Science.gov

Sample records for northern mariana islands

  1. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary...

  2. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  3. 75 FR 44231 - Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia and Republic of Palau; Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Mariana Islands Range Complex AGENCY: Department of Defense Representative Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  4. Preliminary Geologic Map of Mount Pagan Volcano, Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Moore, Richard B.; Sako, Maurice K.

    2006-01-01

    Pagan Island is the subaerial portion of two adjoining Quaternary stratovolcanoes near the middle of the active Mariana Arc, [FAT1]north of Saipan. Pagan and the other volcanic islands that constitute part of the Arc form the northern half of the East Mariana Ridge[FAT2], which extends about 2-4 km above the ocean floor. The > 6-km-deep Mariana Trench adjoins the East Mariana Ridge on the east, and the Mariana Trough, partly filled with young lava flows and volcaniclastic sediment, lies on the west of the Northern Mariana Islands (East Mariana Ridge. The submarine West Mariana Ridge, Tertiary in age, bounds the western side of the Mariana Trough. The Mariana Trench and Northern Mariana Islands (East Mariana Ridge) overlie an active subduction zone where the Pacific Plate, moving northwest at about 10.3 cm/year, is passing beneath the Philippine Plate, moving west-northwest at 6.8 cm/year. Beneath the Northern Mariana Islands, earthquake hypocenters at depths of 50-250 km identify the location of the west-dipping subduction zone, which farther west becomes nearly vertical and extends to 700 km depth. During the past century, more than 40 earthquakes of magnitude 6.5-8.1 have shaken the Mariana Trench. The Mariana Islands form two sub-parallel, concentric, concave-west arcs. The southern islands comprise the outer arc and extend north from Guam to Farallon de Medinilla. They consist of Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks and uplifted Tertiary and Quaternary limestone. The nine northern islands extend from Anatahan to Farallon de Pajaros and form part of the inner arc. The active inner arc extends south from Anatahan, where volcanoes, some of which are active, form seamounts west of the older outer arc. Other volcanic seamounts of the active arc surmount the East Mariana Ridge in the vicinity of Anatahan and Sarigan and north and south of Farallon de Pajaros. Six volcanoes (Farallon de Pajaros, Asuncion, Agrigan, Mount Pagan, Guguan, and Anatahan) in the northern islands

  5. Observing the Historic Eruption of Northern Mariana Islands Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Douglas A.; Shore, Patrick J.; Sauter, Allan; Hilton, David R.; Fischer, Tobias; Camacho, Juan T.

    2004-01-01

    Anatahan volcano erupted for the first time in recorded history at about 7:30 GMT on 10 May 2003, covering the island of Anatahan, in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), with ash, and providing scientists with important opportunities to study this volcano. The eruption was first reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Volcanic Ash Advisory Center at 12:32 GMT, based on satellite images of the ash cloud. At about the same time, unusual light flares were observed from an approaching small ship, the Super Emerald, which was carrying a group of seismologists from Washington University in St. Louis, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and the CNMI Emergency Management Office. As morning broke, the ship was approximately 10 km from the island, and those on board witnessed billowing ash and gas rise from the volcano's caldera to form a great cloud exceeding 6 km in altitude (Figure 1). The scientists were in the region installing land seismographs for the Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment, a joint U.S.-Japanese deployment of 20 land broadband seismographs and 58 ocean bottom seismographs funded (on the U.S. side) by the Margins program of the National Science Foundation. The experiment has the goal of imaging the magma production regions and mantle flow patterns within the upper mantle beneath the Mariana arc and backarc (see http://epsc.wustl.edu/seismology/MARIANA).

  6. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... BABESIOSIS § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana...

  7. Island-arc magmatic processes beneath South Pagan Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marske, J. P.; Trusdell, F. A.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    The island-arc volcanoes that make up the Northern Mariana Islands are among the most historically active stratovolcanoes along the Pacific plate, yet they have been poorly studied due to their remote location and difficult accessibility. One of the least studied areas in the Northern Mariana Islands is Pagan Island, located near the center of the Mariana ridge. Pagan Island consists of two Holocene stratovolcanoes, Mount Pagan and South Pagan. Remarkably little is known about South Pagan including its eruptive history, potential volcanic hazards, and geochemical evolution due to a small population of inhabitants, a short and intermittent recorded history, and few geological studies. There is abundant evidence that eruption of South Pagan could pose significant hazards to both residents of the Northern Mariana Islands and to aircraft flying in the western Pacific. For example, following Mount Pagan's most recent explosive eruption (VEI = 4) in 1981, destructive rain-triggered volcanic debris flows buried large tracts of land, including the site of a village that contained a school, dispensary, church, and power generating buildings. Preliminary field studies in May 2006 by the USGS showed that a full spectrum of hazardous phenomena originated from South Pagan in the past, including pyroclastic flows and surges, caldera collapses, and volcanic debris flows. Two previously unrecognized active fumaroles near the summit of South Pagan were discovered suggesting that potential volcanic hazards currently exist in this area. A majority of the new lava samples are vesicular, clinopyroxene-plagioclase basalts with minor plagioclase xenocrysts and gabbroic xenoliths. The purpose of this study is to understand the compositional history of South Pagan and how it relates to the crustal and mantle magmatic processes beneath the central Northern Mariana Islands. Pb, Sr and Nd isotope ratios, major and trace element abundances, and mineral chemistry were determined and will be

  8. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations..., 1990, unless otherwise noted. Northern Mariana Islands—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated area... October 18, 2000, unless otherwise noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective June 15,...

  9. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations..., 1990, unless otherwise noted. Northern Mariana Islands—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated area... October 18, 2000, unless otherwise noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective June 15,...

  10. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations..., 1990, unless otherwise noted. Northern Mariana Islands—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated area... October 18, 2000, unless otherwise noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective June 15,...

  11. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations..., 1990, unless otherwise noted. Northern Mariana Islands—Ozone (1-Hour Standard)2 Designated area... October 18, 2000, unless otherwise noted. 2 The 1-hour ozone standard is revoked effective June 15,...

  12. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the...

  13. The 2014 Submarine Eruption of Ahyi Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, M. M.; Chadwick, W.; Merle, S. G.; Buck, N. J.; Butterfield, D. A.; Coombs, M. L.; Evers, L. G.; Heaney, K. D.; Lyons, J. J.; Searcy, C. K.; Walker, S. L.; Young, C.; Embley, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    On April 23, 2014, Ahyi Volcano, a submarine cone in the Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), ended a 13-year-long period of repose with an explosive eruption lasting over 2 weeks. The remoteness of the volcano and the presence of several seamounts in the immediate area posed a challenge for constraining the source location of the eruption. Critical to honing in on the Ahyi area quickly were quantitative error estimates provided by the CTBTO on the backazimuth of hydroacoustic arrivals observed at Wake Island (IMS station H11). T-phases registered across the NMI seismic network at the rate of approximately 10 per hour until May 8 and were observed in hindsight at seismic stations on Guam and Chichijima. After May 8, sporadic T-phases were observed until May 17. Within days of the eruption onset, reports were received from NOAA research divers of hearing explosions underwater and through the hull on the ship while working on the SE coastline of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas), a distance of 20 km NW of Ahyi. In the same area, the NOAA crew reported sighting mats of orange-yellow bubbles on the water surface and extending up to 1 km from the shoreline. Despite these observations, satellite images showed nothing unusual throughout the eruption. During mid-May, a later cruise leg on the NOAA ship Hi'ialakai that was previously scheduled in the Ahyi area was able to collect some additional data in response to the eruption. Preliminary multibeam sonar bathymetry and water-column CTD casts were obtained at Ahyi. Comparison between 2003 and 2014 bathymetry revealed that the minimum depth had changed from 60 m in 2003 to 75 m in 2014, and a new crater ~95 m deep had formed at the summit. Extending SSE from the crater was a new scoured-out landslide chute extending downslope to a depth of at least 2300 m. Up to 125 m of material had been removed from the head of the landslide chute and downslope deposits were up to 40 m thick. Significant particle plumes were detected at all three

  14. 33 CFR 165.1403 - Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. 165.1403 Section 165.1403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  15. Recruitment and Retention Problems in Paradise? Lessons from the Northern Mariana Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; And Others

    This paper reports on a study that examined teacher recruitment and retention practices in the Northern Mariana Islands public school system. The study was conducted due to shortages of special education teachers and related services personnel. Based on a review of school district documents on recruitment and retention practices and interviews…

  16. JROTC Program Earning Distinction in Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koki, Stan

    1997-01-01

    The Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) program at Rota High School in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, which includes over half of the school's students, develops teamwork and helps students excel in academics. Students are instilled with discipline, motivation, pride, and a sense of integrity, trust, and belonging. The…

  17. 33 CFR 165.1403 - Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. 165.1403 Section 165.1403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1403 - Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. 165.1403 Section 165.1403 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1022 - American Samoa, Guam, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1022 American Samoa, Guam, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (a) Work in American Samoa, Guam, or the Commonwealth of...

  20. Children in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Results of the 2000 Census. A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mark

    Using 2000 U.S. Census data, this report compares the situation of children in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands to children's situations in neighboring territories and the nation overall. Between 1990-2000, the number of children in the Northern Mariana Islands increased 49 percent, while the number increased nationwide by only 14…

  1. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration (NOAA), intend to prepare the monument management plan (MMP) for the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument (Monument) established by Presidential Proclamation 8335. The MMP will satisfy FWS comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) requirements for two units of the National Wildlife Refuge......

  2. Capacity Building for Rare Bleeding Disorders in the Remote Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiffany F; Carhill, Pam; Huang, James N; Baker, Judith R

    2016-04-01

    The US Pacific Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands is home to an underserved hemophilia population. We developed a strategy in 2014 to build sustainable island-wide medical, patient and family, and community support for this rare disease. Collaboration with regional bleeding disorder leadership galvanized a weeklong conference series. More than 200 participants attended discipline-specific seminars; pre-post test evaluations documented educational benefits. This time-concentrated island-wide education intervention promoted the rapid identification of new cases and stimulated sustainable bleeding disorder care development. The education series proved feasible, efficient, and effective in increasing knowledge and reducing patient and professional isolation, serving as a model for improving capacity for orphan diseases (those that affect fewer than 200 000 people in any particular country) in underresourced areas. PMID:26890163

  3. Proposed 10 MWe OTEC pilot plant for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, L. E.; Chan, G. L.

    1981-12-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a 10 MWe OTEC pilot plant has been proposed for the island of Saipan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. This unique small OTEC plant is intended as a prototype for commercial plants in the small Pacific Island territories and nations. The system concept minimizes local construction to accommodate a lack of local skilled labor and facilities. The baseline design is a concrete barge-mounted plant built in Portland, Oregon, towed to Saipan, and permanently anchored in near-shore shallow water. Details of key subsystem design features are provided including a bottom-mounted cold water pipe, modular power subsystem, and wave shield for storm protection. The results of economic analyses are presented to illustrate the cost competitiveness of electricity from the OTEC plant compared to the current oil-fired diesel units in Saipan.

  4. 42 CFR 431.56 - Special waiver provisions applicable to American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special waiver provisions applicable to American... applicable to American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands. (a) Statutory basis. Section 1902(j) of the Act provides for waiver of all but three of the title XIX requirements, in the case of American...

  5. Determining the Leisure Needs of People Having Disabilities: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Needs Assessment Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peniston, Lorraine C.

    This needs assessment survey attempted to determine if community recreation programs, including school-based and college-based programs, are meeting the needs of citizens with disabilities living on the Northern Mariana Islands. The survey polled 35 people with disabilities about the effectiveness of community recreation programs and services and…

  6. 26 CFR 1.935-1 - Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. 1.935-1 Section 1.935-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.935-1 Coordination...

  7. A Study of Risk Factors among High School Students in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawakami, Alice J.; And Others

    The status of students at risk of failure in public high schools in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) was studied during the 1993-94 school year as part of a larger study of at-risk students in some of the American-affiliated Pacific political entities. In the CNMI, data were collected from 57 student records, and interviews…

  8. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  9. Ground-water resources of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2000-01-01

    Tinian, which lies in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15°N and longitude 145°W (fig. 1), is the second largest island (39.2 mi2) in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Fresh ground water is obtained from shallow wells that tap the surface of a freshwater lends found in an aquifer composed mainly of coralline limestone. The main water-supply well withdraws water with a chloride concentration ranging from 160 to 220 mg/L. Current (1999) pumping rates adequately supply the island residents but future demand are expected to be higher.. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island and to learn more about the hydrology of oceanic islands, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study with the Municipality of Tinian. The objective of the study, conducted between 1990 and 1997, was to assess the ground-water resources of the is;land. This report presents some of the results of the study including a description of the island's geology and geography, the current land use, the water-production system, the thickness and arcal extent of the freshwater lens, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow. The report also discusses the relation of the changes in water-table elevation to daily and seasonal changes in ocean level.

