Science.gov

Sample records for northern kordofan state

  1. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  2. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Southern Kordofan

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a disease that poses a great threat to public health owing to its high mortality rate (30-70%), mode of transmission and geographic distribution. Here, we report on a nine years-old Sudanese boy from Southern Kordofan State who presented with Jaundice, high-grade fever, severe headache, abdominal pain and a history of hematemesis. The diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed based on clinical and serological findings. PMID:27493394

  3. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    , water from Nubian aquifers is satisfactory for most uses and is of better quality than that obtained from Umm Ruwaba aquifers. The relatively high mineralization of water from the Umm Ruwaba, especially in the eastern part of the Province, makes the water unsuitable for many municipal ad industrial uses. The water is generally usable, however, for domestic and livestock purposes. Some 175 drilled wells located at 75 water yards yield an average, of about 1,000 imperial gallons .per hour per well from Nubian or Umm Ruwaba. aquifers. Generally the water yards provide sufficient water for minimum domestic and livestock requirements throughout the year. Commonly, however, the water yards are widely separated and, hence, not always properly spaced for good range management or for serving the needs of the dispersed rural population. In 1962, withdrawals from Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the Province were approximately 600 million gallons annually. This rate of draft: could probably be continued almost indefinitely without significant depletion of the water supply. Nubian and Umm Ruwaba aquifers in the southwestern part of Kordofan offer excellent potential for future development. Nubian aquifers in northern Kordofan need extensive exploration by test drilling before their economic potential can be properly evaluated.

  4. Land use and land cover classification, changes and analysis in gum Arabic belt in North Kordofan, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Hassan E.; Csaplovics, Elmar; Elhaja, Mohamed E.; El Abbas, Mustafa M.

    2013-10-01

    The gum arabic belt in Sudan plays a significant role in environmental, social and economical aspects. This research was conducted in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends in the gum arabic belt as in the rest of the Sahelian Sudan zone. The objective of the paper is to study the classification, changes and analysis of the land use and land cover in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State in Sudan. The study used imageries from different satellites (Landsat and ASTER) and multi-temporal dates (MSS 1972, TM 1985, ETM+ 1999 and ASTER 2007) acquired in dry season. The imageries were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Image classification (pixel-based) and accuracy assessment were applied. Application of multi-temporal remote sensing data demonstrated successfully the identification and mapping of land use and land cover into five main classes. Forest dominated by Acacia senegal class was separated covering an area of 21% in the year 2007. The obvious changes and reciprocal conversions in the land use and land cover structure indicate the trends and conditions caused by the human interventions as well as ecological impacts on Acacia senegal trees. Also the study revealed that a drastic loss of forest resources occurred in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan during 1972 to 2007 (25% for Acacia senegal trees). The study concluded that, using of traditional Acacia senegal-based agro-forestry as one of the most successful form in the gum belt.

  5. Constraints to Hamari sheep farming under range conditions in Darfur and Kordofan Regions of Western Sudan.

    PubMed

    Tirab, Ahmed Berima; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted to identify the major production constraints of Hamari sheep in Darfur and Kordofan Regions of Western Sudan. A structured questionnaire was administered to 128 farmers in Darfur and Kordofan. Feed shortages, prevalence of diseases and parasites, and predation were more severe in Darfur than Kordofan (P < 0.05). Thefts were ranked higher by farmers using the sedentary system compared to those using semi-nomadic system (P < 0.05). Water shortage was ranked higher by farmers with small flocks, large flocks, semi-nomadic and sedentary husbandry system in Kordofan than their counterparts in Darfur Region (P < 0.05). Farmers practising semi-nomadic husbandry system and sedentary system in Darfur region ranked diseases, parasites and predation higher than those practising semi-nomadic and sedentary system in Kordofan region (P < 0.05). Feed shortage was ranked higher as a challenge by farmers practising semi-nomadic system in Darfur Region than those practising semi-nomadic system in Kordofan Region (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that the severity of challenges facing Hamari sheep producers vary with flock size, region and production system used. PMID:27126220

  6. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    Northern States Power Company ({open_quotes}NSP{close_quotes}) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP`s historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future.

  7. Multi-temporal and Change Analysis of Land Use Land Cover in the Gum Arabic Belt in Kordofan, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Hassan Elnour; Csaplovics, Elmar

    2012-07-01

    The gum arabic belt in Sudan plays a significant role in environmental, social and economical aspects. The belt has suffered from deforestation and degradation due to natural hazards and human activities. The research was conducted in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends in the gum arabic belt as in the rest of the Sahelian Sudan zone. The research investigated the possibility of identification, monitoring and mapping of the land use land cover changes and dynamics in the gum arabic belt during the last 35 years. Also a newly approach of object-based classification was applied for image classification. The study used imageries from different satellites (Landsat and ASTER) and multi-temporal dates (MSS 1972, TM 1985, ETM+ 1999 and ASTER 2007) acquired in dry season (November). The imageries were geo-referenced and radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Application of multi-temporal remote sensing data in gum arabic belt demonstrated successfully the identification and mapping of land use land cover into five main classes. Forest dominated by Acacia senegal class was separated covering an area of 21% and 24% in the year 2007 for areas A and B, respectively. The land use land cover structure in the gum arabic belt has obvious changes and reciprocal conversions between the classes indicating the trends and conditions caused by the human interventions as well as ecological impacts on Acacia senegal trees. The study revealed a drastic loss of Acacia senegal cover by 25% during the period of 1972 to 2007. The study come out with some valuable recommendations and comments which could contribute positively in using remotely sensed imagery and GIS techniques to explore management tools of Acacia senegal stands in gum Arabic belt.

  8. Spent fuel management at the Northern States Power Company

    SciTech Connect

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1996-05-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has become a critical factor in the continued operation of several commercial nuclear power plants in the US. As the debate continues, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. This article describes the extensive spent fuel management program (ISFSI) of the Northern States Power Company (NSP). NSP owns and operates two nuclear power plants (Monticello and Prairie Island). Despite political opposition and legal restraint the program has successfully resolved storage limitations at its nuclear plants and has provided for the continuation of power at NSP. Projected plans for the future are also discussed.

  9. 75 FR 44231 - Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia and Republic of Palau; Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Mariana Islands Range Complex AGENCY: Department of Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  10. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD),...

  11. Hantavirus in northern short-tailed shrew, United States.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoru; Song, Jin-Won; Sumibcay, Laarni; Bennett, Shannon N; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Parmenter, Cheryl; Cook, Joseph A; Yates, Terry L; Yanagihara, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial medium- and large-segment sequences, support an ancient evolutionary origin of a genetically distinct hantavirus detected by reverse transcription-PCR in tissues of northern short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) captured in Minnesota in August 1998. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hantaviruses harbored by shrews in the Americas. PMID:18252128

  12. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  13. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  14. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  15. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  16. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  17. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory


    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale asse...

  18. War and early state formation in the northern Titicaca Basin, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, Charles; Levine, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    Excavations at the site of Taraco in the northern Titicaca Basin of southern Peru indicate a 2,600-y sequence of human occupation beginning ca. 1100 B.C.E. Previous research has identified several political centers in the region in the latter part of the first millennium B.C.E. The two largest centers were Taraco, located near the northern lake edge, and Pukara, located 50 km to the northwest in the grassland pampas. Our data reveal that a high-status residential section of Taraco was burned in the first century A.D., after which economic activity in the area dramatically declined. Coincident with this massive fire at Taraco, Pukara adopted many of the characteristics of state societies and emerged as an expanding regional polity. We conclude that organized conflict, beginning approximately 500 B.C.E., is a significant factor in the evolution of the archaic state in the northern Titicaca Basin. PMID:21788514

  19. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they

  20. CANCER MORTALITY IN FOUR NORTHERN WHEAT PRODUCING STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of s...

  1. 77 FR 10489 - Xcel Energy Services Inc., Northern States Power Company v. American Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Xcel Energy Services Inc., Northern States Power Company v. American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on February 14, 2012, pursuant to section 206...) collectively filed a formal complaint against American Transmission Company, LLC (ATC) regarding...

  2. Northern State University Teacher Induction: Reflections and Assessments on First-Year Teaching Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Craig D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the elementary and secondary school experiences of first year classroom teachers who participated in the Northern State University Teacher Induction Program during the 2007-2008 school year. Most of the participants were primarily employed as classroom teachers in large and small schools across South…

  3. The Children's Lab at Northern State University. Elementary Teachers Moving toward Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Paul S.

    The Children's Lab at Northern State University (South Dakota) is a science concept development laboratory for use by students in a physical science course for preservice elementary teachers. Its function is to develop science content knowledge in preservice elementary teachers, with the ultimate goal of developing science literacy in children.…

  4. Schooling for Newcomers: Variation in Educational Persistence in the Northern United States in 1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolnay, Stewart E.; Bailey, Amy Kate

    2006-01-01

    Early in the 20th century, high rates of international migration from Europe and an increasing number of migrants from the South were rapidly changing the composition of cities in the northern United States. Within this dynamic environment, families faced a more complex set of decisions for the preferred economic roles of their members. For…

  5. 77 FR 47581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert, Northern Sierra, Sacramento...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert, Northern... Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Mojave...

  6. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... BABESIOSIS § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana...

  7. 75 FR 63212 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 23817). However, by letter dated September 16, 2010, the licensee withdrew the proposed... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... of Northern States Power Company, a Minnesota corporation (the licensee), doing business as...

  8. Prevalence and Significance of Parasites of Horses in Some States of Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  9. Prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in some States of northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ehizibolo, David O; Kamani, Joshua; Ehizibolo, Peter O; Egwu, Kinsley O; Dogo, Goni I; Salami-Shinaba, Josiah O

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  10. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  11. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  12. Irrigation effects in the northern lake states: Wisconsin central sands revisited.

    PubMed

    Kraft, George J; Clancy, Katherine; Mechenich, David J; Haucke, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture has expanded greatly in the water-rich U.S. northern lake states during the past half century. Source water there is usually obtained from glacial aquifers strongly connected to surface waters, so irrigation has a potential to locally decrease base flows in streams and water levels in aquifers, lakes, and wetlands. During the nascent phase of the irrigation expansion, water availability was explored in works of some fame in the Wisconsin central sands by Weeks et al. (1965) on the Little Plover River and Weeks and Stangland (1971) on "headwater area" streams and lakes. Four decades later, and after irrigation has grown to a dominant landscape presence, we revisited irrigation effects on central sands hydrology. Irrigation effects have been substantial, on average decreasing base flows by a third or more in many stream headwaters and diminishing water levels by more than a meter in places. This explains why some surface waters have become flow and stage impaired, sometimes to the point of drying, with attendant losses of aquatic ecosystems. Irrigation exerts its effects by increasing evapotranspiration by an estimated 45 to 142 mm/year compared with pre-irrigated land cover. We conclude that irrigation water availability in the northern lake states and other regions with strong groundwater-surface water connections is tied to concerns for surface water health, requiring a focus on managing the upper few meters of aquifers on which surface waters depend rather than the depletability of an aquifer. PMID:21707615

  13. Mate Recognition and Expression of Affective State in Croop Calls of Northern Bald Ibis (Geronticus eremita)

    PubMed Central

    Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Werner, Sinja A. B.; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Northern Bald Ibis are socially monogamous and year-round colonial birds with a moderate repertoire of calls. Their ‘croop’, for example, is used during greeting of mates, but also during agonistic encounters, and provides an ideal case to study whether calls are revealing with respect to motivational states. We recorded croop calls in a semi-tame and free-roaming flock of Northern Bald Ibis in Austria, and analysed the vocal structure to identify parameters (e.g. call duration, fundamental frequency) potentially differing between social contexts, sexes and individuals. Additionally, we conducted playback experiments to test whether mated pairs would discriminate each other by their greeting croops. Acoustic features showed highly variable temporal and structural parameters. Almost all calls could be classified correctly and assigned to the different social contexts and sexes. Classification results of greeting croops were less clear for individuality. However, incubating individuals looked up more often and longer in response to playbacks of the greeting calls of their mate than to other colony members, indicating mate recognition. We show that acoustic parameters of agonistic and greeting croops contain features that may indicate the expression of affective states, and that greeting croops encode individual differences that are sufficient for individual recognition. PMID:24505455

  14. A Review of Traditional Medicinal Plants from Kachin State, Northern Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Aung, Hain Thanda; Sein, Myint Myint; Aye, Mya Mu; Thu, Zaw Min

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants are a vital source of medication in developing countries. In Kachin State, Northern Myanmar, the people have a long history of the use of traditional plants for medicinal purposes. This article deals with the 25 most used medicinal plants in Kachin State. They are: Drynariafortunei, Tetrastigma serrulatum, Bauhinia championii, Goniothalamus cheliensis, Juglans regia, Houttuynia cordata, Osmanthus fragrans, Pothos chinensis, Tabemaemontana coronaria, Eryngiumfoetidum, Chloranthus spicatus, Peperomia pellucida, Zanthoxylum armatum, Polygonumfagopyrum, Cymbidiumfloribundum, Amomum kravanh, Coscinium fenestratum, Solanum nigrum, Gnetum parvifolium, Desmodium triquetum, Begonia augustinec, Mappianthus iodoides, Erycibe obtusifolia, Schefflera venulosa, Holarrhena antidysenterica. The different traditional applications, the known chemical constituents and medicinal properties are reported for each plant. The efficacy of several of these plants has been supported by some scientific evidence, while other plants have to be submitted to further investigations to prove the beneficial medicinal properties attributed to them. PMID:27169181

  15. Investigating the northern Adriatic Sea ecosystem state with a very high resolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, Gelsomina; Zavatarelli, Marco; Lovato, Tomas

    2015-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea ecosystem dynamics is simulated using the coupling of the BFM (Biogeochemical Flux Model) with the NEMO (Nucleus for European Models of the Ocean) model. The modeling system is implemented at very high horizontal (~800 m) and vertical (95 z-level) resolution and is nested with a coarser scale Adriatic/Mediterranean model. Simulation in hindcast and projection mode are being executed and are aimed to evaluate the ecosystem attributes (vigor, organization, resilience), in order to understand the ecosystem state of the basin with respect to the so-called "Good Ecosystem State" (GES) as defined by the EU-MSF9 Directive. Skill of the model in replicating integrated environmental indices such as the EU-EEACS1023+ is also investigated. Finally the model is also open to an off-line coupling with an higher trophic level (HTL) model.

  16. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the...

  17. 77 FR 45962 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Idaho; Boise-Northern Ada County Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...-classified'' (56 FR 56746). On January 17, 2002, the State requested EPA redesignate the Northern Ada County... October 28, 2002 (67 FR 65713). The State submitted a second 10-year maintenance plan to EPA on February... 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information collection burden under...

  18. On achieving the state's household recycling target: A case study of Northern New Jersey, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Otegbeye, M.; Abdel-Malek, L.; Hsieh, H.N.; Meegoda, J.N.

    2009-02-15

    In recent times, the State of New Jersey (USA) has been making attempts at promoting recycling as an environmentally friendly means of attaining self-sufficiency at waste disposal, and the state has put in place a 50% recycling target for its municipal solid waste stream. While the environmental benefits of recycling are obvious, a recycling program must be cost effective to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this paper, a linear programming model is developed to examine the current state of recycling in selected counties in Northern New Jersey and assess the needs to achieve the state's recycling goal in these areas. The optimum quantities of waste to be sent to the different waste facilities, which include landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, recycling and composting plants, are determined by the model. The study shows that for these counties, the gap between the current waste practices where the recycling rate stands at 32% and the state's goal can be bridged by more efficient utilization of existing facilities and reasonable investment in expanding those for recycling activities.

  19. Anurofauna of an Atlantic Rainforest fragment and its surroundings in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Gomes, M; Almeida-Santos, M; Goyannes-Araújo, P; Borges-Júnior, V N T; Vrcibradic, D; Siqueira, C C; Ariani, C V; Dias, A S; Souza, V V; Pinto, R R; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2010-10-01

    We carried out a study on the anurofaunal community from an Atlantic Forest fragment (Monte Verde mountains) and the surrounding area in Cambuci municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which constitutes one of the largest fragments remaining in the largely deforested landscape of the northern portion of the State. We combined three sampling methods: plot sampling, transects and pit-fall traps. We recorded twenty species of amphibians, of which only eleven were found within the forest fragment (and five of these also occurred in the surrounding matrix). Two of the species recorded in the present study (Crossodactylus sp. and Ischnocnema cf. parva) may represent undescribed taxa. Our records expand the distribution range of one species (Scinax trapicheiroi) to the north, and fill a geographic distribution gap for another one (Ischnocnema oea). The estimated overall density of frogs living in the leaf litter of the fragment (based on results of plot sampling) was 3.1 individuals/100 m², with Haddadus binotatus being the most abundant species (2.4 individuals/100 m²). Comparisons of our data with those of other studies suggest that anuran communities in forest fragments ca. 1,000 ha or smaller may be severely limited in their richness, and often include a large proportion of species tolerant to open areas, such as many hylids. Our results show the importance of increasing knowledge about the anurofaunal community of the northern portion of the State of Rio de Janeiro and preserve the forest remnants that still exist in the region. PMID:21085792

  20. Dynamics of the Thermal State of Active Layer at the Alaska North Slope and Northern Yakutia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, A. L.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Marchenko, S.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Fedorov-Davydov, D.

    2010-12-01

    Dynamics of the active layer is one of the most important indexes, reflecting permafrost response to the modern climate changes. Monitoring of active layer thickness dynamics is the main goal of CALM (Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring) project. But, from different points of view, it is very important to know not only maximal depth of seasonal thawing but also dynamics of thermal field of active layer and duration of its staying in the unfrozen state. Current research was aimed on the analyzing data of temperature measurements have been done during the more then 10 years at the North Slope of Brooks Range (Alaska) and 2 years at the selected sites at the Northern Yakutia (Russia) and its comparison with the 17 to 10 years records of active layer thickness dynamics at the corresponding sites (http://www.udel.edu/Geography/calm/data/north.html). The area of investigation characterized by the typical tundra landscape and different kinds of micro topography. Reported observation sites located at the latitudinal range from 68.5 to 70.3N in Alaska and 70.5 to 71.75N in the Northern Yakutia. Observation have been done using the 1 meter long MRC probe with 11 sensors (every 10 cm) and single Campbell SCI A107 sensors in Alaska and 2-channel HOBO U23 data loggers with TMC-HD thermistors in the Northern Yakutia. Analyses of CALM data show what most observation sites in Alaska (except located near the Brooks Range and at the Arctic Ocean coast) do not subjected to the significant sustainable changes of active layer thickness over the last 10 years. At the same time active layer thickness at the Yakutian sites was increasing. Temperature observations show decreasing of the mean annual temperature at the average depth of active layer bottom at the Alaskan sites. But, because of general trend to increasing of period of thawing it does not lead to the decreasing of active layer thickness. Recent equipment deployment at the Tiksi and Allaikha sites (Northern Yakutia) does not

  1. Distribution Automation and Demand-Side Management Demonstration for Northern States Power. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reder, W.; Zehlke, B.

    1995-09-01

    With increasing customer demands for reliable, competitively priced electric service, it has become essential for utilities to implement communications standards when deploying distribution automation systems. Northern States Power Company (NSP) in Minneapolis, Minnesota, hosted a project based on EPRI`s Utility Communications Architecture (UCA{trademark}), a set of open international standards for data communications. This project focused on building a model communication system from the corporate computer network to field devices following the UCA protocol. In the process, the project showed how the UCA could fit within an existing communications operating environment concurrently with proprietary protocols and specialized vendor equipment. Included in this report are industry recommendations, technical profiles of automation components, UCA object and 3-layer implementation details, screen prints of the graphical user interfaces, and a discussion of successful aspects of the project. The document provides a useful reference, benchmark, and source of automation concepts for future distribution automation projects, especially those involving UCA research.

  2. Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero State, Southern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of the North America Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-travelled oceanic terranes. In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30 km by 250 km, east-west geologic transect of northern Guerrero State. Covering the region from Huetamo, Michoacan, to Papalutla, Guerrero (between latitude 18-19 deg N and longitude 101-99 deg W), our mapping results show that no stratigraphic incompatibilities suggesting terrane accretion exist in the region. In November 1994, AVIRIS data were acquired along the geologic transect in order to refine our stratigraphic assessment. One objective of this hyperspectral survey was to improve mapping of limestone, dolostone and gypsum-bearing facies of the Morelos Formation which record rudist carbonate platform environments during mid-Cretaceous time.

  3. Impact of red imported fire ant infestation on northern bobwhite quail abundance trends in southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Willey, R.D.; Myers, P.E.; Horton, P.M.; Buffa, J.

    2000-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus L.) populations are declining throughout their range. One factor contributing to the decline in the southeastern United States may be the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren). Recent research in Texas has documented that red imported fire ants can have a significant impact on northern bobwhite quail. That research was conducted in areas where fire ants are predominately polygynous (multiple queen). Polygynous infestations have much higher mound densities than the monogynous (single queen) form. In most of the southeastern United States, fire ants are predominately monogynous. We determined if there was a relationship between the invasion of monogynous red imported fire ants and abundance trends in northern bobwhite quail in the southeastern United States. For Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina we compared average northern bobwhite quail abundance based on Christmas Bird Count data for each county before and after fire ant invasion, and conducted regression analyses on bobwhite quail abundance and year preinvasion, and abundance and year postinvasion. Regionally, northern bobwhite quail were more abundant before (0.067 ??0.018 bobwhite quail per observer hour) than after fire ants invaded (0.019 ?? 0.006; Z = -3.746, df = 18, P 30-yr variation in invasion dates.

  4. Evaluation of home energy audit and retrofit loan programs in Minnesota: the Northern States Power experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.; Thornsjo, M.; Sundin, D.

    1983-12-01

    Northern States Power NPS, the largest utility in Minnesota, operates several residential energy conservation programs. A detailed quantitative evaluation of two of these programs is described. The Minnesota Energy Conservation Service (MECS), provides home energy audits and related services to eligible households (who live in structures with four or fewer dwelling units and pay gas or electricity bills to a utility participating in MECS). Loans are available to a portion of NSP's customers for installation of retrofit measures recommended in a MECS audit: low-interest installment loans to City of St. Paul households and deferred payment low-interest loans to a pilot group of St. Paul area households (constituting one of NSP's Public utility Conservation Investment Programs, PUCIP). This evaluation showed that NSP's MECS and PUCIP programs led to statistically significant energy savings. The value of these energy savings was sufficient to make the programs cost-effective to participants; however, the programs are not economically attractive to NSP nonparticipating ratepayers when viewed from the perspective of minimizing natural gas rates. The economics of the MECS program are neutral from the social (i.e., state) perspective. The PUCIP program is not cost-effective to the state.

  5. You want to put what Where. [Northern States Power Employees Lobby Against Spent Fuel Storage Amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Larimer, P.L.; Malinowski, G.E.; Jensen, J.N.; Gorman, P.J. )

    1993-01-01

    On April 6, 1992, several employees of Northern States Power's (NSP's) Prairie Island nuclear plant received a summons from fellow employees to meet at the Minnesota State Capitol to lobby against an amendment to a popular environmental bill. This amendment would have removed the decision to approve Prairie Island's proposed independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI) from the jurisdiction of the public utilities commission (PUC) and shifted it to the state legislature. The employees who appeared that morning represented various areas of the plant: training, technical, management, operations, union, and nonunion-all volunteers with no prior lobbying experience who spent the remainder of that day speaking on behalf of the project. This effort continued through the week; ultimately, the amendment was debated on the Senate floor and failed, primarily due to the presence of Prairie Island employees. This became the first formal act performed by what would become the Prairie Island Community Involvement Steering Group (CISG). Prior to this, and against well-orchestrated and sometimes vehement public opposition, many employees had spoken as private citizens at public hearings held by various government bodies and an administrative law judge tasked with evaluating the need for and the legality of the proposed facility. The effort of the CISG to keep the public informed and win its approval for the project is outlined in this paper.

  6. Time-series Oxygen-18 Precipitation Isoscapes for Canada and the Northern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavau, Carly J.; Chun, Kwok P.; Stadnyk, Tricia A.; Birks, S. Jean; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-05-01

    The present and past hydrological cycle from the watershed to regional scale can be greatly enhanced using water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H), displayed today as isoscapes. The development of water isoscapes has both hydrological and ecological applications, such as ground water recharge and food web ecology, and can provide critical information when observations are not available due to spatial and temporal gaps in sampling and data networks. This study focuses on the creation of δ18O precipitation (δ18Oppt) isoscapes at a monthly temporal frequency across Canada and the northern United States (US) utilizing CNIP (Canadian Network for Isotopes in Precipitation) and USNIP (United States Network for Isotopes in Precipitation) measurements. Multiple linear stepwise regressions of CNIP and USNIP observations alongside NARR (North American Regional Reanalysis) climatological variables, teleconnection indices, and geographic indicators are utilized to create empirical models that predict the δ18O of monthly precipitation across Canada and the northern US. Pooling information from nearby locations within a region can be useful due to the similarity of processes and mechanisms controlling the variability of δ18O. We expect similarity in the controls on isotopic composition to strengthen the correlation between δ18Oppt and predictor variables, resulting in model simulation improvements. For this reason, three different regionalization approaches are used to separate the study domain into 'isotope zones' to explore the effect of regionalization on model performance. This methodology results in 15 empirical models, five within each regionalization. A split sample calibration and validation approach is employed for model development, and parameter selection is based on demonstrated improvement of the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC). Simulation results indicate the empirical models are generally able to capture the overall monthly variability in δ18Oppt. For the three

  7. 76 FR 62398 - Northern States Power Company; Notice of Application To Amend License and Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Application: Amendment to License. b. Project No: 2567-041. c. Date Filed: August 23, 2011. d. Applicant: Northern States Power Company. e. Name of Project: Wissota Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The project... include your name and contact information at the end of your comments. Please include the project...

  8. 76 FR 66052 - Northern States Power Company; Notice of Application To Amend License and Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern States Power Company; Notice of Application To Amend License and Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has...

  9. 75 FR 63213 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering the issuance of an...

  10. Responding to the Needs of Young People Leaving State Care: Law, Practice, and Policy in England and Northern Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, John; Stein, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the challenge for state child welfare services when young people leave care is to prepare them to cope with pressures surrounding this transition. Reviews existing research to explore current practice in England and Northern Ireland, and considers whether recent legislative reform in the two jurisdictions will help develop policy and…

  11. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  12. A new genus of pine-feeding Cochylina from the western United States and northern Mexico (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Euliini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eupinivora, new genus, is described and illustrated from the montane regions of western United States (Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas) and northern Mexico (Nuevo León and Durango). As presently defined, the genus includes six species: E. ponderosae, n. sp. (USA: Ariz...

  13. 76 FR 11521 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 1, Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... (76 FR 9827), which informed the public that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was considering the issuance of amendments to Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60, respectively, for the Prairie... COMMISSION Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 1, Northern States Power Company--Minnesota;...

  14. 75 FR 6225 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... revisions to 10 CFR part 73, as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967... Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The licensee currently maintains a security system... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and...

  15. 75 FR 3946 - License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60; Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...) published in the Federal Register on April 26, 1991 (56 FR 18997); and (C) Nuclear Energy Institute's (NEI...'' (56 FR 18997). The NRC is treating the petitioner's request pursuant to 10 CFR 2.206, ``Requests for... COMMISSION License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60; Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear...

  16. 76 FR 39445 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... issuance of the renewed licenses was published in the Federal Register on June 17, 2008 (73 FR 34335). For... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... Company--Minnesota (licensee), the ] operator of Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and...

  17. 75 FR 9625 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    .... As noted in the final Power Reactor Security Requirements rule (74 FR 13925, March 27, 2009), the... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60, which authorize operation of the...

  18. Gis predictive mapping of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamed Bashier, E; Salih, I; Khatir Sam, A

    2012-09-01

    This study presents the evaluation of absorbed dose in air due to gamma-emitting nuclides from (238)U and (232)Th series, (40)K and (137)Cs and the corresponding geographical information system (GIS) predictive mapping for the Northern State. Activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th , (40)K and (137)Cs in soil samples collected from different locations have been measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. On  average, activity concentrations were 19±4 ((238)U), 47±11 ((232)Th), 317±65 ((40)K) and 2.26 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above ground surface was calculated using seven sets of dose rate conversion factors (DRCFs) and the corresponding annual effective dose was estimated. On average, the values obtained fall within a narrow range of 44 and 53 nGy h(-1), indicating that the variation in absorbed dose rate is insignificant for different DRCFs. The corresponding annual effective dose ranged from 53 to 65 µSv y(-1). Using GIS, prediction maps for concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were produced. Also, a map for absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was produced, which showed a trend of increasing from the west towards south-east of the State. PMID:22422048

  19. Climate Change across the United States Northern Great Plains Influencing the Snowpack and the Energy Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassnacht, S. R.; Cherry, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    On average, global temperatures have warmed at a greater rate in the past 50 years than in any preceding period. A warmer climate has been shown to yield less snowfall, a shallower snowpack and an earlier onset of snowmelt. Several studies have examined changes to the ratio of snow to rain throughout the United States, and found that there has not been a change in the amount of precipitation but at many locations there has been a decrease in the amount of snowfall. Across the Northern Great Plains of the central United States, snow accumulation is shallow but persistent for most of the winter. Here, 20 meteorological stations are used to examined climate change across this region over the past 60 years. In general, the amounts of precipitation (and snowfall) are not changing, but the number of days with snow has been decreasing, as the annual maximum and minimum temperatures have been warming. However, there is substantial spatial variability in the trends across this region. Since winter precipitation in solid phase will add fresh snow to the pack and increase its albedo, which alters the energy balance at the surface, albedo is modeled for all stations. Two adjacent stations are explored in further detail to highlight opposite trends.

  20. Current state and prospects of carbon management in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2010-05-01

    The current state and trajectories of future development of natural landscapes in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia are defined inter alia by (1) current unsatisfactory social and economic situation in boreal Northern Eurasia; (2) the dramatic magnitude of on-going and expected climatic change (warming up to 10-12oC under global warming at 4oC); (3) increasing anthropogenic pressure, particularly in regions of intensive oil and gas exploration and extraction; (4) large areas of sparsely populated and practically unmanaged land; (5) vulnerability of northern ecosystems which historically developed under cold climates and buffering capacity of which is not well known; (6) risk of catastrophic natural disturbances (fire, insect outbreaks) whose frequency and severity have accelerated during recent decades; and (7) high probability of irreversible changes of vegetation cover. These specifics are overlapped with insufficient governance of natural renewable resources (e.g., forests) and destructed practice of industrial development of new territories (oil and gas extraction and exploration, metallurgy etc.). Based on a full carbon account for terrestrial vegetation ecosystems of Northern Eurasia, we analyze the relative impacts of major drivers on magnitude and uncertainty of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) under current and expected climate and environment. Dynamic trends and interannual variability of NECB are mostly dependent on weather conditions during growth seasons of individual years, regimes of natural disturbances, and anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems. In a short term, disturbances and human impacts cause a theoretically 'manageable' part of the full carbon account, which on average is estimated to be of about 20% of annual net primary production. In a long term, thawing of permafrost and change of hydrological regimes of vast territories may result in a catastrophic decline of the forested area and wide distribution of 'green desertification'. The

  1. Primary School Environment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers Overcrowded Classrooms Management Strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…

  2. New Histories for a New State: A Study of History Textbook Content in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terra, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the changing content of history textbooks in Northern Ireland, drawing on a sample of 15 textbooks published from 1968 to 2010. Findings from the content and narrative analysis indicated that following the introduction of the Northern Ireland Curriculum in 1991, history textbooks shifted from a narrative to source-driven…

  3. Prevalence of anaemia in preschool children in Karma Albalad area, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hussein, M D; Mohamed, S

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major childhood health problem in developing countries. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia, and some of its determinants, in preschool children in a rural village in the Northern State of Sudan. All children aged 3-6 years attending the 4 village kindergartens on the day of the study were enrolled. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected using a questionnaire completed by parents, and blood samples were taken for haemoglobin measurement. Out of 163 children, 131 had anaemia (haemoglobin level < 11 g/dL), a prevalence of 80.4%. This figure is comparable to data from other developing countries. The prevalence of anaemia was not significantly associated with any of the studied demographic and socioeconomic factors (sex, economic status of the family, mother's literacy or family size) or health of the child (history of pica or number of attacks of malaria in the last year). A campaign to tackle this serious health issue is urgently needed. PMID:24932931

  4. Thermal state of permafrost in the Northern Yakutia: modern dynamics and spatial variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, Alexander; Gilichinsky, David; Abramov, Andrey; Lupachev, Alexey; Davydov, Sergey; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Natali, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost exerts a significant influence on northern socioeconomic and biological systems. The thermal state of permafrost has recently become the focus of rapt attention around the world. Permafrost temperature is an integrated parameter and depends not only on the air temperature, but also on the heat transfer conditions at the ground surface and on the thermal properties of deposits; any permafrost regional forecasts and models must take these factors into consideration. Current research concerns to study of regional permafrost feedbacks associated with climate change in the Northern Yakutia. The investigated region covers the most ancient permafrost area in the Northern Hemisphere; it is characterized by varied climate zones, from a maritime to a continental. There are 3 main landscape types here including boreal forest, tundra and river or streams valleys. The research was based on making geothermal observations in an already-established network of boreholes. Recently this network includes 12 boreholes. Temperature measurements were supplemented with investigations of landscape conditions and determination of relevant soil physical properties at the key observational sites. We will achieve the goals of this project by comparing modern measurements with historical data and meteorological observations in combination with investigating heat transfer parameters at the monitoring sites. Geothermal measurements show that in the boreal forest natural zones recent permafrost temperature varies from -2.6 to -6.4°C, at the Kolyma-Panteleiha floodplain from -4.7 to -5.5°C and in tundra natural zone -9 to -10.4°C. Most of observed boreholes shows sustainable permafrost temperature rising. Within the tundra zone rate of mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) increasing consists of 0.073 to 0.109°C per year, within the boreal forest - from 0.035 to 0.063°C per year and in the floodplain 0.019°C per year. Such variations in both MAGT values and its modern changes rates

  5. 76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) AGENCY... the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality... Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) Rule 130--Definitions. In ] the Rules...

  6. Assessment of HIV testing among young methamphetamine users in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use has a strong correlation with risky sexual behaviors, and thus may be triggering the growing HIV epidemic in Myanmar. Although methamphetamine use is a serious public health concern, only a few studies have examined HIV testing among young drug users. This study aimed to examine how predisposing, enabling and need factors affect HIV testing among young MA users. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2013 in Muse city in the Northern Shan State of Myanmar. Using a respondent-driven sampling method, 776 MA users aged 18-24 years were recruited. The main outcome of interest was whether participants had ever been tested for HIV. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied in this study. Results Approximately 14.7% of young MA users had ever been tested for HIV. Significant positive predictors of HIV testing included predisposing factors such as being a female MA user, having had higher education, and currently living with one’s spouse/sexual partner. Significant enabling factors included being employed and having ever visited NGO clinics or met NGO workers. Significant need factors were having ever been diagnosed with an STI and having ever wanted to receive help to stop drug use. Conclusions Predisposing, enabling and need factors were significant contributors affecting uptake of HIV testing among young MA users. Integrating HIV testing into STI treatment programs, alongside general expansion of HIV testing services may be effective in increasing HIV testing uptake among young MA users. PMID:25042697

  7. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Damascena; Rodrigues, Evandro Leite; de Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa; de Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Oliveira, Darleise de Sousa; Soares, Luana Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012. PMID:24141954

  8. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciana Damascena da; Rodrigues, Evandro Leite; Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa da; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Oliveira, Darleise de Sousa; Soares, Luana Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2013-12-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012. PMID:24141954

  9. 76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino... and July 31, 1998, respectively (See 64 FR 6223 and 63 FR 40830). There are no other...

  10. 77 FR 47536 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert, Northern Sierra, Sacramento...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... into the SIP on April 10, 2000 (65 FR 18901). No other version of SDCAPCD Rule 66.1 or Northern Sierra... SMAQMD Rule 459 was approved into the SIP on November 13, 1998 (63 FR 63410). C. What is the purpose of... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  11. Genotypic diversity of Beauveria bassiana isolates in Acridids from the Northern Plains of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beauveria bassiana is naturally present in grasshopper populations of the U.S. Northern Plains. It is often rare in a population, but at times can reach a prevalence of 10-15%. One strain, GHA, is registered in the U.S. for use against grasshoppers as well as other insects. We explored the genotypic...

  12. Estimating soybean genetic gain for yield in the northern United States – Influence of cropping history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mean on-farm USA soybean yield increased at a rate of 21.3 kg per ha per year between 1924 and 2010, due to adoption of yield-enhancing genetic and agronomic technologies. To estimate annual rates of genetic yield gain in three northern USA soybean maturity groups (MG) and determine if these estimat...

  13. The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, John F.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Seinfeld, John H.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2012-11-21

    Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influence their climate impacts through optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that were internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most predominant in each region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the

  14. Diagnosing the seasonal land-atmosphere correspondence over northern Australia: dependence on soil moisture state and correspondence strength definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, M.; Pitman, A.; Evans, J.

    2015-08-01

    The similarity of the temporal variations of land and atmospheric states during the onset (September) through to the peak (February) of the wet season over northern Australia is statistically diagnosed using ensembles of offline land surface model simulations that produce a range of different background soil moisture states. We derive the temporal correspondence between variations in the soil moisture and the planetary boundary layer via a statistical measure of rank correlation. The simulated evaporative fraction and the boundary layer are shown to be strongly correlated during both SON (September-October-November) and DJF (December-January-February) despite the differing background soil moisture states between the two seasons and among the ensemble members. The sign and magnitude of the boundary layer-surface layer soil moisture association during the onset of the wet season (SON) differs from the correlation between the evaporative fraction and boundary layer from the same season, and from the correlation between the surface soil moisture and boundary layer association during DJF. The patterns and magnitude of the surface flux-boundary layer correspondence are not captured when the relationship is diagnosed using the surface layer soil moisture alone. The conflicting results arise because the surface layer soil moisture lacks strong correlation with the atmosphere during the monsoon onset because the evapotranspiration is dominated by transpiration. Our results indicate that accurately diagnosing the correspondence and therefore coupling strength in seasonally dry regions, such as northern Australia, requires root zone soil moisture to be included.

