine chromosomes. Four different tests were applied to detect molecular signatures of selection. Results No marked difference in locus variability was found between microsatellites on BTA1, BTA20 and the other chromosomes in terms of different diversity indices. Average D' values of pairwise syntenic markers (0.32 and 0.28 across BTA 1 and BTA20 respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for non-syntenic markers (0.15). The Ewens-Watterson test, the Beaumont and Nichol's modified frequentist test and the Bayesian FST-test indicated elevated or decreased genetic differentiation, at SOD1 and AGLA17 markers respectively, deviating significantly (P < 0.05) from neutral expectations. Furthermore, lnRV, lnRH and lnRθ' statistics were used for the pairwise population comparison tests and were significantly less variable in one population relative to the other, providing additional evidence of selection signatures for two of the 51 loci. Moreover, the three Finnish native populations showed evidence of subpopulation divergence at SOD1 and AGLA17. Our data also indicate significant intergenic linkage disequilibrium around the candidate loci and suggest that hitchhiking selection has played a role in shaping the pattern of observed linkage disequilibrium. Conclusion

  4. Freshwater discharge controlled deposition of Cenomanian-Turonian black shales on the NW European epicontinental shelf (Wunstorf, northern Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helmond, N. A. G. M.; Sluijs, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Reichart, G.-J.; Voigt, S.; Erbacher, J.; Pross, J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2015-03-01

    Global warming, changes in the hydrological cycle and enhanced marine primary productivity all have been invoked as having contributed to the occurrence of widespread ocean anoxia during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event (OAE2; ~94 Ma), but disentangling these factors on a regional scale has remained problematic. In an attempt to separate these forcing factors, we generated palynological and organic geochemical records using a core spanning the OAE2 from Wunstorf, Lower Saxony Basin (LSB; northern Germany), which exhibits cyclic black shale-marl alternations related to the orbital precession cycle. Despite the widely varying depositional conditions complicating the interpretation of the obtained records, TEX86H indicates that sea-surface temperature (SST) evolution in the LSB during OAE2 resembles that of previously studied sites throughout the proto-North Atlantic. Cooling during the so-called Plenus Cold Event interrupted black shale deposition during the early stages of OAE2. However, TEX86 does not vary significantly across black shale-marl alternations, suggesting that temperature variations did not force the formation of the cyclic black shale horizons. Relative (i.e., with respect to marine palynomorphs) and absolute abundances of pollen and spores are elevated during phases of black shale deposition, indicative of enhanced precipitation and run-off. High abundances of cysts from inferred heterotrophic and euryhaline dinoflagellates supports high run-off, which likely introduced additional nutrients to the epicontinental shelf resulting in elevated marine primary productivity. We conclude that orbitally forced enhanced precipitation and run-off, in tandem with elevated marine primary productivity, were critical in cyclic black shale formation on the northern European epicontinental shelf and potentially for other OAE2 sections in the proto-Atlantic and Western Interior Seaway at similar latitudes as well.

  5. Quantification of DOC concentrations in relation with soil properties of soils in tundra and taiga of Northern European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterwoud, M. R.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

    2010-05-01

    Potential mobilization and transport of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in subarctic river basins towards the oceans is enormous, because 23-48% of the worlds Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is stored in northern regions. As climate changes, the amount and composition of DOC exported from these basins are expected to change. The transfer of organic carbon between soils and rivers results in fractionation of organic carbon compounds. The aim of this research is to determine the DOC concentrations, its fractions, i.e. humic (HA), fulvic (FA), and hydrophilic (HY) acids, and soil characteristics that influence the DOC sorptive properties of different soil types within a tundra and taiga catchment of Northern European Russia. DOC in taiga and tundra soil profiles (soil solution) consisted only of HY and FA, where HY became more abundant with increasing depth. Adsorption of DOC on mineral phases is the key geochemical process for release and removal of DOC from potentially soluble carbon pool. We found that adsorbed organic carbon may desorb easily and can release DOC quickly, without being dependent on mineralization and degradation. Although Extractable Organic Carbon (EOC) comprise only a small part of SOC, it is a significant buffering pool for DOC. We found that about 80-90% of released EOC was previously adsorbed. Fractionation of EOC is also influenced by the fact that predominantly HA and FA adsorbed to soil and therefore also are the main compounds released when desorbed. Flowpaths vary between taiga and tundra and through seasons, which likely affects DOC concentration found in streams. As climate changes, also flowpaths of water through soils may change, especially in tundra caused by thawing soils. Therefore, adsorptive properties of thawing soils exert a major control on DOC leaching to rivers. To better understand the process of DOC ad- and de-sorption in soils, process based soil chemical modelling, which could bring more insight in solution speciation, mineral

  6. Long-term trends in the northern extratropical ozone laminae with focus on European stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, Jan; Krizan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

    2014-12-01

    Narrow layers of substantially enhanced ozone concentration in ozonesonde-observed ozone profiles, called positive ozone laminae, reveal much stronger trend than the stratospheric and total ozone itself. They seem to be sensitive to both the ozone concentration and even more to changes in the stratospheric dynamics. We are studying long-term trends of strong positive laminae based on balloon-borne ozone sounding in Europe, Japan, North America and Arctic over 1970-2011 with focus on European stations due to their highest frequency of ozone sounding. Laminae characteristics exhibit strong negative trend till the mid-1990s (decrease by 50% or more). In more recent years this negative trend reverses to a positive trend. According to regression analysis, several factors play a role in the trend in laminae in Europe, namely NAO, EESC and the behavior of the winter polar stratospheric vortex represented here by the 10 hPa polar temperature. On the other hand, several factors are found not to play a significant role in the long-term trend in laminae.

  7. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077759

  8. Sting jets in severe northern European wind storms: a case study of Windstorm Gudrun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Laura; Gray, Suzanne; Clark, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Extratropical cyclones often produce strong surface winds, mostly associated with low-level jets along the warm and cold fronts. Some severe extratropical cyclones have been found to produce an additional area of localised strong, and potentially very damaging, surface winds during a certain part of their development. These strong winds are associated with air that originates within the cloud head, exiting at the tip of the cloud head and descending rapidly from there to the surface. This rapidly descending air associated with the strong surface winds is known as a sting jet. The aim of this project is to determine the mechanisms that lead to sting jets and develop diagnostics for predicting their formation and development. In previous work mesoscale slantwise circulations have been found in the cloud heads of sting jet storms; these have been speculated to be due to the release of conditional symmetric instability (CSI). Here we present an analysis of the windstorm known as "Gudrun", which passed over the UK and northern Europe in January 2005. A sting jet has been identified in this case, and the relationship between this sting jet feature and the release of CSI has been examined using two diagnostics for CSI: SCAPE (slantwise convective available potential energy) and a diagnostic based on moist potential vorticity (MPV). SCAPE exists near the tip of the cloud head and decreases during the time leading up to and during the sting jet's descent, indicating that CSI is being released during this time. This is further supported by a corresponding decrease in the MPV-based CSI diagnostic during the same period.

  9. Novel genetic variants associated with lumbar disc degeneration in northern Europeans: a meta-analysis of 4600 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Frances M K; Bansal, Aruna T; van Meurs, Joyce B; Bell, Jordana T; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Suri, Pradeep; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sambrook, Philip N; Hofman, Albert; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita; Menni, Cristina; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P Eline; Hunter, David J; MacGregor, Alex J; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Spector, Tim D

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is an important cause of low back pain, which is a common and costly problem. LDD is characterised by disc space narrowing and osteophyte growth at the circumference of the disc. To date, the agnostic search of the genome by genome-wide association (GWA) to identify common variants associated with LDD has not been fruitful. This study is the first GWA meta-analysis of LDD. Methods We have developed a continuous trait based on disc space narrowing and osteophytes growth which is measurable on all forms of imaging (plain radiograph, CT scan and MRI) and performed a meta-analysis of five cohorts of Northern European extraction each having GWA data imputed to HapMap V.2. Results This study of 4600 individuals identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms with p<5×10−8, the threshold set for genome-wide significance. We identified a variant in the PARK2 gene (p=2.8×10−8) associated with LDD. Differential methylation at one CpG island of the PARK2 promoter was observed in a small subset of subjects (β=8.74×10−4, p=0.006). Conclusions LDD accounts for a considerable proportion of low back pain and the pathogenesis of LDD is poorly understood. This work provides evidence of association of the PARK2 gene and suggests that methylation of the PARK2 promoter may influence degeneration of the intervertebral disc. This gene has not previously been considered a candidate in LDD and further functional work is needed on this hitherto unsuspected pathway. PMID:22993228

  10. Leptospiral antibodies in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and European wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Asturias, Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Espí, Alberto; Prieto, José Miguel; Alzaga, Vanesa

    2010-02-01

    Serum samples collected from Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus; n=472), fallow deer (Dama dama; n=293) and European wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=174) in Asturias, Northern Spain, from 1999 to 2005 were examined for antibodies against a reference panel of 14 Leptospira spp. serovars. Positive antibody titres at a microscopic agglutination test cut-off of 1:80 were detected against serovars Pomona (1.6%, 5.8%, 5.2%), Bratislava (1.1%, 0.7%, 4.7%), Grippotyphosa (0.7%, 2.4%, 1.7%), Muenchen (2.6%, 0%, 0%), Pyrogenes (0.4%, 2.4%, 1.2%), Panama (1.2%, 1.7%, 0%), Copenhageni (0%, 0.7%, 0.6%), Autumnalis (0.4%, 0%, 0.6%) and Icterohaemorrhagiae (0%, 0%, 0.6%) in Iberian red deer, fallow deer and European wild boar, respectively. PMID:19019711

  11. Quantitative PCR reveals strong spatial and temporal variation of the wasting disease pathogen, Labyrinthula zosterae in northern European eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds.

    PubMed

    Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Tams, Verena; Ploog, Jana; Schubert, Philipp R; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass beds are the foundation species of functionally important coastal ecosystems worldwide. The world's largest losses of the widespread seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass) have been reported as a consequence of wasting disease, an infection with the endophytic protist Labyrinthula zosterae. During one of the most extended epidemics in the marine realm, ∼90% of East and Western Atlantic eelgrass beds died-off between 1932 and 1934. Today, small outbreaks continue to be reported, but the current extent of L. zosterae in European meadows is completely unknown. In this study we quantify the abundance and prevalence of the wasting disease pathogen among 19 Z. marina populations in northern European coastal waters, using quantitative PCR (QPCR) with primers targeting a species specific portion of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) of L. zosterae. Spatially, we found marked variation among sites with abundances varying between 0 and 126 cells mg(-1) Z. marina dry weight (mean: 5.7 L. zosterae cells mg(-1) Z. marina dry weight ±1.9 SE) and prevalences ranged from 0-88.9%. Temporarily, abundances varied between 0 and 271 cells mg(-1) Z. marina dry weight (mean: 8.5±2.6 SE), while prevalences ranged from zero in winter and early spring to 96% in summer. Field concentrations accessed via bulk DNA extraction and subsequent QPCR correlated well with prevalence data estimated via isolation and cultivation from live plant tissue. L. zosterae was not only detectable in black lesions, a sign of Labyrinthula-induced necrosis, but also occurred in green, apparently healthy tissue. We conclude that L. zosterae infection is common (84% infected populations) in (northern) European eelgrass populations with highest abundances during the summer months. In the light of global climate change and increasing rate of marine diseases our data provide a baseline for further studies on the causes of pathogenic outbreaks of L. zosterae. PMID:23658711

  12. European bison as a refugee species? Evidence from isotopic data on Early Holocene bison and other large herbivores in northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bocherens, Hervé; Hofman-Kamińska, Emilia; Drucker, Dorothée G; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus)--the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe--into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. Understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time survival. In view of this, we investigated the abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in radiocarbon dated skeletal remains of European bison and other large herbivores--aurochs (Bos primigenius), moose (Alces alces), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)--from the Early Holocene of northern Europe to reconstruct their dietary habits and pattern of habitat use in conditions of low human influence. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in collagen of the ungulate species in northern central Europe during the Early Holocene showed significant differences in the habitat use and the diet of these herbivores. The values of the δ13C and δ15N isotopes reflected the use of open habitats by bison, with their diet intermediate between that of aurochs (grazer) and of moose (browser). Our results show that, despite the partial overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of some species, Early Holocene large ungulates avoided competition by selection of different habitats or different food sources within similar environments. Although Early Holocene bison and Late Pleistocene steppe bison utilized open habitats, their diets were significantly different, as reflected by their δ15N values. Additional isotopic analyses show that modern populations of European bison utilize much more forested habitats than Early Holocene bison, which supports the refugee status of the species. PMID:25671634

  13. European Bison as a Refugee Species? Evidence from Isotopic Data on Early Holocene Bison and Other Large Herbivores in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bocherens, Hervé; Hofman-Kamińska, Emilia; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    According to the refugee species concept, increasing replacement of open steppe by forest cover after the last glacial period and human pressure had together forced European bison (Bison bonasus)—the largest extant terrestrial mammal of Europe—into forests as a refuge habitat. The consequent decreased fitness and population density led to the gradual extinction of the species. Understanding the pre-refugee ecology of the species may help its conservation management and ensure its long time survival. In view of this, we investigated the abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in radiocarbon dated skeletal remains of European bison and other large herbivores—aurochs (Bos primigenius), moose (Alces alces), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)—from the Early Holocene of northern Europe to reconstruct their dietary habits and pattern of habitat use in conditions of low human influence. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions in collagen of the ungulate species in northern central Europe during the Early Holocene showed significant differences in the habitat use and the diet of these herbivores. The values of the δ13C and δ15N isotopes reflected the use of open habitats by bison, with their diet intermediate between that of aurochs (grazer) and of moose (browser). Our results show that, despite the partial overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of some species, Early Holocene large ungulates avoided competition by selection of different habitats or different food sources within similar environments. Although Early Holocene bison and Late Pleistocene steppe bison utilized open habitats, their diets were significantly different, as reflected by their δ15N values. Additional isotopic analyses show that modern populations of European bison utilize much more forested habitats than Early Holocene bison, which supports the refugee status of the species. PMID:25671634

  14. Quantitative PCR Reveals Strong Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Wasting Disease Pathogen, Labyrinthula zosterae in Northern European Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Beds

    PubMed Central

    Bockelmann, Anna-Christina; Tams, Verena; Ploog, Jana; Schubert, Philipp R.; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

    2013-01-01

    Seagrass beds are the foundation species of functionally important coastal ecosystems worldwide. The world’s largest losses of the widespread seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass) have been reported as a consequence of wasting disease, an infection with the endophytic protist Labyrinthula zosterae. During one of the most extended epidemics in the marine realm, ∼90% of East and Western Atlantic eelgrass beds died-off between 1932 and 1934. Today, small outbreaks continue to be reported, but the current extent of L. zosterae in European meadows is completely unknown. In this study we quantify the abundance and prevalence of the wasting disease pathogen among 19 Z. marina populations in northern European coastal waters, using quantitative PCR (QPCR) with primers targeting a species specific portion of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS1) of L. zosterae. Spatially, we found marked variation among sites with abundances varying between 0 and 126 cells mg−1 Z. marina dry weight (mean: 5.7 L. zosterae cells mg−1 Z. marina dry weight ±1.9 SE) and prevalences ranged from 0–88.9%. Temporarily, abundances varied between 0 and 271 cells mg−1 Z. marina dry weight (mean: 8.5±2.6 SE), while prevalences ranged from zero in winter and early spring to 96% in summer. Field concentrations accessed via bulk DNA extraction and subsequent QPCR correlated well with prevalence data estimated via isolation and cultivation from live plant tissue. L. zosterae was not only detectable in black lesions, a sign of Labyrinthula-induced necrosis, but also occurred in green, apparently healthy tissue. We conclude that L. zosterae infection is common (84% infected populations) in (northern) European eelgrass populations with highest abundances during the summer months. In the light of global climate change and increasing rate of marine diseases our data provide a baseline for further studies on the causes of pathogenic outbreaks of L. zosterae. PMID:23658711

  15. The Prey Pathway: A Regional History of Cattle (Bos taurus) and Pig (Sus scrofa) Domestication in the Northern Jordan Valley, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9th-8th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored. PMID:23405240

  16. Productive and income contributions of sheep, goat, and cattle, and different diversification schemes in smallholder production systems of Northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Villagra, Edgar Sebastián; Easdale, Marcos Horacio; Giraudo, Celso Gabriel; Bonvissuto, Griselda Luz

    2015-10-01

    Wool production oriented sheep keeping is the most important rural activity in Patagonia, Argentina, followed by goat and at a lower extent cattle production. The existing perception on the smallholder production systems from most decision makers (e.g., policy) is that they are marginal, with low productivity and have negative returns. Since the Argentinean economic scenario has changed drastically in the last decade, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic and productive contribution of different livestock species in smallholdings. The results showed that the post-1990's economic scenario turned most smallholder livestock systems to have positive economic performance, but there were still productive restrictions that limited to fully benefit from these favorable circumstances. Goats were the most profitable livestock due to their higher productive performance, followed by sheep and cattle, with poorer performances. A strong cooperation between the intervention programs and research institutions is recommended to overcome the current production bottlenecks, by focusing on cattle and sheep production systems. PMID:26089256

  17. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  18. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    PubMed

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  19. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  20. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Hillis, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  1. Implementing transnational telemedicine solutions: a connected health project in rural and remote areas of six Northern Periphery countries Series on European collaborative projects.

    PubMed

    Casey, Monica; Hayes, Patrick S; Heaney, David; Dowie, Lee; Ólaighin, Gearoid; Matero, Matti; Hun, Soo; Knarvik, Undine; Alrutz, Käte; Eadie, Leila; Glynn, Liam G

    2013-03-01

    This is the first article in a Series on collaborative projects between European countries, relevant for general practice/family medicine and primary healthcare. Telemedicine, in particular the use of the Internet, videoconferencing and handheld devices such as smartphones, holds the potential for further strides in the application of technology for the delivery of healthcare, particularly to communities in rural and remote areas within and without the European Union where this study is taking place. The Northern Periphery Programme has funded the 'Implementing Transnational Telemedicine Solutions' (ITTS) project from September 2011 to December 2013, led by the Centre for Rural Health in Inverness, Scotland. Ten sustainable projects based on videoconsultation (speech therapy, renal services, emergency psychiatry, diabetes), mobile patient self-management (physical activity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease) and home-based health services (medical and social care emergencies, rehabilitation, multi-morbidity) are being implemented by the six partner countries: Scotland, Finland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden. In addition, an International Telemedicine Advisory Service, created for the project, provides business expertise and advice. Community panels contribute feedback on the design and implementation of services and ensure 'user friendliness'. The project goals are to improve accessibility of healthcare in rural and remote communities, reducing unnecessary hospital visits and travel in a sustainable way. Opportunities will be provided for comparative research studies. This article provides an introduction to the ITTS project and how it aims to fulfil these needs. The ITTS team encourage all healthcare providers to at least explore possible technological solutions within their own context. PMID:23432039

  2. Genetic and phenotypic variation in central and northern European populations of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Francuski, Ljubinka; Milankov, Vesna; Ludoški, Jasmina; Krtinić, Bosiljka; Lundström, Jan O; Kemenesi, Gábor; Ferenc, Jakab

    2016-06-01

    The floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans can be a massive nuisance in the flood plain areas of mainland Europe, and is the vector of Tahyna virus and a potential vector of Dirofilaria immitis. This epidemiologically important species forms three subspecies worldwide, of which Aedes vexans arabiensis has a wide distribution in Europe and Africa. We quantified the genetic and phenotypic variation in Ae. vexans arabiensis in populations from Sweden (northern Europe), Hungary, and Serbia (central Europe). A landscape genetics approach (FST , STRUCTURE, BAPS, GENELAND) revealed significant differentiation between northern and southern populations. Similar to genetic data, wing geometric morphometrics revealed two different clusters, one made by Swedish populations, while another included Hungarian and Serbian populations. Moreover, integrated genetic and morphometric data from the spatial analysis suggested groupings of populations into three clusters, one of which was from Swedish and Hungarian populations. Data on spatial analysis regarding an intermediate status of the Hungarian population was supported by observed Isolation-by-Distance patterns. Furthermore, a low proportion of interpopulation vs intrapopulation variance revealed by AMOVA and low-to-moderate FST values on a broader geographical scale indicate a continuous between-population exchange of individuals, including considerable gene flow on the regional scale, are likely to be responsible for the maintenance of the observed population similarity in Aе. vexans. We discussed data considering population structure in the light of vector control strategies of the mosquito from public health importance. PMID:27232139

  3. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle

    PubMed Central

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African–Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African–Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures. PMID:15941827

  4. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For

  5. Testing the validity of Northern European species in the Chrysis ignita species group (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) with DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Soon, Villu; Budrys, Eduardas; Orlovskytė, Svetlana; Paukkunen, Juho; Odegaard, Frode; Ljubomirov, Toshko; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Containing more than a hundred species, the Chrysis ignita species group is the largest and one of the most taxonomically challenging groups in its genus. It has not been possible to resolve the taxonomy of the group using traditional methods due to the lack of robust diagnostic morphological characters. Here we present the results of a molecular analysis designed to delimit species in the Chrysis ignita group for the first time; using mitochondrial sequence data for 364 in-group specimens consisting of all 18 species known to occur in Northern Europe. Two mitochondrial loci were analysed: a COI gene fragment, and a continuous DNA sequence consisting of 16S rRNA, tRNAVal, 12S rRNA and ND4. Two approaches were employed for delimiting species: (1) genetic distance analysis based on the standard COI barcode sequences and; (2) phylogenetic analysis of the COI fragment together with rRNA genes. Both analyses yielded trees with similar topology, but support values for nodes were higher using the second approach. Fifteen species were distinguished in all analyses: Chrysis angustula Schenck, 1856, C. brevitarsis Thomson, 1870, C. clarinicollis Linsenmaier, 1951, C. corusca Valkeila, 1971, C. fulgida Linnaeus, 1761, C. ignita (Linnaeus, 1758), C. impressa Schenck, 1856, C. iris Christ, 1791, C. leptomandibularis Niehuis, 2000, C. longula Abeille de Perrin, 1879, C. ruddii Shuckard, 1837, C. schencki Linsenmaier, 1968, C. subcoriacea Linsenmaier, 1959, C. terminata Dahlbom, 1854 and C. vanlithi Linsenmaier, 1959. The specific status of C. mediata Linsenmaier, 1951 and C. solida Haupt, 1957 was not resolved. Included unidentified specimens grouped in three clusters, two of which are distinctly delimited and apparently represent cryptic species. The specific status of the unidentified samples in the third cluster remained unclear. Moreover, our data suggest the existence of additional cryptic species currently lumped under the names C. pseudobrevitarsis Linsenmaier

  6. Influence of Fire Mosaics, Habitat Characteristics and Cattle Disturbance on Mammals in Fire-Prone Savanna Landscapes of the Northern Kimberley

    PubMed Central

    Radford, Ian J.; Gibson, Lesley A.; Corey, Ben; Carnes, Karin; Fairman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patch mosaic burning, in which fire is used to produce a mosaic of habitat patches representative of a range of fire histories (‘pyrodiversity’), has been widely advocated to promote greater biodiversity. However, the details of desired fire mosaics for prescribed burning programs are often unspecified. Threatened small to medium-sized mammals (35 g to 5.5 kg) in the fire-prone tropical savannas of Australia appear to be particularly fire-sensitive. Consequently, a clear understanding of which properties of fire mosaics are most instrumental in influencing savanna mammal populations is critical. Here we use mammal capture data, remotely sensed fire information (i.e. time since last fire, fire frequency, frequency of late dry season fires, diversity of post-fire ages in 3 km radius, and spatial extent of recently burnt, intermediate and long unburnt habitat) and structural habitat attributes (including an index of cattle disturbance) to examine which characteristics of fire mosaics most influence mammals in the north-west Kimberley. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between fire mosaic and habitat attributes on total mammal abundance and richness, and the abundance of the most commonly detected species. Strong negative associations of mammal abundance and richness with frequency of late dry season fires, the spatial extent of recently burnt habitat (post-fire age <1 year within 3 km radius) and level of cattle disturbance were observed. Shrub cover was positively related to both mammal abundance and richness, and availability of rock crevices, ground vegetation cover and spatial extent of ≥4 years unburnt habitat were all positively associated with at least some of the mammal species modelled. We found little support for diversity of post-fire age classes in the models. Our results indicate that both a high frequency of intense late dry season fires and extensive, recently burnt vegetation are likely to be detrimental to mammals in the

  7. Influence of Fire Mosaics, Habitat Characteristics and Cattle Disturbance on Mammals in Fire-Prone Savanna Landscapes of the Northern Kimberley.

    PubMed

    Radford, Ian J; Gibson, Lesley A; Corey, Ben; Carnes, Karin; Fairman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Patch mosaic burning, in which fire is used to produce a mosaic of habitat patches representative of a range of fire histories ('pyrodiversity'), has been widely advocated to promote greater biodiversity. However, the details of desired fire mosaics for prescribed burning programs are often unspecified. Threatened small to medium-sized mammals (35 g to 5.5 kg) in the fire-prone tropical savannas of Australia appear to be particularly fire-sensitive. Consequently, a clear understanding of which properties of fire mosaics are most instrumental in influencing savanna mammal populations is critical. Here we use mammal capture data, remotely sensed fire information (i.e. time since last fire, fire frequency, frequency of late dry season fires, diversity of post-fire ages in 3 km radius, and spatial extent of recently burnt, intermediate and long unburnt habitat) and structural habitat attributes (including an index of cattle disturbance) to examine which characteristics of fire mosaics most influence mammals in the north-west Kimberley. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between fire mosaic and habitat attributes on total mammal abundance and richness, and the abundance of the most commonly detected species. Strong negative associations of mammal abundance and richness with frequency of late dry season fires, the spatial extent of recently burnt habitat (post-fire age <1 year within 3 km radius) and level of cattle disturbance were observed. Shrub cover was positively related to both mammal abundance and richness, and availability of rock crevices, ground vegetation cover and spatial extent of ≥4 years unburnt habitat were all positively associated with at least some of the mammal species modelled. We found little support for diversity of post-fire age classes in the models. Our results indicate that both a high frequency of intense late dry season fires and extensive, recently burnt vegetation are likely to be detrimental to mammals in the

  8. Quantitative evaluation of microplankton palaeobiogeography in the Ordovician-Early Silurian of the northern Trans European Suture Zone: implications for the timing of the Avalonia-Baltica collision.

    PubMed

    Vecoli, M; Samuelsson, J

    2001-05-01

    Quantitative analysis of assemblage similarity among chitinozoan and acritarch associations recovered from various sedimentary sequences across the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ; southern Baltic Sea and northern Germany region), permits evaluation of changes in microplankton palaeobiogeography during the Ordovician in the study area. The present data confirm strong palaeobiogeographic differences between the lower Ordovician of the Rügen area, and the coeval domains of the East European Platform (EEP), corroborating the idea that the subsurface of Rügen should be considered palaeogeographically as the eastern extension of Avalonia.Cluster analysis of chitinozoan assemblages from numerous wells in the Rügen area, and one well from the southern margin of the EEP indicates that chitinozoan bioprovincialism reached its maximum during the Llanvirn; during this period, the Rügen microplankton communities were clearly Gondwanan in character. Calculations using the coefficient of similarity support the conclusion of a high similarity between Llanvirn acritarch assemblages from the Rügen subsurface and from coeval Perigondwana localities (e.g. Tunisia). Since the early Caradoc, this Gondwanan affinity of the Rügen microfossils starts to lessen, and becomes negligible during the late Caradoc. During latest Caradoc-early Ashgill through Llandovery times the chitinozoan assemblages from either side of the TESZ are undistinguishable. If palaeobiogeographical differentiation is primarily related to palaeolatitudinal distance, then the present data support closure of the Tornquist Ocean during late Caradoc-Ashgill times. The presence of reworked Llanvirn acritarchs of Perigondwanan affinity in middle Ashgill sedimentary sequences at the southern margin of the EEP, clearly shows that by this time erosion of an uplifted area was taking place. Accordingly, the closure of the Tornquist Ocean, and consequent Avalonia-Baltica collision must have taken place during the time

  9. Fatty acid binding protein 3 (fabp3) is associated with insulin, lipids and cardiovascular phenotypes of the metabolic syndrome through epigenetic modifications in a northern european family population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) play regulatory roles at the nexus of lipid metabolism and signaling. Dyslipidemia in clinical manifestation frequently co-occurs with obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension in the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Animal studies have suggested FABPs play regulatory roles in expressing MetS phenotypes. In our family cohort of Northern European descent, transcript levels in peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) of a key FABPs, FABP3, is correlated with the MetS leading components. However, evidence supporting the functions of FABPs in humans using genetic approaches has been scarce, suggesting FABPs may be under epigenetic regulation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that CpG methylation status of a key regulator of lipid homeostasis, FABP3, is a quantitative trait associated with status of MetS phenotypes in humans. Methods We used a mass-spec based quantitative method, EpiTYPER®, to profile a CpG island that extends from the promoter to the first exon of the FABP3 gene in our family-based cohort of Northern European descent (n=517). We then conducted statistical analysis of the quantitative relationship of CpG methylation and MetS measures following the variance-component association model. Heritability of each methylation and the effect of age and sex on CpG methylation were also assessed in our families. Results We find that methylation levels of individual CpG units and the regional average are heritable and significantly influenced by age and sex. Regional methylation was strongly associated with plasma total cholesterol (p=0.00028) and suggestively associated with LDL-cholesterol (p=0.00495). Methylation at individual units was significantly associated with insulin sensitivity, lipid particle sizing and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.0028, corrected for multiple testing for each trait). Peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) expression of FABP3 in a separate group of subjects (n=128) negatively

  10. PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs in European catfish from a northern Italian lake: the contribution of an alien species to human exposure.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Prearo, M; Nespoli, R; Scanzio, T; Abete, M C

    2016-03-01

    PCDDs/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Humans are mainly exposed to these pollutants through ingestion of contaminated fish and fishery products; the consumption of fatty fish such as European catfish can contribute considerably to the intake of dioxins and PCBs. Samples of fish muscle of the top-of-the-food-chain predator Silurus glanis from the northern Italian Lake Varese were analyzed to detect the levels of 17 PCDD/F and 18 PCB congeners. All samples presented detectable levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs, with concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 1.310pgg(-1) wet weight (w.w.) for Σ PCDD/Fs, 0.031 to 21.000pgg(-1) w. w. for Σ DL-PCBs, and 0.397 to 117.910ngg(-1) w. w. for Σ NDL-PCBs. One sample exceeded the maximum levels of 6.5pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs set by European regulations for fish (1259/2011 EU), while other samples exceeded the action levels of 0.75pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of PCDD/Fs, and 2pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of DL-PCBs (277/2012 EU). Consuming contaminated catfish may pose a risk for human health, especially for the subpopulation traditionally accustomed to eating this fish, as well as sensitive individuals, such as children and pregnant women. PMID:26702715

  11. Daytime habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus and native european hare Lepus europaeus in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertolino, Sandro; Montezemolo, Nicola Cordero di; Perrone, Aurelio

    2011-06-01

    We used radiotelemetry to investigate resting sites habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and native European hare (Lepus europaeus) under sympatric conditions. We tracked 24 hares and 34 cottontails in a protected area of northwestern Italy. Hares were found in different sites every week, while cottontails used the same site for two weeks, and occasionally for longer. It is supposed that this periodic nest switching reduces the risk of predation and parasitism. Hares and cottontails forms were located in different habitats and characterized by dense vegetation cover near the ground. This cover increased from winter to summer in both species, while in autumn it continued to increase in cottontails only, and decreased in hares. Cottontails selected shrubby habitats near the river, and avoided crop fields in all seasons. Hares were more adaptive in their search, using high herbs and shrubs all year round, wheat fields in spring, maize in spring and summer, and stubbles in winter. Arguably, partial niche differentiation is necessary to allow the coexistence of similar species. In our study area, hares and cottontails differentiated in the use of resting sites habitats, presumably so as not to compete in this part of their ecological niche. PMID:21627451

  12. Assessment of reproductive performance of Begait cattle in in-situ and ex-situ sites and in different production systems in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Berihu; Tegegne, Azage; Regassa, Fikadu

    2016-03-01

    Retrospective studies were conducted in Kafta-Humera and Wukro areas of Tigray region of Ethiopia. A retrospective study was carried out on 12 herds consisting 2144 Begait cattle from pastoral and agro-pastoral areas to assess herd composition and calf-crop. To evaluate the reproductive performance, 210 cows were selected randomly from pastoral, agro-pastoral, confinement and crop-livestock production systems. All necessary data of reproductive parameters were collected through questionnaire surveys, group discussions and follow-up observations. SPSS software was applied to analyze the data. The result of the present study showed that the average calf-crop of 53% and 42.1% and annual calf mortality rate of 20.8% and 9.4%, were observed for pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems, respectively. The mean age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI) in months were 34.9, 43.9 and 12.9 in pastoral, 35.9, 45.0 and 14.0 in agro-pastoral, 34.4, 44.9 and 15.0 in confinement and 40.5, 49.5 and 19.6 in crop-livestock production systems, respectively. AFC and CI were significantly (P<0.05) affected by site and production system. Significantly longer AFS, AFC and CI were noticed in crop-livestock system than in the other 3 production systems. However, CI was not affected by age and parity. PMID:26811293

  13. Craniometrical estimation of the native Japanese Mishima cattle, using multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Daigo, M; Amasaki, H

    1989-01-01

    The present study on measurement of the skull of Mishima cattle, which has been postulated as the only pure representative breed of native Japanese cattle, was performed using craniometrical multivariate analysis. The data of the skull of Mishima cattle was compared with 17 breeds of cattle, i.e. Korean cattle (Hamhung, Pyongyang, Chinju Suwon, and Kwangju), Mongolian cattle, Hainan Tao cattle, northeastern Chinese cattle (Shuangliao, Shenyang, Tongliao, Lüta, and Chilin), Astatic Water Buffalo, Yak, Bos Banteng, American Bison, and Holstein-Friesian. The Mishima cattle was included in the group of Korean breeds, especially it was closed on the group of Pyongyang and Chinju breeds. The distance on the craniometrical multivariate analyzing co-ordinate between Mishima cattle and Hainan Tao breed of Zebu cattle was larger than the distance between Mishima cattle and Korean breeds. While result, as a above the present study was very important for the origin of "Wagyu" (native Japanese cattle). Since the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle has been reported on the type of serum enzymes and hemotypes. It was suggested that the craniometrical multivariate analysis supported to the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle. PMID:2764276

  14. A physiologically based approach for degree-day calculation in pest phenology models: the case of the European Corn Borer ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorano, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Phenological models based on degree-day accumulation have been developed to support the integrated pest management of many insects. Most of these models are based on linear relationships between temperature and development, and on daily time step simulations using daily minimum and maximum temperatures. This approach represents an approximation that does not take into account the insect physiological response to temperature, and daily temperature fluctuations. The objective of this work has been to develop a phenological model for the European corn borer (ECB) based on the insect physiological response to temperature and running at an hourly time step. Two modeling solutions based on the same generic compartmental system have been compared: the first based on a physiologically based relationship between temperature and development, and using hourly derived temperatures as input (HNL modeling solution); and the second based on a linear relationship between temperature and degree-day accumulation and using daily temperature (DL modeling solution). The two approaches have been compared using ECB moth capture data from the Piemonte region in Northern Italy. The HNL modeling solution showed the best results for all the accuracy indicators. The DL modeling solution showed a tendency to anticipate ECB phenological development too early. This tendency is attributable to the linear relationship between temperature and development, which does not take into account (1) the decline of this relationship at high temperatures, and (2) the daily fluctuation of temperature. As a consequence, degree-days accumulation is accelerated in the DL modeling solution and the phenological development anticipated.