  10. The May 2010 submarine eruption from South Sarigan seamount, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGimsey, R. G.; Neal, C. A.; Searcy, C. K.; Camacho, J. T.; Aydlett, W. B.; Embley, R. W.; Trusdell, F.; Paskievitch, J. F.; Schneider, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    A sudden submarine explosive eruption occurred on May 29, 2010, from a seamount south of Sarigan Island in the Northern Mariana Islands, propelling a diffuse steam and ash cloud to high altitude. Pre-eruptive seismicity was recorded in early April by stations located on Sarigan and Anatahan Island, 42 km to the south, and indicated a source ~12-16 km south of Sarigan. On May 27-28, a change in seismicity—the appearance of tremor-like waveforms—may have marked the onset of volcanic activity. Also on May 27, an elongate patch of discolored ocean water and possible light-colored floating debris about 8-11 km south of Sarigan was observed from a helicopter. This material was likely produced during low-intensity eruptive activity, and an Information Statement from the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) Emergency Management Office (EMO) and USGS issued at 2353 UTC May 28 described the observation. The Guam Weather Forecast Office of the National Weather Service reported that the area of discoloration, visible on satellite images at 2313 and 2330 UTC on May 28, was about 10 km2, about twice the size of Sarigan Island. Pulses of tremor merged into a nearly continuous signal by 0305 UTC on May 29, lasting for ~4.5 hours followed by nearly 4.5 hours of quiescence. The EMO issued a declaration closing the region south of Sarigan to all local boating traffic and issued an advisory to aircraft. The explosive onset of the main plume-producing event occurred at ~1148 UTC as confirmed by seismic records on Anatahan Island, with the strongest phase ending ~1200 UTC. Soon after, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center reported an eruption cloud reaching an estimated 40,000 feet (12 km) ASL that diminished rapidly on satellite imagery suggesting it was water-vapor dominated. Winds carried the cloud southwest over Guam, and although no ash fall was reported, the cloud was visible and was detected in Aura/OMI aerosol index imagery. Biologists on Sarigan Island

  11. Vertically migrating micronekton and macrozooplankton communities around Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntsov, Andrey; Domokos, Réka

    2013-01-01

    The distribution, biomass, and assemblages of vertically migrating micronekton/macrozooplankton were studied in relation to oceanographic conditions around Guam and the adjacent Northern Mariana Islands during Spring 2010, using 3-m2 Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT). The study area was located within the oligotrophic waters of the westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC). However, southern stations of the survey were situated close to the northern boundary of the more productive North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), where we observed the highest biomass, abundance, species richness, and diversity of pelagic organisms. Overall, we recorded 85 species from 20 families of mostly mesopelagic species in the area, with lanternfishes (Myctophidae-40 species) and dragonfishes (Stomiidae-18 species) being the most taxonomically diverse groups. Three genera of mesopelagic shrimps, Sergestes, Janicella and Sergia, dominated the decapod crustacean component of the micronekton community numerically and by biomass, while the contribution from cephalopods was relatively minor. Assemblages of major micronekton/macrozooplankton groups, based on biomass and abundance showed principal changes with latitude. However, the classification and ordination analysis, based on taxonomically resolved taxa (fishes and decapod shrimps), indicated additional zonal variation, with areas east and west of the island chain showing different community structure. The mean total micronekton biomass for the area near the productive boundary region between the NEC and NECC was 5.8 mg/m3, with a mean biomass of 1.2 mg/m3 obtained for stations in the oligotrophic NEC area. The corresponding biomass of mesopelagic fishes was 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.24 mg/m3 for these two areas, respectively. We reviewed and compared the available information on the quantitative distribution of midwater fish biomass in the western tropical Pacific and outlined major patterns of variation in the equatorial Pacific in

  12. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a commonwealth in political union with the United States that is located in the northern Pacific Ocean. CNMI’s electricity rates for residential customers range from $0.19 to $0.33 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  13. Geology, Streamflow, and Water Chemistry of the Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.; Ewart, Charles J., III

    1995-01-01

    A study of the geology, streamflow, and water chemistry of Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was undertaken to determine the flow characteristics of Talufofo Stream and the relation to the geology of the drainage basin. The Commonwealth government is exploring the feasibility of using water from Talufofo Stream to supplement Saipan's stressed municipal water supply. Streamflow records from gaging stations on the principal forks of Talufofo Stream indicate that peak streamflows and long-term average flow are higher at the South Fork gaging station than at the Middle Fork gaging station because the drainage area of the South Fork gaging station is larger, but persistent base flow from ground-water discharge during dry weather is greater in the Middle Fork gaging station. The sum of the average flows at the Middle Fork and South Fork gaging stations, plus an estimate of the average flow at a point in the lower reaches of the North Fork, is about 2.96 cubic feet per second or 1.91 million gallons per day. Although this average represents the theoretical maximum long-term draft rate possible from the Talufofo Stream Basin if an adequate reservoir can be built, the actual amount of surface water available will be less because of evaporation, leaks, induced infiltration, and reservoir-design constraints. Base-flow characteristics, such as stream seepage and spring discharge, are related to geology of the basin. Base flow in the Talufofo Stream Basin originates as discharge from springs near the base of limestones located in the headwaters of Talufofo Stream, flows over low-permeability volcanic rocks in the middle reaches, and seeps back into the high-permeability limestones in the lower reaches. Water sampled from Talufofo Stream during base flow had high dissolved-calcium concentrations (between 35 and 98 milligrams per liter), characteristic of water from a limestone aquifer. Concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride

  14. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.â 233.6 Section 233.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTRACTS WITH...

  15. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.â 233.6 Section 233.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Resources Act of 2008.” A transportation line bringing aliens to Guam or the Commonwealth of the...

  16. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.â 233.6 Section 233.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Resources Act of 2008.” A transportation line bringing aliens to Guam or the Commonwealth of the...

  17. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.â 233.6 Section 233.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Resources Act of 2008.” A transportation line bringing aliens to Guam or the Commonwealth of the...

  18. 8 CFR 233.6 - Aliens entering Guam or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Northern Mariana Islands pursuant to Title VII of Public Law 110-229, âConsolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008.â 233.6 Section 233.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Resources Act of 2008.” A transportation line bringing aliens to Guam or the Commonwealth of the...

  19. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Preliminary geologic map of the island of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.; Burton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This map provides an update and reinterpretation of the geology of the island of Saipan. The geology of the island was previously documented in 1956 in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 280-A by Preston E. Cloud, Jr., and others. This report includes a geologic map at a scale of 1:20,000. The fieldwork for this project was performed in 2006 and 2007.

  1. Reconnaissance Study of the Hydrology of American Memorial Park, Island of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perreault, Jeff A.

    2007-01-01

    American Memorial Park, a unit of the National Park Service on the Island of Saipan, includes among its features a 27-acre estuarine system that has become a rarity within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The estuarine system's mosaic of marshy areas interspersed with emergent wetlands and mixed wet forests provides critical habitat for various migratory and resident waterfowl, including two Federally listed endangered species: the Marianas gallinule (Gallinula chloropus guami) and the nightingale reed warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia). With sensitivity to the park's ecologic assets and the uncertainty associated with locally rapid urbanization, a need to better understand the hydrology of American Memorial Park was recognized. To address that need, a reconnaissance study of the park was undertaken during August and September 2005. The goals of the study were (1) to describe the occurrence and salinity of surface and ground water within the park; (2) to develop a hydrologic model of the park area of the island, with emphasis on the 27-acre estuarine system; and (3) to identify additional data needed to further develop this model. With regard to surface water, three freshwater inputs to the park's natural wetland are possible: direct rainfall, seaward-flowing ground water, and overland flow. Direct rainfall, which is an important source of freshwater to the wetland, commonly exceeds evapotranspiration both seasonally and per storm. The seaward flow of ground water is likely to be a source of freshwater to the wetland because ground water generally has an upward vertical component in the nearshore environment. Overland flow upgradient of the park could potentially contribute a significant input of freshwater during periods of intense rainfall, but roads that flank the park's perimeter act as a barrier to surficial inflows. During the reconnaissance, four discrete bodies, or zones, of surface water were observed within the park's natural wetland

  2. Education in the Northern Marianas: General Information and Bibliography of English-Language Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Robert

    The Northern Marianas are a chain of 14 islands in the western Pacific, north of Guam, which together constitute the self-governing Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas. The population of the islands in 1987 was approximately 36,000 with most of the inhabitants living on Saipan, the largest island. Sixteen thousand of these people were aliens,…

  3. Constraints on the diversity and distribution of coral-reef assemblages in the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houk, P.; Starmer, J.

    2010-03-01

    A central problem for jurisdictional scientists and managers is to reconcile how multiple environmental regimes, encompassing continuous, intermittent and human disturbances, influence pertinent ecological management targets. The presence of heterogeneous environments throughout the volcanic Northern Mariana Islands (NMI), coupled with the availability of descriptive physical data, form the basis examining environmental-ecological relationships. Since 2003, coral abundances and macrobiota (all visibly recognizable taxa greater than 2 cm) occurrences have been estimated at 42 reef slopes along the volcanic archipelago. Analyses showed that reef types acted as surrogates of coral growth capacity and the modern assemblages residing upon them, being highest and most favorable, respectively, where relatively high salinity levels, low-to-moderate wave exposure, and an absence of volcanic activity for ~90 years existed. However, island size was the greatest constraint on species richness overall, but relations with corals were dampened by volcanic activity and increased for sponges and algae where greater connection with the island aquifer existed (i.e., relatively low salinity levels). The number of years since volcanic activity has occurred was positively related to the residuals of species-area relationships and coral cover, with a ~90-year time frame predicted for recovery. Notably, no relationships with watershed characteristics or distance from CNMI’s main fishing port and coral-reef assemblages or species richness were found. Further examination of specific management concerns, such as fisheries and feral animal populations, should be designed to account for the inherent differences in driving environmental regimes. Management strategies focused upon conserving biodiversity and ecosystem function should be centered at the island level, matching the operational scale of dominant environmental-ecological relationships. Marine reserves represent a strategy pertinent

  4. Collecting, Preserving & Sharing Information in Micronesia. Proceedings of the Annual Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference (3rd, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands, October 13-15, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives, Guam.

    Participants from Washington, Hawaii, Majuro, Palau, Guam and other points in the Northern Mariana Islands came together to share information relating to the functions of libraries and archives as information banks and as preservers of the cultural heritage of Micronesia. Papers presented were: (1) "Reading Motivation in the Pacific" (Marilyn…

  5. Nd- and Sr-isotopic compositions of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs: implications for the origin of island arc melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P. N.; Stern, R. J.; Morris, J.; Bloomer, S. H.

    1990-09-01

    Nd- and Sr-isotopic data are reported for lavas from 23 submarine and 3 subaerial volcanoes in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs. Values of ɛNd range from +2.4 to +9.5 whereas 87Sr/86Sr ranges from 0.70319 to 0.70392; these vary systematically between and sometimes within arc segments. The Nd-and Sr-isotopic compositions fall in the field of ocean island basalt (OIB) and extend along the mantle array. Lavas from the Volcano arc, Mariana Central Island Province and the southern part of the Northern Seamount Province have ɛNd to +10 and 87Sr/86Sr=0.7032 to 0.7039. These are often slightly displaced toward higher 87Sr/86Sr at similar ɛNd. In contrast, those lavas from the northern part of the Mariana Northern Seamount Province as far north as Iwo Jima show OIB isotopic characteristics, with ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr=0.7035 to 0.7039. Plots of 87Sr/86Sr and ɛNd versus Ba/La and (La/Yb)n support a model in which melts from the Mariana and Volcano arcs are derived by mixing of OIB-type mantle (or melts therefrom) and a metasomatized MORB-type mantle (or melts therefrom). An alternate interpretation is that anomalous trends on the plots of Nd- and Sr-isotopic composition versus incompatible-element ratios, found in some S-NSP lavas, suggest that the addition of a sedimentary component may be locally superimposed on the two-component mixing of mantle end-members.

  6. Construction, Geologic, and Hydrologic Data from Five Exploratory Wells on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carruth, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Rota is the southernmost of the 14 small islands that make up the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Reduced springflow at Matan Hanom and As Onan springs occurred during a drought associated with the 1997-98 El Nino. Water from the two developed springs constituted the only municipal water source for the island at that time. In April 1998, reduced water supplies forced the Commonwealth Utilities Corporation to restrict water service in the principal villages of Songsong and Sinapalu for the duration of the dry season. In 1999, Five exploratory wells, EX-1 through EX-5 (CUC wells SP-MW1, SP-1, -2, -3, and SP-MW2), were drilled in the Sinapalu region of Rota to (1) assess the availability of fresh ground-water resources in an area where no other well information were available, and (2) to provide a new water source to help mitigate the impacts of drought associated with recurring El Nino weather events. The wells penetrated mainly light colored (dirty white to brownish), fragmental limestones containing abundant coral remains. Sustained-rate, recovery, and step-drawdown aquifer tests were attempted at each of the five exploratory wells to estimate aquifer properties in the vicinity of the wells and to assess the potential for new water sources. At wells EX-1 (CUC well SPMW1) and EX-5 (CUC well SP-MW2), attempts to conduct sustained-rate aquifer tests resulted in excessive drawdown to the pump intakes in the vicinity of the wells. At well EX-2 (CUC well SP-1), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 3.93 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 187 gal/min. At well EX-3 (CUC well SP-2), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 2.31 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 108 gal/min, and at well EX-4 (CUC well SP-3), the maximum drawdown measured in the pumped well was 3.27 ft during 8 days of sustained pumping at an average rate of 139 gal/min. Specific conductance at the end of 8 days of

  7. Tilt Recorded by a Portable Broadband Seismograph: The 2003 eruption of Anatahan, Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, P. J.; Wiens, D. A.; Pozgay, S.; Sauter, A.; White, R.

    2004-12-01

    The horizontal components of broadband seismographs are highly sensitive to tilt, suggesting that widely deployed portable broadband seismic sensors may record important tilt information associated with volcanic eruptions. We report on a tilt episode that coincides with the first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano on May 10, 2003. The tilt was recorded by a portable PASSCAL STS-2 seismograph fortuitously deployed four days prior to the eruption as part of the Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment. The seismograph, located in an underground insulated chamber about 6 km west of the active vent, recorded continuously throughout the eruption sequence. A long-period signal with a dominant period of several hours was recorded on the EW component beginning at 06:30 GMT on May 10, which coincides with the onset of continuous volcano-tectonic (VT) seismicity and is one hour prior to the eruption time estimated by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center based on satellite photos. The signal was much larger than a long period diurnal signal presumably resulting from temperature perturbations. A much smaller signal was recorded on the NS component, and the signal was totally absent on the vertical component, suggesting it results from tilt that is radial with respect to the active vent. An estimate of the tilt as a function of time was recovered by deconvolving to acceleration within a passband of 500-50,000 seconds, and dividing by g. The tilt signal records an initial episode of tilt down away from the volcanic center from 06:30 - 09:30 GMT, which we interpret as inflation of the shallow volcanic source. The tilt reverses and records deflation from 09:30 until 17:50, after which any large tilt signal ceases. The period of inflation corresponds to a period of numerous VT events, whereas fewer events were recorded during the deflation episode, and the VT events resumed again after the end of the deflationary tilt. The maximum tilt is about 2 microradians, although it is

  8. Habitat occupancy and detection of the pacific sheath-tailed bat (emballonura semicaudata) on aguiguan, commonwealth of the northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P.M.; Bonaccorso, F.J.; Pinzari, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Occupancy analysis was used to quantify Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata) foraging activity and its relationship to forest structure and proximity to cave roosts on Aguiguan Island in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Bat occurrence was most closely associated with canopy cover, vegetation stature and distance to known roosts. The metrics generated by this study can serve as a quantitative baseline for future assessments of the status of this endangered species following changes in habitat due to management activities (e.g., feral goat control) or other factors (e.g., typhoon impacts). Additionally, we provide quantitative descriptions of the echolocation calls of E. semicaudata. Search-phase calls were characterized by a relatively narrow bandwidth and short pulse duration typical of insectivores that forage within vegetative clutter. Two distinctly characteristic frequencies were recorded: 30.97 ?? 1.08 kHz and 63.15 ?? 2.20 kHz ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  9. The 2003 eruption of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: Chronology, volcanology, and deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusdell, F.A.; Moore, R.B.; Sako, M.; White, R.A.; Koyanagi, S.K.; Chong, R.; Camacho, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    The first historical eruption on Anatahan Island occurred on 10 May 2003 from the east crater of the volcano. The eruption was preceded by several hours of seismicity. Two and a half hours before the outbreak, the number of earthquakes surged to more than 100 events per hour. At 0730 UTC, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center issued an ash advisory. Although the eruption lasted for 3 months, the majority of erupted material was expelled during the first 2 weeks. The opening episode of the eruption resulted in a deposit of juvenile scoria and lithic clasts, the latter derived from geothermally altered colluvial fill from the vent area. The opening episode was followed by crater enlargement and deepening, which produced deposits of coarse, reddish-brown ash containing a mixture of juvenile and lithic clasts. The third episode of the eruption produced coarse ash and lapilli comprised of juvenile scoria and minor amounts of lithics. Plume heights were 4500 to 13,000 m for the initial three phases. The fourth episode, from about May 18 through early August, was characterized by smaller plume heights of 900 to 2400 m, and steam was the dominant component. Minor amounts of coarse ash and accretionary-lapilli ash comprise most of the deposits of the fourth episode, although ballistic blocks and bombs of andesite lava are also locally present. These andesite blocks were emplaced by an explosion on 14 June, which destroyed a small lava dome extruded during the first week of June. Activity waned as the summer progressed, and subsequent ash deposits accumulated in July and early August, by which time the eruption had effectively ended. In September and October, degassing and geothermal activity continued, characterized by small geysers, boiling water, and jetting steam. Noteworthy deviations from this activity were a surge event in late May-early June and the destruction of the lava dome on 14 June. We calculated on-land tephra-fall deposits to have a bulk volume of

  10. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  11. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  12. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  13. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  14. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  15. Population size and natural history of Mariana fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiles, G.J.; Jonhson, N.C.