  15. The San Andreas Fault: A state of stress analysis in central and northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Ann-Sophie

    The San Andreas Fault system is a network of faults extending from the Gulf of California to the Mendocino Triple Junction that accommodates the motion between the North American and Pacific tectonic plates. The faults' types, slip rates and distributions of seismicity varies from south to north; the question addressed by this dissertation is whether or not the mechanical behavior of this plate boundary varies as well. We used suites of fault plane solutions of earthquakes occurring in central and northern California, and inverted them for the best stress tensors. We obtained a map of stress orientations close to and far away from the major strands of the San Andreas Fault system in these areas. In the creeping zone on the central San Andreas the maximum horizontal compression, S H, is oriented almost perpendicular to the fault trend far away from it and as close as 2 km from it, whereas in the fault zone itself SH lies at a smaller angle to the fault (˜50°). In northern California there is no clear difference between on-fault and off-fault orientations and SH orientations are on average at 55° from the trend of major faults. The Bay Area shows an intermediate behavior between the two just mentioned. This difference in the orientation of SH from central to northern California suggest a change in the mechanical behavior of the plate boundary between these two regions. This situation could be related to the "young and multiple stranded" SAF system in northern California compared to the "old" SAF in central California where much more slip has accumulated on this one fault strand. Using the same data we investigated possible temporal variations in the orientation of SH before and after the occurrence of a major earthquake. Such variations could be related to the stress release produced by the mainshock. For the four events studied, 1986 Mt. Lewis, 1984 Morgan Hill, 1979 Coyote Lake, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes, a rotation of SH to an orientation more normal to

  16. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP) to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP) to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Results Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC) per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. Conclusions The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study period. Though our

  17. Ebola in the context of conflict affected states and health systems: case studies of Northern Uganda and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McPake, Barbara; Witter, Sophie; Ssali, Sarah; Wurie, Haja; Namakula, Justine; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2015-01-01

    Ebola seems to be a particular risk in conflict affected contexts. All three of the countries most affected by the 2014-15 outbreak have a complex conflict-affected recent history. Other major outbreaks in the recent past, in Northern Uganda and in the Democratic Republic of Congo are similarly afflicted although outbreaks have also occurred in stable settings. Although the 2014-15 outbreak in West Africa has received more attention than almost any other public health issue in recent months, very little of that attention has focused on the complex interaction between conflict and its aftermath and its implications for health systems, the emergence of the disease and the success or failure in controlling it. The health systems of conflict-affected states are characterized by a series of weaknesses, some common to other low and even middle income countries, others specifically conflict-related. Added to this is the burden placed on health systems by the aggravated health problems associated with conflict. Other features of post conflict health systems are a consequence of the global institutional response. Comparing the experience of Northern Uganda and Sierra Leone in the emergence and management of Ebola outbreaks in 2000-1 and in 2014-15 respectively highlights how the various elements of these conflict affected societies came together with international agencies responses to permit the outbreak of the disease and then to successfully contain it (in Northern Uganda) or to fail to do so before a catastrophic cost had been incurred (in Sierra Leone). These case studies have implications for the types of investments in health systems that are needed to enable effective response to Ebola and other zoonotic diseases where they arise in conflict- affected settings. PMID:26257823

  18. The current state of abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Pauline; Campbell, Patricia; Clinton, Alison

    This paper reviews current abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland (NI). It explores the origins of NI's abortion law and its complexity in relation to current practice. It reviews issues relating to women seeking terminations in NI and Great Britain and reviews attempts by the Family Planning Association in NI to require the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety NI to clarify the current legal basis for termination of pregnancy and to provide guidance for health professionals engaged in this practice. The paper also discusses some of the issues surrounding abortion in NI and seeks to explain why this subject is causing controversy and debate, especially following a judicial review in February and Marie Stopes opening a termination service in Belfast. PMID:23901450

  19. Geoelectric Evaluation of Aquifer Potential and Vulnerability of Northern Paiko, Niger State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obiora, Daniel N; Alhassan, Usman D; Ibuot, Johnson C; Okeke, Francisca N

    2016-07-01

    This study was carried out using vertical electrical sounding (VES) to evaluate the groundwater potential and the aquifer protective capacity of Northern Paiko. Sixty vertical electrical soundings were obtained across the study area using Schlumberger electrode configuration. Three to four geoelectric layers were delineated from the interpreted results. The stratigraphy of the subsurface shows: topsoil (62.8-3082 Ωm), weathered layer (15.2-80 368 Ωm), fractured layer (191-236 672 Ωm), and the fresh basement (79.9-308 865 Ωm). The weathered layer was delineated as the major aquiferous horizon. From the results, the resistivity, thickness, and longitudinal conductance maps were drawn. It was observed that groundwater potential is low in about 76.7% of the study area. This study has also shown that the aquifer protective capacity of most parts of the study area is poor (83.3%), thus rendering the aquifer vulnerable to contamination. PMID:27329060

  20. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in Western Canada and the Northern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proctor, M.F.; Paetkau, David; McLellan, B.N.; Stenhouse, G.B.; Kendall, K.C.; Mace, R.D.; Kasworm, W.F.; Servheen, C.; Lausen, C.L.; Gibeau, M.L.; Wakkinen, W.L.; Haroldson, M.A.; Mowat, G.; Apps, C.D.; Ciarniello, L.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Schwartz, C.C.; Strobeck, C.

    2012-01-01

    Population fragmentation compromises population viability, reduces a species ability to respond to climate change, and ultimately may reduce biodiversity. We studied the current state and potential causes of fragmentation in grizzly bears over approximately 1,000,000 km 2 of western Canada, the northern United States (US), and southeast Alaska. We compiled much of our data from projects undertaken with a variety of research objectives including population estimation and trend, landscape fragmentation, habitat selection, vital rates, and response to human development. Our primary analytical techniques stemmed from genetic analysis of 3,134 bears, supplemented with radiotelemetry data from 792 bears. We used 15 locus microsatellite data coupled withmeasures of genetic distance, isolation-by-distance (IBD) analysis, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), linear multiple regression, multi-factorial correspondence analysis (to identify population divisions or fractures with no a priori assumption of group membership), and population-assignment methods to detect individual migrants between immediately adjacent areas. These data corroborated observations of inter-area movements from our telemetry database. In northern areas, we found a spatial genetic pattern of IBD, although there was evidence of natural fragmentation from the rugged heavily glaciated coast mountains of British Columbia (BC) and the Yukon. These results contrasted with the spatial pattern of fragmentation in more southern parts of their distribution. Near the Canada-US border area, we found extensive fragmentation that corresponded to settled mountain valleys andmajor highways. Genetic distances across developed valleys were elevated relative to those across undeveloped valleys in central and northern BC. In disturbed areas, most inter-area movements detected were made by male bears, with few female migrants identified. North-south movements within mountain ranges (Mts) and across BC Highway 3 were more common

  1. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  2. Implications of a gradient in acid and ion deposition across the northern Great Lakes states

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, G.E.; Loucks, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Average precipitation pH, 1979-1982, declines from west to east from 5.3 to 4.3 along a cross section of sites in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. This answers questions about the seasonal and geographic pattern of anthropogenic acid precursor emissions and reaction products (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, H/sup +/, NH/sub 2//sup +/) that increase from west to east. Except for higher concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ observed at one site in the cultivated areas of southwestern Minnesota, the contribution of soil-related metal cations to the total ions in solution is small (17%) and relatively uniform across the region. Significant seasonal and geographic patterns in precipitation chemistry and deposition values are observed. Close correspondence of the sums of strong acid anions with the sums of hydrogen and ammonium ions in precipitation is observed, indicating anthropogenic sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Present atmospheric inputs show close chemical correspondence when precipitation chemistry values are compared to the resulting ionic composition of weakly buffered lakes in north central Wisconsin and northern Michigan. The wet deposition of total acidity in the middle and eastern part of the region is comparable to that of impacted sites in the Adirondacks and in regions of Scandinavia. 39 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Spatiotemporal analysis of nitrogen cycling in a mixed coniferous forest of the northern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, I.; McLauchlan, K. K.

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the limiting nutrient to primary productivity in a variety of temperate forests, and N cycling is undergoing a variety of anthropogenic changes, notably a doubling of reactive N (Nr) on a global scale. Yet, the magnitude of these changes to N cycling has been difficult to document in terrestrial ecosystems, especially in old-growth forests. To determine the trajectory of N cycling and the potential impacts of anthropogenic influences at local scales, we measured the composition of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) in wood from living red pine trees (Pinus resinosa) at a single site in northern Minnesota, USA. A synchronous decline in wood δ15N values began approximately in the 1920s in 17 individual trees at different topographic positions, indicating a common driver. The decline in wood δ15N values corresponded with declines in sedimentary δ15N recorded in lacustrine sediments of the same catchment. Disturbance regime and species composition began to change at the turn of the 20th century with park establishment, providing a likely mechanism of decline in δ15N values toward present. While other mechanisms of this change are possible, we conclude that while there may be consequences of increased influxes of various forms of anthropogenic Nr into terrestrial ecosystems at the global level, these changes are not being expressed at a local level in this temperate forest ecosystem.

  4. Extensional collapse along the Sevier Desert reflection, northern Sevier Desert basin, western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, James C.; Decelles, Peter G.

    1996-10-01

    Newly released and previously published seismic reflection data from the northern Sevier Desert basin provide a complete seismic transect between the tilted western margin of the basin and the eastern breakaway zone. When tied to well and surface age data, the transect delineates a continuum of extensional fault and basin fill geometries that developed between late Oligocene and Pleistocene time across the basin. A minimum of 18 km of top-to-the-west normal displacement is estimated across the Sevier Desert from only the most conspicuous growth geometries and offsets across listric normal faults that sole downward into the Sevier Desert reflection (SDR). The SDR clearly marks a normal fault zone beneath the entire basin, where stratal truncations are imaged for 50% of the 39 km length of the reflection east of the Cricket Mountains block. Restoration of extensional displacement along this entire 39 km fault length is necessary to reconstruct the pre-Oligocene configuration and erosion level of Sevier thrust sheets across the Sevier Desert area. The SDR normal fault zone underlies the former topographic crest of the Sevier orogenic belt, where it accommodated extensional collapse after cessation of regional contractile tectonism.

  5. Annotated bibliography of fire literature relative to northern grasslands in south-central Canada and north-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, Kenneth F.; Fellows, David P.; Callow, J. Mike; Kruse, Arnold D.; Piehl, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Natural resource managers have greatly increased the use of fire to manage grassland habitats during the past two decades in the northern Great Plains region of the United States and Canada. In support of these efforts, we have compiled this annotated bibliography to provide a condensed reference of fire literature for those managers with an interest in fire ecology. References are arranged alphabetically by author and year, numbered consecutively, and referenced by number in the author and subject indexes that follow the bibliography. The intent in compiling the bibliography and indexes is more to identify subject matter and to direct the reader to sources rather than to provide a digested interpretation of each manuscript.

  6. North American precipitation isotope (δ18O) zones revealed in time series modeling across Canada and northern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavau, C.; Chun, K. P.; Stadnyk, T.; Birks, S. J.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-02-01

    Delineating spatial patterns of precipitation isotopes ("isoscapes") is becoming increasingly important to understand the processes governing the modern water isotope cycle and their application to migration forensics, climate proxy interpretation, and ecohydrology of terrestrial systems. However, the extent to which these patterns can be empirically predicted across Canada and the northern United States has not been fully articulated, in part due to a lack of time series precipitation isotope data for major regions of North America. In this study, we use multiple linear regressions of CNIP, GNIP, and USNIP observations alongside climatological variables, teleconnection indices, and geographic indicators to create empirical models that predict the δ18O of monthly precipitation (δ18Oppt) across Canada and the northern United States. Five regionalization approaches are used to separate the study domain into isotope zones to explore the effect of spatial grouping on model performance. Stepwise regression-derived parameterizations quantified by permutation testing indicate the significance of precipitable water content and latitude as predictor variables. Within the Canadian Arctic and eastern portion of the study domain, models from all regionalizations capture the interannual and intraannual variability of δ18Oppt. The Pacific coast and northwestern portions of the study domain show less agreement between models and poorer model performance, resulting in higher uncertainty in simulations throughout these regions. Long-term annual average δ18Oppt isoscapes are generated, highlighting the uncertainty in the regionalization approach as it compounds over time. Additionally, monthly time series simulations are presented at various locations, and model structure uncertainty and 90% bootstrapped prediction bounds are detailed for these predictions.

  7. Regional Hydraulic Geometry Curves of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Chelan and King Counties, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperi, J. T.; McClung, J. M.; Hanson, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service has developed regional hydraulic geometry curves relating drainage area to bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area for the east and west sides of the northern Cascade Mountains in Chelan and King Counties, Washington. NRCS surveyed 10 channel reaches with drainage areas from 1 to 1000 square miles within the Wenatchee River drainage of Chelan County and 10 channel reaches with drainage areas of 1 to 100 square miles within the Cedar and Green River drainages of King County. Selection criteria for stream reaches required a minimum of 20 years of USGS stream gage discharge records, unregulated flows and safe access. Survey data were collected with a Sokkia Total Station during low flow conditions from August 2004 to September 2005. NRCS measured a channel cross-section at each of the USGS stream gage sites and two or three additional cross-sections up and downstream. The authors also collected samples of bed material for gradation analysis and estimation of Manning's roughness coefficient, n. Bankfull elevations were estimated based on visual identification of field indicators and USGS flood discharges for the 50% exceedance probability event. Field data were evaluated with the Ohio DNR Reference Reach spreadsheet to determine bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area. We applied a simple linear regression to the data following USGS statistical methods to evaluate the closeness of fit between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions. The resulting R2 values of 0.83 to 0.93 for the eastern Cascade data of Chelan County and 0.71 to 0.88 for the western Cascade data of King County indicate a close association between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions for these two sets of data.

  8. Food Defense Practices of School Districts in Northern U.S. States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzke, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed implementation of food defense practices in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The first phase involved a qualitative multi-site case study: one-day visits were made to five school districts in the states of Iowa, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. A principal,…

  9. Seasonal variations of phage life strategies and bacterial physiological states in three northern temperate lakes.

    PubMed

    Maurice, C F; Bouvier, T; Comte, J; Guillemette, F; Del Giorgio, P A

    2010-03-01

    The current consensus concerning the prevalence of lytic and lysogenic phage life cycles in aquatic systems is that the host physiological state may influence viral strategies, lysogeny being favoured when hosts have reduced metabolic rates. We explored this hypothesis, by following phage cycle dynamics, host physiological state and metabolic activity over an annual cycle in three lakes subjected to strong seasonal fluctuations, including 4-5 months of ice cover. We observed marked seasonal dynamics of viral and bacterial communities, with low bulk and cell-specific bacterial metabolism in winter, and a dramatic increase in injured bacteria under the ice cover in all lakes. This period was accompanied by contrasting patterns in the proportion of lysogenic cells. In the eutrophic lake, times of low bacterial metabolic rates and high proportion of damaged cells corresponded to highest levels of lysogeny, supporting the notion that hosts are a 'refuge' for viruses. In the two unproductive lakes, peaks of injured cells corresponded to a minimum of lysogeny, suggesting an 'abandon the sinking ship' response, where the prophage replicates before the loss of genome. We suggest that these diverging responses to the host physiological state are not contradictory, but rather that there may be thresholds of cell stress and metabolic activity leading to one or the other response. PMID:20002137

  10. Ammonia emissions and carbon and energy footprints of dairy farms in the Northeastern United States and Northern Europe estimated using DairyGEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production system, diet, geographic location, and climate affect the environmental footprint of dairy farms. The objective of this analysis was to estimate ammonia emissions and carbon and energy footprints of dairy farms in the Northeastern United States (US) and Northern Europe (NE). Sixteen US fa...

  11. A Master Agreement between the State of Iowa Board of Regents and the Uni-United Faculty of University of Northern Iowa, July 1, 1987-June 30, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Board of Regents, Des Moines.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the State of Iowa Board of Regents and the University of Northern Iowa Uni-United Faculty, an affiliate of the National Education Association, for the period July 1, 1987-June 30, 1989 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition; university facilities; faculty evaluation by…

  12. Gauging state-level and user group views of oyster reef restoration activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Nix, Ashby; Laborde, Luke; Piazza, Bryan P.

    2012-01-01

    Successful oyster reef restoration, like many conservation challenges, requires not only biological understanding of the resource, but also stakeholder cooperation and political support. To measure perceptions of oyster reef restoration activities and priorities for future restoration along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, a survey of 1500 individuals representing 4 user groups (oyster harvesters, shrimpers, environmental organization members, professionals), across 5 states (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) was conducted in 2011. All respondents highly supported reef restoration efforts, but there was a dichotomy in preferred restoration goals with commercial fishermen more likely to support oyster reef restoration for stock enhancement, while professionals and environmental organization members were more likely to support oyster reef restoration to enhance ecosystem services. All user groups identified enforcement, funding, and appropriate site selection as basic requirements for successful reef restoration. For management of restored oyster reefs, oyster harvesters and shrimpers were less likely to support options that restricted the use of reefs, including gear restrictions and permanent closures, but did support rotating annual reef closures, while other stakeholders were willing to consider all options, including annual reef closures and sanctuary reefs. Overall, there were clear differences in management and communication preferences across user groups, but few differences across states. Understanding these key differences in stakeholder support for, and willingness to accept specific management actions is critical in moving management and restoration forward while minimizing conflict.

  13. Spatial patterns of leprosy in a hyperendemic state in Northern Brazil, 2001-2012

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lorena Dias; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Brito, Aline Lima; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the spatial patterns of leprosy in the Brazilian state of Tocantins. METHODS This study was based on morbidity data obtained from the Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN – Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System), of the Ministry of Health. All new leprosy cases in individuals residing in the state of Tocantins, between 2001 and 2012, were included. In addition to the description of general disease indicators, a descriptive spatial analysis, empirical Bayesian analysis and spatial dependence analysis were performed by means of global and local Moran’s indexes. RESULTS A total of 14,542 new cases were recorded during the period under study. Based on the annual case detection rate, 77.0% of the municipalities were classified as hyperendemic (> 40 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Regarding the annual case detection rate in < 15 years-olds, 65.4% of the municipalities were hyperendemic (10.0 to 19.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants); 26.6% had a detection rate of grade 2 disability cases between 5.0 and 9.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants. There was a geographical overlap of clusters of municipalities with high detection rates in hyperendemic areas. Clusters with high disease risk (global Moran’s index: 0.51; p < 0.001), ongoing transmission (0.47; p < 0.001) and late diagnosis (0.44; p < 0.001) were identified mainly in the central-north and southwestern regions of Tocantins. CONCLUSIONS We identified high-risk clusters for transmission and late diagnosis of leprosy in the Brazilian state of Tocantins. Surveillance and control measures should be prioritized in these high-risk municipalities. PMID:26603352

  14. Comparison Between SSM/I Filtering Algorithm and Neural Networks for Snow Cover Identification in the Northern Midwest States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, J. C.; Hamilton, N.; Ghedira, H.

    2004-12-01

    Snow coverage and depth are two key parameters that are essential to be estimated and applied in a wide range of hydrological applications. However, the traditional field sampling methods and the ground-based data collection are often very sparse, time consuming, and expensive compared to the coverage provided by remote sensing techniques. Passive microwave remote sensing data have been investigated by numerous researchers and have been demonstrated to be effective for monitoring snow pack parameters. Those researches have resulted that the microwave brightness temperature are related to the snow cover structure with different correlation degrees. The primary objective of this research is to produce a spatial estimation of snow water equivalent with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution using passive microwave data. The final product of this project will be an additional tool for flood warning and water resource forecasts, which can be an additional input to the actual hydrological models. The focus of this paper is to investigate the performance of filtering algorithm (developed by NESDIS NOAA) and Neural Network algorithm for snow cover identification in the Northern Midwest States. Artificial neural networks have been successfully applied to image processing, and have shown a great potential in the classification of a wide range of remote sensing data. The study area is located in the Northern Midwest of the United States within 109° 30'W - 100° 50'W and 48° 40'N - 41° 00'N. A total of 180 ground stations covering the study area have been identified for this experiment. The passive microwave data from the current SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensors on board the DMSP F13 and F14 satellites are used in both ascending and descending orbits. These images provide (twice-a-day) measurements of the brightness temperature in seven channels with different frequencies and polarizations (19 V, 19 H, 22 V, 37V, 37 H, 85 V, and 85 H). All the seven

  15. Thermal State of Permafrost in the Northern Yakutia: Responce on the Modern Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, A.; Romanovsky, V.; Gilichinsky, D.; Zheleznyak, M.; Rusakov, V.; Davydov, S.

    2009-04-01

    Permafrost continues to receive much attention as observed climate change brings many regions underlain by permafrost to the edge of widespread thawing and degradation. This process can lead both to the local (engineering construction damages, landscape or hydrological condition changes) and global (green hose gases and carbon emission to the atmosphere) negative consequences To develop a better understanding of the response of permafrost to changes in climate the International Permafrost Association launched under the International Polar Year, the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) project(IPY project #50). This program based on the measurements of temperatures in existing and new boreholes in order to develop a snapshot of permafrost temperatures across the entire world permafrost domain. The set of temperature data will serve as a baseline for the assessment of the rate of permafrost temperature changes and changes in permafrost boundaries under the recent climatic changes. Comparison of recently obtained data about permafrost thermal state with historical data allows us to estimate changes of this parameter took place during the last decades. Now boreholes network includes 40 boreholes in Alaska, 100 in Russia, and 13 in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia). Most of the permafrost observatories show a substantial warming during the last few decades. Geothermal observation in the boreholes on the Yakutian coastal lowlands carried out since 80th years of the last century. Current research was focused on the investigation of thermal state of upper horizon of permafrost (up to 25 m) in the Yakutian coastal lowlands. Investigated region covers the area from the Lena delta to Kolyma and characterized by cold continental climate (mean annual air temperature -13.5 to -14˚ C) and continuous permafrost distribution up to 700-800 m thick. Active layer thickness is 0.3-0.6 m in some spots up to 1 m. Recently, the network for continuous geothermal observation was

  16. Thermal State of Permafrost in the Northern Yakutia: Responce on the Modern Climate Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, A.; Romanovsky, V.; Gilichinsky, D.; Zheleznyak, M.; Rusakov, V.; Davydov, S.

    2009-04-01

    Permafrost continues to receive much attention as observed climate change brings many regions underlain by permafrost to the edge of widespread thawing and degradation. This process can lead both to the local (engineering construction damages, landscape or hydrological condition changes) and global (green hose gases and carbon emission to the atmosphere) negative consequences To develop a better understanding of the response of permafrost to changes in climate the International Permafrost Association launched under the International Polar Year, the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) project(IPY project #50). This program based on the measurements of temperatures in existing and new boreholes in order to develop a snapshot of permafrost temperatures across the entire world permafrost domain. The set of temperature data will serve as a baseline for the assessment of the rate of permafrost temperature changes and changes in permafrost boundaries under the recent climatic changes. Comparison of recently obtained data about permafrost thermal state with historical data allows us to estimate changes of this parameter took place during the last decades. Now boreholes network includes 40 boreholes in Alaska, 100 in Russia, and 13 in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia). Most of the permafrost observatories show a substantial warming during the last few decades. Geothermal observation in the boreholes on the Yakutian coastal lowlands carried out since 80th years of the last century. Current research was focused on the investigation of thermal state of upper horizon of permafrost (up to 25 m) in the Yakutian coastal lowlands. Investigated region covers the area from the Lena delta to Kolyma and characterized by cold continental climate (mean annual air temperature -13.5 to -14˚ C) and continuous permafrost distribution up to 700-800 m thick. Active layer thickness is 0.3-0.6 m in some spots up to 1 m. Recently, the network for continuous geothermal observation was

  17. Formation mechanism for the amplitude of interannual climate variability in subtropical northern hemisphere: relative contributions from the zonal asymmetric mean state and the interannual variability of SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin

    2016-04-01

    The Amplitude Interannual climate Variability (AIV) differs among the subtropical northern hemisphere, and the Western North Pacific (WNP) was claimed to exhibit the largest AIV. The robustness of the AIV pattern is investigated in this study with different atmospheric variables from multiple datasets. As consistently shown by the interannual variance patterns of precipitation and circulation, the AIV over subtropical northern hemisphere closely follows the mean state of precipitation, where higher (lower) AIV is located at moister (drier) regions. The largest AIV is seen over the broad area from South Asia to WNP, followed by a secondary local maximum over the Gulf of Mexico. To further investigate the formation mechanism for the AIV pattern, numerical simulations are performed by Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). The zonal asymmetry of AIV is reduced if the interannual SST variability is removed, and it almost disappears if the zonal asymmetry of SST mean state is removed. The results suggest that the zonal asymmetric AIV pattern primarily originates from the zonal asymmetric SST mean state, and it is amplified by the interannual SST variability. The atmospheric convection-circulation feedback plays a key role in connecting the AIV with the mean state precipitation. In both observation and CAM4 simulations, stronger (weaker) convection-circulation feedback is seen in moister (drier) regions. By modulating the mean state precipitation and the associated intensity of convection-circulation feedback, the zonal asymmetric SST mean state accounts for the zonal asymmetry of AIV in the subtropical northern hemisphere.

  18. Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

  19. Molecular characterization of sickle cell anemia in the Northern Brazilian state of Pará.

    PubMed

    De Lemos Cardoso, Greice; Guerreiro, João Farias

    2010-01-01

    To assess alpha+-thalassemia deletion alleles, beta-thalassemia mutations and haplotypes linked to the HBB*S cluster in a sample of 130 unrelated sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients (55% female) from Belém, Pará State, for their possible effects on the patients' survival. -alpha(3.7), -alpha(42), -alpha(20.5), and -(MED) alpha+-thalassemia deletion alleles were investigated using multiplex gap-PCR method. Characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations was made by direct genomic sequencing of the beta-globin gene amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Haplotypes were determined by analysis of six polymorphic restriction sites [(1) XmnI-5'gammaG, (2) HindIII-gammaG, (3) HindIII-gammaA, (4) HincII-psibeta, (5) HincII-3'psibeta, and (6) HinfI-5'beta] followed by restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. Twenty-one patients (16%) presented -alpha3.7 thalassemia. Sixteen of those (76%) were heterozygous (-alpha3.7/alphaalpha) and 5 (24%) were homozygous (-alpha3.7/-alpha3.7). -Alpha(4.2), -alpha(20.5) and -(MED) deletions were not found. Nine cases of sickle cell-beta thalassemia were found and four different beta-thal mutations were identified: beta(+) -88 (C>T), 3.8%; beta(+) codon 24 (T > A), 1.5%; beta(+) IVSI-110 (G > A), 0.7% and beta (IVSI-1 (G > A), 0.7%. No differences according to age were observed in -alpha(3.7) deletion, beta-thalassemia and HHB*S haplotypes distribution. Our results suggest that although alpha- and beta-thalassemia and betaS haplotypes may have modulating effect on clinical expression and hematological parameters of SCA, these genetic variables probably have little influence on the subjects' survival. PMID:20737602

  20. Abrupt State Change in Spatially-Patterned Subalpine Forests in Northern Colorado During the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, W. J.; Shuman, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial patterns in many ecosystems arise from feedbacks associated with the potential for critical transitions and multiple stable states. Such systems may be susceptible to abrupt change, which could be indicated by early-warning signals, such as critical slowing down (increasingly long recovery from perturbation as a threshold approaches). Paleoecological data from ribbon forests, a type of subalpine parkland found in the Rocky Mountains, offer an opportunity to test these hypotheses. The forests consist of alternating strips of forest and meadow that form because bands of Picea and Abies trees act as snow fences with large snowdrifts forming on their lee sides. Drifts provide moisture for the adjacent trees, but also increase seedling mortality and shorten the growing season where drifts accumulate. The feedbacks between forest growth and snow accumulation maintain the ribbon forest-meadow pattern, and raise the potential for abrupt change if the feedbacks breakdown in response to factors like drought or fire. Our fossil pollen data from Summit Lake, located on the Continental Divide in the Park Range, northern Colorado, indicate that a closed forest transitioned rapidly to a ribbon forest state at ca. 1000 BP. Artemisia pollen increased (20 to 35%) and Picea and Abies pollen decreased (25 to 15%) within a century or less after a pair of charcoal peaks. Decreased charcoal influx (from 0.6 to 0.4 pieces/cm2/yr) and fire frequency (from 4.5 to 1.5 fires/ka) coincided with the pollen assemblage changes, and is consistent with decreased landscape biomass and fuel connectivity. Initial analyses show evidence of critical slowing down before the state change. After eight of eleven fires recorded by peaks in charcoal accumulation, Artemisia pollen percentages rise to a peak consistent with brief opening of the initially forested landscape. After 2000 BP, the magnitude and duration of the post-fire changes increases until no recovery is recorded after the shift at 1000

  1. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The sedimentary record of the continental shelf off Rio de Janeiro State is related to the opening and evolution of Atlantic Ocean. The combined analysis of high resolution seismic acquired in the early 80's (Geomar cruises) and 2D seismic lines of petroleum industry, coupled with chronostratigraphic data from oil industry's exploratory wells, allowed us to observe two different orders of sequences: of 3-4th order, that represents sedimentary units related of the Milankovitch cycles (100/40/20ky), and of 2nd order (10-100my). High resolution seismic allowed us to outline a first architectural framework for the actual shelf that is composed of stacked seismic units making up the major seismic sequences bounded by angular unconformities. According to the intern and extern configuration of their clinoforms, the seismic sequences were grouped into two distinctive stratigraphic sets, identified as Set I (Pliocene) and Set II (Upper Quaternary). Some architectural components of note include: (1) the characteristic upbuilt-outbuilt geometry of sequences that compose Set I (SqA, SqB and SqC), indicating that deposition has probably been favoured by a combination of prevailing subsidence regime (upbuilt pattern) accompanied by forced regressive deposits (outbuilt pattern); (2) the majority of sequences that make up Set II outbuilts as a composite seaward-thickening progradational wedge formed under dominant forced regression conditions, implying that the generation of accommodation space was less important than during the build-up of Set I. However, these sequences consistently pinch out in a progressively landward direction, suggesting a prevailing and increasing subsidence regime able to induce the progressive seaward tilting of the margin during the middle-late Pleistocene, and the subsequent partial preservation of regressive sequences of about 100-200 m thick at the level of the present-day mid-shelf, that prograded seaward for circa 15-25 km. These architectural

  2. Redox state of subcontinental lithospheric mantle and relationships with metasomatism: insights from spinel peridotites from northern Victoria Land (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perinelli, Cristina; Andreozzi, Giovanni B.; Conte, Aida M.; Oberti, Roberta; Armienti, Pietro

    2012-12-01

    Rift-related Cenozoic alkaline mafic lavas from northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) carry abundant mantle xenoliths whose oxygen fugacities ( fO2) were determined to assess how the metasomatism, related to Cenozoic magmatism, affected the state of oxidation of the lithospheric mantle. The xenoliths used for this study are anhydrous spinel peridotites sampled in two localities, Greene Point and Baker Rocks, that show different extents of metasomatism: these are limited to incompatible element enrichments in Greene Point and to enrichments in major, minor and trace elements at Baker Rocks. The data set includes a composite xenolith from Baker Rocks, formed by a depleted lherzolite crosscut by an amphibole-bearing vein. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to accurately determine the Fe3+/Fetot ratios in spinel and amphibole minerals. Amphiboles were also characterized by Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction, and the crystallographic data were used to calculate the dehydrogenation. The oxidation state recorded by the xenoliths ranges from 0.2 to 1.5 log-bar units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer (Δlog fO2) with the highest values observed in the metasomatized samples from Greene Point. For the vein of composite Baker Rocks xenolith, Δlog fO2 was estimated on the basis of the amphibole in -1.7 log-bar units, a value close to those calculated for all Baker Rocks xenoliths (Δlog fO2 = -1.5 to -1.1 log-bar units). These results indicate a similar oxidation state for lithospheric mantle prior to the metasomatic event at Greene Point and Baker Rocks (Δlog fO2 ~ -1.3 log-bar units). Metasomatism produced different effects in the shallow mantle at the two sites. At Greene Point, an oxidizing metasomatic melt caused the rise of fO2 in peridotite portions close to melt conduits up to FMQ. In contrast, at Baker Rocks, a metasomatizing melt with fO2 similar to that of the peridotite matrix produced chemical changes in the surrounding mantle rocks and amphibole

  3. Differences in MODIS EVI-based Rainfall Use Efficiency Among Ecological States of the Northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrub encroachment into grasslands of the northern Chihuahuan Desert has resulted in often dramatic and geographically extensive changes in vegetation composition and soil structure. The nature of these transformations and their dependencies on soil characteristics have been largely conceptualized i...

  4. BIOLOGIC AND GENETIC COMPARISON OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM THE NORTHERN PARÁ STATE AND THE SOUTHERN STATE RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL REVEALED HIGHLY DIVERSE AND DISTINCT PARASITE POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 84 free-range chickens (34 from the northern Pará state, and 50 from Rio Grand...

  5. Parasitological examination for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at Año Nuevo State Reserve, California (2012).

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Kuzmina, T A; Spraker, T R; Jaggi, N; Costa, D P; Crocker, D E; Tolliver, S C; Tift, M S

    2012-10-01

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris Gill, 1866), inhabiting rookeries on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve in central California, were investigated in 2012 for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.). Material collected and examined for hookworms included: blubber (n = 15), stomach and intestines (n = 21) from dead pups; feces from the rectum of weaned pups (n = 23); sand containing apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 28) and sand without apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 54); milk from females (n =23) at 5 days and about 23 to 26 days postpartum; and placenta from one female. Evidence of hookworm presence was not detected in any of the samples examined. Possible reasons why hookworms were not found in northern elephant seals on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve are discussed. PMID:22543700

  6. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: Perspectives in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The report includes three listings of research and management needs in the woodlands of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The first two provide an historical perspective to current efforts within the woodlands; the third listing represents suggestions and recommendations made by the participants at the 1992 symposium. Topics in the present listing are grouped under several broadly defined headings, such as general ecology, tree regeneration, mass production, wildlife, fire, hydrology and watershed management, social concerns, inventory and monitoring, and management.

  7. Causes of death in preweaned northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866), Año Nuevo State Reserve, California, 2012.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tift, Michael S; Raverty, Stephen; Jaggi, Nicole; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    During an ongoing physiological ecology study on pups and adult female northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866) on the mainland rookery at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California), an opportunity was afforded to collect fresh dead pups for parasitology and necropsy. The investigation was undertaken to delineate the causes of death of northern elephant seals recovered from Año Nuevo State Reserve. Prior to this study, there was no evidence of increased mortality or health problems on this rookery. Necropsies, histology, and ancillary diagnostic studies were conducted on 21 fresh dead preweaned pups. Ages ranged from 1 stillbirth to pups approximately 2 weeks of age. Gross lesions included varying degrees of bruising, hemorrhage, lacerations, and fractures attributed to blunt force trauma to the head, chest, and/or abdomen in 16 pups; starvation in 6 pups; bite wounds in 2 pups; generalized icterus in 2 pups; presumptive drowning in 2 pups; and 1 stillbirth. Most pups had multiple gross lesions. Following light microscopic examination, pups could be assigned into 4 general diagnostic categories: 1) trauma, 2) nutritional status, 3) infectious conditions, and 4) congenital anomalies. This investigation of preweaned pup mortality of northern elephant seals in California further refines diagnostic categories for perinatal pup mortality. PMID:24590664

  8. Late Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics from a savanna-forest ecotone in Roraima state, northern Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Meneses, Maria Ecilene Nunes; da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Behling, Hermann

    2013-03-01

    Two sediment cores from Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps have been studied by pollen and charcoal analysis. The cores Fazenda Cigana (FC) and Terra Indígena Aningal (TIA) were taken from a savanna-forest ecotone area in the Roraima State, northern Brazilian Amazon. Based on 5 radiocarbon dates, these records allow the reconstruction of the vegetation fire and climate dynamics during the past 1550 years. At the FC site was recorded a higher proportion of forest cover, suggesting local wetter climatic conditions favorable for forest expansion, especially by gallery forests, between 1550 and 1400 cal yr BP. Stands of M. flexuosa started to establish on the site indicating sufficient soil moisture. From 1400 to 1050 cal yr BP, forest cover retreated while savanna, and the Mauritia palm swamp expanded considerably. The FC site was marked by savanna and Mauritia cover with a slight increase of forest between ca. 1050 and 900 cal yr BP. From 900 to 300 cal yr BP the savanna and palm swamp taxa became dominant and the forest area decreased. At the TIA site the savanna cover was dominant between 1200 and 1000 cal yr BP. From 1000 to 700 forest expanded while savanna and Mauritia palm swamp reduced. Between 700 and 300 cal yr BP savanna and Mauritia palm swamp increased and forest area decreased. The high amount of charred particles found in the sediments, indicate fires with a marked increase between 1400 to 1000 cal yr BP (FC site) and 700 to 300 cal yr BP (TIA site), and probably caused the retreat of forest cover during these two time intervals. The relatively lower fire activity after 300 cal yr BP until present-day favored the increase of forested area at both TIA and FC sites. The arrival of the European settler and the subsequent introduction of cattle, is suggested as the main reason for the decrease of fire in the study region. The results point the fire caused by indigenous people as the principal controlling factor for forest and savanna dynamics during the past

  9. Chloride in Groundwater and Surface Water in Areas Underlain by the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.; Lorenz, David L.; Arntson, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    A study of chloride in groundwater and surface water was conducted for the glacial aquifer system of the northern United States in forested, agricultural, and urban areas by analyzing data collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program from 1991 to 2004. Groundwater-quality data from a sampling of 1,329 wells in 19 states were analyzed. Chloride concentrations were greater than the secondary maximum contaminant level established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of 250 milligrams per liter in 2.5 percent of samples from 797 shallow monitoring wells and in 1.7 percent of samples from 532 drinking-water supply wells. Water samples from shallow monitoring wells in urban areas had the largest concentration of chloride, followed by water samples from agricultural and forested areas (medians of 46, 12, and 2.9 milligrams per liter, respectively). An analysis of chloride:bromide ratios, by mass, and chloride concentrations compared to binary mixing curves for dilute groundwater, halite, sewage and animal waste, potassium chloride fertilizer, basin brines, seawater, and landfill leachate in samples from monitoring wells indicated multiple sources of chloride in samples from wells in urban areas and agricultural areas. Water from shallow monitoring wells in urban areas had the largest chloride:bromide ratio, and samples with chloride:bromide ratios greater than 1,000 and chloride concentrations greater than 100 milligrams per liter were dominated by halite; however, the samples commonly contained mixtures that indicated input from sewage or animal waste. Chloride:bromide ratios were significantly larger in samples from public-supply drinking-water wells than from private drinking-water wells, and ratios were significantly larger in all drinking-water wells in eastern and central regions of the glacial aquifer system than in west-central and western regions of the glacial aquifer system. Surface-water-quality data collected regularly during varying

  10. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CANCER MORTALITY AND WHEAT ACREAGE AS A SURROGATE FOR CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES IN COUNTIES OF OUR NORTHERN STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides which have endocrine disrupting properties, are used widely both in cereal grain agriculture and in non-agricultural settings, such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in four northern stat...