  15. A physiologically based approach for degree-day calculation in pest phenology models: the case of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Phenological models based on degree-day accumulation have been developed to support the integrated pest management of many insects. Most of these models are based on linear relationships between temperature and development, and on daily time step simulations using daily minimum and maximum temperatures. This approach represents an approximation that does not take into account the insect physiological response to temperature, and daily temperature fluctuations. The objective of this work has been to develop a phenological model for the European corn borer (ECB) based on the insect physiological response to temperature and running at an hourly time step. Two modeling solutions based on the same generic compartmental system have been compared: the first based on a physiologically based relationship between temperature and development, and using hourly derived temperatures as input (HNL modeling solution); and the second based on a linear relationship between temperature and degree-day accumulation and using daily temperature (DL modeling solution). The two approaches have been compared using ECB moth capture data from the Piemonte region in Northern Italy. The HNL modeling solution showed the best results for all the accuracy indicators. The DL modeling solution showed a tendency to anticipate ECB phenological development too early. This tendency is attributable to the linear relationship between temperature and development, which does not take into account (1) the decline of this relationship at high temperatures, and (2) the daily fluctuation of temperature. As a consequence, degree-days accumulation is accelerated in the DL modeling solution and the phenological development anticipated. PMID:21725633

  16. No evidence of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain or enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) found in cattle faeces in northern Germany, the hotspot of the 2011 HUS outbreak area

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ruminants, in particular bovines, are the primary reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), but whole genome analyses of the current German ESBL-producing O104:H4 outbreak strain of sequence type (ST) 678 showed this strain to be highly similar to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Strains of the EAEC pathotype are basically adapted to the human host. To clarify whether in contrast to this paradigm, the O104:H4 outbreak strain and/or EAEC may also be able to colonize ruminants, we screened a total of 2.000 colonies from faecal samples of 100 cattle from 34 different farms - all located in the HUS outbreak region of Northern Germany - for genes associated with the O104:H4 HUS outbreak strain (stx2, terD, rfbO104, fliCH4), STEC (stx1, stx2, escV), EAEC (pAA, aggR, astA), and ESBL-production (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV). Results The faecal samples contained neither the HUS outbreak strain nor any EAEC. As the current outbreak strain belongs to ST678 and displays an en-teroaggregative and ESBL-producing phenotype, we additionally screened selected strains for ST678 as well as the aggregative adhesion pattern in HEp-2 cells. However, we were unable to find any strains belonging to ST678 or showing an aggregative adhesion pattern. A high percentage of animals (28%) shed STEC, corroborating previous knowl-edge and thereby proving the validity of our study. One of the STEC also harboured the LEE pathogenicity island. In addition, eleven animals shed ESBL-producing E. coli. Conclusions While we are aware of the limitations of our survey, our data support the theory, that, in contrast to other Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, cattle are not the reservoir for the O104:H4 outbreak strain or other EAEC, but that the outbreak strain seems to be adapted to humans or might have yet another reservoir, raising new questions about the epidemiology of STEC O104:H4. PMID:22051440

  17. Comparative method validation for closantel determination in cattle and sheep milk according to European Union Volume 8 and Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.

    PubMed

    Devreese, Mathias; Maes, An; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2014-08-01

    A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative determination of closantel in bovine and ovine colostrum and tank milk. Sample preparation consisted of extracting milk samples with acetonitrile/acetone (80/20, v/v) followed by SPE clean-up with Oasis mixed anion exchange columns. After elution with 5% formic acid in acetonitrile and evaporation to dryness, the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile and water. HPLC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column and a gradient elution program with 1mM ammonium acetate in water and acetonitrile. For closantel determination in bovine milk, the method was validated according to EU Volume 8 guidelines whereas for ovine milk both EU Volume 8 and VICH GL49 criteria were applied. The linear range of the method is between 10 and 2000 μg/kg, the limit of quantification 10 μg/kg and limit of detection is 0.63 and 0.32 μg/kg for sheep colostrum and tank milk and 1.27 and 1.24 μg/kg for cattle colostrum and tank milk, respectively. Both guidelines cover a similar set of parameters (linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantification), although the acceptance criteria might differ (accuracy and precision) or no specific acceptability ranges are specified in neither guidelines (LOD and LOQ). For some parameters, only one of the guidelines indicates acceptance criteria: EU Volume 8 for applicability, practicability and susceptibility and VICH GL 49 for linearity, specificity and analyte stability. PMID:24656540

  18. The evolution of shipping emissions and the costs of recent and forthcoming emission regulations in the northern European emission control area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, L.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Kalli, J.; Kukkonen, J.

    2013-06-01

    An extensive inventory of marine exhaust emissions is presented in the northern European emission control area (ECA) in 2009 and 2011. The emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2, CO and PM2.5 were evaluated using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM). We have combined the information on individual vessel characteristics and position reports generated by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The emission limitations from 2009 to 2011 have had a significant impact on reducing the emissions of both SOx and PM2.5. The predicted emissions of SOx originated from IMO-registered marine traffic have been reduced by 33%, from 322 ktons to 217 ktons, in the ECA from 2009 to 2011. The corresponding predicted reduction of PM2.5 emissions was 20%, from 74 ktons to 59 ktons. The highest CO2 and PM2.5 emissions in 2011 were located in the vicinity of the coast of the Netherlands, in the English Channel, near the South-Eastern UK and along the busiest shipping lines in the Danish Straits and the Baltic Sea. The changes of emissions and the financial costs caused by various regulative actions since 2005 were also evaluated, based on the increased direct fuel costs. We also simulated the effects and direct costs associated with the forthcoming switch to low-sulfur distillate fuels in 2015. According to the projections for the future, there will be a reduction of 85% in SOx emissions and a~reduction of 50% in PM2.5 emissions in 2015, compared with the corresponding shipping emissions in 2011 in the ECA. The corresponding relative increase in fuel costs for all shipping varied between 10% and 63%, depending on the development of the prices of fuels and the use of the sulfur scrubber equipment.

  19. Spatial epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy cattle in relation to night roosts Of Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) in Ohio, USA (2007-2009).

    PubMed

    Swirski, A L; Pearl, D L; Williams, M L; Homan, H J; Linz, G M; Cernicchiaro, N; LeJeune, J T

    2014-09-01

    The goal of our study was to use spatial scan statics to determine whether the night roosts of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) act as point sources for the dissemination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 among dairy farms. From 2007 to 2009, we collected bovine faecal samples (n = 9000) and starling gastrointestinal contents (n = 430) from 150 dairy farms in northeastern Ohio, USA. Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 recovered from these samples were subtyped using multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Generated MLVA types were used to construct a dendrogram based on a categorical multistate coefficient and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Using a focused spatial scan statistic, we identified statistically significant spatial clusters among dairy farms surrounding starling night roosts, with an increased prevalence of E. coli O157:H7-positive bovine faecal pats, increased diversity of distinguishable MLVA types and a greater number of isolates with MLVA types from bovine-starling clades versus bovine-only clades. Thus, our findings are compatible with the hypothesis that starlings have a role in the dissemination of E. coli O157:H7 among dairy farms, and further research into starling management is warranted. PMID:24279810

  20. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST). Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4), 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20) and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21) were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several European countries, but

  1. Confirmation of a founder effect in a Northern European population of a new β-globin variant: HBB:c.23_26dup (codons 8/9 (+AGAA)).

    PubMed

    Marchi, Nina; Pissard, Serge; Cliquennois, Manuel; Vasseur, Christian; Le Metayer, Nathalie; Mereau, Claude; Jouet, Jean Pierre; Georgel, Anne-France; Genin, Emmanuelle; Rose, Christian

    2015-09-01

    β-Thalassemia is a genetic disease caused by a defect in the production of the β-like globin chain. More than 200 known different variants can lead to the disease and are mainly found in populations that have been exposed to malaria parasites. We recently described a duplication of four nucleotides in the first exon of β-globin gene in several families of patients living in Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France). Using the genotypes at 12 microsatellite markers surrounding the β-globin gene of four unrelated variant carriers plus an additional one recently discovered, we found that they shared a common haplotype indicating a founder effect that was estimated to have taken place 225 years ago (nine generations). In order to determine whether this variant arose in this region of Northern Europe or was introduced by migrants from regions of the world where thalassemia is endemic, we genotyped the first 4 unrelated variant carriers and 32 controls from Nord-Pas-de-Calais for 97 European ancestry informative markers (EAIMs). Using these EAIMs and comparing with population reference panels, we demonstrated that the variant carriers were very similar to the controls and were closer to North European populations than to South European or Middle-East populations. Rare β-thalassemia variants have already been described in patients sampled in non-endemic regions, but it is the first proof of a founder effect in Northern Europe. PMID:25469539

  2. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China. PMID:26231838

  3. The Last Glacial Maximum in the Northern European loess belt: Correlations between loess-paleosol sequences and the Dehner Maar core (Eifel Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zens, Joerg; Krauß, Lydia; Römer, Wolfgang; Klasen, Nicole; Pirson, Stéphane; Schulte, Philipp; Zeeden, Christian; Sirocko, Frank; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The D1 project of the CRC 806 "Our way to Europe" focusses on Central Europe as a destination of modern human dispersal out of Africa. The paleo-environmental conditions along the migration areas are reconstructed by loess-paleosol sequences and lacustrine sediments. Stratigraphy and luminescence dating provide the chronological framework for the correlation of grain size and geochemical data to large-scale climate proxies like isotope ratios and dust content of Greenland ice cores. The reliability of correlations is improved by the development of precise age models of specific marker beds. In this study, we focus on the (terrestrial) Last Glacial Maximum of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial which is supposed to be dominated by high wind speeds and an increasing aridity. Especially in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), this period is linked to an extensive erosion event. The disconformity is followed by an intensive cryosol formation. In order to support the stratigraphical observations from the field, luminescence dating and grain size analysis were applied on three loess-paleosol sequences along the northern European loess belt to develop a more reliable chronology and to reconstruct paleo-environmental dynamics. The loess sections were compared to newest results from heavy mineral and grain size analysis from the Dehner Maar core (Eifel Mountains) and correlated to NGRIP records. Volcanic minerals can be found in the Dehner Maar core from a visible tephra layer at 27.8 ka up to ~25 ka. They can be correlated to the Eltville Tephra found in loess section. New quartz luminescence ages from Romont (Belgium) surrounding the tephra dated the deposition between 25.0 + 2.3 ka and 25.8 + 2.4 ka. In the following, heavy minerals show an increasing importance of strong easterly winds during the second Greenland dust peak (~24 ka b2k) correlating with an extensive erosion event in the LRE. Luminescence dating on quartz bracketing the following soil formation yielded ages of

  4. Seasonal changes of the ambient noise recorded by the "13 BB star" array in northern Poland within the Trans European Suture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepore, Simone; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The variations in the azimuth of ambient noise sources, as well as the coherence of the average velocity of surface waves arrivals, were evaluated by applying beam forming and seismic interferometry techniques to the recordings carried out during 2014 at the "13 BB star" array composed of thirteen broadband seismic stations located in northern Poland within the Trans European Suture Zone. The evaluation of the beam power for the whole array each five days for the horizontal and vertical components led to the estimation of the azimuth variation of noise sources during the entire 2014. Fifty days represent a reasonable period to observe seasonal variations of the azimuth in time. The analysis of the azimuths makes evident the strongest beam power associated to noise does not show a preferred direction. The azimuth is predominantly fluctuating between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea: nevertheless, secondary sources like the Atlantic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea were also noticed. To put in evidence the seasonal variations, the amplitude associated to the principal source was evaluated for the three components. It shows high values in January, March, April, July, August and November, whereas it is low in the remaining months. The analysis of the crosscorrelation between all the station pairs, obtained from the stacking of daily traces for January, April and September 2014 in the 0.1 1 Hz frequency band, allowed the estimation of precise values of velocities of surface waves. The best resolution to retrieve the surface waves is achieved in April, whereas in January and September several higher modes are still present in the traces. The fastest arrivals of surface waves are between ~7 s at ~20 km distance and ~40 s at ~120 km with an average velocity of ~3 km/s. The second group of arrivals is located between ~10 s at ~20 km distance and ~60 s at ~120 km: accordingly, the average velocity is ~2 km/s. The third group of arrivals, between ~13 s at 20 km

  5. BSE : the European regulatory context.

    PubMed

    Chalus, T; Peutz, I

    2000-10-01

    The Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy crisis provoked a fundamental re-appraisal of the way in which the European Community approaches matters of food safety. Between 28 July 1989, when restrictions on the dispatch of certain live cattle from the UK starte PMID:12631966

  6. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Stendal, Isolated from an Anthrax Outbreak in Cattle in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis strain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows. PMID:27056225

  7. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Stendal, Isolated from an Anthrax Outbreak in Cattle in Germany.

    PubMed

    Antwerpen, Markus; Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence ofBacillus anthracisstrain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows. PMID:27056225

  8. Northern range expansion of European populations of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi is associated with global warming-correlated genetic admixture and population-specific temperature adaptations.

    PubMed

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Tautz, Diethard

    2013-04-01

    Poleward range expansions are observed for an increasing number of species, which may be an effect of global warming during the past decades. However, it is still not clear in how far these expansions reflect simple geographical shifts of species ranges, or whether new genetic adaptations play a role as well. Here, we analyse the expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi into Northern Europe during the last century. We have used a range-wide sampling of contemporary populations and historical specimens from museums to trace the phylogeography and genetic changes associated with the range shift. Based on the analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP markers, we observe a higher level of genetic diversity in the expanding populations, apparently due to admixture of formerly isolated lineages. Using reciprocal transplant experiments for testing overwintering tolerance, as well as temperature preference and tolerance tests in the laboratory, we find that the invading spiders have possibly shifted their temperature niche. This may be a key adaptation for survival in Northern latitudes. The museum samples allow a reconstruction of the invasion's genetic history. A first, small-scale range shift started around 1930, in parallel with the onset of global warming. A more massive invasion of Northern Europe associated with genetic admixture and morphological changes occurred in later decades. We suggest that the latter range expansion into far Northern latitudes may be a consequence of the admixture that provided the genetic material for adaptations to new environmental regimes. Hence, global warming could have facilitated the initial admixture of populations and this resulted in genetic lineages with new habitat preferences. PMID:23496675

  9. An evolutionary approach to the high frequency of the Delta F508 CFTR mutation in European populations.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Sánchez, Miguel A; Pérez-Miranda, Ana M; García-Obregón, Susana; Peña, José A

    2010-06-01

    The diffusion of the cattle pastoralism across Europe during the Neolithic period was probably accompanied by the emergence and spread of diverse contagious diseases that were unknown in the Paleolithic and that would have affected the frequency of genes directly or indirectly associated with differential susceptibility and/or resistance to infectious pathogens. We therefore propose that the high frequency of the CFTR gene, and in particular, the common Delta F508 allele mutation in current European and European-derived populations might be a consequence of the impact of selective pressures generated by the transmission of pathogenic agents from domesticated animals, mainly bovine cattle, to the man. Intestinal infectious diseases were probably a major health problem for Neolithic peoples. In such a context, a gene mutation that conferred an increased resistance to the diseases caused by pathogens transmitted by dairy cattle would have constituted a definite selective advantage, particularly in those human groups where cow's milk became an essential component of the diet. This selective advantage would be determined by an increased resistance to Cl(-)-secreting diarrheas of those individuals carrying a single copy of the Delta F508 CFTR mutation (heterozygote resistance). This hypothesis is supported by the strong association between the geography of the diffusion of cattle pastoralism (assessed indirectly by the lactase persistence distribution), the geographic distribution of a sizeable number of HLA alleles (as indicative of potential selective pressures generated by epidemic mortality) and the geographic distribution of the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis (Delta F508). The systematic interaction of humans with infectious pathogens would have begun in northern Europe, among the carriers of the Funnel Beaker Culture, the first farmers of the North European plain, moving progressively to the south with the dissemination of the cattle pastoralism. This

  10. Continental-Scale Patterns Reveal Potential for Warming-Induced Shifts in Cattle Diet.

    PubMed

    Craine, Joseph M; Angerer, Jay P; Elmore, Andrew; Fierer, Noah

    2016-01-01

    In North America, it has been shown that cattle in warmer, drier grasslands have lower quality diets than those cattle grazing cooler, wetter grasslands, which suggests warming will increase nutritional stress and reduce weight gain. Yet, little is known about how the plant species that comprise cattle diets change across these gradients and whether these shifts in dietary quality coincide with shifts in dietary composition, i.e. the relative abundance of different plant species consumed by cattle. To quantify geographic patterns in dietary composition, we analyzed the dietary composition and dietary quality of unsupplemented cattle from 289 sites across the central US by sequence-based analyses of plant DNA isolated from cattle fecal samples. Overall, assuming that the percentage of reads for a species in a sample corresponds to the percentage of protein derived from the species, only 45% of the protein intake for cattle was derived from grasses. Within the Great Plains, northern cattle relied more on grasses than southern cattle, which derived a greater proportion of their protein from herbaceous and woody eudicots. Eastern cattle were also more likely to consume a unique assemblage of plant species than western cattle. High dietary protein was not strongly tied to consumption of any specific plant species, which suggests that efforts to promote individual plant species may not easily remedy protein deficiencies. A few plant species were consistently associated with lower quality diets. For example, the diets of cattle with high amounts of Elymus or Hesperostipa were more likely to have lower crude protein concentrations than diets with less of these grasses. Overall, our analyses suggest that climatic warming will increase the reliance of cattle on eudicots as protein concentrations of grasses decline. Monitoring cattle diet with this DNA-based sequencing approach can be an effective tool for quantifying cattle diet to better increase animal performance and

  11. Continental-Scale Patterns Reveal Potential for Warming-Induced Shifts in Cattle Diet

    PubMed Central

    Craine, Joseph M.; Angerer, Jay P.; Elmore, Andrew; Fierer, Noah

    2016-01-01

    In North America, it has been shown that cattle in warmer, drier grasslands have lower quality diets than those cattle grazing cooler, wetter grasslands, which suggests warming will increase nutritional stress and reduce weight gain. Yet, little is known about how the plant species that comprise cattle diets change across these gradients and whether these shifts in dietary quality coincide with shifts in dietary composition, i.e. the relative abundance of different plant species consumed by cattle. To quantify geographic patterns in dietary composition, we analyzed the dietary composition and dietary quality of unsupplemented cattle from 289 sites across the central US by sequence-based analyses of plant DNA isolated from cattle fecal samples. Overall, assuming that the percentage of reads for a species in a sample corresponds to the percentage of protein derived from the species, only 45% of the protein intake for cattle was derived from grasses. Within the Great Plains, northern cattle relied more on grasses than southern cattle, which derived a greater proportion of their protein from herbaceous and woody eudicots. Eastern cattle were also more likely to consume a unique assemblage of plant species than western cattle. High dietary protein was not strongly tied to consumption of any specific plant species, which suggests that efforts to promote individual plant species may not easily remedy protein deficiencies. A few plant species were consistently associated with lower quality diets. For example, the diets of cattle with high amounts of Elymus or Hesperostipa were more likely to have lower crude protein concentrations than diets with less of these grasses. Overall, our analyses suggest that climatic warming will increase the reliance of cattle on eudicots as protein concentrations of grasses decline. Monitoring cattle diet with this DNA-based sequencing approach can be an effective tool for quantifying cattle diet to better increase animal performance and

  12. NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...

  13. Particulate matter adjacent to cattle deep-bedded monoslope facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region. Many of these facilities add organic bedding material to the pens once or twice per week. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions from these facilities have not been evaluate...

  14. High lactose tolerance in North Europeans: a result of migration, not in situ milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Vuorisalo, Timo; Arjamaa, Olli; Vasemägi, Anti; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka; Tourunen, Auli; Saloniemi, Irma

    2012-01-01

    The main carbohydrate in milk is lactose, which must be hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose before the sugars can be digested. While 65% or more of the total human population are lactose intolerant, in some human populations lactase activity commonly persists into adulthood. Lactose tolerance is exceptionally widespread in Northern European countries such as Sweden and Finland, with tolerance levels of 74% and 82%, respectively. Theoretically, this may result either from a strong local selection pressure for lactose tolerance, or from immigration of lactose tolerant people to Northern Europe. We provide several lines of archaeological and historical evidence suggesting that the high lactose tolerance in North Europeans cannot be explained by selection from in situ milk consumption. First, fresh cow milk has not belonged to the traditional diet of Swedes or Finns until recent times. Second, not enough milk has been available for adult consumption. Cattle herding has been neither widespread nor productive enough in Northern Europe to have provided constant access to fresh milk. We suggest that the high prevalence of lactose tolerance in Finland in particular may be explained by immigration of people representing so-called Corded Ware Culture, an early culture representing agricultural development in Europe. PMID:22643754

  15. Extreme events in total ozone over the Northern mid-latitudes: an analysis based on long-term data sets from five European ground-based stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Jancso, Leonhardt M.; Rocco, Stefania Di; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Joerg A.; Peter, Thomas; Ribatet, Mathieu; Davison, Anthony C.; de Backer, Hugo; Koehler, Ulf; Krzyścin, Janusz; Vaníček, Karel

    2011-11-01

    We apply methods from extreme value theory to identify extreme events in high (termed EHOs) and low (termed ELOs) total ozone and to describe the distribution tails (i.e. very high and very low values) of five long-term European ground-based total ozone time series. The influence of these extreme events on observed mean values, long-term trends and changes is analysed. The results show a decrease in EHOs and an increase in ELOs during the last decades, and establish that the observed downward trend in column ozone during the 1970-1990s is strongly dominated by changes in the frequency of extreme events. Furthermore, it is shown that clear ‘fingerprints’ of atmospheric dynamics (NAO, ENSO) and chemistry [ozone depleting substances (ODSs), polar vortex ozone loss] can be found in the frequency distribution of ozone extremes, even if no attribution is possible from standard metrics (e.g. annual mean values). The analysis complements earlier analysis for the world's longest total ozone record at Arosa, Switzerland, confirming and revealing the strong influence of atmospheric dynamics on observed ozone changes. The results provide clear evidence that in addition to ODS, volcanic eruptions and strong/moderate ENSO and NAO events had significant influence on column ozone in the European sector.

  16. Late Cretaceous intra-oceanic magmatism in the internal Dinarides (northern Bosnia and Herzegovina): Implications for the collision of the Adriatic and European plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaszewski, Kamil; Schmid, Stefan M.; Lugović, Boško; Schuster, Ralf; Schaltegger, Urs; Bernoulli, Daniel; Hottinger, Lukas; Kounov, Alexandre; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Schefer, Senecio

    2009-03-01

    The Kozara Mountains of northern Bosnia and Hercegovina form part of the internal Dinarides and host two tectonically juxtaposed ophiolitic successions of different age. The southern part of the Kozara Mountains exposes the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit, which was obducted onto the Adriatic margin in the Late Jurassic. The northern part exposes a bimodal igneous succession that was thrust onto the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit during the latest Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. This bimodal igneous succession comprises isotropic gabbros, doleritic dikes, basaltic pillow lavas and rhyolites. Pelagic limestones, intercalated with pillow lavas, yielded a Campanian globotruncanid association, consistent with concordant U-Pb ages on zircons from dolerites and rhyolites of 81.39 ± 0.11 and 81.6 ± 0.12 Ma, respectively. Chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns of the bimodal igneous rocks show enrichment of LREE over HREE. Primitive mantle-normalised multi-element diagrams do not reveal significant depletion of HFSE. The ɛNd(T) and initial 87Sr/ 86Sr isotopic values range from + 4.4 to + 6.3 and from 0.70346 to 0.70507 respectively, suggesting an intraoceanic origin. The bimodal igneous succession is unconformably overlain by Maastrichtian to Paleocene siliciclastics that contain abundant ophiolitic detritus, suggesting reworking of the Campanian magmatics. An Eocene turbiditic sandstone succession unconformably covers both the Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit and the Late Cretaceous bimodal igneous successions. These observations suggest that the Adriatic Plate and the Europe-derived Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units were still separated by a deep basin floored by oceanic lithosphere until the Campanian and that its closure did not occur before the Maastrichtian to earliest Paleogene. This Late Cretaceous oceanic domain probably represented a remnant of the Vardar Ocean, or alternatively, the Alpine Tethys; possibly the traces of both oceanic domains were connected in

  17. Mercury and selenium in European catfish (Silurus glanis) from Northern Italian Rivers: can molar ratio be a predictive factor for mercury toxicity in a top predator?

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2015-01-01

    The study of mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in fish is crucially important for evaluating the extent of contamination in freshwater environments, and the possible health risk posed for humans when the antagonistic interactions of these two elements are considered. Several factors affect the risk of mercury intake from fish consumption, including mercury levels, human consumption patterns, and sensitive populations (e.g., pregnant women, foetuses, young children and unknown genetic factors). The protective effects of selenium on mercury toxicity have been extensively publicised in recent years, particularly targeting fish consumers. In this study, mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were determined in the muscle of European catfish (Silurus glanis) collected from North Italian Rivers. Differences in mercury and selenium levels, as a function of size, gender and location were investigated. Hg was strongly related to length, gender and location, while Se levels are not dependent on fish size or location. The mean Se/Hg molar ratio was strongly affected by location, and significantly related to length and age. Selenium was in molar excess of mercury in all sites, with a rank order of mean Se/Hg molar ratio of the Parma River (2.55)>Po River (1.71)>Tanaro River (1.66)>Bormida River (1.36). However, in 37% of analyzed samples, Hg exceeded the maximum level set by 1881/2006/EC and 629/2008/EC in fish muscle. The molar ratio of Se/Hg was <1 only in the presence of significantly high Hg levels (>0.5mg/kg), and therefore the mean molar ratio cannot be considered as a safety criterion in top predator fish. PMID:25460744

  18. A survey of Culicoides developmental sites on a farm in northern Spain, with a brief review of immature habitats of European species.