    2004-01-01

    Based on count results, we estimated the population of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands, to number 150-200 bats in 1999, 185-235 bats in 2000, and about 300-400 bats in 2001. Our results, plus those of two previous surveys, indicate that bat abundance on the island probably remained relatively stable at about 125-235 animals during much of the period from 1983 to 2000, then increased suddenly in 2001, most likely due to immigration from a neighboring island. Sarigan's population differs from those of larger islands in the archipelago by usually having smaller roost sizes, typically 3-75 bats, and large numbers of solitary bats that at times comprise up to half of the population. Colonies and smaller aggregations were composed primarily of harems with multiple females, whereas a nearly equal sex ratio occurred among solitary animals. Colonies roosted in isolated coconut trees in open grasslands and in native forest stands of various sizes, but avoided dense coconut forest. An estimated 30-50% of harem and solitary females possessed young in July 1999. Bats were recorded feeding on just six species of plants, which partly reflects the island's impoverished flora. We speculate that fruit bat abundance on Sarigan is limited primarily by food availability rather than hunting losses, in contrast to some other islands in the Marianas. Our study supports the contention that populations of P. mariannus in the northern Marianas are usually sedentary, but that interisland movements of larger numbers of bats may occur rarely. ?? 2004 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  16. Memorialization, Graffiti and Artifact Movement: A Case Study of Cultural Impacts on WWII Underwater Cultural Heritage in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Jennifer F.

    2015-04-01

    Cultural tourism in the Pacific has always offered an underwater option for those who snorkel or are certified to dive. In addition to the coral reefs and marine life, World War II (WWII) shipwrecks, aircraft wrecks and other submerged vehicles draw hundreds of tourists to the Pacific each year. While it is encouraging that so many are interested in the cultural heritage of battlefields, these same visitors can cause considerable amounts of damage. This paper presents a case study of cultural impacts on submerged WWII sites in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) where diving heritage tourism is a growing industry. Cultural impacts in the CNMI include a diverse range of direct and indirect impacts including vandalism, the act of memorialization, looting and collecting souvenirs, anchor and mooring damage, and moving artifacts. What is often viewed as detrimental cultural impacts by archaeologists and managers can also be examined as behavior that reflects various stakeholders' values and attitudes towards heritage sites. As such, these behaviors can and should be examined and considered concurrently during research and management discussions.

  17. 20 CFR 625.30 - Appeal Procedures for Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 625.30 Section 625.30 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. (a) Designation..., Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Trust Territory of the...

  18. 20 CFR 625.30 - Appeal Procedures for Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 625.30 Section 625.30 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. (a) Designation..., Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Trust Territory of the...

  19. 20 CFR 625.30 - Appeal Procedures for Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 625.30 Section 625.30 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. (a) Designation..., Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Trust Territory of the...

  20. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  1. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  2. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  3. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  4. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTRA) Study: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    The mission of Pacific Resources for Education and Learning includes maintaining cultural literacy and strengthening educational programs for American-affiliated Pacific Islanders. On islands where no substitute teacher pool is available, students' educational opportunities may be seriously compromised. Policymakers and program managers in all 10…

  5. Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extent (> 20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergence of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Alternatively, the authors are proposing that Miocene bathymetry and the volume of terrigenous influx militated against significant reef core formation. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

  6. Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extend (>20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergency of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

  7. 20 CFR 625.30 - Appeal Procedures for Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appeal Procedures for Guam, American Samoa... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.30 Appeal... Islands. (b) Appeals to referee. (1) A DUA applicant may appeal from a determination or...

  8. 20 CFR 625.30 - Appeal Procedures for Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appeal Procedures for Guam, American Samoa... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.30 Appeal... Islands. (b) Appeals to referee. (1) A DUA applicant may appeal from a determination or...

  9. Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Ewert, J.W.; Gallina, G.M.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Swanson, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from Saipan to Japan were cancelled, and several flights implemented ash-avoidance procedures. On 13 May 2003, a high-altitude flight through volcanic gas was reported, with no perceptible damage to the aircraft. TOMS and MODIS analysis of satellite data strongly suggests that no significant ash and only minor amounts of SO2 were involved in the incident, consistent with crew observations. On 23 May 2003, airport operations were disrupted when tropical-cyclone winds dispersed ash to the south, dusting Saipan with light ashfall and causing flight cancellations there and at Guam 320 km south of the volcano. Operational (near-real-time) monitoring of ash clouds produced by Anatahan has been conducted since the first day of the eruption on 10 May 2003 by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The VAAC was among the first groups outside of the immediate area of the volcano to detect and report on the unexpected eruption of Anatahan. After being contacted about an unusual cloud by National Weather Service forecasters in Guam at 1235 UTC on 10 May 2003, the VAAC analyzed GOES 9 images, confirming Anatahan as the likely source of an ash cloud and estimating that the eruption began at about 0730 UTC. The VAAC issued its first Volcanic Ash Advisory for Anatahan at 1300 UTC on 10 May 2003 more than 5 h after the start of the eruption, the delay reflecting the difficulty of detecting and confirming a surprise eruption at a remote volcano with no in situ real-time geophysical monitoring. The initial eruption plume reached 10.7-13.4 km (35,000-44,000 ft), well into jet cruise altitudes

  10. Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003 2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Ewert, John W.; Gallina, Gregory M.; Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Swanson, Grace L.

    2005-08-01

    Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from Saipan to Japan were cancelled, and several flights implemented ash-avoidance procedures. On 13 May 2003, a high-altitude flight through volcanic gas was reported, with no perceptible damage to the aircraft. TOMS and MODIS analysis of satellite data strongly suggests that no significant ash and only minor amounts of SO 2 were involved in the incident, consistent with crew observations. On 23 May 2003, airport operations were disrupted when tropical-cyclone winds dispersed ash to the south, dusting Saipan with light ashfall and causing flight cancellations there and at Guam 320 km south of the volcano. Operational (near-real-time) monitoring of ash clouds produced by Anatahan has been conducted since the first day of the eruption on 10 May 2003 by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The VAAC was among the first groups outside of the immediate area of the volcano to detect and report on the unexpected eruption of Anatahan. After being contacted about an unusual cloud by National Weather Service forecasters in Guam at 1235 UTC on 10 May 2003, the VAAC analyzed GOES 9 images, confirming Anatahan as the likely source of an ash cloud and estimating that the eruption began at about 0730 UTC. The VAAC issued its first Volcanic Ash Advisory for Anatahan at 1300 UTC on 10 May 2003 more than 5 h after the start of the eruption, the delay reflecting the difficulty of detecting and confirming a surprise eruption at a remote volcano with no in situ real-time geophysical monitoring. The initial eruption plume reached 10.7-13.4 km (35,000-44,000 ft), well into jet cruise altitudes

  11. 26 CFR 1.876-1 - Alien residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alien residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, American... Foreign Corporations § 1.876-1 Alien residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern... a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico or of a section 931 possession during the entire taxable...

  12. 26 CFR 1.935-1 - Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of individual income taxes with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Possessions of the United States § 1.935-1 Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern...

  13. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of Alternative Pumping Distributions and the Effects of Drought on the Ground-Water Flow System of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water in a freshwater lens is the main source of freshwater on Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Four major geologic units make up the island with high-permeability limestone units overlying low-permeability volcanic rocks. Estimates of limestone hydraulic conductivity range from 21 to 23,000 feet per day. Estimates of water-budget components for Tinian are 82 inches per year of rainfall, about 6 inches per year of runoff, 46 inches per year of evapotranspiration, and 30 inches per year of recharge. From 1990?97, ground-water withdrawal from the Municipal well, the major source of water, averaged about 780 gallons per minute. A two-dimensional, steady-state, ground-water flow model using the computer code SHARP was developed for Tinian, to enhance the understanding of (1) the distribution of aquifer hydraulic properties, (2) the conceptual framework of the ground-water flow system, and (3) the effects of various pumping distributions and drought on water levels and the freshwater/saltwater transition zone. For modeling purposes, Tinian was divided into three horizontal hydraulic-conductivity zones: (1) highly permeable limestone, (2) less-permeable, clay-rich limestone, and (3) low-permeability volcanic rocks. The following horizontal hydraulic conductivities were estimated: (1) 10,500 feet per day for the highly permeable limestone, (2) 800 feet per day for the less-permeable clay-rich limestone, and (3) 0.2 foot per day for the volcanic rocks. To estimate the hydrologic effects of different pumping distributions on the aquifer, three different steady-state pumping scenarios were simulated, (1) a scenario with no ground-water pumping, (2) a 2001-pumping scenario, and (3) a maximum-pumping scenario. The results of the no-pumping scenario showed that the freshwater/saltwater interface beneath the Municipal well would be about 7 feet deeper and ground-water discharge to the coast would be higher along both the east and west coasts of the

  14. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  15. Anatahan, Northern Mariana Islands: Reconnaissance geological observations during and after the volcanic crisis of spring 1990, and monitoring prior to the May 2003 eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowland, S.K.; Lockwood, J.P.; Trusdell, F.A.; Moore, R.B.; Sako, M.K.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Kojima, G.

    2005-01-01

    samples, and set up a geophysical monitoring network. Results at this time were inconclusive with respect to determining whether the activity was anomalous. Water in some of the geothermal pits within the pit crater was boiling, and pH values as low as 0.7 were recorded in the field. An electronic distance measurement (EDM) network was installed, and over a ???1-week period, up to 9 cm of extension occurred across some lines but not others. Seismicity was characterized by intermittent local earthquakes but no sustained swarms or tremor. A brief visit in June 1990 revealed that the shallow lake near the boiling pits was gone, but activity in the pits themselves was similar to that of April 1990. Only minor extension had occurred along a single EDM line since the previous visit, and no earthquakes >M2.5 occurred during the visit. Subsequent 1- to 2-day visits occurred in October 1990, May 1992, May 1994, and June 2001. Activity within the geothermal pits was relatively constant during every visit, although during this 11-year period the level of the water in each pit decreased. In June 2001, a ???50-m-wide region of mud pots and steaming ground in the central part of the geothermal area had developed. No geologic evidence, however, suggested that an eruption would occur <2 years afterward. Most of the EDM lines showed slight extension between late 1990 and 1992, followed by very gradual contraction from 1992 to 2001. A more extensive seismic-monitoring system was installed on the Northern Mariana Islands during these visits, and it recorded a small seismic swarm at Anatahan from May to July 1993. The telemetry component of the seismic equipment broke prior to 2001 and had not been repaired by the time of the May 2003 eruption, so no precursory seismic data were recorded to indicate pre-eruption unrest. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235.9 Section 1235.9 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.9 Northern...

  17. Shoshonitic volcanism in the Northern Mariana Arc: 1. Mineralogic and major and trace element characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomer, Sherman H.; Stern, Robert J.; Fisk, Elisha; Geschwind, C. H.

    1989-04-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of samples dredged from 23 submarine volcanic edifices in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs define two distinct rock series. The central and northern Mariana Arc (to 23°N) and the northern Volcano Arc (north of Iwo Jima) are characterized by plagioclase-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-titantomagnetite bearing subalkaline rocks, including both low-K and medium-K series. The northern Mariana Arc and southern Volcano Arc, from 23°N to Iwo Jima, are erupting rocks of a shoshonitic series with phenocrysts of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine, and biotite. These rocks are less saturated than those of the subalkaline provinces and are substantially enriched in Ba (400-900 ppm), Sr (600-1000 ppm), K2O (1-4.5%), and K2O/Na2O (0.4-1.2) relative to the subalkaline lavas. Ba/Y and Ba/Zr increase by a factor of 3 to 4 in the shoshonitic rocks, but K/Rb, Ba/Sr, and K/Ba are relatively constant throughout the arc. There is no relationship between degree of enrichment and volcano volume or degree of fractionation: seamounts and islands within each province have the same range of compositions. Much of the intra-edifice variation in lava composition can be modeled by 10-70% crystallization of plagioclase and clinopyroxene, with smaller amounts of olivine, orthopyroxene, and titanomagnetite, or by accumulation of 10-40% phenocrysts, dominantly plagioclase. The differences between parental lavas in the alkalic and subalkalic provinces require melting of two distinct mantle sources. The occurrence of this enriched mantle in the northern Marianas may be a consequence of the propagation of the Mariana Trough spreading center into the Volcano Arc.

  18. Isotopic and trace element geochemistry of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern volcano arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Pingnan.

    1989-01-01

    Samples from submarine volcanoes and islands were analyzed for concentrations of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, REE, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and some selected samples for {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd. These data show strong variations along the arc, being relatively depleted in the tholeiitic and low-K calc-alkaline volcanoes of the Volcano Arc (VA) and the Mariana Central Island Province (CIP). All of the Mariana Northern Seamount Province (NSP) and Volcano arc Iwo Jima (IJ) are enriched in LIL and LREE, particularly in the northern half, where the lavas have strong shoshonitic affinities. Chemical characteristics of these lavas suggest source- or melt-mixing, with the NSP shoshonites being derived from a LIL- and LREE-enriched OIB-like source or melt, while Mariana CIP and Volcano Arc melts are derived from a depleted MORB-like mangle that has been recharged with K, Rb, Sr and Ba by hydrous fluids. Neodymium and strontium isotopic data reveal {var epsilon}{sub Nd} values ranging from +2.4 to +9.5 and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr from 0.70320 to 0.70405. Anomalous trends of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Ba/La found in some S-NSP lavas suggest that the addition of a sedimentary component may be superimposed on the two component mixing. The lavas from the Mariana and Volcano arcs, therefore, are interpreted as resulting from mixing of at least three components. The bulk of the lavas derive from an OIB-like mantle source (or melt) mixing with various proportions of a metasomatized depleted mantle source (or melt). These hybrid sources may be contaminated with minor amounts of subducted sediment and fluxed by multistage-fractionated metasomatic fluid which is derived from subducted sediment and slab after the mixing of the first two components.

