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Sample records for northern france concentration

  1. Neotectonics and seismic hazard in the northern Alpine foreland (Northern Switzerland and adjacent France and Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, S. M.; Ustaszewski, K.; Deichmann, N.; Müller, W. H.; Slejko, D.

    2003-04-01

    The analysis of the present-day tectonic framework of the northern Alpine foreland is of great importance in terms of (1) the search for host formations for storing high-level and long-lived intermediate and high-level nuclear waste in Northern Switzerland, and, (2) a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), which re-evaluates the safety of the Swiss Nuclear Power Plant Sites. The recently established close scientific cooperation between pure and applied geosciences led to a growing consensus that deformation linked to Alpine orogeny is still ongoing at present, after having propagated northwards into the Molasse basin and the Jura Mountains in Miocene to Pliocene times. It is not entirely clear yet, how this presently ongoing deformation in the Northern Alpine foreland, associated with convergence rates in the order of 1 mm/a or less, is partitioned between basement (crystalline basement, including Permo-Carboniferous troughs) and the sedimentary cover, the latter being rheologically decoupled along the Triassic evaporites. There is a consensus amongst most authors that classical Jura folding and thrusting was "thin-skinned", i.e. that shortening in the basement was confined to the northern rim of the Alps ("distant push hypothesis"). NW-SE- to N-S directed shortening within the basement migrated northward into Northern Switzerland and adjacent France and Germany since Late Pliocene times, inducing a change from former "thin"- to presently active "thick-skinned" deformation. Its precise extent, however, is uncertain. Knowledge of rate and mode of deformation within the basement is crucial for seismic hazard analysis. The remaining epistemic uncertainty will be built into a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. It is hoped that further investigations in the framework of projects EUCOR-URGENT (Upper Rhine Graben: Evolution and Neo-Tectonics) and ENTEC (Environmental Tectonics) will significantly reduce these uncertainties. Knowledge about the seismic source of

  2. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  3. Quality assessment of a storm overflow, by using different frequency monitoring (northern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovsky, Anastasia; Dumoulin, David; Criquet, Justine; Prygiel, Jean; Pohu, Jérôme; Hottin, Frédéric; Billon, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The Heron lake is a storm-water pond of 30 hectare constructed in the 70's to avoid the flooding in the city of Villeneuve d'Ascq (Lille urban area in Northern France). This facility could also receive some untreated urban wastewaters during high rainfall events. The water level is regulated by automatic pumps, which periodically discharge the overflow into a natural watercourse, the Marque River. Located in an urban area, the lake is qualified as eutrophic because of the high nutrients concentration, which stimulates the presence of cyanobacteria. Recently, the invasive macrophyte Elodea nuttallii colonized the lake. This proliferation causes ecological troubles like anoxic events or even obstruction of the pumps, thereby increasing the risk of flooding. Two types of monitoring (low and high frequencies) were implemented to assess the functioning of this lake and to estimate its impact to the river. The low frequency monitoring consisted on punctual screenings on the dissolved phase and monthly grab samplings from February 2014 to February 2015. Physicochemical parameters (oxygen, temperature, conductivity, pH, solid particulate matter, dissolved organic carbon) and nutrients (NO3-, NH4+ and PO43-) were recorded. Additionally, a high frequency monitoring was undertaken (with measurements every 10 minutes) was performed by using a buoy equipped with different sensors for measuring oxygen, turbidity, temperature, conductivity, pH and phytoplankton pigments. Furthermore, both the discharge lake flow and the pluviometry were recorded at the scale of the day. Although all the data are not yet fully interpreted, several key points have already been evidenced: (i) at the entrance of the lake, the water is enriched in urban sewage; (ii) some significant differences of oxygenation exist between the entrance and the rest of the lake due to both waste waters inputs in the entrance channel and atmosphere-water interactions; (iii) eutrophication occurs at the beginning of the

  4. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem. PMID:12177959

  5. Hydrogeological modeling constraints provided by geophysical and geochemical mapping of a chlorinated ethenes plume in northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razafindratsima, Stephen; Guérin, Roger; Bendjoudi, Hocine; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2014-09-01

    A methodological approach is described which combines geophysical and geochemical data to delineate the extent of a chlorinated ethenes plume in northern France; the methodology was used to calibrate a hydrogeological model of the contaminants' migration and degradation. The existence of strong reducing conditions in some parts of the aquifer is first determined by measuring in situ the redox potential and dissolved oxygen, dissolved ferrous iron and chloride concentrations. Electrical resistivity imaging and electromagnetic mapping, using the Slingram method, are then used to determine the shape of the pollutant plume. A decreasing empirical exponential relation between measured chloride concentrations in the water and aquifer electrical resistivity is observed; the resistivity formation factor calculated at a few points also shows a major contribution of chloride concentration in the resistivity of the saturated porous medium. MODFLOW software and MT3D99 first-order parent-daughter chain reaction and the RT3D aerobic-anaerobic model for tetrachloroethene (PCE)/trichloroethene (TCE) dechlorination are finally used for a first attempt at modeling the degradation of the chlorinated ethenes. After calibration, the distribution of the chlorinated ethenes and their degradation products simulated with the model approximately reflects the mean measured values in the observation wells, confirming the data-derived image of the plume.

  6. Klaus, an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France - a comparison between storm diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Trigo, I. F.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    The synoptic evolution and dynamical characteristics of storm "Klaus" (23 and 24 January 2009) are analysed. "Klaus" was an extratropical cyclone which developed over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean on the 21st January 2009, then moved eastward embedded in the strong westerly flow and experienced a notorious strengthening on the 23rd January. The storm moved into the Bay of Biscay and deepened further before hitting Northern Spain and Southwestern France with gusts of up to 198 km/h. Afterwards, it steered southeastwards across Southern France into Northern Italy and the Adriatic. "Klaus" was the most intense and damaging wind storm in the region in a decade, provoked more than 20 casualties and insured losses of several billion Euros. The evolution of "Klaus" is analysed using two standard cyclone detecting and tracking schemes: a) the vorticity maxima based algorithm originally developed by Murray and Simmonds [1991], adapted for Northern Hemisphere cyclone characteristics [Pinto et al. 2005]; and b) the pressure minima based algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region [Trigo et al. 1999; 2002] and later extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region [Trigo 2006]. Additionally, the synoptic and mesoscale features of the storm are analysed. The vorticity based method detects the storm earlier than the pressure minima one. Results show that both tracks exhibited similar features and positions throughout almost all of their lifecycles, with minor discrepancies being probably related to different ways of both methods handling the spatio-temporal evolution of multiple candidates for cyclonic centres. In its strengthening phase, "Klaus" presents deepening rates above 37 hPa/24h, a value that after geostrophically adjusted to the reference latitude of 60°N increases to 44 hPa/24h, implying an exceptional event with bomb characteristics. During maximum intensity change within 24 hours was 1.165hPa/(deglat)2. References: Murray RJ, Simmonds I (1991) Aust

  7. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  8. Stream pollution concentration in riffle geomorphic units (Yzeron basin, France).

    PubMed

    Namour, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent; Eschbach, David; Moulin, Bertrand; Fantino, Guillaume; Bordes, Claire; Breil, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    In urbanized areas, small streams can be greatly damaged by urban inflows and combined sewer overflows. These polluted inputs can be several times higher than the natural stream flow over short time periods. Sound knowledge of the spatial distribution of the discharged pollutants in sediments is therefore crucial for designing monitoring strategies and suitable remediation operations. This field study combines geomorphic characterization, hydraulic conductivity measurement and pollutant assays in sediments of a small suburban river. The study site was divided up into geomorphic units: riffles, pools and runs. The last two were grouped into one class named "pool-runs" owing to their closely similar open channel flow hydraulics. Benthic and hyporheic sediments were sampled at 2m intervals. Conventional particulate pollutants (Cr, Pb, N(org), P(tot) & C(org)) were assayed in samples. The main result was: pollutants were not randomly distributed in the stream sediments, but their location showed clear concentration differences by geomorphic units, with preferential accumulation in the hyporheic zones of riffle units and a lesser one in the hyporheic zones of pools. A decrease in hydraulic conductivity was significantly correlated with an increase in pollutant concentration. This occurred mainly at the transition between riffles and pool units. The down-welling water fluxes in the sediment calculated using Darcy's formula reflect this slowdown. Our findings highlight the need to take into account the geomorphological and hydrological functioning of a stream to accurately locate the biogeochemical hotspots to be treated and thereby develop more relevant monitoring and remediation methodologies. PMID:26057727

  9. The Variscan belt of Northern France Southern Belgium: geodynamic implications of new palaeomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Emő; Mansy, Jean-Louis; Averbuch, Olivier; Csontos, László

    2000-09-01

    Palaeomagnetic investigations were carried out in Devonian-early Carboniferous rocks of the Variscan foreland chain of Northern France-Southern Belgium in order to reveal the origin of its arcuate shape. The Brabant Parautochthon was sampled in the Boulonnais (near Calais) and near Tournai, while the Ardenne Allochthon was sampled near Maubeuge and in the Givet area. All the sampled localities yielded characteristic remanent magnetization as a result of stepwise demagnetization and component analysis. Fold or tilt tests were possible for three localities, with negative results indicating pervasive remagnetization. The tectonic position was sub-horizontal at two localities, while the tilt was monoclinal for the rest. Therefore, the acquisition time of the magnetic signals was estimated by comparing the palaeolatitude computed from each magnetic component to the palaeolatitudes of Variscan Europe calculated after Van der Voo (1993). Three components showing: A, a southern B, a near-Equatorial, and C, a northern palaeolatitude are recognized from our data. Since a pre-Variscan age of component A (observed only in Boulonnais, at 10 sites) is not supported by data, it is assigned to an early phase of deformation. Component B (16 sites) was acquired during the peak of the Variscan tectonics (late Westphalian), while component C (five sites) originated during Permian times. Regardless of the palaeolatitudes, declinations fall between 190 and 210°, thus being conformable with the declinations expected for Variscan Europe. The declinations show no correlation with the arcuate shape of the belt, neither are they different in the Paraauthochthon and in the Allochthon, nor in the different components. Arc formation by moulding of the Allochthon on the Brabant Parautochthon is, therefore, not supported by these data, since this mechanism requires substantial (opposed) rotations on both wings of the arc. The available palaeomagnetic data are conformable with a pre-formed arc

  10. Terreneuvian Orthothecid (Hyolitha) Digestive Tracts from Northern Montagne Noire, France; Taphonomic, Ontogenetic and Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Devaere, Léa; Clausen, Sébastien; Álvaro, J. Javier; Peel, John S.; Vachard, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    More than 285 specimens of Conotheca subcurvata with three-dimensionally preserved digestive tracts were recovered from the Terreneuvian (early Cambrian) Heraultia Limestone of the northern Montagne Noire, southern France. They represent one of the oldest occurrences of such preserved guts. The newly discovered operculum of some complete specimens provides additional data allowing emendation of the species diagnosis. Infestation of the U-shaped digestive tracts by smooth uniseriate, branching to anastomosing filaments along with isolated botryoidal coccoids attests to their early, microbially mediated phosphatisation. Apart from taphonomic deformation, C. subcurvata exhibits three different configurations of the digestive tract: (1) anal tube and gut parallel, straight to slightly undulating; (2) anal tube straight and loosely folded gut; and (3) anal tube straight and gut straight with local zigzag folds. The arrangement of the digestive tracts and its correlation with the mean apertural diameter of the specimens are interpreted as ontogenetically dependent. The simple U-shaped gut, usually considered as characteristic of the Hyolithida, developed in earlier stages of C. subcurvata, whereas the more complex orthothecid type-3 only appears in largest specimens. This growth pattern suggests a distinct phylogenetic relationship between these two hyolith orders through heterochronic processes. PMID:24533118

  11. Focus on physicochemical parameters and nutrient dynamics in a little peri-urban river, using different frequency monitoring (northern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovsky, Anastasia; Dumoulin, David; Criquet, Justine; Superville, Pierre-Jean; Prygiel, Jean; Alary, Claire; Billon, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The Marque River is a small river located in Northern France in a peri-urban watershed, going through both agricultural and urban areas. A multi scale monitoring frequency has been undertaken in order to understand the aquatic ecosystem dynamic. Indeed, two types of monitoring (low and high frequencies) were applied to assess the quality of this river impacted by multi-origin inputs. The low frequency monitoring consisted in monthly or bi-monthly historical data from 2007 to 2012, and monthly grab samplings carried out from February 2014 to February 2015 focused on physicochemical parameters and nutrients. Additionally, a high frequency monitoring was implemented twice a year at two different seasons (summer 2014 and from spring to summer 2015) in the river. Physicochemical parameters (oxygen, temperature, conductivity, pH, solid particle matter, dissolved organic carbon) and nutrients (NO3-, NH4+ and PO43-) were recorded every 10 minutes. Furthermore, both the river flow and the pluviometry were recorded at the scale of the day. This presentation is going to demonstrate that (i) considering nutrients, a multi-origin pressure (agricultural and urban) impacts the stream and leads to its ecological degradation by comparison with the concentrations limits suggested by the Water Framework Directive; (ii) photosynthesis/respiration cycles are affected by intense inputs of organic matter and nutrients especially during heavy rain events that can also cause anoxic events; (iii) the effects of the urban inputs are more pronounced during the dry periods as exhibited for example by the increase of the river flow during the day; (iv) the phosphate concentrations seem to be related to the dissolved oxygen contents and (v) strong nutrients concentrations stimulate eutrophication. Overall, our findings clearly highlight the importance of high frequency monitoring in order to better understand the dynamic behavior of water courses.

  12. Multi-year levels and trends of non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations observed in ambient air in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, Antoine; Sauvage, Stéphane; Borbon, Agnès; Gauduin, Julie; Pallares, Cyril; Vagnot, Marie-Pierre; Léonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of 31 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at three urban (Paris, 2003-2014, Strasbourg, 2002-2014 and Lyon, 2007-2014) sites in France over the period of a decade. A trend analysis was applied by means of the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test to annual and seasonal mean concentrations in order to point out changes in specific emission sources and to assess the impact of emission controls and reduction strategies. The trends were compared to those from three rural sites (Peyrusse-Vieille, 2002-2013, Tardière, 2003-2013 and Donon, 1997-2007). The results obtained showed a significant yearly decrease in pollutant concentrations over the study period and for the majority of species in the range of -1 to -7% in accordance with the decrease of NMHC emissions in France (-5 to -9%). Concentrations of long-lived species such as ethane and propane which are recognized as tracers of distant sources and natural gas remained constant. Compounds associated with combustion processes such as acetylene, propene, ethylene and benzene showed a significant decline in the range of -2% to -5% yr-1. These trends are consistent with those recently described at urban and background sites in the northern mid-latitudes and with emission inventories. C7-C9 aromatics such as toluene and xylenes as well as C4-C5 alkanes such as isopentane and isobutane also showed a significant decrease in the range of -3% to -7% yr-1. The decreasing trends in terms of % yr-1 observed at these French urban sites were typically higher for acetylene, ethylene and benzene than those reported for French rural sites of the national observatory of Measurement and Evaluation in Rural areas of trans-boundary Air pollution (MERA). The study also highlighted the difficult choice of a long term sampling site representative of the general trends of pollutant concentrations.

  13. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb. PMID:27074096

  14. Build-up and decay of two ozone episodes through northern Iberia and southern France - An inter-regional transport analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdenebro, V.; Gangoiti, G.; Albizuri, A.; Alonso, L.; Navazo, M.; García, J. A.; Iza, J.; Millán, M. M.

    2011-03-01

    Further analysis of the previously-reported relationship between blocking anticyclones over the British Isles and severe ozone episodes in the Basque Country (BC) has shown that an even wider area is affected by these situations. Two episodes have been studied. The analysis of ozone data from approximately 60 AirBase stations throughout the area showed that they were among the most severe episodes of ozone exceedances in all northern Iberia and south-western France. Concentrations have been found to be related to inter-regional transport in southern Europe, and the temporal length of the whole process (development and decay) has been found to range from 7 to 10 days. A temporal delay in the recording of maximum concentrations within the region has been observed and explained for the first time. A new pathway for the export of European pollutants towards the Atlantic Ocean has also been documented, along with the export of pollutants from the eastern Cantabrian Coast (CC) to Africa at the beginning of the episodes. A huge eastward transport of pollutants across the CC towards southern France, and along the Ebro Valley towards the Mediterranean Sea, has been documented during the dissipation phase, but may not be definitive.

  15. Multi isotopic tools to understand selenium origins in groundwaters of the Chalk aquifer in Northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, Lise; Gourcy, Laurence; Benabderraziq, Hind; Elkhattabi, Jamal; Laurent, Alexandra; Négrel, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Four field wells exploiting the Chalk aquifer supply Lille city in water. The little catchment area is submitted to quantitative and qualitative pressure from industrial, urban and agriculture origins. Selenium (Se) concentrations are often higher than EU standards (0.12 µmol.L-1) for potable drinking water and can reach 0.4 μmol.L-1 leading to exploitation restrictions. An integrated study was settled to determine the water sources and dynamics of elements, with a focus on Se, with the goal of managing both water quality and quantity. After a large chemical characterisation of the system, a monthly sampling campaign was held in 2012 in four wells and in the close Deûle channel. In situ physical and chemical parameters, chemical analysis of major and trace elements with a special focus on redox-sensitive elements including SeIV, SeVI, FeII, stable water isotopes (δ18O, δ2H) and δ34S and δ18O of sulphates measures were undertaken. The chemical composition of solids sampled at various depths at vicinity of the four wells was analysed. Se concentrations in groundwaters and in the solid phase vary significantly. In the northern part of the Ansereuilles north of the Deûle channel, where the highest Se concentrations in solids was found in a 13 m alluvial clay deposit above the chalk, a first main type of waters can be defined with the variable and locally highest Se concentrations (0.19 to 0.4 µmol.L-1), relatively high and stable sulphate concentrations (2.5 µmol/L), no nitrates, dissolved Fe and Mn, negative δ34S (around -20 ‰) and δ18O typical of evaporated waters. A second main type of waters can be described at Houplin, south of the Deûle channel, where the geological profile show less than 1 mg/kg of Se, with intermediate Se concentrations (0.1 to 0.2 µmol/L), variable nitrate concentrations (0.4 to 1.2 mmol/L), not quantified dissolved Fe and Mn, sulphate concentrations close to 1.5 mmol/L, variable negative δ34S (-8 to -24 ‰) and δ18O in the

  16. Morphodynamics of intertidal bars near a seawall on a macrotidal beach, Wissant Bay, northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, M.; Anthony, E.

    2009-04-01

    Several studies on beaches with intertidal bar-trough (ridge-and-runnel) systems in settings with relatively large tidal ranges (> 3 m) have focused on cross-shore bar mobility; however a few recent studies have drawn attention to the potential role of longshore transport induced by a mix of wave-tide and wind-forced longshore currents in the morphodynamics of the bars and troughs. The aim of this paper is to briefly highlight the relationship between wind-forced currents on the shallow intertidal zone and rapid intertidal bar-trough morphological response on a macrotidal beach. Fieldwork was conduced on Wissant beach, Wissant Bay, northern France, from 7 to 23 March, 2006. During the experiment, the beach (oriented NE-SW) exhibited three intertidal bar-trough systems and the upper bar was directly attached to a seawall. Seven digital elevation models (DEMs) were generated from high-resolution topographic surveys. Hydrodynamic measurements were obtained from five currentmeters (2 S4 and 3 ADCP) deployed on the bars crests and on the upper beach trough. Wave characteristics were obtained from the measured time series by spectral analysis using Fast Fourier Transforms. Wind speed and direction on the beach were measured using a portable weather station. The mean wind speed and directions averaged every three hours highlight closely-spaced high-energy events during the experiment, with long phases of significant lateral wind stress (NE to ENE). The measured waves and currents showed rapid and strong response to both the changes in wind speed and direction. Longshore currents measured during the experiment on the upper intertidal bar-trough system showed a clear SW flow pattern in response to NE to ENE wind approach directions while the currents in the lower intertidal zone flowed northeastward during the flood, following the coastline, and southwestward during the ebb in response to the tidal current modulation. Strong longshore migration of the upper intertidal bar

  17. The Fate of a Migrant Language in Northern France (1880-1914): Flemish in Song Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declercq, Elien; D'hulst, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    New research on the history of nineteenth-century Flemish migration into the North of France shows ample evidence of a complex pattern of transfer procedures taking place between the source and target cultures, both via institutions such as newspapers, magazines and associations and via practices such as popular theatre, almanacs and songs. The…

  18. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, transform the time series of historical values of each variable into a normalized Gaussian time series. This step allows using consistently time series

  19. Tracking selenium behaviour in chalk aquifer (northern France): Sr and 34S-sulphates isotopes constraints.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cary, Lise; Benabderraziq, Hind; Elkhattabi, Jamal; Parmentier, Marc; Gourcy, Laurence; Négrel, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Groundwaters in parts of the Paris Basin (France) are facing increasing selenium (Se) contents that can exceed the drinking water limit of 10 μg/L according to the European Framework Directive in the field of water policy (2000/60/EC). To better understand the groundwater origins and the selenium dynamics, the water chemistry of the Chalk aquifer supplying drinkable water to Lille city was studied. This area is submitted to quantitative and qualitative pressure from industrial, urban and agriculture origins. An integrated study was settled to determine the water sources and dynamics of elements, with a focus on Se. After a large chemical characterisation of the groundwater chemistry in the four field wells, a monthly monitoring was held in four wells and in the Deûle channel. Chemical analysis of major and trace elements, stable isotopes (δ18O, δ2H), strontium isotopes, and δ34S and δ18O of sulphates were realised. The chemical composition of solids sampled at various depths at vicinity of the four wells was also analysed. The specific geochemical signature of groundwater as revealed by Sr isotopes, in addition to element concentrations ratios like Mg/Sr and Se/Sr, highlighted mixture of three main groundwaters bodies: (1) the upstream groundwaters in the recharge area with the most radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotopic signature; (2) the confined groundwaters with high Sr concentrations due to water-rock interactions and the lowest 87Sr/86Sr isotopic signature close to the one of the chalk in Paris and London basins; (3) the Se-rich formations of Tertiary and Quaternary. The contents of Se, mainly present as SeV I (and locally as SeIV ), displayed spatial and temporal disparities that can be explained by geological and hydrogeological conditions. Se-rich clayed sediments originating from the dismantling of Se-rich tertiary formations (i.e. Ypresian) overlay the chalk formation and can be found in saturated conditions depending of the water table level. Oxidation of

  20. Fluvial depositional environment evolving into deltaic setting with marine influences in the buntsandstein of northern vosges (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, Jean-Claude

    The Buntsandstein in the Northern Vosges (France) originates mainly in an inland braidplain fluvial environment which passes in the upper part of the sequence into deltaic milieu in the coastal plain along the border of the sea, with the continental environment finally being drowned with the transgression of the shallow sea. The fluvial sedimentation is characterized by the presence of two facies throughout the Buntsandstein : channel facies and overbank plain facies. The channel facies comprises sandy and conglomeratic deposits forming within active streams by strong currents, whereas the overbank plain facies is built up of silty-clayey sandstones or silt/clay originating in stagnant water in abandoned watercourses, ponds, pools and puddles. The significance of particularly the floodplain sediments is subjected to considerable changes throughout the Buntsandstein sequence. There are all stages of transition between overbank plain deposits being only preserved in ghost-like facies as reworked clasts due to effective secondary removal of primarily occasionally formed suspension fines, and an abundance of autochthonous floodplain sediments in the depositional record resulting from favourable conditions of primary origin and secondary preservation. Reworked ventifacts within fluvial channel sediments testify to subordinate aeolian influences in the alluvial plain, with reasonable reworking, however, having removed all in situ traces of wind activity. Declining aridity of palaeoclimate towards the top is indicated by the appearance of violet horizon palaeosols in the Zone-Limite-Violette and the Couches intermédiaires being accompanied by Bröckelbank carbonate breccias originating from concentration of reworked fragments of pedogenic carbonate nodules. Biogenic traces are in the lower part of the sequence mainly present as Planolites burrows in the finer-grained sediments. Palaeosalinities as revealed from boron contents indicate progressively increasing

  1. Linking macrobenthic communities structure and zonation patterns on sandy shores: Mapping tool toward management and conservation perspectives in Northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolet, Céline; Spilmont, Nicolas; Dewarumez, Jean-Marie; Luczak, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    In a context of intensifying anthropogenic pressures on sandy shores, the mapping of benthic habitat appears as an essential first step and a fundamental baseline for marine spatial planning, ecosystem-based management and conservation efforts of soft-sediment intertidal areas. Mapping allows representing intertidal habitats that are basically characterised by abiotic (e.g sediments, exposure to waves…) and biotic factors such as macrobenthic communities. Macrobenthic communities are known to show zonation patterns across sandy beaches and many studies highlighted the existence of three biological zones. We tested this general model of a tripartite biological division of the shore at a geographical scale of policy, conservation and management decisions (i.e. Northern France coastline), using multivariate analyses combined with the Direct Field Observation (DFO) method. From the upper to the lower shores, the majority of the beaches exhibited three macrobenthic communities confirming the existence of the tripartite biological division of the shore. Nevertheless, in some cases, two or four zones were found: (1) two zones when the drying zone located on the upper shore was replaced by littoral rock or engineering constructions and (2) four zones on beaches and estuaries where a muddy-sand community occurred from the drift line to the mid shore. The correspondence between this zonation pattern of macrobenthic communities and the EUNIS habitat classification was investigated and the results were mapped to provide a reference state of intertidal soft-sediment beaches and estuaries. Our results showed evidence of the applicability of this EUNIS typology for the beaches and estuaries at a regional scale (Northern France coastline) with a macroecological approach. In order to fulfil the requirements of the European Directives (WFD and MFSD), this mapping appears as a practical tool for any functional study on these coastal ecosystems, for the monitoring of anthropogenic

  2. Declining Dioxin concentrations in the Rhone River, France, attest to the effectiveness of emissions controls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Babut, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J.; Roux, Gwenaelle; Desmet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Emission-control policies have been implemented in Europe and North America since the 1990s for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs). To assess the effect of these policies on temporal trends and spatial patterns for these compounds in a large European river system, sediment cores were collected in seven depositional areas along the Rhone River in France, dated, and analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. Results show concentrations increase in the downstream direction and have decreased temporally at all sites during the last two decades, with an average decrease of 83% from 1992 to 2010. The time for a 50% decrease in concentrations (t1/2) averaged 6.9 ± 2.6 and 9.1 ± 2.9 years for the sum of measured PCDDs and PCDFs, respectively. Congener patterns are similar among cores and indicate dominance of regional atmospheric deposition and possibly weathered local sources. Local sources are clearly indicated at the most downstream site, where concentrations of the most toxic dioxin, TCDD, are about 2 orders of magnitude higher than at the other six sites. The relatively steep downward trends attest to the effects of the dioxin emissions reduction policy in Europe and suggest that risks posed to aquatic life in the Rhone River basin from dioxins and furans have been greatly reduced.

  3. Declining Dioxin Concentrations in the Rhone River Basin, France, Attest to the Effectiveness of Emissions Controls.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, Peter C; Babut, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J; Roux, Gwenaelle; Desmet, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Emission-control policies have been implemented in Europe and North America since the 1990s for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs). To assess the effect of these policies on temporal trends and spatial patterns for these compounds in a large European river system, sediment cores were collected in seven depositional areas along the Rhone River in France, dated, and analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. Results show concentrations increase in the downstream direction and have decreased temporally at all sites during the last two decades, with an average decrease of 83% from 1992 to 2010. The time for a 50% decrease in concentrations (t1/2) averaged 6.9±2.6 and 9.1±2.9 years for the sum of measured PCDDs and PCDFs, respectively. Congener patterns are similar among cores and indicate dominance of regional atmospheric deposition and possibly weathered local sources. Local sources are clearly indicated at the most downstream site, where concentrations of the most toxic dioxin, TCDD, are about 2 orders of magnitude higher than at the other six sites. The relatively steep downward trends attest to the effects of the dioxin emissions reduction policy in Europe and suggest that risks posed to aquatic life in the Rhone River basin from dioxins and furans have been greatly reduced. PMID:26418318

  4. Sediment concentrations of trace metals in the Berre lagoon (France): an assessment of contamination.

    PubMed

    Accornero, Alessandra; Gnerre, Rossella; Manfra, Loredana

    2008-04-01

    This paper reports the concentrations of eight trace metals (Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, As, Cd, and Hg) in the surficial sediments of the Berre lagoon. This is a typical Mediterranean lagoon, seriously affected by human activities since the 1930s, when it became one of the most important industrial sites in France. The overall range of concentrations is 38-428 mg kg(-1) for chromium, 50-151 mg kg(-1) for zinc, 11-48 mg kg(-1) for copper, 18-82 mg kg(-1) for lead, 18-56 mg kg(-1) for nickel, 4-10 mg kg(-1) for arsenic, 0.2-1.6 mg kg(-1) for cadmium, and 0.15-0.40 mg kg(-1) for mercury. The spatial distribution of concentrations largely mirrors the localization of major impact sources, with the most affected area restricted to a radius of a few kilometers from point sources, due to the environmental conditions of the outfall zone (fine sediments, low hydrodynamic regime, confinement), which favor the in situ accumulation of pollutants. The extent of contamination from trace metals in the lagoon sediments is evaluated through a three-pronged approach: (i) by comparison with other areas (see Table 3 for an up-to-date review of trace metal concentrations in lagoon systems and coastal regions of the world ocean); (ii) by evaluating the metal enrichment in the sediments through the calculation of concentration factors (CF) for each trace metal and by combining the CFs to estimate a Metal Pollution Index (MPI) taking into account the differences in toxicity of trace metals; and (iii) by defining a potential level of biological risk by the use of quality criteria such as the Threshold Effect Level (TEL) and Effects Range-Low (ER-L) benchmarks. On the basis of the calculated CFs, sediments appear as particularly enriched with Pb and Cd throughout the lagoon and with Cr and Zn at some sites. Although no site can be classified as "unpolluted" when looking at the calculated MPIs, two regions--the Vaïne pond and the southwestern area--have been identified as critical points of

  5. Recognition and progression of coal workers' pneumoconiosis in the collieries of northern France.

    PubMed

    Gautrin, D; Auburtin, G; Alluin, F; Brice, F M; Chouraki, B; François, P; Marquet, M; Pouré, C; Sénécot, B; Szmacinski, R

    1994-01-01

    In France, both active and retired coal miners take part in medical surveillance programs. Those compensated for pneumoconiosis are registered and receive annual chest X-rays and regular lung function assessments. A longitudinal study was done among 2719 pneumoconiotics from the Nord-Pas de Calais region Compensation Register, who received first compensation between 1942 and 1987 to study progression of CSWP. Chest radiographs taken at time of compensation and in 1987 were examined by three independent readers. There was a change over time in the characteristics of pneumoconiosis at the time of first compensation toward a low profusion of irregular opacities. In the period from 1982 to 1987, 645 pneumoconiotics developed progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). The occurrence of PMF was related to the date of compensation and the profusion of small opacities at detection (after controlling for time to follow-up). Two profiles for changes in coal workers' simple pneumoconiosis (CWSP) were observed: the first in the group of subjects with mild pneumoconiosis at compensation, who did not reach category 2 at follow-up and had a low attack rate of PMF; and the second in the group of those compensated for category 1/2 pneumoconiosis or higher, who reached severe CWSP and had a twofold attack rate for PMF at follow-up. The changes observed in the characteristics of pneumoconiosis at first compensation between 1942 and 1987 suggest a lessening of disease severity. PMID:7843074

  6. Early to Late Cenozoic structural inheritance of Paleozoic basement structures in the northern Alpine foreland: examples from eastern France and northern Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madritsch, Herfried

    2014-05-01

    During his time at the Geological Institute of the University of Basel, Peter Ziegler was the main initiator of the EUCOR-URGENT project, a joint multi-disciplinary research and training programme aiming at a better understanding of seismic hazard, neotectonics and evolution of the Upper Rhine Graben and surrounding areas. Throughout the duration of the programme from 1999 to 2007 the EUCOR-URGENT network embraced more than 40 Ph.D. students, 20 Post-Docs and 18 senior researchers, who were based at one of the 25 involved universities or national organizations. Peter's natural drive, networking capabilities and scientific enthusiasm were without doubt the main reasons for this success story. The Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone (RBTZ) in eastern France, one of the natural laboratories investigated within the EUCOR-URGENT framework, is a major segment of the European Cenozoic Rift system (Ziegler, 1992) and formed by structural inheritance of the pre-existing Late Paleozoic Burgundy Trough. The Mid-Eocene to Oligocene evolution of the sinistral transtensional RBTZ was kinematically linked to crustal extension across the Upper Rhine and Bresse Grabens (Lacombe et al., 1993). From the Early Miocene onward the RBTZ further evolved under the influence of the far field effects of the Alpine collision involving Late Miocene to Pliocene NW-ward propagation of the thin-skinned Jura Thrust Belt but also thick-skinned reactivation of the Late Paleozoic and Paleogene fault systems in the RBTZ. In fact, shortening throughout the RBTZ appears to be still mildly active, as is indicated by one of the very few clearly oblique-compressive focal mechanisms in the northern Alpine foreland and evidenced by geomorphologic investigations that yielded Late Quaternary folding of fluvial meanders in the area of Besançon (Madritsch et al. 2010). The Late Paleozoic Burgundy Trough as well as the Jura Thrust Belt continue eastward into northern Switzerland. In this area, reprocessed and newly

  7. Mercury Distribution in the Deûle River (Northern France) Measured by the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Technique and Conventional Methods.