  11. Modeling Analysis of Multi-Decadal Trends in Ozone and Precursor Species across the Northern Hemisphere and the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WRF-CMAQ modeling system was applied over a domain encompassing the northern hemisphere and a nested domain over the U.S. Model simulations for the 1990-2010 were performed to examine trends in various air pollutant concentrations. Trends in O3 mixing ratios over the U.S. are...

  12. Mycoflora of Dried Edible Beans, Phaseolus vulgaris, from the Northern Plains of the United States and its Potential for Ochratoxigenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A shipment of beans from the U.S. northern plains region was found to contain unacceptable levels of ochratoxin-A (OA) at processing time. One hundred and twenty-one beans were removed from a sample and soaked in ca 250 mL of 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 5 minutes with occasional agitation. ...

  13. Multiscale Modeling of Multi-decadal Trends in Ozone and Precursor Species Across the Northern Hemisphere and the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-decadal model calculations for the 1990-2010 period are performed with the coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system over a domain encompassing the northern hemisphere and a nested domain over the continental U.S. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations acros...

  14. 77 FR 46008 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Idaho; Boise-Northern Ada County Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... County Air Quality Maintenance Area; Second 10-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan AGENCY... Environmental Quality (IDEQ) submitted the Northern Ada County Air Quality Maintenance Area Second 10-year...-107), 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite 900, Seattle WA, 98101. Hand Delivery/Courier: U.S. EPA Region 10,...

  15. Effects of groundwater flow on the distribution of biogenic gas in parts of the northern Great Plains of Canada and United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.

    2011-01-01

    Parts of the northern Great Plains in eastern Montana and western North Dakota and southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, were studied as part of an assessment of shallow biogenic gas in Upper Cretaceous rocks.Parts of the northern Great Plains in eastern Montana and western North Dakota and southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, were studied as part of an assessment of shallow biogenic gas in Upper Cretaceous rocks. Large quantities of shallow biogenic gas are produced from low-permeability, Upper Cretaceous reservoirs in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Rocks of similar types and age produce sparingly in the United States except on large structures, such as Bowdoin dome and Cedar Creek anticline. Significant production also occurs in the Tiger Ridge area, where uplift of the Bearpaw Mountains created stratigraphic traps. The resource in Canada is thought to be a continuous, biogenic-gas-type accumulation with economic production in a variety of subtle structures and stratigraphic settings. The United States northern Great Plains area has similar conditions but only broad structural closures or stratigraphic traps associated with local structure have produced economically to date. Numerical flow modeling was used to help determine that biogenic gas in low-permeability reservoirs is held in place by high hydraulic head that overrides buoyancy forces of the gas. Modeling also showed where hydraulic head is greater under Tertiary capped topographic remnants rather than near adjacent topographic lows. The high head can override the capillary pressure of the rock and force gas to migrate to low head in topographically low areas. Most current biogenic gas production is confined to areas between mapped lineaments in the northern Great Plains. The lineaments may reflect structural zones in the Upper Cretaceous that help compartmentalize reservoirs and confine gas accumulations.

  16. Hydrochemical Regions of the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States, and Their Environmental and Water-Quality Characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; Warner, Kelly L.; Groschen, George E.; Caldwell, James P.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The glacial aquifer system in the United States is a large (953,000 square miles) regional aquifer system of heterogeneous composition. As described in this report, the glacial aquifer system includes all unconsolidated geologic material above bedrock that lies on or north of the line of maximum glacial advance within the United States. Examining ground-water quality on a regional scale indicates that variations in the concentrations of major and minor ions and some trace elements most likely are the result of natural variations in the geologic and physical environment. Study of the glacial aquifer system was designed around a regional framework based on the assumption that two primary characteristics of the aquifer system can affect water quality: intrinsic susceptibility (hydraulic properties) and vulnerability (geochemical properties). The hydrochemical regions described in this report were developed to identify and explain regional spatial variations in ground-water quality in the glacial aquifer system within the hypothetical framework context. Data analyzed for this study were collected from 1991 to 2003 at 1,716 wells open to the glacial aquifer system. Cluster analysis was used to group wells with similar ground-water concentrations of calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate into five unique groups. Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to make the extrapolation from clustered groups of wells, defined by points, to areas of similar water quality (hydrochemical regions) defined in a geospatial model. Spatial data that represented average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, land use, land-surface slope, vertical soil permeability, average soil clay content, texture of surficial deposits, type of surficial deposit, and potential for ground-water recharge were used in the Maximum Likelihood Classification to classify the areas so the characteristics of the hydrochemical regions would resemble the

  17. The Greek Database of Seismogenic Sources: state-of-the-art on the northern Greece pilot area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sboras, S.; Caputo, R.; Pavlides, S.; Chatzipetros, A.; Papathanasiou, G.; Valkaniotis, S.

    2009-04-01

    We present the state-of-the-art of the Greek Database of Seismogenic Sources (GreDaSS). The major goals of this international scientific project are (i) the systematic collection of all available information concerning active faults, potentially active faults and seismogenic volumes within the broader Aegean Region; (ii) the quantification of the principal seismotectonic parameters of the different sources as well as their degree of uncertainty; (iii) to supply an integrated view of potentially damaging seismogenic sources for a better assessment of the seismic hazard of Greece. The informatic framework of the database follows closely that used for the Italian Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS), which represents the result of more than ten years experience of its Working Group (e.g. Basili et al., 2008). This preliminary version of GreDaSS is focused on northern Greece, where we distinguish two main categories of Seismogenic Sources based on their attributes, their expected use, the nature and reliability of data used to define them: - "Individual Seismogenic Sources" (GGSources) are obtained from geological and geophysical data and are characterized by a full set of geometric (strike, dip, length, width and depth), kinematic (rake) and seismological-palaeoseismological parameters (average displacement, magnitude, slip rate, recurrence interval) and by a rating of the associated uncertainties. Individual Seismogenic Sources are assumed to exhibit "characteristic" behaviour with respect to rupture length/width and expected mean and maximum magnitude. They are tested against worldwide databases for internal consistence in terms of length, width, average displacement and magnitude. This category of sources favours accuracy of the information supplied over completeness of the sources themselves. As such, they can be used for deterministic assessment of seismic hazard, for calculating earthquake and tsunami scenarios, and for tectonic and geodynamic

  18. Spatio-temporal analysis of nitrogen cycling in a mixed coniferous forest of the northern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, I.; McLauchlan, K. K.

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the limiting nutrient to primary productivity in a variety of temperate forests, and N cycling is undergoing a variety of anthropogenic changes, notably a doubling of Nr on a global scale. Yet, the local scale impacts of 20th century changes to N cycling have been difficult to document in terrestrial ecosystems, especially old-growth forests. To determine the spatial and temporal variability of anthropogenic effects on old-growth forest N dynamics, we measured the composition of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) in wood from living red pine trees (Pinus resinosa) at a~single site in northern Minnesota, USA. A synchronous decline in wood δ15N values began approximately in the 1920s C.E. in 18 individual trees at different topographic positions, indicating a common driver. The decline in wood δ15N values corresponded with declines in sedimentary δ15N recorded in lacustrine sediments of the same catchment. Disturbance regime and species composition began to change at the turn of the 20th century with park establishment, providing a likely mechanism of decline in δ15N values toward present. While other mechanisms are possible, we conclude that the consequences of global-scale alterations to N cycling are not being expressed at a local level in this temperate forest ecosystem.

  19. Northern States Power Company (NSP) Black Dog generating plant - Unit 2 emission reduction, capacity increase and life extension through atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Jenness, B.L.; Rosendahl, S.M.; Gamble, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    The authors report on progress to date of the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) boiler retrofit at the Black Dog Unit 2 plant of the Northern States Power Company. Construction began in September 1984 after the completion of technical and economic feasibility studies, and initial operation is scheduled for the second quarter of 1986. The project features the largest AFBC boiler to date, a 40 MW capacity regain/upgrade, and 25-year extension of unit life, low leakage regenerative air preheater design, electrostatic precipitator performance improvement, alternate fuel co-firing capacity, and reduced emission on a per MW basis. The authors describe the management and engineering developments associated with the project. 12 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Evaluation of Electromagnetic Induction to Characterize and Map Sodium-Affected Soils in the Northern Great Plains of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, E. C.; Heilig, J.; Kempenich, J.; Doolittle, J.; Ulmer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sodium-affected soils (SAS) cover over 4 million hectares in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Improving the classification, interpretation, and mapping of SAS is a major goal of the United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) as Northern Great Plains soil surveys are updated. Apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as measured with ground conductivity meters has shown promise for mapping SAS, however, this use of this geophysical tool needs additional evaluation. This study used an EM-38 MK2-2 meter (Geonics Limited, Mississauga, Ontario), a Trimble AgGPS 114 L-band DGPS (Trimble, Sunnyvale, CA) and the RTmap38MK2 program (Geomar Software, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario) on an Allegro CX field computer (Juniper Systems, North Logan, UT) to collect, observe, and interpret ECa data in the field. The ECa map generated on-site was then used to guide collection of soil samples for soil characterization and to evaluate the influence of soil properties in SAS on ECa as measured with the EM-38MK2-2. Stochastic models contained in the ESAP software package were used to estimate the SAR and salinity levels from the measured ECa data in 30 cm depth intervals to a depth of 90 cm and for the bulk soil (0 to 90 cm). This technique showed promise, with meaningful spatial patterns apparent in the ECa data. However, many of the stochastic models used for salinity and SAR for individual depth intervals and for the bulk soil had low R-squared values. At both sites, significant variability in soil clay and water contents along with a small number of soil samples taken to calibrate the ECa values to soil properties likely contributed to these low R-squared values.

  1. Evaluation of a coupled event-driven phenology and evapotranspiration model for croplands in the United States northern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.; Roy, D. P.; Adusei, B.; Hansen, M.; Senay, G.; Mocko, D. M.

    2013-06-01

    A new model coupling scheme with remote sensing data assimilation was developed for estimation of daily actual evapotranspiration (ET). The scheme consists of the VegET, a model to estimate ET from meteorological and water balance data, and an Event Driven Phenology Model (EDPM), an empirical crop specific model trained on multiple years of flux tower data transformed into six types of environmental forcings that are called "events" to emphasize their temporally discrete character, which has advantages for modeling multiple contingent influences. The EDPM in prognostic mode supplies seasonal trajectories of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); whereas in diagnostic mode, it can adjust the NDVI prediction with assimilated remotely sensed observations. The scheme was deployed within the croplands of the Northern Great Plains. The evaluation used 2007-2009 land surface forcing data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System and crop maps derived from remotely sensed data of NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We compared the NDVI produced by the EDPM with NDVI data derived from the MODIS nadir bidirectional reflectance distribution function adjusted reflectance product. The EDPM performance in prognostic mode yielded a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.8 ± 0.15and the root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.1 ± 0.035 across the entire study area. Retrospective correction of canopy attributes using assimilated MODIS NDVI values improved EDPM NDVI estimates, bringing the errors down to the average level of 0.1. The ET estimates produced by the coupled scheme were compared with the MODIS evapotranspiration product and with ET from NASA's Mosaic land surface model. The expected r2 = 0.7 ± 0.15 and RMSE = 11.2 ± 4 mm per 8 days achieved in earlier point-based validations were met in this study by the coupling scheme functioning in both prognostic and retrospective modes. Coupled model performance was diminished at the

  2. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a

  3. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  4. Ecological aspects of helminth fauna of Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (aves: Spheniscidae), from the Northern Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, G C; Baldassin, P; Gallo, H; Silva, R J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the helminth fauna found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, relating parasite population and community ecological parameters to life aspects of the host species. The study involved 237 specimens of S. magellanicus taken from the northern shore of the state of São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W) and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W), Brazil. The following helminth fauna were found: the nematode Contracaecum pelagicum (core species), found in the stomach; the digenetic Cardiocephaloides physalis and the cestode Tetrabothrius lutzi (satellite species), both collected from the initial portion of the small intestine. Comparisons using the Shannon Diversity Index revealed that the parasite community in juvenile penguins is less diverse in the migratory season than the breeding season. Parasitological studies on penguins and other migratory animals provide important information on species during the time in which they remain pelagic and constitute a useful tool for the acquisition of data that is difficult to obtain through other means, thereby favoring the conservation of the species. PMID:23644789

  5. Revised age of the Rockland tephra, northern California: Implications for climate and stratigraphic reconstructions in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Rockland tephra is an important stratigraphic marker for climate and stratigraphic reconstructions over a broad area of the western United States. New 40Ar/39Ar ages are as much as 200 k.y. older than previous cogenetic zircon fission-track ages, which range from 400 to 560 ka. Incremental-heating 40Ar/39Ar analyses on two splits of plagioclase from a proximal ash flow of the Rockland tephra in the Lassen Peak area, California, yield an average age-spectrum-plateau age of 614 ?? 8 ka and an isochron age of 611 ?? 11 ka. Our new age for the Rockland tephra is compatible with an 40Ar/39Ar analysis of plagioclase from the basaltic andesite of Hootman Ranch that directly overlies the Rockland tephra. A plateau age of 565 ?? 29 ka, an isochron age of 572 ?? 39 ka, and transitional directions of remanent magnetization suggest an age for the basaltic andesite of Hootman Ranch as ca. 570 ka. Correlation of the Rockland tephra with its suspected distal ash in sedimentary sections at widely scattered localities has made the ash an extremely valuable stratigraphic tool. Our new age for the Rockland tephra requires significant revision of many recent climate-based analyses in the western United States. In particular, the best ages for the Rockland tephra (614 ka) and the Lava Creek B ash (660 ka) and their association with oxygen isotopic stages 16 and 15 will allow enhanced understanding of mid-Pleistocene pluvial and interpluvial events in the western United States.

  6. Temporal and spatial variation on heavy metal concentrations in the oyster Ostrea equestris on the northern coast of Rio De Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A G; Machado, A L S; Zalmon, I R

    2005-02-01

    Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations were determined by ICP-AES in Ostrea equestris from three beaches (Barra do Furado, Buena, and Ponta do Retiro) on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State. The average concentration was 0.8 +/- 0.18, 0.4 +/- 0.21, 58 +/- 25.6, 249 +/- 52.3, 11 +/- 1.31, 0.55 +/- 0.16, 0.13 +/- 0.11, and 1131 +/- 321 microg x g(-1) dry weight for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn respectively. Significant spatial variation (p < 0.05) between the samples areas occurred for Cr, Pb, and Zn with higher values in Barra do Furado; and for Cu in Ponta do Retiro. Significant temporal variations (p < 0.05) were observed for all metals except Cu. Temporal variability may be related to changes in the inputs of metals associated with suspended particles. Concentrations were similar to those found in areas under low pollution impact, except for Zn, the high concentrations of which probably reflect the physiological characteristics of these organisms. PMID:16025905

  7. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors among Permanently Settled Tribal Individuals in Tribal and Urban Areas in Northern State of Sub-Himalayan Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Dhiraj; Bhardwaj, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Raina, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background. Effect of urban environment on the development of DM and its risk factors is studied with an ecological fallacy due to their study designs that formulate the background for the present study. Objective. To study the prevalence of DM and associated lifestyle related risk factors in traditional tribal individuals residing in tribal area and migrating persons of the same tribe to urban area of sub-Himalayan northern state of India. Methodology. Population based cross-sectional study. Results. A total of 8000 individuals (tribal: 4000; urban: 4000) were recruited. Overall, among urban tribes the prevalence of central obesity (59.0%), overweight (29.3%), stage 1 (22.8%) and stage 2 (5.3%) hypertension, and DM (fasting: 7.8%; OGTT: 8.5%) (P = 0.00) was significantly higher than the tribes of tribal area. Based on OGTT, the prevalence of DM was found to be 9.2% among central obese tribes of urban area and 6.7% of tribal area (P = 0.00). DM showed a significant high prevalence among urban tribes with prehypertension (urban: 8.3%; tribal: 2.9%; P = 0.00), and stage 1 (urban: 14.1%; tribal: 8.7%; P = 0.00) and stage 2 (urban: 17.5%; tribal: 13.9%; P = 0.59) hypertension. Conclusion. Urban environment showed a changing lifestyle and high prevalence of DM among tribal migrating urban tribes as compared to traditional tribes. PMID:26464856

  8. Economic viability of small-scale irrigation systems in the context of state withdrawal: the Arabie Scheme in the Northern Province of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamara, A. B.; van Koppen, B.; Magingxa, L.

    The reduction of state presence in irrigation and the transfer of management from government agencies to farmers or farming communities has become a widespread phenomenon, in response to the dual problem of low irrigation performance and constraints to public funding. The underlying principle is to encourage farmers and local communities to take responsibility for the management of local resources, and thereby limit external interventions to the provision of information and institutional support services. As most of the schemes in question were not primarily designed for farmer management, experiences world-wide show a mixed picture of positive and negative results. The case of South Africa has recently received attention, as the few pilot schemes, especially in the Northern Province, do not seem to hold much promise of success. Current discussions on the subject raise a lot of issues and hypotheses about the subject of irrigation management transfer to farmers. The paper is an attempt to test some of these hypotheses in the African context, using the Arabie Scheme as a case study.

  9. Climatic impact on isovolumetric weathering of a coarse-grained schist in the northern Piedmont Province of the central Atlantic states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleaves, E.T.

    1993-01-01

    The possible impact of periglacial climates on the rate of chemical weathering of a coarse-grained plagioclase-muscovite-quartz schist has been determined for a small watershed near Baltimore, Maryland. The isovolumetric chemical weathering model formulated from the geochemical mass balance study of the watershed shows that the weathering front advances at a velocity of 9.1 m/m.y., if the modern environmental parameters remain the same back through time. However, recent surficial geological mapping demonstrates that periglacial climates have impacted the area. Such an impact significantly affects two key chemical weathering parameters, the concentration of CO2 in the soil and groundwater moving past the weathering front. Depending upon the assumptions used in the model, the rate of saprolitization varies from 2.2 to 5.3 m/m.y. The possible impact of periglacial processes suggested by the chemical weathering rates indicates a need to reconsider theories of landscape evolution as they apply to the northern Piedmont Province of the mid-Atlantic states. I suggest that from the Late Miocene to the present that the major rivers have become incised in their present locations; this incision has enhanced groundwater circulation and chemical weathering such that crystalline rocks beneath interfluvial areas remain mantled by saprolite; and the saprolite mantle has been partially stripped as periglacial conditions alternate with humid-temperate conditions. ?? 1993.

  10. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and

  11. Overwintering strategies of a population of anthelmintic-resistant Haemonchus contortus within a sheep flock from the United States Northern Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Grosz, D D; Eljaki, A A; Holler, L D; Petersen, D J; Holler, S W; Hildreth, M B

    2013-09-01

    Haemonchus contortus infections have been increasingly reported in ungulates from cold climates even though past studies have shown that the free-living juveniles from this species survive poorly under freezing conditions. Overwintering strategies of H. contortus have not been documented in the Unites States Northern Great Plains. A PCR survey identified H. contortus as vastly predominant trichostrongyle species present (in addition to occasional detections of Teladorsagia sp.) in a closed farm flock of sheep from Brookings County, SD. Benzimidazole (BZ) and avermectin (AV) anthelmintics had been used intensely for many years on this flock. During the autumn season, three fecal egg count reduction tests (doramectin, albendazole, and moxidectin) were performed over a 4 year span to assess drug effectiveness within the flock. Significant drug resistance was found in Haemonchus adults with doramectin (69% efficacy), marginal resistance was found with albendazole (90% efficacy) and no resistance was found in moxidectin (100% efficacy). The following spring, pre-lambing and post-lambing fecals were obtained from albendazole and moxidectin treatment years to assess the resistance of the tissue-dwelling fourth-stage juveniles (J4s) at those times. Albendazole treated pre-lambing fecals averaged only 4 EPG and treated post-lambing fecals increased to 454 EPG, indicating that many of the J4s were not killed during the autumn treatment. Moxidectin pre-lambing fecals averaged only 1 EPG, and post-lambing fecals only increased to 6 EPG in the treated moxidectin population and 1422 EPG in the untreated moxidectin population. In addition to evaluating the ability of H. contortus to overwinter as drug resistant tissue-dwelling J4s, this study also evaluated the overwintering ability of pasture-dwelling, free-living third-stage juveniles at this farm. In the summers of 2010 and 2011, naïve tracer lambs were placed on a H. contortus contaminated pasture for 3 weeks to assess J3

  12. Effects of changes in reservoir operations on water quality and trophic state indicators in Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Payne, G.A.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2004-01-01

    Implementation of an order by the International Joint Commission in January 2000 has changed operating procedures for dams that regulate two large reservoirs in Voyageurs National Park in northern Minnesota. These new procedures were expected to restore a more natural water regime and affect water levels, water quality, and trophic status. Results of laboratory analyses and field measurements of chemical and physical properties from May 2001 through September 2003 were compared to similar data collected prior to the change in operating procedures. Rank sum tests showed significant decreases in chlorophyll-a concentrations and trophic state indices for Kabetogama Lake (p=0.021) and Black Bay (p=0.007). There were no significant decreases in total phosphorus concentration, however, perhaps due to internal cycling of phosphorus. No sites had significant trends in seasonal total phosphorus concentrations, with the exception of May samples from Sand Point Lake, which had a significant decreasing trend (tau=-0.056, probability=0.03). May chlorophyll-a concentrations for Kabetogama Lake showed a significant decreasing trend (tau=-0.42, probability=0.05). Based on mean chlorophyll trophic-state indices (2001-03), Sand Point, Namakan, and Rainy Lakes would be classified oligotrophic to mesotrophic, and Kabetogama Lake and Rainy Lake at Black Bay would be classified as mesotrophic. The classification of Sand Point, Namakan, and Rainy Lakes remain the same for data collected prior to the change in operating procedures. In contrast, the trophic classification of Kabetogama Lake and Rainy Lake at Black Bay has changed from eutrophic to mesotrophic.

  13. The Association of Arsenic With Redox Conditions, Depth, and Ground-Water Age in the Glacial Aquifer System of the Northern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    More than 800 wells in the glacial aquifer system of the Northern United States were sampled for arsenic as part of U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) studies during 1991-2003. Elevated arsenic concentrations (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms per liter) were detected in 9 percent of samples. Elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with strongly reducing conditions. Of the samples classified as iron reducing or sulfate reducing, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 19 percent. Of the methanogenic samples, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 45 percent. In contrast, concentrations of arsenic were elevated in only 1 percent of oxic samples. Arsenic concentrations were also related to ground-water age. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 34 percent of old waters (recharged before 1953) as compared to 4 percent of young waters (recharged since 1953). For samples classified as both old and methanogenic, elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 62 percent of samples, as compared to 1 percent for samples classified as young and oxic. Arsenic concentrations were also correlated with well depth and concentrations of several chemical constituents, including (1) constituents linked to redox processes and (2) anions or oxyanions that sorb to iron oxides. Observations from the glacial aquifer system are consistent with the idea that the predominant source of arsenic is iron oxides and the predominant mechanism for releasing arsenic to the ground water is reductive desorption or reductive dissolution. Arsenic is also released from iron oxides under oxic conditions, but on a more limited basis and at lower concentrations. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relative significance of redox, ground-water age, depth, and other water-quality constituents as indicators of elevated arsenic concentrations in the glacial aquifer system. The single variable that explained the greatest amount of variation in

  14. Mixing state and sources of submicron regional background aerosols in the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the influence of biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. J.; Chen, S. R.; Xu, Y. S.; Guo, X. C.; Sun, Y. L.; Yang, X. Y.; Wang, Z. F.; Zhao, X. D.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-12-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to obtain morphology, size, composition, and mixing state of background aerosols with diameter less than 1 μm in the northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) during 15 September to 15 October 2013. Individual aerosol particles mainly contained secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA - sulfate and nitrate) and organics during clean periods (PM2.5 mass concentration less than 2.5 μg m-3). The presence of K-Na-Cl associated with organics and an increase in soot particles suggest that an intense biomass burning event caused the highest PM2.5 concentrations (> 30 μg m-3) during the study. A large number fraction of the fly-ash-containing particles (21.73 %) suggests that coal combustion emissions in the QTP significantly contributed to air pollutants at the medium pollution level (PM2.5: 10-30 μg m-3). We concluded that emissions from biomass burning and from coal combustion both constantly contribute to anthropogenic particles in the QTP atmosphere. Based on size distributions of individual particles at different pollution levels, we found that gas condensation on existing particles is an important chemical process for the formation of SIA with organic coating. TEM observations show that refractory aerosols (e.g., soot, fly ash, and visible organic particles) likely adhere to the surface of SIA particles larger than 200 nm due to coagulation. Organic coating and soot on surface of the aged particles likely influence their hygroscopic and optical properties, respectively, in the QTP. To our knowledge, this study reports the first microscopic analysis of fine particles in the background QTP air.

  15. Multi-Scale Performance Assessment of State-of-the-Art Reference Grids for Precipitation over an Alpine Catchment in Northern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampe, D.; Nikulin, G.; Meyer, S.; Ludwig, R.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation plays a key role in the hydrological cycle and serves as a prominent variable in the meteo-hydrological modeling chain. Accurate assessment of precipitation in this context is of utmost importance to model hydrological quantities. Reference data sets for precipitation are furthermore required to evaluate and bias correct climate model simulations in order to better represent current regional conditions. Uncertainties increase when moving to higher spatial resolution, including small-scale processes, and more complex terrain. In this study a high resolution reference data set derived from over 150 observation stations is applied to evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art reference data sets over the mountainous Adige catchment (~ 12,000 km²), located in Northern Italy with elevations up to 3800 m. A variety of reference data sets is available at various spatial resolutions ranging from several km to climate model scale at 2°. These data sets stem either directly from observations or re-analysis simulations, with or without assimilated precipitation, or are estimated by remote sensing approaches. Comparison is performed at various spatial resolutions corresponding to those of the applied precipitation data sets. Furthermore, an intercomparison of these is conducted at the corresponding resolutions, where higher resolved data sets are aggregated to the target resolution. This procedure allows for a thorough analysis without penalizing global data sets at coarse resolution. The main objective of this study hence is to address and quantify uncertainties of these coarse data sets. Additionally, whether they perform acceptable on catchment scale and can be applied for bias correction and model calibration, or if regional high resolution data sets outperform these data sets significantly.

  16. Monitoring of a landslide stabilized with bioengineering techniques in 1997, northern Tuscany. Vegetation development analysis and state of preservation of wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errico, Alessandro; Giambastiani, Yamuna; Guastini, Enrico; Dani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In 1996 a large landslide occurred in the chestnut grove nearby Pomezzana, a small town situated in the mountains of northern Tuscany, Italy. No damages were registered to population nor infrastructures, but the residual risks deriving from the effects of the event needed to be solved by means of a stabilization of the ground and reforestation. The choice has been found among bioengineering techniques, which perfectly fit in the ecosystem, landscape and the economic budgets of mountain engineering. A complex project has been implemented, using several different typologies of wooden structures, combined with rooted plants, wooden cuttings and grass seeding on the slopes. The most of the stabilization effect was assigned to the cribwalls, construct using local chestnut wood. Works ended in 1997. In 2013, 16 years later, a monitoring on the vegetation development and the state of preservation of the wood in cribwalls has been conducted. On vegetation, it has been surveyed the composition of species, diameter and height. Moreover, by means of a GPS device, the position of every plant has been registered and transcribed on GIS softwares for elaboration. The conservation of wood in cribwalls has been checked using a Resistograph, drilling each structure in three areas (at the two ends and roughly in the middle) and testing every order. The root systems of two plants have been excavated to calculate the RAR value for different depths, in order to quantify the contribution of roots in land stabilization. The soil has been also analyzed to determine structure, texture and geotechnical properties. Combining these data with the topographic survey conducted by the designers of the work, it has been possible to calculate the Safety Factor for landslide triggering using the model Slip4ex. The results show a good preservation rate of wooden structures, combined with a high contribution of roots in stabilization. The registered tree species (mainly Alnus glutinosa) were almost all

  17. Land use and climate affect Black Tern, Northern Harrier, and Marsh Wren abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forcey, Greg M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Linz, George M.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Bird populations are influenced by many environmental factors at both large and small scales. Our study evaluated the influences of regional climate and land-use variables on the Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Black Tern (Childonias niger), and Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris) in the prairie potholes of the upper Midwest of the United States. These species were chosen because their diverse habitat preference represent the spectrum of habitat conditions present in the Prairie Potholes, ranging from open prairies to dense cattail marshes. We evaluated land-use covariates at three logarithmic spatial scales (1,000 ha, 10,000 ha, and 100,000 ha) and constructed models a priori using information from published habitat associations and climatic influences. The strongest influences on the abundance of each of the three species were the percentage of wetland area across all three spatial scales and precipitation in the year preceding that when bird surveys were conducted. Even among scales ranging over three orders of magnitude the influence of spatial scale was small, as models with the same variables expressed at different scales were often in the best model subset. Examination of the effects of large-scale environmental variables on wetland birds elucidated relationships overlooked in many smaller-scale studies, such as the influences of climate and habitat variables at landscape scales. Given the spatial variation in the abundance of our focal species within the prairie potholes, our model predictions are especially useful for targeting locations, such as northeastern South Dakota and central North Dakota, where management and conservation efforts would be optimally beneficial. This modeling approach can also be applied to other species and geographic areas to focus landscape conservation efforts and subsequent small-scale studies, especially in constrained economic climates.

  18. Northern Meridiani Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded remnants of layered sedimentary rock in northern Sinus Meridiani. The layering is best seen in the circular feature at the center/right, which is an old meteor impact crater that was once filled and buried beneath the sedimentary rocks, then later exhumed and eroded to its present state. All of the sedimentary rocks exposed in this portion of northern Sinus Meridiani are probably older than the rocks in central Sinus Meridiani that have been examined this year by the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity. Like the rocks visited by the rover, these, too, may contain detailed clues regarding a wetter Mars in the distant past. These landforms are located near 6.0oN, 2.0oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  19. Subsoil Carbon Stocks and Vulnerability to Land Use Change Across a Network of Seven Experimental Sites in the US Northern Lake States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, S.; Rothstein, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we report the depth distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) at experimental sites in the Northern Lake States (Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota) spanning a range of textural and geochemical environments. We also determined the vulnerability of SOC and SIC to the disturbance caused land-use change (conversion of old fields to short-rotation woody crop plantations). The experimental network consists of seven bioenergy plantations established in 2009-2010 in idled grass fields using herbicide and tillage. These study sites exhibit differences in soil texture (controlled largely by the type of glacial overlay) and geochemistry (controlled by the regional lithology including shale, basalt, limestone, sandstone and calcareous sandstone), providing the opportunity to gain insight into regional physical and chemical determinants of soil C storage. We conducted intensive soil sampling campaigns to a depth of 1 m prior to land conversion and at 4 years post-disturbance, to determine the depth profile and response of soil C storage as a function of land use and regional edaphic attributes. The proportion of subsoil SOC (stored at a depth greater than 25 cm) ranged from 33 to 50% of whole-profile SOC (to 1 m) prior to land conversion. Soils developed from calcareous parent materials also had significant SIC stocks despite the humid climate promoting carbonate weathering. The SIC stocks made up to half of the total soil C to a depth of 1 m. Measurable carbonates occurred throughout the profile, possibly due to upwards biological translocation mechanisms, but were most abundant at depths greater than 50 cm. Preliminary analyses indicate that SOC decreased in the topsoil following land-use change. These topsoil losses were offset by subsoil gains at sites with reactive mineralogy. The SIC stocks showed re-distribution following disturbance and were likely subject to accelerated weathering. Taken together, these results indicate

  20. Observations and modeling of air quality trends over 1990-2010 across the northern hemisphere: China, the United States and Europe

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trends in air quality across the Northern Hemisphere over a 21-year period (1990–2010) were simulated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) multiscale chemical transport model driven by meteorology from Weather Research and Forecasting WRF) simulations and internally ...

  1. Flooding of December 29, 1984 through January 2, 1985, in northern New York State, with flood profiles of the Black and Salmon rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lumia, Richard; Burke, P.M.; Johnston, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Precipitation, snowmelt, and resultant flooding throughout northern New York from December 28 through January 2, 1985, were investigated through a detailed analysis of 56 precipitation stations, 101 stage and/or discharge gaging stations, and 9 miscellaneous measurement sites. Flood damage to property and roads and bridges exceeded $5 million. Lewis and Oswego Counties were declared Federal disaster areas, primarily a result of flooding of the Black River and Salmon River. Storm-precipitation and runoff maps show the storms ' greatest intensity to have been over the Tug Hill and southwest Adirondack areas. Total rainfall from December 28 through January 2 was 6.90 inches at Stillwater Reservoir but only 0.69 inches at Lake Placid. New peak discharges of record occurred at 17 gaging stations throughout northern New York, and the maximum discharge at 17 sites had recurrence intervals equal to or greater than 100 years. Computed inflows to 11 major lakes and reservoirs in northern New York indicate that significant volumes of water (as much as 5 inches of storm runoff at Stillwater Reservoir) were stored during the storm-runoff period. Maximum 1-day flood volumes at two gaging stations on the Black River had recurrence intervals greater than 100 years. To help evaluate the extent of flooding, 67 floodmarks were obtained along a 94-mile reach of the Black River from Dexter to Forestport, and several floodmarks were surveyed within major communities along the Salmon River. The floodmarks were obtained primarily near major bridges and dams along these rivers. (Author 's abstract)

  2. 42 CFR 407.42 - Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.42 Buy-in groups... included in the buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are available to the 50 States, the District...

  3. 42 CFR 407.42 - Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.42 Buy-in groups... included in the buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are available to the 50 States, the District...

  4. 42 CFR 407.42 - Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.42 Buy-in groups... included in the buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are available to the 50 States, the District...

  5. 42 CFR 407.42 - Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.42 Buy-in groups... included in the buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are available to the 50 States, the District...

  6. 42 CFR 407.42 - Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.42 Buy-in groups... included in the buy-in groups. The buy-in groups that are available to the 50 States, the District...

  7. The Evolution of the Martian Hydrosphere: Implications for the Fate of a Primordial Ocean and the Current State of the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Parker, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we consider the hydraulic and thermal conditions that gave rise to the elevated source regions of the Late Hesperian outflow channels and explore their implications for the evolution of the Martian hydrosphere. We find that if the outflow channel floodwaters were derived from a subpermafrost aquifer, then it implies that, throughout the planet's first billion years of evolution, as much as one third of its surface was covered by standing bodies of water and ice. Following the development of the global dichotomy, the bulk of this water would have existed as an ice-covered ocean in the northern plains. We demonstrate that the progressive crustal assimilation of this early surface reservoir of H2O (punctuated by possible episodes of less extensive flooding) was a natural consequence of the planet's subsequent climatic and geothermal evolution-potentially cycling the equivalent of a km-deep global ocean of water through the atmosphere and subsurface every approx. 10(exp 9) years. In response to the long-term decline in planetary heat flow, the progressive coldtrapping of H2O into the growing cryosphere is expected to have significantly depleted the original inventory of groundwater-a development that could well explain the apparent decline in outflow channel activity observed during the Amazonian. Although primarily a theoretical analysis, our findings appear remarkably consistent with the geomorphic and topographic evidence that Mars once possessed a primordial ocean and that a substantial relic of that body continues to survive as massive ice deposits within the northern plains. Confirmation of the presence of such deposits, combined with the potential detection of a global-scale groundwater system, would provide persuasive support for the validity of this analysis.

  8. Crustal deformation across the Sierra Nevada, northern Walker Lane, Basin and Range transition, western United States measured with GPS, 2000-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, William C.; Thatcher, Wayne

    2007-05-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in campaigns in 2000 and 2004 were processed and interpreted with other GPS data in the western Basin and Range province to provide new constraints on the rate, style, and pattern of deformation of the central and northern Walker Lane (WL), which lies near the western boundary of the Basin and Range. Across the central WL, near 38°N latitude, the velocities with respect to North America increase westward by ˜10 mm/yr inducing dextral shear. Farther north between 40° and 41°N latitude, a western zone of ˜7 mm/yr relative motion undergoes dextral shear, and an eastern zone of ≤3 mm/yr relative motion undergoes extension and shear. These data show that the northern WL is essentially a dextral shear zone experiencing minor net dilatation (ɛΔ = 2.6 ± 0.8 nstrain/yr). Near most Holocene normal faults, dilatation inferred from the velocity field is not greater than the uncertainties. However, near the central Nevada seismic belt we detect significant dilatation expressed as extension in a direction approximately normal to the range fronts (ɛΔ = 23.0 ± 3.9 nstrain/yr), some of which is attributable to transient postseismic deformation following large historic earthquakes. A block model constrained by velocities corrected for transient effects shows that the sum of dextral slip rates across the Honey Lake, Warm Springs, east Pyramid fault system, and Mohawk Valley faults is ˜7 mm/yr. The WL is a zone whose width and dilatation rate increase northwestward, consistent with counterclockwise rotation of the Sierra Nevada microplate and transfer of deformation into the Pacific Northwest.