    PubMed

    González, Mikel; López, Sergio; Mullens, Bradley A; Baldet, Thierry; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2013-01-16

    Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris groups are considered to be the main vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in non Mediterranean Europe. Selected terrestrial microhabitats (n=17) on a farm in northern Spain were sampled repeatedly over a year-long period and characterized for use by Culicoides species for immature development. Concurrent use of CDC light traps showed the presence of 37 species and 66,575 specimens of adult Culicoides. A total of 28 species and 11,396 individuals emerged from laboratory-maintained soil samples. Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (pooled as Obsoletus complex) were particularly abundant (comprising 58.6% and 74.5% of the total collections in light traps and emergence traps respectively). Potential key vectors of animal viruses (such as BTV) were found in two main terrestrial types of microhabitats. In the case of C. obsoletus, different types of manure (old and composted manure, manure mixed with organic matter, and fresh manure) produced most of the specimens. In contrast, larvae of C. scoticus and Culicoides lupicaris were associated with soil substantially comprised of rotting leaf litter that included the parasitic plant Lathraea clandestina. Several species, Culicoides festivipennis, Culicoides punctatus and Culicoides brunnicans, were very common in mud at pond margins. Indeed, pond microhabitats and runoff below barn rooflines supported the greatest species richness. In the pond habitat, 49.4% of Culicoides specimens emerged from mud at the water edge, as opposed to 50 cm above (32.4%) and 1 meter above waterline (18%). Similar species richness, but statistically significant differences in abundance, were observed among the four pond microhabitats. Overall, the majority of the specimens were found in the upper layer (0-3 cm), except in manure, where they preferred deeper layers (>6 cm). Maximum peaks of abundance occurred in both light traps and soil samples in summer

  19. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

    PubMed Central

    Saravanajayam, M.; Kumanan, K.; Balasubramaniam, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results revealed that the seroprevalence of IBR infection among non-vaccinated cattle population was of 65.88%. No significant difference was noticed in the prevalence of IBR infection between cattle showing respiratory (63.64%) and reproductive form (70.89%) (p≥0.05). A higher prevalence was noticed in animals above 3 years of age (59.60%) and in crossbred animals (71.26%) than young and non-descript animals. This study showed the higher prevalence of IBR infection in female (67.92%) than in male (33.33%). Conclusion: Cattle population in this part can better be protected with vaccination than leaving them unvaccinated and sero-monitoring shall have to be stressed with regular attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agent for IBR. PMID:27047054

  20. Microsatellite genotyping of medieval cattle from central Italy suggests an old origin of Chianina and Romagnola cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gargani, Maria; Pariset, Lorraine; Lenstra, Johannes A.; De Minicis, Elisabetta; Valentini, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA from archeological remains is a valuable tool to interpret the history of ancient animal populations. So far most studies of ancient DNA target mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which reveals maternal lineages, but only partially the relationships of current breeds and ancient populations. In this study we explore the feasibility of nuclear DNA analysis. DNA was extracted from 1000-years old cattle bone collected from Ferento, an archeological site in central Italy. Amplification of 15 microsatellite FAO-recommended markers with PCR products yielded genotypes for four markers. Expected heterozygosity was comparable with values of modern breeds, but observed heterozygosity was underestimated due to allelic loss. Genetic distances suggested a position intermediate between (1) Anatolian, Balkan, Sicilian and South-Italian cattle and (2) the Iberian, North-European and Central-European cattle, but also a clear relationship with two central-Italian breeds, Chianina and Romagnola. This suggests that these breeds are derived from medieval cattle living in the same area. Our results illustrate the potential of ancient DNA for reconstructing the history of local cattle husbandry. PMID:25788902

  1. Origins of cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, elucidated from genome-wide SNP genotypes.

    PubMed

    Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Kantanen, J; Millbrooke, A; Schnabel, R D; Alexander, L J; MacNeil, M D

    2016-06-01

    Feral livestock may harbor genetic variation of commercial, scientific, historical or esthetic value. The origins and uniqueness of feral cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, are uncertain. The island is now part of the Alaska Maritime Wildlife Refuge and Federal wildlife managers want grazing to cease, presumably leading to demise of the cattle. Here we characterize the cattle of Chirikof Island relative to extant breeds and discern their origins. Our analyses support the inference that Yakut cattle from Russia arrived first on Chirikof Island, then ~120 years ago the first European taurine cattle were introduced to the island, and finally a large wave of Hereford cattle were introduced on average 40 years ago. In addition, this mixture of European and East-Asian cattle is unique compared with other North American breeds and we find evidence that natural selection in the relatively harsh environment of Chirikof Island has further impacted their genetic architecture. These results provide an objective basis for decisions regarding conservation of the Chirikof Island cattle. PMID:26860198

  2. Origins of cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, elucidated from genome-wide SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Kantanen, J; Millbrooke, A; Schnabel, R D; Alexander, L J; MacNeil, M D

    2016-01-01

    Feral livestock may harbor genetic variation of commercial, scientific, historical or esthetic value. The origins and uniqueness of feral cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, are uncertain. The island is now part of the Alaska Maritime Wildlife Refuge and Federal wildlife managers want grazing to cease, presumably leading to demise of the cattle. Here we characterize the cattle of Chirikof Island relative to extant breeds and discern their origins. Our analyses support the inference that Yakut cattle from Russia arrived first on Chirikof Island, then ~120 years ago the first European taurine cattle were introduced to the island, and finally a large wave of Hereford cattle were introduced on average 40 years ago. In addition, this mixture of European and East-Asian cattle is unique compared with other North American breeds and we find evidence that natural selection in the relatively harsh environment of Chirikof Island has further impacted their genetic architecture. These results provide an objective basis for decisions regarding conservation of the Chirikof Island cattle. PMID:26860198

  3. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  4. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  5. Anthelmintics for cattle.

    PubMed

    Prichard, R K

    1986-07-01

    A number of anthelmintics are available for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In North America, O. ostertagi, Cooperia spp., lung worm, and F. hepatica probably cause the greatest losses in production. The older anthelmintics are often deficient in their action against some of these parasites. Recently, the Paratect morantel tartrate slow-release bolus has provided a mechanism for the prevention of infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and lung worm, to some extent, and this has been shown to produce considerable economic benefits. Fenbendazole removes arrested O. ostertagi larvae; thus, its availability is an important step in the prevention of type-2 ostertagiasis. It also has a very broad spectrum of activity that includes most other nematodes and tapeworms and is a very safe anthelmintic. Ivermectin is highly effective against almost all cattle nematodes and also has great value for the control of arthropod ectoparasites. In addition, it and levamisole are the only anti-nematode drugs that can be administered to cattle by injection. Clorsulon is a new, safe anthelmintic that provides good control of liver fluke and, thus, fills a gap in the control of helminths of cattle in North America. The efficient use of anthelmintics in association with management based on a knowledge of parasite epidemiology can ensure that cattle do not rapidly become re-infected. In this way, the benefits from the use of anthelmintics can be very considerable and far greater than the costs of control. PMID:3488116

  6. Spontaneous poisoning by Solanum subinerme Jack as a cause of cerebellar cortical degeneration in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lima, Everton Ferreira; Riet-Correa, Franklin; de Medeiros, Rosane Maria Trindade

    2014-05-01

    The present work reports cerebellar degeneration in cattle associated with the ingestion of Solanum subinerme in northern Brazil. The main clinical signs were periodic crises with loss of balance, falls, opisthotonus, and nystagmus. The histological lesions consisted of diffuse vacuolation of the perikaryon of the Purkinje neurons, followed by the loss of these cells and their substitution by Bergman glia. It is concluded that S. subinerme is another species of Solanum that causes cerebellar degeneration in cattle. PMID:24561122

  7. Seedstock beef cattle: SPA.

    PubMed

    McGrann, J M; Leachman, L

    1995-07-01

    The Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) for seedstock beef cattle (SPA-SB) is a recommended set of production and financial performance analysis guidelines developed specifically for the seedstock cow-calf, replacement heifer, and the sale bull enterprises. These guidelines were developed by members of the National Cattlemen's Association (NCA) and the National Integrated Resource Management Coordinating Committee to provide beef cattle producers with a comprehensive, standardized means of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the performance and profitability of an operation. This article describes and illustrates through an example the performance measures chosen. NCA certifies software and education materials conforming to the Seedstock SPA Guidelines. PMID:7584819

  8. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  9. 9 CFR 78.14 - Rodeo cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the requirements for cattle in this subpart and in 9 CFR part 86. (Approved by the Office of... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rodeo cattle. 78.14 Section 78.14... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.14 Rodeo cattle. (a) Rodeo cattle that are...

  10. Lack of haplotype structuring for two candidate genes for trypanotolerance in cattle.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, I; Pérez-Pardal, L; Traoré, A; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2016-04-01

    Bovine trypanotolerance is a heritable trait associated to the ability of the individuals to control parasitaemia and anaemia. The INHBA (BTA4) and TICAM1 (BTA7) genes are strong candidates for trypanotolerance-related traits. The coding sequence of both genes (3951 bp in total) were analysed in a panel including 79 Asian, African and European cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus) to identify naturally occurring polymorphisms on both genes. In general, the genetic diversity was low. Nineteen of the 33 mutations identified were found just one time. Seventeen different haplotypes were defined for the TICAM1 gene, and 9 and 12 were defined for the exon 1 and the exon 2 of the INHBA gene, respectively. There was no clear separation between cattle groups. The most frequent haplotypes identified in West African taurine samples were also identified in other cattle groups including Asian zebu and European cattle. Phylogenetic trees and principal component analysis confirmed that divergence among the cattle groups analysed was poor, particularly for the INHBA sequences. The European cattle subset had the lowest values of haplotype diversity for both the exon1 (monomorphic) and the exon2 (0.077 ± 0.066) of the INHBA gene. Neutrality tests, in general, did not suggest that the analysed genes were under positive selection. The assessed scenario would be consistent with the identification of recent mutations in evolutionary terms. PMID:26365013

  11. Worldwide Patterns of Ancestry, Divergence, and Admixture in Domesticated Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Jared E.; McKay, Stephanie D.; Rolf, Megan M.; Kim, JaeWoo; Molina Alcalá, Antonio; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Hanotte, Olivier; Götherström, Anders; Seabury, Christopher M.; Praharani, Lisa; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Correia de Almeida Regitano, Luciana; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Heaton, Michael P.; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Reecy, James M.; Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.

    2014-01-01

    The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. PMID:24675901

  12. The genetic architecture of climatic adaptation of tropical cattle.

    PubMed

    Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Prayaga, Kishore C; Chan, Eva K F; Johnston, David J; Hawken, Rachel J; Fordyce, Geoffry; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E; Burrow, Heather M; Henshall, John M; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Barendse, William

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity. PMID:25419663

  13. The Genetic Architecture of Climatic Adaptation of Tropical Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Reverter, Antonio; Prayaga, Kishore C.; Chan, Eva K. F.; Johnston, David J.; Hawken, Rachel J.; Fordyce, Geoffry; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E.; Burrow, Heather M.; Henshall, John M.; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Barendse, William

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity. PMID:25419663

  14. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinseye, Victor O; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ogugua, Akwoba J; Adedoyin, Folashade J; Otu, Patricia I; Kwaghe, Ayi V; Kolawole, Noah O; Okoro, Oyinye J; Agada, Charity A; Tade, Adeniyi O; Faleke, Olufemi O; Okeke, Anyanwu L; Akanbi, Ibikunle M; Ibitoye, Mofoluwake M; Dipeolu, Morenike O; Dale, Emma J; Lorraine, Perrett; Taylor, Andrew V; Awosanya, Emmanuel A; Cadmus, Eniola O; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I

    2016-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013) from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105) was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.22). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04) and sex ( p £ 0.0001) of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries. PMID:27247065

  15. Potential Risk of Regional Disease Spread in West Africa through Cross-Border Cattle Trade

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Anna S.; Fournié, Guillaume; Kulo, Abalo E.; Boukaya, G. Aboudou; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2013-01-01

    Background Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. Methods and Principal Findings A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5%) operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1–80.0%) of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. Conclusions By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential. PMID:24130721

  16. Ancient mtDNA Analysis of Early 16th Century Caribbean Cattle Provides Insight into Founding Populations of New World Creole Cattle Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Speller, Camilla F.; Burley, David V.; Woodward, Robyn P.; Yang, Dongya Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Columbian Exchange resulted in a widespread movement of humans, plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds. The late 15th to early 16th century transfer of cattle from the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands to the Caribbean laid the foundation for the development of American creole cattle (Bos taurus) breeds. Genetic analyses of modern cattle from the Americas reveal a mixed ancestry of European, African and Indian origins. Recent debate in the genetic literature centers on the ‘African’ haplogroup T1 and its subhaplogroups, alternatively tying their origins to the initial Spanish herds, and/or from subsequent movements of taurine cattle through the African slave trade. We examine this problem through ancient DNA analysis of early 16th century cattle bone from Sevilla la Nueva, the first Spanish colony in Jamaica. In spite of poor DNA preservation, both T3 and T1 haplogroups were identified in the cattle remains, confirming the presence of T1 in the earliest Spanish herds. The absence, however, of “African-derived American” haplotypes (AA/T1c1a1) in the Sevilla la Nueva sample, leaves open the origins of this sub-haplogroup in contemporary Caribbean cattle. PMID:23894505

  17. Genetic Footprints of Iberian Cattle in America 500 Years after the Arrival of Columbus

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Amparo M.; Gama, Luis T.; Cañón, Javier; Ginja, Catarina; Delgado, Juan V.; Dunner, Susana; Landi, Vincenzo; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rodellar, Clementina; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Acosta, Atzel; Álvarez, Luz A.; Camacho, Esperanza; Cortés, Oscar; Marques, Jose R.; Martínez, Roberto; Martínez, Ruben D.; Melucci, Lilia; Martínez-Velázquez, Guillermo; Muñoz, Jaime E.; Postiglioni, Alicia; Quiroz, Jorge; Sponenberg, Philip; Uffo, Odalys; Villalobos, Axel; Zambrano, Delsito; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Background American Creole cattle presumably descend from animals imported from the Iberian Peninsula during the period of colonization and settlement, through different migration routes, and may have also suffered the influence of cattle directly imported from Africa. The introduction of European cattle, which began in the 18th century, and later of Zebu from India, has threatened the survival of Creole populations, some of which have nearly disappeared or were admixed with exotic breeds. Assessment of the genetic status of Creole cattle is essential for the establishment of conservation programs of these historical resources. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled 27 Creole populations, 39 Iberian, 9 European and 6 Zebu breeds. We used microsatellite markers to assess the origins of Creole cattle, and to investigate the influence of different breeds on their genetic make-up. The major ancestral contributions are from breeds of southern Spain and Portugal, in agreement with the historical ports of departure of ships sailing towards the Western Hemisphere. This Iberian contribution to Creoles may also include some African influence, given the influential role that African cattle have had in the development of Iberian breeds, but the possibility of a direct influence on Creoles of African cattle imported to America can not be discarded. In addition to the Iberian influence, the admixture with other European breeds was minor. The Creoles from tropical areas, especially those from the Caribbean, show clear signs of admixture with Zebu. Conclusions/Significance Nearly five centuries since cattle were first brought to the Americas, Creoles still show a strong and predominant signature of their Iberian ancestors. Creole breeds differ widely from each other, both in genetic structure and influences from other breeds. Efforts are needed to avoid their extinction or further genetic erosion, which would compromise centuries of selective adaptation to a wide range of

  18. Population dynamic of the extinct European aurochs: genetic evidence of a north-south differentiation pattern and no evidence of post-glacial expansion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aurochs (Bos primigenius) was a large bovine that ranged over almost the entirety of the Eurasian continent and North Africa. It is the wild ancestor of the modern cattle (Bos taurus), and went extinct in 1627 probably as a consequence of human hunting and the progressive reduction of its habitat. To investigate in detail the genetic history of this species and to compare the population dynamics in different European areas, we analysed Bos primigenius remains from various sites across Italy. Results Fourteen samples provided ancient DNA fragments from the mitochondrial hypervariable region. Our data, jointly analysed with previously published sequences, support the view that Italian aurochsen were genetically similar to modern bovine breeds, but very different from northern/central European aurochsen. Bayesian analyses and coalescent simulations indicate that the genetic variation pattern in both Italian and northern/central European aurochsen is compatible with demographic stability after the last glaciation. We provide evidence that signatures of population expansion can erroneously arise in stable aurochsen populations when the different ages of the samples are not taken into account. Conclusions Distinct groups of aurochsen probably inhabited Italy and northern/central Europe after the last glaciation, respectively. On the contrary, Italian and Fertile Crescent aurochsen likely shared several mtDNA sequences, now common in modern breeds. We argue that a certain level of genetic homogeneity characterized aurochs populations in Southern Europe and the Middle East, and also that post-glacial recolonization of northern and central Europe advanced, without major demographic expansions, from eastern, and not southern, refugia. PMID:20346116

  19. Lead intoxication in cattle: a case report.

    PubMed

    Baars, A J; van Beek, H; Visser, I J; Vos, G; van Delft, W; Fennema, G; Lieben, G W; Lautenbag, K; Nieuwenhuijs, J H; de Lezenne Coulander, P A

    1992-01-01

    During the autumn of 1989 a feed contamination induced a widespread lead intoxication of cattle in the northern provinces of The Netherlands (Groningen and Friesland). Over 300 farms were involved, affecting about 15,500 animals (mostly dairy cattle). For a period of one to four weeks these animals took up a thousand kg of lead. This resulted in lead levels in milk, livers, and kidneys above the regulatory safety limits. Due to the chelating therapy, which was rapidly applied by the local veterinarians, only about 30 animals died of an acute lead intoxication. A joint action of the governmental and private authorities prevented exposure of consumers to lead-contaminated animal products. Based on observations, measurements and literature data, predictions were made of the lead levels to be expected in animal products and the time needed for depletion of these levels. The appropriate animals were ear-tagged to ensure their identification, and the decline in time of the lead levels in milk and offals was conscientiously monitored. In the second week of 1990 the lead concentrations were decreased to levels well below the regulatory limits, and hence the tags were removed. The present paper reports our observations and conclusions, especially regarding treatment, predictions and outcome of this incident. PMID:1493885

  20. 5. Front of northern kiln group, looking northwest. Note cables ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Front of northern kiln group, looking northwest. Note cables encircling the walls. Barricades at doorway were placed by Forest Service to prevent cattle from entering the kilns. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  1. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: BEEF CATTLE FEEDLOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of atmospheric emissions of fugitive dusts and volatile products from beef cattle feedlots. Total particulate emissions are affected by feedlot area, cattle density in pens, wind speed, and the regional precipitation-evaporation index. The predominant...

  2. Heat stress in feedlot cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle is a common summer time occurrence in cattle-producing parts of the world (United States, Australia, Brazil, etc.). The impact of heat stress on feedlot animals is quite varied--from little to no effect in a brief exposure, to causing reductions in feed intake, growth,...

  3. Manure management and temperature impacts on gas concentrations in monoslope cattle facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roofed and confined cattle feeding facilities are increasingly popular in the Northern Great Plains, but little is known about the impact this housing system and associated manure management methods have on the air quality inside and outside the barn. The objective of this study was to determine ga...

  4. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.

  5. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    PubMed

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs. PMID:25052335

  6. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    PubMed Central

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360–3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs. PMID:25052335

  7. European security, nuclear weapons and public confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gutteridge, W.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control in Europe. Topics considered include political aspects, the balance of power, nuclear disarmament in Europe, the implications of new conventional technologies, the neutron bomb, theater nuclear weapons, arms control in Northern Europe, naval confidence-building measures in the Baltic, the strategic balance in the Arctic Ocean, Arctic resources, threats to European stability, developments in South Africa, economic cooperation in Europe, European collaboration in science and technology after Helsinki, European cooperation in the area of electric power, and economic cooperation as a factor for the development of European security and cooperation.

  8. Kobuvirus (Aichivirus B) infection in Brazilian cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2014-06-01

    There are few studies involving the detection of Aichivirus B in cattle herds worldwide, and this virus has never been diagnosed in South America. This study evaluated 222 diarrhoeic faecal samples from four Brazilian geographical regions (South, Southeast, Midwest, and North), collected between February 2010 to May 2012. To evaluate the frequency of occurrence in different types of livestock, samples from beef (n = 105) and dairy (n = 117) cattle herds were evaluated. To determine the category of animals more susceptible to infection, the sampling included samples from calves (n = 182) and adults animals (n = 40). The 216 bp fragment of the Aichivirus RdRp gene was amplified by a RT-PCR assay in 18.2 % (40/222) of the samples evaluated in both beef and dairy cattle animals. The highest (P < 0.05) detection rate (20.9 %; 38/182) of the Aichivirus B was found in calves. The nucleotide sequencing analysis showed that the Brazilian Aichivirus B strains clustered in a distinct branch in the phylogenetic tree of the European and Asiatic strains. This is the first description of Aichivirus B infection in Brazilian cattle herds. PMID:24590582

  9. Hemochromatosis in Salers cattle.

    PubMed

    House, J K; Smith, B P; Maas, J; Lane, V M; Anderson, B C; Graham, T W; Pino, M V

    1994-01-01

    Two 2-year-old Salers cattle from different herds raised on pasture were evaluated for retarded growth and diarrhea. Increase of liver enzyme activities and prolonged sulfobromophothalein (BSP) half life (T1/2) indicated liver disease with impaired liver function. Histopathologic examination of liver biopsies revealed a micronodular cirrhosis with marked deposition of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and arterioles. Transferrin saturation (TS) and liver iron content were markedly increased, consistent with a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Both animals were euthanatized due to deterioration in their condition. Necropsy findings included hepatomegaly and hemosiderin accumulation in the liver, lymph nodes, pancreas, spleen, thyroid, kidney, brain and other glandular tissue. Continued surveillance of the second herd (serum iron, total iron binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron binding capacity [UIBC], and TS), identified a heifer as a hemochromatosis suspect in a subsequent generation. Liver biopsies from that animal revealed the same histopathologic changes as the previous 2 animals, and similar increases in liver iron content (8,700 ppm, normal range 45 to 300 ppm). The 3 affected cattle were all products of line breeding programs and shared a common ancestor. The absence of dietary iron loading in conjunction with the histopathologic and metabolic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of primary hemochromatosis. The reported disease is similar to idiopathic hemochromatosis in human beings in which there is a hereditary defect in iron metabolism. PMID:8046672

  10. 9 CFR 72.2 - Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., infectious, and communicable disease known as splenetic or tick fever exists in cattle in portions of the... Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors of said disease in the Northern Mariana... States and vectors of said disease in the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  11. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  12. European Mistletoe

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References American mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 7, 2009. European mistletoe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July ...

  13. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. However, SNP ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for taurine breeds, imposing limitations to the study of diversity in zebu cattle. As amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are discovered and genotyped as the samples are assayed, this type of marker is free of ascertainment bias. In order to obtain unbiased assessments of genetic differentiation and structure in taurine and zebu cattle, we analyzed a dataset of 135 AFLP markers in 1,593 samples from 13 zebu and 58 taurine breeds, representing nine continental areas. Results We found a geographical pattern of expected heterozygosity in European taurine breeds decreasing with the distance from the domestication centre, arguing against a large-scale introgression from European or African aurochs. Zebu cattle were found to be at least as diverse as taurine cattle. Western African zebu cattle were found to have diverged more from Indian zebu than South American zebu. Model-based clustering and ancestry informative markers analyses suggested that this is due to taurine introgression. Although a large part of South American zebu cattle also descend from taurine cows, we did not detect significant levels of taurine ancestry in these breeds, probably because of systematic backcrossing with zebu bulls. Furthermore, limited zebu introgression was found in Podolian taurine breeds in Italy. Conclusions The assessment of cattle diversity reported here contributes an unbiased global view to genetic differentiation and structure of taurine and zebu cattle

  14. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle. PMID:27506091

  15. European Community.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well. PMID:12177941

  16. Range Cattle Winter Water Consumption in Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water consumption and DMI may interact to alter range cow productivity. Furthermore, environmental conditions and water temperature may influence water consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine influences of water and air temperature on quantity and pattern of water intake...

  17. Range Cattle Winter Water Consumption in Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water consumption and DMI has been found to be positively correlated and may interact to alter range cow productivity. Environmental conditions can have a significant influence on water consumption during the winter. The objective of this study was to determine influences of water and air temperatur...

  18. Tracing the genetic roots of the indigenous White Park Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, A; Alderson, L; Fandrey, E; Lieckfeldt, D; Soederlund, T K; Froelich, K

    2013-08-01

    The White Park Cattle (WPC) is an indigenous ancient breed from the British Isles which has a long-standing history in heroic sagas and documents. The WPC has retained many primitive traits, especially in their grazing behaviour and preferences. Altogether, the aura of this breed has led to much speculation surrounding its origin. In this study, we sequenced the mitogenomes from 27 WPC and three intronic fragments of genes from the Y chromosome of three bulls. We observed six novel mitogenomic lineages that have not been found in any other cattle breed so far. We found no evidence that the WPC is a descendant of a particular North or West European branch of aurochs. The WPC mitogenomes are grouped in the T3 cluster together with most other domestic breeds. Nevertheless, both molecular markers support the primitive position of the WPC within the taurine breeds. PMID:23350719

  19. Tracing the maternal roots of the domestic Red Mountain Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Hesse, Uwe G W; Froelich, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The Red Mountain Cattle (RHV) is an important native ancient breed from the lower mountain ranges of Central Europe, which was originally raised for milk and meat production and as draught animal. In the 1980s, the RHV was close to extinction and only the sperm of a single purebreed bull and a few cows were available for breed formation. In this study the mitogenomes were sequenced of RHV from six maternal founder lineages. We observed six novel mitogenomes which have not been found in any other cattle breed so far. The RHV mitogenomes are grouped phylogenetically in the T-haplogroup indicating a South European origin and supporting their primitive position within the taurine breeds. PMID:24971777

  20. Residue depletion of tilmicosin in cattle after subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyang; Ding, Shuangyang; Li, Jiancheng; An, Dianjin; Li, Cun; Shen, Jianzhong

    2006-07-12

    A study of tissue residue depletion of tilmicosin in cattle was conducted after a single subcutaneous injection at the therapeutic level of 10 mg per kg body weight. Eighteen cross cattle were treated with the tilmicosin oil formulation (30%). Three treated animals (two males and one female) were selected randomly to be scarified at 1, 7, 14, 28, and 35 days withdrawal after injection. Samples of the injection site and of muscle, liver, kidney, and fat were collected. Tilmicosin residue concentrations were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a UV detector at 290 nm. Using a statistical method recommended by the Committee for Veterinary Medical Products of European Medical Evaluation Agency, the withdrawal time of 34 days was established when all tissue residues except samples in the injection site were below the accepted maximum residue limits. PMID:16819937

  1. Arteriosclerosis in Seven Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, Adam; Stevenson, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Lungs in four cases contained multiple spicules of metaplastic bone within alveolar walls. This disease was associated with high doses of vitamin D3 in three cows and one heifer. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4. PMID:17422885

  2. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  3. A field vaccine trial in Tanzania demonstrates partial protection against malignant catarrhal fever in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lankester, F.; Russell, G.C.; Lugelo, A.; Ndabigaye, A.; Mnyambwa, N.; Keyyu, J.; Kazwala, R.; Grant, D.; Percival, A.; Deane, D.; Haig, D.M.; Cleaveland, S.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that, in East Africa, results from transmission of the causative virus, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), from wildebeest. A vaccine field trial involving an attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine was performed over two wildebeest calving seasons on the Simanjiro Plain of northern Tanzania. Each of the two phases of the field trial consisted of groups of 50 vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, which were subsequently exposed to AlHV-1 challenge by herding toward wildebeest. Vaccination resulted in the induction of virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Some cattle in the unvaccinated groups also developed virus-specific antibody responses but only after the start of the challenge phase of the trial. PCR of DNA from blood samples detected AlHV-1 infection in both groups of cattle but the frequency of infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups. Some infected animals showed clinical signs suggestive of MCF but few animals went on to develop fatal MCF, with similar numbers in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced infection rates by 56% in cattle exposed to wildebeest but protection from fatal MCF could not be determined due to the low number of fatal cases. PMID:26706270

  4. Cattle drive Salmonella infection in the wildlife-livestock interface.

    PubMed

    Mentaberre, G; Porrero, M C; Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Serrano, E; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-11-01

    The genus Salmonella is found throughout the world and is a potential pathogen for most vertebrates. It is also the most common cause of food-borne illness in humans, and wildlife is an emerging source of food-borne disease in humans due to the consumption of game meat. Wild boar is one of the most abundant European game species and these wild swine are known to be carriers of zoonotic and food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella. Isolation of the pathogen, serotyping and molecular biology are necessary for elucidating epidemiological connections in multi-host populations. Although disease management at population level can be addressed using a number of different strategies, such management is difficult in free-living wildlife populations due to the lack of experience with the wildlife-livestock interface. Herein, we provide the results of a 4-year Salmonella survey in sympatric populations of wild boar and cattle in the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain). We also evaluated the effects of two management strategies, cattle removal and increased wild boar harvesting (i.e. by hunting and trapping), on the prevalence of the Salmonella serovar community. The serovars Meleagridis and Anatum were found to be shared by cattle and wild boar, a finding that was confirmed by 100% DNA similarity patterns using pulse field gel electrophoresis. Cattle removal was more efficient than the culling of wild boar as a means of reducing the prevalence of shared serotypes, which underlines the role of cattle as a reservoir of Salmonella for wild boar. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manage Salmonella in the wild, and the results have implications for management. PMID:23253262

  5. Cattle rabies vaccination--A longitudinal study of rabies antibody titres in an Israeli dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, Boris; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, Nelli; Rozenblut, Shira; Tov, Boris Even; Markos, Majid; Gallon, Nadav; Homer, David; Maki, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to many regions of the world where rabies is endemic in terrestrial wildlife species, wildlife rabies has been controlled in Israel by oral rabies vaccination programs, but canine rabies is re-emerging in the northern area of the Golan Heights. From 2009 to 2014 there were 208 animal rabies cases in Israel; 96 (46%) were considered introduced primary cases in dogs, triggering 112 secondary cases. One third (37/112) of the secondary cases were in cattle. Rabies vaccination is voluntary for cattle in Israel, except those on public exhibit. Rabies vaccination schedules for cattle vary based on farm practices and perception of risk. In this study 59 cattle from a dairy farm which routinely vaccinates against rabies were assigned into six groups according to age and vaccination histories. Four groups contained adult cows which had received one previous rabies vaccination, one group of adults had received two previous vaccinations, and one group was unvaccinated calves. Serum samples were collected and the cows were vaccinated with a commercial rabies vaccine. Sera were again collected 39 days later and the calf group re-vaccinated and re-sampled 18 days later. Sera were analyzed for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies using the rapid immunofluorescent antibody test. Cattle with antibody titres ≥ 0.5 IU/ml were considered to be protected against rabies. Twenty-six of 27 adult cattle (96%) vaccinated once at less than five months old did not have protective titres. Sixty percent (6/10) cattle vaccinated once at around six months of age did have adequate titres. Cattle previously vaccinated twice (n=10; 100%) with an 18 month interval between inoculations, had protective titres and protective antibody titres following booster vaccination (n=51; 100%). The anamnestic response of cattle to a killed rabies vaccine was not affected by the time interval between vaccinations, which ranged from 12 to 36 months. These results suggest that calves from

  6. Revisiting demographic processes in cattle with genome-wide population genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Barbato, Mario; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel; Biscarini, Filippo; Milanesi, Marco; Davies, Wyn; Williams, Don; Stella, Alessandra; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of the aurochs took place approximately 10,000 years ago giving rise to the two main types of domestic cattle known today, taurine (Bos taurus) domesticated somewhere on or near the Fertile Crescent, and indicine (Bos indicus) domesticated in the Indus Valley. However, although cattle have historically played a prominent role in human society the exact origin of many extant breeds is not well known. Here we used a combination of medium and high-density Illumina Bovine SNP arrays (i.e., ~54,000 and ~770,000 SNPs, respectively), genotyped for over 1300 animals representing 56 cattle breeds, to describe the relationships among major European cattle breeds and detect patterns of admixture among them. Our results suggest modern cross-breeding and ancient hybridisation events have both played an important role, including with animals of indicine origin. We use these data to identify signatures of selection reflecting both domestication (hypothesized to produce a common signature across breeds) and local adaptation (predicted to exhibit a signature of selection unique to a single breed or group of related breeds with a common history) to uncover additional demographic complexity of modern European cattle. PMID:26082794

  7. Revisiting demographic processes in cattle with genome-wide population genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Barbato, Mario; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel; Biscarini, Filippo; Milanesi, Marco; Davies, Wyn; Williams, Don; Stella, Alessandra; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The domestication of the aurochs took place approximately 10,000 years ago giving rise to the two main types of domestic cattle known today, taurine (Bos taurus) domesticated somewhere on or near the Fertile Crescent, and indicine (Bos indicus) domesticated in the Indus Valley. However, although cattle have historically played a prominent role in human society the exact origin of many extant breeds is not well known. Here we used a combination of medium and high-density Illumina Bovine SNP arrays (i.e., ~54,000 and ~770,000 SNPs, respectively), genotyped for over 1300 animals representing 56 cattle breeds, to describe the relationships among major European cattle breeds and detect patterns of admixture among them. Our results suggest modern cross-breeding and ancient hybridisation events have both played an important role, including with animals of indicine origin. We use these data to identify signatures of selection reflecting both domestication (hypothesized to produce a common signature across breeds) and local adaptation (predicted to exhibit a signature of selection unique to a single breed or group of related breeds with a common history) to uncover additional demographic complexity of modern European cattle. PMID:26082794

  8. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  9. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1: First Report in Iraqi Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mohammed A.; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M.; Odisho, Shoni M.; Yaseen, Nahi Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374

  10. Molecular and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1: First Report in Iraqi Cattle.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mohammed A; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M; Odisho, Shoni M; Yaseen, Nahi Y

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374

  11. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... age; (iii) Steers and spayed heifers; (iv) Cattle exported directly to slaughter in a country that...

  12. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  15. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  17. Effects of short-term cattle exclusion on plant community composition: Prairie dog and ecological site influences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant community composition is an important indicator of healthy, proper functioning rangelands. We evaluated the impacts prairie dog grazing, ecological site and short term cattle exclusion on Northern Mixed-Grass prairie near McLaughlin, SD. Modified Daubenmire frames provided canopy cover, litte...