    PubMed

    Diviš, Pavel; Kadlecová, Milada; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of mercury in surface water and in sediment from Deûle River in Northern France was studied by application of conventional sampling methods and by diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). Concentration of total dissolved mercury in surface water was 20.8 ± 0.8 ng l(-1). The particulate mercury concentration was 6.2 ± 0.6 µg g(-1). The particulate mercury was accumulated in sediment (9.9 ± 2.3 mg kg(-1)), and it was transformed by methylating bacteria to methylmercury, mainly in the first 2-cm layer of the sediment. Total dissolved concentration of mercury in sediment pore water obtained by application of centrifugation extraction was 17.6 ± 4.1 ng l(-1), and it was comparable with total dissolved pore water mercury concentration measured by DGT probe containing Duolite GT-73 resin gel (18.2 ± 4.3 ng l(-1)), taking the sediment heterogeneity and different principles of the applied methods into account. By application of two DGT probes with different resin gels specific for mercury, it was found that approximately 30 % of total dissolved mercury in sediment pore water was present in labile forms easy available for biota. The resolution of mercury DGT depth profiles was 0.5 cm, which allows, unlike conventional techniques, to study the connection of the geochemical cycle of mercury with geochemical cycles of iron and manganese. PMID:26428003

  8. Tectonics of the Northern Bresse region (France) during the Alpine cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocher, Muriel; Chevalier, Francis; Petit, Christophe; Guiraud, Michel

    2003-11-01

    Combining fieldwork and surface data, we have reconstructed the Cenozoic structural and tectonic evolution of the Northern Bresse. Analysis of drainage network geometry allowed to detect three major fault zones trending NE-SW, E-W and NW-SE, and smooth folds with NNE trending axes, all corroborated with shallow well data in the graben and fieldwork on edges. Cenozoic paleostress succession was determined through fault slip and calcite twin inversions, taking into account data of relative chronology. A N-S major compression, attributed to the Pyrenean orogenesis, has activated strike-slip faults trending NNE along the western edge and NE-SW in the graben. After a transitional minor E-W trending extension, the Oligocene WNW extension has structured the graben by a collapse along NNE to NE-SW normal faults. A local NNW extension closes this phase. The Alpine collision has led to an ENE compression at Early Miocene. The following WNW trending major compression has generated shallow deformation in Bresse, but no deformation along the western edge. The calculation of potential reactivation of pre-existing faults enables to propose a structural sketch map for this event, with a NE-SW trending transfer fault zone, inactivity of the NNE edge faults, and possibly large wavelength folding, which could explain the deposit agency and repartition of Miocene to Quaternary deformation.

  9. Factors influencing mercury concentrations in walleyes in northern Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiener, J.G.; Martini, R.E.; Sheffy, T.B.; Glass, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examined relations between mercury concentrations in walleyes Stizostedion vitreum and the characteristics of clear-water Wisconsin lakes, which spanned a broad range of pH values (5.0-8.1) and acid- neutralizing capacities (-9 to 1,017 mu eq/L). Total concentrations of mercury in axial muscle tissue of walleyes (total length, 25-56 cm) varied from 0.12 to 1.74 mu g/g wet weight. Concentrations were greatest in fish from the eight lakes with pH less than 7.0; concentrations in these fish equaled or exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in 88% of the samples analyzed and 1.0 mu g/g in 44%. In the five lakes with pH of 7.0 and above, concentrations exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in only 1 of 21 walleyes. Multiple regression revealed that lake pH and total length of fish accounted for 69% of the variation in mercury concentration in walleyes. Regression models with total length and either waterborne calcium or acid-neutralizing capacity as independent variables accounted for 67% of the variation in concentration.

  10. Geomorphic characteristics of the Lannemezan megafan: an insight in the Late-Cenozoic evolution of the northern Pyrenean foreland (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchené, Margaux; van der Beek, Peter; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Carcaillet, Julien

    2014-05-01

    Large alluvial fans, either active or incised, characterize the orogen - foreland-basin transition in nearly all mountain belts worldwide. Understanding the evolution of fossil foreland alluvial fans and the incision history of their elevated paleo-surfaces can provide critical information on their past and present evolution and to distinguish between climatic and tectonic forcing. The most striking morpho-sedimentary feature of the northern Pyrenean foreland (SW France) is the Miocene Lannemezan megafan, but little is known about its evolution: what controlled the development of this fan and how is this related to the orogenic growth? When and why was the fan abandoned and incised? How large was the feature when it was active? We combine a quantitative morphometric analysis with field observations, low-temperature thermochronometry and cosmogenic dating to address these questions. The Lannemezan fan is exceptionally large (104km2), especially when compared to the other fans of the northern Pyrenean foreland and the fan area/catchment area ratio is anomalous. Calculations of the eroded vs. deposited volumes corroborate this unbalanced budget. The Neste River, which most likely used to feed the megafan, now bends 90° eastwards near the apex of the fan, indicating it was captured by the larger Garonne River in Quaternary times. The material forming the fan and the strath terrace system incising the fan, show a rather unusual sedimentological pattern for an alluvial fan setting, characterized by a very fine clay and sand matrix supporting sporadic pebbles and boulders (up to 50 cm in diameter). We show that the terrace slope increases with time and the current rivers exhibit markedly concave long profiles (reference concavity = 0.7), which could indicate late tilting of the fan. New cosmogenic nuclide analysis (10Be,26Al) will be used to date the abandonment of the fan surface and the terrace staircase chronology to provide constraints on incision rates and

  11. Processes and rate of retreat of the clay and sandstone sea cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    Retreat of the clay and sandstone cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France) has been quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The low retreat rate of this coastal strip — 0.08 m/yr between 1939 and 2003 — is far less than that encountered on chalk and clay-chalk cliffs of either side of the Channel, and even less than a previous estimate of 0.17 m/yr regularly quoted in management studies. The retreat rate is closely related to shore platform morphology and dynamics. The shore platform presents 1) a steeply sloping ramp due to the accumulation of flat calcareous megaclasts that reduce marine erosion; 2) upstanding bare platform surfaces, related to tectonic deformation; and 3) thick platform-beaches trapped in troughs. In all three cases, the reflective behaviour of the nearshore protects the cliff foot from the incoming waves. Two critical eroding segments are the result of changes in the platform sedimentary budget. Around Cran Poulet, and between Plage de la Sirène and Pointe de la Courte Dune, the retreat rate is up to 0.25 and 0.15 m/yr, respectively. At Cran Poulet, recession has been facilitated by the extraction of pebble for more than half a century, whereas erosion of the beach at la Sirène is probably linked to severe erosion of the coastline in the adjacent Wissant Bay. Mass movements on the cliff face are essentially shallow-seated translational slides along with small debris falls and mudflows. The instability of the Argiles de Châtillon is greatly diminished by their sandy and silty texture and by the presence of interstratified solid shelly limestone beds that allow steep slopes to develop in rather weak material. The 'vertical erosion antecedent' is the erosional mode of the cliff, and its reduced efficiency explains the slow recession of the cliff. This study will help to determine the long term evolution of the Boulonnais coast.

  12. Opportunities provided by UAVs to monitor erosion processes in agricultural catchments: a case study from Northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Stal, Cornelis; De Wit, Bart; De Wulf, Alain; Salvador, Pierre-Gil; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    In erosion studies, accurate spatio-temporal data are required to fully understand the processes involved and their relationship with environmental controls. With cameras being mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), the latter allow to collect low-altitude aerial photographs over small catchments in a cost-effective and rapid way. From large data sets of overlapping aerial photographs, Structure from Motion - Multi View Stereo workflows, integrated in various software such as PhotoScan used here, allow to produced detailed Digital Surface Models (DSMs) and ortho-mosaics. In this study we present the results from a survey carried out in a small agricultural catchment near Hallines, in Northern France. A DSM and ortho-mosaic was produced of the catchment using photographs taken from a low-cost radio-controlled microdrone (DroneFlyer Hexacopter). Photographs were taken with a Sony Nex 5 (16.1 M pixels) camera having a fixed normal lens of 50 mm. In the field, Ground Control Points were materialized by unambiguously determinable targets, measured with a 1'' total station (Leica TS15i). Cross-sections of rills and ephemeral gullies were also quantified from total station measurements and from terrestrial image-based 3D modelling. These data allowed to define the accuracy of the DSM and the representation of the erosion features in it. The feasibility of UAVs photographic surveys to improve our understanding on water-erosion processes such as sheet, rill and gully erosion is discussed. Keywords: Ephemeral gully, Erosion study, Image-based 3D modelling, Microdrone, Rill, UAVs.

  13. Iron bacterial and fungal mats, Bajocian stratotype (Mid-Jurassic, northern Normandy, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Préat, A.; Mamet, B.; De Ridder, C.; Boulvain, F.; Gillan, D.

    2000-12-01

    The Oolithe ferrugineuse de Bayeux Formation is located at the historical Bajocian stratotype of Sainte-Honorine-des-Pertes, north of Bayeux, Normandy. The condensed formation ranges from the base of the Humphriesianum Zone to the Parkinsoni Zone and is divided into four beds of decimetric scale. Three main microfacies are present: (1) oncoid rudstones, (2) ooid bioclastic packstones and (3) silty burrowed wackestones/packstones. Sedimentation took place in a very quiet environment, below the photic zone and below or near the storm wave base. The general setting is a distal carbonate ramp, its lower part characterized by hemipelagic sedimentation indicated by the presence of planktonic foraminifers. The inferred depth is around 100 m. Free oxygen concentration was low. Dysaerobic conditions are indicated by a scarcity of benthic macrofauna. Ferruginous structures are numerous in the first two microfacies, and absent in the last. Hematite staining is not uniform and follows many sedimentary patterns. Among the more widespread Fe structures are perforation infillings with endolithic micro-organisms, microstromatolites, oncoids, ooids, blisters, coatings and hardgrounds. These structures can be associated and none are mutually exclusive. Hematite-coated filaments of different sizes and shapes are observed in the micrite matrix: the walls of various organisms; the calcite crystals associated with the Fe cortical laminations; the perforations and burrow; the hardgrounds; and microstromatolites. Petrographical and SEM examinations suggest that the laminated crusts (oncoids and hardgrounds) are formed by microbial iron mats dominated by filamentous bacteria and fungi. Seven types of microbes are recognized: filaments (five morphotypes), spheroidal bodies and stalked bodies. Filamentous microfossils of type 1 to 4 resemble the present-day filamentous bacteria (Beggiatoales and Cytophagaceae). Because of their large diameter and their branching nature, filaments of type 5

  14. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion.

  15. Mercury methylation and demethylation in highly contaminated sediments from the Deûle River in Northern France using species-specific enriched stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Ouddane, Baghdad; Monperrus, Mathilde; Kadlecova, Milada; Daye, Mirna; Amouroux, David

    2015-01-01

    The methylation-demethylation processes in sediments of the Deûle River were determined using well-established isotope experiments. For this purpose, species-specific isotopically enriched tracers in the form of inorganic mercury IHg ((199)Hg) and methylmercury MeHg (Me(201)Hg) were used to determine Hg dynamics in the Deûle River. Sediment cores were collected at two sampling locations chosen in the most polluted zone of the Deûle River (Northern France) in proximity of a Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni smelter called "Metaleurop" that had closed in 2003. Site I was chosen in the vicinity of the historic smelter site and site II upstream of the Deûle River. The incubation was realized directly in the sediment cores during the 24 hour experiment under environmental conditions close to the real natural systems (the same temperature, pH, humidity, light/dark conditions, oxygen levels…). The enriched isotopes were injected by needle into different sections of the core. After incubation, the core was sliced and the concentration of Hg species was determined in each section. The highest methylation potentials were found at sediment depths away from the sediment-water-interface. At site I, the methylation potential varied between 0.02-0.9% and at site II between 0.001-0.2%. The demethylation potentials fluctuated between 0.001-60% at site I and between 4-53% at site II. In both sites, negative net methylation potentials were obtained in several sediment depths, representing a net sink for MeHg. The average net methylation potential in site I demonstrated a negative value of 1919 ng g(-1) day(-1). It seems that in site I the demethylation process predominates methylation. Whereas, in site II, the average net methylation potential was a positive value of 138 ng g(-1) day(-1), demonstrating the dominance of methylation over demethylation. PMID:25421488

  16. Spatiotemporal trends in ground-level ozone concentrations and metrics in France over the time period 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Pierre; Serra, Romain; Rossello, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The hourly ozone (O3) data from 332 background monitoring stations, spread in France, were analyzed over the period 1999-2012 and short-term trends were calculated. In the current climate change context, the calculation of human health- and vegetation-relevant metrics, and of associated trends, provides a consistent method to establish proper and effective policies to reduce the adverse O3 effects. The generation of optimal O3 maps, for risk and exposure assessment, is challenging. To overcome this issue, starting from a set of stations, a hybrid regression-interpolation approach was proposed. Annual surface O3 metrics, O3 human health metrics (number of exceedances of daily maximum 8-h values greater than 60 ppb and SOMO35) and O3 vegetation impact metrics (AOT40 for vegetation and forests) were investigated at individual sites. Citizens are more exposed to high O3 levels in rural areas than people living in the cities. The annual mean concentrations decreased by -0.12ppbyear(-1) at rural stations, and the significant reduction at 67% of stations, particularly during the warm season, in the number of episodic high O3 concentrations (e.g. 98th percentile, -0.19ppbyear(-1)) can be associated with the substantial reductions in NOx and VOCs emissions in the EU-28 countries since the early 1990s Inversely, the O3 background level is rising at 76% of urban sites (+0.14ppbyear(-1)), particularly during the cold period. This rise can be attributed to increases in imported O3 by long-range transport and to a low O3 titration by NO due to the reduction in local NOx emissions. The decrease in health-related and vegetation-relevant O3 metrics, at almost all stations, is driven by decreases in regional photochemical O3 formation and in peak O3 concentrations. The short-term trends highlight that the threat to population and vegetation declined between 1999 and 2012 in France, demonstrating the success of European control strategies over the last 20 years. However, for all

  17. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  18. Economic feasibility of segregating dark northern spring wheat by protein concentration during harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-line, optical sensing has been developed for on-combine measurement and mapping of grain protein concentration (GPC). The objective of this study was to estimate changes in costs and net returns from using this technology for segregation of the dark northern spring (DNS) subclass of hard red whe...

  19. Isotope tools to support conceptual model building of the Carboniferous limestone aquifer of Northern France and Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourcy, L.; Castres de Paulet, F.; Rorive, A.; Bastien, J.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the Carboniferous aquifer was known as a high potential limestone aquifer. Groundwater has been exploited for decades to provide drinkable water and supply heavy factories in north of France and Belgium. Over-pumped during the last century, the Carboniferous aquifer has seen its water level dramatically decreased between Lille (Fr), Mouscron and Tournai (Be). Since the end of industrial period and some agreements to reduce pumpings, groundwater consumption has declined and water table is now stabilized and slowly coming back to a more "natural" level in some areas. In order to sustainably manage this aquifer, French and Belgian environmental agencies and local authorities underlined the need of a better hydrogeological knowledge. Within the framework of the "Scaldwin" project (launched in 2008), a hydrogeological model will be built. To reach these objectives, existing data were compiled, updated and treated. Moreover, new data were collected since 2009: 11 boreholes were drilled, 2 piezometrical maps were drawn and 2 field sampling campaigns were carried out in March and November 2011 to collect groundwater for further analyses. As a first step, the conceptual hydrogeological map was reviewed considering new knowledge of the geometry and water levels of this aquifer. Then, the hydrogeochemical study was undertaken in order to dispel doubts on some specific aspects such as: relationships between the deep (carbonated Carboniferous) and the surface (chalky Cretaceous) aquifers, delineation of the southern Carboniferous aquifer limit, mechanisms of sulphate enrichment… Major and trace elements, dissolved gases (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6) and various isotopes (δ2H, δ18O, δ11B, δ34S, δ18O-SO4, δ13C, 14C) were analysed in water sampled from 36 wells exploiting the Carboniferous limestones (16 in the French part and 20 in Belgium) and 4 waters from the chalk aquifer. Cation exchange process is playing an important role

  20. Variations of atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration in the northern and western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishijima, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Aoki, S.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric N2O concentration was observed in the Pacific for the period 1991-2006, using commercial container ships sailing between Japan and North America and between Japan and Australia or New Zealand. The N2O concentration showed a secular increase and interannual variations at all sampling locations, but a seasonal cycle was detectable only at northern high latitudes. The annual mean N2O concentration showed little longitudinal variations (within +/- 0.3 ppb) in the northern Pacific, but showed a clear north-south gradient of about 0.8 ppb, with higher values in the Northern Hemisphere. The annual mean N2O was also characterized by especially high values at 30°N due to strong local N2O emissions and by a steep latitudinal decrease from the equator to 20°S due to the suppression of interhemispheric exchange of air by the South Pacific Convergence Zone. The N2O growth rate showed an interannual variation with a period of about 3 yr (high-values in 1999 and 2000), with a delayed eastward and poleward phase propagation in the northern and western Pacific, respectively. The interannual variations of the N2O growth rate and soil water showed a good correlation, suggesting that the N2O emission from soils have an important causative role in the atmospheric N2O variation.

  1. Spatial distribution patterns of molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in potable groundwater in Northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad; Mashal, Kholoud; Abed, Abdulkader M

    2015-03-01

    Two hundred and three groundwater samples were collected during March 2011 to June 2012 from the B2/A7 aquifer water supply wells of northern part of Jordan. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in situ for the major cations, anions, while certain heavy metals were analyzed in the laboratory. Some oilshale rock samples were geochemically analyzed. The Upper Cretaceous aquifer (B2/A7) is used as water supply for most of the communities in the study area. It consists of limestone, marly limestone, bedded chert, and minor phosphorite. Hydrochemical results from the B2/A7 aquifer indicate two main water types: alkaline-earth water (CaHCO3) and alkaline-earth water with high alkaline component (NaHCO3 (-), Na2SO4). Standard column leaching experiments on oilshale rock samples and the R-mode factor analysis suggest that the sources for elevated Mo concentrations in the groundwater of certain parts of northern Jordan are attributed to water-oilshale interaction, mobility of Mo down to the groundwater and the extensive use of fertilizers within these areas. Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in the groundwater water range from 0.07 to 1.44 mg/L with an average value of 98 μg/L. They are found to exceed the JISM and WHO guidelines in two areas in northern part of Jordan. Spatial distribution of Mo, using ordinary kriging techniques and the resulting map, shows high Mo concentration in the northwestern part near Wadi Al Arab area reaching concentrations of 650 μg/L and in the southeastern corner of the investigated area, south of Al Ukaydir village, with an average concentration of 468 μg/L. Both areas are characterized by extensive oilshale exposures with average concentration of 11.7 mg/kg Mo and intensive agricultural activities. These two areas represent approximately 33 % of the groundwater in the northern part of Jordan. Mobility of Mo to the groundwater in northern part of Jordan is attributed to two mechanisms. First, there is reductive dissolution of Fe

  2. A statistical evaluation of the influence of housing characteristics and geogenic radon potential on indoor radon concentrations in France.

    PubMed

    Demoury, C; Ielsch, G; Hemon, D; Laurent, O; Laurier, D; Clavel, J; Guillevic, J

    2013-12-01

    Radon-222 is a radioactive natural gas produced by the decay of radium-226, known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure. Effective risk management needs to determine the areas in which the density of buildings with high radon levels is likely to be highest. Predicting radon exposure from the location and characteristics of a dwelling could also contribute to epidemiological studies. Beginning in the nineteen-eighties, a national radon survey consisting in more than 10,000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations was conducted in French dwellings by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). Housing characteristics, which may influence radon accumulation in dwellings, were also collected. More recently, the IRSN generated a French geogenic radon potential map based on the interpretation of geological features. The present study analyzed the two datasets to investigate the factors influencing indoor radon concentrations using statistical modeling and to determine the optimum use of the information on geogenic radon potential that showed the best statistical association with indoor radon concentration. The results showed that the variables associated with indoor radon concentrations were geogenic radon potential, building material, year of construction, foundation type, building type and floor level. The model, which included the surrounding geogenic radon potential (i.e. the average geogenic radon potential within a disc of radius 20 km centered on the indoor radon measurement point) and variables describing house-specific factors and lifestyle explained about 20% of the overall variability of the logarithm of radon concentration. The surrounding geogenic radon potential was fairly closely associated with the local average indoor radon concentration. The prevalence of exposure to radon above specific thresholds and the average exposures to radon clearly increased with increasing classes of geogenic radon

  3. Variations of the spatiotemporal patterns of CVOCs concentrations in northern karst of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Ghasemizadeh, R.; Padilla, I. Y.; Irizarry, C.; Yegen, C.; Kaeli, D.; Alshawabkeh, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    The northern Puerto Rico is characterized as karst topography, where the groundwater is a major source of water use to the island. Various types of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds (CVOCs), which are due to improper disposal of industrial waste, are detected in these karst aquifers. It is important to study the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of the CVOCs in this region, which are posing a serious threat to both the ecological and human health. In this study, various historical CVOCs data from 264 wells across the northern karst region from January 1982 to December 2000 were collected from a number of reports and studies. We found that 38% (99 out of 264) of the sites had at least one sample with CVOC concentration above the standards established to protect human health over the study period. We found that the distribution of the CVOCs spatially varied with areas containing clusters of sites contaminated by different organic compound. The response of CVOC concentrations were occasionally retarded even though they were depleted significantly in the source zones. The study confirmed that the measured CVOC concentrations decreased during the study period at most of the sites. The source origin (toxics release locations and quantities) and the intrinsic characteristics of the karst (high heterogeneity and complex hydraulic behavior) are most likely related with the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of CVOCs. The study of the spatiotemporal patterns of CVOCs concentrations in the northern karst aquifers has important implications on the public water use, especially when it coincides with the recent population growth in this region. Locations of Puerto Rico, the northern karst region of Puerto Rico and 264 sampling sites in the karst region.

  4. Natural contributions to particulate matter and ozone concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, A.; Christensen, J. H.; Gross, A.; Irannejad, P.; Glasius, M.; Brandt, J.

    2013-12-01

    Natural emissions play an important role in determining ambient levels of harmful atmospheric pollutants, especially tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM). Natural sources have also become more important with the ongoing reductions of anthropogenic emissions and will be even more significant in the future in connection with planning of abatement strategies. Although efforts have been carried out to investigate and quantify natural emissions, the uncertainties and gaps with regard to these emissions are still quite large. Therefore, improvement of our understanding of natural emissions and quantifying their contribution to present and future air pollution levels have been defined as an important field of research in air pollution modeling. In this study, the large-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model, DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model) is further developed, evaluated and applied to study and quantify the contributions of natural emissions of VOCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, CH4, PM, CO and sea salt to the concentration of ozone and formation of PM for the year 2006. Natural source categories adopted in the recent model are vegetation, lightning, soils, wild animals and oceans. The relative contributions are calculated for the domain covering more than the Northern Hemisphere (the DEHM mother domain) as well as for the six continental regions: North America, Northern part of South America, Asia, Europe, Middle East and northern and central part of Africa. Our simulations indicate that at the Northern Hemisphere the contribution from natural emissions to the average annual ozone concentrations over land is between 4-30 ppbV. Among the natural emissions, biogenic VOCs are found to be the most significant contributors to ozone formation. Our results show that biogenic VOCs enhance the average ozone concentration with around 11% over land areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative contribution of all the natural emissions to ozone is found to be highest

  5. Deep structure of the strain concentration zone in northern Miyagi Prefecture, NE Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; Nii, K.; Hasegawa, A.; Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    A moderate-size (M6.4) intraplate earthquake (the 2003 northern Miyagi earthquake) occurred on 26 July 2003 in the northern part of Miyagi prefecture, NE Japan. In this area, high seismic activity forms a belt in which another moderate-size earthquake (M6.2) occurred in 1962. From GPS analysis, large strain concentration was observed along this seismic belt (Sato et al., 2004; Miura et al., 2005; Hasegawa et al., 2005). We call this zone of large strain concentration and high seismic activity the northern Miyagi strain concentration zone. We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) to determine the three- dimensional velocity structure and relocate the hypocenters simultaneously. Travel time data is from the Japanese universities joint seismic observation in the Tohoku Backbone range (1997-1998) and the aftershock observation for the 2003 Northern Miyagi earthquake (Umino et al., 2004; Okada et al., 2004). We also used data from stations of Tohoku University, JMA, and Hi-net during the period from 1997 to 2003. Note that we have included events within the subducting Pacific slab in the tomography inversion to increase the resolution of the lower crust structure. In the focal area of the 2003 northern Miyagi earthquake, we obtain a steeply westward-dipping aftershock alignment, which shows the high dip angle of the reverse faulting (dip ~ 50 degree). We also obtain the low-velocity hanging-wall and the high-velocity footwall, consistent with the previous results of Okada et al. (Tectonophysics, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2006.11.001). We infer that the 2003 northern Miyagi earthquake occurred along a fault that acted as a normal fault in the Miocene and has been reactivated as a reverse (unfavorably oriented) fault under the present compressional stress regime. The large slip area by the main shock rupture (asperity) corresponds to an area with relatively high velocity. We also obtain a distinct low-velocity area in the lower crust

  6. Increased multidecadal hydroclimate variability over northern France during the past 500 years, and its relation to large-scale atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieppois, Bastien; Lawler, Damian; Slonosky, Victoria; Massei, Nicolas; Bigot, Sylvain; Fournier, Matthieu; Durand, Alain

    2016-04-01

    We examine secular changes and multidecadal climate variability on a seasonal scale in northern France over the last 500 years and examine the extent to which they are driven by large-scale atmospheric variability. Multiscale trend analysis and segmentation procedures show statistically significant increases of winter and spring precipitation amounts in Paris since the end of the 19th century. This changes the seasonal precipitation distribution from one with a pronounced summer peak at the end of the Little Ice Age to an almost uniform distribution in the 20th century. This switch is linked to an early warming trend in winter temperature. Changes in spring precipitation are also correlated with winter precipitation for time scales greater than 50 years, which suggests a seasonal persistence. Hydrological modelling results show similar rising trends in river flow for the Seine at Paris. However, such secular trends in the seasonal climatic conditions over northern France are substantially modulated by irregular multidecadal (50-80 years) fluctuations. Furthermore, since the end of the 19th century, we find an increasing variance in multidecadal hydroclimatic winter and spring, and this coincides with an increase in the multidecadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability, suggesting a significant influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. However, multidecadal NAO variability has decreased in summer. Using Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis, we detect multidecadal North Atlantic sea-level pressure anomalies, which are significantly linked to the NAO during the Modern period. In particular, a south-eastward (south-westward) shift of the Icelandic Low (Azores High) drives substantial multidecadal changes in spring. Wetter springs are likely to be driven by potential changes in moisture advection from the Atlantic, in response to northward shifts of North Atlantic storm tracks over European regions, linked to periods of positive NAO. Similar

  7. Variations of leaf N, P concentrations in shrubland biomes across northern China: phylogeny, climate and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Chi, X.; Ji, C.; Liu, H.; Ma, W.; Mohhammat, A.; Shi, Z.; Wang, X.; Yu, S.; Yue, M.; Tang, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are key leaf traits in ecosystem functioning and dynamics. Foliar stoichiometry varies remarkably among life forms. However, previous studies have focused on trees and grasses, leaving the knowledge gap for the stoichiometric patterns of shrubs. In this study, we explored the intra- and interspecific variations of leaf N and P concentration in relation to climate, soil property and evolutionary history based on 1486 samples composed of 163 shrub species from 361 shrubland sites in northern China expanding 46.1° (86.7-132.8° E) in longitude and 19.8° (32.6-52.4° N) in latitude. The results showed that leaf N concentration decreased with precipitation, leaf P concentration decreased with temperature and increased with precipitation and soil P concentration. Both leaf N and P concentrations were phylogenetically conserved, but leaf P concentration was less conserved than leaf N concentration. At community level, climates explained more interspecific, while soil nutrient explained more intraspecific, variation of leaf nutrient concentrations. These results suggested that leaf N and P concentrations responded to climate, soil, and phylogeny in different ways. Climate influenced the community chemical traits through the shift in species composition, whereas soil directly influenced the community chemical traits.

  8. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 μg⋅L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 μg⋅L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (<0.45 μm) of 2.7 ± 0.9 μg⋅L(-1), which is significantly higher than the world-average baseline for river water (0.83 μg⋅L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)⋅s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons⋅year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary. PMID:24388820

  9. Remote sensing of chlorophyll concentrations in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trees, Charles C.; El-Sayed, Sayed Z.

    1986-01-01

    During a 17 month period (November 1978 - March 1980), phytoplankton pigment concentrations were remotely sensed in the northern Gulf of Mexico using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). A total of 29 CZCS orbits were processed into pigment (chlorophyll a + phaeopigments) images and then geometrically warped to a Mercator projection. A correction factor of 1.67 was applied to the pigment concentrations to correct for the tendency of the standard fluorometric method to underestimate chlorophyll a concentrations. The spatial and temporal distributions of pigment fronts were quite variable during this time series. Constant features observed throughout the pigment imagery were the entrainment of coastal waters offshore. The most extensive entrainments occurred during intrusions of the Loop Current. For the 17 month survey, the mean HPLC-corrected pigment concentration was 3.30 + or - 1.45 mg/cu m.

  10. Determination of uranium concentration in ground water samples of Northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaropoulos, I.; Efstathiou, M.; Pashalidis, I.; Ioannidou, A.

    2012-04-01

    The activity concentration of 238U and 234U has been determined in groundwater samples of hot springs and deep wells from the region of Northern Greece. The analysis was performed by alpha spectroscopy after pre-concentration and separation of uranium by cation exchange (Chelex 100 resin) and finally its electro-deposition on stainless steel discs. The uranium concentration in deep wells and springs varies strongly between 0.15 and 7.66 μg l-1. Generally the springs present higher uranium concentration than the deep wells, except of the Apol-lonia spring, which has shown the lowest value of 0.15 mg l-1. 238U and 234U activity concentration ranged between 1.8-95.3 mBq l-1 and 1.7-160.1 mBq l-1, respectively. The obtained isotopic ratio 234U/238U varies between 0.95 and 1.74 which means that the two isotopes are not in radioactive equilibrium. The highest 234U/238U activity ratio values correspond to the Langada springs, indicating most probably old-type waters. On the other hand, ground waters from wells with relatively low uranium activity concentration and low 234U/238U isotopic ratios, point to the presence of younger waters with a stronger contribution of a local recharge component to the groundwater.

  11. Influence of atmospheric stability and transport on CH4 concentrations in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    García, M Ángeles; Sánchez, M Luisa; Pérez, Isidro A; Ozores, Marta I; Pardo, Nuria

    2016-04-15

    Continuous methane (CH4) concentrations were measured in Northern Spain over two years (2011-2012) by multi-point sampling at 1.8, 3.7 and 8.3m using a Picarro analyser. The technique is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The contrast in mean concentrations was about 1.2ppb, with 95th percentiles differing by 2.2ppb and mean minimum concentrations proving similar. Temporal variations of CH4 were also analysed, with a similar seasonal variability being found for the three heights. The highest CH4 concentrations were obtained in late autumn and winter and the lowest in summer, yielding a range of 52ppb. This variation may depend on the active photochemical reaction with OH radical during a period of intense solar radiation and changes in soil conditions together with variations in emissions. Peak concentration levels were recorded at night-time, between 5:00-7:00 GMT, with mean values ranging between 1920 and 1923ppb. The lowest value, around 1884ppb, was obtained at 16:00 GMT. This diurnal variation was mainly related to vertical mixing and photochemistry. Therefore, CH4 concentrations were also examined using the bulk Richardson number (RB) as a stability indicator. Four groups were distinguished: unstable cases, situations with pure shear flow, transitional stages and drainage flows. The highest contrast in mean CH4 concentrations between lower and upper heights was obtained for the transition and drainage cases, mainly associated to high concentrations from nearby sources. The impact of long range transport was analysed by means of 3-day isobaric backward air mass trajectories, which were calculated taking into account origins from Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and Local conditions. Assessment of the results showed the influence of S and SE wind sectors, especially with Local conditions associated with low winds. Finally, an estimation of the background CH4 concentration in the study period provided an average value of about 1892ppb. PMID:26815292

  12. Background concentrations of radionuclides in soils and river sediments in northern New Mexico, 1974-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Buhl, T.E.; Maes, M.N.; Brown, F.H.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the range and the upper limit for background concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivity in soils and river sediments that occur as natural rock-forming minerals and worldwide fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. Documentation is based on the collection of soil and sediment in northern New Mexico and analyzed for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239,240/Pu, /sup 90/Sr, total uranium, gross gamma, and tritium. The data used to establish the statistical range and upper limit of background concentration cover a 9- or 13-year period ending in 1986. The knowledge of background levels is necessary to interpret soil and sediment data collected for the annual environmental surveillance report and other reports relating to radionuclides or radioactivity in soils and sediments. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (˜3300 μg/g) was 2-3 times higher than that of perch and pike (˜1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (˜450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (˜60 μg/g) than those of pike (˜30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

  14. Attributing the wet Winter season 2013/14 in Southern UK and Northern France using circulation analogues statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radanovics, Sabine; Hempelmann, Nils; Yiou, Pascal; Vautard, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Winter season 2013/14 was characterised by frequent storms and record breaking seasonal precipitation sums in Southern UK, causing severe flooding. High precipitation anomalies were likewise observed in Northwestern France and Slovenia for example. Assuming that such high impact events occur under specific atmospheric circulation configurations, circulation analogues are studied here. We present a method that consists of analysing distance statistics from the circulation analogue computation and precipitation simulations using observed precipitation (gridded EOBS data and station observations) on analogue days. This method allows to compare the probabilities of finding good circulation analogues for days with heavy precipitation or strong winds during different historic periods using reanalysis data. An increasing probability of finding good analogues for those days over time can then be interpreted as an increase in the probability of occurrence of such events in terms of circulation, whereas a change in precipitation drawn from different historic periods, given a constant probability of finding good circulation analogues, can be attributed to changes in the thermodynamics. The Winter season 2013/14 had an unusually high number of days with high zonal index over the North Atlantic, but no significant trend in the zonal index or its persistence was detected in the reanalysis data. We found no change in the probability of finding good analogues for the winter days 2013/14 over different historic periods. Despite high uncertainties related to the choice of the distance metric and the precipitation resampling methodology, we found consistently higher simulated precipitation when analogues were drawn from more recent years. We found further an increase of precipitation return level for same return times in an ensemble of bias corrected EURO-CORDEX projections for the 21st century under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. We conclude that it is likely that this precipitation event

  15. Petroleum statistics in France

    SciTech Connect

    De Saint Germain, H.; Lamiraux, C.