  9. Land use of northern megalopolis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B.; Lindgren, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    The major objective is to map and digitize the land use of northern megalopolis, the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, and to evaluate ERTS as a planning tool for megalopolitan areas. The southern New England region provides a good test ERTS's capabilities because of its complex landscape. Not only are there great differences in the degree of urban development, but in relief and vegetative cover as well.

  10. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    in significantly larger abundances. We will present the spectral and vertical distribution of Titan's stratospheric particulates during northern winter on Titan. The drastically changing abundance of the haystack over a small latitude range will be highlighted, specifically comparing the IRIS and CIRS epochs, Finally, we will discuss the situation in which CH4 condenses in Titan's lower stratosphere, forming an unexpected quasi steady-state stratospheric Ice cloud.

  11. Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500-kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada, Northern States Power Company. Addendum to the final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company`s (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP`s original amendment request remain valid.

  12. Miocene and early Pliocene epithermal gold-silver deposits in the northern Great Basin, western United States: Characteristics, distribution, and relationship to Magmatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous important Miocene and early Pliocene epithermal Au-Ag deposits are present in the northern Great Basin. Most deposits are spatially and temporally related to two magmatic assemblages: bimodal basalt-rhyolite and western andesite. These magmatic assemblages are petrogenetic suites that reflect variations in tectonic environment of magma generation. The bimodal assemblage is a K-rich tholeiitic series formed during continental rifting. Rocks in the bimodal assemblage consist mostly of basalt to andesite and rhyolite compositions that generally contain anhydrous and reduced mineral assemblages (e.g., quartz + fayalite rhyolites). Eruptive forms include mafic lava flows, dikes, cinder and/or spatter cones, shield volcanoes, silicic flows, domes, and ash-flow calderas. Fe-Ti oxide barometry indicates oxygen fugacities between the magnetite-wustite and fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen buffers for this magmatic assemblage. The western andesite assemblage is a high K calc-alkaline series that formed a continental-margin are related to subduction of oceanic crust beneath the western coast of North America. In the northern Great Basin, most of the western andesite assemblage was erupted in the Walker Lane belt, a zone of transtension and strike-slip faulting. The western andesite assemblage consists of stratovolcanoes, dome fields, and subvolcanic plutons, mostly of andesite and dacite composition. Biotite and hornblende phenocrysts are abundant in these rocks. Oxygen fugacities of the western andesite assemblage magmas were between the nickel-nickel oxide and hematite-magnetite buffers, about two to four orders of magnitude greater than magmas of the bimodal assemblage. Numerous low-sulfidation Au-Ag deposits in the bimodal assemblage include deposits in the Midas (Ken Snyder), Sleeper, DeLamar, Mule Canyon, Buckhorn, National, Hog Ranch, Ivanhoe, and Jarbidge districts; high-sulfidation gold and porphyry copper-gold deposits are absent. Both high- and low

  13. Relative impact of previous disturbance history on the likelihood of additional disturbance in the Northern United States Forest Service USFS Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Landsat archive is increasingly being used to detect trends in the occurrence of forest disturbance. Beyond information about the amount of area affected, forest managers need to know if and how disturbance regimes change. The National Forest System (NFS) has developed a comprehensive plan for carbon monitoring that requires a detailed temporal mapping of forest disturbances across 75 million hectares. A long-term annual time series that shows the timing, extent, and type of disturbance beginning in 1990 and ending in 2011 has been prepared for several USFS Regions, including the Northern Region. Our mapping starts with an automated detection of annual disturbances using a time series of historical Landsat imagery. Automated detections are meticulously inspected, corrected and labeled using various USFS ancillary datasets. The resulting maps of verified disturbance show the timing and types are fires, harvests, insect activity, disease, and abiotic (wind, drought, avalanche) damage. Also, the magnitude of each change event is modeled in terms of the proportion of canopy cover lost. The sequence of disturbances for every pixel since 1990 has been consistently mapped and is available across the entirety of NFS. Our datasets contain sufficient information to describe the frequency of stand replacement, as well as how often disturbance results in only a partial loss of canopy. This information provides empirical insight into how an initial disturbance may predispose a stand to further disturbance, and it also show a climatic signal in the occurrence of processes such as fire and insect epidemics. Thus, we have the information to model the likelihood of occurrence of certain disturbances after a given event (i.e. if we have a fire in the past what does that do to the likelihood of occurrence of insects in the future). Here, we explore if previous disturbance history is a reliable predictor of additional disturbance in the future and we present results of applying

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  15. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981: State Conference Reports from the Fifty States, District of Columbia, Guam, Navajo Nation, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and Virgin Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 57 reports generated by the State White House Conferences held in each of the states and territories, and by the Navajo Nation from September 1980 through June 1981 in preparation for the National White House Conference on Aging. Each report provides information on the total number of participants in local/state/regional…

  16. Proposed amendment for Presidential Permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada Northern States Power Company. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Northern States Power Company, (NSP), a Minnesota investor owned utility has applied to the Office of Fossil Energy, United States Department of Energy, to amend Presidential Permit PP-63 to allow for alterations to the 500 kV transmission line and as sedated facilities currently regulated by this permit. The alterations proposed for the 500 kV line owned by NSP are part of a long term effort sponsored by NSP to upgrade the existing NSP transmission system to allow for increased exchange of electricity with the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board. Presidential Permit PP-63 authorized NSP to construct, connect, operate and maintain a 500 kV line at the United States/Canadian border approximately seven-and-a-half miles west of Warroad in Roseau County, Minnesota. This line connects with a 500 kV line owned and operated by the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board (MHEB), which extends from Dorsey, Manitoba, Canada to the United States/Canadian border. NSP proposes to increase the electricity transfer capability of this transmission facility by constructing a new 80-acre substation on the existing 500 kV line in Roseau County, Minnesota, and upgrading the existing substation at Forbes, Minnesota. The proposed Roseau substation would contain two 41.5 ohm series capacitor banks. In addition, static VAR compensators are to be installed at the existing Forbes Substation. Approximately 5 acres would be added to the 30-acre Forbes site to house the additional equipment. No new lines would enter or exit the facility. NSP proposes to place the new Roseau Substation in service in May 1993 and to complete the upgrading of the Forbes Substation in March 1994. The primary, initial purpose of these modifications is to enable NSP to import 400 megawatts of electric power from MHEB during the summer months to meet peak electrical demand in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. It is expected that this power transfer would begin in 1993.

  17. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1986. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.; Grillo, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1986 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 156 gaging stations; stage and contents for 37 lakes and reservoirs; water precipitation data for 2 stations; and water quality for 8 stations. Also included is one water-quality partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  20. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1990. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Markham, K.L.; Anderson, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1990 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 182 gaging stations; stage and contents for 34 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 3 stations; and water quality. for 12 stations. Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  1. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.W.; Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 177 gaging stations; stage and contents for 34 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 3 stations; and water quality for 9 stations. Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1985. Volume 4. Northern California Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.; Grillo, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1985 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 155 gaging stations; stage and contents for 29 lakes and reservoirs; water precipitation data for 2 stations; and water quality for 16 stations. Also included are 7 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  3. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, W.F.; Anderson, S.W.; Mullen, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wellso Volume 4 contains discharge records for 160 gaging stations; stage and contents for 35 lakes and reservoirs; water precipitation data for 2 stations; and water quality for 9 stations Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  4. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 154 gaging stations; stage and contents for 33 lakes and reservoirs; water precipitation data for 2 stations; and water quality for 5 stations. Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  5. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1997. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.; Anderson, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1997 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 176 gaging stations and 1 partial-record station, stage and contents for 45 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 3 stations, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality data for 14 stations and 6 waterquality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  6. Water Resources Data -- California, Water Year 2003, Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.; Rockwell, G.L.; Smithson, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 195 gaging stations, stage and contents for 62 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, water quality for 33 streamflow-gaging stations and 8 partial-record stations. Also included are 4 miscellaneous partial-record sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  7. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2001. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, G.L.; Smithson, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 191 gaging stations, stage and contents for 53 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, and water quality for 18 stations. Also included are 3 miscellaneous partial-record sites, and 3 parital-record water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  8. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1998. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.; Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.; Smithson, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 176 gaging stations and 1 partial-record station, stage and contents for 45 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 14 stations and 7 waterquality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  9. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2000. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.; Smithson, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 190 gaging stations and 5 partial-record stations, stage and contents for 60 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 10 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  10. Water resources data-California, water year 2004. volume 4. northern central valley basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake basin to Oregon state line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, M.D.; Rockwell, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.; Brockner, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 188 gaging stations, stage and contents for 62 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 1 station, water quality for 20 streamflow-gaging stations and 1 partial-record stations. Also included are 4 miscellaneous partial-record sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  11. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2002, Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and The Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smithson, J.R.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.; Rockwell, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 191 gaging stations, stage and contents for 60 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, and water quality for 21 stations. Also included are 4 miscellaneous partial-record sites. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  12. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1996. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.W.; Rockwell, G.L.; Friebel, M.F.; Webster, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1996 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 180 gaging stations, stage and contents for 45 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 5 stations, precipitation data for 3 stations, and water quality for 15 stations. Also included is 1 low-flow partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  13. Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water model was developed to simulate seasonal and long-term variations in ground-water flow in the Sierra Vista subwatershed, Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico, portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin. This model includes the simulation of details of the groundwater flow system that were not simulated by previous models, such as ground-water flow in the sedimentary rocks that surround and underlie the alluvial basin deposits, withdrawals for dewatering purposes at the Tombstone mine, discharge to springs in the Huachuca Mountains, thick low-permeability intervals of silt and clay that separate the ground-water flow system into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems, ephemeral-channel recharge, and seasonal variations in ground-water discharge by wells and evapotranspiration. Steady-state and transient conditions during 1902-2003 were simulated by using a five-layer numerical ground- water flow model representing multiple hydrogeologic units. Hydraulic properties of model layers, streamflow, and evapotranspiration rates were estimated as part of the calibration process by using observed water levels, vertical hydraulic gradients, streamflow, and estimated evapotranspiration rates as constraints. Simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the model area and streamflow trends at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station on the San Pedro River. Differences in observed and simulated water levels, streamflow, and evapotranspiration could be reduced through simulation of climate-related variations in recharge rates and recharge from flood-flow infiltration.

  14. Water Resources Data for California, water year 1984. Volume 4. Northern Central Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, R.P.; Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.; Grillo, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1984 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 152 gaging stations; stage and contents for 25 lakes and reservoirs; water precipitation data for 2 stations; water quality for 9 stations; water levels for 12 and water quality for 46 observation wells. Also included is one low-flow partialrecord station and 19 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and federal agencies in California.

  15. Water Resources Data for California Water Year 1982, Volume 4. Northern California Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, R.P.; Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1982 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 163 gaging stations; stage and contents for 27 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 2 stations; water quality for 7 stations; and water levels for 54 observation wells, Also included are 4 crest-stage partial-record stations and 4 low-flow partial-record stations. Additional wator data are collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data collection program, and are published as special investigations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the u.s. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1983, Volume 4. Northern California Valley Basins and the Great Basin from Honey Lake Basin to Oregon State Line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, R.P.; Mullen, J.R.; Shelton, W.F.; Simpson, R.G.; Grillo, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1983 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains discharge records for 153 gaging stations; stage and contents for 25 lakes and reservoirs; precipitation data for 2 stations; water quality for 7 stations; and water levels for 147 observation wells. Also included is one low-flow partial-record station. Additional water data are collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data collection program, and are published as special investigations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  17. Profile of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Punjab, Northern India: Results of a State-Wide STEPS Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, J. S.; Jeet, Gursimer; Pal, Arnab; Singh, Shavinder; Singh, Amarjit; Deepti, S. S.; Lal, Mohan; Gupta, Sanjay; Prasad, Rajender; Jain, Sanjay; Saran, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background Efforts to assess the burden of non-communicable diseases risk factors has improved in low and middle-income countries after political declaration of UN High Level Meeting on NCDs. However, lack of reliable estimates of risk factors distribution are leading to delay in implementation of evidence based interventions in states of India. Methods A STEPS Survey, comprising all the three steps for assessment of risk factors of NCDs, was conducted in Punjab state during 2014–15. A statewide multistage sample of 5,127 residents, aged 18–69 years, was taken. STEPS questionnaire version 3.1 was used to collect information on behavioral risk factors, followed by physical measurements and blood and urine sampling for biochemical profile. Results Tobacco and alcohol consumption were observed in 11.3% (20% men and 0.9% women) and 15% (27% men and 0.3% women) of the population, respectively. Low levels of physical activity were recorded among 31% (95% CI: 26.7–35.5) of the participants. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28.6% (95% CI: 26.3–30.9) and 12.8% (95% CI: 11.2–14.4) respectively. Central obesity was higher among women (69.3%, 95% CI: 66.5–72.0) than men (49.5%, 95% CI: 45.3–53.7). Prevalence of hypertension in population was 40.1% (95% CI: 37.3–43.0). The mean sodium intake in grams per day for the population was 7.4 gms (95% CI: 7.2–7.7). The prevalence of diabetes (hyperglycemia), hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.7–16.8), 21.6% (95% CI: 18.5–25.1) and 16.1% (95% CI: 13.1–19.2), respectively. In addition, 7% of the population aged 40–69 years had a cardiovascular risk of ≥ 30% over a period of next 10 years. Conclusion We report high prevalence of risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases among adults in Punjab. There is an urgent need to implement population, individual and programme wide prevention and control interventions to lower the serious consequences of NCDs. PMID

  18. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  19. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  20. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  1. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  2. Current situation of the ichnological locality of São Domingos from the Corda Formation (Lower Cretaceous), northern Tocantins state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Valais, S.; Candeiro, C. R.; Tavares, L. F.; Alves, Y. M.; Cruvinel, C.

    2015-08-01

    In the 80's, Leonardi treated the presence of a vertebrate ichnological locality from the Barremian Corda Formation, Parnaíba Basin, on the left bank of the Tocantins river, near of the São Domingos town, Itaguatins, State of Tocantins, Brazil. Originally, the record was composed of at least seven in situ trackways, accounting for fifty six tracks. Since 2011, the Hydroelectric Power Plant do Estreito has begun to work, causing the development of a water reservoir 160 km upstream to the ichnological site, causing periodic and highly energetic floods over the footprints-bearing level and altering it. The imprints are poorly to moderate preserved, but it is possible to distinguish the general morphology and the spatial arrangement of the footprints. The specimens are represented by pes imprints, mostly circular to subcircular, with no digital and claw impressions. No distinguishable manus imprints are present. The trackways are relative narrow with respect to the size of the tracks, so they are considered into the Parabrontopodus-like category. The São Domingos tracks have been originally assigned to iguanodontid dinosaurs, and posteriorly related to a sauropodian origin. This idea is herein accepted, particularly to a basal sauropod, basal macronarians, or diplodocoids. Up to date, the tracks from the São Domingos locality are the only vertebrate fossil record from the Corda Formation, meaning an important contribution to the Cretaceous ichnofauna from South America.

  3. Recording the transition from flare-up to steady-state arc magmatism at the Purico-Chascon volcanic complex, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Dale H.; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Tepley, Frank; Schmitt, Axel K.; Loewen, Matthew W.

    2015-07-01

    The long-term evolution of continental magmatic arcs is episodic, where a few transient events of high magmatic flux or flare-ups punctuate the low-flux magmatism or "steady state" that makes up most of the arc history. How this duality manifests in terms of differences in crustal architecture, magma dynamics and chemistry, and the time scale over which transitions occur is poorly known. Herein we use multiscale geochemical and isotopic characteristics coupled with geothermobarometry at the Purico-Chascon Volcanic Complex (PCVC) in the Central Andes to identify a transition from flare-up to steady state arc magmatism over ∼800 kyr during which significant changes in upper crustal magmatic dynamics are recorded. The PCVC is one of the youngest volcanic centers related to a 10-1 Ma ignimbrite flare-up in the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex of the Central Andes. Activity at the PCVC initiated 0.98 ± 0.03 Ma with the eruption of a large 80-100 km3 crystal-rich dacite ignimbrite. High, restricted 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios between 0.7085 and 0.7090 in the bulk rock and plagioclase crystals from the Purico ignimbrite, combined with mineral chemistry and phase relationships indicate the dacite magma accumulated and evolved at relatively low temperatures around 800-850 °C in the upper crust at 4-8 km depth. Minor andesite pumice erupted late in the ignimbrite sequence records a second higher temperature (965 °C), higher pressure environment (17-20 km), but with similar restricted radiogenic bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089-0.7091 to the dacites. The compositional and isotopic characteristics of the Purico ignimbrite implicate an extensive zone of upper crustal mixing, assimilation, storage and homogenization (MASH) between ∼30 and 4 km beneath the PCVC ∼1 Ma. The final eruptions at the PCVC < 0.18 ± 0.02 Ma suggest a change in the magmatic architecture beneath the PCVC. These eruptions produced three small <6 km3 crystal-rich dacite lava domes with radiogenic bulk rock

  4. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  5. Application of Spaceborne Scatterometer for Mapping Freeze-Thaw State in Northern Landscapes as a Measure of Ecological and Hydrological Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Zimmermann, Reiner; Way, JoBea; Frolking, Steve; Running, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Landscape freeze/thaw transitions coincide with marked shifts in albedo, surface energy and mass exchange, and associated snow dynamics. Monitoring landscape freeze/thaw dynamics would improve our ability to quantify the interannual variability of boreal hydrology and river runoff/flood dynamics. The annual duration of frost-free period also bounds the period of photosynthetic activity in boreal and arctic regions thus affecting the annual carbon budget and the interannual variability of regional carbon fluxes. In this study, we use the NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to monitor the temporal change in the radar backscatter signature across selected ecoregions of the boreal zone. We have measured vegetation tissue temperatures, soil temperature profiles, and micrometeorological parameters in situ at selected sites along a north-south transect extending across Alaska from Prudhoe Bay to the Kenai Peninsula and in Siberia near the Yenisey River. Data from these stations have been used to quantify the scatterometer's sensitivity to freeze/thaw state under a variety of terrain and landcover conditions. Analysis of the NSCAT temporal response over the 1997 spring thaw cycle shows a 3 to 5 dB change in measured backscatter that is well correlated with the landscape springtime thaw process. Having verified the instrument's capability to monitor freeze/thaw transitions, regional scale mosaicked data are applied to derive temporal series of freeze/thaw transition maps for selected circumpolar high latitude regions. These maps are applied to derive areal extent of frozen and thawed landscape and demonstrate the utility of spaceborne radar for operational monitoring of seasonal freeze-thaw dynamics and associated biophysical processes for the circumpolar high latitudes.

  6. [Social representations concerning dengue, dengue vectors, and control activities among residents of São Sebastião on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; Ribeiro, Andressa Francisca; Marques, Gisela Rita de Alvarenga Monteiro; Serpa, Lígia Leandro Nunes; Lefèvre, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    This study sought to identify people's knowledge on dengue and its vector biology, aimed at promoting a communications channel between technical and lay reasoning in order to foster community involvement in dengue and dengue vector control activities. A survey was conducted in an Aedes aegypti-infested area with dengue transmission in São Sebastião on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. One hundred interviews were held, with five open questions on topics related to dengue and vector control. Collective Subject Discourse methodology was used in the analysis. People were not able to properly identify the kinds of accumulated water sources that serve as breeding places for mosquitoes and were unaware of the egg phase in vector development. There was inadequate awareness of vector biology and a need for greater government-community integration. Educational activities should incorporate the study results as insight for improving the social efficiency and efficacy of joint actions to fight dengue and control the mosquito vector. PMID:17572820

  7. Construction Services at Northern Arizona University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Gary

    Construction Services is an innovative response to a chronic construction-remodeling problem at Northern Arizona State University. It is an in-house facilities maintenance department designed to address a variety of needs: prevention of construction or remodeling done by individual staff or faculty members without regard for applicable codes;…

  8. Association of Blood Lead Level with Neurological Features in 972 Children Affected by an Acute Severe Lead Poisoning Outbreak in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gómez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. Methods and Findings We included children aged ≤5 years with VBLL ≥45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27–5.98 (80–99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54–49.96 (≥120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50–9.11] for 1–<2 years and 2.69 [95%CI 1.15–6.26] for 2–<3 years, both vs 3–5 years). Severe neurological features were seen at VBLL <105 µg/dL only in those with malaria. Interpretation Increasing VBLL (from ≥80 µg/dL) and age 1–<3 years were strongly associated with neurological features; in those tested for malaria, a positive test was also strongly associated. These factors will help clinicians managing children with lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols. PMID:24740291

  9. Effect of soil frost on growing season nitrogen uptake by fine roots of mature trees in northern hardwood forests of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socci, A. M.; Templer, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    Forests of the northeastern United States are predicted to experience a decrease in the depth and duration of the winter snowpack over the next 100 years. Even when coupled with warmer winter air temperatures, the absence of snow as insulation can increase soil frost during the winter months. Past research has determined that there are species-level effects of soil frost on dominant forest trees. For example, in stands dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum), induced soil frost led to increased fine root mortality and soil nitrate leaching. Soil frost also increased fine root mortality in stands dominated by yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis), but there was no significant change in leaching of soil nitrate. We hypothesized that greater nitrogen (N) losses from stands dominated by sugar maple may be due to reduced N uptake by fine roots of this tree species. To determine the impact of increased soil freezing on fine root uptake of N, we established a snow manipulation experiment in mixed sugar maple/American beech (Fagus grandifolia) forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire (n=4 paired snow-removal and reference plots; each 13m X 13m). Snow removal occurred during the first six weeks of winter over two years. During each growing season following snow removal, we used the N depletion technique to measure in situ rates of uptake of ammonium and nitrate by fine roots of sugar maple during the early, peak and late growing season. Among all sampling dates and plots, we observed significantly lower uptake of N as nitrate compared to ammonium. During the first growing season, at moderate ammonium availability (35 μM N) we observed significantly less uptake of ammonium by fine roots of sugar maple in the snow removal plots relative to the reference plots during the early growing season (April-May), with no significant differences in uptake of ammonium during the peak (July) and late (September) growing season. We observed no differences in

  10. Northern Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 13 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on November 26, 2002 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80, Longitude 43.2 East (316.8 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for

  11. Metastability of Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risbey, James; O'Kane, Terence; Monselesan, Didier; Franzke, Christian; Horenko, Ilia

    2014-05-01

    This work applies the FEM-BV-VARX method to study of the large scale modes of variability in the Northern Hemisphere as manifest in 500hPa geopotential height fields. The FEM-BV-VARX method identifies metastable states of the system. The results for regional domains confirm that the teleconnection modes referred to as the NAO in the Atlantic domain, PNA in the Pacific domain, and Scandanavian blocking in the Eurasian domain, all exhibit metastability. For the full Northern Hemisphere domain the metastable state combines the AO and a midlatitude circumglobal wavetrain pattern. These results are shown in a set of reanalysis products from NCEP; the 20th century reanalysis, NNR1, and the CFSR coupled reanalysis. The reanalysis products are all able to simulate the structure and temporal switching of regime states. Decadal and multidecadal regimes are clearly apparent in the model affiliation sequence of metastable states and correspond to known transition points for the teleconnection modes.

  12. Paleomagnetism of Paleozoic Glacial Sediments of Northern Ethiopia; A Contribution Towards African Permian Paleogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachtadse, V.; Birke, T. K.; Alene, M.; Kirscher, U.

    2012-12-01

    Glacigenic sediments of Palaeozoic age in Northern Ethiopia have been sampled for palemagnetic investigations. Although there was no doubt about their glacial origin there has been a debate as to whether they are correlable with either of the Upper Carboniferous-Early Perminan glacial rocks of southern Africa or of Ordovician glacial rocks recently mapped in Northern Africa. In an attempt to discriminate the age and also to contribute towards the paleogeographic reconstruction of the continent from paleomagnetic data in this region of the Earth; paleomagnetic investigations were done. Twenty core samples from a tilted bed (strike & dip 130°/27°SW) of the Edaga Arbi Glacials at Negash area and thirteen core samples from sub-horizontally bedded Enticho Sandstone from Enticho area were collected during a single field season. For both sediments Alternating Field (AF) demagnetization techniques could only demagnetize about 50% of the total intensity of magnetization and thermal demagnetization is proved to be effective. The intensity of magnetization is about 0.08A/m which is quite strong for sediments. A recent and viscous remagnetizations (VRM) and one stable component of magnetization were identified. Between a temperature range of 120°C - 350°C the VRM is removed; further heating until a temperature of ~ 650°C resulted in smooth decay in magnetization intensity to about 50%. The rest of the magnetization is efficiently removed by heating to 690°C. Results of the magnetization decay curve plots and rock magnetic analyses using a Variable Field Translation Balance (VFTB) indicate hematite and maghemite as carriers of magnetization. The high stability component defines a straight line segment starting 400°C and directed towards the origin revealing the Characteristic Remanent Magnetizations (ChRM). The mean directions from both sediments is highly clustered with overall mean results (Ds=114.7°, Is=47.70°, α95=3.80, k=75, N=20) for the former and (Ds=161

  13. 16. Detail of curvature of northern parapet, with 1932 concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of curvature of northern parapet, with 1932 concrete extension of parapet in foreground, facing east. - Dubbs Bridge, Spinnerstown Road (State Route 2031) spanning Hosensack Creek, Dillingerville, Lehigh County, PA

  14. 7. VIEW OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE LOCKTENDERS HOUSE (NORTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE LOCKTENDERS HOUSE (NORTHERN MOST), LOOKING NORTH. - Ohio Slack Water Dams, Lock & Dam No. 4, East bank of Ohio River at mile point 18.6, along State Route 65, Ambridge, Beaver County, PA

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Willis Foster, Photographer Northern California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Willis Foster, Photographer Northern California Writers' Project Original: February 1940 Re-photo: August 1940 - A.A. Cohen House, State Highway 9, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  16. 4. View of bridge from Minnesota bank, near northern side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of bridge from Minnesota bank, near northern side of the southeast portal looking southwest - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  17. VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, OVERGROWN WITH VEGETATION, FACING WEST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  18. VIEW OF PARALLEL LINE OF LARGE BORE HOLES IN NORTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PARALLEL LINE OF LARGE BORE HOLES IN NORTHERN QUARRY AREA, FACING NORTHEAST - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  19. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTHWEST, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  20. OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF QUARRY, FACING NORTH, SHOWING NORTHERN SECTION OF QUARRY - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 2, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  1. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  2. Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Taylor, Bruce Edward

    1974-01-01

    Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to, boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252?C, although most are below 190?C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential, for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and. analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64?C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. We suggest that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.

  3. FACING NORTHEAST ACROSS NORTHERN END OF PARK TOWARDS ITS NORTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHEAST ACROSS NORTHERN END OF PARK TOWARDS ITS NORTHERN CORNER - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  4. Selenium status in food grains of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Sharma, Anita; Singh, Devender

    2008-09-01

    The selenium status in the food grains of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India was estimated by using the HG-AAS technique. The areas where lesser rains were received or less irrigation water was available in northern Indian states viz. Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana had higher selenium levels in food grains. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their food grains, except for slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. PMID:17574725

  5. The use of ambient air quality modeling to estimate individual and population exposure for human health research: a case study of ozone in the Northern Georgia Region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L

    2006-07-01

    Ambient monitors are commonly used to estimate exposure for epidemiological studies, and air quality modeling is infrequently applied. However air quality modeling systems have the potential to alleviate some, although not all, of the limitations of monitoring networks. To investigate this application, exposure estimates were generated for a case study high ozone episode in the Northern Georgia Region of the United States based on measurements and concentration estimates from an air quality modeling system. Hourly estimates for 2268 4-km by 4-km gridcells were generated in a domain that includes only eight ozone monitors. Individual and population-based ozone exposures were estimated using multiple approaches, including area-weighted average of modeled estimates, nearest monitor, and spatial interpolation by inverse distance weighting and kriging. Results based on concentration fields from the air quality modeling system revealed spatial heterogeneity that was obscured by approaches based on the monitoring network. With some techniques, such as spatial interpolation, monitoring data alone was insufficient to estimate exposure for certain areas, especially for rural populations. For locations far from ozone monitors, the estimates from the nearest monitor approach tended to overestimate exposure, compared to modeled estimates. Counties in which one or more monitors were present had statistically higher population density and modeled ozone estimates than did counties without monitors (p-value <0.05). This work demonstrates the use of air quality modeling to generate higher spatial and temporal resolution exposure estimates, and compares the advantages of this approach to traditional methods that use monitoring data alone. The air quality modeling method faces its own limitations, such as the need to thoroughly evaluate concentration estimates and the use of ambient levels rather than personal exposure. PMID:16516968

  6. BlotBase: a northern blot database.

    PubMed

    Schlamp, K; Weinmann, A; Krupp, M; Maass, T; Galle, Pr; Teufel, A

    2008-12-31

    With the availability of high-throughput gene expression analysis, multiple public expression databases emerged, mostly based on microarray expression data. Although these databases are of significant biomedical value, they do hold significant drawbacks, especially concerning the reliability of single gene expression profiles obtained by microarray data. Simultaneously, reliable data on an individual gene's expression are often published as single northern blots in individual publications. These data were not yet available for high-throughput screening. To reduce the gap between high-throughput expression data and individual highly reliable expression data, we designed a novel database "BlotBase", a freely and easily accessible database, currently containing approximately 700 published northern blots of human or mouse origin (http://www.medicalgenomics.org/Databases/BlotBase). As the database is open for public data submission, we expect this database to quickly become a large expression profiling resource, eventually providing higher reliability in high-throughput gene expression analysis. Realizing BlotBase, Pubmed was searched manually and by computer based text mining methods to obtain publications containing northern blot results. Subsequently, northern blots were extracted and expression values of different tissues calculated utilizing Image J. All data were made available through a user friendly web front end. The data may be searched by either full text search or list of available northern blots of a specific tissue. Northern blot expression profiles were displayed by three expression states as well as a bar chart, allowing for automated evaluation. Furthermore, we integrated additional features, e.g. instant access to the corresponding RNA sequence or primer design tools making further expression analysis more convenient. Finally, through a semiautomatic submission system this database was opened to the bioinformatics community. PMID:18838116

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in juvenile Magellan penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) found on the northern shore of the state of São Paulo and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baldassin, Paula; Taniguchi, Satie; Gallo, Hugo; Silva, Reinaldo José; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in 25 livers from Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, found on the state of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The following concentrations of POPs (wet weight) were found: ∑ PCBs: 18.9-775.8 ng g(-1); ∑ DDTs: 2.3-275 ng g(-1); and ∑ HCHs: 1.0-11.8 ng g(-1). Among the PCBs, there was a predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (138 and 153) and heptachlorobiphenyls (180 and 187). Among the organochlorines, DDT predominated. Through histopathologic exams a positive correlation was found between HCB and cardiovascular failure (p=0.012), as HCB values (wet weight) were 6.33-96.49 ng g(-1) for positive animals and 2.45-19.63 ng g(-1) for negative animals. Studies on POPs in Magellan penguins contribute to a better understanding of the distribution and trends of these pollutants in the western South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:22910330

  8. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  9. Quaternary glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrava, V.; Bowen, D.Q.; Richmond, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    This volume presents the final report of Project 24 of the International Geological Correlation Programme. The publication is drawn from the contributions of leading individual scientist as well as from scientific research teams. It reflects the present state of knowledge of the Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere and their correlation in space and time, as well as providing a unique summary of climatic change.

  10. Fires in Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several fires were detected in Northern Australia by MODIS. The fires show up as red dots, superimposed on a surface reflectance product. The image also shows the Clarence Strait, which separates the mainland from Melville Island to the northwest and the smaller Bathurst Island to its west. The Strait connects the more confined, bowl-shaped Van Diemen Gulf to the Beagle Gulf. To the right of the image at the top is the Gulf of Carpentaria, which appears to be full of phytoplankton, as evidenced by the blue-green swirls in the waters

  11. Northern plants and ozone.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Huttunen, Satu; Tømmervik, Hans; Hole, Lars R; Solberg, Sverre

    2009-12-01

    Forests in northern Fennoscandia are mainly composed of the O3-sensitive species--Scots pine and downy, mountain, and silver birches. Seminatural vegetation also contributes to biodiversity, carbon cycling, and ecosystem services as a part of forests, mires, meadows, and road verges. Fumigation experiments show that current O3 concentrations of 30-50 ppb reduce plant biomass production and reproduction. Visible foliar injury is attributable to peak O3 concentrations and relates to fast phenological development and high growth rate. Trees can acclimate to O3-induced water stress by producing more xeromorphic leaves or needles. The direct effects of O3 on grassland vegetation also translate to changes in the structure and size of the soil microbial community, and ecosystem N cycling. It is necessary to reduce the emission of O3 precursors and maintain high biodiversity to protect northern ecosystems. Regular, systematic, countrywide monitoring and validation as well as quantification of the effects of O3 on plants in the Nordic countries are also necessary. PMID:20175438

  12. Soil responses to stover management in the Northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minnesota, at the northern edge of the United States Corn Belt, is among the top corn producing states in the country. National and local interest in using corn stover for energy sparked concerns that over-harvesting biomass would degrade the highly productive soils in the region. Therefore, a study...

  13. High HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Patients from Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Carolina Marinho; Costa de Oliveira, Cintia Mara; Chehuan de Melo, Yonne Francis; Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo; Couto-Fernandez, Jose Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil is driven by subtypes B, F1, and C and recombinants forms among those subtypes. The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes, however, may vary across different Brazilian regions and the molecular epidemiologic profile in Northern Brazil remains poorly explored. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained from 305 patients failing antiretroviral therapy followed at outpatient clinics from five Northern Brazilian states. The most prevalent HIV-1 clade observed in the Northern Brazilian region was subtype B (81%), followed by BF1 recombinants (10%), subtype F1 (4%), subtype C (3%), BC recombinants (2%), and BU recombinants (1%). Although HIV-1 subtype B was the predominant HIV-1 clade in Northern Brazil, its prevalence greatly varies among different states, ranging from 63% in Rondônia to 92% in Acre. Among the 37 HIV-1 recombinant sequences detected in the Northern Brazilian region, nine (24%) displayed a unique recombinant form structure, five (14%) a CRF28/29_BF-like structure, and four (11%) a CRF31_BC-like structure. Two other BF1 recombinant patterns were identified in 16 (43%) and three (8%) samples that may correspond to two potentially new CRFs_BF characteristic of the Northern region. This study reveals that despite the low spatial connectivity with other Brazilian regions, the genetic complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic in Northern Brazil is very high and that the molecular epidemiologic pattern may vary across different northern states, reflecting a complex epidemic with multiple independent viral introductions into this Brazilian region. PMID:27091699

  14. Soil aggregate stability and wind erodible fraction in a semi-arid environment of White Nile State, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhaja, Mohamed Eltom; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Saeed; Adam, Hassan Elnour; Csaplovics, Elmar

    2014-11-01

    One of the most important recent issues facing White Nile State, Sudan, as well as Sub Saharan Africa, is the threat of continued land degradation and desertification as a result of climatic factors and human activities. Remote sensing and satellites imageries with multi-temporal and spectral and GIS capability, plays a major role in developing a global and local operational capability for monitoring land degradation and desertification in dry lands, as well as in White Nile State. The process of desertification in form of sand encroachment in White Nile State has increased rapidly, and much effort has been devoted to define and study its causes and impacts. This study depicts the capability afforded by remote sensing and GIS to analyze and map the aggregate stability as indicator for the ability of soil to wind erosion process in White Nile State by using Geo-statistical techniques. Cloud-free subset Landsat; Enhance Thematic Mapper plus (ETM +) scenes covering the study area dated 2008 was selected in order to identify the different features covering the study area as well as to make the soil sampling map. Wet-sieving method was applied to determine the aggregate stability. The geo-statistical methods in EARDAS 9.1 software was used for mapping the aggregate stability. The results showed that the percentage of aggregate stability ranged from (0 to 61%) in the study area, which emphasized the phenomena of sand encroachment from the western part (North Kordofan) to the eastern part (White Nile State), following the wind direction. The study comes out with some valuable recommendations and comments, which could contribute positively in reducing sand encroachments

  15. Nodding syndrome in northern Uganda: overview and community perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Katrina B; Kornfeld, Julie; Adiama, Joseph; Mugenyi, Andrew; Schmutzhard, Erich; Ovuga, Emilio; Kamstra, Jesse; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of nodding syndrome in northern Uganda has generated a wide range of speculations with respect to etiology and natural history of and best possible medical treatment for this mysterious seizure disorder. Despite in-depth investigations by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Ministry of Health in Uganda, no clear causal factors have emerged. At the same time, northern Uganda communities are voicing concern for their lack of knowledge about nodding syndrome. The purpose of this commentary is to summarize northern Uganda community perceptions of this syndrome. These reflections demonstrate the need for larger investigations into the impact of nodding syndrome and other seizure disorders on local communities both in northern Uganda and throughout the world, in particular rural areas of resource poor countries. PMID:23207514

  16. Smoke Blankets Northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Lightning strikes have sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on 27 June 2008. Cape Mendocino is at the center of the image and Mt. Shasta is near the upper right. Concentrated smoke is visible in several river valleys and the large smoke cloud extends over the Pacific Ocean for hundreds of kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  17. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  18. Teleradiology in northern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Pagé, G; Grégoire, A; Galand, C; Sylvestre, J; Chahlaoui, J; Fauteux, P; Dussault, R; Séguin, R; Roberge, F A

    1981-08-01

    A two-way television network using the Canadian satellite ANIK-B was utilized to transmit radiographic images from Northern Quebec to Montreal. The accuracy of the radiologist's interpretation and his satisfaction with the TV system were studied using a series of 67 preselected cases and 425 current clinical cases. The four participating radiologists gave correct TV interpretations in 81% of the 39 selected cases presented at the beginning of the experiment. This value reached 94% for the other 28 selected cases presented after three months of regular use of the TV system. With current clinical cases, the agreement between TV and direct interpretations was 93%. Although magnification was available, correct identification of very small lesions proved to be the major source of error. On the whole, the radiologists were satisfied with the TV system. PMID:7255709

  19. Selenium status in soils of northern districts of India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjiv K; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Devender; Han, Sang-Do

    2005-04-01

    The HG-AAS technique was used to estimate the soil selenium status of the agricultural lands of northern parts of India. The drier lands where lesser rains were received or where less irrigation water was available in Rajasthan and southern parts of the Haryana states had above normal soil selenium levels. These soils were also found to be alkaline. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and northern parts of the Haryana states had normal levels of selenium in their soils, except with slightly lower selenium levels in a few areas that were affected by floods along the river Yamuna. The results were also confirmed using the ICP-OES technique. PMID:15763155

  20. Telemedicine in northern Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, F. A.; Pagé, G.; Sylvestre, J.; Chahlaoui, J.