  18. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of ‘production diseases’ in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  19. The Genetic Diversity of the Nguni Breed of African Cattle (Bos spp.): Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Haplogroup T1

    PubMed Central

    Horsburgh, K. Ann; Prost, Stefan; Gosling, Anna; Stanton, Jo-Ann; Rand, Christy; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Domesticated cattle were commonplace in northern Africa by about 7,000 years ago. Archaeological evidence, however, suggests they were not established in southern Africa until much later, no earlier than 2,000 years ago. Genetic reconstructions have started to shed light on the movement of African cattle, but efforts have been frustrated by a lack of data south of Ethiopia and the nature of the mitochondrial haplogroup T1 which is almost fixed across the continent. We sequenced 35 complete mitochondrial genomes from a South African herd of Nguni cattle, a breed historically associated with Bantu speaking farmers who were among the first to bring cattle to southern Africa. As expected, all individuals in the study were found to be members of haplogroup T1. Only half of the sub-haplogroups of T1 (T1a-T1f) are represented in our sample and the overwhelming majority (94%) in this study belong to subhaplogroup T1b. A previous study of African cattle found frequencies of T1b of 27% in Egypt and 69% in Ethiopia. These results are consistent with serial multiple founder effects significantly shaping the gene pool as cattle were moved from north to south across the continent. Interestingly, these mitochondrial data give no indication that the impacts of the founder effects were ameliorated by gene flow from recently introduced Indian cattle breeds. PMID:23977187

  20. The transmission of Fasciola spp. to cattle and contamination of grazing areas with Fasciola eggs in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan Anh, Nguyen Thi; Thanh, Dao Thi Ha; Hoan, Doan Huu; Thuy, Do Thu; Khong, Nguyen Viet; Anderson, Norman

    2014-04-01

    At four times during November 2010, cattle with infections of Fasciola spp., in two communes of northern Vietnam, were allocated to two equivalent groups. Cattle in one group were treated with triclabendazole. Faecal samples collected monthly from both groups were tested for Fasciola copro-antigens and the presence of Fasciola eggs. Re-infection of treated cattle occurred from early March to late November, coinciding with high weekly totals of rainfall. Contamination of grazing areas by untreated cattle was high and relatively constant throughout the year. However, contamination was reduced to undetectable amounts for 8 to 12 weeks after treatment and even at 20 weeks was only 50% or less of the pre-treatment amounts. Therefore, treatments given in mid-September and again in early April, at the start of the wet season, may be sufficient to prevent contamination of grazing areas and reduce the prevalence and severity of Fasciola infections in cattle. PMID:24510222

  1. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  2. Cattle are eating the forest

    SciTech Connect

    DeWalt, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)

  3. Exploring cattle movements in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Ensoy, Chellafe; Faes, Christel; Welby, Sarah; Van der Stede, Yves; Aerts, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Movement of animals from one farm to another is a potential risk and can lead to the spreading of livestock diseases. Therefore, in order to implement effective control measures, it is important to understand the movement network in a given area. Using the SANITEL data from 2005 to 2009, around 2 million cattle movements in Belgium were traced. Exploratory analysis revealed different spatial structures for the movement of different cattle types: fattening calves are mostly moved to the Antwerp region, adult cattle are moved to different parts in Belgium. Based on these differences, movement of cattle would more likely cause a spread of disease to a larger number of areas in Belgium as compared to the fattening calves. A closer inspection of the spatial and temporal patterns of cattle movement using a weighted negative binomial model, revealed a significant short-distance movement of bovine which could be an important factor contributing to the local spreading of a disease. The model however revealed hot spot areas of movement in Belgium; four areas in the Walloon region (Luxembourg, Hainaut, Namur and Liege) were found as hot spot areas while East and West Flanders are important "receivers" of movement. This implies that an introduction of a disease to these Walloon regions could result in a spread toward the East and West Flanders regions, as what happened in the case of Bluetongue BTV-8 outbreak in 2006. The temporal component in the model also revealed a linear trend and short- and long-term seasonality in the cattle movement with a peak around spring and autumn. The result of this explorative analysis enabled the identification of "hot spots" in time and space which is important in enhancing any existing monitoring and surveillance system. PMID:24881483

  4. Generalised glycogenosis in Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, B M; Healy, P J; Fraser, I R; Nieper, R E; Whittle, R J; Sewell, C A

    1981-05-01

    Generalised glycogenosis was diagnosed in Brahman cattle on 4 Queensland properties on the basis of clinical observations and pathological and biochemical findings. The disease presented as a problem of ill-thrift and poor growth rate in calves which eventually showed nervous signs. Histologically there was vacuolation in the cells of the central nervous system, heart and muscular tissues. Biochemical assay of liver and blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a deficiency of alpha-glucosidase. Parents of affected calves had approximately half the alpha-glucosidase activity of that found in normal cattle. PMID:6945845

  5. Cattle: disease risks at turnout.

    PubMed

    2016-04-30

    This article is prepared by the Cattle Expert Group and is intended to highlight seasonal issues related to turnout. The Cattle Expert Group is a virtual network of veterinary surveillance expertise in Great Britain, led by APHA. It is one of six Species Expert Groups that form part of the APHA Surveillance Intelligence Unit, which identifies and characterises potential New and Re-emerging Threats (NRTs) and other risks to livestock and wildlife in Great Britain. These are then considered by the Veterinary Risk Group for appropriate mitigation. PMID:27127093

  6. Sudden death of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Glock, R D; DeGroot, B D

    1998-01-01

    Sudden deaths or the sudden death syndrome are perceived as major concerns in cattle feedlots because most of these deaths occur in cattle near market weight. Etiology and preventive measures are poorly defined. The current literature indicates that sudden deaths are associated most commonly with digestive upsets. Death is thought to be the result of interactions between factors including acidosis, bloat, and endotoxemia. Trauma, peracute interstitial pneumonia, and other identifiable events are specifically defined but relatively uncommon. Enterotoxemia is of questionable significance as a cause of sudden deaths. PMID:9464913

  7. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis and adoption of related biosecurity measures in Northern Ireland: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease which is endemic in Northern Ireland. As it has proven difficult to eradicate this disease, partly due to a wildlife reservoir being present in the European badger (Meles meles), a case-control study was conducted in a high incidence area in 2010-2011. The aim was to identify risk factors for bTB breakdown relating to cattle and badgers, and to assess the adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures on farms. Face-to-face questionnaires with farmers and surveys of badger setts and farm boundaries were conducted on 117 farms with a recent bTB breakdown (cases) and 75 farms without a recent breakdown (controls). On logistic regression at univariable and multivariable levels, significant risk factors associated with being a case herd included having an accessible badger sett within the farm boundaries in a field grazed in the last year (odds ratio, OR, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.79, 9.55), observation of live badgers (OR 4.14; 95% CI 1.79, 9.55), purchase of beef cattle (OR 4.60; 95% CI 1.61, 13.13), use of contractors to spread slurry (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.24, 6.49), feeding meal on top of silage (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.53, 8.23) and feeding magnesium supplement (OR = 3.77; 95% CI 1.39, 10.17). The majority of setts within the farm boundary were stated to be accessible by cattle (77.1%; 95% CI 71.2, 83.0%) and 66.8% (95% CI 63.8, 69.7%) of farm boundaries provided opportunities for nose-to-nose contact between cattle. Adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures, especially with regards to purchasing cattle and badger-related measures, was lower than measures related to disinfection and washing. PMID:27240911

  8. Genetic diversity, structure, and breed relationships in Iberian cattle.

    PubMed

    Martín-Burriel, I; Rodellar, C; Cañón, J; Cortés, O; Dunner, S; Landi, V; Martínez-Martínez, A; Gama, L T; Ginja, C; Penedo, M C T; Sanz, A; Zaragoza, P; Delgado, J V

    2011-04-01

    In Iberia there are 51 officially recognized cattle breeds of which 15 are found in Portugal and 38 in Spain. We present here a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity and structure of Iberian cattle. Forty of these breeds were genotyped with 19 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Asturiana de los Valles displayed the greatest allelic diversity and Mallorquina the least. Unbiased heterozygosity values ranged from 0.596 to 0.787. The network based on Reynolds distances was star-shaped with few pairs of interrelated breeds and a clear cluster of 4 breeds (Alistana/Arouquesa/Marinhoa/Mirandesa). The analysis of the genetic structure of Iberian cattle indicated that the most probable number of population clusters included in the study would be 36. Distance results were supported by the STRUCTURE software indicating a relatively recent origin or possible crossbreeding or both between pairs or small groups of breeds. Five clusters included 2 different breeds (Betizu/Pirenaica, Morucha/Avileña, Parda de Montaña/Bruna de los Pirineos, Barrosã/Cachena, and Toro de Lidia/Brava de Lide), 3 breeds (Berrenda en Negro, Negra Andaluza, and Mertolenga) were divided in 2 independent clusters each, and 2 breeds were considered admixed (Asturiana de los Valles and Berrenda en Colorado). Individual assignation to breeds was not possible in the 2 admixed breeds and the pair Parda de Montaña/Bruna de los Pirineos. The relationship between Iberian cattle reflects their geographical origin rather than their morphotypes. Exceptions to this geographic clustering are most probably a consequence of crossbreeding with foreign breeds. The relative genetic isolation within their geographical origin, the consequent genetic drift, the adaptation to specific environment and production systems, and the influence of African and European cattle have contributed to the current genetic status of Iberian cattle, which are grouped according to their geographical origin. The greater

  9. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations. PMID:25384155

  10. Intensive management of forest plantations in northern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Briscoe, C.B.

    1980-01-01

    Jari is developing more than a million hectares in northern Brazil, with 100,000 hectares of melina and pine plantations, a 750 TPD bleached kraft pulp-mill, a native-wood sawmill that cuts 100 Mbf/day, kaolin mine and 500 TPD refinery, 4000 hectares of irrigated rice with rice mill, herds of 6500 cattle, 5500 buffalo, and 800 pigs, as well as fryers, fruit and vegetables. Infrastructure includes five towns, schools, hospital, and 4500 km of roads.

  11. [Tuberculosis in cattle - surprisingly re-emerging or continuously present?].

    PubMed

    Moser, I; Köhler, H; Menge, C

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle, caused by Mycobacterium (M.) bovis/M. caprae, is globally one of the most important zoonotic diseases in cattle. It was widespread in Germany until the second half of the 20th century. Due to the effective control and eradication campaigns in Germany, the epidemic was almost eradicated. Consequently, Germany was regarded as essentially tuberculosis free since the end of 1961 (West) and the end of 1978 (East). By declaring the unified Germany "officially free of tuberculosis" (OTF) in 1996, freedom from tuberculosis was officially ratified by the European Commission. The prerequisite was the detection of tuberculosis in less than 0.1% of the cattle holdings per year in Germany. This status has been steadily maintained hitherto, thus resulting in some loss of awareness of bovine tuberculosis by veterinarians, farmers and the public over many decades. After 1996, the number of notified outbreaks had been on average less than 10 per 200,000 cattle holdings per year for many years. It was the year 2008 when the numbers increased. Based in part on subsequently enhanced ante mortem testing efforts, 46 outbreaks were notified in 2013. Bavaria and Lower Saxony were the federal states with the highest number of cases. Consequently, the national tuberculosis regulation was revised in 2009, 2012 and 2013 to form the basis for a modification of tuberculosis surveillance. Regionally, an improvement of the control strategy was considered necessary. In addition to the traditionally applied examination and detection methods of the tuberculin skin test (ante mortem) and bacteriological culture (post mortem), the gamma-interferon-release assay (ante mortem) and the molecular detection of the causative pathogen (post mortem) were introduced into the official collection of recommended methods. Consequently, the diagnostic procedure of tuberculosis has been accelerated. However, in many cases the increase in the range of available test systems did not increase

  12. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed “selection signatures”. This article reviews 64 recent (2009–2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  13. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A S; Khatkar, Mehar S; Thomson, Peter C; Raadsma, Herman W

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed "selection signatures". This article reviews 64 recent (2009-2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  14. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Soini, K; Diaz, C; Gandini, G; de Haas, Y; Lilja, T; Martin-Collado, D; Pizzi, F; Hiemstra, S J

    2012-12-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six European countries, a typology of local breed farmers was designed and profiles for each of the farmer types were developed to assist these policy needs. Three main farmer types were constructed: production-oriented, product and service-oriented and hobby-oriented farmers. In addition, seven subtypes were characterized under the main types: sustainable producers, opportunists, multi-users, brand makers, traditionalists, pragmatists and newcomers. These types have many similarities to the 'productivist', 'multifunctional' and 'post-productivist' farmer types. The typology not only reveals the high level of diversity among local cattle breed farmers in Europe, which presents an opportunity for the in situ conservation of animal genetic resources, but also a challenge for policy to meet the differing requirements of the farmer types. PMID:23148969

  15. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  16. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  17. Chlorate poisoning in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Blakley, Barry R.; Fraser, Lorrie M.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    A disease syndrome characterized by hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, methemoglobinuria, and death was observed in a herd of purebred Limousin beef cattle grazing on pasture in November in Alberta. Improper disposal of the nonselective herbicide, sodium chlorate, was identified as the causal agent. Highly variable blood methemoglobin levels reflected differences in herbicide consumption. PMID:17987970

  18. Selenium in Cattle: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. PMID:27120589

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (p<0.01). Moreover, serotyping of 996 isolates identified 1/2b as the most prevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan. PMID:24180587

  20. Earth System Studies in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2014-04-01

    During recent decades, northern Eurasia (north of 40°N and east of 15°E) was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts, including a heat wave in 2010 (that in European Russia may have been the cause of up to an additional 60,000 deaths in July-August of that year, compared to the previous year; see http://ifaran.ru/science/seminars/Summer2010.html); alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next.

  1. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

  2. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645

  3. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S N; Miyasaka, T; Polat, M; Kikuya, M; Matsumoto, Y; Mingala, C N; Villanueva, M A; Salces, A J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2014-12-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

  4. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, S.N.; Miyasaka, T.; Polat, M.; Kikuya, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Mingala, C.N.; Villanueva, M.A.; Salces, A.J.; Onuma, M.; Aida, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

  5. Present and Potential Future Distribution of Common Vampire Bats in the Americas and the Associated Risk to Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dana N.; Papeş, Monica; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    Success of the cattle industry in Latin America is impeded by the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, through decreases in milk production and mass gain and increased risk of secondary infection and rabies. We used ecological niche modeling to predict the current potential distribution of D. rotundus and the future distribution of the species for the years 2030, 2050, and 2080 based on the A2, A1B, and B1 climate scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We then combined the present day potential distribution with cattle density estimates to identify areas where cattle are at higher risk for the negative impacts due to D. rotundus. We evaluated our risk prediction by plotting 17 documented outbreaks of cattle rabies. Our results indicated highly suitable habitat for D. rotundus occurs throughout most of Mexico and Central America as well as portions of Venezuela, Guyana, the Brazilian highlands, western Ecuador, northern Argentina, and east of the Andes in Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. With future climate projections suitable habitat for D. rotundus is predicted in these same areas and additional areas in French Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela and Columbia; however D. rotundus are not likely to expand into the U.S. because of inadequate ‘temperature seasonality.’ Areas with large portions of cattle at risk include Mexico, Central America, Paraguay, and Brazil. Twelve of 17 documented cattle rabies outbreaks were represented in regions predicted at risk. Our present day and future predictions can help authorities focus rabies prevention efforts and inform cattle ranchers which areas are at an increased risk of cattle rabies because it has suitable habitat for D. rotundus. PMID:22900023

  6. Present and potential future distribution of common vampire bats in the Americas and the associated risk to cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dana N; Papeş, Monica; Van den Bussche, Ronald A

    2012-01-01

    Success of the cattle industry in Latin America is impeded by the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, through decreases in milk production and mass gain and increased risk of secondary infection and rabies. We used ecological niche modeling to predict the current potential distribution of D. rotundus and the future distribution of the species for the years 2030, 2050, and 2080 based on the A2, A1B, and B1 climate scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We then combined the present day potential distribution with cattle density estimates to identify areas where cattle are at higher risk for the negative impacts due to D. rotundus. We evaluated our risk prediction by plotting 17 documented outbreaks of cattle rabies. Our results indicated highly suitable habitat for D. rotundus occurs throughout most of Mexico and Central America as well as portions of Venezuela, Guyana, the Brazilian highlands, western Ecuador, northern Argentina, and east of the Andes in Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. With future climate projections suitable habitat for D. rotundus is predicted in these same areas and additional areas in French Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela and Columbia; however D. rotundus are not likely to expand into the U.S. because of inadequate 'temperature seasonality.' Areas with large portions of cattle at risk include Mexico, Central America, Paraguay, and Brazil. Twelve of 17 documented cattle rabies outbreaks were represented in regions predicted at risk. Our present day and future predictions can help authorities focus rabies prevention efforts and inform cattle ranchers which areas are at an increased risk of cattle rabies because it has suitable habitat for D. rotundus. PMID:22900023

  7. Heterogeneity in a communal cattle-farming system in a zone endemic for foot and mouth disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Schalkwyk, Ockert Louis; De Clercq, Eva M; De Pus, Claudia; Hendrickx, Guy; Van den Bossche, Peter; Knobel, Darryn L

    2016-01-01

    In South Africa, communal livestock farming is predominant in the foot and mouth disease control zone adjacent to the Greater Kruger National Park (KNP), where infected African buffaloes are common. During routine veterinary inspections of cattle in this area, a large amount of production and demographic parameters were being recorded. These data were collated for a five-year period (2003-2007) in three study sites to better understand the temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity in this system. A decreasing gradient from South to North with respect to both human and cattle population densities was observed. Rainfall and human population density alone could explain 71% of the variation in cattle density. Northern and central sites showed an overall decrease in total cattle numbers (15.1 and 2.9%, respectively), whereas a 28.6% increase was recorded in the South. The number of cattle owners in relation to cattle numbers remained stable during the study period. Only 4.0% of households in the South own cattle, compared to 13.7 and 12.7% in the North and Centre. The overall annual calving rate was 23.8%. Annual mortality rates ranged from 2.4 to 3.2%. Low calf mortality (2.1%) was recorded in the North compared to the South (11.6%). Annual off-take in the form of slaughter averaged 0.2, 11.7, and 11.0% in the North, Central and South sites, respectively. These figures provide valuable baseline data and demonstrate considerable spatial heterogeneity in cattle demography and production at this wildlife-livestock interface, which should be taken into consideration when performing disease risk assessments or designing disease control systems. PMID:27245790

  8. Trematode infections in cattle in Arumeru District, Tanzania are associated with irrigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between the environment and infection of cattle with trematodes was studied at Arumeru District, Arusha Region, northern Tanzania. Randomly selected villages were grouped into three cattle management strata, (i) zero-grazing (ZZ) (ii) communal grazing without irrigation (ZC) and (iii) communal grazing with irrigation (ZCI). Methods Faecal samples were collected from 241 cattle, and processed using the Flukefinder® method. Snail intermediate hosts were collected with a snail scoop from the water bodies in the study villages and identified morphologically. Results The overall prevalence of F. gigantica, paramphistomes and S. bovis were 33%, 37% and 2% respectively. Prevalence for F. gigantica, paramphistomes, and S. bovis for each stratum were, zero-grazing (ZZ) (29.7%, 36.0% and 0%), communal grazing without irrigation (ZC) (6.3%, 15.0% and 3.8%) and communal grazing with irrigation (ZCI) (57.7%, 56.7% and 1.0%) respectively. The differences between strata were significant for F. gigantica (p < 0.001) and paramphistomes (p < 0.05) but not for S. bovis. Irrigation could account for the high prevalence of F. gigantica and paramphistomes in the ZCI stratum as compared to the ZZ and ZC strata. The higher prevalences of F. gigantica and paramphistomes in the ZZ stratum compared with the ZC stratum were unexpected and attributed to the practice of farmers in some ZZ stratum villages buying fodder for their cattle obtained from pastures in ZCI villages. Conclusion Trematode infections in cattle are prevalent in Arumeru District. Fasciola gigantica and paramphistomes are associated with grazing in areas with irrigation of crops. Zero-grazing of cattle does not necessarily prevent the risk of infection. PMID:24650420

  9. Variation among Bm86 sequences in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks collected from cattle across Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewmongkol, S; Kaewmongkol, G; Inthong, N; Lakkitjaroen, N; Sirinarumitr, T; Berry, C M; Jonsson, N N; Stich, R W; Jittapalapong, S

    2015-06-01

    Anti-tick vaccines based on recombinant homologues Bm86 and Bm95 have become a more cost-effective and sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides commonly used to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. However, Bm86 polymorphism among geographically separate ticks is reportedly associated with reduced effectiveness of these vaccines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation of Bm86 among cattle ticks collected from Northern, Northeastern, Central and Southern areas across Thailand. Bm86 cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences representing 29 female tick midgut samples were 95.6-97.0 and 91.5-93.5 % identical to the nucleotide and amino acid reference sequences, respectively, of the Australian Yeerongpilly vaccine strain. Multiple sequence analyses of these Bm86 variants indicated geographical relationships and polymorphism among Thai cattle ticks. Two larger groups of cattle tick strains were discernable based on this phylogenetic analysis of Bm86, a Thai group and a Latin American group. Thai female and male cattle ticks (50 pairs) were also subjected to detailed morphological characterization to confirm their identity. The majority of female ticks had morphological features consistent with those described for R. (B.) microplus, whereas, curiously, the majority of male ticks were more consistent with the recently re-instated R. (B.) australis. A number of these ticks had features consistent with both species. Further investigations are warranted to test the efficacies of rBm86-based vaccines to homologous and heterologous challenge infestations with Thai tick strains and for in-depth study of the phylogeny of Thai cattle ticks. PMID:25777941

  10. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  11. Using genetics to control cattle parasites-the Rockhampton experience.

    PubMed

    Frisch, J E; O'Neill, C J; Kelly, M J

    2000-03-01

    Ever since their accidental introduction, cattle ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and buffalo flies have been major parasites of cattle in northern Australia. Enormous effort and resources have been directed at chemical control of these parasites but the problem persists in undiminished form. The principal control measure remains the use of breeds that have some degree of parasite resistance. No breed is completely resistant and all are at times adversely affected by parasites. Complete resistance is the ultimate solution but has been generally ignored as a commercial reality. Studies at Rockhampton have demonstrated that completely resistant lines can be developed by genetic means within a commercially acceptable timeframe from even the most parasite-susceptible breeds. Genetic changes in tick and worm resistance over 15 years in response to selection for increased tick resistance in the Belmont Adaptaur (Bos taurus) line are reported. Costs and benefits of achieving increased tick resistance are examined and the applicability of the results to other breeds is discussed. Breed differences in resistance to buffalo flies and their effects on live weight are also reported and the possibility of selecting for increased buffalo fly resistance is explored. PMID:10719118

  12. T-2 toxin Analysis in Poultry and Cattle Feedstuff

    PubMed Central

    Gholampour Azizi, Issa; Azarmi, Masumeh; Danesh Pouya, Naser; Rouhi, Samaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin that is produced by the Fusarium fungi. Consumption of food and feed contaminated with T-2 toxin causes diseases in humans and animals. Objectives: In this study T-2 toxin was analyzed in poultry and cattle feedstuff in cities of Mazandaran province (Babol, Sari, Chalus), Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, 90 samples were analyzed for T-2 toxin contamination by the ELISA method. Results: Out of 60 concentrate and bagasse samples collected from various cities of Mazandaran province, 11.7% and 3.3% were contaminated with T-2 toxin at concentrations > 25 and 50 µg/kg, respectively. For mixed poultry diets, while 10% of the 30 analyzed samples were contaminated with > 25 µg/kg, none of the tested samples contained T-2 toxin at levels > 50 µg/kg. Conclusions: The results obtained from this study show that poultry and cattle feedstuff can be contaminated with different amounts of T-2 toxin in different conditions and locations. Feedstuff that are contaminated by this toxin cause different diseases in animals; thus, potential transfer of mycotoxins to edible by-products from animals fed mycotoxin-contaminated feeds drives the need to routinely monitor mycotoxins in animal feeds and their components. This is the basis on which effective management of mycotoxins and their effects can be implemented. PMID:24872939

  13. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination...

  14. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination...

  15. ROLE OF EHEC IN CATTLE AND HUMANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are important reservoirs of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), foodborne pathogens that cause severe diarrhea and sometimes kidney failure and death in humans. Our goal is to develop an effective vaccine to prevent cattle from beco...

  16. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  17. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242

  18. Cases of parasitic pneumonia in Scottish cattle.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Parasitic pneumonia in cattleNutritional osteodystrophy in cattleWhite liver disease in lambsErysipelas in pigsLead poisoning and atherosclerosis in an eagle These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for October 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26851101

  19. Genomic characteristics of cattle copy number variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...

  20. Nitrification in Beef Cattle Feedlot Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Ammonia volatilization is the primary route for nitrogen loss from cattle feedlots. An additional, but poorly studied mechanism in feedlots is aerobic nitrification. The aim of this study is to characterize nitrifier activity, abundance, and diversity for a cattle production ...

  1. Genomics of Disease in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases have a considerable effect in the productivity of the beef cattle industry. Given the low heritability of immunity, it is necessary to identify genes involved in this response. Initial efforts to identify genomic regions associated with these characteristics in beef cattle have been limited...

  2. Case study: average daily gain and blood fatty acid composition of cattle grazing the non-bloating legumes birdsfoot trefoil and cicer milkvetch in the mountain west

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) is a forage legume that is productive and persistent under irrigation in the northern Mountain West U.S.A. The type and concentration of condensed tannins in BFT are beneficial for livestock production. We hypothesized that cattle grazing monoculture BFT would have high ADG b...

  3. Assessment of biodiversity in Chilean cattle using the distribution of major histocompatibility complex class II BoLA-DRB3 allele.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, S-N; Miyasaka, T; Matsumoto, Y; Xue, G; Diaz, V de la Barra; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Giovambattista, G; Ortiz, M; Oltra, J; Kanemaki, M; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. In this study, we estimated BoLA-DRB3 allele frequencies using 888 cattle from 10 groups, including seven cattle breeds and three crossbreeds: 99 Red Angus, 100 Black Angus, 81 Chilean Wagyu, 49 Hereford, 95 Hereford × Angus, 71 Hereford × Jersey, 20 Hereford × Overo Colorado, 113 Holstein, 136 Overo Colorado, and 124 Overo Negro cattle. Forty-six BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified, and each group had between 12 and 29 different BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Overo Negro had the highest number of alleles (29); this breed is considered in Chile to be an 'Old type' European Holstein Friesian descendant. By contrast, we detected 21 alleles in Holstein cattle, which are considered to be a 'Present type' Holstein Friesian cattle. Chilean cattle groups and four Japanese breeds were compared by neighbor-joining trees and a principal component analysis (PCA). The phylogenetic tree showed that Red Angus and Black Angus cattle were in the same clade, crossbreeds were closely related to their parent breeds, and Holstein cattle from Chile were closely related to Holstein cattle in Japan. Overall, the tree provided a thorough description of breed history. It also showed that the Overo Negro breed was closely related to the Holstein breed, consistent with historical data indicating that Overo Negro is an 'Old type' Holstein Friesian cattle. This allelic information will be important for investigating the relationship between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and disease. PMID:25430590

  4. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  5. Kochia scoparia poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Dickie, C W; James, L F

    1983-10-01

    Cattle consuming only high-sulfate water (2.3 g/L) and Kochia scoparia in a marginal pasture in southeastern Colorado were periodically monitored by serum chemical profiles. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum sorbitol dehydrogenase, and serum bilirubin values were abnormally high over extended periods, suggesting chronic toxicosis, but the toxicosis seemed accentuated after substantial rains, when plant growth was accelerated, and flowering, pollination, and early seed development were occurring. Clinical disease was manifested primarily as photosensitization. Polioencephalomalacia was also produced. Evidence of a thiamin-destructive principle in K scoparia was obtained. PMID:6629984

  6. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  7. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  8. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  9. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  10. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized...

  11. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  12. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  13. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  14. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  15. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS Dairy Cattle and Facilities in the El Paso, Texas, Region § 50.18 Identification and disposal of cattle. (a) All dairy cattle disposed of under this subpart must travel from...

  16. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  17. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ..., Staff Entomologist, Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program Manager, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 39.... Splenetic or tick fever is a contagious, infectious, and communicable disease of cattle that causes cattle.... Currently, the title of part 72 is ``Texas (Splenetic) Tick Fever in Cattle.'' We are changing the title......

  18. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. PMID:26025652

  19. Bovine hypodermosis in indigenous cattle herd and its successful therapeutic management.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Kumar, Pradeep; Srivastava, Ashish; Shanker, Daya

    2016-03-01

    Warble fly infestation in cattle is a serious problem throughout the world. In India, it is mainly reported from northern parts of the country and is caused by the larvae of Hypoderma lineatum. The disease causes huge economic losses to animal production like milk and leather industry. The present article reports the outbreak and subsequent successful treatment of Warble fly infestation from an indigenous cattle herd. The animals were clinally examined for the presence of warbles and the larvae were collected by pressing the swellings on the back. The larvae were brought to the laboratory and were morphologically examined and morphometry was done. The animals were administered specific therapy consisting of two doses of subcutaneous injection of Ivermectin at weekly intervals. The epidemiology of the disease, its patho physiological impact on the animal and various strategies for clinical management are being described in the article. PMID:27065619

  20. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  1. Flooded native pastures of the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso: biomass and primary productivity variations.

    PubMed

    Pozer, C G; Nogueira, F

    2004-11-01

    The Pantanal comprises a number of landscape units, submitted to a flood pulse with variable intensity or regularity. One of these units, the flooded plains, is important in cattle raising. This study was carried out in the northern portion of the Pantanal and presents data related to the productive dynamics of the flooded native pastures both protected from and exposed to cattle. The greatest total biomass values were for the protected pasture due to accumulated dead biomass. Net primary production presented smaller values at the flood-season start and increasing gradually beginning in the subsequent rainy season. However, consumption by cattle was also more intense during the months of greater precipitation. The effect of cattle in pastures is of fundamental importance to management since it prevents the dead biomass excess that increases fire risks. PMID:15744427

  2. Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships among West/Central African cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi; Jann, Oliver Carl; Weimann, Christina; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships were studied in 521 individuals from 9 African Bos indicus and 3 Bos taurus cattle breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria using genotype information on 28 markers (16 microsatellite, 7 milk protein and 5 blood protein markers). The genotypes of 13 of the 16 microsatellite markers studied on three European (German Angus, German Simmental and German Yellow) and two Indian (Nelore and Ongole) breeds were used to assess the relationships between them and the African breeds. Diversity levels at microsatellite loci were higher in the zebu than in the taurine breeds and were generally similar for protein loci in the breeds in each group. Microsatellite allelic distribution displayed groups of alleles specific to the Indian zebu, African taurine and European taurine. The level of the Indian zebu genetic admixture proportions in the African zebus was higher than the African taurine and European taurine admixture proportions, and ranged from 58.1% to 74.0%. The African taurine breed, Muturu was free of Indian zebu genes while its counter Namchi was highly introgressed (30.2%). Phylogenic reconstruction and principal component analysis indicate close relationships among the zebu breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria and a large genetic divergence between the main cattle groups – African taurine, European taurine and Indian zebu, and a central position for the African zebus. The study presents the first comprehensive information on the hybrid composition of the individual cattle breeds of Cameroon and Nigeria and the genetic relationships existing among them and other breeds outside of Africa. Strong evidence supporting separate domestication events for the Bos species is also provided. PMID:15496287

  3. Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Redondo, I; Innes, E A

    1997-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals. Sheep and cattle show different susceptibilities to T. gondii infection. Primary infection in pregnant sheep can result in abortion or the birth of weak lambs but they are then protected against further challenge by the development of an effective immunity. Cattle on the other hand can be readily infected, but abortion or perinatal mortality have not been recorded. The evidence suggests that cattle develop a more effective immune response to T. gondii infection than sheep. Potential mechanisms to explain these differences are discussed in this paper. PMID:9208205

  4. Stocker/feeder cattle standardized performance analysis.

    PubMed

    McGrann, J M; McAdams, J

    1995-07-01

    The Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) for stocker/feed cattle is a recommended set of production and financial performance analysis guidelines developed specifically for the grazing, growing, and finishing phases of beef cattle production. Guidelines were developed by members of the National Cattlemen's Association (NCA), Extension Specialists, and the National Integrated Resource Management Coordination Committee to provide beef cattle producers with a comprehensive, standardized means of measuring, analyzing, and reporting the performance and profitability of an operation. This article describes and illustrates through an example the performance measures chosen. The NCA certifies software and education materials conforming to the Stocker/Feeder Guidelines. PMID:7584818

  5. [Killing of cattle via electrical stunning].