    1995-08-01

    33 oil companies, including Elf, Exxon, Agip, Conoco as well as Coparex, Enron, Hadson, Midland, Hunt, Canyon and Union Texas are present in oil and gas exploration and production in France. The production of oil and gas in France amounts to some 60,000 bopd of oil and 350 MMcfpd of marketed natural gas each year, which still accounts for 3.5% and 10% for French domestic needs, respectively. To date, 166 fields have been discovered, representing a total reserve of 3 billion bbl of crude oil and 13 trillion cf of raw gas. These fields are concentrated in two major onshore sedimentary basins of Mesozoic age, which are the Aquitaine basin and the Paris basin. The Aquitaine basin should be subdivided into two distinct domains: The Parentis basin where the largest field Parentis was discovered in 1954 with still production of about 3700 bopd of oil and where Les Arbouslers field, discovered at the end of 1991, is currently producing about 10,000 bopd of oil. The northern Pyrenees and their foreland, where the Lacq field, discovered in 1951, has produced about 7.7 tcf of gas since 1957, and is still producing 138 MMcfpd. In the Paris basin, the two large oil fields are Villeperclue discovered in 1982 by Triton and Total, and Chaunoy, discovered in 1983 by Essorep, which are still producing about 10,000 and 15,000 bopd, respectively. The last significantly sized discovery occurred in 1990 with Itteville by Elf Aquitaine which is currently producing 4,200 bopd. The poster shows statistical data related to the past 20 years of oil and gas exploration and production in France.

  16. Recent trends in chloride and sodium concentrations in the deep subalpine lakes (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rogora, Michela; Mosello, Rosario; Kamburska, Lyudmila; Salmaso, Nico; Cerasino, Leonardo; Leoni, Barbara; Garibaldi, Letizia; Soler, Valentina; Lepori, Fabio; Colombo, Luca; Buzzi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A growing concern exists about the effects of chloride (Cl) on freshwater systems. Increasing Cl concentrations have been observed in the last few decades in several rivers and lakes, mainly in northern countries. In Italy, present levels and temporal changes of sodium (Na) and Cl in water bodies have rarely been assessed. Based on long-term data for the lakes of the subalpine district in Italy (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda), we analyzed trends affecting Cl and Na concentrations during the last 25 years, with the aim of identifying temporal changes and assessing possible causes. An in-depth analysis is presented for Lake Maggiore. Positive temporal Na and Cl trends were evident in all studied lakes, with the trends increasing since early 2000s. Data for Lake Maggiore tributaries showed a clear seasonality (higher values in winter and early spring). The NaCl used as road de-icing agent, together with Cl discharge from wastewater treatment plants, were identified as the main causes for the observed trends. Chloride concentrations in the lakes are below the threshold limit for reduced water quality and below concentrations known to harm aquatic biota. However, considering the relevance of deep subalpine lakes, representing almost 80% of the total freshwater volume in Italy, these trends indicate an important chemical change, which warrants further analysis. PMID:26233742

  17. Coupling fracture facies with in-situ permeability measurements to generate stochastic simulations of tight carbonate aquifer properties: Example from the Lower Cretaceous aquifer, Northern Provence, SE France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruna, Pierre-Olivier; Guglielmi, Yves; Viseur, Sophie; Lamarche, Juliette; Bildstein, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    The relationships between fracture facies and permeability distribution have been explored using a well-constrained 3D implicit structural model of hemipelagic low porosity/low permeability carbonate from the Northern Provence region, SE France. Fracture and permeability facies were determined using an extensive dataset of 99 hydrogeological wells. Data processing was undertaken using a step-by-step approach, involving: (i) identification of the fracture facies based on well logs detailing structure and stratigraphy; (ii) determination of permeability facies from the a priori correlation between the dimension of the hydraulic radius of influence (deduced from slug test analyses) and the type of reservoir heterogeneity (fissure, fracture, fault zone, etc.); (iii) three dimensional plot of fracture and permeability facies in the geological model using a variographic analysis of data. Thirty-three sequential indicator simulations (SIS) based on geostatistic analyses were realised on both fracture and permeability facies. Finally, a connectivity algorithm was developed to compute the probability of connection between selected infiltration areas and the major aquifer springs via moderate- to high-permeability geological bodies. Key results are: (i) fault zones have a greater role in controlling permeability facies distribution than on fracture facies repartition; (ii) there is little correlation between permeability and fracture facies distributions; (iii) connectivity results highlight the compartmentalisation of aquifers in the Cadarache area, the extensions of permeable geological bodies being limited by the N130 faults.

  18. Coupling fracture facies with in situ permeability measurements to generate stochastic simulations of tight carbonate aquifer properties: example from the Lower Cretaceous aquifer, Northern Provence, SE France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruna, Pierre-Olivier; Guglielmi, Yves; Viseur, Sophie; Lamarche, Juliette

    2015-04-01

    The relationships between fracture facies and permeability distribution have been explored using a well-constrained 3D implicit structural model of hemipelagic low porosity/low permeability carbonate from the Northern Provence region, SE France. Fracture and permeability facies were determined using an extensive dataset of 99 hydrogeological boreholes wells. Data processing was undertaken using a step-by-step approach, involving: i) identification of the fracture facies based on well logs detailing structure and stratigraphy ; ii) determination of permeability facies from the a priori correlation between the dimension of the hydraulic radius of influence (deduced from slug test analyses) and the type of reservoir heterogeneity (fissure, fracture, fault zone, etc.); iii) three dimensional plot of fracture and permeability facies in the geological model using a variographic analysis of data. Thirty-three sequential indicator simulations (SIS) were realised on both fracture and permeability facies. Finally, a connectivity algorithm was developed to compute the probability of connection between selected infiltration areas and the major aquifer springs via moderate-to high-permeability geological bodies. Key results are: i) fault zones have a greater role in controlling permeability facies distribution than on fracture facies repartition; ii) there is little correlation between permeability and fracture facies distributions ; iii) connectivity results highlight the compartmentalization of aquifers in the Cadarache area, the extensions of permeable geological bodies being limited by the N130 faults.

  19. Trophic ecology in a Northern Brittany (Batz Island, France) kelp ( Laminaria digitata) forest, as investigated through stable isotopes and chemical assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the relationships between the food web's structure and the nutritive value of basal food sources in a Northern Brittany (France) Laminaria digitata bed. Stable isotopes were used to identify the food sources consumed by benthic invertebrates, and the nutritive value of primary producers was assessed according to four descriptors (total organic matter, C/N ratio, proteins content, lipids content). Although the food web appeared to be based on a wide diversity of food sources, only Rhodophyta (red algae) and biofilms (epilithic and epiphytic) were heavily consumed by grazers. In contrast, Phaeophyta (brown algae), which are dominant in this habitat, have no specialized grazer (with the exception of Helcion pellucidum, specialized grazer of Laminaria digitata). This selective consumption may be related to the higher protein content and lower C/N ratio of Rhodophyta and biofilms, in comparison with Phaeophyta. Fresh brown algae are thus of poor nutritive value, but processes associated with their degradation are likely to improve this nutritive value, leading in the assimilation of detritus by filter-feeders, revealed by high δ13C in these consumers. Our results thus suggest that the nutritive value of basal food sources may be an important factor involved in the structuration of kelp-associated food webs.

  20. The F4 tornado of August 3, 2008, in Northern France: Case study of a tornadic storm in a low CAPE environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesolek, Emmanuel; Mahieu, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    A strong tornado hit seven cities of northern France in the late evening of Sunday, 3 August 2008, causing severe damage along its 19 km path from Pont-sur-Sambre to Boussois. Three people were killed in the collapse of their house and 18 were injured. More than 1000 houses were damaged and several thousand trees were uprooted or fallen down. The authors led a damage survey in the hours that followed the disaster, then investigated this case, in order to determine the characteristics of this tornado precisely and to better understand the conditions that led to its formation. Weather radar analysis shows that the convective cell that gave rise to the tornado took on a fairly pronounced S-shaped structure, with a persistent mesocyclone in the central part of the convective system. The synoptic and mesoscale pattern associated with this severe storm was very dynamic, and characterized by a coupling between a low-level jet and a highly divergent jet-stream. The authors have reconstructed a vertical profile for this case study, in order to describe the tornadic environment precisely. The reconstructed profile reveals two main elements, namely an environment having a very modest vertical instability on one hand, and the presence of intense wind shear, notably in the lowest layers of the atmosphere on the other hand. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of many instability and shear parameters.

  1. High concentrations of heavy metals in neighborhoods near ore smelters in northern Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Benin, A L; Sargent, J D; Dalton, M; Roda, S

    1999-01-01

    In developing countries, rapid industrialization without environmental controls has resulted in heavy metal contamination of communities. We hypothesized that residential neighborhoods located near ore industries in three northern Mexican cities would be heavily polluted with multiple contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) and that these sites would be point sources for the heavy metals. To evaluate these hypotheses, we obtained samples of roadside surface dust from residential neighborhoods within 2 m of metal smelters [Torreón (n = 19)] and Chihuahua (n = 19)] and a metal refinery [Monterrey (n = 23)]. Heavy metal concentrations in dust were mapped with respect to distance from the industrial sites. Correlation between dust metal concentration and distance was estimated with least-squares regression using log-transformed data. Median dust arsenic, cadmium, and lead concentrations were 32, 10, and 277 microg/g, respectively, in Chihuahua; 42, 2, and 467 microg/g, respectively, in Monterrey, and 113, 112, and 2,448 microg/g, respectively, in Torreón. Dust concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly higher around the active smelter in Torreón, where more than 90% of samples exceeded Superfund cleanup goals. At all sites, dust concentrations were inversely related to distance from the industrial source, implicating these industries as the likely source of the contamination. We concluded that residential neighborhoods around metal smelting and refining sites in these three cities are contaminated by heavy metals at concentrations likely to pose a health threat to people living nearby. Evaluations of human exposure near these sites should be conducted. Because multiple heavy metal pollutants may exist near smelter sites, researchers should avoid attributing toxicity to one heavy metal unless others have been measured and shown not to coexist. Images Figure 1 Figure 2-3 Figure 4-5 Figure 6-7 Figure 8 PMID:10090706

  2. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations

  3. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies

    PubMed Central

    Malca-García, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Chait, G.; Díaz, D.; Pourmand, K.; Jonat, B.; Somogy, S.; Guardado, G.; Aguirre, C.; Chan, R.; Meyer, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.; Effio-Carbajal, J.; Frías-Fernandez, F.; Benito, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as “inflammation”. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and methods The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. Results The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against E. coli and 38 extracts against S. aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of <4mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. Conclusions The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. PMID:20678568

  4. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively. PMID:21642647

  5. Particulate flux calculation based on metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations relationship: case study of turbid alpine river (Isere, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutordoir, Solene; Nemery, Julien; Guedron, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jérémy; Minaudo, Camille; Belleudy, Philippe; Landas-Maneval, Jacqueline; Rivière, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    In the context of increasing stress on aquatic environment, the improvement of pollutant flux quantification in large rivers presents a strong stake. Isere at Grenoble city (5570 km2) is an alpine river in the Northern French Alps with high suspended sediment transport reaching 10 to 20 g L-1 during floods. It is known that for elements like P, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb, Fe et Al, most of river transport is done under particulate forms. Isere River is susceptible to transport particulate pollutants such as metals, given mining history and industrial activities at the upstream watershed. Moreover, this river receives Grenoble city's effluents (500 000 inhabitants) and stormwaters during rain events. Three metals (Hg, Ni, Pb) identified as priority substances regarding European Water Framework Directive and As known to be one of the most metal of concern were chosen in this study. High frequency samplings of suspended sediments were realized between 2011 and 2012 in order to evaluate the temporal variation of metals contents and to determine geochemical background during high flow periods. In the same sampling site (situated upstream urban effluents of Grenoble city), discharge and suspended sediment concentration by turbidity were measured at 30 min frequency by a monitoring station. The use of historical and new databases ranging between low and high discharge (10 years return flood) allowed determining relationships between metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations and discharges. Results show a good correlation for the studied metals and permit to defined the geochemical backgrounds for each metals measured above 0.5 g L-1, (Hg = 68 +/- 48 ng g-1, Ni = 30 +/- 10 mg g-1, Pb = 43 +/-13 mg g-1, As = 15 +/- 4 mg g-1). These models were validated on a separated period than the one used for the calibration and applied to calculate particulate metals concentrations and associated incertitude at 30 min frequency using SSC and discharge database. Cumulative 30 minutes

  6. [Variation of CO2 concentration in solar greenhouse in Northern China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Xing, Yuxian; Wang, Xiufeng; Ma, Hong

    2003-03-01

    The variation of CO2 concentration in winter-spring cultivated solar greenhouse in northern China was studied. The diurnal change of CO2 concentration showed an irregular 'U' shape in most case, the maximum value appeared prior to unveiling straw mat in the morning, and the minimum between 12:00 and 14:00 PM. Sometimes, an irregular 'W' shape curve with two valleys was also observed, with the first one appeared prior to the ventilation at noon, and the second occurred between 15:00-16:30 PM. During the period of winter-spring cultivation, the daily maximum concentration of CO2 in solar greenhouse decreased gradually, while the daily minimum concentration and daytime average concentration dropped first, then went up. At the same time, the time of CO2 depletion lasted longer and longer. In December, CO2 depletion happened 2.1-3.1 hours after morning unveiling. In the next March, however, it moved up to 0.6-1.1 hours after unveiling in the morning. At daytime, both during and after ventilation, solar greenhouse often showed CO2 depletion. The period of CO2 depletion extended from 4-5.8 hours per day in December to 8-8.5 hours per day in March of next year. The spacial distribution of CO2 concentrations within the greenhouse showed that in the morning and in the evening, the order was the front > the middle > the back, and the ground > the canopy > the upper, and at midday, the order was the front < the middle < the back, and the ground > the upper > the canopy. Photon flux density was the most important environmental factor affecting CO2 concentration in greenhouse. Ventilation did not avoided CO2 depletion. Canopy photosynthetic rate and soil respiratory rate were measured at different growth stages of tomato. At seedling stage, CO2 concentration in greenhouse was higher than that outside, due to the vigorous soil respiration and lower canopy photosynthetic rate. But at fruiting stage, severe CO2 depletion occurred because of stronger canopy photosynthesis and weak

  7. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2008-07-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2). We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80% 20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate), EA sources account for approximately 30% 50% (over the Western US) and 10% 20% (over the Eastern US). The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3), and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3). Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m-3 of sulfate originates from EA) over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase). We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be obtained using either sensitivity (i.e., varying emissions from a region to examine the effects on downwind concentrations

  8. Simulations of N2O concentrations for France using ecosystem models, emission databases and an atmospheric transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massad, R. S.; Prieur, V.; Thompson, R.; Schultz, M.; Pison, I.; Bousquet, P.; Schmidt, M.; Lopez, M.; Boukari, E.; Lehuger, S.; Chaumartin, F.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-04-01

    Soils are responsible for a major, although highly uncertain, share of the global emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O fluxes are strongly correlated to soil properties, soil management and local climatic conditions. These controlling factors interact at different temporal and spatial scales making it challenging to asses emissions at a regional level both with measurement and modeling. We used two biogeochemical simulation models CERES-EGC and O-CN to estimate N2O fluxes from agricultural soils over France, and compared them into the regional atmospheric chemistry-transport model CHIMERE (0.25°x0.25° for France). Comparisons between modelled and observed mixing ratios give insights on the quality of the emission scenarios used as input to the model, assuming small transport errors. The maps were tested by comparing CHIMERE simulations with time series of N2O atmospheric mixing ratios measured continuously in two locations over France during the year 2007. In an inverse mode, N2O emissions scenarios are used combination with N2O observed mixing ratios and an atmospheric transport model, to produce optimized emission scenarios. The model used is a global model (LMDZ-INCA, 3.75°x2.5° resolution with a 1°x1° zoom over Europe). For France the O-CN model which only accounts for crops and managed grassland emissions simulates total emissions of 95 Gg N-N2O/yr which are larger than total fluxes inferred from inversions (75 Gg N-N2O/yr). Inverted fluxes are 30% larger when compared to the prior emissions. Concerning CERES-EGC which only accounts for crops, the total emissions for 2007 sum-up to 20.4 Gg N-N2O/yr and are smaller than the total inverted flux.

  9. Large ice-wedge networks and tundra gley horizons in Northern France Upper Pleistocene loess: evidences of extreme cold events and cyclic millennial changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Pierre; Moine, Olivier; Guerin, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Northern France loess-palaeosol sequences from the last interglacial-glacial cycle (Eemian-Weichselian) have been intensely studied during the last 20 years (about 100 individual sequences). Despite thickness variations of the different stratigraphic units, the sequences from the last interglacial-glacial cycle exhibit a particularly constant pedosedimentary pattern, including well-identified pedological and periglacial marker horizons that can be followed north- and eastward in Belgium and Germany. Within this system, new field investigations and luminescence (OSL) datings put in evidence at least four generations of large ice-wedge networks (10-14 m) preserved by loess deposits between ca. 50 and 20 ka. The best- and most systematically preserved network is presently dated at about 31-32 ka according to the OSL ages from its loess infilling. This main ice-wedge cast horizon systematically occurs at the boundary between Middle Pleniglacial brown soil complexes and the base of the Upper Pleniglacial typical loess cover. Consequently, it represents a major stratigraphic marker for correlations in Western Europe. According to recent OSL dating results, the first thick typical loess unit of the Upper Pleniglacial, covering the main ice-wedge cast horizon, has been deposited shortly after GIS-5 interstadial and could be contemporaneous of H3 event in deep-sea cores. In addition, it is shown that all the large ice wedge casts are developed from the surface of a tundra gley horizon (0.3 to 0.5 m in thickness). As it has been previously demonstrated that tundra gley layers were mainly formed during short interstadial events (malacology, sedimentology), a model linking tundra gley horizons, and ice wedges network regarding to DO stadial-interstadial cycles during the last glacial is proposed.

  10. Annual variation of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration observed in the northern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Pearman, G.I.; Hyson, P.

    1981-10-20

    Records of the annual variation of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration at Mauna Loa, Point Barrow, and Weathership P are examined for secular changes. The amplitude of the annual variation appears to have increased in recent years with a best estimate of the rate of change, based on the Mauna Loa data, of 0.45 +- 0.42% yr/sup -1/. This change is discussed in terms of changes in biospheric respiration and photosynthesis and the use of fossil fuels. The analysis does not allow for the separation of several possible causes of amplitude change. However, if the change is interpreted as reflecting enhanced biospheric growth, the effect is equivalent to a 8% change in the net summer uptake of carbon over the years 1959-1978 and to a growth of the northern hemisphere seasonal biosphere of 0.5 x 10/sup 12/ kg of carbon per year. Such a conclusion is consistent with recent inventory studies, which indicate that temperature zone forests have acted as a net sink of about 10/sup 12/ kg of carbon per year in recent decades.

  11. Trace elements in particulate matter from metropolitan regions of Northern China: Sources, concentrations and size distributions.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Li, Xingru; Sun, Ying; Li, Yi; Wentworth, Gregory R; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-12-15

    Public concerns over airborne trace elements (TEs) in metropolitan areas are increasing, but long-term and multi-site observations of size-resolved aerosol TEs in China are still lacking. Here, we identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric TEs in megacities and industrial sites in a Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration relative to background areas, with the annual mean values of As, Pb, Ni, Cd and Mn exceeding the acceptable limits of the World Health Organization. Despite the spatial variability in concentrations, the size distribution pattern of each trace element was quite similar across the region. Crustal elements of Al and Fe were mainly found in coarse particles (2.1-9 μm), whereas the main fraction of toxic metals, such as Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, was found in submicron particles (<1.1 μm). These toxic metals were enriched by over 100-fold relative to the Earth's crust. The size distributions of Na, Mg, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo and Ba were bimodal, with two peaks at 0.43-0.65 μm and 4.7-5.8 μm. The combination of the size distribution information, principal component analysis and air mass back trajectory model offered a robust technique for distinguishing the main sources for airborne TEs, e.g., soil dust, fossil fuel combustion and industrial emissions, at different sites. In addition, higher elemental concentrations coincided with westerly flow, indicating that polluted soil and fugitive dust were major sources of TEs on the regional scale. However, the contribution of coal burning, iron industry/oil combustion and non-ferrous smelters to atmospheric metal pollution in Northern China should be given more attention. Considering that the concentrations of heavy metals associated with fine particles in the target region were significantly higher than those in other Asian sites, the implementations of strict environmental standards in China are required to reduce the amounts of these hazardous pollutants released into the atmosphere. PMID

  12. Characterizing adsorptive properties and DOC concentrations in soils of Northern European Russian tundra and taiga.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; Temminghoff, Erwin; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2010-05-01

    Subarctic river basins have an enormous potential to mobilize and transport terrestrial OC to the Arctic Ocean, because 23-48% of the worlds soils organic carbon (SOC) is stored in the high latitude region. Currently the Arctic drainage basin (~24 x 106 km2) processes about 11% of the global dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is exported to the ocean. About 10-25% of annual C input to the organic surface layer with litter is leached from the organic surface layers. As climate changes, the amount and chemical composition of DOC exported from these basins are expected to change. Adsorption of DOC on mineral phases is the key geochemical process for the release and removal of DOC from this potentially soluble carbon pool. Most DOC leached from organic horizons is adsorbed and retained in the subsoils. The adsorption depends much on the content of sesquioxides and amount of carbon previously accumulated in soils. Besides adsorption, polyvalent metal ions in solution, such as Al and Ca, can cause precipitation of DOC. Along with the decrease of DOC concentrations on its passage through mineral soil, there are major biochemical alterations of DOC composition. Hydrophobic compounds (humic and fulvic acids) of high molecular weight that are rich in acidic functional groups and aromatic compounds adsorb most strongly. Hydrophilic compounds can contribute to DOC adsorption but are also easily desorbed because of the weaker bonding strength. The aim of this study was to characterize the DOC concentrations and their chemical composition as well as the DOC adsorptive properties of soils found in a tundra and taiga catchment of Northern Russia. We sampled soil and soil solution from two catchments in the Komi Republic of European Northern Russia: a tundra (67N/62E) and a taiga (62N/50E). The soil samples were analysed for total organic carbon (Ct) and the content of sequioxides. By extracting soil samples with water we got an impression of the potentially extractable organic

  13. Contrasting isotopic signatures between anthropogenic and geogenic Zn and evidence for post-depositional fractionation processes in smelter-impacted soils from Northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillot, Farid; Maréchal, Chloe; Morin, Guillaume; Jouvin, Delphine; Cacaly, Sylvain; Telouk, Philipe; Benedetti, Marc F.; Ildefonse, Philippe; Sutton, Steve; Guyot, François; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2011-05-01

    Zinc isotopes have been studied along two smelter-impacted soil profiles sampled near one of the largest Pb and Zn processing plants in Europe located in northern France, about 50 km south of Lille. Mean δ 66Zn values along these two soil profiles range from +0.22 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) to +0.34 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) at the lowest horizons and from +0.38 ± 0.45‰ (2 σ) to +0.76 ± 0.14‰ (2 σ) near the surface. The δ 66Zn values in the lowest horizons of the soils are interpreted as being representative of the local geochemical background (mean value +0.31 ± 0.38‰), whereas heavier δ 66Zn values near the surface of the two soils are related to anthropogenic Zn. This anthropogenic Zn occurs in the form of franklinite (ZnFe 2O 4)-bearing slag grains originating from processing wastes at the smelter site and exhibiting δ 66Zn values of +0.81 ± 0.20‰ (2 σ). The presence of franklinite is indicated by EXAFS analysis of the topsoil samples from both soil profiles as well as by micro-XANES analysis of the surface horizon of a third smelter-impacted soil from a distant site. These results indicate that naturally occurring Zn and smelter-derived Zn exhibit significantly different δ 66Zn values, which suggests that zinc isotopes can be used to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of Zn in smelter-impacted soils. In addition to a possible influence of additional past sources of light Zn (likely Zn-sulfides and Zn-sulfates directly emitted by the smelter), the light δ 66Zn values in the surface horizons compared to smelter-derived slag materials are interpreted as resulting mainly from fractionation processes associated with biotic and/or abiotic pedological processes (Zn-bearing mineral precipitation, Zn complexation by organic matter, and plant uptake of Zn). This conclusion emphasizes the need for additional Zn isotopic studies before being able to use Zn isotopes to trace sources and pathways of this element in surface environments.

  14. Concentric gravity waves over northern China observed by an airglow imager network and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao; Li, Qinzeng; Yue, Jia; Hoffmann, Lars; Straka, William C.; Wang, Cuimei; Liu, Mohan; Yuan, Wei; Han, Sai; Miller, Steven D.; Sun, Longchang; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Weijun; Yang, Jing; Ning, Baiqi

    2015-11-01

    The first no-gap OH airglow all-sky imager network was established in northern China in February 2012. The network is composed of six all-sky airglow imagers that make observations of OH airglow gravity waves and cover an area of about 2000 km east and west and about 1400 km south and north. An unusual outbreak of Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events were observed by the network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. These events were coincidentally observed by satellite sensors from Fengyun-2 (FY-2), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Aqua, and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)/Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP). Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multilevel observations of the CGWs from the stratosphere to the mesopause region. In this paper, two representative CGW events in August 2013 are studied in detail: first is the CGW on the night of 13 August 2013, likely launched by a single thunderstorm. The temporal and spatial analyses indicate that the CGW horizontal wavelengths follow freely propagating waves based on a GW dispersion relation within 300 km from the storm center. In contrast, the more distant observed gravity wave field exhibits a smaller horizontal wavelength of ~20 km, and our analysis strongly suggest this wave field represents a ducted wave. A second event, exhibiting multiple CGWs, was induced by two very strong thunderstorms on 9 August 2013. Multiscale waves with horizontal wavelengths ranging from less than 10 km to 200 km were observed.

  15. Observations of atmospheric methane concentrations and sources at two supersites Tiksi, northern Siberia and Pallas-Sodankylä, northern Finland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, T. J.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Aalto, T.; Lohila, A.; Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Ivakhov, V.; Reshetnikov, A.; Makshtas, A. P.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Uttal, T.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic and Boreal regions are important in the global methane budget mainly because emissions are large from the extensive wetlands. Recently the potential for increased emissions from methane hydrates under sediments at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean has been recognized. Resource exploitation in the Arctic is expanding and includes gas and oil drilling. Together with climate warming, we may expect changes in methane emissions from high northern latitudes. The main tools to probe the effect of this development on atmospheric methane are atmospheric methane observations and local emission measurements by micrometeorological and chamber methods. To better understand emissions at small and large scales, so called supersites have been introduced. At these sites, both atmospheric concentrations and emissions from representative ecosystems, together with suite of other environmental information, are measured continuously. We are running two of these supersites: Pallas-Sodankylä in northern Finland and Tiksi in Siberia on the coast of the Laptev Sea. In spite of the fact that both sites are north of the Arctic Circle, environmental conditions differ very much. In northern Scandinavia, climate is relatively marine, and wetland methane emissions are active throughout the year. In continental Tiksi the active layer is 30-80 cm and methane emissions cease during the coldest months when soil temperature is close to -20°C. Air mass advection is either from continental Siberia or from the Siberian seas. Forest and tundra fires are relatively common. At Pallas, advection is from the forested boreal and industrialized areas of Europe or the Norwegian or Barents Sea. In this presentation, we show seasonal variations of atmospheric methane concentrations at World Meteorological Organization - Global Atmosphere Watch sites: Pallas-Sodankylä and Tiksi. Source areas have been analyzed by trajectories. The main sources of methane in Tiksi were wetlands and the Laptev Sea, which is

  16. Baseline concentration of ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb in Sargassum from the northern Gulf.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Bebhehani, M

    2015-01-15

    This baseline study highlights the (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in two species of the benthic macroalgae Sargassum from northern Gulf, also known as the ROPME Sea Area (RSA). Within the marine environment, (210)Po is initially absorbed from water and concentrated by phytoplankton and macroalgae, and this concentrated (210)Po can then readily be passed along to the higher trophic level of the marine food web. The (210)Po concentration measured in Sargassum boveanum (22.5-25.6 Bq kg(-1)) was higher than that in Sargassum oligocystum (20.2-22.5 Bq kg(-1)), but is not statistically significant (p>0.064), where as the difference between (210)Pb concentrations in Sargassum boveanum (15.3-16.8 Bq kg(-1)) and Sargassum oligocystum (18.4-22.0 Bq kg(-1)) was statistically significant (p>0.019). The measured concentration factor for (210)Po in Sargassum in the northern Gulf varied between 0.55 and 1.2×10(4), values higher to the IAEA recommended value of 1×10(3). The (210)Po enrichment is observed in both the species of Sargassum,(210)Po/(210)Pb ratio was >1 at all the stations for all the samples. PMID:25440188

  17. On the role of low-permeability beds in the acquisition of F and SO4 concentrations in a multi-layer aquifer, South-West France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malcuit, E.; Atteia, O.; Larroque, F.; Franceschi, M.; Pryet, A.

    2014-11-01

    Fluoride (F-) commonly threatens groundwater quality. This is the case around the city of Bordeaux (France), where numerous wells tapping the thick and complex Eocene aquifer are contaminated by fluoride, which presents an issue for drinking water supply. The joint analysis of the spatial distribution of fluoride with other species like sulfate suggests that concentrations are mainly related to the occurrence of low-permeability layers containing evaporites or fluorite deposits. In order to identify the origin of the observed concentrations, a radial flow and transport model is implemented at the borehole scale. The hydraulic conductivity of the low-permeability layers and the vertical dispersivity of the aquifer were optimized to match the observed values of sulfate and fluoride concentrations. Interestingly, each of these parameters influences differently the simulated concentrations. This model has been successfully implemented to a neighboring well with the same parameter values, which tests the approach. The major conclusions drawn are: (i) the contamination in fluoride originates from the low-permeability layers, (ii) every low-permeability layer intercepted by the well releases fluoride (iii) Contamination not only originates from pore water of low-permeability layers, but may persist with long-term pumping due to mineral dissolution. As a consequence, fluoride contamination is likely to persist for a long time and the only solution to reduce fluoride concentration in abstracted water is to seal well screens facing low-permeability layers.

  18. Latitudinal Patterns of N2O Concentration Variations Over The Northern And Western Pacific For 1992-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishijima, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Aoki, S.; Patra, P. K.; Takigawa, M.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric N2O concentration over the Pacific have been observed by Tohoku university, using commercial ships sailing between Japan and North America and between Japan and Australia or New Zealand since 1991. The N2O concentration showed secular increasing trend and interannual variation at all sampling positions in the Pacific observation, while the seasonal cycle was detected only at northern high latitudes. Longitudinal distributions of the annual mean N2O concentration over the northern pacific were almost flat within 0.2 ppbv, reflecting the atmosphere well-mixed by the westerly and longitudinally even distribution of N2O sources around the northern Pacific. The latitudinal distribution showed clear north- south gradient, in which the northern hemispheric concentration is higher by about 0.8 ppbv, implying the northern hemispheric N2O emission is stronger mainly because of land emissions. Some characteristic patterns caused by surface N2O emissions and by the atmospheric transport in this observation area were seen in the latitudinal distribution. One is a maximum value at 30?N due to local N2O emissions, and the other steep concentration gradient from the equator to 20° S due to SPCZ, which seems to block smooth N2O transport form the north to south hemisphere. The N2O growth rate showed the interannual variation with period of about 3 years and its maximum around 1999-2000 at most positions. The growth rates also tended to present their phase propagations from west to east in the northern Pacific, and from low to high latitudes in the western Pacific. In order to investigate causes for the interannual variations in terms of surface N2O emissions, correlation factors between climate factors and the N2O growth rate were calculated, for the northern and southern hemisphere. As the results, soil water showed the highest correlation in each hemisphere. That is possibly thought to reflect that N2O emission from soils is the primary factor for the interannual

  19. Particulate matter concentrations for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. Producers may maintain a deep-bedded manure pack (Pack), they may remove all bedding/manure material from the pens weekly (Scrape), or use a combination of management styles...