    1982-01-01

    Television transmission of diagnostic and educational information can help to improve specialized medical care in remote and underserviced areas. This paper describes a pilot study in which the Canadian satellite Anik-B was used to link the James Bay area in northern Quebec with two large Montreal teaching hospitals. Broad-band real-time television was well suited for tele-education and teleconsultation activities. A much less costly method, using narrow-band slow-scan television, was also examined, but it requires improvements. The technology of telemedicine is in place, but its future use is impeded by the prohibitive costs of operating an efficient two-way broad-band television system for several remote health care sites. A solution to this problem may be an intermediate-band system combining some of the low-cost features of narrowband slow-scan television with the interactive high-resolution advantages of broad-band real-time television. PMID:7139483

  1. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  2. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  3. 2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, south sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  4. 1. Oil house, keeper's house, Southern Light Tower and Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil house, keeper's house, Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view northwest, south and east sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  5. Educational Leadership in Northern Canada: Where Cultures Collide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, J. Tim; Foster, Rosemary Y.

    This report describes the completed second stage of an investigation and analysis of the state of educational leadership, policy, and organization in northern Canadian schools. It presents and discusses the different perspectives held by constituents with respect to the goals and purposes of schooling, and the curriculum and language of…

  6. 8. VIEW FROM NORTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW FROM NORTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EAST TOWARD UPSTREAM BANK OF NORTH SIDE OF DAM - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  7. Fulminant hepatic failure in children and adolescents in Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, José Carlos F; Souza, Rita A B; Brasil, Leila M; Araújo, José R; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L

    2004-01-01

    The histological findings of fulminant hepatic failure were correlated to the demographic, clinical, biochemical and virological features in children and adolescents, native to the Amazonas State in Northern Brazil. 96.2% had evidence of infection by primary hepatotrophic viruses. Histological analysis revealed three distinct patterns of fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:15042190

  8. Detail of northern pier, pilaster, spring line, open spandrel arches, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northern pier, pilaster, spring line, open spandrel arches, and spandrel colmns, facing northwest. Note the simple relief on the pilaster, indicative of the stripped classicism style. - Oakland Avenue Viaduct, Oakland Avenue spanning U.S. Route 62 (State Route 2302) & Pine Run, Sharon, Mercer County, PA

  9. The Conifers of the Northern Rockies. Bulletin, 1917, No. 53

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, J. F.

    1918-01-01

    The purpose of this bulletin is to enable persons not technically trained in botany to identify the coniferous species of the northern Rocky Mountain region lying within the United States. Forest trees of all kinds have interest for all people. Familiar and affection knowledge of them has culture value of a very fine kind. For the people of some…

  10. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys with…

  11. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111

  12. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  13. Effect of fire in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Kruse, A.D.; Piehl, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a review of selected literature about prescribed burning in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) for management of wildlife. It also will be useful to other resource managers and researchers and to persons interested in the NGP. It is more 'descriptive' than 'interpretative.'The publication is a joint effort of the South Dakota State Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (SDCFWRU), South Dakota State University, Brookings; the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC), Jamestown, N.D.; and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Fergus Falls, Minn. Manuscript typing and library services were shared between SDCFWRU and NPWRC.This publication (EC 761) is the second of three SDSU Extension circulars on grassland fires. EC 760 is Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains; EC 762 is Annotated bibliography of fire literature relative to northern grasslands in South-Central Canada and North-Central United States and contains many more citations than presented in this publication. All three circulars may be obtained from either the Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Department; SDSU Box 2206; ph (605) 688-6121; or from the Ag Communications Bulletin Room; SDSU Box 2231; ph (605) 688-5628; both in Brookings, S.D. 57007.

  14. Effects of fire in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kruse, Arnold D.; Piehl, James L.

    1989-01-01

    This publication is a review of selected literature about prescribed burning in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) for management of wildlife. It also will be useful to other resource managers and researchers and to persons interested in the NGP. It is more 'descriptive' than 'interpretative.'The publication is a joint effort of the South Dakota State Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (SDCFWRU), South Dakota State University, Brookings; the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC), Jamestown, N.D.; and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Fergus Falls, Minn. Manuscript typing and library services were shared between SDCFWRU and NPWRC.This publication (EC 761) is the second of three SDSU Extension circulars on grassland fires. EC 760 is Prescribed burning guidelines in the Northern Great Plains; EC 762 is Annotated bibliography of fire literature relative to northern grasslands in South-Central Canada and North-Central United States and contains many more citations than presented in this publication. All three circulars may be obtained from either the Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences Department; SDSU Box 2206; ph (605) 688-6121; or from the Ag Communications Bulletin Room; SDSU Box 2231; ph (605) 688-5628; both in Brookings, S.D. 57007.

  15. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2010-11-01

    Northern peatlands span only 3 million square kilometers, about 3% of the terrestrial area of the globe, yet they represent a significant terrestrial sink for carbon dioxide. They are also important emitters of methane, an even more potent greenhouse gas. Despite their substantial role in the global carbon cycle, peatlands are not typically incorporated into global climate models. The AGU Monograph Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands, edited by Andrew J. Baird, Lisa R. Belyea, Xavier Comas, A. S. Reeve, and Lee D. Slater, looks at the disproportionate role peatlands play in the global carbon budget. In this interview, Eos talks with Andy Baird, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

  16. Accumulation and transfer of Hg, As, Se, and other metals in the sediment-vegetation-crab-human food chain in the coastal zone of the northern Brazilian state of Pará (Amazonia).

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Maria S P; Costa, Marcondes L; Berredo, Jose Francisco

    2013-08-01

    The high consumption of crabs (Ucides cordatus) stimulated interest in the present study on the northern coast of Brazil, which encompasses a preserved area of mangrove forest. The objective was to describe and quantify the transfer of metals from the muddy sediments to the leaves of the Rhizophora mangle, and thence the crabs and humans. The samples were collected along two transects, while samples of hair were obtained from local habitants. The pH, interstitial salinity, Eh (mV) were measured, the granulometry and mineralogical and multi-element chemical analyses were run, and the organic material determined. The sediments are silty-clayey, composed of quartz, kaolinite, iron oxides, and illite, as well as smaller portions of smectite, pyrite, halite, and high levels of SiO2 (56.5 %), Al2O3 (18.5 %), and Fe2O3 (7 %). The elements Zn, Sr, As, and Zr are concentrated in the leaves, while the bioaccumulation of Zn, Se, Sr, and As was recorded in the crabs, of which, Se is the most concentrated in the tissue of the muscles and the hepatopancreas. The concentrations of nutrient and toxic elements were similar in all age groups (hair samples), with only Hg presenting an increasing concentration between infants and adults. The highest rates of transfer were recorded for the elements Zn and Se in the crabs and Hg in leaves and hair. The accumulation of metals in the leaves and crabs reflects the chemical composition of the sediments and low rates of sediment-vegetation-crab transfer, with the exception of Hg, which accumulated in the hair. PMID:23334486

  17. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  19. "Subtractive" Bilingualism in Northern Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert A.

    "Subtractive" bilingualism in Northern Belize is analyzed based on an extension of a model by Wallace Lambert. The impact of English language instruction on Spanish speaking children in Corozal Town, the northernmost urban center in the British colony of Belize, Central America, is described. This description extends an earlier account of…

  20. NUMA: A Northern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Northern Paiute people, or Numa, who lived, hunted, and travelled in the Great Basin area which occupies one-third of present day Nevada and parts of Oregon, Idaho, and California. Based on interviews with tribal elders and research conducted at numerous…

  1. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H

    2010-01-01

    Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot support marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or flee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational fishing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 16,500 km{sup 2} during its peak summer months, an area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, and ranged from a low of 8,500 km{sup 2} to a high of 22,000 km{sup 2}. To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together representatives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scientific assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). In 2000 the CENR completed An Integrated Assessment: Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (or Integrated Assessment), which formed the scientific basis for the Task Force's Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Action Plan, 2001). In its Action Plan, the Task Force pledged to implement ten management actions and to assess progress every 5 years. This reassessment would address the nutrient load reductions achieved, the responses of the hypoxic zone and associated water quality and habitat conditions, and economic and social effects. The Task Force began its reassessment in 2005. In 2006 as part of the reassessment, USEPA's Office of Water, on behalf of the Task Force, requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) convene an independent panel to

  2. PREFACE: Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched five years ago with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects and launched in the European Union, Russia, United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with international participation) and with a 15M annual budget, this highly diverse initiative is in full swing. Since the first NEESPI focus issue (Pavel Groisman et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045008 (1pp)) in December 2007, several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at International Meetings have been held that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic, non- boreal Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern Siberia, and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. In May 2009, an overview NEESPI paper was published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (Pavel Groisman et al 2009 Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 90 671). This paper also formulated a requirement to the next generation of NEESPI studies to work towards attaining a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, across disciplines. Three books devoted to studies in different regions of Northern Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team have appeared and/or are scheduled to appear in 2009. This (second) ERL focus issue dedicated to climatic and environmental studies in Northern Eurasia is composed mostly from the papers that were presented at two NEESPI Open Science Sessions at the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 2008, San Francisco, CA) and at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (April 2009, Vienna, Austria), as well as at the specialty NEESPI Workshops convened in Jena, Helsinki, Odessa, Urumqi

  3. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  4. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  5. [RELATIONSHIPS IN THE "NORTHERN FULMAR (FULMAR US GLACIALIS)--TETRABOTHRIUS MINOR (CESTODA: TETRABOTHRIIDAE)" SYSTEM: PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS].

    PubMed

    Kuklina, M M

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis L., 1761) and cestodes Tetrabothrius minor Loennberg, 1893 (Cestoda: Tetrabothriidae) were studied. The results of calculation of the number of tapeworms in different parts (proximal, medial and distal) of bird intestines are represented. Parameters of protein metabolism in the northern fulmar and cestodes T. minor were investigated. Activity of proteases in different parts of northern fulmar intestine and in the strobila of T. minor was determined. Digestion processes occurring on digestive-absorptive surfaces of the intestine of the northern fulmar and of cestodes were studied. Biochemical indices of blood plasma of the northern fulmar were analyzed in relation to the intensity of invasion and the stage parasite maturation. The highest indices of the invasion of the northern fulmar with T. minor were recorded in the proximal part if the intestine. It was shown that the preferred localization of tapeworms in the proximal department of the intestine was determined by abundance of food and high activity of digestive enzymes in this place. Active hydrolysis of proteins in the intestine of the northern fulmar and on tegument surfaces of T. minor occurred mainly during the process of cavernous digestion. To a greater extent, the physiological state of the northern fulmar depended on the intensity of invasion and on the maturation stage of tapeworms. PMID:27055330

  6. Land use of northern megalopolis from ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A color-coded urban-type land use map of the three northern megalopolitan states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island has been completed from ERTS-1 images. A computer data bank containing 11 categories of land use for the entire area by 1/4-square-kilometer cells is 80% completed. When completed, the data bank will permit the investigation to proceed to brief analytical studies for completion of the study.

  7. Hermeneutics of differential calculus in eighteenth-century northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Mónica

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies comparative textbook analysis to studying the mathematical development of differential calculus in northern German states during the eighteenth century. It begins with describing how the four textbooks analyzed presented the foundations of calculus and continues with assessing the influence each of these foundational approaches exerted on the resolution of problems, such as the determination of tangents and extreme values, and even on the choice of coordinates for both algebraic and transcendental curves. PMID:19244874

  8. 3000 Mile Laser Altimeter Profile Across Northern Hemisphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Topographic profile across the northern hemisphere of Mars from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). The profile was obtained during the Mars Global Surveyor Capture Orbit Calibration Pass on September 15, 1997 and represents 20 minutes of data collection. The profile has a length of approximately 3000 miles (5000 kilometers). The large bulge is the western part of the Elysium rise, the second largest volcanic province on Mars, and shows over 3 miles (5 kilometers) of vertical relief. This area contains deep chasms that reflect tectonic, volcanic and erosional processes. In contrast is the almost 1featureless1 northern plains region of Mars, which shows only hundreds of meters of relief at scales the size of the United States. Plotted for comparison is the elevation of the Viking Lander 2 site, which is located 275 miles (445 kilometers) west of the profile. At the southernmost extent of the trace is the transition from the northern plains to the ancient southern highlands. Characterizing the fine-scale nature of topography in this chaotic region is crucial to testing theories for how the dichotomy between the geologically distinctive northern lowlands and southern uplands formed and subsequently evolved. The spatial resolution of the profile is approximately 1000 feet (330 meters) and the vertical resolution is approximately 3 feet (1 meter). When the Mars Global Surveyor mapping mission commences in March, 1998, the MOLA instrument will collect 72 times as much data every day for a period of two years.

  9. Records of Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos, occurrences in North Dakota during the twentieth century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Martin, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is a common bird in the southern United States that has been expanding its breeding range into the northern United States and southern Canada. During the twentieth century, there were 128 reports of Northern Mockingbird occurrences in North Dakota, including 106 reports during the breeding season (15 April to 31 August) and 22 during the nonbreeding season (1 September to 14 April). The species has been largely absent from North Dakota from January through mid-April. Prior to the 1930s, there was only one record (1916) of the Northern Mockingbird in the state. Observations of Northern Mockingbirds in North Dakota increased markedly between the 1930s and 1990s. On average, there were 0.3 reports of mockingbirds per year in 1931-1940, 0.6 in 1941-1950, 1.1 in 1951-1960, 1.6 in 1961-1970, 2.4 in 1971-1980, 2.3 in 1981-1990, and 4.5 in 1991-2000. The species has been observed in North Dakota nearly annually since 1958. At least six reports during the twentieth century included evidence of nesting (nests or dependent young). Based on mockingbird records during the twentieth century, we designate the current status of the Northern Mockingbird in North Dakota as a rare spring migrant, rare summer visitant, casual nester, and a casual fall and winter visitant.

  10. Records of northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos, occurrences in North Dakota during the Twentieth Century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Martin, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is a common bird in the southern United States that has been expanding its breeding range into the northern United States and southern Canada. During the twentieth century, there were 128 reports of Northern Mockingbird occurrences in North Dakota, including 106 reports during the breeding season (15 April to 31 August) and 22 during the nonbreeding season (1 September to 14 April). The species has been largely absent from North Dakota from January through mid-April. Prior to the 1930s, there was only one record (1916) of the Northern Mockingbird in the state. Observations of Northern Mockingbirds in North Dakota increased markedly between the 1930s and 1990s. On average, there were 0.3 reports of mockingbirds per year in 1931-1940, 0.6 in 1941-1950, 1.1 in 1951-1960, 1.6 in 1961-1970, 2.4 in 1971-1980, 2.3 in 1981-1990, and 4.5 in 1991-2000. The species has been observed in North Dakota nearly annually since 1958. At least six reports during the twentieth century included evidence of nesting (nests or dependent young). Based on mockingbird records during the twentieth century, we designate the current status of the Northern Mockingbird in North Dakota as a rare spring migrant, rare summer visitant, casual nester, and a casual fall and winter visitant.

  11. Crustal structure of northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Nicola Jane

    This thesis presents work from two regions in northern California, using seismic data collected during the Mendocino Triple Junction Experiment (1993 and 1994), and USGS data collected in 1977. Much of California geology records subduction processes active during much of the Mesozoic. About 29 Ma ago, the East Pacific Rise began interacting with the California subduction margin, and two triple junctions formed. One moved north and one moved south, with the San Andreas transform system between them. The northern triple junction, the Mendocino triple junction, is currently situated close to Cape Mendocino, northern California. Northern California geology now has the added complication of processes associated with the northward moving triple junction and lengthening San Andreas fault system. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the Great Valley, a forearc basin associated with Mesozoic subduction. The three major parts of the subduction system are the magmatic arc (Sierra Nevada batholith), forearc basin (Great Valley basin) and accretionary prism (Franciscan complex). Chapter 1 presents evidence from seismic data, for a complete ophiolitic sequence, including an unserpentinized mantle section (velocities of 8.1 km.ssp{-1} at 5-18 km depth) beneath the northernmost Great Valley. A combination velocity/density model shows the ophiolite is underlain by low-density material associated with the Sierra Nevada. Chapter 2 presents geophysical models, (seismic reflection, refraction, gravity and magnetic models) published by different authors over the last 14 years from the entire Great Valley, to explore the nature of the Great Valley ophiolite along the length of the forearc basin. Chapter 3 focuses offshore, west of the San Andreas fault, on an anomalous piece of crust, the Vizcaino block, situated immediately southwest of the Mendocino triple junction. This chapter discusses the crustal thickness of the Vizcaino block, the nature of its accretionary prism basement, and deformation

  12. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  13. General Practice in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Black, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of general practice in northern Norway where conditions are similar to parts of rural Canada. The Norwegian general practitioner has developed expertise in the preventive and psychosocial aspects of practice and the team concept is highly developed. Since the general practitioner is separated from the hospital, his facilities for procedures and diagnostic workups are primitive. Involvement of general practitioners in medical education is not yet well developed although all new graduates spend a compulsory period in rural practice. PMID:20469187

  14. Colorado State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelfresh, David A.; Bender, Kim K.

    2009-01-01

    Colorado State University (CSU) is located in Fort Collins, which is a midsize city of 134,000 situated in Northern Colorado at the western edge of the Great Plains and at the base of the Rocky Mountains. CSU's total enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The Division of Student Affairs comprises 30 departments organized into programmatic…

  15. Illuminating Northern California's Active Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Furlong, Kevin P.; Phillips, David A.

    2009-02-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google Earth™ and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2).

  16. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  17. Exploring Educators' Perceptions of Internet Technology for Classroom Education in Northern Virginia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamey, Sherrill Dean, II.

    2011-01-01

    The pervasiveness of Internet technology in the educational environment of the United States has altered the way educators present information in the classroom. The schools of Northern Virginia, located in several of the financially wealthiest suburbs of the United States, provide a technologically advanced school system to explore Internet…

  18. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  19. Northern Desegregation: A Tale of Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danns, Dionne

    2011-01-01

    Studies on northern desegregation have focused on political strategies, the role of the courts, the responsibility of the federal government (HEW), and barriers to northern desegregation. Some have conducted individual case studies and comparative studies, and others have examined a number of cities. This article examines the way school…

  20. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  1. Political Strategies in Northern School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, David J.; And Others

    This is a study of school desegregation as it was fought in 91 Northern and Western Cities between 1963 and 1969. In the summer of 1963, the de facto school segregation issue exploded in dozens of Northern cities; in the next 6 years school integration was front page news in most cities. What this book attempts to do in effect is to record a…

  2. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  3. Meeting Northern Arizona's Supported Employment Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William E., Jr.; And Others

    In 1989 Northern Arizona University established a Supported Employment Training Center (SETC) to increase the number of trained job coaches in northern Arizona and provide knowledge and skills in supported employment to personnel from cooperating schools and agencies. First-year SETC activities focused on assessment of the training needs of…

  4. Mechanical suppression of northern pike (Esox lucius) populations in small Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuzmenko, Yuliya; Spesiviy, Timofy; Bonar, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduced populations of northern pike Esox lucius have provided angling opportunities in the western United States (McMahon and Bennett 1996). However, the northern pike is a voracious piscivore and its large size, high fecundity, and broad physiological tolerance make it capable of drastically altering ecosystems it invades (Marchetti et al. 2004). Indeed, predation by northern pike has been shown to significantly alter fish community structure and put native fishes at a higher extinction risk (He and Kitchell 1990, Findlay et al. 2000). Predation by northern pike is viewed as a significant threat to native stocks of salmonids in Washington, British Columbia, and California (McMahon and Bennett 1996, California Department of Fish and Game [CDFG] 2003).

  5. The ecology of patterned boreal peatlands of northern Minnesota: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report reviews the ecological information available for patterned boreal peatlands in northern Minnesota. Although vast areas of Canada and Alaska are covered by boreal forests, they extend southward into the continental United States only in northern Minnesota and to a lesser extent in northern Michigan. In northern Minnesota these peatlands comprise large areas of freshwater wetlands whose unique hydrological characteristics promote the development of patterned vegetation. This publication describes the distribution of peatlands, the physical settings in which they exist, and the processes leading to their development on the landscape. Hydrology, water chemistry, and nutrient cycling in bogs and fens are discussed. The plant communities unique to these types of wetlands, their successional trends, and the animal communities inhabiting them are also described. The profile closes with a summary of past human impacts on peatlands and recommendations for future management.

  6. Survey for zoonotic rickettsial pathogens in northern flying squirrels, Glaucomys sabrinus, in California.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet E; Nieto, Nathan C; Clueit, S Bernadette; Foley, Patrick; Nicholson, William N; Brown, Richard N

    2007-10-01

    Epidemic typhus, caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, is maintained in a southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) sylvatic cycle in the southeastern United States. The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) has not been previously associated with R. prowazekii transmission. A second rickettsial pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, infects dusky-footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) and tree squirrels in northern California. Because northern flying squirrels or their ectoparasites have not been tested for these rickettsial pathogens, serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to test 24 northern flying squirrels for R. prowazekii and A. phagocytophilum infection or antibodies. Although there was no evidence of exposure to R. prowazekii, we provide molecular evidence of A. phagocytophilum infection in one flying squirrel; two flying squirrels also were seropositive for this pathogen. Fleas and ticks removed from the squirrels included Ceratophyllus ciliatus mononis, Opisodasys vesperalis, Ixodes hearlei, Ixodes pacificus, and Dermacentor paramapertus. PMID:17984264

  7. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-01

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia. PMID:23933245

  8. Integrating wind generation into Northern States Power`s system

    SciTech Connect

    Hinschberger, G.A.

    1995-09-01

    Wind monitoring identified an area in southwestern Minnesota where the annual average wind speeds were about 16 miles per hour. This annual average was approximately 1 mile per hour higher than any other area NSP had monitored. Since this location was close to NSP`s service territory and to NSP`s transmission system, they installed a wind research test facility on the system in 1986. The purpose of the test facility, which consisted of three 65 kW turbines, was to examine the performance of commercial wind turbines in the climate of the upper midwest. As a result of what was learned from the research facility and given the customers` increasing interest in emission-free energy resources like wind, NSP proceeded with plans to develop 100 MW of wind generation by 1998. The 25 MW project, which is owned and operated by KENETECH Windpower, Inc., was the first step in meeting that goal.

  9. Migration transition in small Northern and Eastern Caribbean states.

    PubMed

    Mcelroy, J L; De Albuquerque, K

    1988-01-01

    1 area of intra-Caribbean migration that has been overlooked is the "migration transition"--the transformation of rapidly modernizing societies from net labor exporters to net labor importers. This article assembles 8 case studies to 1) briefly present a spectrum of migration experiences in the Caribbean, 2) uncover some transitions under way, 3) pinpoint the forces that underlie the migration transition, and 4) point out some of the more important policy implications of labor migration reversals. The 8 island societies sampled for illustration purposes include 1) the Bahamas and the US Virgin Islands as post-migration transition societies (Zelinsky's advanced society), 2) the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands as undergoing transition (Zelinsky's late transitional society), and 3) Anguilla, St. Kitts-Nevis, Turks and Caicos, and Montserrat as premigration transition societies (Zelinsky's early transitional society). Population data for the islands were derived primarily from the West Indian censuses and government statistics. These 8 historical sketches reveal certain commonalities. All are at various stages in a long-term economic restructuring to displace traditional staple crops with more income elastic, high value export services. In such societies, population growth and progress along the migration transition is an increasing function of this kind of successful export substitution. In addition, along the migration and economic transitions, such insular economies exhibit a relatively large public sector (20-30% of all activity), declining unemployment, increasing fiscal autonomy, and are committed to a development strategy remarkably similar to the "successful" model of the Bahamas and the US Virgin Islands. Cursory evidence suggests that, because of intersectoral competition for land and labor, there is an inverse relationship between farm effort/manufacturing employment and tourism intensity. This review suggests that small islands undergoing rapid growth imperatives also experience a similar set of self-reinforcing socioeconomic and environmental imbalances. Particularly for post-transition and transition societies, these spillovers include increasing real estate speculation and inflation because of tourism and the allied development of retirement colonies of affluent North Americans, wage pressures and skilled manpower shortages, and increasing vulnerability to international business cycles. PMID:12281728

  10. Survey of fura production in some northern states of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jideani, V A; Nkama, I; Agbo, E B; Jideani, I A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a survey related to the production process for fura. Fura is a staple food for the Fulanis and Hausas. The single most important cereal grain for fura production is millet. A significant difference exists among respondents on the variety of millet chosen for fura production. A significantly (p = 0.05) greater proportion indicated that 'gero' is the variety in common use. Spices are indispensable as an ingredient in fura production with ginger being the single most important spice (p = 0.01). The traditional pounding method for processing millet into flour is still very much used. The implication of this is highlighted and a possible solution of optimizing the fura production process is recommended. Strictly speaking, fura is distributed with a minimum of packaging. The choice of suitable packaging provided protection during a generally short shelf-life and for local distribution. With increasing influence of advertising upon customers, small food processing enterprises making fura will have to improve the packaging and preservation of their products if they are to survive the competition. PMID:11213166

  11. Comparison of survival patterns of northern and southern genotypes of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under northern and southern conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rulison, Eric L.; Azevedo, Alexandra; Pang, Genevieve C.; Kuczaj, Isis M.; Tsao, Jean I.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that conditions in southern North America are less hospitable than in the north to populations of I. scapularis. Southern conditions might have resulted in ecological or behavioral adaptations that contribute to the relative rarity of I. scapularis borne diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis, in the southern compared to the northern United States.

  12. Comparison of survival patterns of northern and southern genotypes of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under northern and southern conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rulison, Eric L.; Azevedo, Alexandra; Pang, Genevieve C.; Kuczaj, Isis M.; Tsao, Jean I.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Our results suggest that conditions in southern North America are less hospitable than in the north to populations of I. scapularis. Southern conditions might have resulted in ecological or behavioral adaptations that contribute to the relative rarity of I. scapularis borne diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis, in the southern compared to the northern United States.

  13. Caribou consumption in northern Canadian communities.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Angie; Goddard, Ellen; Parlee, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) found in both farmed and wild deer, elk, and moose in the United States and Canada. Surveillance efforts in North America identified the geographical distribution of the disease and mechanisms underlying distribution, although the possibility of transmission to other cervids, including caribou, and noncervids, including humans, is not well understood. Because of the documented importance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) to human populations in the northern regions of Canada, a risk-management strategy for CWD requires an understanding of the extent of potential dietary exposure to CWD. Secondary 24-h dietary recalls conducted among Inuvialuit and Inuit in 4 communities in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut were employed in this study. Econometric demand systems were estimated to model the impacts of individual- and community-level socioeconomic characteristics on expenditures on caribou and other foods, in order to examine the households' ability to consume other foods in response to changing levels of caribou consumption. Thirty-five percent of respondents reported consuming caribou in the survey period, and caribou comprised, on average, 26% of daily dietary intake by weight, or approximately 65 g/d, across individuals in the 4 communities. Consuming caribou was also shown to exert positive impacts on dietary quality, as measured by calorie intake and dietary diversity. Communities with less access to employment, income and food stores are predicted to be constrained in their ability to obtain an adequate diet in the event of scarcity of caribou meat. PMID:27556568

  14. Middle Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages from northern Brazil and northern Africa and their implications for northern Gondwanan composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.

    2015-08-01

    Dinosaurs are one of the most dominant groups in Cretaceous reptilian faunas. A summary of their record in northern Brazil and northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period (Aptian-Cenomanian) is presented here. Dinosaurs are represented by 32 species (three ornithischians, six sauropods and 23 theropods) from Brazil, Egypt, Lybia, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. These dinosaur assemblages provide fundamental data about distribution and composition of sauropods and theropods in northern Gondwana during the middle of the Cretaceous Period and confirm these assemblages to be among the most important dinosaur faunas in the north Gondwana areas.

  15. Economic Assessment of the Association of Northern California Oncologists Member Practices

    PubMed Central

    Buell, Roberta; Falconer, Patricia; González, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009 and early 2010, the Association of Northern California Oncologists conducted an economic assessment on a volunteer sample (n = 14) of northern California state oncology society member practices to measure key economic factors, diagnose economic viability, and prescribe changes to practice management to enhance practice economic viability. Recommendations for individual member practices as well as for the state oncology society were made as a result of the findings of this study. Results from follow-up interviews conducted with study practices approximately 1 year after the original assessments reveal that most recommendations were implemented and seem to have generally strengthened the economic performance of the practices. PMID:22211125

  16. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  17. Northern Terra Meridiani's 'Monument Valley'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Northern Terra Meridiani, near the intersection of the martian equator and prime meridian, is a region of vast exposures of layered rock. A thermal image from the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989 showed these materials to be anomalously cool during the daytime, an observation very suggestive of dense, hardened materials like rock. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this region show layered material exposed in cliffs, buttes, and mesas that in some ways resemble the rock outcrops of northern Arizona and southeastern Utah in North America (e.g., Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Zion National Park, Four Corners). MGS MOC Extended Mission operations have included several hundred opportunities for the spacecraft to be rolled off-nadir (i.e., at an angle other than 'straight down') to take pictures that repeat earlier MOC coverage. These repeat images, because they are taken from a different angle, can be combined with the original picture to produce a stereoscopic ('3-D') view. The image shown here is a composite of two pictures, the first taken October 23, 2000, the second acquired by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on May 15, 2001. This view shows four buttes and a pinnacle (near left-center) composed of eroded, layered rock. The four buttes are each capped by the remains of a single layer of rock that is harder than the materials beneath it. It is the presence of this cap rock that has permitted these buttes to remain standing after surrounding materials were eroded away. Like the buttes of Monument Valley in the Navajo Nation on the Arizona/Utah border, these are believed to consist of sedimentary rocks, perhaps deposited in water or by wind, though some scientists have speculated that they could be made of thick accumulations of volcanic ash. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left. To see the image in 3-D, red (left-eye) and blue (right-eye) '3-D' glasses are required.

  18. Bioactive compounds from northern plants.

    PubMed

    Hohtola, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. It has been chimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. The compounds imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of defense. Recently, the production of secondary metabolites using plant cells has been the subject of expanding research. Light intensity, photoperiod and temperature have been reported to influence the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Native wild aromatic and medicinal plant species of different families are being studied to meet the needs of raw material for the expanding industry of e.g., health-promoting food products known as nutraceutics. There are already a large number of known secondary compounds produced by plants, but the recent advances in modern extraction and analysis should enable many more as yet unknown compounds to be found, characterised and utilised. Rose root (Rhodiola rosea) is a perennial herbaceous plant which inhabits mountain regions throughout Europe, Asia and east coastal regions of North America. The extract made from the rhizomes acts as a stimulant like the Ginseng root. Roseroot has been categorized as an adaptogen and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. The biologically active components of the extract are salitroside tyrosol and cinnamic acid glycosides (rosavin, rosarin, rosin). Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has circumboreal distribution. It inhabits nutrient-poor, moist and sunny areas such as peat bogs and wetlands. Sundew leaves are collected from the wild-type for various medicinal preparations and can be utilized in treating e.g., as an important "cough-medicine" for different respiratory diseases. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of aerial parts against various bacteria has been investigated. Drosera produces

  19. Decomposition in northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Farrish, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Decomposition in peatlands was investigated in northern Minnesota. Four sites, an ombrotrophic raised bog, an ombrotrophic perched bog and two groundwater minerotrophic fens, were studied. Decomposition rates of peat and paper were estimated using mass-loss techniques. Environmental and substrate factors that were most likely to be responsible for limiting decomposition were monitored. Laboratory incubation experiments complemented the field work. Mass-loss over one year in one of the bogs, ranged from 11 percent in the upper 10 cm of hummocks to 1 percent at 60 to 100 cm depth in hollows. Regression analysis of the data for that bog predicted no mass-loss below 87 cm. Decomposition estimates on an area basis were 2720 and 6460 km/ha yr for the two bogs; 17,000 and 5900 kg/ha yr for the two fens. Environmental factors found to limit decomposition in these peatlands were reducing/anaerobic conditions below the water table and cool peat temperatures. Substrate factors found to limit decomposition were low pH, high content of resistant organics such as lignin, and shortages of available N and K. Greater groundwater influence was found to favor decomposition through raising the pH and perhaps by introducing limited amounts of dissolved oxygen.

  20. Northern California near San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A part of northern California centered near San Francisco Bay (38.0N, 122.0W) photographed at 3 p.m. January 1, 1974, from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This near vertical view encompasses the coastline from Monteray Bay (right) to about 50 miles north of Point Reyes (left) and includes, from bottom to top, San Francisco Bay (center), Sacramento Valley (left center), San Joaquin Valley (right center), and the snow-covered Sierra Nevada. Afternoon shadows sharply delineate a valley which parallels San Francisco Bay, crosses Point Reyes, and lies between the Bay and the Pacific coastline. This valley marks the location of the San Andreas Fault. Forces acting on the crust are causing the land west (bottom) of the fault line to move north relative to land on the east side. Agricultural areas in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys are indicated by the tan areas which are easily discerned in contrast to the green-gray background.

  1. Central-northern Appalachian coalbed methane flow grows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Paul C.

    1997-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) has become an increasingly important source of unconventional natural gas in the US within a span of a decade. In 1995, nearly 144 bcf of CBM was produced in the Appalachian basin at a value of about $260 million. From 1992 to 1995, CBM production in the central northern Appalachian basin quadrupled to nearly 31.3 bcf/year at a value of over $55 million, which represents only about 0.2% of the estimated technically recoverable CBM resource. Legal aspects of CBM ownership and environmental problems such as water disposal will become important issues to resolve in the various Appalachian states.

  2. Timing of the Northern Prince Gustav Ice Stream retreat and the deglaciation of northern James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the last glacial-interglacial transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nývlt, Daniel; Braucher, Régis; Engel, Zbyněk; Mlčoch, Bedřich

    2014-09-01

    The Northern Prince Gustav Ice Stream located in Prince Gustav Channel, drained the northeastern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet during the last glacial maximum. Here we present a chronology of its retreat based on in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be from erratic boulders at Cape Lachman, northern James Ross Island. Schmidt hammer testing was adopted to assess the weathering state of erratic boulders in order to better interpret excess cosmogenic 10Be from cumulative periods of pre-exposure or earlier release from the glacier. The weighted mean exposure age of five boulders based on Schmidt hammer data is 12.9 ± 1.2 ka representing the beginning of the deglaciation of lower-lying areas (< 60 m a.s.l.) of the northern James Ross Island, when Northern Prince Gustav Ice Stream split from the remaining James Ross Island ice cover. This age represents the minimum age of the transition from grounded ice stream to floating ice shelf in the middle continental shelf areas of the northern Prince Gustav Channel. The remaining ice cover located at higher elevations of northern James Ross Island retreated during the early Holocene due to gradual decay of terrestrial ice and increase of equilibrium line altitude. Schmidt hammer R-values are inversely correlated with 10Be exposure ages and could be used as a proxy for exposure history of individual granite boulders in this region and favour the hypothesis of earlier release of boulders with excessive 10Be concentrations from glacier directly at this site. These data provide evidences for an earlier deglaciation of northern James Ross Island when compared with other recently presented cosmogenic nuclide based deglaciation chronologies, but this timing coincides with rapid increase of atmospheric temperature in this marginal part of Antarctica.

  3. LEECHES (ANNELIDA: EUHIRUDINEA) OF NORTHERN ARKANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one lotic and lentic environments throughout central and northern Arkansas were surveyed for the presence of leeches during June 2004, and April, July - October, 2005. Fourteen species of leeches (Desserobdella cryptobranchii, Desserobdella phalera, Desserobdella picta, H...

  4. Huge Filament Rises From Sun's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 following a C3-class solar flare from sunspot 1092, an enormous magnetic filament stretching across the sun's northern hemisphere erupted. This 304 angstrom video shows that filam...

  5. Technical Education in Northern Ireland after Partition: A Case Study of the Work of a Newly-Formed Local Education Authority, County Down 1925-1933

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, George

    2006-01-01

    On the partition of Ireland in 1921, the Northern Ireland Ministry of Education assumed control of the educational services which had been previously administered by four independent bodies in Dublin. The Education Act (Northern Ireland) 1923 created the county councils and county borough councils of the new devolved state the local education…

  6. Northern Taurids in the IAU MDC Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňuchová, Z.; Svoreň, J.

    2012-11-01

    The method of indices was used to study the northern branch of the autumn (night) part of the Taurid complex. The procedure based only on mathematical statistics was applied to select the Northern Taurid meteor records from the IAU Meteor Data Center Database. Because we wanted to study especially the structure of the inner part of the Northern Taurids, we were focused on the interval of the higher activity of the stream — from the end of the Perseids activity to the beginning of the Geminids activity. We did not take into account outlying parts of the complex, which is active, according to some authors, until January. 84 orbits of the Northern Taurids were selected. 63 of 84 Northern Taurids orbits (75%) were sorted into 11 associations found in the stream. One of the associations consisting of three orbits was identified as a previously unknown northern branch of τ Arietids shower. We also found an association with orbital characteristics equal to the characteristics of showers δ Psc N and χ Ori N. Meteors in these associations were observed up to three weeks earlier compared to currently cataloged data of the showers. The orientation of the mean orbit of a 5-member association of δ Psc N, different from the general trend, indicates that this stream may not be genetically related to other members of the Taurid complex.