    PubMed

    Maurer, B; Forster, S

    2007-04-01

    For disease control in the case of epidemics killing of cattle via electrical stunning is a method of choice. The official veterinarian is responsible for monitoring the adhesion to animal welfare principles during electrical stunning and killing. This requires specialised knowledge and experience as the symptoms of effective stunning are quite variable in cattle. Signs of effective and ineffective stunning are described below. In addition to suitable technical equipment, restraint of the animals and correct use of the equipment, neurophysiological processes have to be considered. Calm handling of the animals avoiding stress is a prerequisite for ensuring animal welfare and minimising pain especially when killing cattle using electrical methods. PMID:17484500

  6. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the...

  7. Prospects and Progress in Public Health and Health Promotion Research in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Brian; Yarnell, John

    2004-01-01

    Life expectancy in Northern Ireland continues to increase and it is expected that mortality due to heart disease, stroke and some cancers will continue to fall. The infant mortality rate, once higher is similar to that of the other UK and European countries. However, in common with neighboring countries, Northern Ireland has low levels of physical…

  8. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  9. Prevalence and first molecular identification of Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India.

    PubMed

    Daptardar, Monal; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Aulakh, Rabinder Singh; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2016-09-01

    The importance of Sarcocystis hominis in causing zoonotic infections is well known. Recently, S. hominis like cysts have been reported from water buffalo in China. Previous studies indicate prevalence of Sarcocystis species in bovine populations in India but molecular evidence is required for proper species differentiation. We examined two hundred and ninety six cardiac tissue samples of Indian water buffaloes and cattle from northern and western parts of the country. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis using intact cyst isolation method, pepsin acid digestion method and Sarcocystis 18S rRNA PCR. The combination of primers was used for 18S rRNA PCR amplification followed by sequencing. Twenty five representative samples were sent for sequencing and 19 readable sequences were obtained for phylogenetic analysis. Overall, the Sarcocystis cysts/zoites were recorded in 44% (95% CI 38-49%), 58% (95% CI 53-64%) and 68% (95% CI 63-73%) from both cattle and buffalo samples using intact cyst isolation, pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR, respectively. The results indicate that pepsin-HCl digestion method and conventional PCR are more sensitive than intact cyst isolation for detection of Sarcocystis species in tissue samples. The prevalence of Sarcocystis species was high in buffalo as compared to cattle intermediate hosts. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that more than one Sarcocystis species are circulating in cattle and water buffaloes in India. The results further indicate that experimental transmission studies are required to re-confirm the identities and host ranges of the Sarcocystis species in cattle and water buffaloes in India. PMID:27447215

  10. A History of the Original Peoples of Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Keith J.

    The document was prepared persuant to the Man in the North Conference (Inuvik, November 1970), where northern Indian participants identified a history of the native peoples of Canada as a most important priority. Since existing books on Canadian history are essentially European in nature, this classroom text endeavored to provide a history of the…

  11. Needs for Rural Research in the Northern Finland Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muilu, Toivo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the needs and demands which rural research faces at the interface between research and development. The case study area is northern Finland, which constitutes the most remote and sparsely populated areas of the European Union. This paper is based on the tradition of rural research since the 1980s in connection…

  12. Alkaloid-Containing Plants Poisonous to Cattle and Horses in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Alkaloids, nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites, are of major interest to veterinary toxicology because of their occurrence in plant species commonly involved in animal poisoning. Based on epidemiological data, the poisoning of cattle and horses by alkaloid-containing plants is a relatively common occurrence in Europe. Poisoning may occur when the plants contaminate hay or silage or when forage alternatives are unavailable. Cattle and horses are particularly at risk of poisoning by Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), Datura stramonium (jimson weed), Equisetum palustre (marsh horsetail), Senecio spp. (ragwort and groundsel) and Taxus baccata (European yew). This review of poisonous alkaloid-containing plants describes the distribution of these plants, conditions under which poisoning occurs, active toxic principles involved and subsequent clinical signs observed. PMID:26670251

  13. Alkaloid-Containing Plants Poisonous to Cattle and Horses in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Alkaloids, nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites, are of major interest to veterinary toxicology because of their occurrence in plant species commonly involved in animal poisoning. Based on epidemiological data, the poisoning of cattle and horses by alkaloid-containing plants is a relatively common occurrence in Europe. Poisoning may occur when the plants contaminate hay or silage or when forage alternatives are unavailable. Cattle and horses are particularly at risk of poisoning by Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron), Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), Datura stramonium (jimson weed), Equisetum palustre (marsh horsetail), Senecio spp. (ragwort and groundsel) and Taxus baccata (European yew). This review of poisonous alkaloid-containing plants describes the distribution of these plants, conditions under which poisoning occurs, active toxic principles involved and subsequent clinical signs observed. PMID:26670251

  14. International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...

  15. Sudden deaths in yearling feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Lauerman, L H; Saari, D A; Braddy, P M; McChesney, A E; Horton, D P

    1976-09-01

    A survey of the causes for fatal diseases of yearling feedlot cattle was conducted on more than 407,000 cattle during a 14-month period. Of the 4,260 (1%) cattle that died during this period, 1,358 (32%) were categorized as cases of "sudden death syndrome." Of the 11 most frequent causes of the syndrome, as determined at necropsy, only 4--bloat, pulmonary aneurysms, riding injury, and hemopericardium--were considered as short-course problems and true causes of sudden death. The largest number of cases of sudden death were attributed to pneumonia (113 animals). Consequently, the sudden death syndrome is a misnomer for many long-course diseases and, in some instances, a mask for neglect because, as clinically used, the name frequently includes cattle that have been sick, often with pneumonia, for several days. PMID:956032

  16. Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, P F; Boray, J C; Nichols, P; Collins, G H

    1991-11-01

    The epidemiology of paramphistomosis in cattle was studied using tracer calves in a subtropical location in eastern Australia. Two species of paramphistomes were present; Calicophoron calicophorum and Paramphistomum ichikawai. The former species was the most abundant. Gyraulus scottianus and Helicorbis australiensis acted as intermediate hosts, respectively. Paramphistome burdens varied seasonally and were dependent upon the number of infected host snails. Peak fluke burdens and clinical paramphistomosis occurred in late summer in year 1 and early winter in year 2. The peak fluke burdens coincided with prolonged inundation of the grazing areas resulting in rapid multiplication and infection of host snails, and the period after the inundated areas dried out. The prevalence of infection in snails was high in both years, peaking at 98% in year 1 and 58% in year 2. The main host snail, G. scottianus, aestivated and retained infection for at least 24 weeks in soil, and in vegetable debris on the surface of the soil, resulting in rapid reappearance of host snails and infective metacercariae after the onset of seasonal rain. Metacercariae survived on herbage for up to 12 weeks, depending on the environmental conditions. Paramphistome burdens in calves could be predicted from the prevalence of infection in the host snail, the water levels and an index of surface water on the grazing site. Control of paramphistomosis during and after flooding may be achieved by removal of susceptible cattle from pasture or regular treatment during these periods. Strategic treatment during the dry season may reduce contamination of snail habitats and infectivity of the pasture in the following wet season. PMID:1774118

  17. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    PubMed

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals. PMID:25747829

  18. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  19. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle.

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  20. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: 1. Metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperamental cattle are behaviorally, physiologically, and immunologically different in comparison to calm cattle. Recently, the metabolic differences between temperamental and calm cattle have begun to be explored; temperamental cattle maintain greater circulating concentrations of non-esterified ...

  1. Acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    • Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432

  2. Cattle movements and trypanosomes: restocking efforts and the spread of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness in post-conflict Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The northwards spread of acute T. b. rhodesiense sleeping sickness in Uganda has been linked to cattle movements associated with restocking following the end to military conflict in 2006. This study examined the number of cattle traded from T. b. rhodesiense endemic districts, the prevalence of the parasite in cattle being traded and the level of trypanocidal treatment at livestock markets. Methods Between 2008 and 2009 interviews were carried out with government veterinarians from 20 districts in Uganda, 18 restocking organisations and numerous livestock traders and veterinarians. Direct observations, a review of movement permit records (2006 to 2008) and blood sampling of cattle (n = 1758) for detection of parasites were also conducted at 10 livestock markets in T. b. rhodesiense endemic districts. Results Records available from 8 out of 47 identified markets showed that 39.5% (5,238/13,267) of the inter-district cattle trade between mid-2006 and mid-2008 involved movement from endemic areas to pathogen-free districts. PCR analysis showed a prevalence of 17.5% T. brucei s.l. (n = 307/1758 [95% CI: 15.7-19.2]) and 1.5% T. b. rhodesiense (n = 26/1758 [95% CI: 0.9-2.0]) from these same markets. In a two-year period, between late-2006 to late-2008, an estimated 72,321 to 86,785 cattle (57, 857 by 18 restocking organisations and 10,214 to 24,679 by private traders) were imported into seven pathogen-free northern districts, including districts that were endemic for T. b. gambiense. Between 281 and 1,302 of these cattle were likely to have carried T. b. rhodesiense. While governmental organisations predominantly adhered to trypanocidal treatment, most Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and private traders did not. Inadequate market infrastructure, poor awareness, the need for payment for drug treatments, and the difficulty in enforcing a policy of treatment at point of sale contributed to non-compliance. Conclusion With increasing private trade, preventing

  3. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle

    PubMed Central

    CHIBA, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

  4. Severe meningeal fibrinoid vasculitis associated with Theileria taurotragi infection in two short-horned Zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Biasibetti, Elena; Sferra, Chiara; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2016-08-01

    The Authors describe a severe vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis of the meningeal arteries observed in two brains of indigenous short-horn zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, with bovine cerebral theileriosis (BCT) caused by a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan, Theileria taurotragi, from Northern Tanzania. In the Author's opinion, the role of T. taurotragi infection in the angiocentric and angiodestructive detected features remains to be evaluated. A possible immunopathologic cancerous mechanism, secondary to the lymphoid deregulation, could be involved. This report suggests further studies to better characterize the lymphoid cell involvement in the pathogenesis of the meningeal vascular lesions by T. taurotragi. PMID:27145963

  5. LittLEO: A commercial European small launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, S.

    1989-05-01

    A small satellite laucher based on existing components and technology is being planned by a group of European companies. From its first operational base in Andoya, in northern Norway. LittLEO will put over 700 kg into a 300 km polar orbit. The equatorial capability will be nearly one ton. The development plan leading to a first launch in three years is discussed.

  6. Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

  7. Ticks on Deer and Cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ticks were sampled from hosts in the cattle fever tick permanent quarantine zone along the Texas-Mexico border on five occasions in 2012. Three sample events involved white-tailed deer populations in Zapata and Starr Counties and two were from a cattle herd in Kinney County. Six species of ticks (n ...

  8. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  10. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  11. Inbreeding and purging at the genomic Level: the Chillingham cattle reveal extensive, non-random SNP heterozygosity.

    PubMed

    Williams, J L; Hall, S J G; Del Corvo, M; Ballingall, K T; Colli, L; Ajmone Marsan, P; Biscarini, F

    2016-02-01

    Local breeds of livestock are of conservation significance as components of global biodiversity and as reservoirs of genetic variation relevant to the future sustainability of agriculture. One such rare historic breed, the Chillingham cattle of northern England, has a 350-year history of isolation and inbreeding yet shows no diminution of viability or fertility. The Chillingham cattle have not been subjected to selective breeding. It has been suggested previously that the herd has minimal genetic variation. In this study, high-density SNP genotyping with the 777K SNP chip showed that 9.1% of loci on the chip are polymorphic in the herd, compared with 62-90% seen in commercial cattle breeds. Instead of being homogeneously distributed along the genome, these loci are clustered at specific chromosomal locations. A high proportion of the Chillingham individuals examined were heterozygous at many of these polymorphic loci, suggesting that some loci are under balancing selection. Some of these frequently heterozygous loci have been implicated as sites of recessive lethal mutations in cattle. Linkage disequilibrium equal or close to 100% was found to span up to 1350 kb, and LD was above r(2) = 0.25 up to more than 5000 kb. This strong LD is consistent with the lack of polymorphic loci in the herd. The heterozygous regions in the Chillingham cattle may be the locations of genes relevant to fitness or survival, which may help elucidate the biology of local adaptation in traditional breeds and facilitate selection for such traits in commercial cattle. PMID:26559490

  12. 9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of viaduct's structural system with cattle pens beneath. View to northeast. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, Buckingham Road Viaduct, Twenty-ninth Street spanning Stockyard Cattle Pens, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  13. Pasture-scale measurement of methane emissions of grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying methane emission of cattle grazing on southern Great Plains pastures using micrometeorology presents several challenges. Cattle are elevated, mobile point sources of methane, so that knowing their location in relation to atmospheric methane concentration measurements becomes critical. St...

  14. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  15. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  16. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  17. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  18. Prevalence of hydatidosis and fertility of hydatid cysts in food animals in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Founta, Anastasia; Chliounakis, Spyridon; Antoniadou Sotiriadou, Konstantina; Koidou, Maria; Bampidis, Vasileios

    2016-06-30

    This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis due to Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and the fertility rate of hydatid cysts in sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs slaughtered at the abattoir of Lagkada, in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece. Lungs and livers from a total of 294 sheep (31.3% infected), 126 goats (8.7% infected), 372 cattle (4.8% infected), and 641 pigs (1.7% infected) were examined. The number of hydatid cysts found in infected sheep was 657 (58.3% fertile, 12.8% sterile, and 28.9% calcified cysts), in goats 54 (14.8% fertile, 38.9% sterile, and 46.3% calcified cysts), in cattle 108 (24.1% fertile, 50.0% sterile, and 25.9% calcified cysts) and in pigs 47 (10.6% fertile, 55.4% sterile, and 34.0% calcified cysts). Lung infection with hydatid cysts was higher (p<0.05) in sheep, goats, and cattle than in pigs (56.5%, 77.8% and 62.0% vs. 17.0%, respectively); while liver infection was lower (p<0.05) in sheep, goats, and cattle than in pigs (43.5%, 22.2% and 38.0% vs. 83.0%, respectively). Among the 4 species slaughtered for human consumption, sheep exhibited the highest frequency of hydatidosis and the highest proportion of fertile cysts. PMID:27393873

  19. Highland cattle and Radix labiata, the hosts of Fascioloides magna

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fascioloides magna is a pathogenic fluke introduced to Europe ca 140 years ago. As it is spreading over the continent, new intermediate and definitive hosts might be involved in transmission of the parasite. In Europe, several studies reported potential new intermediate snail hosts (Radix spp.) for F. magna, and also several cases of fascioloidosis of wild and domestic animals were published. However, the data based on molecular and histological analyses confirming these findings remained unreported. This study aims to refer to unique findings of F. magna in European snails and domestic animals (the first observation in the Czech Republic in the last 30 years) and demonstrate the use of molecular techniques in determination of F. magna. Results Two snails of R. labiata naturally infected with F. magna were found; mature cercariae and daughter rediae were observed. Maturity of cercariae was checked by histological methods, however, their ability to encyst was not confirmed. Co-infection of F. magna and Fasciola hepatica in the liver of two highland cattle bulls was proved. Adult fasciolid flukes producing eggs were found in the liver pseudocysts (F. magna) and the bile ducts (F. hepatica). Identification of intermediate hosts, intramolluscan stages, adult flukes and eggs was performed by sequencing the ITS2 region. Connection of F. magna pseudocysts with the gut (via the bile ducts) was not confirmed by means of histological and coprological examinations. Conclusions For the first time, Radix labiata was confirmed as the snail host for F. magna under natural conditions and, together with the finding of F. magna infection in cattle, we can expect further transmission of F. magna from wildlife to livestock in localities shared by these hosts. PMID:24517409

  20. [Inherited thrombopathia in Simmental cattle].

    PubMed

    Aebi, M; Wiedemar, N; Drögemüller, C; Zanolari, R

    2016-02-01

    During the years 2012 to 2014, a total of 5 affected Simmental cattle showing persistent bleeding after minor or unknown trauma, were presented at the Clinic for Ruminants or at the Institute for Genetics of the Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Berne. The homozygous mutation RASGRP2, initially reported in 2007, was present in all these cases and all available parents were heterozygous carriers thus confirming the recessive mode of inheritance. Three affected animals died as a result of persistent bleeding. One animal was stabilized at the Clinic for Ruminants and was slaughtered one month later. Another case showing persistent bleeding and several hematomas was euthanized after genotyping. A frequency of 10% carriers for the associated mutation was detected in a sample of 145 Simmental sires which were used 2013 for artificial insemination in Switzerland. These bulls are designated as TP carriers and should not be used uncontrolled. Breeding organizations in Switzerland make use of the gene test to select bulls which do not carry the mutation. PMID:27145685

  1. "Ormilo disease" a disorder of zebu cattle in Tanzania: bovine cerebral theileriosis or new protozoan disease?

    PubMed

    Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    "Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania. PMID:25851929

  2. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, S. Jegaveera; Subramanian, M.; Vijayakumar, G.; Balasubramaniam, G. A.; Sukumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy. PMID:27047034

  3. Neurotuberculosis in cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry. PMID:27026233

  4. Genetic diversity in mazandaranian native cattle: a comparison with Holstein cattle, using ISSR marker.

    PubMed

    Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477

  5. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  6. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  7. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  8. New survival record of southern cattle tick in subfreezing temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) is considered to be one of the most significant pests of cattle worldwide. A vector for piroplasmosis, or cattle fever, R. microplus is a key target of an aggressive eradication program along the U.S./Mexico border. Endemic to ...

  9. Pasture-scale methane emissions of grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing cattle are mobile point sources of methane and present challenges to quantify emissions using noninterfering micrometeorological methods. Stocking density is low and cattle can bunch up or disperse over a wide area, so knowing cattle locations is critical. The methane concentration downwind ...

  10. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cattle with abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Irmak, K; Turgut, K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate haemostatic function in cattle with abomasal displacement (AD) and to reflect the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Ten adult cattle with left displacement of abomasum (LDA) (group I), 10 adult cattle with right displacement of abomasum with volvulus (RDA) (group II) and 10 clinically healthy adult cattle (control group) were used as material. Numbers of platelets (PLT) and coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), serum fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs), fibrinogen) were measured before the surgical treatment of cattle with LDA and RDA. APTT was prolonged only in group II compared with the control and group I (p<0.05). However, when the individual values of coagulation profiles of each cow were evaluated, two cattle in group I and three cattle in group II had at least three abnormal coagulation profiles, which reflect the occurrence of DIC. These cattle died after surgical treatment. The two cattle with LDA had abnormal APTT, FDPs and PLT values; three cattle with RDA had abnormal APTT, PT, TT, FDPs and PLT values. APTT (5 cases), FDPs (5 cases) and thrombocytopenia (5 cases) were the three most common abnormal tests on coagulation profile in the cattle with LDA and RDA. The results of the study indicate that cattle with AD had a spectrum of haemostatic dysfunction and that DIC was a significant risk factor for mortality. PMID:15727292

  11. Regional Variation in the Prevalence of E. coli O157 in Cattle: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Zohorul; Musekiwa, Alfred; Islam, Kamrul; Ahmed, Shahana; Chowdhury, Sharmin; Ahad, Abdul; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli O157 (EcO157) infection has been recognized as an important global public health concern. But information on the prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global and at the wider geographical levels is limited, if not absent. This is the first meta-analysis to investigate the point prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global level and to explore the factors contributing to variation in prevalence estimates. Methods Seven electronic databases- CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Biosis Citation Index, Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scirus and Scopus were searched for relevant publications from 1980 to 2012. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to produce the pooled estimates. The potential sources of between study heterogeneity were identified using meta-regression. Principal findings A total of 140 studies consisting 220,427 cattle were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence estimate of EcO157 in cattle at the global level was 5.68% (95% CI, 5.16–6.20). The random effects pooled prevalence estimates in Africa, Northern America, Oceania, Europe, Asia and Latin America-Caribbean were 31.20% (95% CI, 12.35–50.04), 7.35% (95% CI, 6.44–8.26), 6.85% (95% CI, 2.41–11.29), 5.15% (95% CI, 4.21–6.09), 4.69% (95% CI, 3.05–6.33) and 1.65% (95% CI, 0.77–2.53), respectively. Between studies heterogeneity was evidenced in most regions. World region (p<0.001), type of cattle (p<0.001) and to some extent, specimens (p = 0.074) as well as method of pre-enrichment (p = 0.110), were identified as factors for variation in the prevalence estimates of EcO157 in cattle. Conclusion The prevalence of the organism seems to be higher in the African and Northern American regions. The important factors that might have influence in the estimates of EcO157 are type of cattle and kind of screening specimen. Their roles need to be determined and they should be properly handled in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of EcO157. PMID:24691253

  12. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners. PMID:27256149

  13. Lack of specific alleles for the bovine chemokine (C-X-C) receptor type 4 (CXCR4) gene in West African cattle questions its role as a candidate for trypanotolerance.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Isabel; Pérez-Pardal, Lucía; Traoré, Amadou; Fernández, Iván; Goyache, Félix

    2016-08-01

    A panel of 81 Asian, African and European cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus) was analysed for the whole sequence of the CXCR4 gene (3844bp), a strong candidate for cattle trypanotolerance. Thirty-one polymorphic sites identified gave 31 different haplotypes. Neutrality tests rejected the hypothesis of either positive or purifying selection. Bayesian phylogenetic tree showed differentiation of haplotypes into two clades gathering genetic variability predating domestication. Related with clades definition, linkage disequilibrium analyses suggested the existence of one only linkage block on the CXCR4 gene. Two tag SNPs identified on exon 2 captured 50% of variability. Whatever the analysis carried out, no clear separation between cattle groups was identified. Most haplotypes identified in West African taurine cattle were also found in European cattle and in Asian and West African zebu. West African taurine samples did not carry unique variants on the CXCR4 gene sequence. The current analysis failed in identifying a causal mutation on the CXCR4 gene underlying a previously reported QTL for cattle trypanotolerance on BTA2. PMID:27117936

  14. Genetic diversity and admixture of indigenous cattle from North Ethiopia: implications of historical introgressions in the gateway region to Africa.

    PubMed

    Zerabruk, M; Li, M-H; Kantanen, J; Olsaker, I; Ibeagha-Awemu, E M; Erhardt, G; Vangen, O

    2012-06-01

    Microsatellite variation was surveyed to determine the genetic diversity, population structure and admixture of seven North Ethiopian cattle breeds by combining multiple microsatellite data sets of Indian and West African zebu, and European, African and Near-Eastern taurine in genetic analyses. Based on allelic distribution, we identified four diagnostic alleles (HEL1-123 bp, CSSM66-201 bp, BM2113-150 bp and ILSTS6-285 bp) specific to the Near-Eastern taurine. Results of genetic relationship and population structure analyses confirmed the previously established marked genetic distinction between taurine and zebu, and indicated further divergence among the bio-geographical groupings of breeds such as North Ethiopian, Indian and West African zebu, and African, European and Near-Eastern taurine. Using the diagnostic alleles for bio-geographical groupings and a Bayesian method for population structure inference, we estimated the genetic influences of major historical introgressions in North Ethiopian cattle. The breeds have been heavily (>90%) influenced by zebu, followed by African, European and the Near-Eastern taurine. Overall, North Ethiopian cattle show a high level of within-population genetic variation (e.g. observed heterozygosity = 0.659-0.687), which is in the upper range of that reported for domestic cattle and indicates their potential for future breeding applications, even in a global context. Rather low but significant population differentiation (F(ST) = 1.1%, P < 0.05) was recorded as a result of multiple introgression events and strong genetic exchanges among the North Ethiopian breeds. PMID:22486496

  15. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Brenda M.; Murdoch, Gordon K.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  16. Genetics of Prion Disease in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Brenda M; Murdoch, Gordon K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. As a transmissible disease of livestock, it has impacted food safety, production practices, global trade, and profitability. Genetic polymorphisms that alter the prion protein in humans and sheep are associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy susceptibility or resistance. In contrast, there is no strong evidence that nonsynonymous mutations in the bovine prion gene (PRNP) are associated with classical BSE (C-BSE) disease susceptibility, though two bovine PRNP insertion/deletion polymorphisms, in the putative region, are associated with susceptibility to C-BSE. However, these associations do not explain the full extent of BSE susceptibility, and loci outside of PRNP appear to be associated with disease incidence in some cattle populations. This article provides a review of the current state of genetic knowledge regarding prion diseases in cattle. PMID:26462233

  17. Embryo technology: implications for fertility in cattle.

    PubMed

    Greve, T; Callesen, H

    2005-04-01

    During the past thirty years, basic and experimental studies on classical (superovulation; non-surgical recovery and transfer of cattle embryos) and advanced embryo technologies (in vitro embryo production; cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer) have generated structural and functional information on oocyte development and quality, fertilisation and conceptus development. This information has provided new insight, not only into these technologies per se but also into the factors contributing to fertility in cattle. It is now known that the peripheral and follicular endocrine profiles have a profound influence on the subsequent developmental competence of the embryo. It is also well established that manipulation of the oocytes or embryos may adversely affect embryonic and foetal development, leading to the so-called 'large offspring syndrome'. Information from such studies has alerted scientists to the importance of epigenetics in cattle reproduction. PMID:16110905

  18. European plans for a millimetre array.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, R. S.

    Since their very first working discussions on a next-generation millimetre telescope, European astronomers have based their ideas on a large array with a collecting area of about 10,000 square metres and a resolution of 0.1 arcsec at a wavelength of 3 mm. They have argued that the array should be built on a high, dry site in Northern Chile, strategically placed to observe the rich harvest of millimetre sources in the central parts of the Galaxy and, at the same time, benefitting from the infrastructure and astronomical base established by ESO.

  19. Anthropogenic and meteorological factors influence vector abundance and prevalence of bluetongue virus infection of dairy cattle in California.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Christie E; Gardner, Ian A; Mullens, Bradley A; Barker, Christopher M; Gerry, Alec C; Guthrie, Alan J; MacLachlan, N James

    2012-03-23

    Bluetongue is an economically important arboviral disease of ruminants that is transmitted by hematophagous Culicoides midges. In light of dramatic recent changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV), the goals of this study were to re-evaluate the prevalence of BTV infection of cattle and abundance of Culicoides midges on individual dairy farms in California. A serosurvey of adult dairy cattle confirmed that BTV infection is prevalent throughout much of the state, although the coastal northwestern region remains free of infection and prevalence varies markedly among farms in the remainder of the state. Intensive sampling for one year of 4 farms in the northern Central Valley of California showed that the abundance of Culicoides midges was markedly different and coincided with the prevalence of BTV infection of sentinel cattle on each farm. Mean maximum and minimum temperatures and other meteorological parameters were similar on all 4 farms, thus we speculate that particular management practices were responsible for both the increased midge abundance and prevalence of BTV infection of cattle at individual farms. Specifically, it is concluded that variation in vector abundance at individual farms most likely is the result of waste-water lagoon and irrigation management practices, leading to higher BTV infection rates among livestock held on farms with more waste-water lagoons and greater acreage of land for waste-water irrigation. PMID:21930352

  20. Long-Term Assessment of Wild Boar Harvesting and Cattle Removal for Bovine Tuberculosis Control in Free Ranging Populations

    PubMed Central

    Mentaberre, Gregorio; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Navarro-González, Nora; Velarde, Roser; Mateos, Ana; Marco, Ignasi; Olivé-Boix, Xavier; Domínguez, Lucas; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Wild boar is a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the Mediterranean ecosystems, but information is scarce outside of hotspots in southern Spain. We describe the first high-prevalence focus of TB in a non-managed wild boar population in northern Spain and the result of eight years of TB management. Measures implemented for disease control included the control of the local wild boar population through culling and stamping out of a sympatric infected cattle herd. Post-mortem inspection for detection of tuberculosis-like lesions as well as cultures from selected head and cervical lymph nodes was done in 745 wild boar, 355 Iberian ibexes and five cattle between 2004 and 2012. The seasonal prevalence of TB reached 70% amongst adult wild boar and ten different spoligotypes and 13 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected, although more than half of the isolates were included in the same clonal complex. Only 11% of infected boars had generalized lesions. None of the ibexes were affected, supporting their irrelevance in the epidemiology of TB. An infected cattle herd grazed the zone where 168 of the 197 infected boars were harvested. Cattle removal and wild boar culling together contributed to a decrease in TB prevalence. The need for holistic, sustained over time, intensive and adapted TB control strategies taking into account the multi-host nature of the disease is highlighted. The potential risk for tuberculosis emergence in wildlife scenarios where the risk is assumed to be low should be addressed. PMID:24558435

  1. [Comparative studies of climatic factors effecting the performance of cattle in different climatic zones of Egypt].

    PubMed

    Legel, S; Touny, S M

    1982-01-01

    In continuation of previous analogous studies on climatic factors influencing the performance of cattle in Northern Egypt (climate types III4a/IV: etesian climate of the Mediterranean type) the present investigation deals with the temperature and humidity for Southern Egypt (climate type III1; arid, subtropical desert climate) and classifies them according to the physiological tolerability ranges set up for cattle. In Northern Egypt (Maryut) 23.8% of the temperatures were beyond the optimum and physiologically still tolerable range (0 to 24 degrees C) and were thus in the intolerable range; 45.8% were within the optimum tolerability range. In Southern Egypt (El Menia) 46.7% were within the intolerable range and only 25.7% in the optimum range (5 to 18 degrees C). The relative humidity values had 21.9% within the optimum range and 63.9% in the intolerable range in the North; in the South 22.9% were within the optimum and 55.5% in the intolerable range. PMID:7171369

  2. Accidental monensin sodium intoxication of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, D; Kimberling, C; Spraker, T; Sterner, F E; McChesney, A E

    1984-05-15

    Of 1,994 yearling and 2-year-old cattle in a winter feeding program, 117 died within 42 days of being fed toxic amounts of monensin sodium in a liquid protein supplement. Death losses commenced on the third day after ingestion of a toxic amount in the feed. Clinical signs in cattle that died in less than 9 days included anorexia, pica, diarrhea, depression, mild hindlimb ataxia, and dyspnea. Gross necropsy findings in cattle dying in the acute phase of the illness included hydrothorax, ascites, and pulmonary edema, as well as petechial hemorrhages, edema, and yellow streaking in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Cattle dying after 9 days had gray streaks in heart and skeletal muscle, generalized ventral edema, enlarged, firm, bluish discolored liver, and enlarged heart. Microscopic changes in cattle dying in the acute phase (less than 9 days) consisted of pulmonary edema, congestion, and hemorrhage. Cardiac and skeletal muscle had localized areas of edema, hemorrhage, and coagulative necrosis. In cattle dying after 9 days of illness, the changes included lymphocytic infiltration, sarcolemmal nuclear proliferation, and fibrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Lungs contained increased alveolar macrophages and a few neutrophils. Centrilobular necrosis and mild fibrosis were found in the liver. Changes varied somewhat according to the area of heart or skeletal muscle that was affected. Active muscles, eg, those in the heart ventricles and diaphragm, were altered most severely. Intoxication appeared to be a result of sedimentation of monensin in the molasses carrier to give remarkable concentrations of the substance at the bottom of the holding tank. PMID:6735846

  3. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A

    2011-02-01

    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  4. Geodecision system for traceability and sustainable production of beef cattle in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victoria, D. D.; Andrade, R. G.; Bolfe, L.; Batistella, M.; Pires, P. P.; Vicente, L. E.; Visoli, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Beef cattle production sustainability depends on incorporating innovative tools and technologies which are easy to comprehend, economically viable, and spatially explicit into the registration of precise, reliable data about production practices. This research developed from the needs and demands of food safety and food quality in extensive beef cattle production within the scope of the policies of Southern Cone and European Union's countries. Initially, the OTAG project (Operational Management and Geodecisional Prototype to Track and Trace Agricultural Production) focused on the development of a prototype traceability of cattle. The aim for the project's next phase is to enhance the electronic devices used in the identification and positioning of the animals, and the incorporation of more management and sanitary information. Besides, we intend to structure a database that enables the inclusion of greater amount of geospatial information linked to environmental aspects, such as water deficit, vegetation vigour, degradation indices of pasture areas, among others. For the extraction of knowledge, and the presentation of the results, we propose the development of a friendly interface to facilitate the exploration of the textual, tabular and geospatial information useful for the user.