  19. Status of forest birds on Rota, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the third largest human inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago, and is designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance sampling surveys were conducted to assess population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey revealed general patterns of habitat use and detectability among 11 species that could be reliably modeled. The endangered Mariana crow (Corvus kubaryi) was dispersed around the periphery of the island in steep forested habitats. In contrast, the endangered Rota white-eye (Zosterops rotensis) was restricted to the high-elevation mesa. Precision of detection probabilities and occupancy estimates and effects of habitat types, sampling conditions, and specific observers varied considerably among species, indicating that more narrowly defined classifications and additional observer training may improve the accuracy of predictive modeling. Population estimates of five out of ten native bird species, including collared kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris orii), Mariana crow, Mariana fruit-dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian myzomela (Myzomela rubrata), and white-throated ground-dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura) declined over the 30-year time series. The crow declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals (upper 95% confidence interval). Trends increased for Micronesian starling (Aplonis opaca), rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons mariae), and white tern (Gygis alba). Rota white-eye numbers declined from 1982 to the late 1990s, but returned to 1980s levels by 2012. The trend for the yellow bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis) was inconclusive. The alien Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) apparently increased in number despite an unreliable trend assessment. Declines were noted in the other two alien birds, black drongo (Dicrurus

  20. Geology of Saipan, Mariana Islands; Part 1, General geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, Preston E., Jr.; Schmidt, Robert George; Burke, Harold W.

    1956-01-01

    Saipan, situated about 15° N. and 146° E., is one of the larger and more southerly of the Mariana Islands. The 15 small islands of this chain are strung along an eastwardly convex ridge for more than 400 miles north to south, midway between Honshu and New Guinea and about 1,200 miles east of the Philippines. Paralleling this ridge 60 to 100 miles further east is a deep submarine trench, beyond which lies the Pacific Basin proper. To the west is the Philippine Sea, generally deeper than 2,000 fathoms. The trench coincides with a zone of negative gravity anomalies, earthquake foci occur at increasing depths westward from it, and silica- and alumina-rich volcanic rocks characterize the emergent island chain itself. The contrast between these features and those of the Pacific Basin proper to the east is held to favor the conclusion that the Mariana island arc and trench define the structural and petrographic front of Asia

  1. The crustaceans and pycnogonids of the Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Paulay, Gustav; Kropp, Roy K. ); Ng, Peter K.; Eldredge, Lucius G.

    2003-09-01

    The crustacean and pycnogonid fauna of the Mariana Islands is reviewed, and 829 crustacean and 15 pycnogonid species are documented from the archipelago based on literature records and new collections, including 272 new records. Voucher specimens are listed for 605 and photographic records for 356 species. The bulk of the fauna is marine, including 12 terrestrial and 11 freshwater decapods with marine larvae. Five cladocerans comprise the known freshwater fauna, and 25 peracarids and one copepod are currently documented on land. Coverage reflects a taxonomically uneven effort, and is strongly biased toward macrocrustaceans, with decapods accounting for 80%, and crabs for 50% of the recorded crustacean diversity.

  2. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of...

  7. Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: The role of subduction zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marske, J.P.; Pietruszka, A.J.; Trusdell, F.A.; Garcia, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4ka) and post-caldera (<9.4ka) eruptive stage for South Pagan, whereas the eruptive history of the older CVR is poorly constrained. Crystal fractionation and magma mixing were important crustal processes for lavas from both volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that South Pagan and CVR lavas, and lavas from the northern volcano on the island, Mt. Pagan, originated from compositionally distinct parental magmas due to variations in slab contributions (sediment and aqueous fluid) to the mantle wedge and the extent of mantle partial melting. A mixing model based on Pb and Nd isotopic ratios suggests that the average amount of sediment in the source of CVR (~2.1%) and South Pagan (~1.8%) lavas is slightly higher than Mt. Pagan (~1.4%) lavas. These estimates span the range of sediment-poor Guguan (~1.3%) and sediment-rich Agrigan (~2.0%) lavas for the Mariana arc. Melt modeling demonstrates that the saucer-shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and

  8. Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: the role of subduction zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marske, Jared P.; Pietruszka, Aaron J.; Trusdell, Frank A.; Garcia, Michael O.

    2011-08-01

    New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4 ka) and post-caldera (<9.4 ka) eruptive stage for South Pagan, whereas the eruptive history of the older CVR is poorly constrained. Crystal fractionation and magma mixing were important crustal processes for lavas from both volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that South Pagan and CVR lavas, and lavas from the northern volcano on the island, Mt. Pagan, originated from compositionally distinct parental magmas due to variations in slab contributions (sediment and aqueous fluid) to the mantle wedge and the extent of mantle partial melting. A mixing model based on Pb and Nd isotopic ratios suggests that the average amount of sediment in the source of CVR (~2.1%) and South Pagan (~1.8%) lavas is slightly higher than Mt. Pagan (~1.4%) lavas. These estimates span the range of sediment-poor Guguan (~1.3%) and sediment-rich Agrigan (~2.0%) lavas for the Mariana arc. Melt modeling demonstrates that the saucer-shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and

  9. 9 CFR 72.2 - Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors of said disease in the Northern Mariana... States and vectors of said disease in the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and... are vectors of said disease exist in the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  10. Shoshonitic magmas in nascent arcs: New evidence from submarine volcanoes in the northern Marianas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Bloomer, Sherman H.; Lin, Ping-Nan; Ito, Emi; Morris, Julie

    1988-05-01

    Volcanoes in the northern Mariana arc between Uracas (lat 20°N) and Minami Iwo Jima (24°N) are very active yet entirely submarine. In contrast to the predominantly low-K basaltic magmas of the central Mariana arc, the northern Mariana arc is dominated by more siliceous melts in the south and by shoshonites in the north. The northern arc melts have enrichments in Ba (<800 ppm), Rb (<70 ppm), Sr (<1000 ppm), Ce (<50 ppm), and (Ce/Yb)n (<24) which increase to the north as far as Iwo Jima. Lavas from volcanoes north of Iwo Jima lack these enrichments and are indistinguishable from those of the central Maranas. The shoshonites are unusual in occurring along the magmatic front of a primitive, intra-oceanic arc. We hypothesize that they represent the reconstruction of a magmatic arc following melting of enriched mantle due to the propagation of the Mariana Trough spreading center northward through the Volcano arc. Shoshonites thus may characterize the initial stages of arc construction after an episode of back-arc rifting and need not be restricted to the mature stages of arc evolution. This situation contrasts with subduction-zone initiation, where first melts may be boninites or low-K tholeiites. These differing initial melts converge toward tholeiitic and calc-alkaline compositions as arcs evolve.

  11. The eruption of Mount Pagan volcano, Mariana Islands, 15 May 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Norman G.; Koyanagi, Robert Y.; Sinton, John M.; Honma, Kenneth T.

    1984-10-01

    A major explosive eruption occurred 15 May 1981 at Mount Pagan Volcano, the larger of two historic eruptive centers on Pagan Island, Mariana Islands. The eruption was preceded by increased numbers of locally felt earthquakes beginning in late March or early April and by new ground cracks, new sublimates, and increased gas emissions. A swarm of felt earthquakes began at 0745h (local time = UCT+10 hours) 15 May, and at 0915 h, closely following a loud sonic boom, a strong plinian column issued from the volcano. The high-altitude ash cloud (at least 13.5 km) travelled south-southeast, but ash and scoria deposits were thickest (> 2 m) in the NW sector of the island because of the prevailing low-altitude southeasterly winds. The early activity of 15 May probably involved magmatic eruption along a fissure system oriented about N10°E. However, the eruption became hydromagmatic, possibly within minutes, and was largely restricted to three long-lived vents. The northernmost of these built a substantial new scoria-ash cinder cone. Flows and air-fall deposits, consisting almost entirely of juvenile material, exceeded 105 × 10 6 m 3 in volume (75 × 10 6 m 3 of magma) on land and at least 70-100 × 60 6 m 3 at sea. An unknown volume was carried away by stratospheric winds. Lithic blocks and juvenile bombs as large as 1 m in diameter were thrown more than 2 km from the summit, and evidence for base-surge was observed in restricted corridors as low as 200 m elevation on the north and south slopes of the volcano. Neither of these events resulted in serious injuries to the 54 residents of the island, nor did the eruption produce serious chemical hazards in their water supply. Weak eruptions occurred during the ensuing month, and some of these were monitored by ground observations, seismic monitoring, and deformation studies. Precursory seismicity and possibly deformation occurred with some of the observed eruptions. More vigorous eruptions were reported by visiting residents in

  12. The eruption of Mount Pagan volcano, Mariana Islands, 15 May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, N.G.; Koyanagi, R.Y.; Sinton, J.M.; Honma, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    A major explosive eruption occurred 15 May 1981 at Mount Pagan Volcano, the larger of two historic eruptive centers on Pagan Island, Mariana Islands. The eruption was preceded by increased numbers of locally felt earthquakes beginning in late March or early April and by new ground cracks, new sublimates, and increased gas emissions. A swarm of felt earthquakes began at 0745h (local time = UCT+10 hours) 15 May, and at 0915 h, closely following a loud sonic boom, a strong plinian column issued from the volcano. The high-altitude ash cloud (at least 13.5 km) travelled south-southeast, but ash and scoria deposits were thickest (> 2 m) in the NW sector of the island because of the prevailing low-altitude southeasterly winds. The early activity of 15 May probably involved magmatic eruption along a fissure system oriented about N10??E. However, the eruption became hydromagmatic, possibly within minutes, and was largely restricted to three long-lived vents. The northernmost of these built a substantial new scoria-ash cinder cone. Flows and air-fall deposits, consisting almost entirely of juvenile material, exceeded 105 ?? 106 m3 in volume (75 ?? 106 m3 of magma) on land and at least 70-100 ?? 606 m3 at sea. An unknown volume was carried away by stratospheric winds. Lithic blocks and juvenile bombs as large as 1 m in diameter were thrown more than 2 km from the summit, and evidence for base-surge was observed in restricted corridors as low as 200 m elevation on the north and south slopes of the volcano. Neither of these events resulted in serious injuries to the 54 residents of the island, nor did the eruption produce serious chemical hazards in their water supply. Weak eruptions occurred during the ensuing month, and some of these were monitored by ground observations, seismic monitoring, and deformation studies. Precursory seismicity and possibly deformation occurred with some of the observed eruptions. More vigorous eruptions were reported by visiting residents in late

  13. Coral Reef Disturbance and Recovery Dynamics Differ across Gradients of Localized Stressors in the Mariana Islands

    PubMed Central

    Houk, Peter; Benavente, David; Iguel, John; Johnson, Steven; Okano, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The individual contribution of natural disturbances, localized stressors, and environmental regimes upon longer-term reef dynamics remains poorly resolved for many locales despite its significance for management. This study examined coral reefs in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands across a 12-year period that included elevated Crown-of-Thorns Starfish densities (COTS) and tropical storms that were drivers of spatially-inconsistent disturbance and recovery patterns. At the island scale, disturbance impacts were highest on Saipan with reduced fish sizes, grazing urchins, and water quality, despite having a more favorable geological foundation for coral growth compared with Rota. However, individual drivers of reef dynamics were better quantified through site-level investigations that built upon island generalizations. While COTS densities were the strongest predictors of coral decline as expected, interactive terms that included wave exposure and size of the overall fish assemblages improved models (R2 and AIC values). Both wave exposure and fish size diminished disturbance impacts and had negative associations with COTS. However, contrasting findings emerged when examining net ecological change across the 12-year period. Wave exposure had a ubiquitous, positive influence upon the net change in favorable benthic substrates (i.e. corals and other heavily calcifying substrates, R2 = 0.17 for all reeftypes grouped), yet including interactive terms for herbivore size and grazing urchin densities, as well as stratifying by major reeftypes, substantially improved models (R2 = 0.21 to 0.89, lower AIC scores). Net changes in coral assemblages (i.e., coral ordination scores) were more sensitive to herbivore size or the water quality proxy acting independently (R2 = 0.28 to 0.44). We conclude that COTS densities were the strongest drivers of coral decline, however, net ecological change was most influenced by localized stressors, especially herbivore

  14. Geology of Saipan, Mariana Islands; Part 4, Submarine topography and shoal-water ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, Preston E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    The topography of the sea floor within 10 miles of Saipan broadly resembles that of the land. Eastward, toward the Mariana trench, slopes are about 6°, without prominent benches or scarps. This is inferred to indicate easterly continuation of generally pyroclastic bedrock. The westward slope averages 2° to 3° and consists mainly of nearly flat benches and westfacing scarps. This is taken to imply westward continuation of a limestone bench-and-fault-scarp topography. Projection of known faults to sea and through Tinian, on the basis of topographic trends, suggests a pattern of west-dipping normal faults that parallel the strike of the Mariana ridge and affect the shape and position of islands at the crest of the ridge.

  15. Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the southern mariana islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely

  16. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. On Tinian, during the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Half of the 10 native species—Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis), White-throated Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris), Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), and Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca)—and one alien bird—Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata)—have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern (Gygis alba) and Bridled White-eye (Zosterops saypani)—and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)—were considered relatively stable. Only five birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Tinian Monarch, Rufous Fantail, and Bridled White-eye—showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Tinian Monarch was found in all habitat types, with the greatest monarch densities observed in limestone forest, secondary forest, and tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) thicket and the smallest densities found in open fields and urban/residential habitats. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys (1982 and 2008), and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species. Densities for seven of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Collared Kingfisher, Rufous Fantail, Bridled White-eye, Golden White-eye (Cleptornis marchei), and Micronesian Starling—and the alien bird— Island

  17. Mollusk collecting and environmental change during the Prehistoric Period in the Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amesbury, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    Archaeological research in the Mariana Islands has revealed changes in mollusk collecting during the Prehistoric Period (approximately 1500 BC to AD 1521). The earliest people at Tumon Bay, Guam and Chalan Piao, Saipan collected mostly bivalves, especially the arc clam Anadara antiquata. After several hundred years, they no longer collected A. antiquata, but collected smaller bivalves instead. By AD 1000, they collected mostly gastropods, primarily the coral reef species Strombus gibberulus gibbosus. One possible explanation is that the people preferred the large arc clam but overharvested it until they were forced to eat the smaller bivalves and then the snails. However, recent evidence in the form of mangrove wood and mangrove pollen supports another explanation, one of non-anthropogenic environmental change. In this case, the relative sea-level decline, which took place in the Marianas within the last 4,000 years, caused the demise of mangrove habitats and of the arc clam at Tumon Bay, Guam and Chalan Piao, Saipan. As mangrove habitats were diminished by sea-level decline, collecting effort shifted to coral reefs, and S. gibberulus gibbosus was harvested throughout the remainder of the Prehistoric Period and into the Historic Period. Southern Guam is the only area in the Marianas in which A. antiquata increased in abundance during the Prehistoric Period. The same types of evidence, mangrove wood and mangrove pollen, indicate that, in contrast to the situation at Tumon Bay and Chalan Piao, mangroves increased in abundance in southern Guam.