  7. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary...

  8. 75 FR 41842 - Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application July 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Northern Border Pipeline Company (Northern Border), 717 Texas Street... Northern Border's mainline system in Bureau County, Illinois, to a point of interconnection with...

  9. Growth, condition, diet, and consumption rates of northern pike in three Arizona reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, J.M.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) introductions are controversial in the western United States due to suspected impacts they might have on established sport fisheries and potential illegal introductions. Tbree Arizona reservoirs, Parker Canyon Lake, Upper Lake Mary and Long Lake were sampled to examine the diet, consumption dynamics, and growth of northern pike. Northern pike diets varied by season and reservoir. In Parker Canyon Lake, diets were dominated by rainbow trout in winter and spring and bluegill and green sunfish in the fall. In Long Lake the northern pike ate crayfish in spring and early summer and switched to young of the year common carp in summer and fall. Black crappie, golden shiners, and crayfish were the major prey in Upper Lake Mary during spring, but they switched to stocked rainbow trout in the fall. Northern pike growth was in the high range of growth reported throughout the United States. Estimated northern pike specific consumption rate (scr) of rainbow trout (g/g/d ?? 10-6) was greatest in Upper Lake Mary (scr = 329.1 ?? 23.7 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where stocked fingerling (280 mm TL) rainbow trout stocked in Long Lake (scr = 1.4 ?? 0.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) and Parker Canyon Lake (scr = 287.2 ?? 15.1 g/g/d ?? 10-6) where catchable-sized rainbow trout were stocked. Managers should consider the cost-benefits of stocking fish >200 mm TL in lakes containing northern pike. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2008.

  10. 78 FR 76829 - Approval of Application Submitted by Eastern Shoshone Tribe and Northern Arapaho Tribe for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This notice announces that the EPA Regional Administrator for Region 8 has approved the December 2008 application submitted by the Northern Arapaho Tribe and Eastern Shoshone Tribe (Tribes) of the Wind River Indian Reservation for treatment in a similar manner as a state (TAS) pursuant to the Clean Air Act and the EPA's implementing regulations for purposes of certain Clean Air Act provisions.......

  11. An Assessment of the Learning Needs of Mature Adults in Northern Maine Technical College's Service Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Norma M.; McKinnon, Ivan D.

    In 1991, Northern Maine Technical College (NMTC) conducted a survey of 122 individuals over the age of 55 years to determine their educational interests, their preferences regarding course delivery methods, and their demographic characteristics. The survey asked respondents to state their interest in specific subjects under the categories of…

  12. Pathogen exposure and blood chemistry in the Washington population of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Washington State were evaluated in 2011 to determine health status and pathogen exposure. Antibodies to Brucella spp. (10%) and influenza A (23%) were detected for the first time in this population in 2011. Changes in clinical pathology values (serum...

  13. Particulate matter concentrations for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. Producers may maintain a deep-bedded manure pack (Pack), they may remove all bedding/manure material from the pens weekly (Scrape), or use a combination of management styles...

  14. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE RURAL SPANISH AMERICAN VILLAGE OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    THIS SPEECH WAS DELIVERED TO THE NEW MEXICO CONFERENCE FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND WAS CONCERNED WITH THE PROBLEMS FACING SPANISH AMERICAN VILLAGE SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. IT WAS STATED THAT THE FUNDAMENTAL REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE SPANISH AMERICAN FARM VILLAGE INVOLVE THE PROCESS OF ACCULTURATION AND SOCIOECONOMIC ADJUSTMENT IN A…

  15. Wolbachia MLST marker diversity from multiply infected northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The northern corn rootworm (NCR, Diabrotica barberi) in eastern and central North America exhibits at least three distinct populations with respect to Wolbachia infection: uninfected; singly infected; multiply infected. The infected states are associated with different mtDNA haplotypes and reduced m...

  16. Predicted effects of climate change on northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxia

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. state and federal partners are working cooperatively to develop nutrient management strategies to reduce hypoxia (O2 < 63 mmol m-3) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Numerical models that represent eutrophication and hypoxia development processes have been an important too...

  17. 75 FR 38822 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Four Programmatic Environmental Impact Statements for the Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Intent To Prepare Four Programmatic Environmental Impact Statements for the Northern Border Between the United States and Canada and To Conduct Public Scoping Meetings AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Intent to...

  18. 78 FR 44588 - Experimental Removal of Barred Owls To Benefit Threatened Northern Spotted Owls; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... loss and degradation (55 FR 26114). As a result, conservation efforts for the northern spotted owl have... largely unknown at that time (55 FR 26114, p. 26190). The Recovery Plan summarized information available... Register (74 FR 65546), to solicit participation of: Federal, State, and local agencies; Tribes; and...

  19. 50 CFR 648.62 - Northern Gulf of Maine (NGOM) scallop management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Gulf of Maine (NGOM) scallop management area. 648.62 Section 648.62 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the...

  20. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  1. [Hansen's disease in the northern region of Brazil--1986].

    PubMed

    Britto, R da S

    1989-12-01

    Some general facts about Hansen's Disease are presented: in the world, in the Americas, in 1986, with the purpose to focalize on the Northern Region of Brazil (Amazon Valley) where an attempt is made to specify, State, the clinical forms in the active registry, the respective coefficients of Prevalence, about the cases detected during the year, by clinical forms and the correspondent Coefficient of Incidence, the age range of less than 15 years, and above 15 years; and to analyze according to the township in the State of Amazonas in a series of 8 years, from 1979 to 1986, the registered cases under control and also without control, the new cases, by clinical form and Coefficient of Incidence, the positive cases among students in the capital and also in the country, and with more details, still by township and by Public Health Registry, in 1986, with the population, new cases, and Coefficient of Incidence, cases of the active registry, cases under control, Coefficient of Incidence, the relationship between patients/inhabitants, cases according to the decreasing intensity as far as the Prevalence and Health Department Regions: all this to give an idea, in detail, inclusive statistics, of the real position of Hansen's Disease in the Northern Region (Amazon Valley), with the highest figures of Prevalence and even of Incidence, in comparison with other Regions of the country, and to stress the grave situation of the endemic proportions of the disease, in Brazil in general and in that Regions, in particular. PMID:2562591

  2. Leaf onset in the northern hemisphere triggered by daytime temperature.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shilong; Tan, Jianguang; Chen, Anping; Fu, Yongshuo H; Ciais, Philippe; Liu, Qiang; Janssens, Ivan A; Vicca, Sara; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B; Peng, Shushi; Shen, Miaogen; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent warming significantly advanced leaf onset in the northern hemisphere. This signal cannot be accurately reproduced by current models parameterized by daily mean temperature (T(mean)). Here using in situ observations of leaf unfolding dates (LUDs) in Europe and the United States, we show that the interannual anomalies of LUD during 1982-2011 are triggered by daytime (Tmax) more than by nighttime temperature (T(min)). Furthermore, an increase of 1 °C in Tmax would advance LUD by 4.7 days in Europe and 4.3 days in the United States, more than the conventional temperature sensitivity estimated from T(mean). The triggering role of Tmax, rather than the T(min) or T(mean) variable, is also supported by analysis of the large-scale patterns of satellite-derived vegetation green-up in spring in the northern hemisphere (>30 °N). Our results suggest a new conceptual framework of leaf onset using daytime temperature to improve the performance of phenology modules in current Earth system models. PMID:25903224

  3. Leaf onset in the northern hemisphere triggered by daytime temperature

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Shilong; Tan, Jianguang; Chen, Anping; Fu, Yongshuo H.; Ciais, Philippe; Liu, Qiang; Janssens, Ivan A.; Vicca, Sara; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B.; Peng, Shushi; Shen, Miaogen; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent warming significantly advanced leaf onset in the northern hemisphere. This signal cannot be accurately reproduced by current models parameterized by daily mean temperature (Tmean). Here using in situ observations of leaf unfolding dates (LUDs) in Europe and the United States, we show that the interannual anomalies of LUD during 1982–2011 are triggered by daytime (Tmax) more than by nighttime temperature (Tmin). Furthermore, an increase of 1 °C in Tmax would advance LUD by 4.7 days in Europe and 4.3 days in the United States, more than the conventional temperature sensitivity estimated from Tmean. The triggering role of Tmax, rather than the Tmin or Tmean variable, is also supported by analysis of the large-scale patterns of satellite-derived vegetation green-up in spring in the northern hemisphere (>30°N). Our results suggest a new conceptual framework of leaf onset using daytime temperature to improve the performance of phenology modules in current Earth system models. PMID:25903224

  4. Sprite observations in the Northern Territory of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, Simon F.; Dowden, Richard L.; Brundell, James B.; Bahr, John L.; Kawasaki, Zen-Ichiro; Rodger, Craig J.

    2000-02-01

    Sprites, a form of brief luminous discharge in the upper atmosphere above a thunderstorm, were observed and imaged on two video cameras in Australia's Northern Territory. These were the first such ground-based observations made outside the United States. Sprite discharges typically took place between the altitudes of 50 km and 80 km and spanned an average width of 44 km. Many of the sprite events were of long duration, with an average of 145 ms. These spatial and temporal features were similar to those observed from the ground and the air in the United States. During the longer events, some luminous discharge elements were observed to decay as other new elements formed. As the new elements were often laterally displaced from the old, the sprites sometimes appeared to dance across the sky. This phenomenon has been observed in Colorado and named "dancing sprites." The lateral progression of sprite elements observed in the Northern Territory was overwhelmingly in one direction and covered distances of up to 90 km.

  5. 9 CFR 72.2 - Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors of said disease in the Northern Mariana... States and vectors of said disease in the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and... are vectors of said disease exist in the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  6. Presentation and treatment of venomous snakebites at a northern academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Robert A; Colletti, Lisa M

    2003-05-01

    Poisonous snakebites are relatively rare in the United States. The incidence of venomous snakebites is comparatively high in the southern states compared with the northern states and reports of these accidents from northern states is particularly uncommon. We report the experience with treatment of venomous snakebites at the University of Michigan over a 25-year period from 1976 to 2001. Six cases were identified and are described in detail. All patients were male and all were bitten in the upper extremity by pit vipers. One patient suffered a moderate envenomation and was treated with antivenin. Four other cases of mild envenomation occurred and two of these cases required antivenin therapy. One case was considered to represent a "dry" bite and required only 24-hour observation. There were no severe envenomations and no mortalities. On short-term follow-up all patients recovered without sequelae. This report demonstrates that venomous snakebites can be treated effectively at low-volume centers. PMID:12769221

  7. Bathymetry and Acoustic Backscatter: Northern Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Pete; Finlayson, David; Conrad, Jamie; Cochrane, Guy; Johnson, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, as part of the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP) the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology mapped a nearshore region of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in Southern California (fig 1). The CSMP is a cooperative partnership between Federal and State agencies, Universities, and Industry to create a comprehensive coastal/marine geologic and habitat basemap series to support the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) inititive. The program is supported by the California Ocean Protection Council and the California Coastal Conservancy. The 2008 mapping collected high resolution bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data using a bathymetric side scan system within State waters from about the 10-m isobath out over 3-nautical miles. This Open-File Report provides these data in a number of different formats, as well as a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and FGDC metadata.

  8. Climatic variability, plant phenology, and northern ungulates

    SciTech Connect

    Post, E.; Stenseth, N.C.

    1999-06-01

    Models of climate change predict that global temperatures and precipitation will increase within the next century, with the most pronounced changes occurring in northern latitudes and during winter. A large-scale atmospheric phenomenon, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), is a strong determinant of both interannual variation and decadal trends in temperatures and precipitation during winter in northern latitudes, and its recent persistence in one extreme phase may be a substantial component of increases in global temperatures. Hence, the authors investigated the influences of large-scale climatic variability on plant phenology and ungulate population ecology by incorporating the NAO in statistical analyses of previously published data on: (1) the timing of flowering by plants in Norway, and (2) phenotypic and demographic variation in populations of northern ungulates. The authors analyzed 137 time series on plant phenology for 13 species of plants in Norway spanning up to 50 yr and 39 time series on phenotypic and demographic traits of 7 species of northern ungulates from 16 populations in North America and northern Europe spanning up to 30 yr.

  9. Cutaneous larva migrans in northern climates. A souvenir of your dream vacation

    SciTech Connect

    Edelglass, J.W.; Douglass, M.C.; Stiefler, R.; Tessler, M.

    1982-09-01

    Three young women recently returned to the metropolitan Detroit area with cutaneous larva migrans. All three had vacationed at a popular club resort on the Caribbean island of Martinique. Cutaneous larva migrans is frequently seen in the southern United States, Central and South America, and other subtropical areas but rarely in northern climates. Several organisms can cause cutaneous larva migrans, or creeping eruption. The larvae of the nematode Ancylostoma braziliense are most often the causative organisms. Travel habits of Americans make it necessary for practitioners in northern climates to be familiar with diseases contracted primarily in warmer locations. The life cycle of causative organisms and current therapy are reviewed.

  10. Forest statistics for Michigan`s northern lower peninsula unit, 1993. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherberry, E.C.

    1994-10-30

    Michigan`s Northern Lower Peninsula Unit (fig. 1) is comprised of 33 counties. This region of the State is rich with resources that support a network of social, economic, and ecological processes that are forest dependent. The forest resource of the Unit presently supports an industry that operates on a sustaining basis. In 1990 nearly half of Michigan`s saw-log production--297 million board feet--was harvest in the Unit. The forests of the Northern Lower Peninsula are vital to the region. The forest contains a variety of both deciduous and coniferous forest species, which results in regionally unique ecosystems that contribute to biodiversity.

  11. Access to Routine Immunization: A Comparative Analysis of Supply-Side Disparities between Northern and Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eboreime, Ejemai; Abimbola, Seye; Bozzani, Fiammetta

    2015-01-01

    Background The available data on routine immunization in Nigeria show a disparity in coverage between Northern and Southern Nigeria, with the former performing worse. The effect of socio-cultural differences on health-seeking behaviour has been identified in the literature as the main cause of the disparity. Our study analyses the role of supply-side determinants, particularly access to services, in causing these disparities. Methods Using routine government data, we compared supply-side determinants of access in two Northern states with two Southern states. The states were identified using criteria-based purposive selection such that the comparisons were made between a low-coverage state in the South and a low-coverage state in the North as well as between a high-coverage state in the South and a high-coverage state in the North. Results Human resources and commodities at routine immunization service delivery points were generally insufficient for service delivery in both geographical regions. While disparities were evident between individual states irrespective of regional location, compared to the South, residents in Northern Nigeria were more likely to have vaccination service delivery points located within a 5km radius of their settlements. Conclusion Our findings suggest that regional supply-side disparities are not apparent, reinforcing the earlier reported socio-cultural explanations for disparities in routine immunization service uptake between Northern and Southern Nigeria. Nonetheless, improving routine immunisation coverage services require that there are available human resources and that health facilities are equitably distributed. PMID:26692215

  12. Northern Indian California Education Project; An Analysis of Responses by Practicing School Psychologists on a Pre-Questionaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbet, Don; Miles, Marilyn

    School psychologists (13) representing the 6 counties served by the Northern Indian California Education Project (Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act) attended a workshop on January 14, 1972, at Humboldt State College. Also attending were Humboldt State personnel from the fields of education and psychology. The workshop was intended…

  13. Multiple Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, Richard J.; Graymer, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    With the exception of Los Angeles, perhaps no urban area in the United States is more at risk from landsliding, triggered by either precipitation or earthquake, than the San Francisco Bay region of northern California. By January each year, seasonal winter storms usually bring moisture levels of San Francisco Bay region hillsides to the point of saturation, after which additional heavy rainfall may induce landslides of various types and levels of severity. In addition, movement at any time along one of several active faults in the area may generate an earthquake large enough to trigger landslides. The danger to life and property rises each year as local populations continue to expand and more hillsides are graded for development of residential housing and its supporting infrastructure. The chapters in the text consist of: *Introduction by Russell W. Graymer *Chapter 1 Rainfall Thresholds for Landslide Activity, San Francisco Bay Region, Northern California by Raymond C. Wilson *Chapter 2 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 3 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 4 Landslide Hazard Modeled for the Cities of Oakland, Piedmont, and Berkeley, Northern California, from a M=7.1 Scenario Earthquake on the Hayward Fault Zone by Scott B. Miles and David K. Keefer *Chapter 5 Synthesis of Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike The plates consist of: *Plate 1 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike, Russell W. Graymer, Sebastian Roberts, Naomi B. Kalman, and Steven Sobieszczyk *Plate 2 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven

  14. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  15. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region. PMID:23065034

  16. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  17. Earth System Studies in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2014-04-01

    During recent decades, northern Eurasia (north of 40°N and east of 15°E) was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts, including a heat wave in 2010 (that in European Russia may have been the cause of up to an additional 60,000 deaths in July-August of that year, compared to the previous year; see http://ifaran.ru/science/seminars/Summer2010.html); alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next.

  18. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D.; Martinez, P.

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  19. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  20. Genetics Show Current Decline and Pleistocene Expansion in Northern Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of the most controversial threatened subspecies ever listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Because of concern for persistence of the subspecies, logging on Federal lands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest was dramatically reduced under the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994. Despite protection of its remaining forest habitat, recent field studies show continued demographic declines of northern spotted owls. One potential threat to northern spotted owls that has not yet been shown is loss of genetic variation from population bottlenecks that can increase inbreeding depression and decrease adaptive potential. Here, we show recent genetic bottlenecks in northern spotted owls using a large genetic dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range and 11 microsatellite loci). The signature of bottlenecks was strongest in Washington State, in agreement with field data. Interestingly, we also found a genetic signature of Pleistocene expansion in the same study areas where recent bottlenecks were shown. Our results provide independent evidence that northern spotted owls have recently declined, and suggest that loss of genetic variation is an emerging threat to the subspecies' persistence. Reduced effective population size (Ne), shown here in addition to field evidence for demographic decline, highlights the increasing vulnerability of this bird to extinction.

  1. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khromova, Tatiana; Nosenko, Gennady; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Muraviev, Anton; Chernova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965-1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s-1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of individual

  2. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Northern Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASAASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the northern area, specifically: Bethel, Fairbanks, Nome, Kotzebue, and Barrow. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  3. Northern Native Languages Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara; And Others

    The Northern Native Language Project was constituted in June 1979 to produce a report which would present information on the present situation regarding language education schools in the project area of Ontario (James Bay, Nakina, and Sioux Lookout) and to make recommendations concerning appropriate action for the future. The introduction of the…

  4. A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Colleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…

  5. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music classroom and…

  6. VHF radar measurements over Andoya (Northern Norway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Reid, I. M.; Ruester, R.; Schmidt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Mobile SOUSY Radar was operated during the MAP/WINE, the MAC/SINE, and MAC/Epsilon campaigns at Andoya in Northern Norway. A comparison between summer and winter results is presented, in particular the generation and development of the scattering regions, the different power spectral densities and the aspect sensitivities which were derived from six different beam directions.

  7. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  8. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D S

    1990-10-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  9. Nutritional condition of Northern Yellowstone Elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, R.C.; Cook, J.G.; Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonography and body condition scoring was used to estimate nutritional condition of northern Yellowstone elk in late winter. Probability of pregnancy was related to body fat, and lactating cows had 50% less fat than non-lactating cows. For mild to normal winters, most of the elk were in good condition.

  10. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  11. 27 CFR 9.70 - Northern Sonoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... County-Lake County line. (24) The boundary follows the Sonoma County-Lake County line northwesterly to... the Northern Sonoma viticultural area are titled: (1) Sonoma County, California, scale 1:100 000, 1970..., California—Sonoma County; scale 1:24 000, 1955, photorevised 1975; (4) Camp Meeker Quadrangle,...

  12. 27 CFR 9.70 - Northern Sonoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... County-Lake County line. (24) The boundary follows the Sonoma County-Lake County line northwesterly to... the Northern Sonoma viticultural area are titled: (1) Sonoma County, California, scale 1:100 000, 1970..., California—Sonoma County; scale 1:24 000, 1955, photorevised 1975; (4) Camp Meeker Quadrangle,...

  13. 27 CFR 9.70 - Northern Sonoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... County-Lake County line. (24) The boundary follows the Sonoma County-Lake County line northwesterly to... the Northern Sonoma viticultural area are titled: (1) Sonoma County, California, scale 1:100 000, 1970..., California—Sonoma County; scale 1:24 000, 1955, photorevised 1975; (4) Camp Meeker Quadrangle,...

  14. Calibrating northern Texas High Plains groundwater model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Northern High Plains of Texas, irrigated crop production accounts for a major portion of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer. The concern is that diminishing groundwater supplies will severely reduce regional crop and animal production, which in turn would impact the regional ec...

  15. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D S

    1990-01-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  16. Governance and Aboriginal Claims in Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on problems of organization and governance that may follow settlement of Canadian aboriginal land claims. Compares financial problems, cultural issues such as subsistence lifestyles, and intergovernmental relations following the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and Western Arctic (Inuvialuit)…

  17. Applied Indigenous Studies at Northern Arizona University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosper, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    The Applied Indigenous Studies program at Northern Arizona University aims to prepare American Indian students to assume tribal leadership roles. Its location in the College of Ecosystem Science and Management emphasizes its land-oriented and applied focus. The program's development, core courses, and academic requirements for bachelors degrees…

  18. Orality in Northern Cree Indigenous Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Pillwax, Cora

    2001-01-01

    Examines the importance and centrality of orality, rather than literacy, in the shared lives of the Cree of northern Alberta. Discusses orality consciousness related to the practice of shared memories and personal and communal healing during the "dance of the ancestors" or "ghost dance." Includes a short history of the Cree people and their…

  19. Diapause in northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticite corn rootworms are prominent pests of maize and have adapted to both cultural and chemical management methods. In response to a widely used corn-soybean crop rotation in the U.S. Corn Belt over several years, northern corn rootworm (NCR) populations adapted by increasing the proportion ...

  20. High Moisture Corn Evaluated for Northern Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitable rotation crops that can grow in cool, northern Maine climates are needed to sustain the diversity of potato systems. A field experiment was conducted to determine whether three high moisture corn hybrids were suitable for harvest as a short season rotation crop. Yield and grain moisture...

  1. NORTHERN GUAM SOLE SOURCE AQUIFER- DESIGNATED AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northern Guam Sole Source Aquifer Designated Area: In the Territory of Guam, entirely contained within the island of Guam. Specifically, that area within the coastal boundary defined by the line of Mean High water and north of the Adelup-Pago fault, plus some area south of the f...

  2. PERFORMANCE OF AERATED LAGOONS IN NORTHERN CLIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of cold climate aerated lagoons conducted by the Arctic Environmental Research Station, Fairbanks, Alaska are reported. Conclusions are based on these studies, observations of full scale aerated lagoons operating in Alaska and reports on lagoons in the northern tier of th...

  3. Glacially induced stresses in sedimentary rocks of northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    During the Pleistocene large continental ice sheets developed in Scandinavia and North America. Ice-loading caused bending of the lithosphere and outward flow in the mantle. Glacial loading is one of the most prominent tectono-mechanical event in the geological history of northern Poland. The Pomeranian region was subjected several times to a load equivalent of more than 1 km of rocks, which led to severe increase in both vertical and horizontal stresses in the upper crustal rocks. During deglaciation a rapid decrease in vertical stress is observed, which leads to destabilization of the crust - most recent postglacial faults scarps in northern Sweden indicate glacially induced earthquakes of magnitude ~Mw8. The presence of the ice-sheet altered as well the near-surface thermal structure - thermal gradient inversion is still observable in NW Poland. The glacially related processes might have left an important mark in the sedimentary cover of northern Poland, especially with regard to fracture reopening, changes in stress state, and damage development. In the present study, we model lithospheric bending caused by glacial load, but our point of interest lies in the overlying sediments. Typical glacial isostatic studies model the response of (visco-) elastic lithosphere over viscoelastic or viscous asthenosphere subjected to external loads. In our model, we introduce viscoelastic sedimentary layers at the top of this stack and examine the stress relaxation patterns therein. As a case study for our modelling, we used geological profiles from northern Poland, near locality of Wejherowo, which are considered to have unconventional gas potential. The Paleozoic profile of this area is dominated by almost 1 km thick Silurian-Ordovician shale deposits, which are interbedded with thin and strong limestone layers. This sequence is underlain by Cambrian shales and sandstones, and finally at ~3 km depth - Precambrian crystalline rocks. Above the Silurian there are approximately

  4. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  5. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 65. Photocopy of drawing from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photocopy of drawing from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) CENTER TOWER AND PORTALS - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 47. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, October, 1957) SHEAR FENCE DAMAGE FROM M/V KORSHOLMA - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 49. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, 1957) PIER III DAMAGE FROM M/V KORSHOLMA COLLISION - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  9. 66. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) TURNTABLE BEARINGS AND LOADING BEAMS - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) STRESS DIAGRAM - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, Seattle) STRESS SHEET - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  12. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  13. Annotated bibliography of the Black Warrior basin area, northern Alabama - northern Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography contains 1964 records related to the geology of the Black Warrior basin of northern Alabama and northern Mississippi. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits; mineralogy; lithology; paleontology; petrology; stratigraphy; tectonics; bauxite; iron ores; geologic correlations; earthquakes; fossils; gold deposits; geological surveys; hydrology; and water resources. The subject index provides listings of records related to each county and the geologic ages covered by this area. Some of the items (54) are themselves bibliographies.

  14. AmeriFlux CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area)

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area). Site Description - 55.880° N, 98.481° W, elevation of 259 m, Boreal coniferous: Black spruce; occasional larch present in poorly-drained areas. Groundcover is moss (feathermosses and Sphagnum), Labrador Tea, Vaccinium, and willows are a main component of the understory. It was established in 1993 as a BOREAS site.

  15. Reconstruction of health service systems in the post-conflict Northern Province in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mari; Abraham, Sandirasegaram; Okamoto, Miyoko; Kita, Etsuko; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2007-09-01

    Public health problems in armed conflicts have been well documented, however, effective national health policies and international assistance strategies in transition periods from conflict to peace have not been well established. After the long lasted conflicts in Sri Lanka, the Government and the rebel LTTE signed a cease-fire agreement in February 2002. As the peace negotiation has been disrupted since April 2003, a long-term prospect for peace is yet uncertain at present. The objective of this research is to detect unmet needs in health services in Northern Province in Sri Lanka, and to recommend fair and effective health strategies for post-conflict reconstruction. First, we compared a 20-year trend of health services and health status between the post-conflict Northern Province and other areas not directly affected by conflict in Sri Lanka by analyzing data published by Sri Lankan government and other agencies. Then, we conducted open-ended self-administered questionnaires to health care providers and inhabitants in Northern Province, and key informant interviews in Northern Province and other areas. The major health problems in Northern Province were high maternal mortality, significant shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and inadequate water and sanitation systems. Poor access to health facilities, lack of basic health knowledge, insufficient health awareness programs for inhabitants, and mental health problems among communities were pointed by the questionnaire respondents. Shortage of HRH and people's negligence for health were perceived as the major obstacles to improving the current health situation in Northern Province. The key informant interviews revealed that Sri Lankan HRH outside Northern Province had only limited information about the health issues in Northern Province. It is required to develop and allocate HRH strategically for the effective reconstruction of health service systems in Northern Province. The empowerment of inhabitants

  16. Separation of Church and State: Education and Religion in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergent, Gary J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines three areas of state-church confrontation in Kentucky--state provision of textbooks for private schools, state regulation of private sectarian schools, and state requirement that all schools display a copy of the Ten Commandments. Available from Northern Kentucky Law Review, Salmon P. Chase College of Law, 1401 Dixie Highway, Covington,…

  17. 76 FR 44625 - Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities.... APPLICANTS: Northern Lights Variable Trust (the ``Fund'') and Gemini Fund Services, LLC (``Gemini.... Northern Lights Variable Trust, c/o Emile Molineaux, Esquire, Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 450...

  18. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  19. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  20. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  1. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  2. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  3. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  4. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  5. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  6. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  7. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  8. 78 FR 51716 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 1, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the...

  9. 78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 18, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed in Docket No. CP13-53-000, an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  10. 77 FR 35958 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124... regulations and section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon by sale to DKM Enterprises, LLC (DKM)...

  11. 76 FR 12721 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 18, 2011, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103 Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124-1000, filed in Docket No. CP11-98-000, an application pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas...

  12. 75 FR 35779 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 2, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha... Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing the increase...

  13. 75 FR 62807 - Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the... Princeton Lateral Project proposed by Northern Border Pipeline Company (Northern Border) in the above referenced docket. Northern Border requests authorization to construct pipeline facilities to...

  14. Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

    Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

    Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

    Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb

  15. HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost

  16. Heavy-mineral analysis of sedimentary rocks of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Robert Hamilton

    1952-01-01

    The Navy Oil Unit of the United States Geological Survey has been investigating the geology of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4, northern Alaska. As part of this program, heavy-mineral samples were prepared from cores of the test wells and core holes and studied to determine stratigraphic correlations. Using the following criteria: (1) presence of diagnostic minerals or mineral suites; (2) relative abundance of specific minerals; (3) degree of rounding of mineral grains; (4) distinction as to grain form; eight heavy-mineral zones have been recognized in Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Quaternary sedimentary rocks. Correlations based on these zones are shown. Source areas and rocks are discussed in relation to geologic history and genesis of the Mesozoic and Quaternary sedimentary rocks.

  17. Historic drought puts the brakes on earthflows in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. L.; Roering, J. J.; Mackey, B. H.; Handwerger, A. L.; Schmidt, D. A.; Guillod, B. P.

    2016-06-01

    California's ongoing, unprecedented drought is having profound impacts on the state's resources. Here we assess its impact on 98 deep-seated, slow-moving landslides in Northern California. We used aerial photograph analysis, satellite interferometry, and satellite pixel tracking to measure earthflow velocities spanning 1944-2015 and compared these trends with the Palmer Drought Severity Index, a proxy for soil moisture and pore pressure that governs landslide motion. We find that earthflow velocities reached a historical low in the 2012-2015 drought, but that their deceleration began at the turn of the century in response to a longer-term moisture deficit. Our analysis implies depth-dependent sensitivity of earthflows to climate forcing, with thicker earthflows reflecting longer-term climate trends and thinner earthflows exhibiting less systematic velocity variations. These findings have implications for mechanical-hydrologic interactions that link landslide movement with climate change as well as sediment delivery in the region.

  18. Quantitative Northern Blot Analysis of Mammalian rRNA Processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minshi; Pestov, Dimitri G

    2016-01-01

    Assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is an elaborate biosynthetic process that begins in the nucleolus and requires hundreds of cellular factors. Analysis of rRNA processing has been instrumental for studying the mechanisms of ribosome biogenesis and effects of stress conditions on the molecular milieu of the nucleolus. Here, we describe the quantitative analysis of the steady-state levels of rRNA precursors, applicable to studies in mammalian cells and other organisms. We include protocols for gel electrophoresis and northern blotting of rRNA precursors using procedures optimized for the large size of these RNAs. We also describe the ratio analysis of multiple precursors, a technique that facilitates the accurate assessment of changes in the efficiency of individual pre-rRNA processing steps. PMID:27576717

  19. Northern and Central Appalachian region assessment: The Pittsburgh coal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 40% of the Nation`s coal is produced in the six states (Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky) that occupy parts of the Northern and Central Appalachian region. Coal is, and will continue to be, the primary energy commodity in this region where more than 50 coal beds and coal zones are currently being mined. About one-half of the productions is from just eight coal beds or zones. Three of these, the Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coal beds and the Kittanning coal zone, are located in the northern part of the region. The remaining beds or zones, the Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Alma, Upper Elkhorn No. 3, and the Pocahontas No. 3, are located primarily in the central part of the region. This study is designed to utilize the data and expertise existing within the USGS and the State Geological Surveys to produce bed-specific, digital, coal resource assessments for most of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones. Unlike past USGS assessments, this study will emphasize not only the quantity of coal but also the quality of the coal. Particular attention will be paid to the geochemical parameters that are thought to adversely effect combustion characteristics and possibly have adverse effects on the environment, including ash yield, sulfur, calorific value, and, the elements listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Geochemical databases produced for the assessed beds will be augmented by new, representative, coal analyses of major, minor, and trace elements. Products will include stratigraphic and geochemical data bases, original and remaining source calculations, and comprehensive digital maps at a scale of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 of crop-line, coal thickness, coal structure, overburden thickness, mined-out areas, and geochemistry for each assessed coal beds.

  20. Interactions of the northern and southern branches of the thermohaline circulation

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Coarse resolution models are used to investigate the influence of Southern Hemisphere processes on the northern branch of the thermohaline circulation. The link between the zonal wind stress at the latitude of Drake Passage and the production of deep water in the Northern Hemisphere is explored. A nearly linear response to wind stress at the tip of South America is seen in northern deep water production rates in both one- and two-basin configurations. Transient studies are conducted that illustrate the transmission of the wind generated signal from the Southern Hemisphere to the northern sinking region. Mixed-boundary condition experiments are conducted in a number of model configurations. The results of the OGCM mixed boundary condition experiments are investigated using simple box models. Two scenarios are presented to produce oscillations that are similar to deep-decoupling oscillations in the presence of continued AABW production. First, the high northern latitudes are subjected to a melt pulse/retreat pattern of freshening. These perturbations can cause transitions from one stable mode to another, as well as overturning flushes that are followed by a return to the original stable overturning mode. Second, stochastic forcing is applied to the high northern latitude surface fresh water flux. The variations in surface forcing are capable of producing transitions between overturning states that are similar to deep-decoupling oscillations. The stochastic forcing acts to overcome the stabilizing effect of the AABW. In two-basin mixed boundary condition experiments, cooling the climate is seen to result in deep-decoupling type oscillations under stochastic forcing that produced no such variability in a warmer climate.

  1. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  2. Hydropower engineering of the Northern Caucasus

    SciTech Connect

    Fel'dman, B.N.

    1985-03-01

    The results of an examination of the prospects of hydropower construction in the Northern Caucasus showed that the development of the unused part of the economic hydropotential will make it possible to save about 4 million tons of reference fuel. The authors add that to solve problems of the further development of hydropotential in the area it is necessary to examine from current standpoints the problem of siting regulating storages in the basin of the Terek River, for which schemes for the multipupose use of all main Terek tributaries should be developed. They conclude that when planning various watermanagement installations in the Northern Caucasus it is necessary to examine the economic expediency of using the drops of the water levels created on the hydraulic structures for including small hydrostations as part of these structures.

  3. Amphibians of the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Euliss, Ned H.; Lannoo, Michael J.; Mushet, David M.

    1998-01-01

    No cry of alarm has been sounded over the fate of amphibian populations in the northern grasslands of North America, yet huge percentages of prairie wetland habitat have been lost, and the destruction continues. Scarcely 30% of the original mixedgrass prairie remains in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota (See Table 1 in this chapter). If amphibian populations haven’t declined, why haven’t they? Or, have we simply failed to notice? Amphibians in the northern grasslands evolved in a boom-or-bust environment: species that were unable to survive droughts lasting for years died out long before humans were around to count them. Species we find today are expert at seizing the rare, wet moment to rebuild their populations in preparation for the next dry season. When numbers can change so rapidly, who can say if a species is rare or common? A lot depends on when you look.

  4. Cardiac surgical experience in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwiloh, J; Edaigbini, S; Danbauchi, S; Babaniyi, I; Aminu, M; Adamu, Y; Oyati, A

    2012-09-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of establishing a heart surgery programme in northern Nigeria. During three medical missions by a visiting US team, in partnership with local physicians, 18 patients with heart diseases underwent surgery at two referral hospitals in the region. Sixteen (88.9%) patients underwent the planned operative procedure with an observed 30-day mortality of 12.5% (2/16) and 0% morbidity. Late complications were anticoagulant related in mechanical heart valve patients and included a first-trimester abortion one year postoperatively, and a death at two years from haemorrhage during pregnancy. This has prompted us to now consider bioprosthetics as the valve of choice in women of childbearing age in this patient population. This preliminary result has further stimulated the interest of all stakeholders on the urgency to establish open-heart surgery as part of the armamentarium to combat the ravages of heart diseases in northern Nigeria. PMID:22453514

  5. Northern hemisphere dust storms on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    Dust storms in the northern hemisphere of Mars appear to be less common than the more familiar southern hemisphere storms, and essentially, no activity north of about 30 latittude has been documented. The data are, however, subject to an observational bias because Mars is near aphelion during oppositions, which occur during the most likely seasons for dust activity in the north. The amount of dust activity in the northern hemisphere is clearly very relevant to the role of atmospheric transport in the dust cycle. The classic global storms that occur during spring in the southern hemisphere are observed to transport dust from sources in the southern hemisphere to sinks or temporary depositories in the north. The question of whether atmospheric transport can close the dust cycle, i.e., return the dust to the southern hemisphere sources on some timescale, is clearly relevant to the solution of the puzzle of how the dust storm cycle is modulated, i.e., why storms occur in some years but not in others. There are data that suggest that the spring/early summer season in the northern hemisphere of Mars during the year following the major 1977 storms observed by Viking was very dusty. A number of observations of the vicinity of the receding north polar cap showed clear evidence of substantial dust activity in the sub-Arctic region.