  5. Genetic characterization of Latin-American Creole cattle using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Delgado, J V; Martínez, A M; Acosta, A; Alvarez, L A; Armstrong, E; Camacho, E; Cañón, J; Cortés, O; Dunner, S; Landi, V; Marques, J R; Martín-Burriel, I; Martínez, O R; Martínez, R D; Melucci, L; Muñoz, J E; Penedo, M C T; Postiglioni, A; Quiróz, J; Rodellar, C; Sponenberg, P; Uffo, O; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Vega-Pla, J L; Villalobos, A; Zambrano, D; Zaragoza, P; Gama, L T; Ginja, C

    2012-02-01

    Genetic diversity in and relationships among 26 Creole cattle breeds from 10 American countries were assessed using 19 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, F-statistics estimates, genetic distances, multivariate analyses and assignment tests were performed. The levels of within-breed diversity detected in Creole cattle were considerable and higher than those previously reported for European breeds, but similar to those found in other Latin American breeds. Differences among breeds accounted for 8.4% of the total genetic variability. Most breeds clustered separately when the number of pre-defined populations was 21 (the most probable K value), with the exception of some closely related breeds that shared the same cluster and others that were admixed. Despite the high genetic diversity detected, significant inbreeding was also observed within some breeds, and heterozygote excess was detected in others. These results indicate that Creoles represent important reservoirs of cattle genetic diversity and that appropriate conservation measures should be implemented for these native breeds in order to minimize inbreeding and uncontrolled crossbreeding. PMID:22221019

  6. Use of antimicrobials in the treatment of reproductive diseases in cattle and horses.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S; Taponen, J; Katila, T

    2014-09-01

    Use of antimicrobials for veterinary indications related to reproduction in cattle and horses is reviewed. Antimicrobial compounds are widely used to treat and prevent infections of reproductive organs. Total amounts of antimicrobials for such purposes, estimated by weight, are low compared with major uses in food animals. The most common reproduction-related indication in cattle is mastitis. The number of intramammary products available for treatment of mastitis in the European Union is high. Metritis and endometritis also require antimicrobial treatment of cattle and specific products for intrauterine administration are available. The traditions and practices associated with the use of these products vary considerably among different countries. Parenteral antimicrobial treatment is used to treat acute clinical mastitis and puerperal metritis. Pharmacological characteristics of the antimicrobial administered parenterally are critical to achieve and maintain therapeutic concentrations in the target organs. In mares, the most common indications associated with reproduction are endometritis, retained placenta and placentitis. The number of authorized antimicrobial products for horses is limited. Horses are treated individually and off-label use of antimicrobials is very common. In veterinary indications related to reproduction, treatment practices exist that cannot be considered to be evidence-based or responsible use of antimicrobials. Not all products for local treatment have proven efficacy data. Examples of unnecessary uses are routine treatment of cows with retained placenta and use of post-breeding antibiotic treatments in mares. PMID:25220745

  7. NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN CATTLE IN INDIA SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE AND WATER BUFFAOES IN INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of N. caninum infection in cattle in India. Serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in Punjab, India, were tested for N. caninum a...

  8. Chemotherapy of paramphistomosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, P F; Boray, J C

    1987-11-01

    Controlled tests were used to assess the efficacy of anthelmintics against immature paramphistomes, predominantly Calicophoron calicophorum, in 127 calves which were exposed to contaminated pasture for 7 weeks, treated and slaughtered. When a combination product of oxyclozanide and levamisole was used, oxyclozanide at 18.7 mg/kg reduced parasite numbers in the small intestine, abomasum and rumen-reticulum by 61 to 96.1%, 50.0 to 92.6% and 56.5 to 98.1%, respectively. When 2 doses were given 3 days apart, oxyclozanide was 99.9%, 100% and 100% effective, respectively, in the above organs, and produced improvement in clinically affected calves. This treatment elicited transient diarrhoea. Hexachlorophene at 20 mg/kg as a single dose was 99.5%, 100% and 100% effective against the fluke in the small intestine, abomasum and rumen respectively but severe neurological signs were seen in some calves. Niclosamide at 160 mg/kg given as single or 2 doses 3 days apart was 91.1% and 92.6% effective, respectively, against the parasites in the small intestine. No toxicity was noted. Closantel, at 7.5 mg/kg was not effective. Oxyclozanide and niclosamide when given as a single treatment had varying activity. Two doses of oxyclozanide and a single dose of hexachlorophene gave consistent results. Further tests based on reduction of faecal egg counts, 10 to 14 days after treatment were conducted with oxyclozanide and hexachlorophene against mature paramphistomes in 207 cattle. Oxyclozanide as a single dose or 2 doses 3 days apart at 12.8 to 18.7 mg/kg was 93.6 to 97.5% effective in reducing egg counts. Hexachlorophene at 20 mg/kg was 83.0% effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3447575

  9. Climate, Cattle Rearing Systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Pagabeleguem, Soumaïla; Sangaré, Mamadou; Bengaly, Zakaria; Akoudjin, Massouroudin; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2012-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Four sites were selected along a South-north transect of increasing aridity. The study combines parasitological and entomological surveys. For the parasitological aspect, blood samples were collected from 1,041 cattle selected through a stratified sampling procedure including location and livestock management system (long transhumance, short transhumance, sedentary). Parasitological and serological prevalence specific to livestock management systems show a gradual increase from the Sahelian to the Sudano-Guinean area (P<0.05). Livestock management system had also a significant impact on parasitological prevalence (P<0.05). Tsetse diversity, apparent densities and their infection rates overall decreased with aridity, from four species, an apparent density of 53.1 flies/trap/day and an infection rate of 13.7% to an absence at the northern edge of the transect, where the density and diversity of other biting flies were on the contrary highest (p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance The climatic pressure clearly had a negative impact on tsetse abundance and AAT risk. However, the persistency of tsetse habitats along the Mouhoun river loop maintains a high risk of cyclical transmission of T. vivax. Moreover, an “epidemic mechanical livestock trypanosomosis” cycle is likely to occur in the northern site, where trypanosomes are brought in by cattle transhuming from the tsetse infested area and are locally transmitted by mechanical vectors. In Burkina Faso, the impact of tsetse thus extends

  10. Tritrichomonas foetus Prevention and Control in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ondrak, Jeff D

    2016-07-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds. PMID:27039692

  11. Birdshooting, lead pellets, and grazing cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn, H.; Gyrd-Hansen, N.; Kraul, I.

    1982-08-01

    Blood samples from cattle grazing near an area of intense birdshooting were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. No difference in lead blood levels could be demonstrated between heifers in the birdshooting pasture and the control heifers, not even during the dry summer of 1981 when there was little grass, which should have facilitated the uptake of lead pellets deposited on the ground. On the basis of blood values found, even the most intensive birdshooting seems to have little effect on the lead levels in cattle in the area. (JMT)

  12. Chronic Sarcocystis infections in slaughtered cattle.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Mizusawa, K; Itagaki, H

    1993-10-01

    Parasitological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were carried out on three slaughtered cattle with many nodules in all the striated muscles. At necropsy, many yellowish green rice-grain sized nodules including cheesy contents were observed in all the striated muscles. Histopathologically the nodules were granuloma principally consisting of eosinophiles. No Sarcocystis cysts nor bradyzoites were found in the nodules, but intact sarcocysts were found in the normal tissues surrounding the nodules. The central necrotic focus of nodules showed intense positive responses against anti-Sarcocystis cruzi rabbit serum by immunohistochemical examination. From the above findings the slaughtered cattle were diagnosed as chronic sarcocystiasis. PMID:8286527

  13. Diseases of yearling feedlot cattle in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R; Pierson, R E; Braddy, P M; Saari, D A; Lauerman, L H; England, J J; Horton, D P; McChesney, A E

    1976-09-01

    During all of 1974 we surveyed, for illnesses and deaths, about 407,000 yearling feedlot cattle. The morbidity was 5.1%, with a case mortality of 18.9% and a population mortality of 1.0%. Both morbidity and mortality were higher during fall and winter than during spring and summer. Of the 3,943 dead cattle, 1,988 were necropsied. The most prevalent diseases were: pneumonia, 48%; diphtheria, 6%; brisket disease, 6%; hemorrhagic colitis, 5%; riding injury, 4%; bloat, 3%; calculosis, 2%; endocarditis, 2%; abomasal ulcers, 2%; bovine viral diarrhea, 2%; embolic pulmonary aneurysm, 1%; and pulmonary edema, 1%. PMID:956027

  14. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  15. Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

    1993-01-01

    We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

  16. European auxiliary propulsion, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, L. B.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical and electric auxiliary propulsion technology of the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany is discussed in detail, and the propulsion technology achievements of Italy, India, Japan, and Russia are reviewed. A comparison is presented of Shell 405 catalyst and a European spontaneous hydrazine catalyst called CNESRO I. Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding future trends in European auxiliary propulsion technology development.

  17. Analysis of conservation priorities of Iberoamerican cattle based on autosomal microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Determining the value of livestock breeds is essential to define conservation priorities, manage genetic diversity and allocate funds. Within- and between-breed genetic diversity need to be assessed to preserve the highest intra-specific variability. Information on genetic diversity and risk status is still lacking for many Creole cattle breeds from the Americas, despite their distinct evolutionary trajectories and adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Methods A comprehensive genetic analysis of 67 Iberoamerican cattle breeds was carried out with 19 FAO-recommended microsatellites to assess conservation priorities. Contributions to global diversity were investigated using alternative methods, with different weights given to the within- and between-breed components of genetic diversity. Information on Iberoamerican plus 15 worldwide cattle breeds was used to investigate the contribution of geographical breed groups to global genetic diversity. Results Overall, Creole cattle breeds showed a high level of genetic diversity with the highest level found in breeds admixed with zebu cattle, which were clearly differentiated from all other breeds. Within-breed kinships revealed seven highly inbred Creole breeds for which measures are needed to avoid further genetic erosion. However, if contribution to heterozygosity was the only criterion considered, some of these breeds had the lowest priority for conservation decisions. The Weitzman approach prioritized highly differentiated breeds, such as Guabalá, Romosinuano, Cr. Patagonico, Siboney and Caracú, while kinship-based methods prioritized mainly zebu-related breeds. With the combined approaches, breed ranking depended on the weights given to the within- and between-breed components of diversity. Overall, the Creole groups of breeds were generally assigned a higher priority for conservation than the European groups of breeds. Conclusions Conservation priorities differed significantly according to the

  18. The Multifaceted Origin of Taurine Cattle Reflected by the Mitochondrial Genome

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Anna; Malusà, Arianna; Pala, Maria; Kashani, Baharak Hooshiar; Perego, Ugo A.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Liotta, Luigi; Semino, Ornella; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    A Neolithic domestication of taurine cattle in the Fertile Crescent from local aurochsen (Bos primigenius) is generally accepted, but a genetic contribution from European aurochsen has been proposed. Here we performed a survey of a large number of taurine cattle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions from numerous European breeds confirming the overall clustering within haplogroups (T1, T2 and T3) of Near Eastern ancestry, but also identifying eight mtDNAs (1.3%) that did not fit in haplogroup T. Sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome showed that four mtDNAs formed a novel branch (haplogroup R) which, after the deep bifurcation that gave rise to the taurine and zebuine lineages, constitutes the earliest known split in the mtDNA phylogeny of B. primigenius. The remaining four mtDNAs were members of the recently discovered haplogroup Q. Phylogeographic data indicate that R mtDNAs were derived from female European aurochsen, possibly in the Italian Peninsula, and sporadically included in domestic herds. In contrast, the available data suggest that Q mtDNAs and T subclades were involved in the same Neolithic event of domestication in the Near East. Thus, the existence of novel (and rare) taurine haplogroups highlights a multifaceted genetic legacy from distinct B. primigenius populations. Taking into account that the maternally transmitted mtDNA tends to underestimate the extent of gene flow from European aurochsen, the detection of the R mtDNAs in autochthonous breeds, some of which are endangered, identifies an unexpected reservoir of genetic variation that should be carefully preserved. PMID:19484124

  19. Host resistance in cattle to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, N N; Piper, E K; Constantinoiu, C C

    2014-11-01

    Resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus infestation in cattle has many effector mechanisms, each of which is likely to be modulated by complex, interacting factors. Some of the mechanisms of host resistance and their modulating factors have been identified and quantified, although much remains to be explained. The variation in resistance to tick infestation is most marked between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, taurine cattle given the same exposure carrying between five and 10 times as many ticks as indicine cattle. Tick resistance is mostly manifest against attaching larvae, which attempt to feed often and without success, death occurring mostly within 24 h of finding a host. There is evidence of innate and adaptive immune response to tick infestation, and it appears that the relative importance of each differs between indicine and taurine cattle. There is conflicting information regarding the role of humoral immunity in tick resistance, and recent studies indicate that strong IgG responses to tick antigens are not protective. A strong T-cell-mediated response directed against larval stages, as mounted by indicine cattle, seems to be protective. Variation in the extracellular matrix of skin (epidermal growth factors, collagens and other matrix components such as lumican) also contributes to variation in host resistance. PMID:25313455

  20. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management. PMID:27493068

  1. Genetic resistance to disease in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance to disease in cattle is a popular topic of scientific discussion and research. Justifications for genetic selection for disease resistance include the need for additional approaches to counter antibiotic and therapeutic resistance by pathogens, consumer demand for zero drug residu...

  2. CONVERSION OF CATTLE MANURE INTO USEFUL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project was to design and build a pyrolysis apparatus for cattle manure and to investigate the potential uses of the pyrolysis by-products. A pyrolysis machine of semi-continuous feed capabilities was designed and built. Various conditions of pyrolysis treatmen...

  3. Production of cattle lacking prion protein.

    PubMed

    Richt, Jürgen A; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Hamir, Amir N; Castilla, Joaquin; Sathiyaseelan, Thillai; Vargas, Francisco; Sathiyaseelan, Janaki; Wu, Hua; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Koster, Julie; Kato, Shinichiro; Ishida, Isao; Soto, Claudio; Robl, James M; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by propagation of misfolded forms of the normal cellular prion protein PrP(C), such as PrP(BSE) in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and PrP(CJD) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. Disruption of PrP(C) expression in mice, a species that does not naturally contract prion diseases, results in no apparent developmental abnormalities. However, the impact of ablating PrP(C) function in natural host species of prion diseases is unknown. Here we report the generation and characterization of PrP(C)-deficient cattle produced by a sequential gene-targeting system. At over 20 months of age, the cattle are clinically, physiologically, histopathologically, immunologically and reproductively normal. Brain tissue homogenates are resistant to prion propagation in vitro as assessed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification. PrP(C)-deficient cattle may be a useful model for prion research and could provide industrial bovine products free of prion proteins. PMID:17195841

  4. Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed using a sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) and software designed for salt mapping (ESAP, Riverside, CA). The combination al...

  5. Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed and demonstrated. A dual geometry sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) was used with software designed for salt mapping (ESAP...

  6. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  7. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... type of tests conducted, the dates of the tests, and the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All... directly to slaughter in a country that the Administrator has determined has an acceptable...

  8. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... type of tests conducted, the dates of the tests, and the results of the tests. (a) Tuberculosis. All... directly to slaughter in a country that the Administrator has determined has an acceptable...

  9. Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

    1986-07-01

    Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

  10. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis continues to be a major animal health problem, having adverse impacts on socioeconomic conditions, public health and trade of animals and animal products. Worldwide it has been estimated that approximately 50 million cattle are infected with M. ...

  11. Immunopathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerosol and intratracheal inoculation routes are commonly used for experimental biology purposes to infect cattle with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, each resulting primarily in a respiratory tract infection including lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes. Disease severity is dose and time dependent...

  12. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  13. Cattle site preference in northeastern Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Free-roaming beef cattle naturally gravitate to locations on the landscape that provide them food, water, shelter, and security. In mountainous environments, animals are also sensitive to land physiography, generally preferring level terrain near established trails and travel routes. Our study was...

  14. Pregnancy establishment and maintenance in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GnRH-induced ovulation of a small dominant follicle reduced pregnancy success in cattle. A reciprocal embryo transfer study was conducted at Fort Keogh from 2007 to 2009 in order to differentiate between follicular effects on pregnancy mediated through oocyte quality or uterine environment. Estrou...

  15. Clostridium botulinum in cattle and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Miia; Myllykoski, Jan; Sivelä, Seppo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2010-04-01

    The use of plastic-wrapped and nonacidified silage as cattle feed has led to an increasing number of botulism outbreaks due to Clostridium botulinum Groups I-III in dairy cattle. The involvement of Groups I and II organisms in cattle botulism has raised concern of human botulism risk associated with the consumption of dairy products. Multiplication of C. botulinum in silage and in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle with botulism has been reported, thus contamination of the farm environment and raw milk, and further transmission through the dairy chain, are possible. The standard milk pasteurization treatment does not eliminate spores, and the intrinsic factors of many dairy products allow botulinal growth and toxin production. Although rare, several large botulism outbreaks due to both commercial and home-prepared dairy products have been reported. Factors explaining these outbreaks include most importantly temperature abuse, but also unsafe formulation, inadequate fermentation, insufficient thermal processing, post-process contamination, and lack of adequate quality control for adjunct ingredients were involved. The small number of outbreaks is probably explained by a low incidence of spores in milk, the presence of competitive bacteria in pasteurized milk and other dairy products, and growth-inhibitory combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in cultured and processed dairy products. PMID:20301016

  16. Precision Management of Cattle Feedlot Waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle feedlot nutrient waste management is a topic of increasing environmental, sociological, and regulatory concern. This report investigates methods adapted from the management of saline soils for application to feedlot surface management as well operation of a vegetative treatment area (VTA) ut...

  17. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  18. Cattle grazing on the shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this book chapter is research pertaining to three management practices important to cattle ranching on shortgrass steppe: stocking rates, grazing systems, and extending the grazing season via complementary pastures and use of Atriplex canescens [Pursh] Nutt (fourwing saltbush) -dominate...

  19. Empathic veterinarians score cattle pain higher.

    PubMed

    Norring, Marianna; Wikman, Ingela; Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Hänninen, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The treatment of cattle pain often relies upon veterinarians. The aim of this study was to qualify the influence of veterinarians skills, attitudes, and empathy on cattle pain assesment and consequently disbudding pain management. A web-based questionnaire was sent to Finnish veterinary students in either the preclinical or clinical stage, and also to production-animal practice oriented veterinarians. The questionnaire recorded demographics, statements of opinions, pain scoring of cattle conditions and procedures. Empathy towards humans (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI) and reworded IRI to measure empathy towards animals were also covered. The overall response rate was approximately 40%. The association between pain and empathy scores were analyzed by Pearsońs correlation, and the factors affecting pain scores and empathy towards animals analyzed using linear models. The need for pain medication of calves during disbudding was well recognized and the intention to treat such pain was very common. Higher mean scores for cattle pain were associated with greater empathy towards humans. On average, respondents' empathy towards animals was greater than towards humans, and was associated with respondents' empathy towards humans, family size and attachment to family pet. PMID:24685101

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV) is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle world-wide. It has an integral role in enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bRSV infection can predispose calves to secondary bacterial infection by org...

  1. Genetic relationships among breeds of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic distance among 16 populations of beef cattle from within the U.S. Thirty-three microsatellite markers representing 26 autosomes were used. MicroSatellite Analyzer 3.15 (MSA) program was used to quantify number of alleles per marker, and observed and expected het...

  2. RECENT SEGMENTAL DUPLICATIONS IN THE CATTLE GENOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the content, structure, and distribution of segmental duplications (> or =90% sequence identity, > or =5 kb length) within the newest public version of the Bos taurus genome assembly (bta_3.1). The overall fraction of duplicated sequence within the cattle assembly is approximately equiva...

  3. Are methane production and cattle performance related?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane is a product of fermentation of feed in ruminant animals. Approximately 2 -12% of the gross energy consumed by cattle is released through enteric methane production. There are three primary components that contribute to the enteric methane footprint of an animal. Those components are dry ...

  4. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  5. Criollo cattle: Heritage genetics for arid landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty cows and three bulls from the Chinipas region in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were introduced onto the US Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service’s Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in 2005. Since then behavioral research has revealed these cattle, most accurately referre...

  6. English yew poisoning in 43 cattle.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; Molyneux, R J; Smart, R A; Mitchell, L; Hansen, S

    1993-05-01

    Thirty-five privately owned 1- to 2-year-old mixed-breed steers and heifers, weighing 340 to 454 kg, died from accidental ingestion of English yew (Taxus baccata). Estimated dosages ranged from 0.36 to 0.70 g of fresh plant/kg of body weight. Clinical signs of poisoning and death began 2 to 3 hours after first exposure, and cattle continued to have clinical signs, which ended in death 6 to 8 hours later. Most cattle had died by 4 hours after first ingestion. Necropsy of 4 cattle revealed substantial amounts of English yew leaves and small stems in the rumen contents. Grossly, there were areas of hyperemia in the abomasum and small intestine. Histologically, lesions were limited to the lungs and included moderate congestion and interlobular edema. Chemical analysis by thin-layer chromatography of suspected yew plant material from the rumen contents of the 4 necropsied cattle was compared to authentic taxol, and confirmed the presence of taxol in rumen samples. PMID:8098701

  7. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium andersoni in Brazilian cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces were collected from 68 cattle, 1 to 12 mo of age, on 12 farms in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. All samples were subjected to molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) of the 18S rRNA. F...

  8. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Devin B.; Timsit, Edouard; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    The bovine nasopharyngeal tract plays an important role in animal health and welfare by acting as a site for the carriage of pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease, a condition which results in significant morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. We characterized the bacterial nasopharyngeal microbiota in cattle at feedlot entry (day 0) and day 60 using 454 pyrosequencing. We also identified the most frequently isolated aerobic bacteria from nasopharyngeal swabs after plating onto three types of media. The cattle nasopharyngeal microbiota was composed primarily of Proteobacteria (68.9%) and Firmicutes (19.2%). At the genus-level, there was more inter-individual variability and a total of 55 genera were identified. The genera Pseudomonas (23.7%), Shewanella (23.5%), Acinetobacter (17.5%), and Carnobacterium (12.2%) were most prevalent at entry, while after 60 days in the feedlot, Staphylococcus (20.8%), Mycoplasma (14.9%), Mannheimia (10.4%), and Moraxella (9.4%) were dominant. The nasopharyngeal microbiota also became more homogenous after 60 days in the feedlot and differed in structure at day 0 and 60. Using culture-based methods, the most frequently isolated bacteria from nasopharyngeal swabs were Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Moraxella, Pasteurella, and Mannheimia. These results provide insight into the nasopharyngeal microbiota of cattle and demonstrate that specific changes take place during feedlot production. PMID:26497574

  9. Vaccination of cattle animals against tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine TB (bTB), mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a significant economic burden to the agricultural industries worldwide. It has been estimated that 50 million cattle are infected with M. bovis worldwide resulting in around US $3 billion losses annually and this is despite attempts to contro...

  10. Genotype imputation efficiency in Nelore Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotype imputation efficiency in Nelore cattle was evaluated in different scenarios of lower density (LD) chips, imputation methods and sets of animals to have their genotypes imputed. Twelve commercial and virtual custom LD chips with densities varying from 7K to 75K SNPs were tested. Customized L...

  11. Multibreed Genomic Evaluations in Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic evaluation models were developed and tested using 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2...

  12. Ultrasonography in gastrointestinal disease in cattle.

    PubMed

    Braun, U

    2003-09-01

    Ultrasonography is an ideal diagnostic tool for investigating gastrointestinal disorders in cattle. It is performed on standing non-sedated cattle using a 3.5 MHz linear transducer. In animals with traumatic reticuloperitonitis, inflammatory fibrinous changes, and abscesses can be imaged; however, magnets and foreign bodies are difficult to visualize because of the gas content of the reticulum. Ultrasonography can be used to assess the size, position and contents of the abomasum. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided abomasocentesis can be performed to evaluate the nature and chemical composition of its contents. In left displacement of the abomasum, the abomasum is seen between the left abdominal wall and the rumen. It contains fluid ingesta ventrally and a gas cap of varying size dorsally. Occasionally, the abomasal folds are seen in the ingesta. In cattle with right displacement of the abomasum, the liver is displaced medially from the right abdominal wall by the abomasum, which has an ultrasonographic appearance similar to that described for left displacement. Motility and diameter of the intestine are the most important criteria for ultrasonographic assessment of ileus. However, the cause of the ileus is rarely determined using ultrasonography. In cases with ileus of the small intestine, there is at least one region of dilatation of the intestine and motility is reduced or absent. In cattle with caecal dilatation, the caecum can always be imaged from the right lateral abdominal wall. The wall of the caecum closest to the transducer appears as a thick, echogenic, semi-circular line. PMID:12902177

  13. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  14. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN CATTLE FROM OBSERVING TO UNDERSTANDING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic pathogen transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. Dairy cattle have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. However, virtually all reports have ...

  15. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  16. Production of cattle lacking prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Richt, Jürgen A; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Hamir, Amir N; Castilla, Joaquin; Sathiyaseelan, Thillai; Vargas, Francisco; Sathiyaseelan, Janaki; Wu, Hua; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Koster, Julie; Kato, Shinichiro; Ishida, Isao; Soto, Claudio; Robl, James M; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by propagation of misfolded forms of the normal cellular prion protein PrPC, such as PrPBSE in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and PrPCJD in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans1. Disruption of PrPC expression in mice, a species that does not naturally contract prion diseases, results in no apparent developmental abnormalities2–5. However, the impact of ablating PrPC function in natural host species of prion diseases is unknown. Here we report the generation and characterization of PrPC-deficient cattle produced by a sequential gene-targeting system6. At over 20 months of age, the cattle are clinically, physiologically, histopathologically, immunologically and reproductively normal. Brain tissue homogenates are resistant to prion propagation in vitro as assessed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification7. PrPC-deficient cattle may be a useful model for prion research and could provide industrial bovine products free of prion proteins. PMID:17195841

  17. CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN CATTLE GENOMICS RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is provided of the current state of the art for tools available to geneticists to impact genetic improvement in cattle. Important areas of future research are also highlighted, with emphasis given to functional genomics and tools derived from single-nucleotide polymorphism markers....

  18. Microbial Community Structure of Feedlot Cattle Feces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cattle feces are a reservoir of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157), an important food-borne pathogen. Although STEC O157 is often studied in isolation, the STEC O157 fecal habitat consists of many different kinds of bacteria, and STEC O157 is part of a complex microbia...

  19. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  20. Multibreed Genomic Evaluation of Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multibreed models are currently used in traditional USDA dairy cattle genetic evaluations of yield and health traits, but within-breed models are used in genomic evaluations. Multibreed genomic models were developed and tested using all 19,686 genotyped bulls included in the official August 2009 USD...

  1. Dairy cattle genomics evaluation program update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of genomic evaluation has caused profound changes in dairy cattle breeding. All young bulls bought by major artificial-insemination organizations now are selected based on these evaluation. Evaluation reliability can reach ~75% for yield traits, which is adequate for marketing semen o...

  2. Eating beef: cattle, methane and food production.

    PubMed

    Wahlquist, Åsa K

    2013-01-01

    A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606

  3. Extensive browsing by a conventional grazer? Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals extraordinary dietary flexibility among Sanga cattle of North Central Namibia.

    PubMed

    Radloff, Frans G T; Van der Waal, Cornelis; Bond, Alexander L

    2013-01-01

    Intraspecies dietary flexibility, such as variable consumption of graze vs. browse in herbivores, has received scant attention on a spatial scale despite growing evidence of substantial variability within and among populations, especially in bovids. Here, we report on extraordinary differences in cattle diet among two communal pasture areas across seasons in northern Namibia: King Nehale (KN, open grassland) and Okongo (OK, dense woodland). Percentage C3 browse and C4 grass consumption was determined from δ(13)C values of dung samples, using a Bayesian stable-isotope mixing model (SIAR - stable isotope analysis in R). During the wet and early dry season, KN cattle consumed 11 and 19% browse, respectively, and the OK cattle consumed 84% browse. At the end of the dry season, the browse intake of KN cattle increased to 33% while that of OK cattle decreased to 55%. Vegetation structure influenced the graze/browse consumption strongly in both areas. A better understanding of this extraordinary dietary flexibility is imperative as anthropogenically driven habitat change is projected to lead to the extinction of perceived grazing specialists. PMID:23859529

  4. Cattle and climate in Africa: How climate variability has influenced national cattle holdings from 1961–2008

    PubMed Central

    Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    The role of cattle in developing countries is as a source of high-quality food, as draft animals, and as a source of manure and fuel. Cattle represent important contribution to household incomes, and in drought prone areas they can act as an insurance against weather risk. So far, no studies have addressed how historical variations in temperature and rainfall have influenced cattle populations in Africa. The focus of this study is to assess the historical impact of climate variability on national cattle holdings. We reconstruct the cattle density and distribution for two time periods; 1955–1960 and 2000–2005. Based on estimates from FAO and official numbers, we generated a time series of cattle densities from 1961–2008, and compared these data with precipitation and temperature anomalies for the same period. We show that from 1961–2008 rainfall and temperature have been modulating, and occasionally controlling, the number of cattle in Africa. PMID:23638393

  5. Reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in healthy Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    There are no accurate reference ranges for hematology parameters and lymphocyte subsets in Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo). This study was performed to establish reliable reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets using a large number of Hanwoo cattle (n = 350) and to compare differences between Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle (n = 334). Additionally, age-related changes in lymphocyte subsets were studied. Bovine leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed using mono or dual color flow cytometry. The leukocyte subpopulations investigated in healthy cattle included: CD2(+) cells, sIgM(+) cells, MHC class II(+) cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) cells, CD3(+) CD8(+) cells, and WC1(+) cells. Although Hanwoo and Holstein cattle are the same species, results showed several differences in hematology and lymphocyte subsets between Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. This study is the first report to establish reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in adult Hanwoo cattle. PMID:26419947

  6. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland. PMID:9254847

  7. The emerging European immigration regime: some reflections on implications for southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Baldwin-edwards, M

    1997-12-01

    "Immigration is one of the more controversial areas in the history of European integration. Whilst northern European countries have been constructing elaborate compromises in the European Union (EU) Treaties and in the Schengen group, southern European countries have been trying to construct their own immigration policies. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the relationship between these two phenomena: it is suggested here that southern countries have found it expedient to fit in with EU and Schengen arrangements, even though these appear impossible to implement. This contradiction is seen as intrinsic to the overall relations of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece to the EU." PMID:12293846

  8. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  9. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  10. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  11. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  12. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  13. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  14. The US experience of eradicating and preventing re-infestation with cattle fever ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, and the cattle tick, R. annulatus, are obligate ectoparasites and the vectors of pathogens causing bovine babesiosis, or “Cattle Fever”, and anaplasmosis in cattle. These cattle fever tick (CFT) species were declared eradicated from the U.S. in 1943...

  15. The European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, M.; Bousson, S.; Calaga, R.; Danared, H.; Devanz, G.; Duperrier, R.; Eguia, J.; Eshraqi, M.; Gammino, S.; Hahn, H.; Jansson, A.; Oyon, C.; Pape-Møller, S.; Peggs, S.; Ponton, A.; Rathsman, K.; Ruber, R.; Satogata, T.; Trahern, G.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 the joint European effort to design a European Spallation Source (ESS) resulted in a set of reports, and in May 2009 Lund was agreed to be the ESS site. The ESS Scandinavia office has since then worked on setting all the necessary legal and organizational matters in place so that the Design Update and construction can be started in January 2011, in collaboration with European partners. The Design Update phase is expected to end in 2012, to be followed by a construction phase, with first neutrons expected in 2018-2019.