  18. Hydroacoustic Records of the First Historical Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R.; Park, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Fox, C.; Byun, S.; Fowler, M.; Haxel, J.; Embley, R.

    2003-12-01

    For the past decade, NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory has monitored volcano-seismic activity from western Pacific island-arc volcanoes using an array of U.S. Navy hydrophones (called SOSUS) deployed at fixed locations throughout the North Pacific Ocean. SOSUS hydrophones are mounted within the SOFAR channel and record the hydroacoustic tertiary phase or T-wave of oceanic earthquakes from throughout the Pacific basin. Since acoustic T-waves obey cylindrical energy attenuation as opposed to the spherical attenuation of solid-earth seismic phases, sound channel hydrophones can detect often smaller and therefore more numerous earthquakes than land-based seismic networks. This property allowed for the detection of harmonic tremor from a submarine volcano in the Volcano Islands on hydrophones >14,000 km away in the eastern Pacific. The first historical eruption of Anatahan Volcano appears to have started (from satellite imagery) at 1730Z on 10 May, with an ash plume visible by 2232Z (BGVN, 5 May 2003). Records from a broadband seismometer deployed on nearby ( ˜6.5 km) Sarigan Island indicate earthquake activity increased at about 1300Z on 10 May (D. Weins, pers com). SOSUS hydrophones in the western Pacific ( ˜4000 km distant) also recorded increased earthquake activity at 1300Z on 10 May as well as continuous, low-frequency (<10 Hz) energy (possible volcanic tremor) that began about a day before the seismicity. The earthquakes and tremor were detected on only two SOSUS hydrophones and therefore it was not possible to estimate their source location. The arrival azimuth of the signals were, however, consistent with a source in the Mariana Islands. To complement the SOSUS hydrophone array coverage in the western Pacific Ocean, an array of five autonomous hydrophones were deployed in February 2003 (sponsored by NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program) within the SOFAR channel along the active island- and back-arc of the Mariana Islands. All five hydrophones (1-110 Hz

  19. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Islands Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1565, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1577, January 12, 2009). The proclamations...: Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument'' (74...

  20. A Fluid Sea in the Mariana Islands: Community Archaeology and Mapping the Seascape of Saipan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, Jennifer; Mushynsky, Julie; Cabrera, Genevieve

    2014-06-01

    This paper applies both a community archaeology and seascape approach to the investigation of the sea and its importance to the Indigenous community on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands in western Oceania. It examines data collected during a community project including archaeological sites, oral histories, lived experiences and contemporary understandings of both tangible and intangible maritime heritage to explore Indigenous connections with the sea and better define the seascape. What the seascape of Saipan conveys in the larger sense is the true fluidity of the sea. In this instance fluidity has more than one connotation; it refers to the sea as both a substance and an idea that permeates and flows into all aspects of Indigenous life. Chamorro and Carolinian people of Saipan identify themselves as having an ancestral connection with the sea that they continue to maintain to this day as they engage in daily activities within their seascape.

  1. The First Historical Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T. P.; Hilton, D. R.; Demoor, J.; Jaffe, L.; Spilde, M. N.; Counce, D.; Camacho, J. T.

    2003-12-01

    The first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano occurred on May 10, 2003. The MARGINS office responded by authorizing helicopter surveillance and ship deployment to visit the volcano. The helicopter flight on May 19 allowed visual observations and identification of the east crater as the source of the eruption. The top of the plume was estimated to be at 10,000 ft - significantly less than the 30,000 ft of the initial blast. No bombs were ejected out of the east crater at this time but were falling back into the crater. The bombs looked irregular in shape, massive and were estimated to be a few m in diameter. Bombs and tephra samples were collected from the eastern side of the island when blasts were occurring at a rate of approx. 1 per 5min. The ship visit followed on May 21 to the western side of the island for collection of samples and SO2 flux measurements, along with maintenance of a previously deployed seismometer. Volcanic samples collected on Anatahan consisted of bombs, ash and scoria from the present eruption and old lavas (age unknown). The ash section on the western shore was 25 cm thick and consisted of the following sequence (bottom to top): 0-5 inversely? graded dark ash with scoria and pumice clasts (1-2 cm), 20-25 cm: well sorted clast-supported scoria (max 2 cm) with some fine ash. The maximum total thickness measured at a site 6 km from the east crater was approximately 45 cm. The sequence is interpreted as 1) initial blast 2) interaction of magma with water (from pre-existing hydrothermal system) as evidenced by accretionary lapilli 3) magmatic phase of the eruption producing juvenile material. Electron microprobe analyses of the pumice and scoria show uniform compositions of ~ 60wt% SiO2 in the glass; zoned plagioclase with average composition of 61% An, 37.7% Ab, 1.2% Or; pyroxenes (19.4% Wo, 53.4% En, 26.7% Fs) and Fe-Ti oxides. Sulfur and Cl contents are approx. 100 and 1500 ppm, respectively. Water content of the glass may be several wt

  2. Numerical Modeling of Sound from the Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Dziak, R. P.; Byun, S.; Fox, C. G.; Matsumoto, H.

    2003-12-01

    NOAA VENTS Program deployed an array of five autonomous underwater hydrophones within the SOFAR channel along the Mariana chain in February 2003 to monitor seafloor volcanic eruptions and submarine earthquakes (sponsored by NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program). These five hydrophones will be recovered in September 2003 using KORDI R/V Onnuri. The first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano in the Mariana Islands began on 10 May 2003. It is expected that the hydrophone data will include the hydroacoustic records of the eruption of Anatahan Volcano. The signals recorded from the eruption will be numerically modeled using a T-wave excitation mechanism developed from the mode scattering theory of Park et al. (2001). They found that scattering from the rough seabottom converts the acoustic energy of seafloor earthquakes from the directly excited ocean crustal/water column modes to the propagating acoustic modes of T-waves, and developed an algorithm to numerically model oceanic earthquake's T-waves. We modified this numerical model of Park et al. (2001) to predict the T-waves generated from volcanic sources by adopting a buried magmatic pipe model (Chouet, 1985). We derived a moment-tensor representation of a volcano-seismic source that is governed by the geometry of the source and the physical properties of magma. Numerical modeling of the sound from the eruption requires us to determine governing factors such as the pipe radius and magma viscosity that will enable us to grasp the inward nature of Anatahan volcano.

  3. Application of game theory to the interface between militarization and environmental stewardship in the Mariana Islands.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Wiecko, Greg; Moore, Aubrey

    2012-03-01

    We recently described threats to the terrestrial biological resources on the Mariana islands of Guam and Tinian resulting from the large-scale buildup of military operations. Attitudes that view these military buildup plans in a zero sum context whereby the positives of greater security and improved local economy can be attained only with corresponding negatives of environmental destruction are prevalent. We argue these attitudes oversimplify the complicated interactions between military operations and environmental damage. Here we discuss aspects of our case study that would benefit from application of game theory. Declines in ecosystem health are not unavoidable forms of collateral damage of peace-time military operations. We repeat, conservation of environmental resources is not ancillary to national security, it is integral. PMID:22808331

  4. The Origins and Genetic Distinctiveness of the Chamorros of the Marianas Islands: An mtDNA Perspective

    PubMed Central

    VILAR, MIGUEL G.; CHAN, CHIM W; SANTOS, DANA R; LYNCH, DANIEL; SPATHIS, RITA; GARRUTO, RALPH M; LUM, J KOJI

    2013-01-01

    Background Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests the Marianas Islands were settled around 3,600 years before present (ybp) from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). Around 1,000 ybp latte stone pillars and the first evidence of rice cultivation appear in the Marianas. Both traditions are absent in the rest of prehistoric Oceania. Objective To examine the genetic origins and postsettlement gene flow of Chamorros of the Marianas Islands. Methods To infer the origins of the Chamorros we analyzed ~360 base pairs of the hypervariable-region 1 (HVS1) of mitochondrial DNA from 105 Chamorros from Guam, Rota, and Saipan, and the complete mitochondrial genome of 32 Guamanian Chamorros, and compared them to lineages from ISEA and neighboring Pacific archipelagoes from the database. Results Results reveal that 92% of Chamorros belong to haplogroup E, also found in ISEA but rare in Oceania. The two most numerous E lineages were identical to lineages currently found in Indonesia, while the remaining E lineages differed by only one or two mutations and all were unique to the Marianas. Seven percent of the lineages belonged to a single Chamorro-specific lineage within haplogroup B4, common to ISEA as well as Micronesia and Polynesia. Conclusions These patterns suggest a small founding population had reached and settled the Marianas from ISEA by 4,000 ybp, and developed unique mutations in isolation. A second migration from ISEA may have arrived around 1,000 ybp, introducing the latte pillars, rice agriculture and the homogeneous minority B4 lineage. PMID:23180676

  5. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  6. Northern Mariana Islands College Access Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Sablan, Gregorio Kilili Camacho [D-MP-At Large

    2009-07-29

    10/22/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes various energy strategies available to CNMI to meet the territory's goal of diversifying fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption. The information presented in this strategic energy plan will be used by the CNMI Governor's Energy Task Force to develop an energy action plan. Available energy strategies include policy changes, education and outreach, and expanding the use of a range of energy technologies, including renewable electricity production and buildings energy efficiency and conservation.

  8. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Energy Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes the three near-term energy strategies selected by the CNMI Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. The three energy strategies selected by the task force are (1) designing a demand-side management program focusing on utility, residential and commercial sectors, (2) developing an outreach and education plan focused on energy conservation in government agencies and businesses, including workplace rules, and (3) exploring waste-to-energy options. The task force also discussed several other medium- and long-term energy strategies that could be explored at a future date.

  9. Diets of the Sympatric Pacific Sheath-Tailed Bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Wiles, Gary J.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat.

  10. 9 CFR 72.2 - Splenetic or tick fever in cattle in Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., infectious, and communicable disease known as splenetic or tick fever exists in cattle in portions of the... Texas, the Virgin Islands of the United States and vectors of said disease in the Northern Mariana... States and vectors of said disease in the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  11. It Can Be Done: With Advocacy, Libraries Can Thrive on Pacific Islands. Selected Papers from PIALA 2007, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums Annual Conference (17th, Tinian and Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, November 12-17, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horie, Ruth H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2007 Planning Committee, the Officers and Executive Board, and Acknowledgements, followed by the Pre-Conference Workshop…

  12. Hydroacoustic records and a numerical model of the source mechanism from the first historical eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziak, R. P.; Park, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Byun, S.-K.

    2005-08-01

    Anatahan Volcano in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) erupted for the first time in recorded history on 10 May 2003. The underwater acoustic records ( T-waves) of earthquakes, explosions, and tremor produced during the eruption were recorded on a sound channel hydrophone deployed in February 2003. Acoustic propagation models show that the seismic to acoustic conversion at Anatahan is particularly efficient, aided by the upward slope of the seamount toward the hydrophone. The hydrophone records confirm the onset of earthquake activity between 0100 and 0200Z on 10 May, with a substantial increase in seismicity beginning at ˜ 0620Z. In addition, the onset of continuous, low-frequency (3-40 Hz) acoustic energy that is likely volcanic tremor related to magma intrusion was also observed at 0620Z. The hydrophone recorded 1401 earthquakes during the first 3 days of the eruption. A histogram of seismicity indicates two main periods of explosion/eruption activity, the first beginning at ˜ 0620Z on 10 May and the second at ˜ 0000Z on 11 May. Relative earthquake depth estimates indicate that both eruption periods were accompanied by earthquake activity from deep within the Anatahan volcanic edifice. A numerical representation of the Anatahan volcano-seismic source was developed to examine the character of acoustic signals generated from the eruption governed by the geometry of the source and the physical properties of the magma. A magma pipe source mechanism is used to compute the seismo-acoustic wavefield on the flank of the Anatahan volcanic edifice (on the seafloor and in the water column) due to mode conversion by roughness scattering. A fluid-filled pipe model was chosen because it allows for a more straightforward relation between volcano geometry and spectral features of harmonic tremor as well as its morphologic similarity to a submerged volcanic edifice.

  13. Compositional Variations of Paleogene and Neogene Tephra From the Northern Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepley, F. J., III; Barth, A. P.; Brandl, P. A.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Jiang, F.; Kanayama, K.; Kusano, Y.; Li, H.; Marsaglia, K. M.; McCarthy, A.; Meffre, S.; Savov, I. P.; Yogodzinski, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    A primary objective of IODP Expedition 351 was to evaluate arc initiation processes of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) volcanic arc and its compositional evolution through time. To this end, a single thick section of sediment overlying oceanic crust was cored in the Amami Sankaku Basin where a complete sediment record of arc inception and evolution is preserved. This sediment record includes ash and pyroclasts, deposited in fore-arc, arc, and back-arc settings, likely associated with both the ~49-25 Ma emergent IBM volcanic arc and the evolving Ryukyu-Kyushu volcanic arc. Our goal was to assess the major element evolution of the nascent and evolving IBM system using the temporally constrained record of the early and developing system. In all, more than 100 ash and tuff layers, and pyroclastic fragments were selected from temporally resolved portions of the core, and from representative fractions of the overall core ("core catcher"). The samples were prepared to determine major and minor element compositions via electron microprobe analyses. This ash and pyroclast record will allow us to 1) resolve the Paleogene evolutionary history of the northern IBM arc in greater detail; 2) determine compositional variations of this portion of the IBM arc through time; 3) compare the acquired data to an extensive whole rock and tephra dataset from other segments of the IBM arc; 4) test hypotheses of northern IBM arc evolution and the involvement of different source reservoirs; and 5) mark important stratigraphic markers associated with the Neogene volcanic history of the adjacent evolving Ryukyu-Kyushu arc.