  20. Variations of leaf N and P concentrations in shrubland biomes across northern China: phylogeny, climate, and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xian; Chi, Xiulian; Ji, Chengjun; Liu, Hongyan; Ma, Wenhong; Mohhammat, Anwar; Shi, Zhaoyong; Wang, Xiangping; Yu, Shunli; Yue, Ming; Tang, Zhiyao

    2016-08-01

    Concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two key traits of plants for ecosystem functioning and dynamics. Foliar stoichiometry varies remarkably among life forms. However, previous studies have focused on the stoichiometric patterns of trees and grasses, leaving a significant knowledge gap for shrubs. In this study, we explored the intraspecific and interspecific variations of leaf N and P concentrations in response to the changes in climate, soil property, and evolutionary history. We analysed 1486 samples composed of 163 shrub species from 361 shrubland sites in northern China encompassing 46.1° (86.7-132.8° E) in longitude and 19.8° (32.6-52.4° N) in latitude. Leaf N concentrations decreased with precipitation, while leaf P concentrations decreased with temperature and increased with precipitation and soil total P concentrations. Both leaf N and P concentrations were phylogenetically conserved, but leaf P concentrations were less conserved than leaf N concentrations. At the community level, climate explained more interspecific variation of leaf nutrient concentrations, while soil nutrients explained most of the intraspecific variation. These results suggested that leaf N and P concentrations responded to climate, soil, and phylogeny in different ways. Climate influenced the community chemical traits through the shift in species composition, whereas soil directly influenced the community chemical traits. New patterns were discovered using our observations on specific regions and vegetation types, which improved our knowledge of broad biogeographic patterns of leaf chemical traits.

  1. Concentrations of metals and trace elements in blood of spectacled and king eiders in northern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Petersen, M.R.; Troy, D.

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, we measured concentrations of arsenic, barium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in blood of adult king (Somateria spectabilis) and spectacled (Somateria fischeri) eiders and duckling spectacled eiders from northern Alaska, USA. Concentrations of selenium exceeded background levels in all adults sampled and 9 of 12 ducklings. Mercury was detected in all adult spectacled eiders and 5 of 12 ducklings. Lead concentrations were above the clinical toxicity threshold in one duckling (0.64 ppm) and two adult female spectacled eiders (0.54 and 4.30 ppm). Concentrations of cadmium and mercury varied between species; barium, cadmium, mercury, and selenium varied between sexes. In female spectacled eiders, mercury concentrations increased during the breeding season and barium and selenium levels decreased through the breeding season. Selenium declined at 2.3 ?? 0.9% per day and levels were lower in spectacled eiders arriving to the breeding grounds in northern Alaska than in western Alaska. The variation in selenium levels between breeding areas may be explained by differences in timing and routes of spring migration. Most trace elements for which we tested were not at levels currently considered toxic to marine birds. However, the presence of mercury and elevated lead in ducklings and adult female spectacled eiders suggests these metals are available on the breeding grounds.

  2. France`s nuclear dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Ignoring worldwide protests, France conducted the first of several scheduled nuclear tests in September. The controversy has overshadowed France`s more important nuclear challenges: maintaining a strong deterrent under a test ban, moving ahead with its proposals for {open_quotes}Europeanization{close_quotes} of that deterrent, and developing a consensus on how nuclear threats should be used in response to those who would brandish other weapons of mass destruction. 1 fig.

  3. Emissions and concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the air of the tropical forest of the Ivory Coast and of temperate regions in France

    SciTech Connect

    Delmas, R.; Baudet, J.; Servant, J.; Baziard, Y.

    1980-08-20

    Atmospheric H/sub 2/S was measured by a fluorometric method (sensitivity 10 ng). In France, for aerated soils the emissions were between 0.8 and 27 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ H/sub 2/S (average 5 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/). The soil temperature is an important factor governing this emission. The H/sub 2/S concentrations in the air ranged from 0.017 to 0.17 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ (average 0.080 ..mu..g m/sup -3/). In the Ivory Coast the H/sub 2/S emissions were estimated between 30 and 300 ..mu..g m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/. The measured concentrations of H/sub 2/S in the air at ground level ranged from 0.10 to 8.7 ..mu..g m/sup -3/. The relative importance of the measured emissions for anoxic soils of the humid equatorial forests in the global S cycle is discussed.

  4. Concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface coastal sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coastal sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico have a high potential of being contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), due to extensive petroleum exploration and transportation activities. In this study we evaluated the spatial distribution and contamination sources of PAHs, as well as the bioavailable fraction in the bulk PAH pool, in surface marsh and shelf sediments (top 5 cm) of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Results PAH concentrations in this region ranged from 100 to 856 ng g−1, with the highest concentrations in Mississippi River mouth sediments followed by marsh sediments and then the lowest concentrations in shelf sediments. The PAH concentrations correlated positively with atomic C/N ratios of sedimentary organic matter (OM), suggesting that terrestrial OM preferentially sorbs PAHs relative to marine OM. PAHs with 2 rings were more abundant than those with 5–6 rings in continental shelf sediments, while the opposite was found in marsh sediments. This distribution pattern suggests different contamination sources between shelf and marsh sediments. Based on diagnostic ratios of PAH isomers and principal component analysis, shelf sediment PAHs were petrogenic and those from marsh sediments were pyrogenic. The proportions of bioavailable PAHs in total PAHs were low, ranging from 0.02% to 0.06%, with higher fractions found in marsh than shelf sediments. Conclusion PAH distribution and composition differences between marsh and shelf sediments were influenced by grain size, contamination sources, and the types of organic matter associated with PAHs. Concentrations of PAHs in the study area were below effects low-range, suggesting a low risk to organisms and limited transfer of PAHs into food web. From the source analysis, PAHs in shelf sediments mainly originated from direct petroleum contamination, while those in marsh sediments were from combustion of fossil fuels. PMID:24641695

  5. Comparing plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and metals in primiparous women from northern and southern Canada.

    PubMed

    Curren, Meredith S; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; Adlard, Bryan; Foster, Warren G; Donaldson, Shawn G; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2014-05-01

    The exposure of Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals through the consumption of traditional food items is well recognized; however, less information is available for Canadian immigrants. The direct comparison of blood chemical concentrations for expectant primiparous women sampled in the Inuvik and Baffin regions of the Canadian Arctic, as well as Canadian- and foreign-born women from five southern Canadian centers (Halifax, Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Calgary), provides relative exposure information for samples of northern and southern mothers in Canada. Based on our analyses, Canadian mothers are exposed to a similar suite of contaminants; however, Inuit first birth mothers residing in the Canadian Arctic had higher age-adjusted geometric mean concentrations for several legacy POPs regulated under the Stockholm Convention, along with lead and total mercury. Significant differences in exposure were observed for Inuit mothers from Baffin who tended to demonstrate higher blood concentrations of POPs and total mercury compared with Inuit mothers from Inuvik. Conversely, northern mothers showed a significantly lower age-adjusted geometric mean concentration for a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-153) compared to southern mothers. Furthermore, southern Canadian mothers born outside of Canada showed the highest individual concentrations measured in the study: 1700 μg/kg lipids for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 990 μg/kg lipids for β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Data from Cycle 1 (2007-2009) of the nationally-representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) places these results in a national biomonitoring context and affirms that foreign-born women of child-bearing age experience higher exposures to many POPs and metals than their Canadian-born counterparts in the general population. PMID:24576741

  6. Quantifying the contributions of natural emissions to ozone and total fine PM concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, A.; Christensen, J. H.; Gross, A.; Irannejad, P.; Glasius, M.; Brandt, J.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate estimates of emissions from natural sources are needed for reliable predictions of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) using air quality models. In this study, the large-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model, DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model) is further developed, evaluated and applied to study and quantify the contributions of natural emissions of VOCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, CH4, PM, CO and sea salt to the concentration of ozone and formation of PM2.5 for the year 2006. Natural source categories adopted in the recent model are vegetation, lightning, soils, wild animals and oceans. In this study, the model has been further developed to include more Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) and to implement a scheme for secondary organic aerosols as well as an updated description of sea-salt emissions. Our simulations indicate that in the Northern Hemisphere the contribution from natural emissions to the average annual ozone mixing ratios over land is between 4-30 ppbV. Among the natural emissions, BVOCs are found to be the most significant contributors to ozone formation in 2006, enhancing the average ozone mixing ratio by about 11% over the land areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative contribution of all the natural emissions to ozone is found to be highest in the northern part of South America by about 42%. Similarly, the highest contribution of all the natural sources to total fine particles over land is found to be in South America by about 74% and sea-salt aerosols demonstrated to play the most important role. However, over the rest of the regions in the model domain the largest contribution from the natural sources to PM2.5 in the specific year 2006 is due to wildfires. The contribution from natural emissions to the mean PM2.5 concentration over the land areas in the model domain is about 34%.

  7. Study of natural radionuclide concentrations in an area of elevated radiation background in the northern districts of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hamid, B N; Chowdhury, M I; Alam, M N; Islam, M N

    2002-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials in soil samples from an elevated radiation background area of three northern districts of Bangladesh were determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The outdoor and indoor external effective dose rates and the radiation hazard indices from these soil activities were evaluated. The dose rates were found to be about four times higher than the reported world average value. The concentration of natural radionuclides, derived radium equivalent activities and the representative level indices were also found to be higher. Recommendations on radiological and dosimetric measures have been suggested with an aim of minimising the harmful effects of ionising radiation to the population of the area concerned. PMID:11926374

  8. Dissolved Pesticide and Organic Carbon Concentrations Detected in Surface Waters, Northern Central Valley, California, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2004-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of pesticide mixtures on Chinook salmon under various environmental conditions in surface waters of the northern Central Valley of California. This project was a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California. The project focused on understanding the environmental factors that influence the toxicity of pesticides to juvenile salmon and their prey. During the periods January through March 2001 and January through May 2002, water samples were collected at eight surface water sites in the northern Central Valley of California and analyzed by the USGS for dissolved pesticide and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Water samples were also collected by the USGS at the same sites for aquatic toxicity testing by the Aquatic Toxicity Laboratory at the University of California Davis; however, presentation of the results of these toxicity tests is beyond the scope of this report. Samples were collected to characterize dissolved pesticide and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and aquatic toxicity, associated with winter storm runoff concurrent with winter run Chinook salmon out-migration. Sites were selected that represented the primary habitat of juvenile Chinook salmon and included major tributaries within the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins and the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta. Water samples were collected daily for a period of seven days during two winter storm events in each year. Additional samples were collected weekly during January through April or May in both years. Concentrations of 31 currently used pesticides were measured in filtered water samples using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at the U.S. Geological Survey's organic chemistry laboratory in Sacramento, California. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were analyzed in filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-5000A total organic carbon

  9. Negligible Impact of Ingested Microplastics on Tissue Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Northern Fulmars off Coastal Norway.

    PubMed

    Herzke, Dorte; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Götsch, Arntraut; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Langset, Magdalene; Fangel, Kirstin; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-02-16

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is defined as an indicator species of plastic pollution by the Oslo-Paris Convention for the North-East Atlantic, but few data exist for fulmars from Norway. Moreover, the relationship between uptake of plastic and pollutants in seabirds is poorly understood. We analyzed samples of fulmars from Norwegian waters and compared the POP concentrations in their liver and muscle tissue with the corresponding concentrations in the loads of ingested plastic in their stomachs, grouped as "no", "medium" (0.01-0.21 g; 1-14 pieces of plastic), or "high" (0.11-0.59 g; 15-106 pieces of plastic). POP concentrations in the plastic did not differ significantly between the high and medium plastic ingestion group for sumPCBs, sumDDTs, and sumPBDEs. By combining correlations among POP concentrations, differences in tissue concentrations of POPs between plastic ingestion subgroups, fugacity calculations, and bioaccumulation modeling, we showed that plastic is more likely to act as a passive sampler than as a vector of POPs, thus reflecting the POP profiles of simultaneously ingested prey. PMID:26694206

  10. Measured and predicted environmental concentrations of carbamazepine, diclofenac, and metoprolol in small and medium rivers in northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wibke; Reich, Margrit; Beier, Silvio; Behrendt, Joachim; Gulyas, Holger; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the impact of secondary municipal effluent discharge on carbamazepine, diclofenac, and metoprolol concentrations in small and medium rivers in northern Germany and compared the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) to the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) calculated with four well-established models. During a 1-year sampling period, secondary effluent grab samples were collected at four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) together with grab samples from the receiving waters upstream and downstream from the wastewater discharge points. The carbamazepine, diclofenac, and metoprolol concentrations were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS-MS) after solid phase extraction. In the secondary effluents, 84-790 ng/L carbamazepine, 395-2100 ng/L diclofenac, and 745-5000 ng/L metoprolol were detected. The carbamazepine, diclofenac, and metoprolol concentrations analyzed in the rivers downstream from the secondary effluent discharge sites ranged from <5 to 68, 370, and 520 ng/L, respectively. Most of the downstream pharmaceutical concentrations were markedly higher than the corresponding upstream concentrations. The impact of wastewater discharge on the MECs in rivers downstream from the WWTPs was clearly demonstrated, but the correlations of the MECs with dilution factors were poor. The smallest rivers exhibited the largest maximum MECs and the widest ranges of MECs downstream from the wastewater discharge point. Three of the four tested models were conservative, as they showed higher PECs than the MECs in the rivers downstream from the WWTPs. However, the most detailed model underestimated the diclofenac concentrations. PMID:27465046

  11. Combining AOT, Angstrom Exponent and PM concentration data, with PSCF model, to distinguish fine and coarse aerosol intrusions in Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a cluster analysis of backward air mass trajectories, arriving in Avignon (Southern France), was combined with a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) model on a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution grid, in order to indicate possible aerosol intrusions. A strict triple criterion was constructed from Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), Angstrom Exponent (AE), and PM (PM10 and PM2.5) concentration measurements, aiming to distinguish more effectively Episodes of Fine, Coarse and Overall Aerosols (FAE, CAE and OAE respectively). Large fractions of FAE (60.0%) and CAE (40.6%) were strongly attributed to the prevalence of Eastern and South-Southwest (S-SW) airflows respectively, whereas these distinct trajectory clusters also gathered large fractions of OAE (90.2% cumulatively). According to PSCF results, FAE events were strongly associated with the influence of air masses traveling over North Italy and Southern Germany, hence the impact of urban and industrial combustion was emerged. Main sources of coarse aerosols were principally isolated over the Mediterranean, thus the import of sea spray and dust from the Sahara desert is presumed. Satellite AOT observations were used for a more detailed identification of an intense 5-day intrusion of coarse aerosols. Short range slow moving air mass trajectories, were proven to be a clear marker of atmospheric stagnation, based on a wind speed analysis, triggering the accumulation of locally emitted anthropogenic aerosols (mainly PM2.5) and lack of city ventilation.

  12. Multi-Year Assessment of Toxic Genotypes and Microcystin Concentration in Northern Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lili; Shan, Kun; Lin, Lizhou; Shen, Wei; Huang, Licheng; Gan, Nanqin; Song, Lirong

    2016-01-01

    Lake Taihu is the third-largest freshwater lake in China and has been suffering from cyanobacterial blooms for over two decades. The northern part of the lake, Meiliang Bay, is known to be at high risk of dense and sustained Microcystis blooms and toxins. This study aimed to investigate and record the annual and seasonal dynamics of toxic genotype, Microcystis morphospecies succession and microcystin variation. It also aimed to find out the underlying driving factors influencing the dynamic changes. Microcystin (MC) and the Microcystis genotype were quantified using HPLC and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Our study, over three consecutive years, showed that the pattern of morphospecies succession was seasonally distinct and annually consistent. During the same period in 2012, 2013 and 2014, the average MC were, on dry weight basis, 733 μg·g−1, 844 μg·g−1, 870 μg·g−1, respectively. The proportion of toxic Microcystis accounted for 41%, 44% and 52%, respectively. Cell bound microcystin was found to correlate with the percentage of toxic Microcystis. Based on historical and current data, we conclude that annual bloom toxicity was relatively stable or possibly increased over the last decade. PMID:26784229

  13. Measuring and simulating atmospheric concentration trends of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hayley; Chi Lee, Sum; Wania, Frank; Blanchard, Pierrette; Brice, Ken

    Temporal trend analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) air concentration data measured in the Canadian Arctic and around the Great Lakes in the 1990s has shown that individual PCB congeners decline at different rates in air. The atmospheric decline rate of the same congener also varied from site to site. To determine whether these site-specific variations in atmospheric trends of PCB concentrations are controlled by changes in primary emissions or various removal processes in the environment (transfer to deep sea, freshwater sediment burial, reaction with OH radicals, degradation in media other than air), the measured trends are compared to those simulated by a zonally averaged global fate and transport model using historical emission estimates and realistic and hypothetical environmental scenarios. The modelled decline rates of a specific congener in both the North Polar and the North Temperate zones are similar and mimic closely those of the historical emission estimates fed into the model, suggesting that the rate of decline of PCB air concentrations during the 1990s was mostly driven by declines in primary emission. This implies that measured air concentration data reflect primary PCB emissions as long as these continue. Under the assumption that primary emission completely ceased after 2001, the model predicted that the terrestrial surface media would eventually become the only major global PCB reservoir, and the rate of concentration decline in air then depends solely on that in soil. Also, primary emissions and volatilization from soil, respectively, are the primary input to the atmosphere before and after primary emissions stopped. The model further illustrates that even during periods when primary emissions still dominate PCB air concentrations temperature-driven cycles of air/surface exchange may be observed. Large scale re-distribution of PCBs by the grass-hopper effect can thus also occur while primary emissions are still dominant.

  14. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    PubMed

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas. PMID:25544457

  15. Significance of Indirect Deposition on Wintertime PAH Concentrations in an Urban Northern California Creek

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daekyun; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the main inputs and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into surface water, stream and precipitation samples were collected along an urban tributary to the Sacramento River, California. Dissolved, particulate, and colloid-bound PAHs were monitored four times between October 2004 and March 2005. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 192 to 3784 ng/L in surface water and from 77 to 236 ng/L in precipitation. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene were the most abundant compounds in both rain and surface water. Surface water had truly dissolved PAH concentrations between 18 and 48 ng/L and precipitation had similar values (15–66 ng/L). PAHs larger than four rings were seldom found in the dissolved phase. Colloid-associated PAHs accounted for 4–25% of the total PAHs in rain, while they contributed only 0.1–6% to the total surface water PAHs. Indirect deposition (i.e., washoff of atmospheric particles previously deposited to land) of PAHs into surface water is likely a more significant input pathway for total PAHs than direct dry or wet deposition during the wet season in California's Mediterranean climate. During the sampling period, there was not an obvious seasonal variation in dissolved PAH concentrations of surface water despite an enormous wintertime increase in the total aqueous concentrations. Particulate matter carried by stormwater runoff was the major source of PAHs in surface water in the early rainy season; this material likely represents a combination of indirect atmospheric inputs and other non-atmospheric anthropogenic inputs (e.g., oil leaks and spills). Selected PAH ratios indicate that observed PAHs in rainwater came from pyrogenic sources and those in surface water had more complicated and variable origins. PMID:20485462

  16. Concentrations of trace elements and radionuclides in four fish species from the Black Lake area of northern Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    Future expansion of uranium mines in northern Saskatchewan, as well as the presence of the small abandoned Nisto uranium mine on the north shore of Black Lake, have raised concerns over potential contaminants in fish consumed by local residents. This report presents results of analyses of six fish caught in Black Lake and Stony Lake by local residents and analyzed for radionuclides and trace elements. For comparison, a rainbow trout raised on a British Columbia fish farm was also analyzed. Food chain transfer of radionuclides and other elements was estimated by using concentrations in gastrointestinal tract samples to represent the food source of the fish. Elements analyzed include uranium, radium-226, lead-210, calcium, potassium, mercury, and chromium.

  17. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Colombian slider turtles, Trachemys callirostris, from northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Lina M; Bock, Brian C; Palacio, Jaime A

    2014-05-01

    This study determined the total mercury (THg) concentrations in pectoral muscle, blood and carapace tissue in turtles collected from Magangué and Lorica, Colombia. THg concentrations in μg/g (wet weight) were 0.39 ± 0.16 in muscle, 0.15 ± 0.08 in carapace and 0.07 ± 0.03 in blood for turtles from the Magdalena River and 0.25 ± 0.18 in muscle, 0.14 ± 0.09 in carapace and 0.06 ± 0.04 in blood for turtles from the Sinú River. Twenty-nine and ten percent of turtle muscle samples from Magangué and Lorica, respectively, exceeded the consumption advisory limit of 0.5 μg Hg/g for fish. There was a significant correlation between carapace length and THg levels for this specie, depending on the sample site. In addition, a significant correlation was observed in THg concentrations in carapace and muscle. However, significant differences were observed in the THg levels between the two study locations, with turtles caught in the Magdalena River having higher levels of THg. PMID:24458244

  18. Quantification of DOC concentrations in relation with soil properties of soils in tundra and taiga of Northern European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterwoud, M. R.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

    2010-05-01

    Potential mobilization and transport of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in subarctic river basins towards the oceans is enormous, because 23-48% of the worlds Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is stored in northern regions. As climate changes, the amount and composition of DOC exported from these basins are expected to change. The transfer of organic carbon between soils and rivers results in fractionation of organic carbon compounds. The aim of this research is to determine the DOC concentrations, its fractions, i.e. humic (HA), fulvic (FA), and hydrophilic (HY) acids, and soil characteristics that influence the DOC sorptive properties of different soil types within a tundra and taiga catchment of Northern European Russia. DOC in taiga and tundra soil profiles (soil solution) consisted only of HY and FA, where HY became more abundant with increasing depth. Adsorption of DOC on mineral phases is the key geochemical process for release and removal of DOC from potentially soluble carbon pool. We found that adsorbed organic carbon may desorb easily and can release DOC quickly, without being dependent on mineralization and degradation. Although Extractable Organic Carbon (EOC) comprise only a small part of SOC, it is a significant buffering pool for DOC. We found that about 80-90% of released EOC was previously adsorbed. Fractionation of EOC is also influenced by the fact that predominantly HA and FA adsorbed to soil and therefore also are the main compounds released when desorbed. Flowpaths vary between taiga and tundra and through seasons, which likely affects DOC concentration found in streams. As climate changes, also flowpaths of water through soils may change, especially in tundra caused by thawing soils. Therefore, adsorptive properties of thawing soils exert a major control on DOC leaching to rivers. To better understand the process of DOC ad- and de-sorption in soils, process based soil chemical modelling, which could bring more insight in solution speciation, mineral

  19. Carbon fluxes acclimate more strongly to elevated growth temperatures than to elevated CO2 concentrations in a northern conifer.

    PubMed

    Kroner, Yulia; Way, Danielle A

    2016-08-01

    Increasing temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations will affect tree carbon fluxes, generating potential feedbacks between forests and the global climate system. We studied how elevated temperatures and CO2 impacted leaf carbon dynamics in Norway spruce (Picea abies), a dominant northern forest species, to improve predictions of future photosynthetic and respiratory fluxes from high-latitude conifers. Seedlings were grown under ambient (AC, c. 435 μmol mol(-1) ) or elevated (EC, 750 μmol mol(-1) ) CO2 concentrations at ambient, +4 °C, or +8 °C growing temperatures. Photosynthetic rates (Asat ) were high in +4 °C/EC seedlings and lowest in +8 °C spruce, implying that moderate, but not extreme, climate change may stimulate carbon uptake. Asat , dark respiration (Rdark ), and light respiration (Rlight ) rates acclimated to temperature, but not CO2 : the thermal optimum of Asat increased, and Rdark and Rlight were suppressed under warming. In all treatments, the Q10 of Rlight (the relative increase in respiration for a 10 °C increase in leaf temperature) was 35% higher than the Q10 of Rdark , so the ratio of Rlight to Rdark increased with rising leaf temperature. However, across all treatments and a range of 10-40 °C leaf temperatures, a consistent relationship between Rlight and Rdark was found, which could be used to model Rlight in future climates. Acclimation reduced daily modeled respiratory losses from warm-grown seedlings by 22-56%. When Rlight was modeled as a constant fraction of Rdark , modeled daily respiratory losses were 11-65% greater than when using measured values of Rlight . Our findings highlight the impact of acclimation to future climates on predictions of carbon uptake and losses in northern trees, in particular the need to model daytime respiratory losses from direct measurements of Rlight or appropriate relationships with Rdark . PMID:26728638

  20. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: a historical baseline study.

    PubMed

    Tran, L; Reist, J D; Power, M

    2015-03-15

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67-69°N) and longitudes (136-141°W) between the years 1988-91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ(15)N, and δ(13)C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. PMID:24891097

  1. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    PubMed Central

    Tsunemasa, Noritaka; Yamazaki, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT)) were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation. PMID:24901529

  2. Increasing glucose concentrations and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in northern Sweden, 1990–2007

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Bernt; Stenlund, Hans; Norberg, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes in the world is projected to rise from 2.8% in the year 2000 to 4.4% in 2030, an increase suggesting an ongoing global epidemic of diabetes. Objective To examine time trends in fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations, prevalence and 10-year cumulative incidence of diabetes, and the role of education in these trends. Design Each year the Västerbotten Intervention Programme invites all 40, 50, and 60-year-old individuals to a health survey, which includes a cardiovascular risk factor screening and oral glucose tolerance test. The cross-sectional part of the study is based on health examinations conducted between 1990 and 2007 (n = 102,822). The prospective subset (panel dataset) of the study is based on individuals who have had two health examinations 10 years apart and were not defined as having diabetes at their first health examination (n = 23,546). Results Between 1990 and 2007, the mean population fasting glucose concentration increased 0.5 mmol/L. Comparing the prevalence in 1990–1995 with 2002–2007 demonstrated a significant 44% increase in men (p < 0.001) and a significant 17% increase in women (p<0.001). Socioeconomic status, here represented by education, clearly influenced both prevalence and incidence of diabetes and glucose concentration. In all time periods and in all age groups, individuals with low education were more likely to have or get diabetes. The 10-year risk of developing diabetes was four to five times higher in the oldest age group (50–60 years) compared with the youngest (30–40 years). A 30% reduction in the 10-year risk of developing diabetes was found in women (p<0.001) between 2000–2003 and 2004–2007. Conclusions Despite a clear increase in glucose concentrations and diabetes prevalence between 1990 and 2007, especially in men, there was a decline in the 10-year risk of developing diabetes in women between 2000–2003 and 2004–2007. PMID:21042431

  3. Nearshore concentration of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae in northern Florida bay in relation to nocturnal flood tide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Robblee, M.B.; Browder, Joan A.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    We address the question of whether the low abundance of juvenile pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Burkenroad, 1939) in northern-central Florida Bay results from (i) limiting environmental conditions, (ii) a reduced postlarval transport, or (iii) both. To explore this question, postlarvae were collected during the new moon in both summer and fall of 2004 and 2005 at six stations located on a transect from the bay's western margin to its interior. The highest concentrations of postlarvae occurred at two mid-transect stations located in shallow channels with moderate tidal amplitudes (15-20 cm) and dense seagrass beds. At the two interiormost stations postlarval concentrations decreased together with a reduction of the tidal amplitude (= 1 cm). Estimates of the cumulative flood-tide displacement with the semidiurnal M2 constituent indicated that the tide moves a maximum of 15 km in four nights, a distance that corresponds to the location of the highest concentrations of postlarvae. The size of postlarvae also reached a maximum at the location of the highest concentrations of postlarvae. Results suggest that postlarvae move into the bay's interior by a cumulative flood tidal process, advancing onshore during successive nights as far as they can go with the tide. Analyses indicate that, in addition to the tidal amplitude, cross-shelf wind stress and salinity also affect the concentrations of postlarvae. Peaks of postlarvae occurred at times of low salinity and strong southeasterly winds. While tidal transport appears to be insufficient for postlarvae to reach Florida Bay's interior, salinity and winds may also contribute to the observed distribution patterns of early pink shrimp recruits. ?? 2010 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

  4. Seasonal Control of Surface-Water Dissolved Iron Concentrations by Suspended Particle Concentrations on the Northern Gulf of Alaska Continental Shelf and Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crusius, J.; Schroth, A. W.; Campbell, R.; Cullen, J. T.; Dillman, D.; Resing, J.

    2012-12-01

    The continental shelf region of the northern Gulf of Alaska (GoA) supports a productive ecosystem including an important commercial fishery. Downwelling winds during most of the year imply that some mechanism other than upwelling must be supplying the essential nutrients iron and nitrate. Although it is well known that iron limits productivity offshore in the GoA, we have a poor understanding of the controls on Fe supply. Data from cruises from 2010 provide some new insight into the mechanisms of Fe supply. Cruises were carried out along a transect extending from the mouth of the Copper River to ~40 km beyond the shelf break three times per year including early April, early May, and late July. High-resolution surface-water sampling was carried out, as well as bottle casts at 5 stations. High, fairly uniform concentrations of "total dissolvable iron" (TDFe; unfiltered sample acidified to pH=1.7) as well as "dissolved" Fe (dFe) were observed spanning the shelf in April, suggesting sediment resuspension is an important source of dFe to surface waters at that time. By contrast, high dFe and TDFe concentrations in late July coincide with low-salinity surface water, which in this location indicates a glacial meltwater source. Throughout spring and summer high particle concentrations across much of the shelf appear to "buffer" dFe concentrations to ~3 nmol/kg, which are close to those observed by Lippiatt et al (2010) in the region. This is consistent with dFe concentrations being determined by the organic ligand concentrations that, in turn, are fairly constant. In late July, surface water dFe concentrations are ~0.5 nmol/kg on the outer shelf and up to ~50 km further offshore. These dFe concentrations on the outer shelf are much lower in July than earlier in the year, owing to Fe removal by phytoplankton uptake and by scavenging, as well as by the lack of particulate Fe sources to surface waters in July. However, the high surface-water dFe observed ~50 km beyond the

  5. Concentric Gravity Waves over Northern China Observed by a No-Gap OH Airglow Imager Network and Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Li, Q.; Yue, J.; Hoffmann, L.; Straka, W. C.; Miller, S. D.; Yuan, W.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The first no-gap OH airglow all-sky imager network in the world was established in northern China in February 2012. The network is composed of 6 all-sky airglow imagers that make observations of OH airglow gravity waves and cover an area of about 2000 km east and west and about 1400 km south and north. A comparison of the observations in 2012, 2013, and 2014 are made, which shows that there were more strong thunderstorms take place in 2013 in the northern China and produce more Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events. Especially, a series of CGW events were observed by the network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. These events were also observed by satellite sensors from FY-2, AIRS/Aqua, and VIIRS/Suomi NPP. Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multi-level observations of the CGWs from the stratosphere to the mesopause region. In this talk, two representative CGW events in August 2013 are studied in detail and movies of the two events are displayed. One is the CGW on the night of 13 August 2013, likely launched by a single thunderstorm. The temporal and spatial analyses indicate that the CGW horizontal wavelengths agree with the GW dispersion relation within 300 km from the storm center. A gravity wave with horizontal wavelength of about 20 km propagates horizontally to more than 800 km in the mesopause region, probably due to a ducting layer. Another CGW event was induced by two very strong thunderstorms on 09 August 2013. Multi-scale waves with horizontal wavelengths ranging from less than 10 km to 200 km were observed. Many ripples were found, probably due to the breaking of strong gravity waves with large relative OH intensity perturbations of 10%.

  6. Heavy metal concentrations in northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) from East Fork Poplar Creek and the Little River, East Tennessee, USA.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K R; Campbell, T S; Burger, J

    2005-08-01

    We compared the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the blood, kidney, liver, muscle, and skin of northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) collected from the upper reach of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the United States Department of Energy's (USDOE's) Y-12 National Security Complex with concentrations in tissues of northern water snakes from a reference reach of the Little River downstream from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in East Tennessee. Our objectives were to determine whether concentrations of these metals were higher in tissues of water snakes collected from EFPC compared with the reference site and if northern water snakes were suitable bioindicators of metal contamination. Except for chromium, metal levels were significantly higher in tissues (kidney, liver, muscle, and skin) of EFPC northern water snakes compared with those in tissues of snakes from the reference site. Although female northern water snakes were significantly larger than male snakes, their tissues did not contain significantly higher metal concentrations compared with those from male snakes, possibly because of maternal transfer of metals to eggs. This study was the first to examine the accumulation of contaminants resulting from the operations of the USDOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in snakes. PMID:16001153

  7. Concentrations of iodine isotopes ((129)I and (127)I) and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Riebe, B; Walther, C; Wershofen, H; Schlosser, C; Vockenhuber, C; Synal, H-A

    2016-04-01

    New data about (129)I, (127)I concentrations and their isotopic ratios in aerosol samples from the trace survey station of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Northern Germany, are presented and discussed in this paper. The investigated samples were collected on a weekly basis during the years 2011 to 2013. Iodine was extracted from aerosol filters using a strong basic solution and was separated from the matrix elements with chloroform and was analysed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for (129)I and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for (127)I. The concentrations of (127)I and (129)I in aerosol filters ranged from 0.31 to 3.71 ng m(-3) and from 0.06 to 0.75 fg m(-3), respectively. The results of (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios were in the order 10(-8) to 10(-7). The (129)I originated directly from gaseous emissions and indirectly from liquid emissions (via sea spray) from the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and La Hague. In comparison with the results of (131)I after the Fukushima accident, no contribution of (129)I from this accident was detectable in Central Europe due to the high background originating from the (129)I releases of the European reprocessing plants. (129)I atmospheric activity concentrations were compared with those of an anthropogenic radionuclide ((85)Kr). We did not find any correlation between (129)I and (85)Kr, both having nuclear reprocessing plant as the main source. PMID:26867099

  8. Linking morphology across the glaciofluvial interface: A 10Be supported chronology of glacier advances and terrace formation in the Garonne River, northern Pyrenees, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stange, K. M.; van Balen, R. T.; Kasse, C.; Vandenberghe, J.; Carcaillet, J.