  16. FACING NORTHEAST ACROSS NORTHERN END OF PARK TOWARDS ITS NORTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHEAST ACROSS NORTHERN END OF PARK TOWARDS ITS NORTHERN CORNER - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. Observations on the biology, epidemiology and economic relevance of rumen flukes (Paramphistomidae) in cattle kept in a temperate environment.

    PubMed

    Sargison, Neil; Francis, Emily; Davison, Chloe; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian; Mazeri, Stella

    2016-03-30

    There is concern about the probable recent introduction, increased prevalence and potential economic impact of rumen fluke infection of United Kingdom cattle. A study of 339 cattle slaughtered in a Scottish red meat abattoir was undertaken with the aims of describing the prevalence and geographical distribution of rumen fluke infection, estimating its effect on production, and evaluating faecal egg counts (FECs) as a tool to diagnose infection in live animals and study the epidemiology of the disease. The overall proportion of cattle consigned to the abattoir from northern United Kingdom with rumen fluke infection in the forestomachs was 0.29. Rumen flukes were distributed predominantly in the cranial sac of the rumen and adjacent to the reticular groove. Overall, a mean of 213 and median of 44 rumen flukes was identified in the forestomachs of rumen fluke-positive cattle. The mean and median FECs of animals were 26.01 and 5.20 eggs per gram (epg), respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean FECs per rumen fluke of 0.08 and 0.13epg during summer/autumn and winter sampling periods, respectively. The overall correlation between rumen fluke FECs and the number of flukes in the forestomach was high, albeit lower in the summer/autumn than in the winter period. The sensitivities of rumen fluke FECs for the identification of flukes in the forestomach during the summer/autumn and winter sampling periods were 0.65 and 0.85, respectively. These results will aid in the interpretation of rumen fluke FECs when monitoring cattle health and production and studying the parasite's epidemiology in a temperate environment, thereby informing rational, precise and sustainable disease control. PMID:26921033

  18. Monitoring of Transmission of Tuberculosis between Wild Boars and Cattle: Genotypical Analysis of Strains by Molecular Epidemiology Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Serraino, Andrea; Marchetti, Giulia; Sanguinetti, Valeria; Rossi, Maria Cristina; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Catozzi, Lidia; Bandera, Alessandra; Dini, Walter; Mignone, Walter; Franzetti, Fabio; Gori, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    An epidemiological survey for the monitoring of bovine tuberculosis transmission was carried out in western Liguria, a region in northern Italy. Fifteen Mycobacterium bovis strains were isolated from 63 wild boar samples (62 from mandibular lymph nodes and 1 from a liver specimen). Sixteen mediastinal lymph nodes of 16 head of cattle were collected, and 15 Mycobacterium bovis strains were subsequently cultured. All M. bovis strains isolated from cattle and wild boars were genotyped by spoligotyping and by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with the IS6110 and IS1081 probes. All M. bovis strains showed the typical spoligotype characterized by the absence of the 39 to 43 spacers in comparison with the number in M. tuberculosis. A total of nine different clusters were identified by spoligotyping. The largest cluster included 9 strains isolated from wild boars and 11 strains isolated from cattle, thus confirming the possibility of transmission between the two animal species. Fingerprinting by RFLP analysis with the IS6110 probe showed an identical single-band pattern for 29 of 30 strains analyzed, and only 1 strain presented a five-band pattern. The use of IS1081 as a second probe was useful for differentiation of M. bovis from M. bovis BCG but not for differentiation among M. bovis strains, which presented the same undifferentiated genomic profile. In relation to the epidemiological investigation, we hypothesized that the feeding in pastures contaminated by cattle discharges could represent the most probable route of transmission of M. bovis between the two animal species. In conclusion, our results confirmed the higher discriminatory power of spoligotyping in relation to that of RFLP analysis for the differentiation of M. bovis genomic profiles. Our data showed the presence of a common M. bovis genotype in both cattle and wild boars, confirming the possible interspecies transmission of M. bovis. PMID:10449449

  19. Immunocontraception for Managing Feral Cattle in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Massei, Giovanna; Koon, Ka-Kei; Benton, Steven; Brown, Richard; Gomm, Matt; Orahood, Darcy S.; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Eckery, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts), administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals’ welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations. PMID:25856283

  20. Immunocontraception for managing feral cattle in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Massei, Giovanna; Koon, Ka-Kei; Benton, Steven; Brown, Richard; Gomm, Matt; Orahood, Darcy S; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Eckery, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts between human interests and feral cattle in Hong Kong derive from growing numbers of free-roaming cattle. Public antipathy towards lethal population control led the local authorities to consider fertility control to reduce cattle numbers. This study assessed the potential side effects of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon on individual female cattle and established the effectiveness of GonaCon to induce infertility. We evaluated GonaCon in 34 captive cattle assigned to four groups: Control administered a sham solution; Webbed (surgically sterilized through removal of the oviducts), administered one dose of GonaCon; Webbed, administered one dose of GonaCon and a booster dose three months later, and Treated, administered one dose of GonaCon. The side effects of GonaCon were assessed by monitoring injection site, body weight, body condition, size of lymph nodes, body temperature, and feeding behaviour 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after vaccination and by haematological and biochemical variables at vaccination and three months post-vaccination. The effectiveness of GonaCon to cause infertility was monitored by quantifying anti-GnRH antibody titres and by using kits to detect cycling and pregnancy. GonaCon-treated cattle showed no injection site reaction, limping, or abnormal behaviour. No differences were observed in all physiological and welfare indicators between control and vaccinated cattle. All control cattle and 4 of the 12 cattle in the Treated group became pregnant. Cattle administered a booster dose had higher anti-GnRH antibody titres than cattle that received one dose. We concluded that GonaCon does not compromise the animals' welfare and is effective in reducing fertility in cattle. A booster dose is likely to increase the duration of infertility. Further studies are required to assess the feasibility and costs of immunocontraception for controlling free-roaming cattle populations. PMID:25856283

  1. European PTTI report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordara, Franco; Grimaldi, Sabrina; Leschiutta, Sigfrido

    1994-01-01

    Time and frequency metrology in Europe presents some peculiar features in its three main components: research on clocks, comparisons and dissemination methods, and dissemination services. Apart from the usual activities of the national metrological laboratories, an increasing number of cooperation between the European countries are promoted inside some European organizations, such as the ECC, EFTA, EUROMET, and WECC. Cooperation between these organizations is covered. The present, evolving situation will be further influenced by the recent political changes in Eastern Europe.

  2. Knowledge expectations of surgical orthopaedic patients: a European survey.

    PubMed

    Valkeapää, Kirsi; Klemetti, Seija; Cabrera, Esther; Cano, Sara; Charalambous, Andreas; Copanitsanou, Panagiota; Ingadottir, Brynja; Istomina, Natalja; Johansson Stark, Åsa; Katajisto, Jouko; Lemonidou, Chryssoula; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Sourtzi, Panayota; Unosson, Mitra; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-12-01

    Ageing population entails a growing international problem of osteoarthritis. Best practices for education of these patients are lacking. This study focused on empowering education in Northern (Finland, Iceland, Lithuania and Sweden) and Southern Europe (Cyprus, Greece and Spain). The aim was to analyse associations between expected knowledge and background factors. The data were collected from European arthroplasty patients with the Knowledge Expectations of hospital patients- scale, (KE(hp) - scale), including bio-physiological, functional, experiential, ethical, social and financial dimensions. Patients had essential bio-physiological and functional knowledge expectations. Women expected more than men, employed less than retired, unemployed or who worked at home. Generally, patients in Northern countries expected more than in Southern countries. However, highest expectations were found in Sweden and Greece, lowest in Spain and Cyprus. There are differences in knowledge expectations based on patients' backgrounds. Development of common standards in European patient education needs further research. PMID:24118436

  3. Modelling spatio-temporal patterns of long-distance Culicoides dispersal into northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Eagles, D; Walker, P J; Zalucki, M P; Durr, P A

    2013-07-01

    Novel arboviruses, including new serotypes of bluetongue virus, are isolated intermittently from cattle and insects in northern Australia. These viruses are thought to be introduced via windborne dispersal of Culicoides from neighbouring land masses to the north. We used the HYSPLIT particle dispersal model to simulate the spatio-temporal patterns of Culicoides dispersal into northern Australia from nine putative source sites across Indonesia, Timor-Leste and Papua New Guinea. Simulated dispersal was found to be possible from each site, with the islands of Timor and Sumba highlighted as the likely principal sources and February the predominant month of dispersal. The results of this study define the likely spatial extent of the source and arrival regions, the relative frequency of dispersal from the putative sources and the temporal nature of seasonal winds from source sites into arrival regions. Importantly, the methodology and results may be applicable to other insect and pathogen incursions into northern Australia. PMID:23642857

  4. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  5. Whole-genome resequencing shows numerous genes with nonsynonymous SNPs in the Japanese native cattle Kuchinoshima-Ushi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Because the Japanese native cattle Kuchinoshima-Ushi have been isolated in a small island and their lineage has been intensely protected, it has been assumed to date that numerous and valuable genomic variations are conserved in this cattle breed. Results In this study, we evaluated genetic features of this breed, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information, by whole-genome sequencing using a Genome Analyzer II. A total of 64.2 Gb of sequence was generated, of which 86% of the obtained reads were successfully mapped to the reference sequence (Btau 4.0) with BWA. On an average, 93% of the genome was covered by the reads and the number of mapped reads corresponded to 15.8-fold coverage across the covered region. From these data, we identified 6.3 million SNPs, of which more than 5.5 million (87%) were found to be new. Out of the SNPs annotated in the bovine sequence assembly, 20,432 were found in protein-coding regions containing 11,713 nonsynonymous SNPs in 4,643 genes. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis using sequence data from 10 genes (more than 10 kbp) showed that Kuchinoshima-Ushi is clearly distinct from European domestic breeds of cattle. Conclusions These results provide a framework for further genetic studies in the Kuchinoshima-Ushi population and research on functions of SNP-containing genes, which would aid in understanding the molecular basis underlying phenotypic variation of economically important traits in cattle and in improving intrinsic defects in domestic cattle breeds. PMID:21310019

  6. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    PubMed

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling. PMID:9110198

  7. Cattle and pastoralism: survival and production in arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Western, D.; Finch, V.

    1986-03-01

    Traditional subsistence pastoralists in East Africa tend to keep large herds, milk cattle in preference to eating them, and subject them to long foraging treks. Such practices are widely considered ill-suited to arid lands and are believed to arise because cattle are raised more for social prestige than food production. Whether this is true can only be judged by considering the responses of cattle to arid zones and, given the herder's goals and options, his management practices. In considering these factors, we show that indigenous East African cattle demonstrate energy-sparing capabilities during drought. Pastoralists can therefore herd cattle at great distances from water at little more cost than animals on the normal maintenance diet and watered more frequently. The physiological response of cattle to drought, the ecological constraints imposed by livestock and wildlife competition, and the energetic efficiency of mixed milk and meat pastoralism explain why herders traditionally select their characteristic management practices.

  8. Vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Sota, C

    1988-01-01

    A short history of bovine paralytic rabies in the Americas is given. Based on information from the Animal Health Yearbook--a cooperative publication of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Office of Epizootics (OIE)--a comparison is made of the epidemiology of the disease in 1968, 1978, and 1985. An important reduction in the number of cases of rabies was observed in some countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama), mainly as a result of the use of effective vaccines that are now available and of the application of new technology to reduce the vampire bat population, the vector of the disease in cattle. The trials performed in Argentina and Mexico in the 1960s and 1970s provide enough evidence that many vaccines will protect cattle against bovine paralytic rabies. Results of these trials are presented. PMID:3206085

  9. A Genetic Linkage Map for Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, M. D.; Kappes, S. M.; Keele, J. W.; Stone, R. T.; Sunden, SLF.; Hawkins, G. A.; Toldo, S. S.; Fries, R.; Grosz, M. D.; Yoo, J.; Beattie, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    We report the most extensive physically anchored linkage map for cattle produced to date. Three-hundred thirteen genetic markers ordered in 30 linkage groups, anchored to 24 autosomal chromosomes (n = 29), the X and Y chromosomes, four unanchored syntenic groups and two unassigned linkage groups spanning 2464 cM of the bovine genome are summarized. The map also assigns 19 type I loci to specific chromosomes and/or syntenic groups and four cosmid clones containing informative microsatellites to chromosomes 13, 25 and 29 anchoring syntenic groups U11, U7 and U8, respectively. This map provides the skeletal framework prerequisite to development of a comprehensive genetic map for cattle and analysis of economic trait loci (ETL). PMID:7908653

  10. Comparative genome map of human and cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas-Toldo, S.; Fries, R.; Lengauer, C.

    1995-06-10

    Chromosomal homologies between individual human chromosomes and the bovine karyotype have been established by using a new approach termed Zoo-FISH. Labeled DNA libraries from flow-sorted human chromosomes were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization on cattle chromosomes. All human DNA libraries, except the Y chromosome library, hybridized to one or more cattle chromosomes, identifying and delineating 50 segments of homology, most of them corresponding to the regions of homology as identified by the previous mapping of individual conserved loci. However, Zoo-FISH refines the comparative maps constructed by molecular gene mapping of individual loci by providing information on the boundaries of conserved regions in the absence of obvious cytogenetic homologies of human and bovine chromosomes. It allows study of karyotypic evolution and opens new avenues for genomic analysis by facilitating the extrapolation of results from the human genome initiative. 50 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) toxicosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kerr, L A; Kelch, W J

    1998-08-01

    Four of approximately 15 dry cows introduced on a 10-acre fescue-clover-orchard grass-Dallis grass pasture in East Tennessee became recumbent. Clinical findings included depression, muscle tremors, increased heart and respiratory rates, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperkalemia, azotemia, and elevated creatinine phosphokinase. Three cows recovered; 1 died. Differential diagnoses considered were hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, rabies and toxicoses from Amaranthus retroflexus (pigweed), Quercus spp (oak), Cassia spp (senna) oxalate (Aspergillus niger or flavus), mycotoxicosis, lead, arsenic or insecticides. Pigweed toxicosis was confirmed based on clinical and postmortem findings, partially ingested pigweed in the pasture, and ruling out other possible causes. Several factors probably contributed to this incident: since the cattle were newly introduced to the pasture, the cattle may have been attracted to the pigweed in the new pasture and became addicted to it; their rumen microflora had little time to acclimate to the pigweed; and dry weather produced poor forage quality thus forcing the cows to eat the pigweed. PMID:9682407

  12. Endemic cattle diseases: comparative epidemiology and governance

    PubMed Central

    Carslake, David; Grant, Wyn; Green, Laura E.; Cave, Jonathan; Greaves, Justin; Keeling, Matt; McEldowney, John; Weldegebriel, Habtu; Medley, Graham F.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle are infected by a community of endemic pathogens with different epidemiological properties that invoke different managerial and governmental responses. We present characteristics of pathogens that influence their ability to persist in the UK, and describe a qualitative framework of factors that influence the political response to a livestock disease. We develop simple transmission models for three pathogens (bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus and Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis) using observed cattle movements, and compare the outcomes to an extensive dataset. The results demonstrate that the epidemiology of the three pathogens is determined by different aspects of within- and between-farm processes, which has economic, legal and political implications for control. We consider how these pathogens, and Mycobacterium bovis (the agent of bovine tuberculosis), may be classified by the process by which they persist and by their political profile. We further consider the dynamic interaction of these classifications with pathogen prevalence and with the action taken by the government. PMID:21624918

  13. Game over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride; Zowoya, Florent; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2012-11-01

    The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys revealed a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), Reduncinae and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70-80% during the same period. The future of wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement of determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems. PMID:22170159

  14. PREFACE: Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched five years ago with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects and launched in the European Union, Russia, United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with international participation) and with a 15M annual budget, this highly diverse initiative is in full swing. Since the first NEESPI focus issue (Pavel Groisman et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045008 (1pp)) in December 2007, several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at International Meetings have been held that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic, non- boreal Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern Siberia, and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. In May 2009, an overview NEESPI paper was published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (Pavel Groisman et al 2009 Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 90 671). This paper also formulated a requirement to the next generation of NEESPI studies to work towards attaining a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, across disciplines. Three books devoted to studies in different regions of Northern Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team have appeared and/or are scheduled to appear in 2009. This (second) ERL focus issue dedicated to climatic and environmental studies in Northern Eurasia is composed mostly from the papers that were presented at two NEESPI Open Science Sessions at the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 2008, San Francisco, CA) and at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (April 2009, Vienna, Austria), as well as at the specialty NEESPI Workshops convened in Jena, Helsinki, Odessa, Urumqi

  15. Applications of sexed semen in cattle production.

    PubMed

    Hohenboken, W D

    1999-12-01

    Sexed semen will contribute to increased profitability of dairy and beef cattle production in a variety of ways. It could be used to produce offspring of the desired sex from a particular mating to take advantage of differences in value of males and females for specific marketing purposes. Commercial dairy farmers, those who produce and market milk, could use sexed semen to produce replacement daughters from genetically superior cows and beef crossbred sons from the remainder of their cow population. To increase the rate of response to selection, seedstock dairy cattle breeders could produce bulls for progeny testing from a smaller number of elite dams by using sexed semen to ensure that all of them produced a son. Using sexed semen could then reduce the cost of progeny testing those bulls, because fewer matings would be necessary to produce any required number of daughters. Commercial beef cattle farmers, producing animals for eventual slaughter, could use sexed semen to capitalize on the higher value of male than female offspring for meat production. They could also use sexed semen to produce specialized, genetically superior replacement heifers from as small a proportion of the herd as possible. This would allow the remainder of the herd to produce male calves from bulls or breeds with superior genetic merit for growth, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass merit. Single-sex, bred-heifer systems, in which each female is sold for slaughter soon after weaning her replacement daughter, would be possible with the use of X-chromosome-sorted semen. Use of sexed semen would make terminal crossbreeding systems more efficient and sustainable in beef cattle. Fewer females would be required to produce specialized maternal crossbred daughters, and more could be devoted to producing highly efficient, terminal crossbred sons. PMID:10735086

  16. Sarcocystis sp. from cattle slaughtered in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Kubo, M; Itagaki, H

    2000-11-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was detected from cattle slaughtered in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The cysts were 3,400-4,400 x 198-238 microm in size and had the thick cyst wall which was 7 to 10 microm thick and provided with finger-like villar protrusions. The protrusions were 8-9.5 x 2-2.5 microm in size and had microtubules in the core. PMID:11129868

  17. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO. PMID:26700105

  18. Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Casteel, S W; Johnson, G C; Miller, M A; Chudomelka, H J; Cupps, D E; Haskins, H E; Gosser, H S

    1994-04-01

    Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)-induced nephrotoxicity was diagnosed in 6 herds of cattle from 3 counties in southwest Missouri. Forty-eight cows and calves died and another 35 were clinically affected. Serum urea nitrogen concentration, determined in 4 affected calves, was between 55 and 284 mg/dl, and serum creatinine concentration was between 6.7 and 29.9 mg/dl. Postmortem examination of affected cows and calves revealed amber-colored fluid in peritoneal cavities and retroperitoneal perirenal edema. Histologic examination of kidney sections revealed widespread degeneration and necrosis of proximal and distal tubules. Compared with archived kidney sections from cattle with Quercus (oak) poisoning, distal renal tubules were more severely affected. Oak poisoning also was associated with a higher prevalence of interstitial fibrosis and renal tubular oxalosis. We concluded that ingestion of the aerial and leafy portions of pigweed by cattle in drought situations does not necessarily lead to nitrate-induced sudden death associated with consumption of the nitrate-containing stems. PMID:8045809

  19. A review of bloat in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K J; McAllister, T A; Popp, J D; Hristov, A N; Mir, Z; Shin, H T

    1998-01-01

    Improvements in feedlot management practices and the use of various feed additives have reduced, but not eliminated, the occurrence of bloat in feedlot cattle. Feedlot bloat reduces the profitability of production by compromising animal performance and more directly by causing fatalities. In feedlots, bloat is associated with the ingestion of large amounts of rapidly fermented cereal grain and destabilization of the microbial populations of the rumen. An abundance of rapidly fermented carbohydrate allows acid-tolerant bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis and Lactobacillus spp.) to proliferate and produce excessive quantities of fermentation acids. As a result, ruminal pH becomes exceedingly low, and this impairs rumen motility. Further, the excessive production of mucopolysaccharide or "slime" increases the viscosity of ruminal fluid and stabilizes the foam implicated in frothy feedlot bloat. Although protocols have been developed to treat feedlot bloat, the most profitable approach is to use management strategies to reduce its likelihood. Amount of roughage, grain processing techniques, selection of cereal grain (e.g., corn, barley, and wheat), dietary adaptation periods, and various additives (e.g., ionophores) can influence the occurrence of bloat in feedlot cattle. Successful management of these factors depends on a thorough understanding of the behavioral, dietary, and microbial events that precipitate bloat in feedlot cattle. PMID:9464911

  20. European Education, European Citizenship? On the Role of Education in Constructing Europeanness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollikainen, Aaro

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the European Union (EU) education programs in fostering a sense of European citizenship. Addresses the five meanings given to the concept of European citizenship: (1) recognition of European heritage; (2) EU loyalty; (3) right of free movement; (4) political participation; and (5) active citizenship. (CMK)

  1. Northern Meridiani Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded remnants of layered sedimentary rock in northern Sinus Meridiani. The layering is best seen in the circular feature at the center/right, which is an old meteor impact crater that was once filled and buried beneath the sedimentary rocks, then later exhumed and eroded to its present state. All of the sedimentary rocks exposed in this portion of northern Sinus Meridiani are probably older than the rocks in central Sinus Meridiani that have been examined this year by the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity. Like the rocks visited by the rover, these, too, may contain detailed clues regarding a wetter Mars in the distant past. These landforms are located near 6.0oN, 2.0oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  2. WFPDB: European Plate Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Milcho

    2007-08-01

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) gives an inventory of all wide-field (>~ 1 sq. deg) photographic observations archived in astronomical institutions over the world. So it facilitates and stimulates their use and preservation as a valuable source of information for future investigations in astronomy. At present WFPDB manages plate-index information for 25% of all existing plates providing on-line access from Sofia (http://www.skyarchive.org/search) and in CDS, Strasbourg. Here we present the new development of WFPDB as an instrument for searching of long term brightness variations of different sky objects stressing on the European photographic plate collections (from existing 2 million wide-field plates more than 55% are in Europe: Germany, Russia, Ukraine, Italy, Czech Republic, etc.). We comment examples of digitization (with flatbed scanners) of the European plate archives in Sonneberg, Pulkovo, Asiago, Byurakan, Bamberg, etc. and virtual links of WFPDB with European AVO, ADS, IBVS.

  3. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  4. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions: in silico peptide binding prediction identifies distinct functional clusters.

    PubMed

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie; Nijhof, Ard; Mazzoni, Camila J; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla; Awino, Elias; Olds, Cassandra; Jabbar, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African taurines in T. parva endemic areas is very limited. We utilized the multiplexing capabilities of 454 pyrosequencing to make an initial assessment of class I MHC allelic diversity in a population of Ankole cattle. We also typed a population of exotic Holstein cattle from an African ranch for class I MHC and investigated the extent, if any, that their peptide-binding motifs overlapped with those of Ankole cattle. We report the identification of 18 novel allelic sequences in Ankole cattle and provide evidence of positive selection for sequence diversity, including in residues that predominantly interact with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified in Holstein and Boran (Bos indicus) cattle breeds. PMID:26852329

  5. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  6. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  7. Economics of gastrointestinal parasitism of cattle.

    PubMed

    Corwin, R M

    1997-11-01

    Understandably, cattle are raised for profit, as beef and/or dairy. Anything that negates that equation results in a loss to the producer and to the livestock economy. Thus, parasites negatively affect the economy of the industry. Worldwide, gastrointestinal nematode parasites, especially Ostertagia ostertagi, and those of the respiratory tract (Dictyocaulus viviparus) have a potentially major impact on herd health. In the past 10-15 years, anthelmintic (AH) drug development and the strategic use of AH have positively balanced the economic equation, so that overall, parasitism in cattle is often observed or determined to be subclinical or economical. Other control measures, such as better pasture management, are also being developed to enhance herd health and the cattle economy. The determination of the economic impact of parasitism has thus become less apparent, to the extent that measures, such as performance parameters, must be used to measure differences between treated and untreated animals or herds. These include weight gain, reproduction, lactation and forage use. To determine the effectiveness of control measures, field trials are designed to measure these parameters by the demonstration of improved performance. Because these trials are conducted in a competitive mode, results are often debated by competitors and by the scientific community because of study design. Variables must then be taken into consideration in the interpretation of results. It is now well known that, with the generation of new AH and appropriately-timed administration, parasitism of well-managed herds has been reduced to subclinical levels. Thus, we are now in the process of fine-tuning the positive effect of these control measures for enhanced production. Understandably, beef and dairy producers have 'production of high quality commodities' at a cost-effective level as a common goal. Successful cattlemen calculate expenditures and income by line item including veterinary expenses and

  8. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Höglund, J; Engström, A; Chirico, J

    2014-12-01

    Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O. sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O. sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O. sylviarum from poultry in Europe. PMID:24602037

  9. Bartonella chomelii Is the Most Frequent Species Infecting Cattle Grazing in Communal Mountain Pastures in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Antequera-Gómez, M. L.; Lozano-Almendral, L.; Barandika, J. F.; González-Martín-Niño, R. M.; Rodríguez-Moreno, I.; García-Pérez, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Bartonella spp. was investigated in domestic ungulates grazing in communal pastures from a mountain area in northern Spain, where 18.3% (17/93) of cattle were found to be positive by PCR combined with a reverse line blot (PCR/RLB), whereas sheep (n = 133) or horses (n = 91) were found not to be infected by this pathogen. Bartonella infection was significantly associated with age, since older animals showed a higher prevalence than heifers and calves. In contrast to other studies, B. chomelii was the most frequent species found in cattle (14/17), while B. bovis was detected in only three animals. Moreover, 18 B. chomelii isolates and one B. bovis isolate were obtained from nine animals. Afterwards, B. chomelii isolates were characterized by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method which was adapted in this study. This method presented a high discrimination power, identifying nine different sequence types (STs). This characterization also showed the presence of different STs simultaneously in the same host and that STs had switched over time in one of the animals. In addition, B. chomelii STs seem to group phylogenetically in two different lineages. The only B. bovis isolate was characterized with a previously described MLST method. This isolate corresponded to a new ST which is located in lineage I, where the B. bovis strains infecting Bos taurus subsp. taurus are grouped. Further studies on the dynamics of Bartonella infection in cattle and the potential ectoparasites involved in the transmission of this microorganism should be performed, improving knowledge about the interaction of Bartonella spp. and domestic ungulates. PMID:25381240

  10. Prediction and Control of Brucellosis Transmission of Dairy Cattle in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiang-Dong; Hou, Qiang; Li, Mingtao; Huang, Baoxu; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by brucella; mainly spread by direct contact transmission through the brucella carriers, or indirect contact transmission by the environment containing large quantities of bacteria discharged by the infected individuals. At the beginning of 21st century, the epidemic among dairy cows in Zhejiang province, began to come back and has become a localized prevalent epidemic. Combining the pathology of brucellosis, the reported positive data characteristics, and the feeding method in Zhejiang province, this paper establishes an dynamic model to excavate the internal transmission dynamics, fit the real disease situation, predict brucellosis tendency and assess control measures in dairy cows. By careful analysis, we give some quantitative results as follows. (1) The external input of dairy cows from northern areas may lead to high fluctuation of the number of the infectious cows in Zhejiang province that can reach several hundreds. In this case, the disease cannot be controlled and the infection situation cannot easily be predicted. Thus, this paper encourages cows farms to insist on self-supplying production of the dairy cows. (2) The effect of transmission rate of brucella in environment to dairy cattle on brucellosis spreading is greater than transmission rate of the infectious dairy cattle to susceptible cattle. The prevalence of the epidemic is mainly aroused by environment transmission. (3) Under certain circumstances, the epidemic will become a periodic phenomenon. (4) For Zhejiang province, besides measures that have already been adopted, sterilization times of the infected regions is suggested as twice a week, and should be combined with management of the birth rate of dairy cows to control brucellosis spread. PMID:25386963

  11. Population genetic structure of Theileria parva field isolates from indigenous cattle populations of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muwanika, Vincent; Kabi, Fredrick; Masembe, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Theileria parva causes East Coast Fever (ECF) a protozoan infection which manifests as a non-symptomatic syndrome among endemically stable indigenous cattle populations. Knowledge of the current genetic diversity and population structure of T. parva is critical for predicting pathogen evolutionary trends to inform development of effective control strategies. In this study the population genetic structure of 78 field isolates of T. parva from indigenous cattle (Ankole, n=41 and East African shorthorn Zebu (EASZ), n=37) sampled from the different agro ecological zones (AEZs) of Uganda was investigated. A total of eight mini- and micro-satellite markers encompassing the four chromosomes of T. parva were used to genotype the study field isolates. The genetic diversity of the surveyed T. parva populations was observed to range from 0.643±0.55 to 0.663±0.41 among the Central and Western AEZs respectively. The overall Wright's F index showed significant genetic variation between the surveyed T. parva populations based on the different AEZs and indigenous cattle breeds (FST=0.133, p<0.01) and (FST=0.101, p<0.01) respectively. Significant pairwise population genetic differentiations (p<0.05) were observed with FST values ranging from 0.048 to 0.173 between the eastern and northern, eastern and western populations respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed a high level of genetic and geographic sub-structuring among populations. Linkage disequilibrium was observed when populations from all the study AEZs were treated as a single population and when analysed separately. On the overall, the significant genetic diversity and geographic sub-structuring exhibited among the study T. parva isolates has critical implications for ECF control. PMID:26613662

  12. Thelazia rhodesii infection on cattle in Kupang district.

    PubMed

    Djungu, D F L; Retnani, E B; Ridwan, Y

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence, the intensity, infection, clinical sign, to identify species and to investigate associated risk factors of thelaziosis in cattle in Kupang district, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province. A total of 385 head of cattle were randomly selected from 96 farms in three subdistricts of Kupang District and observed for thelaziosis. The nematode present in the eye of cattle were collected with a forcep after administering local anesthesia (10% Xylocaine). The potential risk factors related to age of cattle, human resources and farm management were obtained by interviewing the farmers. Logistic regression was applied to analyze related risk factor of thelaziosis. The result showed that of the total 385 cattle observed, 23 (5.96%) were infected by Thelazia spp., of which 22 cattle showed apparent clinical signs namely excessive lacrimation and conjunctivitis that led to keratoconjunctivitis, while one cattle showed ulceration. A total of 357 worms (157 males and 210 female) were collected from 23 infected cattle with the mean number of worms in infected cattle being 32.92 ± 21.03. Observations on morphological characteristics using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) helped to identify the nematode species as Thelazia rhodesii. The infection was more prevalent in older cattle (≥ 6-12 month old) than calves (0-6 month old) (P<0.05). Significant risk factors of animal husbandry practices affecting the prevalence of thelaziosis in cattle were anthelmintic treatment, grazing management, barn cleaning, and manure management. Our results highlight that significant risk factors of the disease should be considered in designing strategic control programs for thelaziosis. PMID:25776611

  13. A history of bovine tuberculosis eradication policy in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P A

    2015-11-01

    Despite many years of state-sponsored efforts to eradicate the disease from cattle through testing and slaughter, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still regarded as the most important and complex of animal health challenges facing the British livestock agricultural industry. This paper provides a historical analysis of the ongoing bTB statutory eradication programme in one part of the UK - Northern Ireland (NI) - which began in 1949 as a voluntary scheme, but between 1959 and 1960 became compulsory for all cattle herd-owners. Tracing bTB back through time sets the eradication efforts of the present day within a deeper context, and provides signposts for what developed in subsequent decades. The findings are based primarily on empirical research using historical published reports of the Ministry of Agriculture and state documents held in the public archives in NI, and they emphasize the need to consider the economic, social and political contexts of disease eradication efforts and their influences on both the past and the present. PMID:25778830

  14. The cumulative methane production from dairy cattle slurry can be explained by its volatile solid, temperature and length of storage.