  14. Diets of the sympatric pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana Swiftlet (Aerodramus bartscht) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, E.W.; Wiles, G.J.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura semicaudata rotensis) and Mariana swiftlet (Aerodramus bartschi) are two rare insectivorous taxa restricted to the southern Mariana Islands in western Micronesia. It is believed that populations of both have dwindled because of impacts to their food resources. However, there is little information on the food habits of A. bartschi and none exists for E. s. rotensis. In an effort to better understand the feeding habits of both, we investigated their diets using guano analysis. Guano was collected from two roosts in caves during a 2-week period in June and July at the onset of the rainy season. Important orders of insects consumed (percentage volume) by bats roosting at one cave included hymenopterans (64%), coleopterans (10%), lepidopterans (8%), isopterans (8%), and psocopterans (5%), whereas those at a second cave included lepidopterans (45%), hymenopterans (41%), coleopterans (10%), and isopterans (5%). Swiftlets, which roosted in only one of the caves, fed mostly on hymenopterans (88%) and hemipterans (6%). Significant differences existed between the two taxa in several insect orders eaten, with E. s. rotensis consuming more lepidopterans and coleopterans and A. bartschi taking more hymenopterans and hemipterans. Within Hymenoptera, bats fed more on ichneumoideans, whereas swiftlets ate more formicid alates and chalicidoideans. This new information on the feeding habits of E. s. rotensis and A. bartschi provides insight on the complexity of their diets during June and July, and serves as baseline information for future studies and management of their habitat. ?? 2011 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 70854 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-7201 Farallon De Medinilla Island; Mariana Islands, GU

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of....S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 73... plotting of the FDM Island and the overlying restricted airspace to match the amended NOAA chart...

  16. Ten years of satellite observations reveal highly variable sulphur dioxide emissions at Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Brendan; Popp, Christoph; Andrews, Benjamin; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing enables continuous multiyear observations of volcanic activity in remote settings. Anatahan (Mariana Islands) is a remote volcano in the western North Pacific. Available ground-based measurements of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas emissions at Anatahan place it among thelargest volcanic SO2 sources worldwide. These ground-based measurements, however, are restricted to eruptive intervals. Anatahan's activity since 2003 has been dominated temporally by prolonged periods of quiescence. Using 10 years of satellite observations from OMI, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2, we report highly variable SO2 emissions within and between eruptive and quiescent intervals at Anatahan. We find close correspondence between levels of activity reported at the volcano and levels of SO2 emissions detected from space. Eruptive SO2 emission rates have a mean value of ˜6400 t d-1, but frequently are in excess of 20,000 t d-1. Conversely, SO2 emissions during quiescent intervals are below the detection limit of space-based sensors and therefore are not likely to exceed ˜300 t d-1. We show that while Anatahan occupies a quiescent state for 85% of the past 10 years, only ˜15% of total SO2 emissions over this interval occur during quiescence, with the remaining ˜85% released in short duration but intense syn-eruptive degassing. We propose that the integration of multiyear satellite data sets and activity histories are a powerful complement to targeted ground-based campaign measurements in better describing the long-term degassing behavior of remote volcanoes.

  17. Enigmatic Cranial Superstructures among Chamorro Ancestors from the Mariana Islands: Gross Anatomy and Microanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Gary M.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Sava, Vincent J.; Hanson, Douglas B.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and meaning of three enigmatic, geographically-patterned, quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. Collectively known as occipital superstructures (OSS), these traits are the occipital torus tubercle (TOT), retromastoid process (PR), and posterior supramastoid tubercle (TSP). When present, TOT, PR and TSP develop at posterior cranial attachment sites of the upper trapezius, superior oblique and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively. Marked expression and co-occurrence of these OSS are virtually circumscribed within Oceania and reach highest recorded frequencies in proto-historic Chamorros (CHamoru) of the Mariana Islands. Prior to undertaking scanning electron microscopy (SEM) work, our working multifactorial model for OSS development was that early-onset, long-term, chronic activity-related microtrauma at enthesis sites led to exuberant reactive or reparative responses in a substantial minority of genetically predisposed (and mostly male) individuals. SEM imaging, however, reveals topographic patterning that questions, but does not negate, activity-induction of these superstructures. While OSS appear macroscopically as relatively large and discrete phenomena, SEM findings reveal a unique, widespread and seemingly systemic distribution of structures over the occipital surface that have the appearance of OSS microforms. Nevertheless, apparent genetic underpinnings, anatomic relationships with muscle entheses, and positive correlation of OSS development with humeral robusticity continue to suggest that these superstructures have potential to at once bear witness to Chamorro population history and inform osteobiographical constructions of chronic activity patterns in individuals bearing them. Further work is outlined that would illuminate the proximate and ultimate meanings of OSS. PMID:24753475

  18. Cycling of sulfur in subduction zones: The geochemistry of sulfur in the Mariana Island Arc and back-arc trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Jackson, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The sulfur contents and sulfur isotopic compositions of 24 glassy submarine volcanics from the Mariana Island Arc and back-arc Mariana Trough were determined in order to investigate the hypothesis that subducted seawater sulfur (??34S = 21???) is recycled through arc volcanism. Our results for sulfur are similar to those for subaerial arc volcanics: Mariana Arc glasses are enriched in 34S (??34S = up to 10.3???, mean = 3.8???) and depleted in S (20-290 ppm, mean = 100 ppm) relative to MORB (850 ppm S, ??34S = 0.1 ?? 0.5???). The back-arc trough basalts contain 200-930 ppm S and have ??34S values of 1.1 ?? 0.5???, which overlap those for the arc and MORB. The low sulfur contents of the arc and some of the trough glasses are attributed to (1) early loss of small amounts of sulfur through separation of immiscible sulfide and (2) later vapor-melt equilibrium control of sulfur contents and loss of sulfur in a vapor phase from sulfide-undersaturated melts near the minimum in sulfur solubility at f{hook}O2 ??? NNO (nickel-nickel oxide). Although these processes removed sulfur from the melts their effects on the sulfur isotopic compositions of the melts were minimal. Positive trends of ??34S with 87Sr 86Sr, LILE and LREE contents of the arc volcanics are consistent with a metasomatic seawater sulfur component in the depleted sub-arc mantle source. The lack of a 34S-rich slab signature in the trough lavas may be attributed to equilibration of metasomatic fluid with mantle material along the longer pathway from the slab to the source of the trough volcanics. Sulfur is likely to have been transported into the mantle wedge by metasomatic fluid derived from subducted sediments and pore fluids. Gases extracted from vesicles in arc and back-arc samples are predominantly H2O, with minor CO2 and traces of H2S and SO2. CO2 in the arc and back-arc rocks has ??13C values of -2.1 to -13.1???, similar to MORB. These data suggest that degassing of CO2 could explain the slightly lower

  19. Crustal Structure of the Southern Kyushu-Palau Ridge, the Other Half of the Proto Izu-Bonin-Mariana Island Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, A.; Kaneda, K.; Katagiri, Y.; Kasahara, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is a bathymetric high extending north-south direction at the center of the Philippine Sea and considered as a remnant of a proto Izu-Bonin-Mariana island arc separated by the backarc spreading of the Shikoku and Parece Vela (Oki-no-Tori-Shima) Basin. We conducted a wide-angle and multi-channel seismic experiment to investigate variation in crustal structures along the KPR. The experiment consisted of four seismic lines that were selected to represent the variations in seafloor topography of the southern KPR. All of the profiles cross the KPR perpendicularly and their profile lengths range from 175 to 375 km. The controlled seismic source was a tuned array of 36 airguns with a total volume of 8,040 inch3. In the wide-angle seismic survey, we shot the airgun array at an interval of 200 m (90 s) for each line. We used 200 ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) at an interval of 5 km as receivers. The travel time and amplitude data obtained by the OBSs were modeled by a tomographic inversion and two-dimensional ray tracing. The maximum crustal thickness beneath the KPR varies from 14 to 20 km according to the profile and the crust is significantly thicker than those of the both sides of each profile, that is, the oceanic crusts of the West Philippine Basin to the west and of the Parece Vela Basin to the east. The thickest crust among the four profiles is found in the region where the KPR connects with the Oki-no-Tori-Shima island. The thicker crust beneath the KPR is mainly due to a fat lower crust. The thick (> 5 km) middle crust with P wave velocity of 6.0-6.3 km/s that characterizes the northern Izu-Bonin island-arc crust does not exist so clearly in our profiles. This may relate to the fact that the southern KPR is deeper in seawater and does not have a mature island arc crust compared with the northern KPR where existence of a 6 km/s layer has been reported previously.

  20. Arctic marine phytobenthos of northern Baffin Island.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Peters, Akira F; Shewring, Dawn M; Sayer, Martin D J; Mystikou, Alexandra; Brown, Hugh; Azzopardi, Elaine; Dargent, Olivier; Strittmatter, Martina; Brennan, Debra; Asensi, Aldo O; van West, Pieter; Wilce, Robert T

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter the polar bioregions faster than any other marine environment. This study assesses the biodiversity of seaweeds and associated eukaryotic pathogens of an established study site in northern Baffin Island (72° N), providing a baseline inventory for future work assessing impacts of the currently ongoing changes in the Arctic marine environment. A total of 33 Phaeophyceae, 24 Rhodophyceae, 2 Chlorophyceae, 12 Ulvophyceae, 1 Trebouxiophyceae, and 1 Dinophyceae are reported, based on collections of an expedition to the area in 2009, complemented by unpublished records of Robert T. Wilce and the first-ever photographic documentation of the phytobenthos of the American Arctic. Molecular barcoding of isolates raised from incubated substratum samples revealed the presence of 20 species of brown seaweeds, including gametophytes of kelp and of a previously unsequenced Desmarestia closely related to D. viridis, two species of Pylaiella, the kelp endophyte Laminariocolax aecidioides and 11 previously unsequenced species of the Ectocarpales, highlighting the necessity to include molecular techniques for fully unraveling cryptic algal diversity. This study also includes the first records of Eurychasma dicksonii, a eukaryotic pathogen affecting seaweeds, from the American Arctic. Overall, this study provides both the most accurate inventory of seaweed diversity of the northern Baffin Island region to date and can be used as an important basis to understand diversity changes with climate change. PMID:27037790

  1. Rapid time scales of basalt to andesite differentiation at Anatahan volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, Mark; Tepley, Frank J.; Gill, James B.; Wortel, Matthew; Hartman, Brian

    2005-08-01

    We present comprehensive U-series data ( 238U- 234U- 230Th- 226Ra- 210Pb- 210Po and ( 230Th)/( 232Th)) for an andesite from an oceanic arc. The juvenile Anatahan andesite has U-Th systematics colinear with other historical Mariana volcanic rocks, and is most similar to those of the other volcano in the Mariana arc with a significant proportion of silicic andesite: Uracas. Like Uracas, the parental basalt for the Anatahan andesite was generated by relatively low degrees of flux melting from a source previously enriched in a sediment component from the subducting slab. However, the Anatahan andesite is much more strongly enriched in 226Ra over 230Th than Uracas lavas, and has one of the highest ( 226Ra)/( 232Th) ratios of siliceous andesites globally. The long-lived disequilibria between 238U- 230Th- 226Ra in the Anatahan andesite are inherited from basalt genesis, not created during differentiation or eruption. Thus, the time between genesis of the parental basalt and eruption of andesite at Anatahan is shorter than for Uracas. Moreover, the near-equilibrium ( 210Pb)/( 226Ra) value indicates that the magma body did not persistently lose or gain 222Rn for more than 2 years before eruption. This permits differentiation of the parental basalt to form andesite within this 2-year time period, although a differentiation time period between 100 and a few thousand years also is possible. The relative activities between 210Po and 210Pb suggest erupted scoria degassed Po less than most lavas despite eruption plume heights of ˜10 km, which further suggests an unusually rapid ascent before eruption. These data also show that juvenile material was ejected from the first day of the eruption. Phreatomagmatic ejecta overlying the main Anatahan scoria is strongly enriched in 210Po over 210Pb, indicating that a significant proportion of the Po degassed from rising magmas sublimes in its shallow fumarolic conduit system.

  2. Modelling detectability of kiore (Rattus exulans) on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands, to inform possible eradication and monitoring efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, A.A.Y.; Stanford, J.W.; Wiewel, A.S.; Rodda, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the detection probability of introduced organisms during the pre-monitoring phase of an eradication effort can be extremely helpful in informing eradication and post-eradication monitoring efforts, but this step is rarely taken. We used data collected during 11 nights of mark-recapture sampling on Aguiguan, Mariana Islands, to estimate introduced kiore (Rattus exulans Peale) density and detection probability, and evaluated factors affecting detectability to help inform possible eradication efforts. Modelling of 62 captures of 48 individuals resulted in a model-averaged density estimate of 55 kiore/ha. Kiore detection probability was best explained by a model allowing neophobia to diminish linearly (i.e. capture probability increased linearly) until occasion 7, with additive effects of sex and cumulative rainfall over the prior 48 hours. Detection probability increased with increasing rainfall and females were up to three times more likely than males to be trapped. In this paper, we illustrate the type of information that can be obtained by modelling mark-recapture data collected during pre-eradication monitoring and discuss the potential of using these data to inform eradication and posteradication monitoring efforts. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  3. Long period seismicity and very long period infrasound driven by shallow magmatic degassing at Mount Pagan, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, John J.; Haney, Matthew M.; Werner, Cynthia; Kelly, Peter; Patrick, Matthew; Kern, Christoph; Trusdell, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Long period (LP) seismicity and very long period infrasound (iVLP) were recorded during continuous degassing from Mount Pagan, Mariana Islands, in July 2013 to January 2014. The frequency content of the LP and iVLP events and delay times between the two arrivals were remarkably stable and indicate nearly co-located sources. Using phase-weighted stacking over similar events to dampen noise, we find that the LP source centroid is located 60 m below and 180 m west of the summit vent. The moment tensor reveals a volumetric source modeled as resonance of a subhorizontal sill intersecting a dike. We model the seismoacoustic wavefields with a coupled earth-air 3-D finite difference code. The ratios of pressure to velocity measured at the infrasound arrays are an order of magnitude larger than the synthetic ratios, so the iVLP is not the result of LP energy transmitting into the atmosphere at its epicenter. Based on crater shape and dimensions determined by structure from motion, we model the iVLP as acoustic resonance of an exponential horn. The source of the continuous plume from gas analysis is shallow magmatic degassing, which repeatedly pressurized the dike-sill portion of the conduit over the 7 months of observation. Periodic gas release caused the geologically controlled sill to partially collapse and resonate, while venting of gas at the surface triggered resonance in the crater. LP degassing only accounts for ~12% of total degassing, indicating that most degassing is relatively aseismic and that multiple active pathways exist beneath the vent.