    2014-02-01

    The Garonne River drains an important part of the northern Pyrenees and its northern foreland. We investigated the middle reaches of the Garonne River establishing a detailed morphogenetic profile of its foreland terrace staircase and the preserved palaeoglacier margins. We particularly focussed on the glaciofluvial interface, linking (also genetically) the fluvial sediment archives in the foreland with the terminal glacial basin upstream of the Pyrenees mountain front. Using cosmogenic nuclide 10Be analyses, two terrace exposures have been dated, including a prominent fluvioglacial outwash fan at the foreland transition. We identified three terminal margins of late Pleistocene glacier advances. The prominent Garonne staircase consists of three major terrace complexes, comprising eight individual terrace levels. Results indicate a young age of the lower terrace complex of the Garonne staircase (MIS 4-2). The morphogenetic relationships and the new 10Be exposure age constraints suggest that during the last glaciation (Würmian) the Garonne glacier reached its maximum extent at the north Pyrenean mountain front, apparently already during MIS 4. Two different ice margins were associated with MIS 2, indicating close to maximum ice-extent during early MIS 2 (LGM) and relatively stationary ice-recession in the late MIS 2. The extensive Garonne terrace complexes formed under cold-climate conditions and were abandoned by incision during major glacial-interglacial transitions. During warm-cold climate transitions lateral erosion caused the reworking of previously abandoned palaeofloodplains. The long-term (Quaternary) incision of the Garonne and other north Pyrenean rivers indicates that the proximal Aquitaine foreland basin experienced uplift. However, non-uniform lateral course migrations and valley asymmetries of the north Pyrenean piedmont rivers indicate that uplift magnitude is variable, with maximum amounts in the centre of the molasse-fan of Lannemezan: Rivers on

  9. Analysing the spatial patterns of erosion scars using point process theory at the coastal chalk cliff of Mesnil-Val, Normandy, northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, J.; Dewez, T.

    2015-02-01

    Over the last decade, many cliff erosion studies have focused on frequency-size statistics using inventories of sea cliff retreat sizes. By comparison, only a few paid attention to quantifying the spatial and temporal organisation of erosion scars over a cliff face. Yet, this spatial organisation carries essential information about the external processes and the environmental conditions that promote or initiate sea-cliff instabilities. In this article, we use summary statistics of spatial point process theory as a tool to examine the spatial and temporal pattern of a rockfall inventory recorded with repeated terrestrial laser scanning surveys at the chalk coastal cliff site of Mesnil-Val (Normandy, France). Results show that: (1) the spatial density of erosion scars is specifically conditioned alongshore by the distance to an engineered concrete groyne, with an exponential-like decreasing trend, and vertically focused both at wave breaker height and on strong lithological contrasts; (2) small erosion scars (10-3 to 10-2 m3) aggregate in clusters within a radius of 5 to 10 m, which suggests some sort of attraction or focused causative process, and disperse above this critical distance; (3) on the contrary, larger erosion scars (10-2 to 101 m3) tend to disperse above a radius of 1 to 5 m, possibly due to the spreading of successive failures across the cliff face; (4) large scars significantly occur albeit moderately, where previous large rockfalls have occurred during preceding winter; (5) this temporal trend is not apparent for small events. In conclusion, this study shows, with a worked example, how spatial point process summary statistics are a tool to test and quantify the significance of geomorphological observation organisation.

  10. A hypothesis: the conjunction of soldiers, gas, pigs, ducks, geese and horses in northern France during the Great War provided the conditions for the emergence of the "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.

    PubMed

    Oxford, J S; Lambkin, R; Sefton, A; Daniels, R; Elliot, A; Brown, R; Gill, D

    2005-01-01

    The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 was a cataclysmic outbreak of infection wherein over 50 million people died worldwide within 18 months. The question of the origin is important because most influenza surveillance at present is focussed on S.E. Asia. Two later pandemic viruses in 1957 and 1968 arose in this region. However we present evidence that early outbreaks of a new disease with rapid onset and spreadability, high mortality in young soldiers in the British base camp at Etaples in Northern France in the winter of 1917 is, at least to date, the most likely focus of origin of the pandemic. Pathologists working at Etaples and Aldershot barracks later agreed that these early outbreaks in army camps were the same disease as the infection wave of influenza in 1918. The Etaples camp had the necessary mixture of factors for emergence of pandemic influenza including overcrowding (with 100,000 soldiers daily changing), live pigs, and nearby live geese, duck and chicken markets, horses and an additional factor 24 gases (some of them mutagenic) used in large 100 ton quantities to contaminate soldiers and the landscape. The final trigger for the ensuing pandemic was the return of millions of soldiers to their homelands around the entire world in the autumn of 1918. PMID:15603896

  11. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle fiber type, fiber diameter and myoglobin concentration in the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Colby D.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael J.; Willoughby, Darryn S.; Robbins, Kathleen A.; Kanatous, Shane B.; Trumble, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) (NES) are known to be deep, long-duration divers and to sustain long-repeated patterns of breath-hold, or apnea. Some phocid dives remain within the bounds of aerobic metabolism, accompanied by physiological responses inducing lung compression, bradycardia, and peripheral vasoconstriction. Current data suggest an absence of type IIb fibers in pinniped locomotory musculature. To date, no fiber type data exist for NES, a consummate deep diver. In this study, NES were biopsied in the wild. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle were revealed through succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) based fiber typing. Results indicated a predominance of uniformly shaped, large type I fibers and elevated myoglobin (Mb) concentrations in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of adults. No type II muscle fibers were detected in any adult sampled. This was in contrast to the juvenile animals that demonstrated type II myosin in Western Blot analysis, indicative of an ontogenetic change in skeletal muscle with maturation. These data support previous hypotheses that the absence of type II fibers indicates reliance on aerobic metabolism during dives, as well as a depressed metabolic rate and low energy locomotion. We also suggest that the lack of type IIb fibers (adults) may provide a protection against ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in vasoconstricted peripheral skeletal muscle. PMID:24959151

  12. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Young Adults: Findings From the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dylan M; Palaniswamy, Saranya; Sebert, Sylvain; Buxton, Jessica L; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2016-02-01

    Higher vitamin D status, lower adiposity, and longer telomere length are each reportedly associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. However, direct relationships between vitamin D status (measured by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration), adiposity, and telomere length are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations of 25(OH)D and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with mean relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using data gathered on 5,096 participants from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at age 31 years (1997). 25(OH)D was not associated with LTL in either basic or confounder/mediator-adjusted models. BMI was inversely associated with LTL after adjustment for potential confounding by age, sex, socioeconomic position, physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol intake, and use of oral contraceptives (per 1-unit increase in BMI, mean difference in LTL = -0.4%, 95% confidence interval: -0.6, -0.2). The BMI-LTL association was also independent of 25(OH)D and was attenuated slightly, but remained, after adjustment for C-reactive protein, a marker of low-grade inflammation (mean difference in LTL = -0.3%, 95% confidence interval -0.6, -0.1). These findings suggest that vitamin D status is unlikely to be an important determinant of LTL, at least by young adulthood. Inflammation may partly mediate associations of adiposity with LTL. PMID:26797572

  13. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle fiber type, fiber diameter and myoglobin concentration in the Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Moore, Colby D; Crocker, Daniel E; Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael J; Willoughby, Darryn S; Robbins, Kathleen A; Kanatous, Shane B; Trumble, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) (NES) are known to be deep, long-duration divers and to sustain long-repeated patterns of breath-hold, or apnea. Some phocid dives remain within the bounds of aerobic metabolism, accompanied by physiological responses inducing lung compression, bradycardia, and peripheral vasoconstriction. Current data suggest an absence of type IIb fibers in pinniped locomotory musculature. To date, no fiber type data exist for NES, a consummate deep diver. In this study, NES were biopsied in the wild. Ontogenetic changes in skeletal muscle were revealed through succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) based fiber typing. Results indicated a predominance of uniformly shaped, large type I fibers and elevated myoglobin (Mb) concentrations in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of adults. No type II muscle fibers were detected in any adult sampled. This was in contrast to the juvenile animals that demonstrated type II myosin in Western Blot analysis, indicative of an ontogenetic change in skeletal muscle with maturation. These data support previous hypotheses that the absence of type II fibers indicates reliance on aerobic metabolism during dives, as well as a depressed metabolic rate and low energy locomotion. We also suggest that the lack of type IIb fibers (adults) may provide a protection against ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in vasoconstricted peripheral skeletal muscle. PMID:24959151

  14. Acutely elevated vasopressin increases circulating concentrations of cortisol and aldosterone in fasting northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo; Talamantes, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The physiological actions of vasopressin (VP) in marine mammals are not well defined. To help elucidate its hormonal and renal effects in this group of mammals, northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups (N=7; 99+/-4 kg) were first infused with 0.9% saline (control; 220 ml), followed 24 h later with VP (as a 20 ng kg(-1) bolus, then 2 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for approximately 35 min in 225+/-16 ml saline). During both control and VP periods, blood samples were collected prior to infusion, and 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 24 h after infusion to examine the hormonal responses of the pups to VP. Renal responses were quantified from 24 h urine samples obtained prior to infusion (control) and 24 h post-infusion. Compared to the control period, infusion of VP increased plasma concentrations of cortisol over a 120 min period and aldosterone over 30 min, while plasma renin activity (PRA) was decreased for a 120 min period. The plasma urea:creatinine ratio was elevated following infusion of VP. Urine output and osmotic clearance were increased by 69+/-18% (mean +/- S.E.M.) and 36+/-10%, respectively, but free water clearance and glomerular filtration rate were not significantly altered 24 h post-infusion of VP. Solute (osmolality, Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) excretion and fractional excretion of electrolytes were also increased when compared to control values. The increase in cortisol concentration suggests that VP may possess corticotropin releasing hormone-like activity in elephant seals. If osmotic diuresis and natriuresis are typical consequences of elevated [VP] in fasting pups, then not increasing VP normally during the fast may serve as a protective mechanism to avoid the potential loss of Na(+) induced by elevated [VP]. Therefore, under natural fasting conditions, pups may be highly sensitive to small changes in [VP], resulting in the maintenance of water and electrolyte balance.

  15. Nutrient Budgets in Successional Northern Hardwood Forests: Uncertainty in soil, root, and tree concentrations and pools (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, R. D.; Bae, K.; Levine, C. R.; Lilly, P.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Fatemi, F. R.; Blum, J. D.; Arthur, M.; Hamburg, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem nutrient budgets are difficult to construct and even more difficult to replicate. As a result, uncertainty in the estimates of pools and fluxes are rarely reported, and opportunities to assess confidence through replicated measurements are rare. In this study, we report nutrient concentrations and contents of soil and biomass pools in northern hardwood stands in replicate plots within replicate stands in 3 age classes (14-19 yr, 26-29 yr, and > 100 yr) at the Bartlett Experimental Forest, USA. Soils were described by quantitative soil pits in three plots per stand, excavated by depth increment to the C horizon and analyzed by a sequential extraction procedure. Variation in soil mass among pits within stands averaged 28% (coefficient of variation); variation among stands within an age class ranged from 9-25%. Variation in nutrient concentrations were higher still (averaging 38%, within element, depth increment, and extraction type), perhaps because the depth increments contained varying proportions of genetic horizons. To estimate nutrient contents of aboveground biomass, we propagated model uncertainty through allometric equations, and found errors ranging from 3-7%, depending on the stand. The variation in biomass among plots within stands (6-19%) was always larger than the allometric uncertainties. Variability in measured nutrient concentrations of tree tissues were more variable than the uncertainty in biomass. Foliage had the lowest variability (averaging 16% for Ca, Mg, K, N and P within age class and species), and wood had the highest (averaging 30%), when reported in proportion to the mean, because concentrations in wood are low. For Ca content of aboveground biomass, sampling variation was the greatest source of uncertainty. Coefficients of variation among plots within a stand averaged 16%; stands within an age class ranged from 5-25% CV, including uncertainties in tree allometry and tissue chemistry. Uncertainty analysis can help direct research

  16. Body composition and amino acid concentrations of select birds and mammals consumed by cats in northern and central California.

    PubMed

    Kremen, N A; Calvert, C C; Larsen, J A; Baldwin, R A; Hahn, T P; Fascetti, A J

    2013-03-01

    The diet of the feral domestic cat consists of primarily birds and small mammals, but the nutritional composition is relatively unknown. Because of the increasing popularity of natural diets for cats and other wild captive carnivores, the purpose of this study was to describe the body composition and AA concentrations of select birds and small mammals in northern and central California: wild-caught mice (n = 7), Norway rats (n = 2), roof rats (n = 2), voles (n = 4), moles (n = 2), gophers (n = 3), and birds (n = 4). Body water, crude fat (CFa), CP, ash, and AA composition for each specimen were determined. Results are reported as mean ± SD. All results are reported on a DM basis except body water (as-is basis) and AA (g/16 g N). Combined, carcasses had this mean composition: 67.35 ± 3.19% water, 11.72 ± 6.17% CFa, 62.19 ± 7.28% CP, and 14.83 ± 2.66% ash. Concentrations of Arg, Tau, Cys, and Met were 5.63 ± 0.46, 0.92 ± 0.33, 1.91 ± 0.89, and 1.82 ± 0.19 g/16 g N, respectively. Using NRC physiologic fuel values for CP, CFa, and carbohydrate by difference, the combined average energy content of the carcasses was 3,929 kcal/kg DM, but the fiber content was not determined. With the exception of mice and rats, little historical data exist regarding the body and AA composition of many of the species analyzed in this study. Wild-caught mice and rats were composed of less fat but more ash compared with previously reported data in their purpose-bred counterparts. The CP content of mice in this study was similar to previous reports in purpose-bred mice. The CP content of rats was similar or slightly greater compared with historical findings in purpose-bred rats. The N content of rats and AA concentrations on a per-N basis for both rats and mice were similar to previously published data on purpose-bred rodents. The discrepancies in nutrient composition, especially fat concentration, indicate that using purpose-bred animals to represent the diet of the feral domestic

  17. CONSTRAINTS ON EXHUMATION AND SEDIMENTS PROVENANCE DURING PALEOGENE IN THE NORTHERN PYRENEES (FRANCE) USING DETRITAL AFT, ZHe AND Z(U/Pb) THERMOCHRONOLOGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filleaudeau, P.; Mouthereau, F.; Fellin, M.; Pik, R.; Lacombe, O.

    2009-12-01

    The Pyrenees are a doubly vergent orogenic wedge built by the convergence between the subducting Iberian microplate and the European plate lasting from late Cretaceous to early Miocene. The backbone of the Pyrenean belt (Axial Zone) consists in a stack of thrusts units composed of Paleozoic series intruded by late-Variscan granitoids. Both pro- and retro-wedge sides of the Pyrenees are fold-and-thrust belts made of Meso-Cenozoic sediments thrusted onto the Ebro and Aquitaine foreland basins. The deep structure, highlighted by the ECORS profile, shows a strong asymmetry caused by the southward migration of deformation associated with the development of a Paleogene antiformal stack emplaced during wedge growth in the Iberian plate. The present study focuses on the synorogenic deposits of the retro-foreland basin in the northern part of the belt. To examine the source rocks and quantify the exhumation rates, we combine fission track thermochronometry on detrital apatites with Helium diffusion and U/Pb thermochronometry on zircons. Due to the very high closure temperature of the U/Pb system and the wide range of age distribution, the U/Pb method, that provides zircon crystallisation ages, is a powerful tool to distinguish the various eroded sources feeding the North Pyrenean basin. Thus, we can separate grains coming from Variscan intrusive basement with ages around 310 Ma from younger grains coming from Permian or Triassic to lower Jurassic volcanics. Zircon ages of 220 Ma found in the Paleocene sandstones point to the Triassic volcanic rocks (the so-called “ophites”) as the main source of detrital grains. We infer that Paleozoic units of the Axial Zone were not outcropping in the Paleocene catchments. Exhumation rates are estimated through apatite fission track grain-age distributions and (U-Th)/He dating for two Lutetian and Bartonian synorogenic sandstone samples of the North Pyenean foreland basin. The first results obtained with AFT dating show two main grain

  18. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Young Adults: Findings From the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dylan M.; Palaniswamy, Saranya; Sebert, Sylvain; Buxton, Jessica L.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2016-01-01

    Higher vitamin D status, lower adiposity, and longer telomere length are each reportedly associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. However, direct relationships between vitamin D status (measured by circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration), adiposity, and telomere length are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of associations of 25(OH)D and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) with mean relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using data gathered on 5,096 participants from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at age 31 years (1997). 25(OH)D was not associated with LTL in either basic or confounder/mediator-adjusted models. BMI was inversely associated with LTL after adjustment for potential confounding by age, sex, socioeconomic position, physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol intake, and use of oral contraceptives (per 1-unit increase in BMI, mean difference in LTL = −0.4%, 95% confidence interval: −0.6, −0.2). The BMI-LTL association was also independent of 25(OH)D and was attenuated slightly, but remained, after adjustment for C-reactive protein, a marker of low-grade inflammation (mean difference in LTL = −0.3%, 95% confidence interval −0.6, −0.1). These findings suggest that vitamin D status is unlikely to be an important determinant of LTL, at least by young adulthood. Inflammation may partly mediate associations of adiposity with LTL. PMID:26797572

  19. Evaluation of the anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in sediments and fauna collected in the Beaufort Sea and northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Efurd, D.W.; Miller, G.G.; Rokop, D.J.

    1997-07-01

    This study was performed to establish a quality controlled data set about the levels of radio nuclide activity in the environment and in selected biota in the U.S. Arctic. Sediment and biota samples were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Biological Service, and the North Slope Borough`s Department of Wildlife Management to determine the impact of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic. The results summarized in this report are derived from samples collected in northwest Alaska with emphasis on species harvested for subsistence in Barrow, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for the anthropogenic radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 214}Pb were also measured. One goal of this study was to determine the amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Beaufort Sea. Sediment samples were isotopically fingerprinted to determine the sources of radio nuclide activities. Biota samples of subsistence and ecological value were analyzed to search for evidence of bio-accumulation of radionuclides and to determine the radiation exposures associated with subsistence living in northern Alaska. The anthropogenic radio nuclide content of sediments collected in the Beaufort Sea was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. No other sources of anthropogenic radionuclides could be conclusively identified in the sediments. The anthropogenic radio nuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. Assuming that ingestion of food is an important pathway leading to human contact with radioactive contaminants and given the dietary patterns in coastal Arctic communities, it can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected.

  20. Biogeochemical factors affecting the distribution, speciation, and transport of Hg species in the Deûle and Lys Rivers (Northern France).

    PubMed

    Daye, Mirna; Kadlecova, Milada; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-02-01

    The Deûle River is a highly polluted River by heavy metals caused by the historical discharges of ore minerals from the former ore smelter "Metaleurop." The potential mercury (Hg) pollution in the Deûle River implicates the importance of Hg distribution study in the river. As well as to configure the different biogeochemical factors that control the distribution and the potential transport of Hg to distant places. Four different sites were studied as follows: D-A (Deûle River, a site located upstream the river), D-B (Deûle River, a site located near a Zn, Pb, Cu, and Ni smelter that closed in 2003), L-C (Lys River, a site located upstream the confluence of the Deûle River with Lys River), and L-D (downstream the rivers confluence). Different Hg analyses were performed including total mercury in sediment (HgTS), methylmercury (MeHg) in sediment, total mercury in pore water (HgTPW), total mercury in surface water (HgTD), and total suspended particulate Hg in water (HgTP). HgTS decreases downstream from the Deûle River sites with a mean value of 11 ± 0.34 mg/kg to Lys River site (L-D) with a mean value of 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/kg at the confluence. The unaffected side of the Lys River, localized before the confluence (L-C), is characterized by low HgTS of an average value of 0.042 ± 0.003 mg/kg and high % MeHg reaching 4.2 %. Whereas, the highly contaminated Deûle sites are designated by low % MeHg with an average value of 0.053 %. Low pristine environments like that found in L-C site with more favorable biogeochemical conditions of lower concentrations of HgTS, sulfides, and Corg host more active biotic methylation than that of the highly polluted Deûle sites with high concentrations of HgTS and sulfides concentrations. Methylation in D-B (the closet site to Metaleurop smelter) is an old and recent methylation activity that has contributed to MeHg accumulation in the sediments as opposed to the exclusive recent events of methylation in Lys sites. Me

  1. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  2. Ragweed pollen source inventory for France - The second largest centre of Ambrosia in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibaudon, Michel; Šikoparija, Branko; Oliver, Gilles; Smith, Matt; Skjøth, Carsten A.

    2014-02-01

    France, in particular the Rhône-Alpes region, is one of the three main centres of ragweed (Ambrosia) in Europe. The aim of this study is to develop a gridded ragweed pollen source inventory for all of France that can be used in assessments, eradication plans and by atmospheric models for describing concentrations of airborne ragweed pollen. The inventory combines information about spatial variations in annual Ambrosia pollen counts, knowledge of ragweed ecology, detailed land cover information and a Digital Elevation Model. The ragweed inventory consists of a local infection level on a scale of 0-100% (where 100% is the highest plant abundance per area in the studied region) and a European infection level between 0% and 100% (where 100% relates to the highest identified plant abundance in Europe using the same methodology) that has been distributed onto the EMEP grid with 5 km × 5 km resolution. The results of this analysis showed that some of the highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were recorded at Roussillon in the Rhône-Valley. This is reflected by the inventory, where the European infection level has been estimated to reach 67.70% of the most infected areas in Europe i.e. Kecskemét in central Hungary. The inventory shows that the Rhône Valley is the most heavily infected part of France. Central France is also infected, but northern and western parts of France are much less infected. The inventory can be entered into atmospheric transport models, in combination with other components such as a phenological model and a model for daily pollen release, in order to simulate the dispersion of ragweed pollen within France as well as potential long-distance transport from France to other European countries.

  3. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentration and emission patterns for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mono-slope buildings are one type of roofed and confined cattle feeding facility that is becoming increasingly popular in the Northern Great Plains. In response to questions and concerns about the barn environment and air quality regulations, the objectives of this study were to determine gas concen...

  4. Liver concentrations of copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum in sheep and goats from northern Greece, determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Papachristodoulou, Christina; Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Tsakos, Panagiotis; Vougidou, Christina; Vozikis, Vasileios; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Ioannides, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Energy-dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc, iron and molybdenum in the liver of 76 sheep and goats from the regions of Macedonia-Thrace, northern Greece. In general, metal concentrations were in the adequate range, with one main exception of Cu-deficiency observed in all of the examined goat liver samples and Cu-toxicity found in 4 % of the sheep liver samples. One-way analysis of variance was carried out to determine significant differences among means depending on animal species, sex and age. Pearson correlation analysis was used to explore correlations between metal concentrations. The results obtained in the present study are discussed in the framework of diagnostic ranges, suggested for classifying the metal status of sheep and goats, and are compared with liver metal concentrations reported world-wide. PMID:25694162

  5. Trace-metal concentrations, waters from selected sky lakes, streams and springs, northern Shawangunk Mountains, New York: geologic and ecologic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.D.; Huth, P.C.; Smiley, D.

    1990-01-01

    Reconnaissance sampling and chemical analysis of water from selected lakes, streams and springs of the northern Shawangunk Mountains in 1987 to 1988 to determine the influence of lithology on trace-metal concentrations in surface water, and to establish a base level of concentration of 27 selected metals by ICP-AES and Hg by cold-vapor AAS methods, for geochemical exploration, ecologic, acid-rain, and climatic-change studies, have yielded trace-metal concentrations greater than detection limits for 10 metallic elements. Eighteen additional metallic elements were also present in trace quantities below the quantitative detection limit. Two distinct geochemical populations are related to source lithology and pH. -from Authors

  6. Carbon concentrations of components of trees in 10-year-old Populus davidiana stands within the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Huitao; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Zhang, Xiang; Xu, Quanhong; Yang, Xue; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhao, Yanxia

    2016-03-01

    Most studies do not consider the potential variation in carbon concentration among the different tree components of the same species in regional scale. This study examined the carbon concentrations of the components (i.e., foliage, branch, stem, and root) in a 10-year-old poplar species (Populus davidiana Dode) from the Desertification Combating Program of Northern China. The highest and lowest carbon concentrations were found in the stem and foliage, respectively. There was a significant difference in carbon concentrations among the different tree components. All of the observed carbon concentrations of tree components were lower than those predicted using the conversion factor of 0.5 applied to component biomass. Stem carbon made up 59.7% of the total tree biomass carbon. The power equation estimating proportion of tree biomass carbon against the independent variable of diameter at breast height explained more than 90% of the variability in allocation of carbon among tree components. Tree height, as a second independent variable is also discussed. Our results suggest that the difference in organic carbon concentration among tree components should be incorporated into accurately develop forest carbon budget. Moreover, further investigations on how the diameter at breast height equation developed in the present study performs across broader scales are required.

  7. Historical trends (1998-2012) of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) concentrations in marine sediments at four locations in the Northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Traven, Luka; Furlan, Nikolina; Cenov, Arijana

    2015-09-15

    Historical trends (1998-2012) nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) concentrations in marine sediments were assessed at four locations in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Croatia) in the proximity of an oil refinery. Ecological risks were characterized by benchmarking the dataset against Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG). A significant number of samples had Ni values above ERL with no exceedance of the ERL values for Cu and Cr. Weak positive historical trends were found for only for Cu. At all sites there were statistically significant correlations between Ni and Cr indicating a common origin of these heavy metals in the investigated marine sediments. There were statistically significant differences between the sites under the direct influence of the oil refinery compared to the control site indicating the possibility that the oil refinery is contributing to the concentration of these heavy metals in the marine sediments. PMID:26146134

  8. Seasonal concentrations of organic contaminants at the fall line of the Susquehanna River basin and estimated fluxes to northern Chesapeake Bay, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, G.D.; Lippa, K.A.; Miller, C.V.

    2000-04-01

    Riverine fluxes of several pesticides and other organic contaminants from above the fall line of the Susquehanna River basin to northern Chesapeake Bay, USA, were quantified in 1994. Base flow and storm flow samples collected at the fall line of the river from February to December 1994 were analyzed for both dissolved and particulate phase contaminants. Measured concentrations of the organonitrogen and organophosphorus pesticides varied mainly in response to the timing of their application to agricultural fields. Conversely, the concentrations of the more particle-sorptive contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) insecticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more directly correlated with river flow throughout the year. Annual fluxes were almost entirely in the dissolved phase for the organonitrogen and organophosphorus pesticides, distributed between the dissolved and particulate phases for the PCBs and OC insecticides, and primarily in the particulate phase for the PAHs.

  9. Concentrations of trace and other elements in the organs of wild rats and birds from the Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Kapu, M.M.; Schaeffer, D.J. ); Akanya, H.O. ); Ega, R.A.; Olofu, E.O.; Balarabe, M.L. ); Chafe, U.M. )

    1991-01-01

    In regions of human activities, where metal enter local aquatic ecosystems from the atmosphere and through wastewater outfalls, metal concentrations in food chains can exceed natural background levels and be above the threshold levels for sensitive species. Accordingly, metal levels in the organs and tissues of livestock and wildlife have been extensively studied. However, there are no reports of metal concentrations in the organs and tissues of wild animals from the Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. The mole rat (Africanthus niloticus, L) and village weaver bird (Ploceus cucullatus, L) contribute significantly to farm crop losses from sowing to harvest. Because there are no industries capable of causing metal contamination in the study area, the present study was undertaken to determine the natural baseline levels of metals for wild rats and birds from this environment.

  10. Seasonal concentrations of organic contaminants at the fall line of the Susquehanna River basin and estimated fluxes to northern Chesapeake Bay, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, G.D.; Lippa, K.A.; Miller, C.V.

    2000-01-01

    Riverine fluxes of several pesticides and other organic contaminants from above the fall line of the Susquehanna River basin to northern Chesapeake Bay, USA, were quantified in 1994. Base flow and storm flow samples collected at the fall line of the river from February to December 1994 were analyzed for both dissolved and particulate phase contaminants. Measured concentrations of the organonitrogen and organophosphorus pesticides varied mainly in response to the timing of their application to agricultural fields. Conversely, the concentrations of the more particle-sorptive contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) insecticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were more directly correlated with river flow throughout the year. Annual fluxes were almost entirely in the dissolved phase for the organonitrogen and organophosphorus pesticides, distributed between the dissolved and particulate phases for the PCBs and OC insecticides, and primarily in the particulate phase for the PAHs.

  11. Concentrations and origins of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air in urban and rural areas in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Lin, Nan; Zhuo, Shaojie; Zhong, Qirui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2015-02-01

    Twelve nitro-PAHs (nPAHs) and four oxy-PAHs (oPAHs) were measured in air samples for 12 months at 18 sites in urban settings, rural villages, or rural fields in northern China. The nPAH concentrations were higher in urban areas (1.3 ± 1.3 ng/m(3)), and nPAH/parent PAH ratios were higher (suggesting important contributions from motor vehicles and secondary formation) in urban sites than in rural villages. oPAHs are primarily emitted from solid fuel combustion and motor vehicles, and similar oPAH concentrations were found in urban areas (23 ± 20 ng/m(3)) and rural villages (29 ± 24 ng/m(3)). The high numbers of motor vehicles in Beijing and intensive industrial activity in Taiyuan and Dezhou caused higher nPAH concentrations. No spatial trend in oPAH concentrations was found in the rural villages, because similar oPAH mixtures are emitted from solild fuel combustion. The nPAH and oPAH concentrations were higher in the winter, and correlated with residential energy consumption and precipitation. PMID:25528449

  12. Continuous monitoring of surface CO2 flux and soil gas concentrations in an agricultural soil under the snow cover manipulation experiment in Hokkaido, northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, S.; Yanai, Y.; Nagata, O.; Iwata, Y.; Hirota, T.

    2010-12-01

    In the eastern part of Hokkaido, northern Japan, a timing of snow fall has been getting earlier and soil-frost depth has been decreasing in agricultural land year by year since late 1980. It is reported that the significant decrease in frost depths was due to the early development of snow cover that insulates ground from cold. Agricultural land is usually managed by human operations and so there is a possibility of controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is therefore important how snow and soil frost influence the dynamics of GHGs. CO2 is one of the main GHGs. We continuously and automatically observed CO2 flux above soil or snow surface and CO2 concentration in soil at 10 cm depth, using automatically controlled chambers and CO2 sensors over agricultural land at Sapporo site (141°25’E, 43°05’N) in northern Japan. Observations were conducted from 25 September 2009 to 31 May 2010, with occasional manual observations. We prepared two experimental plots, an untreated control and a snow cover removal plot, to evaluate the influence of soil-frost and snow depth on CO2 dynamics. Acquired automatic data in CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration generally have diurnal variations which had a positive peak in the daytime as affected by soil temperature, except winter period. Rainfall increased CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration. During soil freezing and snow covered period, few CO2 flux was observed. Soil gas CO2 concentration had been increasing during soil freezing period. After soil thawing, CO2 flux had increased and CO2 concentration had decreased temporarily. These phenomena being seen regardless of soil temperature, supportred that snow and soil-frost layer prevent gas diffusion to the air. The gas diffusion coefficient calculated from CO2 flux and soil gas CO2 concentration during soil gas CO2 concentration had been increasing during soil freezing period, was less than about one order of magnitudes of those in other periods. Temperature response

  13. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  14. Association between PM10 concentrations and school absences in proximity of a cement plant in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Alessandro; Pesce, Giancarlo; Girardi, Paolo; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Blengio, Gianstefano; de Zolt Sappadina, Simona; Falcone, Salvatore; Frapporti, Guglielmo; Predicatori, Francesca; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Dusts are one of the main air pollutants emitted during cement manufacturing. A substantial part of these are breathable particles that are less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), which represent a potential threat for the health of the exposed population. This study aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of PM10 concentrations on the health of children, aged 6-14 years, who attended the schools in Fumane (Italy), in proximity (1.2 km) to a large cement plant. School absenteeism was used as a proxy indicator of child morbidity. Time series of daily school absences and PM10 concentrations were collected for 3 school-years from 2007 to 2010 (541 school-days, 462 children on average). The associations between PM10 concentrations and school absence rates in the same day (lag0) and in the following 4 days (lag1 to lag4) were evaluated using generalised additive models, smoothed for medium/long term trends and adjusted for day of the week, influenza outbreaks, daily temperature and rain precipitations. The average concentration of PM10 in the period was 34 (range: 4-183) μg/m(3). An average 10 μg/m(3) increase of PM10 concentration in the previous days (lag0-4) was associated with a statistically significant 2.5% (95%CI: 1.1-4.0%) increase in the rate of school absences. The highest increase in the absence rates (2.4%; 95%CI: 1.2-3.5%) was found 2 days after exposure (lag2). These findings provide epidemiological evidence of the acute health effects of PM10 in areas with annual concentrations that are lower than the legal European Union limit of 40 μg/m(3), and support the need to establish more restrictive legislative standards. PMID:23994300

  15. Temporal and spatial variation on heavy metal concentrations in the oyster Ostrea equestris on the northern coast of Rio De Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A G; Machado, A L S; Zalmon, I R

    2005-02-01

    Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were determined by ICP-AES in Ostrea equestris from three beaches (Barra do Furado, Buena, and Ponta do Retiro) on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State. The average concentration was 0.8 +/- 0.18, 0.4 +/- 0.21, 58 +/- 25.6, 249 +/- 52.3, 11 +/- 1.31, 0.55 +/- 0.16, 0.13 +/- 0.11, and 1131 +/- 321 microg x g(-1) dry weight for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn respectively. Significant spatial variation (p < 0.05) between the samples areas occurred for Cr, Pb, and Zn with higher values in Barra do Furado; and for Cu in Ponta do Retiro. Significant temporal variations (p < 0.05) were observed for all metals except Cu. Temporal variability may be related to changes in the inputs of metals associated with suspended particles. Concentrations were similar to those found in areas under low pollution impact, except for Zn, the high concentrations of which probably reflect the physiological characteristics of these organisms. PMID:16025905

  16. A 40-year record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide concentration and isotope ratios from the firn at Greenland Summit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, P., Jr.; Petrenko, V. V.; Vimont, I.; Buizert, C.; Lang, P. M.; Edwards, J.; Harth, C. M.; Hmiel, B.; Mak, J. E.; Novelli, P. C.; Brook, E.; Weiss, R. F.; Vaughn, B. H.; White, J. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an important atmospheric trace gas that affects the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contributes indirectly to climate forcing by being a major sink of tropospheric OH. A good understanding of the past atmospheric CO budget is therefore important for climate models attempting to characterize recent changes in the atmosphere. Previous work at NEEM, Greenland provided the first reconstructions of Arctic atmospheric history of CO concentration and stable isotope ratios (δC18O and δ13CO) from firn air, dating to the 1950s. In this new study, firn air was sampled from eighteen depth levels through the firn column at Summit, Greenland (in May 2013), yielding a second, independent record of Arctic CO concentration and isotopic ratios. Carbon monoxide stable isotope ratios were analyzed on replicate samples and using a newly developed system with improved precision allowing for a more robust reconstruction. The new CO concentration and stable isotope results overall confirm the earlier findings from NEEM, with a CO concentration peak around the 1970s and higher δC18O and δ13CO values associated with peak CO. Modeling and interpretation of the data are in progress.