    PubMed

    Sawamoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Megumi; Nekomoto, Kenji; Hoshiba, Shinji; Minato, Keiko; Nakayama, Motoo; Osada, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    In order to refine the national estimate of methane emission from stored cattle slurry, it is important to comprehend the basic characteristics of methane production. Two dairy cattle slurries were obtained from livestock farms located in Hokkaido (a northern island) and Kyushu (a southern island). The slurries were diluted with water into three levels: undiluted, three times diluted, and 10 times diluted. Three hundred mL of the slurries were put into a bottle with a headspace volume of 2.0 L, which was filled with nitrogen gas and then sealed by butyl rubber. Four levels of temperature were used for incubation: 35, 25, 15 and 5 °C. The time course of the cumulative methane production per volatile solid (VS) was satisfactorily expressed by an asymptotic regression model. The effect of dilution on the methane production per VS was not distinctive, but that of temperature was of primary importance. In particular, higher temperature yields a higher potential production and a shorter time when the cumulative production reaches half of the potential production. The inclusive and simple models obtained in this study indicate that the cumulative methane production from stored cattle slurry can be explained by VS, temperature and length of storage. PMID:26387490

  15. Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Cattle and Pigeons in Dairy Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains. PMID:25026083

  16. Genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from cattle and pigeons in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains. PMID:25026083

  17. First detection of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 in cattle in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Aduriz, Gorka; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Cortabarria, Nekane

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae. BVDV is found worldwide in cattle population and causes significant economic losses to the dairy and beef industries. Two distinct genotypes of BVDV exist: BVDV type 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV type 2 (BVDV-2). Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate retrospectively the presence of BVDV-2 in Spain. Results With this objective, 47 blood samples that had tested positive in an ELISA for BVDV antigen were selected. Samples had been submitted by practitioners to the Diagnostic Service of NEIKER. The 18 herds of origin were all located in the northern half of Spain. BVDV positive samples were genotyped by reverse transcription-PCR. BVDV-1 was detected with the highest frequency (46/47), in contrast to BVDV-2 (2/47). In one blood sample, both pestivirus genotypes, BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, were detected. Sequencing of a viral genomic region, 5′ untranslated region, confirmed the identity of the BVDV-2 isolate. Conclusions So far as the authors know, this is the first reported presence of BVDV-2 in cattle herds in Spain. This finding may have important implications for the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of BVDV infection in the country. PMID:26392905

  18. A highly fatal tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of cattle caused by Aspergillus clavatus.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, T S; Pienaar, J G; van der Westhuizen, G C; Anderson, G C; Naude, T W

    1976-09-01

    During February 1975, a tremorgenic neurotoxicosis decimated a herd of cattle in the northern Transvaal. This hitherto unidentified disease was characterized by hypersensitivity, incoordination, a peculiar stiff-legged gait of the hind legs, severe generalized tumors of the sketetal muscles, progressive paresis, paralysis and constipation. The most notable gross pathological lesions were degenerative and necrotic changes in certain skeletal muscles, haemorrhages on the serosal surfaces, especially on the dorsal aspect of the rumen, and gastro-intestinal stasis. Microscopical examination of the central nervous system revealed cytopathological changes consisting of degeneration and necrosis of the large motor cells in the ventral horns of the spinal cord and bigger neurones in numerous nuclei of the medulla oblongata, midbrain and thalamus. By feeding the suspect ration and its component parts to cattle and sheep, it was possible to identify mouldy sorghum beer residue as the toxic component in the ration. A. clavatus, the dominant fungus on the toxic residue, was readily isolated in pure culture. The entire syndrome was then reproduced in a yearling Friesland steer dosed with pure cultures of the A. clavatus isolate grown on autoclaved non-toxic sorghum beer residue. The toxic principle is not known, but it does not appear to be patulin, tryptoquivalone, tryptoquivaline, or any other known tremorgen. PMID:1012654

  19. [Lead poisoning in cattle in north Netherlands. October 1989-January 1990].

    PubMed

    Baars, A J; van Beek, H; Visser, I J; Vos, G; van Delft, W; Fennema, G; Lieben, G W; Lautenbag, K; Nieuwenhuijs, J H; de Lezenne Coulander, P A

    1990-10-01

    By the end of 1989 a serious lead intoxication of cattle occurred in the northern part of the Netherlands (provinces Groningen and Friesland). This intoxication appeared to be caused by contaminated feed. Over 300 farms were stricken, with about 15,500 animals (mostly dairy cattle). In a period of one to four weeks these animals consumed about 1,000 kg of lead. This resulted in lead levels in milk, livers, and kidneys above the regulatory safety limits. Thanks to the chelating therapy that was rapidly applied by the local veterinarians, only about 30 animals died of an acute lead intoxication. The cooperating governmental and private authorities took action to prevent exposure of consumers to lead-contaminated animal products. Based on careful estimations, predictions were made of the lead levels to be expected in animals products and the time needed for depletion of these levels. The appropriate animals were marked to ensure their identification, and the decline in time of the lead levels in milk and offals was conscientiously monitored. In the second week of 1990 the lead concentrations were decreased to levels well below the regulatory limits, and hence the marks were removed from the animals. PMID:2219088

  20. Teaching European Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  1. The European VLBI network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilizzi, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of the European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) network are summarized. The range of baseline parameters, sensitivities, and recording and other equipment available are included. Plans for upgrading the recording facilities and the use of geostationary satellites for signal transfer and clock synchronization are discussed.

  2. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  3. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  4. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  5. Shade material evaluation based on physiological response of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle produced in open feedlots are vulnerable to a variety of weather events; under certain conditions heat events can be especially detrimental. Shade structures are often considered as one method of reducing cattle stress. A variety of shading materials are available; selection of a suitable m...

  6. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  7. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not... spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this section. (b) Brucellosis...

  8. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed...

  9. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not... spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this section. (b) Brucellosis...

  10. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  11. Spatiotemporal cattle data - a plea for protocol standardization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was not until the end of the 1990’s that animal born satellite receiver’s catapulted range cattle ecology into the 21st century world of microchip technology with all of its opportunities and challenges. With the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) insight into how cattle use a landscape i...

  12. Nitrogen and phosphorus balance of beef cattle feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large quantities of nutrients enter beef cattle feedyards in feed ingredients. These nutrients subsequently 'leave' the yard in finished cattle, manure, or through the atmosphere. A better understanding of the movement of these nutrients would be helpful in developing nutrient management plans and t...

  13. Monitoring nutrient loss in runoff from dairy cattle lots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality issue. For dairy, nutrients can be lost from cropland, pastures, barnyards, and outdoor cattle lots. We monitored nutrient runoff for 3.5 years from plots representing cattle lots and corn silage cropland, and tested t...

  14. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  15. Cattle grazing toxic Delphinium andersonii in South-Central Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anderson larkspur (Delphinium andersonii A. Gray) is a toxic plant responsible for cattle death losses on semi-arid rangelands in the western United States. There is no published information about cattle grazing of Anderson larkspur, thus the objectives of the present study were to determine when c...

  16. Methane emissions from a beef cattle feedyard: measurements and models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation by livestock account for about 2% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with beef and dairy cattle the most significant sources. Most current approaches to estimate the contribution of cattle to GHG emissions use emission factors based on productio...

  17. Characterization of microbiomes related to respiratory disease in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory disease is the single largest disease-related issue for the beef cattle industry in the United States, estimated to be responsible for up to 75% of morbidity in beef cattle feedlots. Despite decades of research into this problem, incidence of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) h...

  18. A live vaccine against Neospora caninum abortions in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in dairy and beef cattle and it is estimated to be responsible for losses in excess of a billion dollars annually, in cattle industries worldwide. Yet, after more than 25 years of research on this parasite, the control options for this disease appe...

  19. ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: CATTLE MANURE FEEDING TRIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...

  20. Genomic and evolutionary characteristics of cattle copy number variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...

  1. Evaluation of wolf impacts on cattle productivity and behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have initiated and employed an Adaptive Management System (AMS) to document the effects of gray wolves on cattle production systems in Oregon and Idaho. The project has collected information on cattle movement on land in both wolf common and wolf rare areas with GPS collars that record positions ...

  2. PRE AND POST-BURN CATTLE DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS: SAGEBRUSH STEPPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While it is well known that cattle and wildlife are attracted to recently burned locales in many environments, that behavior is not well quantified in the sagebrush steppe. We tracked cattle distribution patterns with GPS collars in two 800+ ha pastures treated with small scale fires on the Norther...

  3. Calculation and delivery of US genomic evaluations for dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April 2013, the responsibility for calculation and distribution of genomic evaluations for dairy cattle was transferred from the USDA to the US dairy industry’s Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding; the responsibility for development of evaluation methodology remained with the USDA. The Council on Da...

  4. Cattle grazing and vegetation succession on burned sagebrush steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited information on the effects of cattle grazing to longer-term plant community composition and productivity following fire in big sagebrush steppe. This study evaluated vegetation response to cattle grazing over seven years (2007-2013) on burned Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia triden...

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from a commerical cattle feedlot in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emission of greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide (N2O), from open beef cattle feedlots is becoming a concern. Research measuring emission rates of N2O from open beef cattle feedlots, however, has been limited. This study was conducted to quantify the N2O emission rate from pen surfaces in a com...

  6. National and international genomic evaluations for dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. More than 35,000 dairy cattle worldwide have been genotyped for 50,000 markers. Reliabilities of 60-70% for young genotyped animals are now possible as compared to 35% for parent average. Gains ...

  7. Effects of Vegetation Microclimate on Larval Cattle Fever Tick Survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle Fever Ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus, have been a threat to the livestock industry for many years. These ticks are vectors of cattle fever, a disease produced by the hemoparasite Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Laboratory research on CFT larval survival has shown that co...

  8. Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 anima...

  9. 9 CFR 72.2 - Restrictions on movement of cattle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Texas or tick fever exists in cattle in portions of the State of Texas and the Virgin Islands of the United States. Notice is also hereby given that ticks which are vectors of said disease exist in the... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions on movement of cattle....

  10. Shade Material Evaluation Using a Cattle Response Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle produced in open feedlots are vulnerable to a variety of weather events; under certain conditions heat events can be especially detrimental. Shade structures are often considered as one method of reducing cattle stress. A variety of shading materials are available; selection of a suitable mat...

  11. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... least five days but not more than four weeks of age and, therefore, exempt from the tuberculosis testing... (c)(1) of this section, cattle 6 months of age or older from Canada may be imported into the United... cattle under 18 months of age were vaccinated against brucellosis in accordance with Canadian...

  12. Discovery, Validation and Characterization of 1039 Cattle Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified approximately 13000 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by comparison of repeat-masked BAC-end sequences from the cattle RPCI-42 BAC library with whole-genome shotgun contigs of cattle genome assembly Btau 1.0. Genotyping of a subset of these SNPs was performed on a panel ...

  13. Identification of Cryptosporidium from Dairy Cattle in Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579

  14. A prototype national cattle evaluation for sustained reproductive success in Hereford cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a prototype system for national cattle evaluation that would facilitate selection for improved fertility of daughter from Hereford sires. Raw data for this analysis were birth dates of calves as reported to the American Hereford Association (AHA) by bree...

  15. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed

    Kendall, N R; Holmes-Pavord, H R; Bone, P A; Ander, E L; Young, S D

    2015-11-14

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and 'other' dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  16. Relationship between cattle temperament as determined by exit velocity carcass merit in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this trial was to use cattle temperament, as determined by exit velocity only, as a means to evaluate the impact of temperament on carcass merit and the possible utilization of exit velocity alone as a sorting tool within the feedlot. At the time of processing, exit velocity and bod...

  17. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, N. R.; Holmes-Pavord, H. R.; Bone, P. A.; Ander, E. L.; Young, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and ‘other’ dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity. PMID:26489996

  18. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Geurden, Thomas; Chartier, Christophe; Fanke, Jane; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina; Vanimisetti, Hima Bindu; Bartram, David J.; Denwood, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has been increasingly reported in cattle worldwide over the last decade, although reports from Europe are more limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin at 0.2 mg per kg bodyweight against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle. A total of 753 animals on 40 farms were enrolled in Germany (12 farms), the UK (10 farms), Italy (10 farms), and France (8 farms). Animals were selected based on pre-treatment faecal egg counts and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of between 7 and 10 animals. A post-treatment faecal egg count was performed 14 days (±2 days) after treatment. The observed percentage reduction was calculated for each treatment group based on the arithmetic mean faecal egg count before and after treatment. The resistance status was evaluated based on the reduction in arithmetic mean faecal egg count and both the lower and upper 95% confidence limits. A decreased efficacy was observed in half or more of the farms in Germany, France and the UK. For moxidectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in France, and on 1 farm in Germany and the UK. For ivermectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in the UK, and on 1 farm in Germany and France. The remaining farms with decreased efficacy were classified as having an inconclusive resistance status based on the available data. After treatment Cooperia spp. larvae were most frequently identified, though Ostertagia ostertagi was also found, in particular within the UK and Germany. The present study reports lower than expected efficacy for ivermectin and moxidectin (based on the reduction in egg excretion after treatment) on European cattle farms, with confirmed anthelmintic resistance on 12.5% of the farms. PMID:26448902

  19. Origins and genetic diversity of New World Creole cattle: inferences from mitochondrial and Y chromosome polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ginja, C; Penedo, M C T; Melucci, L; Quiroz, J; Martínez López, O R; Revidatti, M A; Martínez-Martínez, A; Delgado, J V; Gama, L T

    2010-04-01

    The ancestry of New World cattle was investigated through the analysis of mitochondrial and Y chromosome variation in Creoles from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Paraguay and the United States of America. Breeds that influenced the Creoles, such as Iberian native, British and Zebu, were also studied. Creoles showed high mtDNA diversity (H = 0.984 +/- 0.003) with a total of 78 haplotypes, and the European T3 matriline was the most common (72.1%). The African T1a haplogroup was detected (14.6%), as well as the ancestral African-derived AA matriline (11.9%), which was absent in the Iberian breeds. Genetic proximity among Creoles, Iberian and Atlantic Islands breeds was inferred through their sharing of mtDNA haplotypes. Y-haplotype diversity in Creoles was high (H = 0.779 +/- 0.019), with several Y1, Y2 and Y3 haplotypes represented. Iberian patrilines in Creoles were more difficult to infer and were reflected by the presence of H3Y1 and H6Y2. Y-haplotypes confirmed crossbreeding with British cattle, mainly of Hereford with Pampa Chaqueño and Texas Longhorn. Male-mediated Bos indicus introgression into Creoles was found in all populations, except Argentino1 (herd book registered) and Pampa Chaqueño. The detection of the distinct H22Y3 patriline with the INRA189-90 allele in Caracú suggests introduction of bulls directly from West Africa. Further studies of Spanish and African breeds are necessary to elucidate the origins of Creole cattle, and determine the exact source of their African lineages. PMID:19817725

  20. Data-driven network modelling of disease transmission using complete population movement data: spread of VTEC O157 in Swedish cattle.

    PubMed

    Widgren, Stefan; Engblom, Stefan; Bauer, Pavol; Frössling, Jenny; Emanuelson, Ulf; Lindberg, Ann

    2016-01-01

    European Union legislation requires member states to keep national databases of all bovine animals. This allows for disease spread models that includes the time-varying contact network and population demographic. However, performing data-driven simulations with a high degree of detail are computationally challenging. We have developed an efficient and flexible discrete-event simulator SimInf for stochastic disease spread modelling that divides work among multiple processors to accelerate the computations. The model integrates disease dynamics as continuous-time Markov chains and livestock data as events. In this study, all Swedish livestock data (births, movements and slaughter) from July 1st 2005 to December 31st 2013 were included in the simulations. Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC O157) are capable of causing serious illness in humans. Cattle are considered to be the main reservoir of the bacteria. A better understanding of the epidemiology in the cattle population is necessary to be able to design and deploy targeted measures to reduce the VTEC O157 prevalence and, subsequently, human exposure. To explore the spread of VTEC O157 in the entire Swedish cattle population during the period under study, a within- and between-herd disease spread model was used. Real livestock data was incorporated to model demographics of the population. Cattle were moved between herds according to real movement data. The results showed that the spatial pattern in prevalence may be due to regional differences in livestock movements. However, the movements, births and slaughter of cattle could not explain the temporal pattern of VTEC O157 prevalence in cattle, despite their inherently distinct seasonality. PMID:27515697

  1. A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis in Northern Turkana District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Asaava, Lucas L; Kitala, Phillip M; Gathura, Peter B; Nanyingi, Mark O; Muchemi, Gerald; Schelling, Esther

    2009-06-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonosis that is mainly of socioeconomic and public health importance. A survey of this disease was carried out in Northern Turkana District, Kenya to estimate the prevalence through both serology and meat inspection, to determine the prevalence of the adult tapeworm in the human definitive host, and to determine risk factors for cattle seropositivity. This information is of public health importance and will be of use in assessing economic losses due to downgrading, refrigeration or condemnation of infested carcasses. The study area was stratified into the three livestock grazing regions of Oropoi to the south, Lokichoggio-Mogilla centrally and Kibish in the north for the purposes of the serological and questionnaire (n = 53 herd owners) data. Five adakaars (grazing units) were selected and 34, 63, 49, 75 and 571 cattle serum samples obtained from these. The slaughter slabs of Lokichoggio and Kakuma were visited and 188 serum samples were obtained from slaughter cattle and compared to results of meat inspection. Human stool samples were collected in each of the three grazing areas and 66, 97 and 78 samples were obtained. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis in cattle was estimated at 16.7% (95% CI 13-20.9%) using a secretory-excretory antigen detection ELISA. There was poor agreement between meat inspection and serology (k = 0.025; p = 0.2797). The prevalence of taeniosis was estimated as 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-5.6%) by microscopy. A backwards elimination logistic regression analysis indicated that the grazing unit (Adakaar), the deworming history of household members and the distance (>2 km) of grazing fields from the homestead were significant explanatory variables for cattle being found to be positive on serology. An intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.07 (0.02-0.12); p < 0.0001 was calculated for bovine cysticercosis in this area. PMID:19329200

  2. Economics of early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning is a management option for producers to consider during extended droughts. Early removal of the calf from its dam reduces forage needs of the cow-calf enterprise and has been found to improve BW gain and pregnancy rates in the cow herd. However, early weaning may not always be economi...

  3. Characteristics of beef cattle operations in the Northern Plains (Nebraska, South Dakota and North Dakota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the U.S. Beef Industry Sustainability Assessment launched by the Beef Checkoff Program in 2011, region-specific collection of beef production and associated feed and manure management data is on-going to provide the basis for a benchmark national life cycle assessment. This factsheet summa...

  4. Oxidant/antioxidant status in cattle with liver cystic echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Heidarpour, M; Mohri, M; Borji, H; Moghdass, E

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the changes of antioxidants and oxidative stress markers in cattle with cystic echinococcosis (CE). Thirty cattle with liver CE along with 30 healthy cattle were used for the study. Parasitized cattle presented a significantly higher lipid peroxidation assessed by the malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with healthy animals (P<0.05). A significantly lower erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and a significantly higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the parasitized group, were observed when compared with healthy group (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed for serum total antioxidant status (TAS), zinc, copper and iron between parasitized and healthy groups. The results obtained in this study suggest that CE in cattle induces changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. These changes render host cells susceptible to oxidants and exaggerate the generation of free radicals with a consequent lipid peroxidation enhancement. PMID:23414616

  5. A European perspective on maize history.

    PubMed

    Tenaillon, Maud Irène; Charcosset, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Maize was domesticated at least 8700 years ago in the highlands of Mexico. Genome-wide studies have greatly contributed to shed light into the diffusion of maize through the Americas from its center of origin. Also the presence of two European introductions in southern and northern Europe is now established. Such a spread was accompanied by an extreme diversification, and adaptation to the long days and low temperatures of temperate climates has been a key step in maize evolution. Linkage mapping and association mapping have successfully led to the identification of a handful set of the genetic factors that have contributed to maize adaptation, opening the way to new discoveries. Ultimately, these alleles will contribute to sustain breeding efforts to meet the new challenges raised by the evolution of mankind. PMID:21377617

  6. Fires in Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several fires were detected in Northern Australia by MODIS. The fires show up as red dots, superimposed on a surface reflectance product. The image also shows the Clarence Strait, which separates the mainland from Melville Island to the northwest and the smaller Bathurst Island to its west. The Strait connects the more confined, bowl-shaped Van Diemen Gulf to the Beagle Gulf. To the right of the image at the top is the Gulf of Carpentaria, which appears to be full of phytoplankton, as evidenced by the blue-green swirls in the waters

  7. Scientists attack European MRI rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-08-01

    A report by the European Science Foundation (ESF) has sharply criticized a European Union (EU) directive on electromagnetic fields, arguing that limits on workers' exposure will have "potentially disastrous" consequences for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  8. Bluetongue virus RNA detection by real-time rt-PCR in post-vaccination samples from cattle.

    PubMed

    De Leeuw, I; Garigliany, M; Bertels, G; Willems, T; Desmecht, D; De Clercq, K

    2015-04-01

    Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) was responsible for a large outbreak among European ruminant populations in 2006-2009. In spring 2008, a massive vaccination campaign was undertaken, leading to the progressive disappearance of the virus. During surveillance programmes in Western Europe in 2010-2011, a low but significant number of animals were found weakly positive using BTV-specific real-time RT-PCR, raising questions about a possible low level of virus circulation. An interference of the BTV-8 inactivated vaccine on the result of the real-time RT-PCR was also hypothesized. Several studies specifically addressed the potential association between a recent vaccination and BTV-8 RNA detection in the blood of sheep. Results were contradictory and cattles were not investigated. To enlighten this point, a large study was performed to determine the risks of detection of bluetongue vaccine-associated RNA in the blood and spleen of cattle using real-time RT-PCR. Overall, the results presented clearly demonstrate that vaccine viral RNA can reach the blood circulation in sufficient amounts to be detected by real-time RT-PCR in cattle. This BTV-8 vaccine RNA carriage appears as short lasting. PMID:23611408

  9. Population-genetic properties of differentiated copy number variations in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingyang; Hou, Yali; Bickhart, Derek M.; Zhou, Yang; Hay, El Hamidi abdel; Song, Jiuzhou; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Liu, George E.

    2016-01-01

    While single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is typically the variant of choice for population genetics, copy number variation (CNV) which comprises insertion, deletion and duplication of genomic sequence, is an informative type of genetic variation. CNVs have been shown to be both common in mammals and important for understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype. However, CNV differentiation, selection and its population genetic properties are not well understood across diverse populations. We performed a population genetics survey based on CNVs derived from the BovineHD SNP array data of eight distinct cattle breeds. We generated high resolution results that show geographical patterns of variations and genome-wide admixture proportions within and among breeds. Similar to the previous SNP-based studies, our CNV-based results displayed a strong correlation of population structure and geographical location. By conducting three pairwise comparisons among European taurine, African taurine, and indicine groups, we further identified 78 unique CNV regions that were highly differentiated, some of which might be due to selection. These CNV regions overlapped with genes involved in traits related to parasite resistance, immunity response, body size, fertility, and milk production. Our results characterize CNV diversity among cattle populations and provide a list of lineage-differentiated CNVs. PMID:27005566

  10. Population-genetic properties of differentiated copy number variations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingyang; Hou, Yali; Bickhart, Derek M; Zhou, Yang; Hay, El Hamidi Abdel; Song, Jiuzhou; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Liu, George E

    2016-01-01

    While single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is typically the variant of choice for population genetics, copy number variation (CNV) which comprises insertion, deletion and duplication of genomic sequence, is an informative type of genetic variation. CNVs have been shown to be both common in mammals and important for understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype. However, CNV differentiation, selection and its population genetic properties are not well understood across diverse populations. We performed a population genetics survey based on CNVs derived from the BovineHD SNP array data of eight distinct cattle breeds. We generated high resolution results that show geographical patterns of variations and genome-wide admixture proportions within and among breeds. Similar to the previous SNP-based studies, our CNV-based results displayed a strong correlation of population structure and geographical location. By conducting three pairwise comparisons among European taurine, African taurine, and indicine groups, we further identified 78 unique CNV regions that were highly differentiated, some of which might be due to selection. These CNV regions overlapped with genes involved in traits related to parasite resistance, immunity response, body size, fertility, and milk production. Our results characterize CNV diversity among cattle populations and provide a list of lineage-differentiated CNVs. PMID:27005566

  11. Conservation priorities of genetic diversity in domesticated metapopulations: a study in taurine cattle breeds

    PubMed Central

    Medugorac, Ivica; Veit-Kensch, Claudia E; Ramljak, Jelena; Brka, Muhamed; Marković, Božidarka; Stojanović, Srđan; Bytyqi, Hysen; Kochoski, Ljupche; Kume, Kristaq; Grünenfelder, Hans-Peter; Bennewitz, Jörn; Förster, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We estimated neutral diversity of 21 European cattle breeds with 105 microsatellites. Nine of them resembled unselected Balkan Buša strains with diffuse breeding barriers and the 12 others were strongly differentiated, isolated breeds. Because of the impact of neutral genetic diversity on long-term population adaptive capacity, we discuss the long-term outcome of different conservation priorities in a subdivided metapopulation of the investigated cattle breeds. The optimal contribution to a pool of total genetic diversity allocated more than 95% of long-term relevant neutral diversity to virtually unselected strains of the Balkan Buša, while the maximization of total variance preferred inbred breeds. Current artificial selection methods, such as genomic selection sped up and a recovery of underestimated traits becomes quickly impossible. We emphasize that currently neutral and even deleterious alleles might be required for future genotypes in sustainable and efficient livestock breeding and production systems of a 21st century. We provide cumulative evidences that long-term survival relies on genetic complexity and complexity relies on allelic diversity. Our results suggest that virtually unselected, nonuniform strains harbor a crucial proportion of neutral diversity and should be conserved with high global priority. As one example, we suggest a cooperative maintenance of the nondifferentiated, highly fragmented, and fast vanishing metapopulation of Balkan Buša. PMID:22393510

  12. Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn and other types of cattle.

    PubMed

    Adams, N J; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L

    1982-07-01

    Performance, carcass and palatability characteristics of Longhorn steers were compared with those of cattle currently popular in the United States-Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Holstein, two-breed crossbred (British beef breed crosses) and three-breed crossbred (1 4 dairy , 1 4 British beef and 1 2 European beef ) steers. Steers were fed roughage, then a growing diet (42 days), then a high energy (89% concentrate) diet (153 to 179 days by breed group) and slaughtered, individually, at USDA Choice finish or, failing that, after 186 days on the finishing diet. Data suggest that Longhorns, compared with types of cattle currently used: (1) are less desirable in physical appearance; (2) gain weight less rapidly, reaching the desired finish and slaughter weight as older animals; (3) convert feed to liveweight less efficiently; (4) deposit less subcutaneous fat, more internal fat, but essentially the same amount of intramuscular fat; (5) are as muscular (longissimus muscle area, estimated percentage of carcass muscle, muscle to bone ratio, muscle to fat ratio); (6) are as desirable in USDA quality grade and yield grade and (7) produce beef that is a palatable. PMID:22055071

  13. Balancing Identity and Diversity in Faith-Based Nursing Education: A Case Study from Northern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tveit, Bodil; Karvinen, Ikali; Damsma-Bakker, Alica; Ylönen, Merja; Oosterhoff-Zielman, Marjanne; Fanuelsen, Olav; van Leeuwen, Réné

    2015-01-01

    The role of faith-based nursing education is contested in today's Northern European societies, which are often described as postmodern, pluralist, or secular. Although faith-based institutions played pioneering roles in the early development of nursing education, many today downplay their religious roots and have transformed themselves into modern…

  14. An outbreak of cysticercosis in feedlot cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bundza, Adam; Finley, Gordon G.; Easton, Kenneth L.

    1988-01-01

    An outbreak of cysticercosis (infestation with the larvae of Taenia saginata) occurred in feedlot cattle in Ontario in 1986. Two hundred and thirty-three of 271 steers were confirmed histologically to be positive for cysticerci. Nineteen (8.2%) animals had viable cysticerci, 87 (37.3%) had degenerated cysticerci, 77 (33.0%) had mineralized cysticerci, and 50 (21.5%) steers had lymphoid granulomas consistent with cysticercosis. Three viable cysticerci were partly evaginated and one degenerate cysticercus was fully evaginated. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6., Figure 7., Figure 8., Figure 9., F PMID:17423200

  15. The impact of cattle access on ecological water quality in streams: Examples from agricultural catchments within Ireland.

    PubMed

    Conroy, E; Turner, J N; Rymszewicz, A; O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, M; Lawler, D; Lally, H; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2016-03-15

    Unrestricted cattle access to rivers and streams represent a potentially significant localised pressure on freshwater systems. However there is no consensus in the literature on the occurrence and extent of impact and limited research has examined the effects on aquatic biota in the humid temperate environment examined in the present study. Furthermore, this is one of the first times that research consider the potential for cattle access impacts in streams of varying water quality in Northern Europe. We investigated the effects of cattle access on macroinvertebrate communities and deposited fine sediment levels, in four rivers of high/good and four rivers of moderate water quality status which drain, low gradient, calcareous grassland catchments in Ireland. We assessed the temporal variability in macroinvertebrates communities across two seasons, spring and autumn. Site specific impacts were evident which appeared to be influenced by water quality status and season. All four high/good water status rivers revealed significant downstream changes in community structure and at least two univariate metrics (total richness and EPT richness together with taxon, E and EPT abundance). Two of the four moderate water status rivers showed significant changes in community structure, abundance and richness metrics and functional feeding groups driven in the main by downstream increases in collectors/gatherers, shredders and burrowing taxa. These two moderate water status rivers had high or prolonged livestock activity. In view of these findings, the potential for some of these sites to achieve at least high/good water quality status, as set out in the EU Water Framework Directive, may be compromised. The results presented highlight the need for additional research to further define the site specific factors and livestock management practices, under different discharge conditions, that increase the risk of impact on aquatic ecology due to these cattle-river interactions. PMID

  16. Upgrading the Northern Finland Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkilahti, Janne; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Hurskainen, Riitta; Nevalainen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish National Seismic Network (FNSN) comprises national Helsinki University Seismological network (HE) ISUH and the Northern Finland Seismological Network (FN) hosted by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO) of the University of Oulu. The FN network currently consists of four real-time permanent stations equipped with Streckeisen STS-2 broad band seismometers that are recording continuous digital seismic data. At present, the network is a part of GEOFON Extended Virtual Network and of the ORFEUS Virtual European Broadband Seismograph Network. In the future, the network will be the part of EPOS-European Plate Observing System research infrastructure. As a part of EPOS project activities, the SGO started to upgrade their own network in 2014. The main target of the network upgrade is to increase the permanent station coverage in the European Arctic region, particularly behind the Polar Circle. Another target is to transform the network into a broadband seismic array capable to detect long-period seismic signals originating from seismic events in the Arctic. The first upgrade phase started in 2014, when two new stations were installed and now are working in the test regime. These stations are used as prototypes for testing seismic equipment and technical solutions for real-time data transmission and vault construction under cold climate conditions. The first prototype station is installed in a surface vault and equipped with Nanometrics Trillium 120P sensor, while the other one is installed in a borehole and equipped with Trillium Posthole seismometer. These prototype stations have provided to us valuable experience on the downhole and surface deployment of broadband seismic instruments. We also have been able to compare the capabilities and performance of high sensitivity broadband sensor deployed in borehole with that deployed in surface vault. The results of operation of prototype stations will be used in site selection and installation of four new

  17. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  18. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. 73.5 Section 73.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted. Cattle of any herd in any quarantined area, which herd is...

  19. 9 CFR 72.7 - Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. 72.7 Section 72.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.7 Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. Cattle in...

  20. 9 CFR 78.3 - Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Handling in transit of cattle and... PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS General Provisions § 78.3 Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. Cattle and bison moving interstate, except cattle and bison moved directly to a recognized...