  6. Climate impacts on northern Canada: introduction.

    PubMed

    Furgal, Chris; Prowse, Terry

    2009-07-01

    There is significant evidence that northern Canada's climate has already undergone substantial change. These changes have meant significant impacts for physical, natural and human systems in Canada's North. Climate models suggest that such trends will continue into the future, and therefore shifts in Arctic systems are expected for some time to come. This introductory paper is the first in a series published in two issues of Ambio presenting work conducted for northern chapters of two recent Canadian national climate science assessment initiatives, From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007 and Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity. Collectively, these assessments involved the work of 24 scientists with expertise in a variety of disciplines and regions in the Canadian North. These assessment processes adopted aspects of a vulnerability approach to climate assessment, primarily through a review of existing and projected exposures and elements of adaptive capacity based on existing literature. In so doing, they have contributed towards a more comprehensive understanding of climate impacts and adaptations across the northern regions of the country. This paper provides an overview and introduction to the series of papers contained in the two issues of Ambio. PMID:19714956

  7. Stratigraphic evolution of paleozoic erathem, northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Unmetamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been drilled in numerous wells throughout northern Florida and southern Georgia, in what is today a gently folded and block-faulted relict continental fragment of northwest Africa and northeast South America. Stratigraphic and lithologic equivalents of these North American Paleozoic units are prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa. The northern Florida Paleozoic sediments were deposited on Pan-African and Cadoman basement. Widespread continental glaciation from late Precambrian to Early Cambrian introduced a thick sequence of fine-grained marine sandstones (glacial flour), which overlie medium to coarse-grained glaciofluvial sandstones. Basinward of the sand shelf, the accretion of a volcanic island arc complex began during the Ordovician. A fluctuating transgression, accompanying a major glacial minimum, brought open-marine, graptolitic, black shales onto the sand shelf, producing an interbedded shoreface-shelf sand and black shale section during the Middle and Late Ordovician. At the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, renewed continental glaciation lowered sea level, producing a widespread unconformity. A Late Silurian major marine transgression returned black, graptolitic, highly organic shales onto the sand shelf. Devonian deltaic sands from Avalonia(.) to the north and the craton to the south closed the Paleozoic sedimentary record of northern Florida.

  8. Partitioning Belowground Respiration in a Northern Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, H. E.; Roulet, N. T.; Moore, T.

    2004-05-01

    Although they cover only 3% of the land surface, northern peatlands store up to one-third of the global soil carbon pool, deeming them a significant carbon sink. However, changes in peatland soil respiration could lead to peatlands becoming carbon sources with consequent feedbacks to climate change. In order to understand the global carbon balance we need to understand respiration processes, but compared to photosynthesis we know very little about respiration, especially belowground. Within soils there are three compartments among which carbon is transferred and respired: roots, rhizosphere and root-free soil. In order to further the understanding of respiration processes of northern peatlands, the relative importance of each type of belowground respiration was determined at two locations at Mer Bleue, a northern peatland located near Ottawa, Ontario. Weekly CO2 flux measurements, using dark chambers and a portable IRGA, were made throughout the growing season of 2003. At both areas there are reference plots to determine total respiration where the vegetation remained in tact. Treatment plots were also installed at both areas where foliage was removed in order to determine SOM (shrub-free) respiration. The shrub foliage was replaced with nylon `foliage' in an attempt to maintain soil temperature and moisture conditions. Root respiration was determined by incubating root segments on-site, taking air samples over a one hour period. Rhizosphere respiration was estimated by subtracting SOM, root and aboveground respiration from total respiration, and aboveground respiration was removed from the equation using a calculation from a peatland carbon model.

  9. Wildfires in Northern Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaurk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Im, Sergey T.

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (approx 66 deg N, 100 deg E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activities in this area fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated based on burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 yr to 350 yr with 200 +/- 50 yr mean. In southerly larch dominated communities FRI was found to be shorter (77 +/- 20 yr at approx 61 deg. N, and 82 +/- 7 at 64 deg N), and longer at the northern boundary (approx 71 deg) of larch stands (320 +/- 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th to 18th centuries FRI was approximately twice as long as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth and a radial growth increase of about 2 times (with more than 6 times observed). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  10. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Northern Counties Area Development Plan evaluated the regional market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. This study identified five potential geothermal resource areas, four of which have low temperature (<90{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0}F) potential and one possible igneous system. The average population growth rate in the Northern Counties is expected to be five percent per year over the next 40 years, with Mohave and Yavapai Counties growing the fastest. Rapid growth is anticipated in all major employment sectors, including trade, service, manufacturing, mining and utilities. A regional energy use analysis is included, containing information on current energy use patterns for all user classes. Water supplies are expected to be adequate for expected growth generally, though Yavapai and Gila Counties will experience water deficiencies. A preliminary district heating analysis is included for the towns of Alpine and Springerville. Both communities are believed located on geothermal resource sites. The study also contains a section identifying potential geothermal resource users in northern Arizona.

  11. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland. PMID:9254847

  12. Auroral LSTIDs and SAR Arc Occurrences in Northern California During Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, A.; Kendall, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    A 630nm allsky imager has been operated for two years in northern California at the Hat Creek Radio Observatory. F-region airglow data captured by the imager ranges from approximately L=1.7 -2.7. Since installation of the imager several geomagnetic storms have occurred with varying intensities. Two main manifestations of the geomagnetic storms are observed in the 630 nm airglow data: large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances that are launched from the auroral zone and Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arcs during more intense geomagnetic storms. We will present a statistical analysis of these storm-time phenomena in northern California for the past eighteen months. This imager is part of a larger all-sky imaging network across the continental United States, termed MANGO (Midlatitude All-sky-imaging Network for Geophysical Observations). Where available, we will add data from networked imagers located at similar L-shell in other states as well.

  13. Groundwater sapping as the cause of irreversible desertification of Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, northern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Scuderi, Louis A; Wang, Xulong; Scuderi, Louis J; Zhang, Deguo; Li, Hongwei; Forman, Steven; Xu, Qinghai; Wang, Ruichang; Huang, Weiwen; Yang, Shixia

    2015-01-20

    In the middle-to-late Holocene, Earth's monsoonal regions experienced catastrophic precipitation decreases that produced green to desert state shifts. Resulting hydrologic regime change negatively impacted water availability and Neolithic cultures. Whereas mid-Holocene drying is commonly attributed to slow insolation reduction and subsequent nonlinear vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks that produce threshold conditions, evidence of trigger events initiating state switching has remained elusive. Here we document a threshold event ca. 4,200 years ago in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands of Inner Mongolia, northern China, associated with groundwater capture by the Xilamulun River. This process initiated a sudden and irreversible region-wide hydrologic event that exacerbated the desertification of the Hunshandake, resulting in post-Humid Period mass migration of northern China's Neolithic cultures. The Hunshandake remains arid and is unlikely, even with massive rehabilitation efforts, to revert back to green conditions. PMID:25561539

  14. Groundwater sapping as the cause of irreversible desertification of Hunshandake Sandy Lands, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoping; Scuderi, Louis A.; Wang, Xulong; Scuderi, Louis J.; Zhang, Deguo; Li, Hongwei; Forman, Steven; Xu, Qinghai; Wang, Ruichang; Huang, Weiwen; Yang, Shixia

    2015-01-01

    In the middle-to-late Holocene, Earth’s monsoonal regions experienced catastrophic precipitation decreases that produced green to desert state shifts. Resulting hydrologic regime change negatively impacted water availability and Neolithic cultures. Whereas mid-Holocene drying is commonly attributed to slow insolation reduction and subsequent nonlinear vegetation–atmosphere feedbacks that produce threshold conditions, evidence of trigger events initiating state switching has remained elusive. Here we document a threshold event ca. 4,200 years ago in the Hunshandake Sandy Lands of Inner Mongolia, northern China, associated with groundwater capture by the Xilamulun River. This process initiated a sudden and irreversible region-wide hydrologic event that exacerbated the desertification of the Hunshandake, resulting in post-Humid Period mass migration of northern China’s Neolithic cultures. The Hunshandake remains arid and is unlikely, even with massive rehabilitation efforts, to revert back to green conditions. PMID:25561539

  15. Using Detection Dogs to Conduct Simultaneous Surveys of Northern Spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina) and Barred Owls (Strix varia)

    PubMed Central

    Wasser, Samuel K.; Hayward, Lisa S.; Hartman, Jennifer; Booth, Rebecca K.; Broms, Kristin; Berg, Jodi; Seely, Elizabeth; Lewis, Lyle; Smith, Heath

    2012-01-01

    State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia)–a significant threat to northern spotted owls–can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris) located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km ×2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted

  16. Analyzing green/open space accessibility by using GIS: case study of northern Cyprus cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Can; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that green spaces are vital for increasing the quality of life within the urban environment. World Health Organization states that it should be 9 square meters per person at least. European Environment Agency defines that 5000 square meters of green space should be accessible within 300 meters distance from households. Green structure in Northern Cyprus is not sufficient and effective in this manner. In Northern Cyprus, they have neglected the urban planning process and they have started to lose significance and importance. The present work analyzes the accessibility of green spaces in Northern Cyprus cities. Kioneli, Famagusta, Kyrenia and the northern part of Nicosia are analyzed in this manner. To do that, green space structure is analyzed by using digital data. Additionally, accessibility of the green space is measured by using 300-meter buffers for each city. Euclidean distance is used from each building and accessibility maps are generated. Kyrenia and Famagusta have shortage in green space per capita. The amount of green space in these cities is less than 4 square meters. The factors affecting the accessibility and utilization of public spaces are discussed to present better solutions to urban planning.

  17. Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurchatova, A. N.; Griva, G. I.; Osokin, A. B.; Smolov, G. K.

    2005-12-01

    During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans for development of oil-gas fields (Yamal, Gydan and Kara Sea shelf). Presently the enterprises independently determine the necessary research for ecological control of the territory. Therefore, the Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) together with one of the leading gas enterprises "Nadymgasprom" started to create an observational network along the meridian transect of northern West Siberia (Yamal-Nenets administrative district). Observational network consists from a number of monitoring sites - Technical-Environmental permafrost Observatories (TEPO). The research complex includes temperature observations in boreholes (depths of 30) equipped with automatic systems for registration and data collection; seasonal field investigations on spatial distribution and temporal variability of the snow cover and vegetation and soil distribution. TSOGU and "Nadymgasprom" plan for the realization of long-term monitoring to obtain representative results on permafrost-climate interaction. At present there are three monitoring observatories located in the main landscape types and gas fields in use since 1972 (Medvezhye), 1992 (Yubileynoe) and in development (Harasavey). The next contribution to International Polar Year (2007-2008) will be renewal of one of the former monitoring sites (established in 1972) with a long-term period of observation and creation of a new site at the Yamal peninsula (Arctic tundra zone). At the last site the installation of an automatic Climate-Soil Station is being planned in the framework of the INTAS Infrastructure Action project with cooperation of

  18. Wolbachia multilocus sequence typing of singly infected and multiply infected populations of Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) in eastern and central North America exhibits at least three distinct populations with respect to Wolbachia infection: uninfected; singly-infected; multiply-infected. The infected states are associated with different mtDNA haplotypes and reduced mtDNA ...

  19. Wolbachia wsp gene hypervariable region specific PCR primers detect multiple strain infections in northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi)(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eastern and central North America exhibits at least three distinct populations with respect to Wolbachia infection: uninfected; singly-infected; multi-infected. The infected states are associated with different mtDNA haplo...

  20. 26 CFR 1.935-1 - Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of individual income taxes with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Possessions of the United States § 1.935-1 Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern...

  1. 26 CFR 1.935-1 - Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. 1.935-1 Section 1.935-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.935-1 Coordination...

  2. SUMMER FISH COMMUNITY OF THE COASTAL NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO: CHARACTGERIZATION OF A LARGE-SCALE TRAWL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the trawled fish assemblage collected during 1992 - 1994 at 119 locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The 367 collection sites were located adjacent to five states and represented seven estuarine categories. Fish were collected using an otter trawl durin...

  3. Higher Education and Regional Development. A Compendium of Public Service Activities by Colleges and Universities in Northern New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugh, Ram L.

    A study was done of the public service programs of the colleges and universities of the Adirondack North Country Association (ANCA) region and how they contribute to the regional development of northern New York State. The study asked the 21 institutions of the ANCA area to respond to a survey seeking information on various aspects of each…

  4. The Impact of a Special School Placement on Student Teacher Beliefs about Inclusive Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Jackie; Bones, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article, by Jackie Lambe, lecturer in education, and Robert Bones, lecturer in psychology, both from the University of Ulster, provides a useful review of the current state of policy, practice and teacher education relating to pupils with special educational needs in Northern Ireland. The authors use this review to launch their account of…

  5. USDA Midwest and Northern Forests Regional Climate Hub: Assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Midwest Regional Climate Hub covers the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin and represents one of the most extensive and intensive agricultural systems in the world. The Northern Forests Climate Sub Hub shares this footprint and represents people...

  6. A preliminary report on the growth of the rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque), in two lakes of northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Stillman

    1929-01-01

    For several years the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey has been making a limnological study of lakes in the northern part of the State. Because of the fact that so much has been learned of the physical, chemical and biological conditions in these lakes, the region seems particularly favorable for a study of the growth rates of fishes in relation to environmental factors.

  7. Influence of a local source of DDT pollution on statewide DDT residues in waterfowl wings, northern Alabama, 1978-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy DDT contamination resulting from a former DDT manufacturing plant in northern Alabama has influenced statewide averages of DDT, DDE, and TDE residues in duck wings tested in the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. In states where contaminant levels in duck wings are high, residue analyses of wings categorized by finer geographic subdivision may be useful in defining the areas of heaviest contamination.

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a commonwealth in political union with the United States that is located in the northern Pacific Ocean. CNMI’s electricity rates for residential customers range from $0.19 to $0.33 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  9. Development of a Northern Continental Air Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kitzis, Duane R; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Hall, Bradley D; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Tans, Pieter P; Possolo, Antonio; Carney, Jennifer

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently began to develop standard mixtures of greenhouse gases as part of a broad program mandated by the 2009 United States Congress to support research in climate change. To this end, NIST developed suites of gravimetrically assigned primary standard mixtures (PSMs) comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-natural air balance at ambient mole fraction levels. In parallel, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder, Colorado, charged 30 aluminum gas cylinders with northern hemisphere air at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. These mixtures, which constitute NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1720 Northern Continental Air, were certified by NIST for ambient mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O relative to NIST PSMs. NOAA-assigned values are also provided as information in support of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Program for CO2, CH4, and N2O, since NOAA serves as the WMO Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Relative expanded uncertainties at the 95% confidence interval are <±0.06% of the certified values for CO2 and N2O and <0.2% for CH4, which represents the smallest relative uncertainties specified to date for a gaseous SRM produced by NIST. Agreement between the NOAA (WMO/GAW) and NIST values based on their respective calibration standards suites is within 0.05%, 0.13%, and 0.06% for CO2, CH4, and N2O, respectively. This collaborative development effort also represents the first of its kind for a gaseous SRM developed by NIST. PMID:26890890

  10. Processes influencing seasonal hypoxia in the northern California Current System

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, T. P.; Hickey, B. M.; Geier, S. L.; Cochlan, W. P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper delineates the role of physical and biological processes contributing to hypoxia, dissolved oxygen (DO) < 1.4 mL/L, over the continental shelf of Washington State in the northern portion of the California Current System (CCS). In the historical record (1950–1986) during the summer upwelling season, hypoxia is more prevalent and severe off Washington than further south off northern Oregon. Recent data (2003–2005) show that hypoxia over the Washington shelf occurred at levels previously observed in the historical data. 2006 was an exception, with hypoxia covering ~5000 km2 of the Washington continental shelf and DO concentrations below 0.5 mL/L at the inner shelf, lower than any known previous observations at that location. In the four years studied, upwelling of low DO water and changes in source water contribute to interannual variability, but cannot account for seasonal decreases below hypoxic concentrations. Deficits of DO along salinity surfaces, indicating biochemical consumption of DO, vary significantly between surveys, accounting for additional decreases of 0.5–2.5 mL/L by late summer. DO consumption is associated with denitrification, an indicator of biochemical sediment processes. Mass balances of DO and nitrate show that biochemical processes in the water column and sediments each contribute ~50% to the total consumption of DO in near-bottom water. At shorter than seasonal time scales on the inner shelf, along-shelf advection of hypoxic patches and cross-shelf advection of seasonal gradients are both shown to be important, changing DO concentrations by 1.5 mL/L or more over five days. PMID:20463844

  11. The central and northern Appalachian Basin-a frontier region for coalbed methane development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is the world's second largest coalbed-methane (CBM) producing basin. It has nearly 4000 wells with 1996 annual production at 147.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Cumulative CBM production is close to 0.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama in the southern Appalachian basin (including a very minor amount from the Cahaba coal field) accounts for about 75% of this annual production and about 75% of the wells, and the remainder comes from the central and northern Appalachian basin. The Southwest Virginia coal field accounts for about 95% of the production from the central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin. Production data and trends imply that several of the Appalachian basin states, except for Alabama and Virginia, are in their infancy with respect to CBM development. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and northern Appalachian basin have been variously estimated at 66 to 76 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), of which an estimated 14.55 Tcf (~ 20%) is technically recoverable according to a 1995 U.S. Geological Survey assessment. For comparison in the Black Warrior basin of the 20 Tcf in-place CBM resources, 2.30 Tcf (~ 12%) is technically recoverable. Because close to 0.9 Tcf of CBM has already been produced from the Black Warrior basin and the proved reserves are about 0.8 Tcf for 1996 [Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1997]. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1996 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EIA-0216(96), 145 pp.], these data imply that the central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin CBM picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin (Black Warrior Basin and Cahaba Coal Field). CBM development in the Appalachian states could decrease the eastern U.S.A.'s dependence on coal for electricity. CBM is expected to provide over the next few decades a virtually untapped source of

  12. Quantitative paleogeography and accretionary history, northern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Pluijm, B.A. van der; Voo, R. van der . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing paleomagnetic work on Early and Middle Paleozoic units provides quantitative data on paleogeography, latitudinal separation and latitudinal drift rates of tectonic elements that characterize the history of the northern segment of the Appalachian orogen. Following rifting and opening of Iapetus, the southern margin of Laurentia moved from ca 15S in the Ordovician to ca. 30S in the late Silurian: the northern margin of Avalon drifted northward (separate from Gondwana) from > 50--30S during the same time interval. Paleolatitudes from volcanic units of the intervening Central Mobile Belt that yield primary magnetizations are: Newfoundland: Ordovician arc-back arc basin: 11[degree]S; Ordovician ocean island/arc: 31[degree]S; Silurian continental cover: Botwood Gp: 24[degree]S, Springdale Gp: 17[degree]S New Brunswick: Ordovician rift-subduction complex: 53[degree]S. Maine: Munsungun Volcanic Terrane 18[degree]S; Winterville Volcanic Terrane 15--20[degree]S; upper part Lunksoos Composite Terrane: 20[degree]S. The Ordovician results indicate several near-Laurentian volcanic terranes and back-arc basins, landward-dipping subduction complexes on opposite margins of Iapetus, and intra-Iapetus ocean islands/arcs. Silurian paleogeographic and tectonostratigraphic data show that closure of Iapetus and progressive outboard accretion in the northern portion of the Appalachian orogen was complete by the late Silurian. This closure is accompanied by considerable Ordovician to Early Silurian left-lateral strike slip and subsequent right-lateral displacement based on the relative positions of Laurentia, Avalon and Gondwana in Early and Middle Paleozoic times.

  13. First archaeomagnetic data from northern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Martínez, V. C.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Catanzariti, G.

    An archaeomagnetic study has been conducted on eight archaeological structures (two kilns, four fireplaces and two saunas) from two different areas in Asturias (northern Spain). The results provide the first archaeomagnetic directions from the northern Iberian Peninsula. The main goal of this paper is to improve on the non-uniform site distribution used to construct the first archaeomagnetic Secular Variation Curve for Iberia (“SVC-I”) by studying new sites from northern Spain, an area currently not represented. The lithologies of some of the studied archaeological structures from this zone (slates, quartzites) differ from those of the rest of the peninsula. Laboratory analysis includes both thermal and alternating field stepwise demagnetization and rock-magnetic studies. A low coercivity, moderate unblocking temperature ( Tub) phase, such as magnetite/maghemite, seems to be the carrier of the archaeomagnetic signal. This sometimes overlaps partially with a (geological) high coercivity/high Tub phase. Site-mean characteristic directions have been calculated following a hierarchical approach and applying Fisherian distribution tests. Archaeomagnetic results have been compared, applying Fisherian distribution tests, among themselves and with Roman age entries of the Spanish archaeomagnetic database. They have also been compared with the reference “SVC-I” using Bayesian methods. These analyses have served to validate the archaeological dating of the structures. There is a good agreement between the results of archaeomagnetic dating and radiocarbon dating, both of which are consistent with archaeological constraints. The uncertainties in the archaeomagnetic ages are relatively large mainly because the reference curve hardly varies in declination during Roman times. This highlights the need of more high quality archaeomagnetic data (from very well-dated structures) in order to reduce the errors associated with the reference “SVC-I” and the archaeomagnetic

  14. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  15. Recent earthquakes in northern New York

    SciTech Connect

    Revetta, F.A.; Bockus, C.; O'Brian, B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Massena, New York area located along the St. Lawrence River in northern New York has been the site of significant earthquake activity including the largest earthquake in New York (m = 6.0) on September 5, 1944. Historic earthquake data indicates the Cornwall-Massena area is a region of relatively high seismic activity, and the earthquake activity has been persistent for over a 400 year period. During the past year eleven small earthquakes have been recorded by the Potsdam Seismic Network in northern New York. Four of these earthquakes had epicenters located in the Massena-Cornwall area. One epicenter was located along the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone and one epicenter was located n the epicentral region of the October 7, 1984 Goodnow earthquake. Five earthquakes had epicenters located in Ontario and Quebec. These earthquake epicenters lie in a belt of seismicity that extends north-westerly from the northern Adirondacks into the Canadian Shield of western Quebec. Several explanations that have been presented to explain these earthquakes are (1) mafic intrusions (2) unmapped northwest trending faults (3) extension of the New England seamount chain and (4) crustal fractures due to the area passing over a hotspot. Four earthquakes in the Massena area lie very near extensions of the Gloucester and Winchester Spring faults into New York and may be related to the faults. Focal mechanism solutions of two earthquakes indicate thrusting along NW striking fault planes. Another possibility is the earthquakes are related to the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone. One earthquake is within four kms of the CCMZ and if the zone is extended northward beneath the lower Paleozoics, it passes through the epicenters on the Cornwall-Massena area.

  16. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  17. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  18. Geographic Variation in Hirundo pyrrhonota (Cliff Swallow) from Northern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M. Ralph

    1992-01-01

    The number of subspecies recognized in Hirundo pyrrhonota Vieillot (Cliff Swallow) from Alaska, Canada, and the northern contiguous United States ranges from one (Peters 1960) to three (e.g., Jewett et al. 1953, Oberholser, 1920, breeding from central Alaska to the central Great Basin, and two disjunct populations of nominate pyrrhonota, breeding on the west coast and east of the Rocky Mountains. Although various authors have reported measurements of wing chord, they have not provided quantitative data for other plumage characters, and they disagree in the characterizations and ranges of the subspecies they recognize. Because of this, I reviewed the geographic variation among the northern populations. My study is confined to specimens from Alaska, Canada, and the contigeous United States south to Merced County in California, both slopes of the Rocky Mountains from Montana and Colorado, and northern half of the eastern United States from Kansas east to Virginia (Figure 1). The A.O.U. (1957) gave the breeding range of hypopolia as extending from Alaska and Mackenzie to southeastern British Columbia, the eastern parts of Washington, Oregon, and central-eastern California, central Nevada, northern Utah, Montana, and northwestern Wyoming, and the range of nominate pyrhonota as from southwestern British Columbia, western Oregon and Washington to southern California, southern Nevada, southern and eastern Utag, and east of the Rocky Mountains. I excluded specimens of H. p. ganieri Phillips, 1986, a subspecies (Browning 1990) that breeds from at least west-central Tennessee to Texas, and H. p. tachina Oberholser, 1903 (sensu Phillips 1986), which breeds north to central California, Utah, Arizona, and new Mexico. I follow Phillips (1973) for the use of the generic name Hirundo for the Cliff Swallow, Hellmayr (1935) for the use of the specific name pyrrhonota.

  19. Assessment of the peat resources of Florida, with a detailed survey of the northern everglades

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.M.; Wieland, C.C.; Hood, L.Q.; Goode, R.W. III; Sawyer, R.K.; McNeill, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Available data, including previous publications, modern soil surveys, and detailed coring in the Northern Everglades for this project have been used to update information on Florida's peat resources. It is now estimated that Florida could, if no other constraints existed, produce 606 million tons of moisture-free fuel-grade peat, which may yield approximately 10.0 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy. These estimates are much lower than previously published projections for the state. The principal effort of this survey was in the largest peat region of the state, the Northern Everglades of Palm Beach and adjacent counties, where more than 800 core holes were drilled. Based on analyses of these cores, the Northern Everglades is now estimated to contain 191 million tons of moisture-free peat, with a potential energy yield of 2.98 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. These values are considerably less than previously published estimates, probably due to bacterial oxidation and other forms of drainage-induced subsidence in the Everglades agricultural areas. The present fuel-peat resources of the Northern Everglades occur in 19 separate deposits. Of these, the deposits in the Port Mayaca, Bryant, Six Mile Bend, and Loxahatchee Quadrangles comprise the highest concentration of the resource. These lands are generally privately owned and used for sugar cane and other crops, and the conversion of these lands to peat removal seems unlikely. It seems even less likely that the extensive peat deposits within the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge will be available for fuel use, barring a dire national emergency. The utilization of peat as a fuel must be approached with caution and careful study; large scale use may require state or federal action. 34 references.

  20. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  1. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  2. Nonlinear features of Northern Annular Mode variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zuntao; Shi, Liu; Xie, Fenghua; Piao, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear features of daily Northern Annular Mode (NAM) variability at 17 pressure levels are quantified by two different measures. One is nonlinear correlation, and the other is time-irreversible symmetry. Both measures show that there are no significant nonlinear features in NAM variability at the higher pressure levels, however as the pressure level decreases, the strength of nonlinear features in NAM variability becomes predominant. This indicates that in order to reach better prediction of NAM variability in the lower pressure levels, nonlinear features must be taken into consideration to build suitable models.

  3. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  4. The 2011 Northern Hemisphere Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altrock, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Altrock (1997, Solar Phys. 170, 411) discusses a process in which Fe XIV 530.3 nm emission features appear at high latitudes and gradually migrate towards the equator, merging with the sunspot "butterfly diagram". In cycles 21 - 23 solar maximum occurred when the number of Fe XIV emission regions per day > 0.19 (averaged over 365 days and both hemispheres) first reached latitudes 18°, 21° and 21°, for an average of 20° ± 1.7°. Another high-latitude process is the "Rush to the Poles" of polar crown prominences and their associated coronal emission, including Fe XIV. The Rush is a harbinger of solar maximum (cf. Altrock, 2003, Solar Phys. 216, 343). Solar maximum in cycles 21 - 23 occurred when the center line of the Rush reached a critical latitude. These latitudes were 76°, 74° and 78°, respectively, for an average of 76° ± 2°. Cycle 24 displays an intermittent Rush that is only well-defined in the northern hemisphere. In 2009 an initial slope of 4.6°/yr was found in the north, compared to an average of 9.4 ± 1.7 °/yr in the previous three cycles. However, in 2010 the slope increased to 7.5°/yr. Extending that rate to 76° ± 2° indicates that the solar maximum smoothed sunspot number in the northern hemisphere already occurred at 2011.6 ± 0.3. In the southern hemisphere the Rush is very poorly defined. A linear fit to several maxima would reach 76° in the south at 2014.2. In 1999, persistent Fe XIV coronal emission connected with the ESC appeared near 70° in the north and began migrating towards the equator at a rate 40% slower than the previous two solar cycles. A fit to the early ESC would not reach 20° until 2019.8. However, in 2009 and 2010 an acceleration occurred. Currently the greatest number of emission regions is at 21° in the north and 24°in the south. This indicates that solar maximum is occurring now in the north but not yet in the south. The latest global smoothed sunspot numbers show an inflection point in late 2011, which

  5. Complete migration cycle of golden eagles breeding in northern Quebec

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodeur, Serge; DeCarie, R.; Bird, D.M.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Radio tracking via satellite was initiated to study the year-round movements of Golden Eagles(Aquila chrysaetosc anadensis) breeding on the east coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec. In June and August 1992, six Golden Eagles(five adults and one juvenile) were marked, three of which completed their year-round movements. The eagles left their breeding area in mid- to late October and migrated to known wintering areas in the eastern United States. They used different routes but each followed the same general path during fall and spring migrations which lasted between 26 and 40 days,and 25 and 51 days, respectively. Eagles wintered from 93 to 135 days in areas located 1,650 to 3,000 km south of their breeding territory. In spring 1993, satellite telemetry located the eagles in their former breeding territory in late March, mid-April and early May. This study confirms previous suggestion that some breeding Golden Eagles wintering in eastern United States come from northern Quebec and describes the first successful tracking of the complete yearly migration cycle of a bird of prey.

  6. A history of bovine tuberculosis eradication policy in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P A

    2015-11-01

    Despite many years of state-sponsored efforts to eradicate the disease from cattle through testing and slaughter, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still regarded as the most important and complex of animal health challenges facing the British livestock agricultural industry. This paper provides a historical analysis of the ongoing bTB statutory eradication programme in one part of the UK - Northern Ireland (NI) - which began in 1949 as a voluntary scheme, but between 1959 and 1960 became compulsory for all cattle herd-owners. Tracing bTB back through time sets the eradication efforts of the present day within a deeper context, and provides signposts for what developed in subsequent decades. The findings are based primarily on empirical research using historical published reports of the Ministry of Agriculture and state documents held in the public archives in NI, and they emphasize the need to consider the economic, social and political contexts of disease eradication efforts and their influences on both the past and the present. PMID:25778830

  7. Northern Conference Film and Video Guide on Native and Northern Justice Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby (British Columbia).

    Intended for teachers and practitioners, this film and video guide contains 235 entries pertaining to the administration of justice, culture and lifestyle, and education and services in northern Canada. It is divided into eight sections: Native lifestyle (97 items); economic development (28), rights and self-government (20); education and training…

  8. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    funded projects (always with international participation) in the United States, Russian Federation, China, European Union, Japan, and Canada have been mutually united to explore the scientifically significant Northern Eurasian region. NEESPI scientists have been quite productive during the past two years (2005 2006) publishing more than 200 books, book chapters, and papers in refereed journals. NEESPI sessions at international conferences are open to everyone who works on environmental and climate change problems in Northern Eurasia and the circumpolar boreal zone. This thematic issue brings together articles from the authors who presented their latest results at the Annual Fall American Geophysical Union Meeting in San Francisco (December 2006). The research letters in this issue are preceded by two editorial papers (Leptoukh et al and Sherstyukov et al) devoted to informational support of research in the NEESPI domain that is critical to the success of the Initiative. The following papers are quite diverse and are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions in the NEESPI domain and the circumpolar boreal zone. Focus on Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Editorials NASA NEESPI Data and Services Center for Satellite Remote Sensing Information Gregory Leptoukh, Ivan Csiszar, Peter Romanov, Suhung Shen, Tatiana Loboda and Irina Gerasimov NEESPI Science and Data Support Center for Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia B G Sherstyukov, V N Razuvaev, O N Bulygina and P Ya Groisman Climate and hydrology Changes in the fabric of the Arctic's greenhouse blanket Jennifer A Francis and Elias Hunter Spatial variations of summer precipitation trends in South Korea, 1973 2005 Heejun

  9. Economic vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coast of the United States has been identified as highly vulnerable to sea-level rise, based on a combination of physical and societal factors. Vulnerability of human populations and infrastructure to projected increases in sea level is a critical area of uncertainty for communities in the extremely low-lying and flat northern gulf coastal zone. A rapidly growing population along some parts of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline is further increasing the potential societal and economic impacts of projected sea-level rise in the region, where observed relative rise rates range from 0.75 to 9.95 mm per year on the Gulf coasts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. A 1-m elevation threshold was chosen as an inclusive designation of the coastal zone vulnerable to relative sea-level rise, because of uncertainty associated with sea-level rise projections. This study applies a Coastal Economic Vulnerability Index (CEVI) to the northern Gulf of Mexico region, which includes both physical and economic factors that contribute to societal risk of impacts from rising sea level. The economic variables incorporated in the CEVI include human population, urban land cover, economic value of key types of infrastructure, and residential and commercial building values. The variables are standardized and combined to produce a quantitative index value for each 1-km coastal segment, highlighting areas where human populations and the built environment are most at risk. This information can be used by coastal managers as they allocate limited resources for ecosystem restoration, beach nourishment, and coastal-protection infrastructure. The study indicates a large amount of variability in index values along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline, and highlights areas where long-term planning to enhance resiliency is particularly needed.

  10. Saturn's northern auroras as observed using the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the features of Saturn's northern FUV auroras as observed during a program of Hubble Space Telescope observations which executed over 2011-2013 and culminated, along with Cassini observations, in a comprehensive multi-spectral observing campaign. Our 2011-2013 observations of the northern aurora are also compared with those from our 2007-2008 observation of the southern aurora. We show that the variety of morphologies of the northern auroras is broadly consistent with the southern, and determine the statistical equatorward and poleward boundary locations. We find that our boundaries are overall consistent with previous observations, although a modest poleward displacement of the poleward boundaries is due to the increased prevalence of poleward auroral patches in the noon and afternoon sectors during this program, likely due to the solar wind interaction. We also show that the northern auroral oval oscillates with the northern planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase in an elongated ellipse with semi-major axis ∼1.6° oriented along the post-dawn/post-dusk direction. We further show that the northern auroras exhibit dawn-side brightenings at zero northern magnetic PPO phase, although there is mixed evidence of auroral emissions fixed in the rotating frame of the northern PPO current system, such that overall the dependence of the auroras on northern magnetic phase is somewhat weak.

  11. From the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) towards the Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than 170 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. NEESPI was endorsed by major ESSP Programs and Projects and the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. Now it is the time to synthesis the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers and to re-assess its Science Questions and Objectives of the regional research within the new Future Earth Program paradigm with the focus on interdisciplinary solution-oriented approach that will allow effective policy-making in environment management and control. At the sequence of Workshops (the last of them will be in Prague one week prior to this Assembly) we formulated a major Science Question of the new Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI): "What will the changes in the regional ecosystems dynamics and interactions mean for the societal well-being, activities, health, and strategic planning in Northern Eurasia?" The major NEFI challenge will be the services aimed on providing in Northern Eurasia a sustainable societal development in changing climate, ecosystems, and societies. At this presentation we shall brief the audience about the main results of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future NEFI studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we shall initiate preparation of the book which will synthesize major NEESPI achievements.

  12. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  13. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  14. Opsin gene repertoires in northern archaic hominids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John S; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    The Neanderthals' northern distribution, hunting techniques, and orbit breadths suggest that they were more active in dim light than modern humans. We surveyed visual opsin genes from four Neanderthals and two other archaic hominids to see if they provided additional support for this hypothesis. This analysis was motivated by the observation that alleles responsible for anomalous trichromacy in humans are more common in northern latitudes, by data suggesting that these variants might enhance vision in mesopic conditions, and by the observation that dim light active species often have fewer opsin genes than diurnal relatives. We also looked for evidence of convergent amino acid substitutions in Neanderthal opsins and orthologs from crepuscular or nocturnal species. The Altai Neanderthal, the Denisovan, and the Ust'-Ishim early modern human had opsin genes that encoded proteins identical to orthologs in the human reference genome. Opsins from the Vindija Cave Neanderthals (three females) had many nonsynonymous substitutions, including several predicted to influence colour vision (e.g., stop codons). However, the functional implications of these observations were difficult to assess, given that "control" loci, where no substitutions were expected, differed from humans to the same extent. This left unresolved the test for colour vision deficiencies in Vindija Cave Neanderthals. PMID:27463216

  15. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  16. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  17. Foraminifera from the Northern Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Weldon W.

    1964-01-01

    Foraminifera from a Tertiary sequence that crops out on the northern part of the Olympic Peninsula, Wash., show stratigraphic and ecologic significance. Forty-two species that are important both to correlations and to ecologic interpretations are illustrated and systematically discussed. The Foraminifera indicate that some of the rocks may be as old as early Eocene. The oldest rocks are tentatively referred to the Penutian stage of Mallory. Other parts of the sequence are referred to the Ulatisian and Narizian stages of Mallory, the Refugian stage of Schenck and Kieinpell, and the Zemorrian and Saucesian stages of Kleinpell. Several short periods of shallow, sheltered sea conditions are suggested by the Foraminifera from several parts of the stratigraphic sequence, but Foraminifera from most of the rocks suggest relatively deep, open-sea conditions. With the exception of shallow, warm-water conditions in rocks of probable middle Eocene age, the Foraminifera suggest that cool-to-cold water temperatures, regardless of depth, prevailed during the deposition of most of the rocks of Tertiary age in the northern Olympic Peninsula.