  17. Comparison of Ambient Radon Concentrations in Air in the Northern Mojave Desert from Continuous and Integrating Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Shafer; David McGraw; Lynn H. Karr; Greg McCurdy; Tammy L. Kluesner; Karen J. Gray; Jeffrey Tappen

    2010-05-18

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline environmental parameters, ambient radon-222 (Rn) monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, NV, the closest community to Yucca Mountain. Passive integrating and continuous Rn monitoring instruments were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) station in Amargosa Valley. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated Rn measurements, verified the meteorological data collected by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument, and for provided instrumentation for evaluating the relationships between meteorological conditions and Rn concentrations. Hourly Rn concentrations in air measured by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument (AlphaGUARD®) were compared to the average hourly values for the integrating Rn measurements (E-PERM®) by dividing the total Rn measurements by the number of hours the instruments were deployed. The results of the comparison indicated that average hourly ambient Rn concentrations as measured by both methods ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 pico-curies per liter of air. Ambient Rn values for the AlphaGUARD exhibited diurnal variations. When Rn concentrations were compared with measurements of temperature (T), barometric pressure, and relative humidity, the correlation (inversely) was highest with T, albeit weakly.

  18. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.

    2013-06-01

    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  19. Mass concentration and elemental composition of indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 in University rooms in Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Moussas, Panagiotis; Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    The mass concentration and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured in 40 rooms (mainly offices or mixed office-lab rooms, and photocopying places) of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. A total of 27 major, minor and trace elements were determined by ED-XRF analysis. The PM 2.5/PM 10 concentration ratios averaged 0.8±0.2, while the corresponding elemental ratios ranged between 0.4±0.2 and 0.9±0.2. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were significantly higher (by 70% and 50%, respectively) in the smokers' rooms compared to the non-smokers' places. The total elemental concentrations were also higher in the smokers' rooms (11.5 vs 8.2 μg m -3 for PM 2.5, and 10.3 vs 7.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5-10). Fine particle concentrations (PM 2.5) were found to be quite proportional to smoking strength. On the contrary, the two environments exhibited similar coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle fractions not related to the number of cigarettes smoked. A slight decrease of particle concentrations with increasing the floor level was also observed, particularly for PM 2.5, suggesting that high-level floors are less impacted by near ground-level sources like traffic emissions. Finally, the removal efficiency of air purification systems was evaluated.

  20. Comparative study of stream sediments and heavy mineral concentrates using SEM-based Automated Mineralogy (QEMSCAN) from remote areas of Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ALI, L.; Williamson, B.; Moon, C. J.; Rollinson, G.; Shah, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates the usefulness of QEMSCAN for mineralogical analysis of stream sediments and heavy mineral concentrates. This study was an orientation study of known and lesser understood gold-rich prospect areas in northern Pakistan. Mineralogical anomalies in this area are more obvious in heavy mineral concentrates than stream sediments from both known and lesser known areas, probably as a result of dilution by glacial material. The sampling strategy involved the collection of stream sediments (<180 μm) and panned concentrates (<180 μm) from known Shoghor and Bagrot prospects and lesser understood areas such as Asheriat, Teru and Pakora where the sources of the anomalies were unknown. Samples from all areas were analysed by conventional ICP-MS and XRF, as well as detailed physiochemical study of gold grains observed in panned concentrates. A selected number (16) of samples from stream sediments and heavy minerals were subjected to advance mineralogical analysis using QEMSCAN. Data were output on the modal mineralogy and mineral associations for both heavy mineral concentrates and stream sediments. The mineral proportions and associations in the heavy mineral concentrates (<180 μm) from the Shoghor and Bagrot catchments were characteristic of their known styles of mineralization, containing stibnite, galena, chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite, along with secondary minerals such as PbSbO (probably bindheimite) and SbO (possibly stibiconite). The modal abundances and associations of sulphide minerals and also secondary phases were better detected in the heavy mineral concentrates than stream sediments as concentrations of the latter were often below detection limits. The known Pb-Sb mineralization in Shoghor was well defined by modal mineralogy and mineral associations of rare minerals including stibnite, galena and also secondary phases such as SbO and PbSbO. Furthermore indication of similar types of mineralization have been found in heavy mineral

  1. A new improved study of cyanotoxins presence from experimental cyanobacteria concentrations in the Trasona reservoir (Northern Spain) using the MARS technique.

    PubMed

    García Nieto, P J; Alonso Fernández, J R; Sánchez Lasheras, F; de Cos Juez, F J; Díaz Muñiz, C

    2012-07-15

    Cyanotoxins, a kind of poisonous substances produced by cyanobacteria, are responsible for health risks in drinking and recreational water uses. The aim of this study is to improve our previous and successful work about cyanotoxins prediction from some experimental cyanobacteria concentrations in the Trasona reservoir (Asturias, Northern Spain) using the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique at a local scale. In fact, this new improvement consists of using not only biological variables, but also the physical-chemical ones. As a result, the coefficient of determination has improved from 0.84 to 0.94, that is to say, more accurate predictive calculations and a better approximation to the real problem were obtained. Finally the agreement of the MARS model with experimental data confirmed the good performance. PMID:22634554

  2. 234U and 238U concentration in brine from geopressured aquifers of the northern Gulf of Mexico basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    The 234U and 238U concentration in brine from six Gulf Coast geopressured aquifers has been determined. The results reveal very low uranium concentrations (from 0.003 to 0.03 ??g/l) and uranium activity ratios slightly greater than unity (from 1.06 to 1.62). Reducing conditions within the aquifers are responsible for the low uranium concentrations. The uranium activity ratios observed are well below those calculated using theoretical considerations of alpha-particle recoil effects. This can be explained by interference with alpha-recoil nuclides entering the liquid phase as a result of quartz overgrowths on sand grains and high-temperature re-equilibration that tends to minimize the effects of the alpha-recoil process. The fact that the uranium activity ratios of the brines are slightly greater than unity instead of the equilibrium value of 1.000 indicates that either the alpha particle recoil blocking and re-equlibration effects are not complete or that another process is operative that enriches the fluid in excess 234U by selectively removing uranium from radiation induced damage sites in the mineral (sand grain) matrix. ?? 1981.

  3. Water-quality data collected to determine the presence, source, and concentration of lead in the drinking water supply at Pipe Spring National Monument, northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Sharrow, David; Unema, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pipe Spring National Monument in northern Arizona contains historically significant springs. The groundwater source of these springs is the same aquifer that presently is an important source of drinking water for the Pipe Spring National Monument facilities, the Kaibab Paiute Tribe, and the community of Moccasin. The Kaibab Paiute Tribe monitored lead concentrations from 2004 to 2009; some of the analytical results exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique for lead of 15 parts per billion. The National Park Service and the Kaibab Paiute Tribe were concerned that the local groundwater system that provides the domestic water supply might be contaminated with lead. Lead concentrations in water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from three springs, five wells, two water storage tanks, and one faucet were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency action level for treatment technique. Lead concentrations of rock samples representative of the rock units in which the local groundwater resides were less than 22 parts per million.

  4. Maximal enzyme activities, and myoglobin and glutathione concentrations in heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda; Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Stewart, J M; Woods, A K; Blakely, J A

    2005-07-01

    We measured the enzymes of glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, beta-oxidation and electron transport in the heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Additionally, we measured the amount of myoglobin in skeletal and heart muscle as well as the concentration of glutathione in heart. The picture that emerges is of an aerobically well-endowed animal with constrained anaerobic capacity as indicated by small activities of glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase. Lipid metabolism and amino acid transamination, as well as gluconeogenesis, are predominant in processing carbon resources and probably reflect the large contribution lipid and protein make to the diet of this carnivore. The citrate synthase activity is the largest of any reported value for vertebrate heart (250 U/g). The additional, very active cytochrome c oxidase activity (220 U/g) and large myoglobin concentrations (8 mg/g) in heart are clearly the underpinnings of the rapid metabolic rates reported for small insectivores. The potential for generation of reactive oxygen species must be great since the total glutathione concentration (165 mumol/g) is 300-fold greater in shrew hearts than in hearts of rats. PMID:15914053

  5. Correlation Between Methyl Iodide and Ozone Concentrations Recorded at the Mt. Cimone Station (2165 m asl) in the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.; Calzolari, F.

    2005-12-01

    Many chemical species and atmospheric transport processes are involved in establishing tropospheric ozone budget. Particularly, Iodine compounds can perturb the oxidative capacity of the troposphere, influencing the ozone concentration. In this work we present a study concerning correlations between ozone and methyl iodide concentrations recorded at the Mt. Cimone Station (2165 m a.s.l., Italian Northern Apennines). methyl iodide is continuously (one sample every third hour) measured by GC-MS at the Station since July 2003 within the framework of EU-project SOGE (System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe), together with a number of halogenated hydrocarbons ozone O3 in high mountain area is characteristic of atmospheric background conditions and can be influenced by natural or anthropic contributions. The continuous observations of ozone and methyl iodide carried out at Mt. Cimone, allowed us to better evaluate their variability regarding to different dynamic conditions and transport processes (i.e. Saharan dust transport, marine air mass advection, polluted air mass advection, stratosphere to troposphere exchange. Air mass three-dimensional back trajectories as well as meteorological parameter and aerosol concentration and size distribution analysis have been used to explain the different behaviour of ozone and methyl iodide revealed at Mt. Cimone.

  6. Quantification of potential interferences during laser-induced fluorescence measurements of subcanopy hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in a northern hardwood forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, L. H.; Lew, M.; Liljegren, J. A.; Hansen, R. F.; Dusanter, S.; Stevens, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is central to understanding the chemistry of the atmosphere since it controls the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the subsequent formation of photochemical pollutants such as ozone and secondary organic aerosols. It is therefore of primary importance to characterize OH sources and sinks in various environments, including both forested and urban areas. Recent studies have shown large discrepancies between modeled and measured OH concentrations, especially in high isoprene / low NOx environments where measured OH concentrations are generally underestimated by models [1]. Several reasons have been proposed to explain these discrepancies, including missing sources of OH as well as potential interferences for the measurement of OH using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) instruments [2]. To investigate potential interferences, additional measurements of OH radical concentrations were made during summer 2012 below the canopy of a mixed hardwood forest site in northern Michigan using the LIF-FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique. This site is of primary interest since previous measurements of OH concentrations below the canopy using this technique during CABINEX 2009 were significantly higher than that predicted by a zero-dimensional box model. The new measurements were made 2.8 m above the forest floor using an external chemical scrubber that allows direct measurements of potential interferences. This presentation will discuss quantification of subcanopy OH concentrations and measured interferences to further understand the discrepancy between modeled and measured results. [1] Lu et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1541-1569, 2012 [2] Mao et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 6715-6744, 2012

  7. Relation of nutrient concentrations, nutrient loading, and algal production to changes in water levels in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, 2008-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.; Kiesling, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment has led to excessive algal growth in Kabetogama Lake, Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota. Water- and sediment-quality data were collected during 2008-09 to assess internal and external nutrient loading. Data collection was focused in Kabetogama Lake and its inflows, the area of greatest concern for eutrophication among the lakes of Voyageurs National Park. Nutrient and algal data were used to determine trophic status and were evaluated in relation to changes in Kabetogama Lake water levels following changes to dam operation starting in 2000. Analyses were used to estimate external nutrient loading at inflows and assess the potential contribution of internal phosphorus loading. Kabetogama Lake often was mixed vertically, except for a few occasionally stratified areas, including Lost Bay in the northeastern part of Kabetogama Lake. Stratification, combined with larger bottom-water nutrient concentrations, larger sediment phosphorus concentrations, and estimated phosphorus release rates from sediment cores indicate that Lost Bay may be one of several areas that may be contributing substantially to internal loading. Internal loading is a concern because nutrients may cause excessive algal growth including potentially toxic cyanobacteria. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin, microcystin, was detected in 7 of 14 cyanobacterial bloom samples, with total concentrations exceeding 1.0 microgram per liter, the World Health Organization's guideline for finished drinking water for the congener, microcystin-LR. Comparisons of the results of this study to previous studies indicate that chlorophyll-a concentrations and trophic state indices have improved since 2000, when the rules governing dam operation changed. However, total-phosphorus concentrations have not changed significantly since 2000.

  8. Chlorination by-product concentration levels in seawater and fish of an industrialised bay (Gulf of Fos, France) exposed to multiple chlorinated effluents.

    PubMed

    Boudjellaba, D; Dron, J; Revenko, G; Démelas, C; Boudenne, J-L

    2016-01-15

    Chlorination is one of the most widely used techniques for biofouling control in large industrial units, leading to the formation of halogenated chlorination by-products (CBPs). This study was carried out to evaluate the distribution and the dispersion of these compounds within an industrialised bay hosting multiple chlorination discharges issued from various industrial processes. The water column was sampled at the surface and at 7 m depth (or bottom) in 24 stations for the analysis of CBPs, and muscle samples from 15 conger eel (Conger conger) were also investigated. Temperature and salinity profiles supported the identification of the chlorination releases, with potentially complex patterns. Chemical analyses showed that bromoform was the most abundant CBP, ranging from 0.5 to 2.2 μg L(-1) away from outlets (up to 10 km distance), and up to 18.6 μg L(-1) in a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification plume. However, CBP distributions were not homogeneous, halophenols being prominent in a power station outlet and dibromoacetonitrile in more remote stations. A seasonal effect was identified as fewer stations revealed CBPs in summer, probably due to the air and water temperatures increases favouring volatilisation and reactivity. A simple risk assessment of the 11 identified CBPs showed that 7 compounds concentrations were above the potential risk levels to the local marine environment. Finally, conger eel muscles presented relatively high levels of 2,4,6-tribromophenol, traducing a generalised impregnation of the Gulf of Fos to CBPs and a global bioconcentration factor of 25 was determined for this compound. PMID:26410714

  9. Evolution of size-segregated aerosol mass concentration during the Antarctic summer at Northern Foothills, Victoria Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illuminati, Silvia; Bau, Sébastien; Annibaldi, Anna; Mantini, Caterina; Libani, Giulia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Italian National Programm for Antarctic Research (PNRA), the first direct gravimetric measurements of size-segregated aerosol fractions were carried out at Faraglione Camp, ˜3-km far from the Italian station "M. Zucchelli" (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea), during the 2014-2015 austral summer. A six-stage high-volume cascade impactor with size classes between 10 μm and 0.49 μm, and, in parallel, for comparison purposes, a PM10 high-volume sampler (50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm) were used. A 10-day sampling strategy was adopted. Aerosol mass measurements were carried out before and after exposure by using a microbalance specifically designed for the filter weight and placed inside a glove bag in order to maintain stable temperature and humidity conditions during weighing sessions. Measured atmospheric concentrations (referred to the "actual air conditions" of mean temperature of 268 K and mean pressure of 975 hPa) of size-segregated aerosol fractions showed the following values, given as size range, means (interquartile range): Dp < 0.49 μm, 0.33 (0.26-0.34) μg m-3; 0.49-0.95 μm, 0.20 (0.19-0.24) μg m-3; 0.95-1.5 μm, 0.16 (0.13-0.21) μg m-3; 1.5-3.0 μm 0.075 (0.05-0.11) μg m-3; 3.0-7.2 μm 0.12 (0.02-0.19) μg m-3; 7.2-10 μm 0.06 (0.01-0.03) μg m-3. The average mass concentration of the total PM10 at Faraglione Camp for the entire sampling period was 0.92 (0.67-1.1) μg m-3. Although a great variability, the aerosol mass concentration showed a tri-modal distribution, with an accumulation mode (in the range 0.1-1.0 μm) and two coarse modes (CM1 in the range 1.0-3.0 μm, and CM2 in the range 3.0-10 μm). From 50% to 90% of the PM10 mass comes from particles of a size smaller than 1.0 μm. The two coarse modes represented from ˜5% to ˜35% of the PM10, showing opposite seasonal trends (CM1 decreased while CM2 increased). During summer, PM10 mass concentration increased to a maximum of ˜1.6 μg m-3 at mid-December, while

  10. Soil and Plant Mercury Concentrations and Pools in the Arctic Tundra of Northern Alaska by Hedge Christine, Obrist Daniel, Agnan Yannick, Moore Christopher, Biester Harald, Helmig Detlev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedge, C.; Agnan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We present vegetation, soil and runoff mercury (Hg) concentrations and pool sizes in vegetation and soils at several arctic tundra sites, an area that represents <7 x 106 km2 of land surface globally. The primary measurement location is at Toolik Field Station (TFS, 68° 38' N) in northern Alaska, with additional samples collected along a transect from TFS to the Arctic Ocean, and in Noatak National Preserve to be collected in August 2015. Soil and vegetation samples from all sites will be analyzed for total Hg concentration, pH, soil texture, bulk density, soil moisture content, organic and total carbon (C), nitrogen, along with major and trace elements. Initial results already obtained from TFS (characterized as moist to wet tundra with Typic Aquiturbel soils) show Hg concentrations in tundra vegetation (112±15 μg kg-1) and organic soil (140±8 μg kg-1) similar to those found in temperate sites. Calculation of plant-based Hg deposition rates by litterfall of 17.3 μg kg-1 yr-1 were surprisingly high, exceeding all other Hg deposition fluxes at this site. Hg concentrations in mineral soils (95±3 μg kg-1) were 2-3 times higher than those found at temperate sites. Hg concentrations showed weak relationships to organic C concentrations contrasting patterns from temperate soils where concentrations typically decline with depth following lower organic carbon contents. In fact, vertical mass profiles of Hg showed a strong increase with depth, with mineral layers storing over 90% (200-500 g ha-1) of Hg within these soils. A principle component analysis including major and trace elements indicated that soil Hg was not of lithogenic origin but from atmospheric sources, possibly by long-range transport. Carbon-14 dating results showed over 7,000 years old organic carbon in mineral soils of the active layer where highest concentrations of soil Hg were observed, suggesting long term retention of atmospheric Hg. These patterns suggest vertical translocation of Hg from the

  11. Seismic velocity increase and deep-sea gas hydrate concentration above a bottom-simulating reflector on the northern Cascadia continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, T.; Hyndman, R. D.; Spence, G. D.; Desmons, B.

    1996-06-01

    The amount of gas hydrates in the accretionary wedge sediments of the northern Cascadia subduction zone off Vancouver Island has been estimated from multichannel seismic (MCS) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) data. Detailed semblance velocity analyses and full waveform inversion of MCS data, combined with previously published ODP Sites 889/890 sonic log and vertical seismic profile (VSP) data, show that sediment velocities increase downward more rapidly than the no-hydrate/no-gas reference profile from about 1500 m/s near the seafloor to a maximum of 1900 m/s just above the bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) at a subbottom depth of 224 m. Immediately below the BSR, the MCS velocities drop to ˜1700 m/s. A low velocity of ˜1500 m/s from the VSP data probably represents a thin layer, ˜20 m, containing free gas. The difference between the reference and observed velocities is used to estimate hydrate concentration, which reaches a maximum of 20-30% of the pore space above the BSR. A simple interpretation of the drill core chlorinity dilution data at the ODP site yields a similar hydrate concentration of 35%. The estimated hydrate concentration with subbottom depth represents about 7 m3 of hydrate per square meter of seafloor. The total methane gas at STP, including hydrate above the BSR and the small amount of free gas below, is about 800 m3 per square meter of seafloor, or 200 TCF (trillion cubic feet) on the Vancouver Island continental slope. Application of the same method in the Blake-Bahama region of the eastern U.S. margin indicates that the velocity enhancement and inferred hydrate concentration are very similar.

  12. Patterns of landscape evolution on the central and northern Tibetan Plateau investigated using in-situ produced 10Be concentrations from river sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingkui; Li, Dewen; Liu, Gengnian; Harbor, Jon; Caffee, Marc; Stroeven, Arjen P.

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying long-term erosion rates across the Tibetan Plateau and its bordering mountains is of critical importance to an understanding of the interaction between climate, tectonic movement, and landscape evolution. We present a new dataset of basin-wide erosion rates from the central and northern Tibetan Plateau derived using in-situ produced 10Be concentrations of river sediments. Basin-wide erosion rates from the central plateau range from 10.1±0.9 to 36.8±3.2 mm/kyr, slightly higher than published local erosion rates measured from bedrock surfaces. These values indicate that long-term downwearing of plateau surfaces proceeds at low rates and that the landscape is demonstrably stable in the central plateau. In contrast, basin-wide erosion rates from the Kunlun Shan on the northern Tibetan Plateau range from 19.9±1.7 to 163.2±15.9 mm/kyr. Although the erosion rates of many of these basins are much higher than the rates from the central plateau, they are lower than published basin-wide erosion rates from other mountains fringing the Tibetan Plateau, probably because the basins in the Kunlun Shan include both areas of low-relief plateau surface and high-relief mountain catchments and may also result from retarded fluvial sediment transport in an arid climate. Significantly higher basin-wide erosion rates derived from the Tibetan Plateau margin, compared to the central plateau, reflect a relatively stable plateau surface that is being dissected at its margins by active fluvial erosion.

  13. Fate of Sb(V) and Sb(III) species along a gradient of pH and oxygen concentration in the Carnoulès mine waters (Southern France).

    PubMed

    Resongles, Eléonore; Casiot, Corinne; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise; Freydier, Rémi; Bruneel, Odile; Piot, Christine; Delpoux, Sophie; Volant, Aurélie; Desoeuvre, Angélique

    2013-08-01

    The speciation and behaviour of antimony were investigated in surface waters downstream from the abandoned Pb-Zn Carnoulès mine (Gard, France). These waters exhibit a permanent gradient of oxygen concentration and pH, ranging from acid suboxic in Reigous Creek at the outlet of sulfide tailings impoundment, to near neutral oxygenated at downstream sites along the rivers Amous and Gardon. The concentration of total dissolved (<0.22 μm) antimony, acquired through a seven-year monitoring, decreased from 7.7-409.9 μg L(-1) at the source of Reigous Creek to 0.22-0.45 μg L(-1) in the Gardon River, showing natural Sb attenuation. Speciation analysis carried out during three surveys indicated that Sb(III) represented up to 70% of the total dissolved Sb concentration at the source of Reigous Creek, while Sb(V) represented less than 50%. Field characterization showed that Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were attenuated through dilution and were also removed from the dissolved phase during downstream transport. Speciation analysis in suspended particulate matter extracts gave a distribution of particulate Sb into 70 to 100% of Sb(III) and less than 30% of Sb(V). The removal of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species from the dissolved phase was concordant with the oversaturation of Reigous Creek water relative to Sb(III)- and Sb(V)-oxides and Sb(III)- and Sb(V)-Fe oxides. Sb(III) was more efficiently removed than Sb(V) or As(III) and it was no more detectable in the dissolved phase at downstream sites in the rivers Amous and Gardon. Conversely, the concentration of Sb(V) in the rivers Amous and Gardon still denoted contamination arising from the Carnoulès mine. The range of log Kd values, from 2.4 L kg(-1) to 4.9 L kg(-1), indicated that Sb was mainly transported in the dissolved phase downstream the Reigous Creek input. Altogether, these results give a better understanding of the fate of Sb downstream from sulfide-rich mining wastes. PMID:23793399

  14. Climatic warming and overgrazing induced the high concentration of organic matter in Lake Hulun, a large shallow eutrophic steppe lake in northern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Chuai, Xiaoming; Yang, Liuyan; Zhao, Huiying

    2012-08-01

    An abnormally high concentration of organic matter (OM) in Lake Hulun, a large shallow eutrophic lake located in the sparsely populated Hulun Buir Steppe, was observed in a field investigation. Little was known about the origin of the OM. To identify the source of the OM in Lake Hulun, the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, natural abundance of stable isotope and three dimensional excitation emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy techniques were employed. Furthermore, a cyanobacterial incubation and degradation experiment was conducted in the laboratory to quantify the contribution of algae to dissolved organic matter (DOM) in Lake Hulun. C/N, the stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values typical of C3 plant debris in particulate organic matter (POM) and the fluorescence indices of DOM indicate that most of the OM in Lake Hulun is of terrigenous origin. It was deduced that only about 10.2% and 7.3% of DOM were contributed by algae in September and January, respectively, according to the linear correlation between the concentrations of algae-derived DOM and the fluorescence intensities of tyrosine-like matter. According to the stockbreeding development and climate change in Hunlun Buir Steppe, we deduced that the destruction of the grassland ecosystem by overgrazing in specific locations and trends in climatic warming and drying were the main factors causing the increase of OM and nutrient concentrations in Lake Hulun. This result highlights the need to pay more attention to the inputs of terrigenous organic matter to the lakes in northern China. PMID:22705868

  15. Plasma FGF21 Concentrations, Adipose Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 and β-Klotho Expression Decrease with Fasting in Northern Elephant Seals

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Miwa; Lee, Andrew; Vázquez-Medina, Jose Pablo; Viscarra, Jose A.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is secreted from the liver, pancreas, and adipose in response to prolonged fasting/starvation to facilitate lipid and glucose metabolism. Northern elephant seals naturally fast for several months, maintaining a relatively elevated metabolic rate to satisfy their energetic requirements. Thus, to better understand the impact of prolonged food deprivation on FGF21-associated changes, we analyzed the expression of FGF21, FGF receptor-1 (FGFR1), β-klotho (KLB; a co-activator of FGFR) in adipose, and plasma FGF21, glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate in fasted elephant seal pups. Expression of FGFR1 and KLB mRNA decreased 98% and 43%, respectively, with fasting duration. While the 80% decrease in mean adipose FGF21 mRNA expression with fasting did not reach statistical significance, it paralleled the 39% decrease in plasma FGF21 concentrations suggesting that FGF21 is suppressed with fasting in elephant seals. Data demonstrate an atypical response of FGF21 to prolonged fasting in a mammal suggesting that FGF21-mediated mechanisms have evolved differentially in elephant seals. Furthermore, the typical fasting-induced, FGF21-mediated actions such as the inhibition of lipolysis in adipose may not be required in elephant seals as part of a naturally adapted mechanism to support their unique metabolic demands during prolonged fasting. PMID:25857751

  16. Plasma FGF21 concentrations, adipose fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 and β-klotho expression decrease with fasting in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miwa; Lee, Andrew Y; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Viscarra, Jose A; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2015-05-15

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is secreted from the liver, pancreas, and adipose in response to prolonged fasting/starvation to facilitate lipid and glucose metabolism. Northern elephant seals naturally fast for several months, maintaining a relatively elevated metabolic rate to satisfy their energetic requirements. Thus, to better understand the impact of prolonged food deprivation on FGF21-associated changes, we analyzed the expression of FGF21, FGF receptor-1 (FGFR1), β-klotho (KLB; a co-activator of FGFR) in adipose, and plasma FGF21, glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate in fasted elephant seal pups. Expression of FGFR1 and KLB mRNA decreased 98% and 43%, respectively, with fasting duration. While the 80% decrease in mean adipose FGF21 mRNA expression with fasting did not reach statistical significance, it paralleled the 39% decrease in plasma FGF21 concentrations suggesting that FGF21 is suppressed with fasting in elephant seals. Data demonstrate an atypical response of FGF21 to prolonged fasting in a mammal suggesting that FGF21-mediated mechanisms have evolved differentially in elephant seals. Furthermore, the typical fasting-induced, FGF21-mediated actions such as the inhibition of lipolysis in adipose may not be required in elephant seals as part of a naturally adapted mechanism to support their unique metabolic demands during prolonged fasting. PMID:25857751

  17. Coupled pyrite concentration and sulfur isotopic insight into the paleo sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qi; Wang, Jiasheng; Taladay, Katie; Lu, Hongfeng; Hu, Gaowei; Sun, Fei; Lin, Rongxiao

    2016-01-01

    The sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) is an important diagenetic redox boundary within marine sediments where the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction, can promote sulfur isotopic enrichments in several solid phase minerals including pyrite (FeS2). Authigenic pyrite can form in concentrated abundances within the SMTZ and as such, can be used as a proxy to identify paleo-SMTZs. This study uses enrichments in 34S and anomalously high abundances of authigenic pyrites in 287 samples from the northern South China Sea (SCS) to determine the paleo-SMTZ. The pyrite samples were collected from sediment cores acquired at three sites, each of which are known to be located in natural gas hydrate-bearing regions. We assess the relative abundances of authigenic pyrites, the types of pyrite morphologies recovered in the cored sediments, and the sulfur isotopic values of recovered pyrite samples using two methods: (1) handpicked sample analysis using a binocular microscope, and (2) the chromium reduction method. Our results show that pyrite concentrations and sulfur isotopic compositions exhibit synchronous fluctuations, particularly from 6.8 m below seafloor (mbsf) to 8.4 mbsf at all three study sites. There is a significant increase in the occurrence of rod-like pyrite morphology within this key interval. We define the position of the paleo-SMTZ by the presence of anomalously high accumulations of pyrites at greater than 5.0 wt.% using the handpicking method or greater than 0.5 wt.% via the chromium reduction method, along with positive Δδ34S excursions greater than 10.0‰ VCDT. We discovered a regional paleo-SMTZ that is shallower than the modern SMTZ, suggesting a previous period of elevated methane flux from depth, possibly related to widespread gas hydrate dissociation.

  18. Persistence of legacy soil P and elevated background water P concentrations in Water Conservation Area 2A, a northern Everglades wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juston, John M.; Kadlec, Robert H.; DeBusk, William F.; Jerauld, Mike J.; DeBusk, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    Upstream source control and Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs) have reduced phosphorus (P) loads to Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A), a northern Everglades wetland, by three quarters since year 2000. Nevertheless, large storages of P remain in enriched peat soils and it is unclear how legacy stores will impact spatial and temporal scales of recovery. We remeasured soil P enrichment along a well-studied eutrophication gradient in WCA-2A and applied a profile modeling approach with uncertainty analysis to assess changes in longitudinal soil P gradients 13 years after load reductions. We then analyzed existing internal water P data, using a novel data screening approach, for evidence of lowest possible water P concentrations independent from inflows. We interpret such water P limits as evidence of the strength of internal loading at a location. Results indicate that soil P enrichment persists in the ˜7.5 km long "impacted" zone, with no significant evidence of net advancement or recession, while a large pool of labile P in the flocculent layer consolidated and diminished. There is indeed evidence, both spatial and temporal, that this extensive zone of enriched soil P continues to elevate lowest achievable water P concentrations. The corresponding gradient of elevated water P limits is both receding and diminishing since load reductions, thus providing further evidence toward recovery. However, results also suggest that these "transitory P limits" due to internal loading are likely to persist for decades above water quality targets. These results advance our understanding of recovery in impacted wetlands and are relevant to Everglades restoration.