  4. Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, R.J.; Pratt, T.K.; Marshall, A.P.; Amidon, F.; Williams, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Mariana Islands, an archipelago in the western Pacific, faces the threats of rapid economic development and the spread of non-native species, particularly a devastating predator, Brown Tree Snake Boiga irregularis. In this paper, we examine the status and trends of the land bird fauna of Saipan Island based on three island-wide surveys conducted in 1982, 1997, and 2007. During this period, the human population on Saipan increased more than four-fold and much of the island has been developed. The surveys employed standard point-transect methods based on Distance Sampling. Remarkably, we found nearly all species of land birds - 11 native species and three introduced species - to be common or abundant. The exception was the Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperouse, a historically rare species that was not observed on the 2007 survey, although it does persist on Saipan and other Mariana islands. A comparison of species densities among the three surveys showed that seven species, mainly fruit and seed-eaters, had increased and three species of insectivorous birds had decreased - Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia, and Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei. Of these three, Nightingale Reed-warbler is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and as an Endangered Species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reed-warbler densities on Saipan decreased by more than half between 1982 and 2007. Although point transect sampling worked well for this species, density estimates and trends assessment could be improved by reallocating sampling stations among habitats and by more frequent sampling. ?? BirdLife International 2009.

  5. A new SO2 emissions budget for Anatahan volcano (Mariana Islands) based on ten years of satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Brendan; Popp, Christoph; Andrews, Benjamin; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing offers great potential for the study of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas emissions from volcanoes worldwide. Anatahan is a remote volcano in the Mariana Islands, SW Pacific. Existing SO2 emissions data from Anatahan, from ground-based UV spectrometer measurements, place the volcano among the largest natural SO2 sources worldwide. However, these measurements are limited in number and only available from intervals of eruptive activity. Activity varies widely at Anatahan: over the past decade, records held in the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program Volcanoes of the World database describe the alternation of intense eruptions with long intervals of quiescence, where much lower intensity activity took place. We present ten years of satellite-based measurements of SO2 in the atmosphere over Anatahan, using data from the UV spectrometers OMI, GOME-2, and SCIAMACHY, and the IR spectrometer AIRS. We find Anatahan's emissions to be highly variable both within and between intervals of eruption and quiescence. We demonstrate a close agreement between trends in SO2 emission evident from our remote sensing data and records of activity compiled from a range of other sources and instruments, across daily to annual temporal scales. Mean eruptive SO2 emissions at Anatahan are ~6400 t/d, and range from <1000 to >18000 t/d. Quiescent emissions are below our instrument detection limits and are therefore unlikely to exceed 150-300 t/d. Overall, accounting for both eruptive and quiescent emissions, we calculate a revised decadal mean SO2 emission rate of 1060-1200 t/d. We further calculate a total decadal SO2 yield from Anatahan of 4-5 Mt, significantly lower than the 17-34 Mt calculated if ground-based campaign data are used in isolation. The use of isolated measurements to extrapolate longer term emissions budgets is subject to clear uncertainty, and we argue that our satellite observations, covering a longer interval of Anatahan's history, are better

  6. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of 137Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <<0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered. PMID:27274073

  7. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered. PMID:27274073

  8. 77 FR 41168 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Island Community of St. Paul Island, Aleut Community of St. Paul Island-Tribal Government (St. Paul) petitioned NMFS to revise regulations governing the subsistence taking of northern fur seals on St....

  9. Suicide and Suicidal-Related Behaviors among Indigenous Pacific Islanders in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else, Iwalani; Andrade, Naleen; Nahulu, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review on U.S. Pacific Islander suicide and suicide-related behaviors to extend the knowledge and understanding of suicide and suicide-related behaviors among the indigenous peoples of the state of Hawai'i, the territories of American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Pacific…

  10. Population ecology of the tonguefish Symphurus thermophilus (Pisces; Pleuronectiformes; Cynoglossidae) at sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents on volcanoes of the northern Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, Verena; Tyler, Jennifer; Dower, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Flatfish are a major component of the hydrothermal vent community on three seamounts of the northern Mariana Volcanic Arc in the northwest Pacific. Nikko, Kasuga-2 and Daikoku seamounts host vent fields between 375 and 480 m depth where high temperature vents release molten sulphur. The small cynoglossid tonguefish, Symphurus thermophilus Munroe and Hashimoto, is ubiquitous in all vent habitats observed on these seamounts: among extensive fields of tubeworms and mussels and on solid sulphur surfaces on Nikko; on sulphur-rich sediments and barnacle-covered boulders on Kasuga-2; and on recent sulphur flows and on broad areas of loose and semi-consolidated sediments on Daikoku. We recorded repeated forays by individuals onto flows of molten sulphur as these surfaces cooled. Based on observations using ROVs, the mean density is 90 fish/m2 with maximum counts over 200 fish/m2 on Daikoku sediments. Compared to collected tonguefish from Daikoku and Kasuga-2, those from Nikko have significantly greater lengths and, on average, six times the mass. Otolith data indicate upper ages of 13 years with Nikko tonguefish growing significantly faster. Diets of tonguefish on the three seamounts reflect the different habitats and prey availability; in Daikoku specimens, small crustaceans and polychaetes are most common while on Nikko, gut contents are predominantly larger shrimp. We made the unusual observation of stunned midwater fish falling to the seafloor near the vents where S. thermophilus immediately attacked them. This tonguefish has a wide diet range and foraging behaviour that likely influence the differing growth rates and sizes of fish inhabiting the different vent sites. Limited genetic data suggest that larval exchange probably occurs among sites where the common habitat factor is high levels of elemental sulphur forming hard and partly unconsolidated substrata. Here, in the northern range of the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument, S. thermophilus, despite having an

  11. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: Data and dose assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Conrado, C.L.

    1997-07-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from {sup 137}Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y{sup -1}. The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} to 4.5 mSv y{sup -1}. The 50-y integral dose ranges from 0.5 to 65 mSv. 35 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Retention and Attrition of Pacific School Teachers and Administrators (RAPSTA) Study: Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) works with 10 American-affiliated Pacific entities: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap), Guam, Hawaii, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. The survey raises awareness of the…

  13. 76 FR 69119 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Transitional Worker Classification: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ..., published in the Federal Register on September 7, 2011 at 76 FR 55502, DHS intended to revise only the.... 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (6 U.S.C. 1 et seq.), E.O. 12356, 47 FR 14874, 15557, 3 CFR, 1982 Comp., p... Classification: Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, DHS. ACTION: Final rule;...

  14. Making Sense of Census 2000--Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. [Teaching Guide]. Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD.

    The United States Census Bureau's mission is to be the preeminent collector and provider of timely, relevant, and quality data about the nation's people and economy. The Census 2000 teaching guide aims to help teachers bring the census to life for students. The guide outlines skills that correlate with national standards; fulfills curriculum…

  15. 78 FR 70248 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... one or more the NAAQS. 37 FR 23836 (November 9, 1972). In 1974, EPA promulgated a PSD FIP (then, and... respect to PSD. 39 FR 42510 (December 5, 1974). In our 1974 final rule, we retained (as 40 CFR 52.21(a... regulations applicable to a particular implementation plan would be located in one place. 40 FR 25004 (June...

  16. 78 FR 58867 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)-Only Transitional Worker Numerical Limitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... / Wednesday, September 25, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY 8 CFR Part 214... of numerical limitation. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Homeland Security announces that the annual fiscal... Services, Department of Homeland Security, 20 Massachusetts Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20529-2060....

  17. 33 CFR 165.1403 - Security Zones; Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...°59′04.9″ N, 145°34′58.6″ E to 14°59′20.1″ N, 145°35′41.5″ E to 14°59′09.8″ N, 145°36′02.1″ E to 14°57′49.3″ N, 145°36′28.7″ E to 14°57′29.1″ N, 145°35′31.1″ E and back to 14°59′04.9″ N, 145°34′58.6″ E... will be enforced when no vessels are moored thereto but mooring balls are anchored and on station....

  18. 76 FR 55501 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Transitional Worker Classification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... labor force. Such workers outnumber U.S. citizens and other local residents in most industries central... classification (CW classification) intended to be effective for the duration of the transition period. See 74 FR... Federal Register reopening and extending the public comment period for an additional 30 days. See 74...

  19. Hf isotope and concentration systematics of the Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollstrup, D. L.; Gill, J. B.

    2004-12-01

    Negative Hf concentration anomalies are common but little-discussed geochemical features of island arcs. Because both light rare earth elements (LREE) and Hf may be mobile even in `fluid-dominated' island arcs, it is important to relate their isotopic and elemental ratios to models of slab-mantle mixing. We report new Hf isotope and trace element data for K-rich submarine basalts from the Kasuga seamounts located 10-20 km behind the volcanic front of the southern Northern Seamount Province (NSP) of the Mariana arc. These data, when combined with published data for other Mariana samples, span the full range from low-K tholeiites to high-K shoshonites. Rear-arc Kasuga seamounts seamounts of the NSP have lower 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf ratios than arc-front volcanoes of the Mariana Central Island Province (CIP). Within the CIP, Hf concentration anomalies correlate positively with 176Hf/177Hf ratios. Radiogenic Hf and little or no concentration anomalies characterize samples from fluid-dominated volcanoes (Guguan and Maug), whereas samples from sediment-melt dominated volcanoes (Anatahan and Sarigan) have less radiogenic Hf and larger concentration anomalies. Samples from the Kasuga and Hiyoshi seamounts have even larger negative concentration anomalies and less radiogenic Hf, although the two are not always correlated. These data are consistent with mixing between a depleted mantle and a partial melt of subducted sediment that is saturated with trace accessory phases including zircon, rutile, and monazite. A more volcaniclastic source is needed for the NSP than the CIP. Implications of these findings are three-fold. Partial melts of subducting sediment affect the HFSE and REE budgets of even fluid-dominated island arcs. Slab temperatures must be high enough for a peraluminous melt to be present, even where old, cold slabs are subducting. Refractory accessory phases have the potential to become exotic "nuggets" in the convecting mantle, potentially controlling the

  20. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  1. The Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey: data and dose assessments.

    PubMed

    Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Conrado, C L; Eagle, R J; Brunk, J L; Jokela, T A; Mount, M E; Phillips, W A; Stoker, A C; Stuart, M L; Wong, K M

    1997-07-01

    Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for 137Cs, 90Sr, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from 137Cs. 90Sr is the second most significant radionuclide via ingestion. External gamma exposure from 137Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. 239+240Pu and 241Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y(-1) to 2.1 mSv y(-1). The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y(-1). The combined dose from both background and bomb related radionuclides ranges from slightly

  2. Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2003: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Palau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Allison; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Speicher, Nancy; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura

    2005-01-01

    To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territory, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories, and cities…

  3. Ice shelf studies off northern Ellesmere Island, Spring 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, M.O.

    1985-09-01

    In spring 1983 work on the ice shelves of northern Ellesmere Island was continued. A total of 55 m of 7.6 cm diameter ice core was obtained from 10 locations. The longest core of 31.79 m is composed of iced-firn and basement ice and can be divided into three distinct strata according to ice salinity. Oscillating strains in Ward Hunt Ice Shelf were measured with a wire strainmeter. It is suggested that the periodic calving of ice from Ward Hung Ice Shelf might be related to the effects of the high frequency oscillation of 35s to 40s. Ice conditions along 150 km of coastline continue to change. Continued monitoring of the ice shelves and landfast ice is believed to be necessary in view of the offshore development in the Beaufort Sea.

  4. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... information technology. Send comments on these or any other aspects of the collection of information to... Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1557, January 12, 2009). Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1565, January 12,...

  5. Sea level, paleogeography, and archeology on California's Northern Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeder-Myers, Leslie; Erlandson, Jon M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Rick, Torben C.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene inundated nearshore areas in many parts of the world, producing drastic changes in local ecosystems and obscuring significant portions of the archeological record. Although global forces are at play, the effects of sea-level rise are highly localized due to variability in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects. Interpretations of coastal paleoecology and archeology require reliable estimates of ancient shorelines that account for GIA effects. Here we build on previous models for California's Northern Channel Islands, producing more accurate late Pleistocene and Holocene paleogeographic reconstructions adjusted for regional GIA variability. This region has contributed significantly to our understanding of early New World coastal foragers. Sea level that was about 80–85 m lower than present at the time of the first known human occupation brought about a landscape and ecology substantially different than today. During the late Pleistocene, large tracts of coastal lowlands were exposed, while a colder, wetter climate and fluctuating marine conditions interacted with rapidly evolving littoral environments. At the close of the Pleistocene and start of the Holocene, people in coastal California faced shrinking land, intertidal, and subtidal zones, with important implications for resource availability and distribution.

  6. Sea level, paleogeography, and archeology on California's Northern Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder-Myers, Leslie; Erlandson, Jon M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Rick, Torben C.

    2015-03-01

    Sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene inundated nearshore areas in many parts of the world, producing drastic changes in local ecosystems and obscuring significant portions of the archeological record. Although global forces are at play, the effects of sea-level rise are highly localized due to variability in glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) effects. Interpretations of coastal paleoecology and archeology require reliable estimates of ancient shorelines that account for GIA effects. Here we build on previous models for California's Northern Channel Islands, producing more accurate late Pleistocene and Holocene paleogeographic reconstructions adjusted for regional GIA variability. This region has contributed significantly to our understanding of early New World coastal foragers. Sea level that was about 80-85 m lower than present at the time of the first known human occupation brought about a landscape and ecology substantially different than today. During the late Pleistocene, large tracts of coastal lowlands were exposed, while a colder, wetter climate and fluctuating marine conditions interacted with rapidly evolving littoral environments. At the close of the Pleistocene and start of the Holocene, people in coastal California faced shrinking land, intertidal, and subtidal zones, with important implications for resource availability and distribution.