  18. Illuminating Northern California’s Active Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Furlong, Kevin P.; Philips, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google EarthTM and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2)

  19. Arctic marine phytobenthos of northern Baffin Island.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Peters, Akira F; Shewring, Dawn M; Sayer, Martin D J; Mystikou, Alexandra; Brown, Hugh; Azzopardi, Elaine; Dargent, Olivier; Strittmatter, Martina; Brennan, Debra; Asensi, Aldo O; van West, Pieter; Wilce, Robert T

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter the polar bioregions faster than any other marine environment. This study assesses the biodiversity of seaweeds and associated eukaryotic pathogens of an established study site in northern Baffin Island (72° N), providing a baseline inventory for future work assessing impacts of the currently ongoing changes in the Arctic marine environment. A total of 33 Phaeophyceae, 24 Rhodophyceae, 2 Chlorophyceae, 12 Ulvophyceae, 1 Trebouxiophyceae, and 1 Dinophyceae are reported, based on collections of an expedition to the area in 2009, complemented by unpublished records of Robert T. Wilce and the first-ever photographic documentation of the phytobenthos of the American Arctic. Molecular barcoding of isolates raised from incubated substratum samples revealed the presence of 20 species of brown seaweeds, including gametophytes of kelp and of a previously unsequenced Desmarestia closely related to D. viridis, two species of Pylaiella, the kelp endophyte Laminariocolax aecidioides and 11 previously unsequenced species of the Ectocarpales, highlighting the necessity to include molecular techniques for fully unraveling cryptic algal diversity. This study also includes the first records of Eurychasma dicksonii, a eukaryotic pathogen affecting seaweeds, from the American Arctic. Overall, this study provides both the most accurate inventory of seaweed diversity of the northern Baffin Island region to date and can be used as an important basis to understand diversity changes with climate change. PMID:27037790

  20. Searching for Young Stars in Northern Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Laurie; Kraus, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Molecular Cloud contains many known star-forming regions mostly located in the southern parts of the constellation. However, northern Orion is largely unsurveyed outside of a few well-established clusters meaning there could be more sites of ongoing star formation. We have conducted a search for young stars in northern Orion to find new star-forming regions. Using the MG1 Variable Star Survey we identified 2118 variable stars spanning a region of 30 deg2 from R.A.=4h 00m to 6h 30m and Dec=2.9 to 3.7 degrees. These stars’ variability could result from accretion or spots, which are common characteristics of young stars. We use several methods to detect candidate young stars from these data: selection cuts with color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), measurement of proper motions and visual inspection of the source images. We make cuts to only include stars that have CMD positions consistent with the Orion sequence, have proper motions within 3 sigma of known Orion members, and are not contaminated by other nearby sources. These cuts identify an area between 5h 20m and 5h 52m in R.A. with a significant overdensity of 74 young star candidates. We will discuss in detail our selection cuts and the implication of these discoveries. This work was conducted by a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) position at the University of Hawai'i's Institute for Astronomy and funded by the NSF.

  1. Perspectives on Smoking Cessation in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elisa M; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Widman, Christy; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Fox, Chester H; Underwood, Willie; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-04-01

    This study applies qualitative research methods to explore perspectives on cessation among smokers/former smokers recruited from an area of Northern Appalachia. Six focus groups, stratified by age group (18-39 years old and 40 years and older), were conducted among participants (n = 54) recruited from community settings. Participants described varied interest in and challenges with quitting smoking. Smokers 40 years and older more readily endorsed the health risks of smoking and had greater interest in quitting assistance. Participants expressed frustration with the US government for allowing a harmful product (e.g., cigarettes) to be promoted with minimal regulation. Use of social media was robust among both age groups; participants expressed limited interest in various social media/technology platforms for promoting smoking cessation. Findings from this understudied area of northern Appalachia reflect the heterogeneity of this region and contribute novel information about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of current and formers smokers with regard to cessation. PMID:26318743

  2. Northern Plains Textures Visible Near the Terminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Each day, Mars Global Surveyor makes 12 orbits around the red planet. On each orbit at the present time (April 1999), the spacecraft passes from daylight into night somewhere over the northern plains of Mars, and re-emerges into daylight over the southern cratered highlands. The illumination conditions near the martian terminator--the line between night and day--are perfect for observing surface texture and topography. This picture shows a common, rough and bumpy texture that MOC has revealed on the northern plains of Mars. Note the eroded impact crater at the bottom right--small black dots along its rim are interpreted to be boulders. This image covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 8 kilometers (5 miles) long and is illuminated by the sun shining low from the northeastern horizon (from the upper right).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  3. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  5. Absolute spectrophotometry of northern compact planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Perinotto, M.

    2005-06-01

    We present medium-dispersion spectra and narrowband images of six northern compact planetary nebulae (PNe): BoBn 1, DdDm 1, IC 5117, M 1-5, M 1-71, and NGC 6833. From broad-slit spectra, total absolute fluxes and equivalent widths were measured for all observable emission lines. High signal-to-noise emission line fluxes of Hα, Hβ, [Oiii], [Nii], and HeI may serve as emission line flux standards for northern hemisphere observers. From narrow-slit spectra, we derive systemic radial velocities. For four PNe, available emission line fluxes were measured with sufficient signal-to-noise to probe the physical properties of their electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances. BoBn 1 and DdDm 1, both type IV PNe, have an Hβ flux over three sigma away from previous measurements. We report the first abundance measurements of M 1-71. NGC 6833 measured radial velocity and galactic coordinates suggest that it is associated with the outer arm or possibly the galactic halo, and its low abundance ([O/H]=1.3× 10-4) may be indicative of low metallicity within that region.

  6. Eskers as an aid to the understanding of deglaciation in the Northern Adirondacks

    SciTech Connect

    King, G.S. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Eskers in the Northern Adirondack Mountains of New York State have been examined in order to gain a better understanding of their origin, their relationship to other glacial landforms, and to determine the relative timing of their formation. Ultimately, it is hoped that eskers can be used to construct a model of the former ice sheet for the region. Cross sections and longitudinal profiles were constructed to give a better understanding of esker form. Subsequent fieldwork was designed to confirm and compliment these morphometric analyses. The sedimentology of an esker and adjacent fan was logged and interpreted. The spatial relations between the eskers, fans, and delta complexes were identified. Results indicate that the eskers of the Northern Adirondack Mountains formed at different stages in the retreat of the ice sheet and are not related to an integrated subglacial drainage system. The presence of a lacustrine fan at the south end of the St. Regis Esker indicates that a glacial lake was present at the ice sheet margin and delimits an ice marginal position. The morphology and distribution of eskers may be useful as an indicator in the timing of continental deglaciation of northern New York State. Research for this project was funded by a University of Dayton Research Council Grant to D. Pair.

  7. Preliminary spatial Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) drought reconstructions for central and northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Garcia, G.; Mendez, J. M.; Magana, V.; Villanueva-Diaz, J.

    2007-05-01

    We developed a spatial drought reconstruction of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for northern and central Mexico based on the relationship between tree growth and climate. Many previous tree-rings studies have successfully reconstructed drought indices as Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), although SPI has become a widely accepted drought index; to our knowledge no SPI reconstructions have been developed using tree-ring chronologies over our study region. The methodology used in this work was the Point by Point Regression (PPR). The data set used was a network of tree-ring chronologies for Mexico and south United States and a 7-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for the season November - May. The observed SPI was based on the Pearson Type III distribution (Guttman 1999), calculated from a 1-degree monthly precipitation dataset (Chen et al 2002). In order to maximize the number of tree-ring chronologies we set our calibration and reconstruction periods for 1948-1985 and 1801- 1985, respectively. According with our analysis, El Nino events are mainly associated with wetter condition over northern Mexico, while La Nina events are characterized by dry conditions. This reconstruction reproduces the 1950s drought which affected most of northern Mexico, the Great Plains and the southwestern United States. Results are compared with other reconstructed gridded drought indices available for the same area (Cook et al 2004).

  8. Assessment of information on ground-water/surface-water interactions in the northern midcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water/surface-water interactions are important to the hydrology of shallow aquifers, streams, lakes, and wetlands. Information on ground-water/surface-water interactions in the northern midcontinent was assessed. The ground-water/surface-water interactions in physiographic and climatic areas that contain many wetlands differed from the interactions in areas that consisted predominantly of alluvial aquifers along large streams. In both types of areas, however, the interactions are complex. The distribution of shallow ground-water observation wells in the northern midcontinent and the frequency of measurement were evaluated. Most shallow wells are located adjacent to major streams, especially in areas where wetlands are not a dominant surface-water feature. The frequency of measurement was inconsistent between states.

  9. Effects of climate on numbers of northern prairie wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The amount of water held in individual wetland basins depends not only on local climate patterns but also on groundwater flow regime, soil permeability, and basin size. Most wetland basins in the northern prairies hold water in some years and are dry in others. To assess the potential effect of climate change on the number of wetland basins holding water in a given year, one must first determine how much of the variability in number of wet basins is accounted for by climatic variables. I used multiple linear regression to examine the relationship between climate variables and percentage of wet basins throughout the Prairie Pothole Region of Canada and the United States. The region was divided into three areas: parkland, Canadian grassland, and United States grassland (i.e., North Dakota and South Dakota). The models - which included variables for spring and fall temperature, yearly precipitation, the previous year's count of wet basins, and for grassland areas, the previous fall precipitation - accounted for 63 to 65% of the variation in the number of wet basins. I then explored the sensitivities of the models to changes in temperature and precipitation, as might be associated with increased greenhouse gas concentrations. Parkland wetlands are shown to be much more vulnerable to increased temperatures than are wetlands in either Canadian or United States grasslands. Sensitivity to increased precipitation did not vary geographically. These results have implications for waterfowl and other wildlife populations that depend on availability of wetlands in the parklands for breeding or during periods of drought in the southern grasslands.

  10. Ongoing Climatic Changes in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Ya.; Bulygina, O. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Meshcherskaya, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Akhmadiyeva, Zh. K.; Speranskaya, N. A.; Zhai, P.; Shein, K.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is the region where the contemporary warming and associated climatic and environmental changes are among the most pronounced globally, with winter temperature increased by more than 2K and summer temperature by 1.35K during the period of instrumental observations since 1881. The summer warming is a new phenomenon observed during the past several decades. Summer temperature controls most of vegetation in the polar region, where surface radiation balance (SRB) is positive only for a short period of the year. But, in the middle of this period, it exceeds the SRB values in Sahara or southern California. North of the Eurasian coast, the Arctic Ocean is moving to perennial ice-free conditions and has already lost nearly half of its end-of-summer extent since the late 1970s. This changes the regional albedo and dramatically affects the cold season heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere. Thus, Northern Eurasia and, particularly, its Arctic part is being affected by global and regional factors that are contributing to these observed changes and the positive feedbacks to this forcing may further exaggerate the situation. Climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in many atmospheric and terrestrial variables. These include various snow cover, agricultural and phenological characteristics, temperature and precipitation changes, as well as changes in derived variables of economic, social and ecological interest. Among these variables are the frequency of extremes in precipitation and temperature; frequency and duration of no-rain periods; agricultural and hydrological droughts; frequency of thaws and days with severe fire danger; heating degree days; growing season duration; sum of temperatures above/below a given threshold; days without frost; day-to-day temperature variability; precipitation frequency; and precipitation type fraction. We shall systematically present these changes observed during the past 50 to

  11. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  12. Detailed Cloud Patterns in Martian Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cold and cloudy mornings; cool, hazy afternoons. High winds aloft and weather fronts moving slowly to the east. It is winter in the Martian northern hemisphere. One of the many reasons to study Mars is that, at times, its weather is very 'Earth-like.' At this time of the Martian year, clouds are abundant, especially in the morning and especially in the high northern latitudes. Clouds and fogs are also observed in low-lying areas farther to the south, in some lowlands they are as far south as the equator.

    The above color composite images, obtained by Mars Global Surveyor's camera on June 4, 1998, illustrate this Martian 'weather report.' Most of the thick, white clouds seen here occur north of latitude 35oN (roughly equivalent to Albuquerque NM, Memphis TN, and Charlotte, NC). Fog (seen as bright orange because it is lighter than the ground but some of the ground is still visible) occupies the lowest portions of the Kasei Valles outflow channel around 30oN and at 25oN.

    Several different types of cloud features are seen. The repetitious, wash-board pattern of parallel lines are 'gravity wave clouds'. These commonly form, in the lee--downwind side-- of topographic features such as mountain ranges (on Earth) or crater rims (on Mars), under very specific atmospheric conditions (low temperatures, high humidity, and high wind speeds). In this area, the wave clouds are lower in the atmosphere than some of the other clouds. These other clouds show attributes reflecting more the regional weather pattern, occasionally showing the characteristic 'slash' shape (southwest to northeast) of a weather front. These clouds probably contain mostly crystals of water ice but, depending on the temperature at high altitude (and more likely closer to the pole), some could also contain frozen carbon dioxide ('dry ice').

    MOC images 34501 (the red wide angle image) and 34502 (the blue wide angle image) were obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 345th orbit about the planet

  13. Megafans of the Northern Kalahari Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Miller, R. McG.; Eckardt, F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We identify eleven megafans (partial cones of fluvial sediment, >80 km radius) in the northern Kalahari Basin, using several criteria based on VIS and IR remotely sensed data and SRTM-based surface morphology reconstructions. Two other features meet fewer criteria of the form which we class as possible megafans. The northern Kalahari megafans are located in a 1700 km arc around the southern and eastern flanks of the Angola's Bié Plateau, from northern Namibia through northwest Botswana to western Zambia. Three lie in the Owambo subbasin centered on the Etosha Pan, three in the relatively small Okavango rift depression, and five in the Upper Zambezi basin. The population includes the well-known Okavango megafan (150 km), Namibia's Cubango megafan, the largest megafan in the region (350 km long), and the largest nested group (the five major contiguous megafans on the west slopes of the upper Zambezi Valley). We use new, SRTM-based topographic roughness data to discriminate various depositional surfaces within the flat N. Kalahari landscapes. We introduce the concepts of divide megafans, derived megafans, and fan-margin rivers. Conclusions. (i) Eleven megafan cones total an area of 190,000 sq km. (ii) Different controls on megafan size operate in the three component basins: in the Okavango rift structural controls become the prime constraint on megafan length by controlling basin dimensions. Megafans in the other les constricted basins appear to conform to classic relationships fan area, slope, and feeder-basin area. (iii) Active fans occupy the Okavango rift depression with one in the Owambo basin. The rest of the population are relict but recently active fans (surfaces are relict with respect to activity by the feeder river). (iv) Avulsive behavior of the formative river-axiomatic for the evolution of megafans-has resulted in repeated rearrangements of regional drainage, with likely effects in the study area well back into the Neogene. Divide megafans comprise the

  14. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  15. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  16. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235.9 Section 1235.9 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.9 Northern...

  17. Primary Languages in Northern Ireland: Too Little, Too Late?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Siberry, Laurence; Beale, George

    2010-01-01

    There has been much debate in recent years about the future of primary language teaching in England, Scotland and Wales but relatively little discussion about the situation in Northern Ireland. This paper seeks to set the policy context in Northern Ireland where the provision for primary languages lags behind other regions of the United Kingdom…

  18. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern...

  19. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern...

  20. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern...

  1. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern...

  2. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern...

  3. 7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING NORTHERN ABUTMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING NORTHERN ABUTMENT (LEFT), CANTILEVERED NORTHERN TRUSS SECTION (CENTER), AND PIER (RIGHT), FROM SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BRIDGE. FACING NORTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  4. Drinking and Smoking Habits of Students at Northern Territory University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Adrian S.

    Persons in the Northern Territory who drink have the highest per capita daily consumption of alcohol and the highest rate of tobacco smoking in Australia. This study identifies the drinking patterns and demographic and personal variables that might predict risk levels for Northern Territory University (NTU) students and therefore give direction to…

  5. NORTHERN IDAHO FLOODING, FEBRUARY 1996. USGS FACT SHEETS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS published 2 Fact Sheets describing the February 1996 floods in northern Idaho (17010304). Fact Sheet FS-222-96, Magnitude of Floods in Northern Idaho, February 1996, by Michael A. Beckwith, Charles Berenbrock, and R.L. Backsen, describes the magnitude of the floods at 8 str...

  6. 33 CFR 100.1103 - Northern California annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern California annual marine events. 100.1103 Section 100.1103 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1103 Northern California annual marine events. (a) General....

  7. A Grammar of Northern Mao (Mawes Aas'e)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Michael Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Northern Mao is an endangered Afroasiatic-Omotic language of western Ethiopia with fewer than 5,000 speakers. This study is a comprehensive grammar of the language, written from a functional/typological perspective which embraces historical change as an explanation for synchronic structure. The grammar introduces the Northern Mao people, aspects…

  8. 48. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, October, 1957) SHEAR FENCE DAMAGE FROM M/V/ KORSHOLMA COLLISION - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  9. Implementing E-Learning in Northern Ireland: Prospects and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhomoibhi, James O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to examine trends in the development of e-learning in Northern Ireland, report on existing policies, practices and issues affecting its implementation across the sectors. Design/methodology/approach: The present study draws on e-learning policies and strategies that have been developed for Northern Ireland. Examples were drawn from…

  10. 77 FR 61595 - Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing October 2, 2012. Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Northern Illinois Municipal Power filed its Revised and...

  11. 77 FR 48949 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNM RAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  12. 75 FR 80788 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNMRAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural...

  13. 75 FR 29717 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  14. 76 FR 55345 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNM RAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and Community...

  15. 76 FR 31299 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Correct FR Doc. 2011-12588; Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee (NNM RAC) will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is authorized under the Secure...

  16. 75 FR 47259 - Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Forest Service Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Northern New Mexico Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and...

  17. Snow Cover Changes over Northern Eurasia from in Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulygina, O. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Ya; Korshunova, N. N.

    2012-04-01

    Data. In addition to a standard suite of synoptic snow observations (snow depth, snow type, state of the ground at the meteorological site and its surroundings), we used in our study the national snow survey data set archived at the Russian Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. This dataset has routine snow surveys run throughout the cold season each decade (during the intense snowmelt, each 5 days) at all meteorological stations of the former USSR, thereafter in Russia, since 1966. Prior to 1966 snow surveys are also available but the methodology of observations has substantially changed at that year and our analysis includes data of 958 Russian stations from 1966 to 2011 with a minimal number of missing observations. Surveys run separately along all types of environment typical for the site for 1 to 2 km, describing the current snow cover properties such as snow density, depth, water equivalent, and characteristics of snow and ice crust. Background. During the period of widespread instrumental observations in Northern Eurasia (since 1881), the annual surface air temperature has increased by 1.5°C (in the winter season by 3°C. Close to the north in the Arctic Ocean, the late summer sea ice extent has decreased by 40% providing a near-infinite source of water vapor for the dry Arctic atmosphere in the early cold season months. There is also evidence of more frequent thaw days over northern latitudes of western Eurasia. All these factors affect the state of snow cover. Methods. Regional analysis of snow cover data was carried out using quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Maps (climatology, trends) are presented mostly for visualization purposes. The area-averaging technique using station values converted to anomalies with respect to a common reference period (in this study, 1966-2011). Anomalies were arithmetically averaged first within 1°N x 2°E grid cells and thereafter by a weighted average value derived over the quasi-homogeneous climatic regions

  18. Paleoceanography. Antarctic role in Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Stella C; Rosenthal, Yair; Miller, Kenneth G; Wright, James D; Chiu, Beverly K; Lawrence, Kira T

    2014-11-14

    Earth's climate underwent a major transition from the warmth of the late Pliocene, when global surface temperatures were ~2° to 3°C higher than today, to extensive Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG) ~2.73 million years ago (Ma). We show that North Pacific deep waters were substantially colder (4°C) and probably fresher than the North Atlantic Deep Water before the intensification of NHG. At ~2.73 Ma, the Atlantic-Pacific temperature gradient was reduced to <1°C, suggesting the initiation of stronger heat transfer from the North Atlantic to the deep Pacific. We posit that increased glaciation of Antarctica, deduced from the 21 ± 10-meter sea-level fall from 3.15 to 2.75 Ma, and the development of a strong polar halocline fundamentally altered deep ocean circulation, which enhanced interhemispheric heat and salt transport, thereby contributing to NHG. PMID:25342658

  19. Non-traumatic paraplegia in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, E M

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective study of all 100 cases of non-traumatic (medical) paraplegia admitted to a large hospital in northern Tanzania over an eight-year period was undertaken; 15 of the patients were examined. Patients' ages ranged from 2 to 80 years (mean 31), and 67 were male. Seventy-one lived under 85 km (53 miles) from the hospital, and the average period from onset of symptoms of paraplegia to admission to the referral hospital was ten weeks. Tuberculosis was the most frequent cause of paraplegia (54%), followed by neoplasia (13%) and schistosomiasis, (6%). No cases of nutritional myelopathy were diagnosed. In 12 cases a diagnosis could not be established. The average period spent in hospital was 11 weeks, and 35 patients made a good recovery and were ambulant at discharge. PMID:6793199

  20. Active Venting System Offshore Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Shyam; Rise, Leif; Bellec, Valérie; Dolan, Margaret; Bøe, Reidulv; Thorsnes, Terje; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene

    2008-07-01

    A combined sediment-sampling, high-resolution seismic, multiple echo sounder, and video survey was conducted offshore Vesterålen, northern Norway, in October 2007 as part of the ongoing Marine Area Database for Norwegian Coast and Oceanic Regions (MAREANO) program. MAREANO is a multidisciplinary seabed mapping program conducting physical, biological, and environmental mapping in the Lofoten/southern Barents Sea area. Data and analysis arising from this program will provide the basis for ecosystem-based management of Norway's coastal and offshore regions. The survey used multicorer, box corer, and grab samplers; a TOPAS parametric subbottom profiler; 18-, 38-, 70-, 120-, 200-, and 400-kilohertz echo sounders; and a CAMPOD camera system with two video cameras and lights mounted on an aluminum frame.

  1. Depopulation of the Northern Plains Natives.

    PubMed

    Decker, J F

    1991-01-01

    Nine major epidemics of acute infectious diseases swept the Northern Plains of the Western Interior of Canada between 1774 and 1839. The Blackfeet, Plains Cree and Assiniboin, Atsina and Saulteaux who exploited the Plains were differentially exposed to these epidemics of smallpox, measles, whooping cough and influenza. Mortality estimates from these epidemics were used in assessing the degree to which a series of epidemics contributed to depopulation of the Plains Natives. A criteria was established to determine an epidemic from a depopulation epidemic, which involved among other factors, the determination of age-selective mortality. The analysis concludes that despite the fact several Native groups exploited, and in some cases co-resided in a similar ecological area, they suffered differential mortality and depopulation rates. PMID:1948151

  2. Airborne radioiodine in northern Serbia from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Bikit, Istvan; Mrda, Dusan; Todorovic, Natasa; Nikolov, Jovana; Krmar, Miodrag; Veskovic, Miroslav; Slivka, Jaroslav; Hansman, Jan; Forkapic, Sofija; Jovancevic, Nikola

    2012-12-01

    The results obtained with the monitoring system set up to assess the impact of the Fukushima accident on the environment of Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia) are presented and discussed. Aerosol, rain, fresh milk and spinach samples were collected daily in the weeks following the accident. In the aerosol samples, (131)I activity concentrations of several mBq m(-3) were measured, while in rain, milk and spinach samples, (131)I levels had values in a range of (0.3-1.7) Bq kg(-1). These are the first results on the impact of the Fukushima accident on the Pannonian basin region. Our results are compared with the reported values from other parts of the world. PMID:22326020

  3. Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.

    PubMed

    Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives. PMID:24598776

  4. Pneumonic Plague Outbreak, Northern Madagascar, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vincent; Herindrainy, Perlinot; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Ratsitoharina, Maherisoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Andrianalimanana, Samuel; Scholz, Holger C.; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is endemic to Madagascar, particularly to the central highlands. Although plague has not been previously reported in northern Madagascar, an outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in this remote area in 2011. Over a 27-day period, 17 suspected, 2 presumptive, and 3 confirmed human cases were identified, and all 15 untreated 20 patients died. Molecular typing of Y. pestis isolated from 2 survivors and 5 Rattus rattus rat samples identified the Madagascar-specific 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype and 4 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat patterns. This outbreak had a case-fatality rate of 100% for nontreated patients. The Y. pestis 1.ORI3-k single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype might cause larger epidemics. Multidrug-resistant strains and persistence of the pathogen in natural foci near human settlements pose severe risks to populations in plague-endemic regions and require outbreak response strategies. PMID:25530466

  5. Undergraduate Research at Northern Arizona University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, K. D.

    2003-12-01

    Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Arizona has a thriving program of undergraduate research in astronomy and planetary science. Students work not only with professors but with researchers at other local institutions such as the Lowell Observatory, the U.S.N.O., and the U.S.G.S. A highlight is our NSF-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates summer program, which attracts students from all over the U.S. and places them at all four institutions. During the regular school year, students either are paid through research grants or NASA Space Grant funds, or earn course credit. Some of our students participate in joint observing projects through the National Undergraduate Research Observatory. I will present some examples of recent student projects, and outline my description of the illusive perfect undergraduate research project.

  6. Northern European adolescent attitudes toward dating violence.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Erica; Holdsworth, Emma; Leen, Eline; Sorbring, Emma; Helsing, Bo; Jaans, Sebastian; Awouters, Valère

    2013-01-01

    A focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes toward dating violence among 86 adolescents (aged 12-17) from four northern European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium). Four superordinate themes were identified from thematic analyses: gender identities, television as the educator, perceived acceptability of dating violence, and the decision to seek help/tell someone. Although violence in relationships was generally not condoned, when violence was used by females, was unintended (despite its consequences), or was in retaliation for infidelity, violence was perceived as acceptable. Adolescents indicated that their views were stereotypical and based solely on stereotypical television portrayals of violence in relationships. Stereotypical beliefs and portrayals generate barriers for victimized males to seek help because of fear of embarrassment. PMID:24047043

  7. Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

  8. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Höglund, J; Engström, A; Chirico, J

    2014-12-01

    Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O. sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O. sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O. sylviarum from poultry in Europe. PMID:24602037

  9. Geologic mapping of northern Lunae Planun, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    1991-01-01

    Lunae Planum is an elevated region east of the Tharsis rise, and ridged plains containing numerous Sacra Dorsa wrinkle ridges, cross-cutting Sacra Fossae grabens, and lobate scarps compose this Martian Plateau. Geologic mapping of the northern Lunae Planum region was undertaken to better understand to emplacement history of the ridge plains, the structural history of deformation, and the periods of fluvial processes that have modified the region. These investigations are important for several reasons: (1) the history of plains emplacement yields information valuable for understanding the evolution of Tharsis volcanism; (2) interpretation of structural deformation has implications on the lithology of the Martian crust; and (3) determining the history and fate of Martian volatiles is dependent upon knowing the periods of outflow activity. A discussion of the findings is presented.

  10. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  11. Trichinosis: A recent outbreak in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Khamboonruang, C; Nateewatana, N

    1975-03-01

    During April, 1973, and outbreak of trichinosis occurred in Mae Sruay District, Chiang Rai Province, about 900 kilometers north of Bangkok, Thailand. Thirty-one persons were involved, of whom 27 (20 males, and 7 females), ranging in age from 9 to 72 years, were questioned. One adult female died before being brought to hospital. All subjects gave a history of having consumed raw pork in the form of "lahb" and "nahm", favourite dishes of the northern Thai. Beginning the third week after exposure, all developed fever and myalgia. Other less common complaints were diarrhoea and oedema of extremities and palpebral skin. Leucocytosis was revealed in 37% and 55% had eosinophilia exceeding 20%. Nineteen patients had hookworm and Opisthorchis infections. About 63% were skin test positive with Trichinella antigen. Eight patients were admitted to hospital; muscle biopsy was done on one serious case and trichina larvae were detected. PMID:1145241

  12. 78 FR 52711 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fisheries Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... year. The 2013 fishing year northern red hake TAL is 199,077 lb (90,300 kg) (78 FR 20260; April 4, 2013... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fisheries Management Plan; Northern Red Hake Quota Harvested... 2013 fishing year. DATES: Effective at 0001 hr local time, August 26, 2013, through 2400 hr local...

  13. 77 FR 58321 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fisheries Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... remainder of the fishing year. The 2012 fishing year northern red hake TAL is 199,077 lb (90,300 kg) (77 FR... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fisheries Management Plan; Northern Red Hake Quota Harvested... fishing year. DATES: Effective at 0001 hr local time, September 20, 2012, through 2400 hr local time...

  14. The Wisconsin Hα Mapper Northern Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. M.; Reynolds, R. J.; Madsen, G. J.; Tufte, S. L.; Jaehnig, K. P.; Percival, J. P.; Hausen, N. R.

    2001-12-01

    The ionized gas in the Milky Way has been fully surveyed from the Northern Hemisphere by the Wisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM). The WHAM Northern Sky Survey (WHAM-NSS) has an angular resolution of one-degree and provides the first kinematically resolved map of the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM). With 12 km s-1 spectral resolution, we have removed atmospheric emission and zodiacal absorption features from each of the 37,565 spectra, leaving behind a fully resolved Galactic Hα profile. Galactic emission is detected in nearly every spectrum. Velocity channel maps from the survey show complex filamentary structure in the local WIM and in the nearest spiral arms. Some of these halo features are clearly associated with active star formation in the Galactic plane. High-latitude Hα emission at intermediate velocities traces out IVC complexes previously discovered through 21 cm observations. An initial analysis of the relationship between the high latitude Hα and 21 cm emission suggests that although the spatial extent and velocity profiles are quite similar, the intensities are completely uncorrelated. Our deep emission sensitivity also reveals several H 2 regions around early B stars and sdO stars, providing an indirect probe of their Lyman continuum and adding another ionizing source for the WIM. Total intensity maps, velocity channel maps, and full spectral profiles from the WHAM-NSS are available for download at http://www.astro.wisc.edu/wham/. WHAM was built and continues to explore the rich science of ionized gas through generous support of the National Science Foundation. This work is funded by grant AST96-19424.

  15. Geology and hydrogeology of northern Guam

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, W.L.

    1995-12-31

    Recent site characterization activities on the northern portion of the island of Guam have provided data challenging the perception of expected rapid flow within the karst ground water system. The main water bearing formations consist of Tertiary and Quaternary age coralline reef limestones of the Barrigada and Mariana formations. The Barrigada formation lies on top of the underlying Tertiary aged volcanics, and the younger Mariana formation overlies and onlaps the Barrigada formation as a vertical and transgressional facies, changing from a deep to a shallow water depositional sequence. Rain water rapidly infiltrates through the limestone recharging the fresh water aquifer. Conditions that affect the occurrence and extent of the fresh water aquifer are: tidal fluctuations, storm surges, stratigraphic settings, and karstification of the limestone. Evidence from boreholes drilled inland and near the coast suggest karstification has occurred between the phreatic and vadose zone at a depth of approximately 150 meters below ground surface, and within the transition zone between the fresh and salt water interface, near sea level. Although one might expect a rapid flow system in this karst aquifer, non-flashy responses on water levels in wells, and current results from a dye tracing study, suggest ground water movement is indicative of diffuse porous flow. However, flow velocity within the vadose zone has been found to be several times that occurring within the aquifer and it is very difficult to predict the direction of movement. Andersen Air Force Base, located on the northern portion of the island of Guam, has been operating since World War II after re-capturing the island from the Japanese in 1944. In the intervening years, sanitary and industrial wastes have been disposed in various trenches, borrow pits, quarries, and sinkholes. Potential ground water degradation may result if hazardous substances, in the form of leachate, are released from these disposal areas.

  16. Spectroscopy of red dravite from northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Naumenko, Ievgen V.; Vyshnevsky, Olexij A.

    2015-07-01

    Low-Fe dravite with a formula of Na0.66Ca0.16Mg2.62Fe0.33Mn0.02Ti0.02Al5.95B3Si6.04O27(OH)4 is described from Engusero Sambu, northern Tanzania (On maps, Engusero Sambu may be found to be marked as belonging to Kenya, but in reality, it is located near the border in northern Tanzania). The sample has an unusual red color that is distinctly different from the red dravite from the Osarara, Narok district, in Kenya that was formerly studied by Mattson and Rossman (Phys Chem Miner 14:225-234, 1984) and Taran and Rossman (Am Mineral 87:1148-1153, 2002). This unique sample has been characterized by optical and Mössbauer spectral measurements to investigate underlying cause of the intense bands in absorption spectra that give rise to the red color. These features are shown to be caused by exchange-coupled Fe3+-Fe3+ interactions. Thermal annealing of the samples causes an increase in Fe3+ contents due to oxidation of [Y]Fe2+. However, heat treatment does not change the high-energy absorption edge, which is probably caused by intense ligand-to-Fe3+ charge-transfer UV bands. In fact, Mössbauer results show that high-temperature annealing initiates breakdown of the tourmaline into an Fe oxide and causes accompanying redistribution of Fe3+ within the structure. Because of the popularity of tourmaline as a gemstone, this work has implications for understanding the causes of color in tourmaline, facilitating recognition of the distinctions between naturally occurring and treated tourmalines in the gem industry and enabling heat treatments for color enhancement.

  17. Tectonic Tremor Source Amplitude in Northern Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K. C.; Klaus, A. J.; Wech, A.

    2012-12-01

    Most studies of tectonic tremor have focused on tremor location and duration. We examine tremor source amplitude in northern Cascadia, and explore its importance in understanding the physical processes generating tremor and slow slip. In Cascadia, we observe a linear increase in tremor source amplitude during the approximately five-day initiation phase of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events, apparently associated with a linear increase in the area where tremor is occurring. There is also mounting evidence that tremor amplitude during ETS events is strongly modulated by tidal stresses (e.g. Rubinstein et al, Science, 2008), including the most recent northern Cascadia ETS events of 2010 and 2011. This suggests a low coefficient of friction on the subduction interface. We will extend our existing amplitude catalog of the 2010 and 2011 Cascadia ETS events to include all of 2006 to 2012, incorporating multiple data sets and providing more insight into the spatial distribution of tremor, the initiation phase of ETS events, and tidal forcing of ETS and inter-ETS tremor. Tremor source amplitudes are estimated with a method similar to Maeda and Obara (JGR, 2009), using the proportional relationship between source amplitude and the root-mean square of band-limited (1.5 to 5.5 Hz) ground velocity for every 5-minute window. We use horizontal component seismograms from the CAFE (2006-2008) and Array of Arrays (2009-2011) experiments, as well as permanent PNSN stations. Tremor locations were determined using a waveform envelope cross-correlation method (Wech and Creager, GRL, 2008). We perform an inversion using these tremor locations and station ground velocities to determine the tremor source amplitude and station statics, taking into account geometric spreading and seismic attenuation.

  18. Giant gas field of northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Hart, G.F.

    1986-06-01

    The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m/sup 3/ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m/sup 3/ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m/sup 3/ or 286 tcf of gas) and Yamburg (4.81 trillion m/sup 3/ or 170 tcf of gas)-as well as most of the other ten largest gas fields in the world. The West Siberian basin occupies a 3.4-million km/sup 2/ (1.31-million mi/sup 2/) arctic lowland immediately east of the Ural Mountains, extending north under the Kara Sea. It is a composite basin, with Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill on top of a Paleozoic basin that overlies a crystalline Archean-Proterozoic framework. The productive zones in the northern basin are principally in the Neocomian section (at an average depth of 2800m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 2800 m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 1100 m or 3600 ft). The former contains reservoirs with gas, condensate, and oil; the latter contains two-thirds of the region's gas. Gas in Cenomanian reservoirs is almost pure methane. Hydrocarbons in Neocomian reservoirs were generated by thermal maturation of sapropelic organic matter contained principally in the Tithonian Bazhenov shale. Methane in the Cenomanian section appears to be a combination of thermogenic gas from the Bazhenov Suite (or deeper) and biogenic gas generated in the Cenomanian section itself, although workers disagree over how much gas came from each source. Continental glaciation during the Pleistocene may have been important in concentrating the methane in Cenomanian reservoirs.

  19. A Giant Storm in Saturn's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Fischer, G.; Gurnett, D. A.; Zarka, P. M.; Dyudina, U. A.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Ewald, S. P.; Porco, C.; Wesley, A.; Go, C.; Delcroix, M.

    2011-12-01

    Beginning on December 5, 2010, an extraordinary thunderstorm developed as observed via the radio signatures of lightning using the Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument and the appearance of a convective cloud in Cassini's Imaging Science System (ISS) images. These instruments as well as amateur astronomers across the globe have continued to track this storm to the present. The storm is extraordinary in that it is the first observed by Cassini in the northern hemisphere near 35 degrees planetocentric north latitude and is, by far, the largest storm observed by Cassini during its mission at Saturn and is comparable to the Great White Spot (GWS) storms observed approximately once per Saturn year. The development from the barely visible indications on December 5 to a storm of GWS status occurred over about 3 weeks. Expansion of the storm in latitude within a latitudinal gradient in the wind system of the planet resulted in an elongated eastward tail which entirely circled the planet by February 2011. The primary active cell lies in a relatively localized area around the main plume of high altitude clouds that overshoot the ammonia cloud layer due to strong vertical convection, although other, weaker cells occasionally develop within the tail. The lightning flash rate of this storm peaked at an order of magnitude higher than previously recorded storms with strokes occurring at the rate of 10 per second and the total power estimated for the storm is comparable to Saturn's total emitted power, making it a significant element of the planet's energy budget. That this storm occurred a year or so after northern vernal equinox suggests a seasonal change in the location of Saturn's thunderstorms. We will summarize observations of this extraordinary storm and update its progress as it is ongoing at the time of this writing.

  20. Spatial distribution of pingos in Northern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.

    2010-09-01

    Pingos are prominent periglacial landforms in vast regions of the Arctic and Subarctic. They are indicators of modern and past conditions of permafrost, surface geology, hydrology and climate. A first version of a detailed spatial geodatabase of more than 6000 pingo locations in a 3.5 × 106 km2 region of Northern Asia was assembled from topographic maps. A first order analysis was carried out with respect to permafrost, landscape characteristics, surface geology, hydrology, climate, and elevation datasets using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Pingo heights in the dataset vary between 2 and 37 m, with a mean height of 4.8 m. About 64% of the pingos occur in continuous permafrost with high ice content and thick sediments; another 19% in continuous permafrost with moderate ice content and thick sediments. The majority of these pingos likely formed through closed system freezing, typical of those located in drained thermokarst lake basins of northern lowlands with continuous permafrost. About 82% of the pingos are located in the tundra bioclimatic zone. Most pingos in the dataset are located in regions with mean annual ground temperatures between -3 and -11 °C and mean annual air temperatures between -7 and -18 °C. The dataset confirms that surface geology and hydrology are key factors for pingo formation and occurrence. Based on model predictions for near-future permafrost distribution, hundreds of pingos along the southern margins of permafrost will be located in regions with thawing permafrost by 2100, which ultimately may lead to increased occurrence of pingo collapse. Based on our dataset and previously published estimates of pingo numbers from other regions, we conclude that there are more than 11 000 pingos on Earth.