  19. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)

  20. Cosmogenic 3He concentrations in ancient flood deposits from the Coombs Hills, northern Dry Valleys, East Antarctica: interpreting exposure ages and erosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margerison, H. R.; Phillips, W. M.; Stuart, F. M.; Sugden, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    In situ produced cosmogenic 3He analyses provide independent support for the model of a stable, hyper-arid polar climate persisting in East Antarctica since the mid-Miocene and provide quantitative constraints on long-term rates of erosion within the Dry Valleys. In the Coombs Hills area, a series of cobble-size boulders form mega-ripples with wavelengths of approximately 50 m. Their topographic position and association with features characteristic of scabland, such as stripped, corrugated bedrock surfaces, indicate the boulders were deposited by subglacial floodwaters. Such outburst flooding could only have occurred during overriding of the northern Dry Valleys by a greatly expanded East Antarctic ice sheet. Timing of the overriding episode has been previously assigned to 14.8 to 13.6 Ma by correlation with volcanic ash deposits dated by 40Ar/39Ar in the Asgard Range of the Dry Valleys. Cosmogenic 3He concentrations in clinopyroxene from Ferrar dolerite boulders are consistent with 8.6 to 10.4 Ma exposure, calculated using scaling factors appropriate for Antarctica and assuming zero erosion. These are among the oldest surface exposure dates yet measured on Earth, but are not however consistent with the 40Ar/39Ar chronology used to define the age of the landscape due to unconstrained levels of erosion. Erosion rates of 0.03-0.06 m Ma-1 are necessary to have produced the measured boulder exposure age if they were deposited at 14.8 Ma. These are less than half the steady-state erosion rate derived from cosmogenic 3He in the nearby bedrock surfaces (0.17 m Ma-1) and testify to the extreme stability of the landscape.

  1. Estimating hourly benzene concentrations in a highly-complex topographical environment in northern Spain using RAMS and the CALPUFF modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdenebro, Verónica; Sáez de Cámara, Estíbaliz; Gangoiti, Gotzon; Alonso, Lucio; García, José Antonio; Ilardia, Juan Luis; González, Nerea

    2013-04-01

    The RAMS-CALMET-CALPUFF modeling system together with observations has been used to analyse the hourly benzene impacts of a coke plant in a nearby urban area in a region of very complex topography (a mountainous region near the coast) in northern Spain. The air flow in this region is strongly influenced by the local topography and, specially under anticyclonic conditions, important daily changes in stability, wind velocity and wind direction occur almost every day, which directly affect the dispersion of pollutants in the area. The aim of this study was to set up a methodology suitable for dispersion studies in very complex areas, where pollutants dynamics is highly affected by mesoscale meteorological processes. Two ten-day periods have been modeled. High spatio-temporal resolution meteorological simulations have been performed with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model RAMS. A configuration of four nested grids has been used. 4D assimilation has been performed using NCEP and ERA-Interim data. The RAMS meteorological output has been downscaled from a 1 km to a 250 m resolution with the CALMET diagnostic model. Observational meteorological data have been assimilated into CALMET. The results of the meteorological simulations have been validated both against data recorded by a network of surface stations and by a wind profiler radar (WPR) located near the coast. The already validated meteorological fields have been input into the CALPUFF nonsteady-state puff dispersion model. For the dispersion simulations, benzene emission data have been obtained from the Spanish E-PRTR Register. Predicted impacts have also been compared with observations. Comparisons of the RAMS simulated wind fields against the WPR profiles have revealed inaccurate NCEP reanalysis data for one of the simulated periods. Initialization with ECMWF-Interim data have improved the results. The main flows that affect dispersion in the area have been mostly well captured by the modeling

  2. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

    PubMed

    Harmens, H; Norris, D A; Cooper, D M; Mills, G; Steinnes, E; Kubin, E; Thöni, L; Aboal, J R; Alber, R; Carballeira, A; Coşkun, M; De Temmerman, L; Frolova, M; González-Miqueo, L; Jeran, Z; Leblond, S; Liiv, S; Maňkovská, B; Pesch, R; Poikolainen, J; Rühling, A; Santamaria, J M; Simonèiè, P; Schröder, W; Suchara, I; Yurukova, L; Zechmeister, H G

    2011-10-01

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations (≥ 1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km × 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r(2) = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. PMID:21620544

  3. Urban Sociology in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  4. Industrial Psychology in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Montmollin, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    The current status of French industrial psychology is evaluated. Within the social and economic context of contemporary France, varying ideologies and scarce resources have created a gap between applied and academic industrial psychology. Personnel practices and systems and organizational research are noted. (Editor)

  5. The role of partial melting and syn-orogenic deformation in the pre-concentration of uranium and thorium. The example of the CAGE District (Northern Quebec).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trap, Pierre; Goncalves, Philippe; Durand, Cyril; Marquer, Didier; Feybesse, Jean-Louis; Richard, Yoann; Lacroix, Brice; Caillet, Yoann; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2015-04-01

    This contribution aims to discuss the relationships between metamorphism, deformation and U-Th mineralization within the orogenic crust, from millimeter to kilometer scale and during the whole P-T-t evolution. The study area is the CAGE district along the paleoproterozoic Torngat orogen (Northern Quebec) made of 2.1 Ga metasedimentary rocks, marbles and paragneisses, deposited upon a 2.5 Ga orthogneissic basement. Several types of U-Th mineralizations have been reported within the middle crust highly metamorphosed and deformed during the Torgnat orogeny (1.9-1.8 Ga). An integrated study with field, geophysical, structural, petrological, geochemical and thermochronological analyses enable a reconstitution of the tectono-metamorphic setting of these U-Th mineralizations and of the mechanism responsible for their pre-concentration into the orogenic crust. The petrological analysis allows us to build a clockwise P-T-t-D evolution with peak pressure conditions at 7.5 - 10 kbar and 725 - 750 ° C and peak temperature conditions at 5-6 kbar and 800-850°C. This high grade metamorphism and widespread partial melting developed within a single dextral transpressive regime. The structural analysis suggests strain partitioning responsible for a S-C-C' like architecture observed at all scales. Aeromagnetic, radiometric and field observations revealed that U-Th mineralizations are mainly focused along the kilometer scale C and C'-type shear zones. The age of crustal partial melting was constrained by U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analyses on zircon and monazite within migmatitic paragneiss and orthogneiss between 1841 ± 5 and 1828 ± 7 Ma. Younger U-Pb ages at around 1810-1750 Ma have been reported on monazite and titanites within the crustal scale shear bands (C and C' like). Results obtained on mylonitic metacarbonaceous and metapelites within kilometer scale shear zones suggest that late shearing formed during retrograde evolution at decreasing temperature after peak metamorphism. The δ13

  6. Decadal variations in trace metal concentrations on a coral reef: Evidence from a 159 year record of Mn, Cu, and V in a Porites coral from the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuefei; Wei, Gangjian; Deng, Wenfeng; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yali; Zeng, Ti; Xie, Luhua

    2015-01-01

    cycles of trace metals are important influences on the composition and function of the marine ecosystem. Although spatial distributions of most trace metals have now been determined in at least some parts of the oceans, temporal variations have barely been studied on account of data limitations. In this paper, we report on a 159 year record of trace metal concentrations from a Porites coral from the northern South China Sea (SCS), and discuss how oceanic and climatic processes control variations in Mn, Cu, and V concentrations in this region. Our results show that trace metal concentrations in the coral skeleton demonstrate decadal to interdecadal fluctuations, and that their variations are controlled by different mechanisms. The input of Mn to reef water is partly controlled by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), which controls precipitation and river runoff. Surface water concentrations of the nutrient-like element Cu are controlled by summer upwelling to the east of Hainan Island. The concentrations of V show complex interrelationships, and are linked to riverine input prior to the 1990 and to upwelling after the 1990. Our results imply that in the northern SCS, ocean-atmosphere climate fluctuations, such as the PDO and the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), are important factors that influence long-term variability of Mn, Cu, and V concentrations in seawater, by controlling precipitation-related river runoff and the strength of upwelling systems.

  7. Were the MIS 11 and MIS 5e warmer and/or wetter than the Holocene? Test comparison of Interglacial intensities using stable isotope data from Northern France tufa deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabkowski, J.; Limondin-Lozouet, N.; Antoine, P.; Marca-Bell, A.; Andrews, J.

    2012-04-01

    the first half of the Holocene at Saint-Germain. One of the episodes is correlated to maximal temperatures and assigned to the MIS 11 optimum. Stable isotope data for this period clearly indicate warmer and wetter conditions compared to those during the Altantic optimum recorded at Saint-Germain. Tufa stable isotopes are thus suitable to compare MIS 11 and MIS 5e interglacials palaeoclimatic conditions to those prevailing during the Holocene. New investigations on recent and Pleistocene tufa deposits from France, Germany, England, etc. should lead to a more complete record of differences and similarities between interglacials, and allow including geographical parameters at European scale.

  8. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. PMID:26304179

  9. Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and zinc in blood and fillets of northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-zinc mining: implications for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, C J; Brumbaugh, W G; May, T W

    2009-04-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet

  10. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet

  11. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  12. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  13. Breeder reactors in France

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1980-04-11

    France relies on nuclear power as an important part of her energy program. Anticipating problems with the availability of natural uranium before the year 2020, the French have been pursuing a three-stage program of development of breeder reactors. The third reactor in this program, the near-commercial plant Super Phenix Mark I, is expected to reach power operation in 1983. Although there are still some uncertainties, particularly about the date when the breeder will become competitive with other energy sources, the outlook is considered favorable and preliminary designs for commercial plants are under way.

  14. Battle of France WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  15. Legionnaires' disease in France.

    PubMed

    Campèse, C; Descours, G; Lepoutre, A; Beraud, L; Maine, C; Che, D; Jarraud, S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current knowledge of Legionnaires' disease (LD) illustrated by the epidemiological situation in France in 2013. LD is a severe pneumonia commonly caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The diagnosis is usually based on the urinary antigen test. This rapid method reduces the delay between clinical suspicion and initiation of an appropriate treatment. However, the availability of a clinical strain is important to improve knowledge of circulating bacteria, to document case clusters, and to identify the sources of contamination. The source of contamination is unknown in most cases. The main contamination sources generating aerosols are water network systems and cooling towers. Thanks to the strengthening of clinical and environmental monitoring and to several guidelines, no epidemic has been reported in France since 2006. Despite these efforts, the number of LD cases has not decreased in recent years. It is essential that applied research continue to better understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of the disease and its characteristics (impact of environmental factors, sources of exposure, strains, host, etc.). Fundamental knowledge has been greatly improved (pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, etc.). The results of this research should help define new strategies for the diagnosis, prevention, and control to decrease the number of LD cases diagnosed every year. PMID:25722040

  16. Identifying driving climate factors of wheat and maize yields inter-annual variability in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Lecerf, Remi; Dentener, Frank J.

    2015-04-01

    A canonical powered Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) approach is here used to estimate the relationship between meteorological variables and crop (durum wheat and grain maize) yield time series over France. This method combines the advantages of both the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and the PLSR. The latter is mainly based on the extraction of a subset of latent variables (having the best predictive power) from the full set of predictors. The method is applied to detrended (by using a LOESS approach) time series of crop yields and monthly mean temperature, cumulated precipitation and global solar radiation during the growing seasons from 1990 to 2011. Results show that, overall, temperature has a substantial influence on winter wheat yields in south-western and eastern France, while rainfall plays an important role in the northern and southern parts of the country. Finally, radiation is more important over the southern part of France. Concerning grain maize, the inferred statistical models show relatively low skill over the northern part of France, where inter-annual yield variability is low. Overall, results show that temperature is the most important variable influencing grain maize yields over the southern and eastern parts of France, while rainfall is more important in the central and northern parts of the country. Finally, global radiation is the main meteorological factor over the westernmost part of France.

  17. Women in physics in France

    SciTech Connect

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  18. [Measles in France].

    PubMed

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women). PMID:23171908

  19. AIRBORNE MERCURY DEPOSITION AND WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS IN RELATION TO MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER, SEDIMENTS, PLANKTON, AND FISH OF EIGHTY NORTHERN MINNESOTA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In light of increasing fish consumption advisories in several states, a comprehensive multimedia database was created to answer a variety of questions. Mercury concentrations in precipitation, lake water and sediment, zooplankton, and fish were measured and analyzed together with...

  20. Processes affecting the response of sulfate concentrations to clearcutting in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, New York, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsch, D.L.; Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of disturbance on the biogeochemical processes that affect the sulfur (S) cycle in forested ecosystems are important, but have been studied in only a few locations. In this investigation, the mechanisms that caused large decreases in stream SO42- concentrations after clearcutting a small forested catchment in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York in 1997 were identified through an examination of pH and SO42- concentrations in soil solutions, bulk deposition of SO42- in throughfall collectors, adsorbed SO 42- concentrations in buried soil bags, and spatial variations in SO42- concentrations in shallow groundwater. The load of SO42- -S in stream water during the first 2 years after clearcutting was about 2 kg ha-1.year-1 less than the background value of 8-10 kg ha-1 year-1. The 10 and 19% decrease in net throughfall flux of SO42- -S during the 2nd and 3rd year after the clearcut, respectively, reflects reduced dry deposition of S after removal of the canopy, but this decrease accounts for 0 and 43%, respectively, of the decrease in SO42- load in streamflow for these 2 years. The pH of B-horizon soil water decreased from 4.5 to 4.0 within 8 months after the clearcut, and SO42- concentrations decreased from 45 ??mol L-1 to less than 20 ??mol L-1 during this time. A strong correlation between SO 42- concentrations and pH values (r2=0.71, p<0.01) in B-horizon soil water during the post-harvest period (1997-1999) reflects increased SO42- adsorption in response to soil acidification. Sulfate concentrations in groundwater from 21 spatially distributed wells were inversely related to a topographic index that served as a surrogate for soil wetness; thus, providing additional evidence that SO 42- adsorption was the dominant cause of the decreased SO42- concentrations in the stream after clearcutting. These results are consistent with those from a 1985 whole-tree harvest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire in which increased SO 42

  1. Concentrations and Geographical Variations of Selected Toxic Elements in Meat from Semi-Domesticated Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in Mid- and Northern Norway: Evaluation of Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ammar Ali; Brustad, Magritt; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2012-01-01

    Meat samples (n = 100) from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) were randomly collected from 10 grazing districts distributed over four Norwegian counties in 2008 and 2009. The main aim was to study concentrations and geographical variations in selected toxic elements; cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) in order to assess the risk associated with reindeer meat consumption. Sample solutions were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometer (ICP-HRMS), whereas analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analyses. Geographical variations in element concentrations were revealed, with As and Cd demonstrating the largest geographical differences. No clear geographical gradient was observed except for the east-west downward gradient for As. The As concentrations were highest in the vicinity of the Russian border, and only Cd was shown to increase with age (p < 0.05). Sex had no significant effect on the concentration of the studied elements. The concentrations of all the studied elements in reindeer meat were generally low and considerably below the maximum levels (ML) available for toxic elements set by the European Commission (EC). Thus, reindeer meat is not likely to be a significant contributor to the human body burden of toxic elements. PMID:22754467

  2. High resolution analysis of uranium and thorium concentration as well as U-series isotope distributions in a Neanderthal tooth from Payre (Ardèche, France) using laser ablation ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Rainer; Aubert, Maxime; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Moncel, Marie-Hélène

    2008-11-01

    We have mapped U ( 238U) and Th ( 232Th) elemental concentrations as well as U-series isotope distributions in a Neanderthal tooth from the Middle Palaeolithic site of Payre using laser ablation ICP-MS. The U-concentrations in an enamel section varied between 1 and 1500 ppb. The U-concentration maps show that U-migration through the external enamel surface is minute, the bulk of the uranium having migrated internally via the dentine into the enamel. The uranium migration and uptake is critically dependent on the mineralogical structure of the enamel. Increased U-concentrations are observed along lineaments, some of which are associated with cracks, and others may be related to intra-prismatic zones or structural weaknesses reaching from the dentine into the enamel. The uranium concentrations in the dentine vary between about 25,000 and 45,000 ppb. Our systematic mapping of U-concentration and U-series isotopes provides insight into the time domain of U-accumulation. Most of the uranium was accumulated in an early stage of burial, with some much later overprints. None of the uranium concentration and U-series profiles across the root of the tooth complied with a single stage diffusion-adsorption (D-A) model that is used for quality control in U-series dating of bones and teeth. Nevertheless, in the domains that yielded the oldest apparent U-series age estimates, U-leaching could be excluded. This means that the oldest apparent U-series ages of around 200 ka represent a minimum age for this Neanderthal specimen. This is in good agreement with independent age assessments (200-230 ka) for the archaeological layer, in which it was found. The Th elemental concentrations in the dental tissues were generally low (between about 1 and 20 ppb), and show little relationship with the nature of the tissue.

  3. Use of acoustic backscatter to estimate continuous suspended sediment and phosphorus concentrations in the Barton River, northern Vermont, 2010-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura; Chalmers, Ann T.; Kiah, Richard G.; Copans, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, investigated the use of acoustic backscatter to estimate concentrations of suspended sediment and total phosphorus at the Barton River near Coventry, Vermont. The hypothesis was that acoustic backscatter—the reflection of sound waves off objects back to the source from which they came—measured by an acoustic Doppler profiler (ADP) and recorded as ancillary data for the calculation of discharge, also could be used to generate a continuous concentration record of suspended sediment and phosphorus at the streamgage, thereby deriving added value from the instrument. Suspended-sediment and phosphorus concentrations are of particular interest in Vermont, where impairment of surface waters by suspended sediments and phosphorus is a major concern. Regression models for estimating suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and total phosphorus concentrations evaluated several independent variables: measured backscatter (MB), water-corrected backscatter (WCB), sediment-corrected backscatter (SCB), discharge, fluid-absorption coefficient, sediment-driven acoustic attenuation coefficient, and discharge hysteresis. The best regression equations for estimating SSC used backscatter as the predictor, reflecting the direct relation between acoustic backscatter and SSC. Backscatter was a better predictor of SSC than discharge in part because hysteresis between SSC and backscatter was less than for SSC and discharge. All three backscatter variables—MB, WCB, and SCB—performed equally as predictors of SSC and phosphorus concentrations at the Barton River site. The similar abilities to predict SSC among backscatter terms may partially be attributed to the low values and narrow range of the sediment-driven acoustic attenuation in the Barton River. The regression based on SCB was selected for estimating SSC because it removes potential bias caused by attenuation and temperature

  4. The Messinian marine to nonmarine gypsums of Jumilla (Northern Betic Cordillera, SE Spain): Isotopic and Sr concentration constraints on the origin of parent brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Carlos; Vilas, Lorenzo; Arias, Consuelo

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the Messinian Hoya de la Sima (HS) gypsum (Betic foreland) is constrained using 87Sr/86Sr, δ34S, Sr concentration, and petrographic data. The Lower and Middle HS units consist of subaqueous vertically-aligned and stromatolitic selenites, the latter containing unusual microbial depositional textures. The Upper Unit consists of very-shallow-water bioturbated lenticular gypsum with Paracamelus ichnites. 87Sr/86Sr and δ34S indicate precipitation from predominantly marine waters, with upward increasing continental influence. Mixing models between Messinian seawater and continental water that dissolved Triassic evaporites show that the percentages of seawater required to explain the measured 87Sr/86Sr are analogous to the percentages obtained using δ34S, supporting precipitation from such mixtures. 87Sr/86Sr and δ34S of Lower HS selenites resemble those of the Primary Lower Gypsum (PLG) of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), in both cases indicating precipitation from seawater-continental water mixtures in which most Sr and SO4 were supplied by Messinian seawater. In the Lower HS selenites, Sr concentrations indicate contributing continental waters with Sr/Ca ratios similar to seawater. However, Sr concentrations of PLG selenites from other Betic basins (Bajo Segura, Sorbas indicate parent waters with Sr/Ca ratios lower than seawater. If the Sr contents of the betic PLG selenites are representative, it is unlikely that the Lower HS selenites represent the PLG. However, we cannot completely discard that option since different LPG subbasins could have had variable Sr/Ca. The HS gypsums formed coevally to diapirism of Triassic evaporites, in a restricted lagoonal basin developed during or slightly after a phase of strike-slip faulting in the Betic Cordillera. More general implications of this work are that Sr concentrations, combined with 87Sr/86Sr and δ34S data, provide key constraints on the origin of parent brines, and using Sr concentrations as

  5. Long-Term Changes in Lower Tropospheric Baseline Ozone Concentrations:. [Comparing Chemistry-Climate Models and Observations at Northern Mid-Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, D. D.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L.; Shindell, D. T.; Staehelin, J.; Derwent, R.; Cooper, O. R.; Tanimoto, H.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Gilge, S.; Scheel, H.-E.; Steinbacher, M.; Frohlich, M.

    2014-01-01

    Two recent papers have quantified long-term ozone (O3) changes observed at northernmidlatitude sites that are believed to represent baseline (here understood as representative of continental to hemispheric scales) conditions. Three chemistry-climate models (NCAR CAM-chem, GFDL-CM3, and GISS-E2-R) have calculated retrospective tropospheric O3 concentrations as part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model intercomparisons. We present an approach for quantitative comparisons of model results with measurements for seasonally averaged O3 concentrations. There is considerable qualitative agreement between the measurements and the models, but there are also substantial and consistent quantitative disagreements. Most notably, models (1) overestimate absolute O3 mixing ratios, on average by approximately 5 to 17 ppbv in the year 2000, (2) capture only approximately 50% of O3 changes observed over the past five to six decades, and little of observed seasonal differences, and (3) capture approximately 25 to 45% of the rate of change of the long-term changes. These disagreements are significant enough to indicate that only limited confidence can be placed on estimates of present-day radiative forcing of tropospheric O3 derived from modeled historic concentration changes and on predicted future O3 concentrations. Evidently our understanding of tropospheric O3, or the incorporation of chemistry and transport processes into current chemical climate models, is incomplete. Modeled O3 trends approximately parallel estimated trends in anthropogenic emissions of NO(sub x), an important O3 precursor, while measured O3 changes increase more rapidly than these emission estimates.

  6. Effects of recharge and discharge on delta2H and delta18O composition and chloride concentration of high arsenic/fluoride groundwater from the Datong Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Su, Chunli; Duan, Mengyu

    2013-02-01

    To better understand the effects of recharge and discharge on the hydrogeochemistry of high levels of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in groundwater, environmental isotopic composition (delta2H and delta18O) and chloride (Cl) concentrations were analyzed in 29 groundwater samples collected from the Datong Basin. High arsenic groundwater samples (As > 50 micog/L) were found to be enriched in lighter isotopic composition that ranged from -92 to -78 per thousand for deuterium (delta2H) and from -12.5 to -9.9 per thousand for oxygen-18 (delta18O). High F-containing groundwater (F > 1 mg/L) was relatively enriched in heavier isotopic composition and varied from -90 to -57 per thousand and from -12.2 to -6.7 per thousand for delta2H and delta18O, respectively. High chloride concentrations and delta18O values were primarily measured in groundwater samples from the northern and southwestern portions of the study area, indicating the effect of evaporation on groundwater. The observation of relatively homogenized and low delta18O values and chloride concentrations in groundwater samples from central part of the Datong Basin might be a result of fast recharge by irrigation returns, which suggests that irrigation using arsenic-contaminated groundwater affected the occurrence of high arsenic-containing groundwater in the basin. PMID:23472327

  7. Plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the Cree of northern Quebec, Canada: results from the multi-community environment-and-health study.

    PubMed

    Liberda, Eric N; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Cote, Suzanne; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nieboer, Evert

    2014-02-01

    Historically, resource development has had negative impacts on the traditional lifestyle of First Nation Cree Communities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. In response to the perceived need for fisheries restoration and for managing health concerns associated with environmental pollutants, the Mercury Program in the James Bay Region of Quebec was reconstituted in 2001 and broadened to include a wider range of chemicals of concern. Based on comprehensive surveys of the nine Cree Territory (Eeyou Istchee) communities in this region during the period 2002-2009, blood plasma concentrations are presented of Aroclor 1260, PCB congeners 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 163, 170, 180, 183, and 187, Aldrin, ß-HCH, α-Chlordane, γ-Chlordane, oxy-Chlordane, trans-Nonachlor, cis-Nonachlor, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Hexachloro benzene (HCB), Mirex, PBB 153, PBDE 47, PBDE 99, PBDE 100, PBDE 153, Toxaphene 26, and Toxaphene 50. The organohalogenated compounds were extracted using solid-phase extraction and cleaned on florisil columns before high resolution HRGC-MS analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the large number of contaminant variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables. ANOVA identified significant differences between age groups, with the older participants having higher body burdens of legacy lipophilic contaminants, but not for the PBDEs. In certain female age groups, plasma concentrations of PBDEs were observed to be lower than for males; conversely, DDT was higher. Among communities, concentrations were different (p<0.001) for all contaminants. This work provides a baseline for the James Bay Eeyou Istchee communities who, to varying degrees, rely on food and other resources from the land and therefore are at higher risk of increased body burdens of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PMID:24189104

  8. VEB-1 Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase–producing Acinetobacter baumannii, France1

    PubMed Central

    Coignard, Bruno; Carbonne, Anne; Blanckaert, Karine; Bajolet, Odile; Bernet, Claude; Verdeil, Xavier; Astagneau, Pascal; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Nordmann, Patrice

    2006-01-01

    VEB-1 extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Acinetobacter baumannii was responsible for an outbreak in hospitals in France. A national alert was triggered in September 2003 when 4 hospitals reported clusters of A. baumannii infection with similar susceptibility profiles. Case definitions and laboratory guidelines were disseminated, and prospective surveillance was implemented; strains were sent to a single laboratory for characterization and typing. From April 2003 through June 2004, 53 hospitals reported 290 cases of A. baumannii infection or colonization; 275 isolates were blaVEB-1-positive and clonally related. Cases were first reported in 5 districts of northern France, then in 10 other districts in 4 regions. Within a region, interhospital spread was associated with patient transfer. In northern France, investigation and control measures led to a reduction of reported cases after January 2004. The national alert enabled early control of new clusters, demonstrating the usefulness of early warning about antimicrobial drug resistance. PMID:16965700

  9. A Geostatistical Approach to Assess the Spatial Association between Indoor Radon Concentration, Geological Features and Building Characteristics: The Case of Lombardy, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Borgoni, Riccardo; Tritto, Valeria; Bigliotto, Carlo; de Bartolo, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and second to smoking, a major leading cause of lung cancer. The main source of radon is the soil, but the gas can enter buildings in many different ways and reach high indoor concentrations. Monitoring surveys have been promoted in many countries in order to assess the exposure of people to radon. In this paper, two complementary aspects are investigated. Firstly, we mapped indoor radon concentration in a large and inhomogeneous region using a geostatistical approach which borrows strength from the geologic nature of the soil. Secondly, knowing that geologic and anthropogenic factors, such as building characteristics, can foster the gas to flow into a building or protect against this, we evaluated these effects through a multiple regression model which takes into account the spatial correlation of the data. This allows us to rank different building typologies, identified by architectonic and geological characteristics, according to their proneness to radon. Our results suggest the opportunity to differentiate construction requirements in a large and inhomogeneous area, as the one considered in this paper, according to different places and provide a method to identify those dwellings which should be monitored more carefully. PMID:21655128

  10. Carbon-13 isotopic abundance and concentration of atmospheric methane for background air in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres from 1978 to 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.M.; Sepanski; Morris, L.J.

    1995-03-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) may become an increasingly important contributor to global warming in future years. Its atmospheric concentration has risen, doubling over the past several hundred years, and additional methane is thought to have a much greater effect on climate, on a per molecule basis, than additional C0{sub 2} at present day concentrations (Shine et al. 1990). The causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} have been difficult to ascertain because of a lack of quantitative knowledge of the fluxes (i.e., net emissions) from the numerous anthropogenic and natural sources. The goal of CH{sub 4} isotopic studies is to provide a constraint (and so reduce the uncertainties) in estimating the relative fluxes from the various isotopically distinct sources, whose combined fluxes must result in the measured atmospheric isotopic composition, after the fractionating effect of the atmospheric removal process is considered. In addition, knowledge of the spatial and temporal changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric CH{sub 4}, along with estimates of the fluxes from some of the major sources, makes it possible to calculate growth rates for sources whose temporal emissions trends would be difficult to measure directly.

  11. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  12. Concentrations and trophic interactions of novel brominated flame retardants, HBCD, and PBDEs in zooplankton and fish from Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Poma, Giulia; Volta, Pietro; Roscioli, Claudio; Bettinetti, Roberta; Guzzella, Licia

    2014-05-15

    Following the release of the international regulations on PBDEs and HBCD, the aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), including 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), in an Italian subalpine lake located in a populated and industrial area. The study investigated specifically the potential BFR biomagnification in a particular lake's pelagic food web, whose structure and dynamics were evaluated using the Stable Isotope Analysis. The potential BFR biomagnification was investigated by using the trophic-level adjusted BMFs and Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs), confirming that HBCD and some PBDE congeners are able to biomagnify within food webs. Comparing the calculated values of BMFTL and TMF, a significant positive correlation was observed between the two factors, suggesting that the use of BMFTL to investigate the biomagnification potential of organic chemical compounds might be an appropriate approach when a simple food web is considered. PMID:24614155

  13. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba > Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites. PMID:26277654

  14. Beginning of viniculture in France.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Luley, Benjamin P; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P; Smith, Karen E; Hall, Gretchen R; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M

    2013-06-18

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  15. Beginning of viniculture in France

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500–475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425–400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  16. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  17. Severe peritonitis due to Balantidium coli acquired in France.

    PubMed

    Ferry, T; Bouhour, D; De Monbrison, F; Laurent, F; Dumouchel-Champagne, H; Picot, S; Piens, M A; Granier, P

    2004-05-01

    The case reported here concerns an alcoholic pork-butcher who presented with severe colitis with peritonitis, caused by the only ciliate protozoan capable of infecting humans, Balantidium coli. This parasite is common in a variety of domestic and wild mammals, mainly pigs; however, its prevalence rate in humans is very low--particularly in industrialised, northern countries, including France. The infection is most frequently acquired by ingesting food or water contaminated by pig faeces, and it may be asymptomatic or may cause acute diarrhoea. Specific antibiotic treatment is efficacious, and it is important to consider the risk of this parasitic disease in susceptible patients presenting with bloody diarrhoea. PMID:15112068

  18. Susceptibility of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Northern Kyushu district of Japan to carbapenem antibiotics, determined by an integrated concentration method: evaluation of the method based on Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Zenzo; Kusaba, Koji; Aoki, Yosuke

    2008-06-01

    In empirical antibacterial therapy, regional surveillance is expected to yield important information for the determination of the class and dosage regimen of antibacterial agents to be used when dealing with infections with organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in which strains resistant to antibacterial agents have been increasing. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of five carbapenem antibiotics against P. aeruginosa strains isolated in the Northern Kyushu district of Japan between 2005 and 2006 were measured, and 100 strains for which carbapenem MICs were < or =0.5-32 microg/ml were selected. In this study, MIC was measured by two methods, i.e., the common serial twofold dilution method and an integrated concentration method, in which the concentration was changed, in increments of 2 microg/ml, from 2 to 16 microg/ml. The MIC(50)/MIC(90) values for imipenem, meropenem, biapenem, doripenem, and panipenem, respectively, with the former method were 8/16, 4/16, 4/16, 2/8, and 16/16 microg/ml; and the values were 6/10, 4/12, 4/10, 2/6, and 10/16 microg/ml with the latter method. The MIC data obtained with both methods were subjected to pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis with Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the probability of achieving the target of time above MIC (T>MIC) with each carbapenem. The probability of achieving 25% time above the MIC (T>MIC; % of T>MIC for dosing intervals) and 40% T>MIC against P. aeruginosa with any dosage regimen was higher with doripenem than with any other carbapenem tested. When the two sets of MIC data were subjected to PK/PD analysis, the difference between the two methods in the probability of achieving each % T>MIC was small, thus endorsing the validity of the serial twofold dilution method. PMID:18574662

  19. Enterococcus cecorum human infection, France.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, E; Abat, C; Rolain, J-M

    2015-09-01

    Enterococcus cecorum is a bacterium of the intestinal tract of many domestic animals that is rarely reported as human pathogen. Here we report the first case of incisional hernia plate infection and the first case of urinary tract colonization due to E. cecorum from patients in Marseille, France. PMID:26199733

  20. [Territorial and social healthcare inequalities in France].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Geographic analyses of health-related issues have a long tradition in France, and have often consisted of observational studies conducted by practitioners themselves. Such geographic approaches were gradually abandoned during the 20th century as the pace of clinical progress increased. The few healthcare studies conducted by geographers have had little impact among the medical community. However, our studies show that geographic inequalities in health still persist. During the last 10 years or so, the social and economic crisis has dangerously accentuated health inequalities at every level In France, where equality is supposed to be the watchword of the entire healthcare system, this situation is particularly regrettable. Access to care decreases with distance from medical services. With the increasing urban and suburban concentration of the population, public healthcare policy must focus on finding solutions for people living in remote areas or too poor to access medical care. Geographic analyses of healthcare organization can help to make medical care available for all, especially those who need it most. PMID:23550454

  1. The Quaternary coversands of southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitzia, Luca; Bertran, Pascal; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Bateman, Mark D.; Hernandez, Marion; Garon, Henri; de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Mercier, Norbert; Leroyer, Chantal; Queffelec, Alain; Voinchet, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analysis and numerical dating (OSL, IRSL, ESR, 14C) of Pleistocene coversands in southwest France enable the construction of a renewed chronostratigraphic framework for sand deposition. The chronological data obtained from sandsheet units testify to the development of transgressive dunefields since at least the Middle Pleistocene (MIS 10). Three main phases of accumulation occurred during the Last Glacial. The oldest one (64-42 ka) is associated with wet sandsheet facies, histic horizons and zibar-type dune fields, which reflect deposition in a context strongly influenced by the groundwater table. The Late Pleniglacial (24-14 ka) corresponds to the main phase of coversand extension in a drier context. Silty gley horizons suggest, however, local interruptions of sand drifting during GS 2.1. Lateglacial stabilization of the coversands may not have occurred before GI-1c (Allerød), which was typified by the development of cumulic arenosols. These were covered by parabolic dunes during the Younger Dryas. The variations in extent of the emerged continental shelf during the glacial-interglacial cycles may explain the uneven geographical distribution of sand deposition through time. Because of coastline retreat up to 100 km north of 45°N during the LGM lowstand, the coversands were unable to reach the northern part of the basin. Comparison with other European regions highlights stronger affinities of the French record with Portugal than with the Netherlands and Great Britain, probably because of reduced influence of permafrost.

  2. 235U, 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs activity concentrations in marine sediments along the northern coast of Oman Sea using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2012-09-01

    The natural radioactivity levels in sediment samples of the northern coast of Oman Sea, covering the coastal strip from Hormoz canyon to Goatr seaport, as the first time has been determined. The results of measurements will serve as background reference level for Oman Sea coastlines. Sediments from 36 coastal and near shore locations were collected for analysis. Analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs using two high purity germanium detectors with 38.5% and 55% relative efficiencies. The concentration of (235)U, (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in sediment samples ranged between 1.01 and 2.87 Bq/kg, 11.83 and 22.68 Bq/kg, 10.7 and 25.02 Bq/kg, 222.89 and 535.07 Bq/kg and 0.14 and 2.8 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity was well below the defined limit of 370 Bq/kg. The external hazard indices were found to be less than 1, indicating a low dose. PMID:22717321

  3. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  4. Cardiac remote monitoring in France.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Nicolas; Perrotton, Fanny; Delage, Emilie; Gourraud, Jean-Baptiste; Lande, Gilles; Solnon, Aude; Probst, Vincent; Grimandi, Gael; Clouet, Johann

    2014-04-01

    The increase in number of implanted cardiac medical devices and the announced decrease in number of cardiologists have led to remote monitoring being considered as a pivotal tool for patient follow-up. For 10 years, remote monitoring has been the subject of multiple clinical studies. In these studies, reliability and clinical efficacy have been demonstrated, but the use of remote monitoring remains quite limited in France compared with other countries. To explain this delay in uptake, some organizational difficulties and the lack of reimbursement of remote monitoring are often mentioned. The results of medico-economic studies might provide answers about the value of remote monitoring and enable the supervisory authorities to define how its use will be financed. This review provides a global view of remote monitoring in France, and covers the principle, clinical efficacy, organizational and regulatory aspects, and medico-economic data. PMID:24709285

  5. Concentrations, loads, and yields of nutrients and suspended sediment in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers, northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina, October 2005 to September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Feaster, Toby D.; Petkewich, Mattew D.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Spartanburg Water, evaluated the concentrations, loads, and yields of suspended sediment, dissolved ammonia, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total organic nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus at sites in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers in northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina from October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2009 (water years 2006 to 2009). Nutrient and sediment loads and yields also were computed for the intervening subbasin of the Pacolet River not represented by the South and North Pacolet River Basins. Except for a few outliers, the majority of the measurements of total nitrogen concentrations were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline of 0.69 milligram per liter for streams and rivers in the nutrient ecoregion IX, which includes the study area within the Pacolet River Basin. Dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower at the South Pacolet River site compared to the North Pacolet and Pacolet River sites. About 90 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations at the South Pacolet River site were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline of 0.37 milligram per liter, and more than 75 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations at the North Pacolet and Pacolet River sites were above that guideline. At all sites, minimum annual nutrient loads for the estimation period were observed during water year 2008 when severe drought conditions were present. An estimated mean annual total nitrogen load of 37,770 kilograms per year and yield of 2.63 kilograms per hectare per year were determined for the South Pacolet River site for the estimation period. The North Pacolet River site had a mean annual total nitrogen load of 65,890 kilograms per year and yield of 2.19 kilograms per hectare per year

  6. Role of magmatic and fluid concentrating in formation of platinum mineralization in the Lower Zone and Platreef as follows from composition of phlogopite, cumulus silicates, and sulfide melt, the northern limb of Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudovskaya, M. A.; Kinnaird, J. A.; Udachina, L. V.; Distler, V. V.; Kuz'min, D. V.

    2014-11-01

    As follows from the results of new geological exploration, the thick sequence of primitive cumulates of the Lower Zone underlies Platreef in separate magmatic depressions of the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex. In the Turfspruit area, the Lower Zone is separated from the overlying Platreef by an interval of contact metasedimentary rocks with sills of fine-grained norite and plagioclase orthopyroxenite of the Marginal Zone. The magmatic stratigraphy of Platreef in Turfspruit and its western plunge, where it is slightly contaminated with sedimentary rocks, is close to the section of Critical Zone in the Bushveld. The Lower Zone and Platreef contain sulfide mineralization enriched in PGE in particular units-reefs-throughout the section. The main reef can be correlated with the Merensky Reef. The objective of this study was to estimate the relationships between fluid and magmatic PGE concentrating in the reefs localized in the upper part of Platreef near its unconformable contact with the Main Zone. It is shown that Ni partitioning between cumulus olivine and orthopyroxene, on the one hand, and coexisting sulfide liquid, on the other, indicates their equilibrium crystallization in the Lower Zone and Platreef at close redox conditions. The composition of sulfide liquid was recalculated as sulfide tenor on the basis of bulk Ni, Cu, and S concentrations in rock. In contrast, Ni partitioning between phlogopite and sulfide melt does not provide evidence in favor of their equilibrium crystallization, although Mg # of phlogopite from the intercumulus assemblage is correlated with Mg # of cumulus mineral throughout the section. The results of phlogopite microprobing throughout the section show that the highest F and Cl contents are characteristic of highly evolved rocks, including both the PGE-bearing plagioclase pyroxenite from reefs and barren norite from the Marginal Zone. We have arrived at the conclusion that enrichment in volatile components is the attendant rather

  7. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  8. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in France: 2001

    PubMed Central

    Guillemin, F; Saraux, A; Guggenbuhl, P; Roux, C; Fardellone, P; Le Bihan, E; Cantagrel, A; Chary-Valckenaere, I; Euller-Ziegler, L; Flipo, R; Juvin, R; Behier, J; Fautrel, B; Masson, C; Coste, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prevalence estimates of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) vary across Europe. Recent estimates in southern European countries showed a lower prevalence than in northern countries. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of RA in France in a multiregional representative sample in the year 2001. Methods: A two stage random sample was constituted in seven areas (20 counties) from the national telephone directory of households and by the next birthday method in each household. Patient-interviewers, member of self help groups, were trained to administer telephone surveys using a validated questionnaire for case detection of inflammatory rheumatism, and conducted the survey under quality control. All suspected cases of RA were confirmed by their rheumatologist or by clinical examination. Prevalence estimates after probability sampling correction were standardised for age and sex (national census 1999). Results: An average response rate of 64.7% (two stages combined) led to a total of 9395 respondents. Standardised prevalence was 0.31% (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.48) for RA, 0.51% in women and 0.09% in men, with a higher age-specific prevalence in the 65–74 year age band. A geographical analysis of county clustering showed significant variation across the country. Conclusion: This national multiregional cooperative study demonstrates the usefulness of working in association with patients of self help groups. It showed a similar prevalence of RA to that of the spondyloarthropathies estimated concomitantly during the survey. It provides a reliable basis for definition of population targets for healthcare delivery and drug treatments. PMID:15800010

  9. Home health care in France.

    PubMed

    Charles, B

    1990-02-23

    Home health care in France has a long tradition, but is limited in its development. Since 1970 hospitals are by law permitted to extend services at home. Apart from this, patient associations are a driving force in the organization of home health care. There is a trend to more home health care, but this is hampered by splitting of responsibilities of local, departmental or central authorities. The hospital pharmacist is recommended to focus on his scientific and technical competence. Improved relations between community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists are advocated. PMID:2314994

  10. Northern plants and ozone.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Huttunen, Satu; Tømmervik, Hans; Hole, Lars R; Solberg, Sverre

    2009-12-01

    Forests in northern Fennoscandia are mainly composed of the O3-sensitive species--Scots pine and downy, mountain, and silver birches. Seminatural vegetation also contributes to biodiversity, carbon cycling, and ecosystem services as a part of forests, mires, meadows, and road verges. Fumigation experiments show that current O3 concentrations of 30-50 ppb reduce plant biomass production and reproduction. Visible foliar injury is attributable to peak O3 concentrations and relates to fast phenological development and high growth rate. Trees can acclimate to O3-induced water stress by producing more xeromorphic leaves or needles. The direct effects of O3 on grassland vegetation also translate to changes in the structure and size of the soil microbial community, and ecosystem N cycling. It is necessary to reduce the emission of O3 precursors and maintain high biodiversity to protect northern ecosystems. Regular, systematic, countrywide monitoring and validation as well as quantification of the effects of O3 on plants in the Nordic countries are also necessary. PMID:20175438

  11. Origins of sediment-associated contaminants to the Marais Vernier, the Seine Estuary, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mesnage, V.; Laignel, B.; Motelay, A.; Deloffre, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Marais Vernier is the largest freshwater wetland in the Seine Estuary in northern France. It is in a heavily urbanized and industrialized region and could be affected by atmospheric deposition and by fluvial input of contaminants in water diverted from the Seine River. To evaluate contaminant histories in the wetland and the region, sediment cores were collected from two open-water ponds in the Marais Vernier: the Grand-Mare, which was connected to the Seine by a canal from 1950 to 1996, and the Petite Mare, which has a small rural watershed. Diversions from the Seine to the Grand-Mare increased sedimentation rates but mostly resulted in low contaminant concentrations and loading rates, indicating that the sediment from the Seine was predominantly brought upstream by tidal currents from the estuary and was not from the watershed. Atmospheric sources of metals dominate inputs to the Petite Mare; however, runoff of metals from vehicle-related sources in the watershed might contribute to the upward trends in concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Zn. Estimates of atmospheric deposition using the Petite Mare core are consistent with measured deposition in the region and are mixed (similar for Hg and Pb; larger for Cd, Cu, and Zn) compared with deposition estimated from sediment cores in the northeastern United States. A local source of PAHs in the watershed of the Petite Mare is indicated by higher concentrations, higher accumulation rates, and a different, more petrogenic, PAH assemblage than in the Grand-Mare. The study illustrates how diverse sources and transport pathways can affect wetlands in industrial regions and can be evaluated using sediment cores from the wetland ponds. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  13. North-south gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

    PubMed

    Eussen, Simone J P M; Nilsen, Roy M; Midttun, Øivind; Hustad, Steinar; IJssennagger, Noortje; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Åse; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Dossus, Laure; Perquier, Florence; Overvad, Kim; Teucher, Birgit; Grote, Verena A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Plada, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ros, Martine M; Peeters, Petra H M; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Schneede, Jörn; van Guelpen, Bethany; Wark, Petra A; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Vollset, Stein Emil

    2013-07-28

    Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10·4 nmol/l; women, 10·7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north-south gradient. Vitamin B₂ concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22·2 nmol/l; women, 26·0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (P trend< 0·001). Vitamin B(6) concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77·3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70·4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (P trend< 0·001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle. PMID:23228223

  14. Seasonal variability of suspended sediment transport in the Seine river catchment area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; Baati, Selma; Ayrault, Sophie; Bonte, Philippe; Evrard, Olivier; Kissel, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    This study consists in an innovative application of environmental physico-chemical techniques on fluvial sediments with the aim to trace the seasonal changes in suspended sediment transport of the complex Seine river catchment area in northern France. The aim of this project is to develop a detailed understanding for the discrimination of naturally triggered and anthropogenic induced processes and their temporal changes with weather conditions. With a focus on the heavy metal fraction, we determine the regional distribution of the suspended material and search for environmental fingerprints demonstrating the influence of fluvial transport mechanisms, changes in concentration related to discharge variations or different sediment sources, and in-situ alteration caused by variations in the geochemical conditions (oxy-redox, pH, Eh, etc.). To achieve these goals, we apply a combination of straightforward rock magnetic hysteresis measurements (performed using an AGM2900 at the LSCE) and advanced scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM). This interdisciplinary approach allows refining the detailed analysis of sediment trap samples, originating from Tessier et al. (2003), as recently shown by Franke et al. (2009). In our preliminary results, we observe a general increase in magnetic concentrations from summer to winter conditions, coupled with a magneto-mineralogic change to rather reduced metallic mineral phases. However, each riversection of the Seine system shows its specific trend line depending on the regional initial input, weathering conditions, drainage area and potential pollution sources. A systematic analysis of the detailed results will allow highlighting the climatic/seasonal influence on the metallic particle assembly. Keywords: Seine river system, environmental magnetism, suspended particulate matter, anthropogenic and natural input, magnetic hysteresis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM),, heavy metal pollution, seasonal variability References: Franke

  15. Apprenticeship in France: Between Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Zarca, Georgie

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the state of apprenticeship in France, using data gathered through telephone interviews with apprentices. Of a targeted group of 6,000 young apprentices, 70% participated in the survey. The study found that, until recently, apprenticeships had generally been used in France to train students in manual trades. During the past 10…

  16. Smoke Blankets Northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Lightning strikes have sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on 27 June 2008. Cape Mendocino is at the center of the image and Mt. Shasta is near the upper right. Concentrated smoke is visible in several river valleys and the large smoke cloud extends over the Pacific Ocean for hundreds of kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  17. Chemical composition of rainwater in Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanusi, Astrid; Wortham, Henri; Millet, Maurice; Mirabel, Philippe

    Rainwater sampled weekly at nine sites in eastern France from October 1991 to March 1992 has been analysed for major ions (Cl -, NO 3-, SO s2-, NH 4+, Na +, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+), pH and conductivity. The major elements are SO 42- and Cl - for the anions and NH 4+ and Ca 2+ for the cations. The major ion concentrations are higher in urban areas, especially at Colmar (no.2), where rainfall amounts are low. Surprisingly, the acidity is higher at the sites in rural areas [i.e. mean pH of 4.4 for Ban sur Meurthe (no. 7)] and lower in the urban areas [mean pH of 5.0 for Strasbourg (no. 1) and pH of 5.7 for Colmar (no. 2)]. This is probably due to the presence of CaCO 3 in the "loess", which is the major constituent of soils in the upper Rhine valley. The relationship between the chemical composition of rain andair-mass trajectories for four humid weeks which presented only one rain event are also examined.

  18. Shell disease in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, reared in France.

    PubMed

    Renault, T; Chollet, B; Cochennec, N; Gerard, A

    2002-01-01

    Progeny of eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, introduced into France in 1992, were reared in IFREMER facilities to test their growth performances. During the summer of 1993, sporadic mass mortalities (80-90%) occurred among C. virginica spat reared in the IFREMER laboratories in La Tremblade (Charente Maritime, France) and Bouin (Vendée, France). Affected oysters presented mantle retraction and deposition of an anomalous conchiolin layer on the inner surface of the shell. The incidence of oysters with gross signs exceeded 80%. No obvious pathogen was identified in soft tissues by histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, histological examination showed the presence of anomalous basophilic round structures, 0.5-1 microm in diameter, in gill and mantle connective tissues. These extracellular Feulgen-negative structures reacted positively with the von Kossa stain. TEM examination on mantle and gill samples in diseased spat showed that the basophilic bodies consisted of concentric deposits of an amorphous substance interpreted as containing calcium. These observations may indicate that the mineralization process in spat shells was disturbed without exact determination of the cause. Based on the similarities of the gross signs to those reported in juvenile eastern oysters in the United States, we believe that the cause of the mortalities observed in France was probably the Juvenile Oyster Disease. Moreover, we report for the first time the detection of anomalous amorphous structures in gill and mantle connective tissues associated with mortalities and deposition of an anomalous conchioloin layer on the inner shell surface in C. virginica spat. PMID:12054781

  19. [The occupational physician in France].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information. PMID:24107336

  20. Atmospheric mercury speciation dynamics at the high-altitude Pic du Midi Observatory, southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuewu; Marusczak, Nicolas; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Sauvage, Bastien; Gheusi, François; Prestbo, Eric M.; Sonke, Jeroen E.

    2016-05-01

    Continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), particulate bound mercury (PBM) and gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) at the high-altitude Pic du Midi Observatory (PDM Observatory, 2877 m a.s.l.) in southern France were made from November 2011 to November 2012. The mean GEM, PBM and GOM concentrations were 1.86 ng m-3, 14 pg m-3 and 27 pg m-3, respectively and we observed 44 high PBM (peak PBM values of 33-98 pg m-3) and 61 high GOM (peak GOM values of 91-295 pg m-3) events. The high PBM events occurred mainly in cold seasons (winter and spring) whereas high GOM events were mainly observed in the warm seasons (summer and autumn). In cold seasons the maximum air mass residence times (ARTs) associated with high PBM events were observed in the upper troposphere over North America. The ratios of high PBM ARTs to total ARTs over North America, Europe, the Arctic region and Atlantic Ocean were all elevated in the cold season compared to the warm season, indicating that the middle and upper free troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere may be more enriched in PBM in cold seasons. PBM concentrations and PBM / GOM ratios during the high PBM events were significantly anti-correlated with atmospheric aerosol concentrations, air temperature and solar radiation, suggesting in situ formation of PBM in the middle and upper troposphere. We identified two distinct types of high GOM events with the GOM concentrations positively and negatively correlated with atmospheric ozone concentrations, respectively. High GOM events positively correlated with ozone were mainly related to air masses from the upper troposphere over the Arctic region and middle troposphere over the temperate North Atlantic Ocean, whereas high GOM events anti-correlated with ozone were mainly related to air masses from the lower free troposphere over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. The ARTs analysis demonstrates that the lower and middle free troposphere over the North Atlantic Ocean was

  1. Women's Employment in France: Protection or Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaud, Marcelle; Levy, Martine

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the origin and evolution of special protection laws in France for employed women, describes those measures that still exist, and explains what employers, unions, and the authorities think of them. Discusses pregnancy, family responsibilities, and technological progress. (CT)

  2. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  3. Nuclear Energy - A Fateful Choice for France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Etienne; And Others

    1976-01-01

    In France the public is only moderately interested in technological problems, and so the question of energy choices has not seeped deeply into the political consciousness. The situation could change as the country strengthens its nuclear commitment. (BT)

  4. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ..., 2009, the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the review (74 FR 66992, December 17... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  5. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    PubMed Central

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  6. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    PubMed

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  7. Isotopic Composition of Gaseous Elemental Mercury in the Free Troposphere of the Pic du Midi Observatory, France.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xuewu; Marusczak, Nicolas; Wang, Xun; Gheusi, François; Sonke, Jeroen E

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the sources and transformations of mercury (Hg) in the free troposphere is a critical aspect of global Hg research. Here we present one year of observations of atmospheric Hg speciation and gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) isotopic composition at the high-altitude Pic du Midi Observatory (2860 m above sea level) in France. Biweekly integrated GEM from February 2012 to January 2013 revealed significant variations in δ(202)HgGEM (-0.04‰ to 0.52‰) but not in Δ(199)HgGEM (-0.17‰ to -0.27‰) or Δ(200)HgGEM (-0.10‰ to 0.05‰). δ(202)HgGEM was negatively correlated with CO and reflected air mass origins from Europe (high CO, low δ(202)HgGEM) and from the Atlantic Ocean (low CO, high δ(202)HgGEM). We suggest that the δ(202)HgGEM variations represent mixing of recent low δ(202)HgGEM European anthropogenic emissions with high δ(202)HgGEM northern hemispheric background GEM. In addition, Atlantic Ocean free troposphere air masses showed a positive correlation between δ(202)HgGEM and gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) concentrations, indicative of mass-dependent Hg isotope fractionation during GEM oxidation. On the basis of atmospheric δ(202)HgGEM and speciated Hg observations, we suggest that the oceanic free troposphere is a reservoir within which GEM is readily oxidized to GOM. PMID:27214126

  8. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  9. Grain-size distribution and selected major and trace element concentrations in bed-sediment cores from the Lower Granite Reservoir and Snake and Clearwater Rivers, eastern Washington and northern Idaho, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    Fifty subsamples from 15 cores were analyzed for major and trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements were low, with respect to sediment quality guidelines, in most cores. Typically, major and trace element concentrations were lower in the subsamples collected from the Snake River compared to those collected from the Clearwater River, the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers, and Lower Granite Reservoir. Generally, lower concentrations of major and trace elements were associated with coarser sediments (larger than 0.0625 millimeter) and higher concentrations of major and trace elements were associated with finer sediments (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter).

  10. Advanced MCT technologies in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Gérard; Tribolet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the very recent developments of the HgCdTe infrared detector technology developed by CEA-LETI and industrialized by Sofradir in France. Today Sofradir uses in production for more than 15years a very mature, reproducible, well mastered and fully understood, planar n on p ion implanted technology. This process that allows very high yields to be achieved in all infrared bands from SWIR to LWIR uses the very conventional approach of LPE growth of MCT on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. Progress in this field is continuous from 20years and has recently leaded to the fabrication of high performance VLWIR FPA (320x256 with cut off wavelengths as high as 20μm). Moreover, thanks to the design of the epitaxial structure and to the substrate removal step MCT FPAs present the unique features to have very high quantum efficiency (above 70%) from the cut off wavelength down to the UV. This effect, which opens new application fields, was recently demonstrated in SWIR 320x256 FPAs with cut off wavelength of 2.5μm. Very high quality FPAs (1280x1024) with pitches as small as 15μm have already been demonstrated last year using the MBE growth of MWIR MCT epilayers on 4 inches germanium substrates, n on p ion implanted photodiodes and the hot welding indium bump hybridization technique. At the same time, with the MBE growth, bicolor and dual band FPAs which uses more complex multi hetero-junctions architectures (both 4 layers npn and 'pseudo planar' structures and extrinsically doped MCT layers) were fabricated with formats of 320x256 and pitches as small as 25μm. A very new area of development concerns avalanche photodiodes (APD) made with MCT. This semiconductor presents a unique feature among all the over semiconductors. Extremely high avalanche gains can be obtained on n on p photodiodes without absolutely any noise excess (F(K)=1): MCT APDs act as perfect amplifiers. These results open new interesting fields of investigation for low

  11. Market Accountability in Schools: Policy Reforms in England, Germany, France and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattei, Paola

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on the policy reforms of schools in England, Germany, France and Italy, from 1988 to 2009, with a focus on the introduction of market accountability. Pressing demands for organisational change in schools, shaped by the objectives of "efficiency" and competition, which were introduced in England in the 1980s, have been…

  12. Concentrator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Luque, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The early development of CPV * Concentrator solar cells * Optics for photovoltaic concentrators * Photovoltaic concentration modules * Tracking systems for photovoltaic concentration * High-concentration systems * Rating and performance * Cost considerations * Conclusions * References

  13. History of infrared optronics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloy, J. P.; Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In France, the real start of work on the applications of infrared radiations occurred around 1947 - 1948. During many years, technological research was performed in the field of detectors, optical material, modulation techniques, and a lot of measurements were made in order to acquire a better knowledge of the propagation medium and radiation of IR sources, namely those of jet engines. The birth of industrial infrared activities in France started with the Franco-German missile guidance programs: Milan, HOT, Roland and the French air to air missile seeker programs: R530, MAGIC. At these early stages of IR technologies development, it was a great technical adventure for both the governmental agencies and industry to develop: detector technology with PbS and InSb, detector cooling for 3 - 5 micrometer wavelength range, optical material transparent in the infrared, opto mechanical design, signal processing and related electronic technologies. Etablissement Jean Turck and SAT were the pioneers associated with Aerospatiale, Matra and under contracts from the French Ministry of Defence (DGA). In the 60s, the need arose to enhance night vision capability of equipment in service with the French Army. TRT was chosen by DGA to develop the first thermal imagers: LUTHER 1, 2, and 3 with an increasing number of detectors and image frequency rate. This period was also the era in which the SAT detector made rapid advance. After basic work done in the CNRS and with the support of DGA, SAT became the world leader of MCT photovoltaic detector working in the 8 to 12 micron waveband. From 1979, TRT and SAT were given the responsibility for the joint development and production of the first generation French thermal imaging modular system so-called SMT. Now, THOMSON TTD Optronique takes over the opto-electronics activities of TRT. Laser based systems were also studied for military application using YAG type laser and CO2 laser: Laboratoire de Marcousis, CILAS, THOMSON CSF and SAT have

  14. The International Heliophysical Year in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.

    We are preparing in France the anniversary of IGY 50 We are gathering our efforts around few actions 1 We planned to follow the international campaigns with our solar Telescope THEMIS in Tenerife with the spacecrafts SOHO Cluster and the magnetometers of Superdarn A group is already formed with C Hanuise as responsible to understand some physical processes involved in these phenomena by using former data 2 On the initiative of CAWSES SCOSTEP program we plan to rehabilitate our heliograph in Meudon in order to be able to participate to the international network of flare survey The Japonese are leading this program Shibata and Kurokawa 3 We are developping lectures for students in different places in France We planned to work on the development of a DVD and video games in a IHY European context 4 We have also an outreach program which consists of an exhibition This exibition could be duplicated in France and for French speaking countries

  15. Syphilis surveillance in France, 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    Couturier, E; Michel, A; Janier, M; Dupin, N; Semaille, C

    2004-12-01

    This article describes syphilis trends, characteristics of patients from 2000 to 2003 in France and trends of the benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI sales from 2001 to 2003. The ongoing surveillance system for syphilis case reporting since 2001 has been set up in volunteer settings, mostly public settings where STI treatment is offered. Clinical case reporting is complemented by sexual behavioural data based on a self-administered questionnaire. From 2000 to 2003, 1089 syphilis cases were reported in France, increasing from 37 cases in 2000 to 428 in 2003. Overall, 96% of syphilis cases were in men with a mean age of 36.5 years and 70% of whom were born in France. The proportion of syphilis cases with HIV co-infection decreased over time from 60% in 2000 to 33% in 2003. The most affected area by the syphilis epidemic is the Ile-de-France region, mainly the city of Paris. The greatest proportion of syphilis cases diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM) were in the Ile-de-France region, where they made up 87% of cases, compared with 75% in other regions. Among the patients who completed the self-administered questionnaire on sexual behaviour, 83% reported having casual sex partners in the 3 months prior to their syphilis diagnosis. Trends in the sales of benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI in private pharmacies are similar to those observed in the surveillance system, and increased between 2001 and 2003. In conclusion, syphilis transmission is still ongoing in France in 2003 and the role of unprotected oral sex in the transmission of syphilis should be emphasised. PMID:15677855

  16. Impact of carwash discharge on stormwater quality (Toulouse, France).

    PubMed

    Sablayrolles, C; Vialle, C; Vignoles, C; Montrejaud-Vignoles, M

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of discharge from carwashes to pollutant levels in stormwater was evaluated. Five carwashes and two outlets in the city of Toulouse (France) were selected. Water samples were collected from December 2006 to December 2007. Concentrations and loadings of classical water quality parameters (conductivity, pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate, suspended solid and volatile suspended solid) and five groups of organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, lauryl alkyl benzene sulphonates, methyl tert-butyl ether and total hydrocarbons) were determined. The results suggest that the wastewater derived from carwashes was negligible compared to the volume and flow rates within the stormwater network. However, high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phosphorus and lauryl alkyl benzene sulphonates in liquid waste from carwashes, and the impact of these pollutants on stormwater quality could not be neglected. PMID:21123901

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  18. GEMAS - Tin and Tungsten: possible sources of enriched concentrations in soils in European countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    João Batista, Maria; Filipe, Augusto; Reimann, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    southern soils and SiO2 is higher in loess sediments region, in the North German-Poland basin and in the Paris basin. Organic matter may immobilise these metals and silica content influences metallic elements concentrations in soils. Natural processes of soil development, land management of agricultural soils and population density all together may be responsible for higher concentrations of W in the soils of Netherlands Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and northeast France which seems not related with Sn-W mineral provinces. Tin and tungsten are enriched in the Precambrian shields compared to the Caledonian shields soils in the northern countries, although in northern countries climatic conditions may play the most important role in these elements concentrations. Tin and tungsten and tin or tungsten alone or in association of precious metals, copper, uranium, niobium, beryllium, titanium altogether were extracted in 650 small or median size mines in Portugal. Except tin in Neves Corvo mine of the Iberian Pyrite Belt the rest of these mines occurred in the Variscides granitic intrusions region. Tin and tungsten concentrations are therefore well reflected in the northern Portugal soils. At the GEMAS density of sampling pollution and local natural phenomena are not reflected in mapping but this important province is well delimited.

  19. Career Development and Public Policy in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Jean

    Three conditions characterize employment in France today: (1) high unemployment; (2) the importance of degrees in employment; and (3) significant differences between the sexes. The differences between national government initiatives and regional issues also are of concern. The main strategic issues facing career development focus on reducing…

  20. The Occitan Movement in Southern France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    The Occitan movement in Southern France should be studied in the light of a world-wide political reality of our days, the surfacing of ethnic minorities which are beginning to voice cultural and political demands in almost all large industrialized or developing countries. The first step for a minority group to come into existence is almost without…

  1. Progress in industrial holography in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Industrial applications of holography in France are briefly reviewed. Particular attention is given to nondestructive testing of helicopter blades at Aerospatiale Central Laboratory, the use of holography at Renault for car-engine vibration study, vibration characterization of turbo-jet engine components at SNECMA, and vibration analysis of plates in an industrial hemodynamic tunnel.

  2. Haemovigilance and transfusion safety in France.

    PubMed

    Rouger, P; Noizat-Pirenne, F; Le Pennec, P Y

    2000-01-01

    The risks associated to red cell and platelet transfusions are essentially bound to the polymorphism of blood group antigens and to transfusion transmitted agents including virus, bacterias.... In France, the haemovigilance system and several investigations allowed to measure these different kinds of risks. We also developed analysis of failures in order to prevent errors and accidents to increase blood safety. PMID:10938971

  3. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Socolovschi, Cristina; Moiton, Marie-Pierre; Kuli, Barbara; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Wartel, Guillaume; Audin, Héla; Raoult, Didier; Filleul, Laurent; Parola, Philippe; Pagès, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin. PMID:25625653

  4. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31762, July 2, 2009) and determined on... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66992). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  5. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  6. [New conditions for organ donation in France].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne; Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The procurement of organs from donors after circulatory death is a reliable technique which gives satisfactory posttransplant results and also represents a potential source of additional organs. In order to meet the growing need for organ donations, the 'anticipated organ donation approach' procedure is currently receiving renewed interest with new conditions for its implementation in France. PMID:27596496

  7. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  8. Distribution of phthalates, pesticides and drug residues in the dissolved, particulate and sedimentary phases from transboundary rivers (France-Belgium).

    PubMed

    Net, Sopheak; Rabodonirina, Suzanah; Sghaier, Rafika Ben; Dumoulin, David; Chbib, Chaza; Tlili, Ines; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-07-15

    Various drug residues, pesticides and phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment. Their presence in the environment has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health. In this work, 14 drug residues, 24 pesticides and 6 phthalates have been quantified in three matrices (in the dissolved phase, associated to suspended solid matter (SSM), and in sediment) collected from fifteen watercourses and rivers located in a highly industrialized zone at the cross-border area of Northern France and Belgium. The extractions have been carried out using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for solid matrices (SSM and sediment) and using solid phase extraction (SPE) for liquid matrix. The final extract was analyzed using GC-MS technique. Among the three classes of compounds, phthalates have been found at highest level compared to pesticides and drug residues. The Σ6PAE concentrations were ranging from 17.2±2.58 to 179.1±26.9μgL(-1) in dissolved phase, from 2.9±0.4 to 21.1±3.2μgL(-1) in SSM and from 1.1±0.2 to 11.9±1.8μgg(-1)dw in sediment. The Σ14drug residue concentrations were lower than 1.3μgL(-1) in the dissolved phases, lower than 30ngL(-1) associated to SSM and from nondetectable levels to 60.7±9.1ngg(-1)dw in sediment. For pesticides, all compounds were below the LOQ values in dissolved phase and in sediment, and only EPTC could be quantified in SSM. PMID:25829293

  9. Aldehyde measurements in indoor environments in Strasbourg (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, C.; Bulliot, B.; Le Calvé, S.; Mirabel, Ph.

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations have been measured in indoor environments of various public spaces (railway station, airport, shopping center, libraries, underground parking garage, etc.) of Strasbourg area (east of France). In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde propionaldehyde and hexanal concentrations have been measured in 22 private homes in the same area. In most of the sampling sites, indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured simultaneously. Gaseous aldehydes levels were quantified by a conventional DNHP-derivatization method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were both in the range 1-10 μg m -3, the highest values being measured at the airport and railway station. Indoor concentrations were strongly dependant upon the sampling sites. In homes, the average concentrations were 37 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 46 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for formaldehyde, 15 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 18 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for acetaldehyde, 1.2 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 1.6 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for propionaldehyde, 9 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 10 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for hexanal. However, concentrations as high as 123, 80 and 47 μg m -3 have been found for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexanal respectively. In public spaces, the highest formaldehyde concentration (62 μg m -3) was found in a library and the highest concentration of acetaldehyde (26 μg m -3) in the hall of a shopping center. Additional measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were made inside a car both at rest or in a fluid or heavy traffic as well as in a room where cigarettes were smoked. Our data have been discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  10. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…