  7. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  11. The importance of large benthic foraminifera to reef island sediment budget and dynamics at Raine Island, northern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, John L.; Smithers, Scott G.; Hua, Quan

    2014-10-01

    Low-lying reef islands are among the most vulnerable environments on earth to anthropogenic-induced climate change and sea-level rise over the next century because they are low, composed of unconsolidated sediment that is able to be mobilised by waves and currents, and depend on sediments supplied by reef organisms that are particularly sensitive to environmental changes (e.g. ocean temperatures and chemistry). Therefore, the spatial and temporal links between active carbonate production and island formation and dynamics are fundamental to predicting future island resilience, yet remain poorly quantified. In this paper we present results of a detailed geomorphological and sedimentological study of a reef and sand cay on the northern Great Barrier Reef. We provide an empirical investigation of the temporal linkages between sediment production and reef island development using a large collection of single grain AMS 14C dates. Large benthic foraminifera (LBF) are the single most important contributor to contemporary island sand mass (47%; ranging from 36% to 63%) at Raine Island, reflecting rapid rates of sediment production and delivery. Standing stock data reveal extremely high production rates on the reef (1.8 kg m- 2 yr- 1), while AMS 14C dates of single LBF tests indicate rapid rates of sediment transferral across the reef. We also demonstrate that age is statistically related to preservation and taphonomic grade (severely abraded tests > moderately abraded tests > pristine tests). We construct a contemporary reef and island sediment budget model for Raine Island that shows that LBF (Baculogypsina, Marginopora and Amphistegina) contribute 55% of the sediment produced on the reef annually, of which a large proportion (54%) contribute to the net annual accretion of the island. The tight temporal coupling between LBF growth and island sediment supply combined with the sensitivity of LBF to bleaching and ocean acidification suggests that islands dominated by LBF are

  12. Sediment data collected in 2012 from the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernier, Julie C.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Buster, Noreen A.; Flocks, James G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; DeWitt, Nancy T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center collected sediment samples from the northern Chandeleur Islands in March and September 2012. The overall objective of this project, which integrates geophysical (bathymetric, seismic, and topographic) and sedimentologic data, is to better understand the depositional and erosional processes that drive the morphologic evolution of barrier islands over annual to interannual timescales (1 to 5 years). Between June 2010 and April 2011, in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the State of Louisiana constructed a sand berm extending more than 14 kilometers along the northern Chandeleur Islands platform. The construction of the berm provided a unique opportunity to investigate how this new sediment source will interact with and affect the morphologic evolution of the barrier-island system. Data collected from this study will be used to describe differences in the physical characteristics and spatial distribution of sediments both along the axis of the berm and also along transects across the berm and onto the adjacent barrier island. Comparison of these data with data from subsequent sampling efforts will provide information about sediment interactions and movement between the berm and the natural island platform, improving our understanding of short-term morphologic change and processes in this barrier-island system. This data series serves as an archive of sediment data collected in March and September 2012 from the Chandeleur Islands sand berm and adjacent barrier-island environments. Data products include descriptive core logs, core photographs and x-radiographs, results of sediment grain-size analyses, sample location maps, and Geographic Information System data files with accompanying formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata.

  13. 76 FR 50183 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for the Northern Mariana Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ...) Fisheries technology and education program. (f) Recreational and subsistence fishing economic impact and use... period October 6, 2009, through October 6, 2011 (74 FR 25710, May 29, 2009). Dated: August 8, 2011....

  14. 26 CFR 1.935-1 - Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Coordination of individual income taxes with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.935-1 Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.935-1 - Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coordination of individual income taxes with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.935-1 Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.935-1 - Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coordination of individual income taxes with... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Possessions of the United States § 1.935-1 Coordination of individual income taxes with Guam and the...

  17. Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2005: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Republic of Palau, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippe, Jaclynn; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura; Speicher, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territorial, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories,…

  18. Areca (betel) nut chewing habit among high-school children in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (Micronesia).

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Eric; Demaine, L.; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of its use by high-school children in Saipan in Micronesia. Usage of the areca nut is indigenous to south Asia and the western and south Pacific. Some serious health effects of areca nut chewing are recognized and the International Agency for Research on Cancer has recently classified regular use of areca nut as being carcinogenic to humans. Information on usage by young people, however, is scarce. METHODS: Data on consumption of areca nut were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. Following an oral mucosal examination using WHO criteria any detectable oral mucosal diseases were recorded. FINDINGS: Of 309 schoolchildren surveyed (mean age 16.3 +/- 1.5 years), 63.4% claimed regular use, the highest level recorded in any school population survey. Significant oral diseases detected were oral leukoplakia in 13% and oral submucous fibrosis in 8.8% of children. CONCLUSION: These findings from Saipan suggest that areca nut chewing starts at a young age in Micronesia. As many users develop dependency this raises important concerns regarding its consequences for oral health. PMID:16211156

  19. 75 FR 79264 - E-2 Nonimmigrant Status for Aliens in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands With Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... treaty investor classification (``E-2 CNMI Investors''). See 74 FR 46938. DHS provided a 30-day comment... Investor nonimmigrant status. See 74 FR 46938, 46949 (Sept. 14, 2009). As stated in the proposed rule, the.... Citizenship and Immigration Services Fee Schedule,'' 75 FR 58962 (September 24, 2010). See new 8 CFR...

  20. 78 FR 16257 - Notice of Intent To Prepare the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Joint Military...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... of Tinian and Pagan, to include surrounding U.S. and international water and airspace. With regards..., utilities, socioeconomics, biological resources, geology and soils, water quality, air quality, airspace... Act, Coastal Zone Management Act, Clean Water Act, and other applicable laws or...

  1. 75 FR 60438 - Record of Decision for the Guam and Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands Military Relocation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Agency (EPA), the Department of Interior (DOI), the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.... Discussions with the EPA, NOAA, and the DOI identified additional data these agencies would prefer were... cooperatively with EPA, NOAA, and DOI and is described in the ``Final Scope of Work Elements for Marine...

  2. Crustose coralline algal diseases in the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo

    2010-12-01

    Despite the critical role of crustose coralline algae (CCA) in coral reef formation, maintenance, and ecology, little is known about coralline algal disease abundance, distribution, etiology, or the potential implications of declining CCA flora. This paper presents the first quantitative study of CCA disease on U.S. Pacific coral reefs, based on Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 337 discrete sites, at 42 different U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands and Atolls, within 5 major geographical regions: main Hawaiian Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, the Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIA), and Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Five major disease categories were enumerated, and a disease occurrence index was estimated, based on case counts relative to percent CCA cover. CCA disease occurrence exhibited considerable spatial variability both between and within islands/atolls, with some regions being disproportionately affected by disease. No diseases were observed at remote Johnston and Wake Atolls, or the main Hawaiian Islands. Diseases were rare in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands; occasional to common around the PRIA, and common to abundant in American Samoa, Guam, and the Southern Mariana Islands. Pacific-wide, disease occurrence was statistically associated with CCA percent cover and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) but not with human population density; nonetheless, disease occurrence and population density were statistically correlated for those islands containing disease. Although Pacific-wide, the occurrence of disease was low, with no active outbreaks detected in any region, hot spots of disease were detected around Guam, the southern CNMI, American Samoa, and the PRIA. The high levels of spatial and temporal variability in disease occurrence herein underscore the patchy nature and fluctuating distribution dynamics of these afflictions. Also, the widespread dispersal

  3. Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A

    2014-07-01

    We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder's Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta ) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea. PMID:24955009

  4. Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A.

    2013-01-01

    We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder’s Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea. PMID:24955009

  5. Radiological dose assessments of atolls in the Northern Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.

    1983-11-01

    Methods and models used to estimate the radiation doses to a returning population of the atolls in the Marshall Islands are presented. In this environment natural processes have acted on source-term radionuclides for nearly 30 years. The data bases developed for the models, and the results of the radiological dose analyses at the various atolls are described. The major radionuclides in order of their contribution to the total estimated doses were /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and /sup 60/Co. Exposure pathways in order of their contribution to the estimated doses were: terrestrial food chain, external ..gamma.., marine food chain, inhalation, and cistern water and ground water. 56 references, 13 figures, 16 tables.

  6. Preliminary results of microearthquake survey, Northern Adak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mackelprang, Claron E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine MEQ-800 portable seismic systems were emplaced and recordings taken during the 30 day period between September 5 to October 4, 1982. During this interval 190 events were correlated on two or more stations by Mincomp. Twenty four of these, seen on four or more stations and considered to be local in origin, yielded, according to Mincomp, reasonable hypocenters and origin times using a homogeneous earth model having a velocity of 5 km/sec. A plot of these hypocenters showed much of the microearthquake activity recorded during the survey to be located beneath Mt. Adagdak. This is different from the events located by the Butler and Keller (1974) microearthquake survey which placed hypocenters beneath the sea in Andrew Bay north and northwest of Mt. Adagdak. Butler and Keller did project a fault plane to the surface which would project southwest through Mt. Adagdak and Andrew Bay Volcano. ESL hypocenter locations using the layered earth model show many of the identified events to occur on the northeast corner of the island at focal depths of 8-10 km. It is not obvious that the observed events are related to a single active fault. If so, the fault must be at a low dip angle as shown by the least-squares-fit to the data on Figure 3. Alternatively, the majority of the events occurring within a fairly restrictive range of focal depths may be more indicative of a magma chamber and the movement of magma. Further interpretation of the microearthquake data obtained during 1982 is, however, outside the scope of this report. The relatively small error ellipses for hypocenter locations, compared to the distribution of hypocenters shown on Plates V and VI lead us to question the validity of the projection of all hypocenters to define a single fault location and orientation. It is apparent that two or more structures could be indicated by the present data and that these structures intersect near the north end of Adak island. The occurrence of most events in a narrow depth range

  7. Radiological-dose assessments of atolls in the northern Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.

    1983-04-01

    The Marshall Islands in the Equatorial Pacific, specifically Enewetak and Bikini Atolls, were the site of US nuclear testing from 1946 through 1958. In 1978, the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey was conducted to evaluate the radiological conditions of two islands and ten atolls downwind of the proving grounds. The survey included aerial external gamma measurements and collection of soil, terrestrial, and marine samples for radionuclide analysis to determine the radiological dose from all exposure pathways. The methods and models used to estimate doses to a population in an environment where natural processes have acted on the source-term radionuclides for nearly 30 y, data bases developed for the models, and results of the radiological dose analyses are described.

  8. Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems of the Central and Northern Kuril Island Arc - a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, E.; Taran, Y.; Voloshina, E.; Ptashinsky, L.

    2015-12-01

    More than 20 active volcanoes with historical eruptions are known on 17 islands composing the Central and Northern part of the Kurilian Arc. Six islands - Paramushir, Shiashkotan, Rasshua, Ushishir, Ketoy and Simushir - are characterized by hydrothermal activity, complementary to the fumarolic activity in their craters. There are several types of volcano-hydrothermal systems on the islands. At Paramushir, Shiashkotan and Ketoy the thermal manifestations are acidic to ultra-acidic water discharges associated with hydrothermal aquifers inside volcano edifices and formed as the result of the absorption of magmatic gases by ground waters. A closest known analogue of such activity is Satsuma-Iwojima volcano-island at the Ryukyu Arc. Another type of hydrothermal activity are wide spread coastal hot springs (Shiashkotan, Rasshua), situated as a rule within tide zones and formed by mixing of the heated seawater with cold groundwater or, in opposite, by mixing of the steam- or conductively heated groundwater with seawater. This type of thermal manifestation is similar to that reported for other volcanic islands of the world (Satsuma Iwojima, Monserrat, Ischia, Socorro). Ushishir volcano-hydrothermal system is formed by the absorption of magmatic gases by seawater. Only Ketoy Island hosts a permanent acidic crater lake. At Ebeko volcano (Paramushir) rapidly disappearing small acidic lakes (formed after phreatic eruptions) have been reported. The main hydrothermal manifestation of Simushir is the Zavaritsky caldera lake with numerous coastal thermal springs and weak steam vents. The last time measured temperatures of fumaroles at the islands are: >500ºC at Pallas Peak (Ketoy), 480ºC at Kuntamintar volcano (Shiashkotan), variable and fast changing temperatures from 120º C to 500ºC at Ebeko volcano (Paramushir), 150ºC in the Rasshua crater, and > 300ºC in the Chirpoy crater (Black Brothers islands). The magmatic and rock-forming solute output by the Kurilian volcano

  9. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.011...

  10. 76 FR 39445 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... issuance of the renewed licenses was published in the Federal Register on June 17, 2008 (73 FR 34335). For... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... Company--Minnesota (licensee), the ] operator of Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and...

  11. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: terrestrial food chain and total doses

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Mount, M.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Conrado, C.A.; Stuart, M.L.; Stoker, C.E.

    1982-09-30

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent manmade radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. The survey consisted mainly of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates over the islands of each atoll. The logistical support for the entire survey was designed to accommodate this operation. As a secondary phase of the survey, shore parties collected appropriate terrestrial and marine samples to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to those individuals residing on the atolls, who may in the future reside on some of the presently uninhabited atolls, or who collect food from these atolls. Over 5000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern water and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef and pelagic fish, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. The concentration data for /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in terrestrial food crops, fowl, and animals collected at the atolls or islands are summarized. An assessment of the total dose from the major exposure pathways including external gamma, terrestrial food chain including food products and drinking water, marine food chain, and inhalation is provided. Radiological doses at each atoll or island are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in the terrestrial foods, marine foods, etc. assuming the average daily intake for each food item.

  12. Physical volcanology of the submarine Mariana and Volcano Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomer, Sherman H.; Stern, Robert J.; Smoot, N. Christian

    1989-05-01

    Narrow-beam maps, selected dredge samplings, and surveys of the Mariana and Volcano Arcs identify 42 submarine volcanos. Observed activity and sample characteristics indicate 22 of these to be active or dormant. Edifices in the Volcano Arc are larger than most of the Mariana Arc edifices, more irregularly shaped with numerous subsidiary cones, and regularly spaced at 50 70 km. Volcanos in the Mariana Arc tend to be simple cones. Sets of individual cones and volcanic ridges are elongate parallel to the trend of the arc or at 110° counterclockwise from that trend, suggesting a strong fault control on the distribution of arc magmas. Volcanos in the Mariana Arc are generally developed west of the frontal arc ridge, on rifted frontal arc crust or new back-arc basin crust. Volcanos in the central Mariana Arc are usually subaerial, large (> 500 km3), and spaced about 50 70 km apart. Those in the northern and southern Marianas are largely submarine, closer together, and generally less than 500 km3 in volume. There is a shoaling of the arc basement around Iwo Jima, accompanied by the appearance of incompatible-element enriched lavas with alkalic affinities. The larger volcanic edifices must reflect either a higher magma supply rate or a greater age for the larger volcanos. If the magma supply (estimated at 10 20 km3/km of arc per million years at 18° N) has been relatively constant along the Mariana Arc, we can infer a possible evolutionary sequence for arc volcanos from small, irregularly spaced edifices to large (over 1000 km3) edifices spaced at 50 70 km. The volcano distribution and basal depths are consistent with the hypothesis of back-arc propagation into the Volcano Arc.

  13. To amend Public Law 93-435 with respect to the Northern Mariana Islands, providing parity with Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Sablan, Gregorio Kilili Camacho [D-MP-At Large

    2013-02-06

    05/16/2013 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.256, which became Public Law 113-34 on 9/18/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Timing of the Northern Prince Gustav Ice Stream retreat and the deglaciation of northern James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the last glacial-interglacial transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nývlt, Daniel; Braucher, Régis; Engel, Zbyněk; Mlčoch, Bedřich

    2014-09-01

    The Northern Prince Gustav Ice Stream located in Prince Gustav Channel, drained the northeastern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet during the last glacial maximum. Here we present a chronology of its retreat based on in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be from erratic boulders at Cape Lachman, northern James Ross Island. Schmidt hammer testing was adopted to assess the weathering state of erratic boulders in order to better interpret excess cosmogenic 10Be from cumulative periods of pre-exposure or earlier release from the glacier. The weighted mean exposure age of five boulders based on Schmidt hammer data is 12.9 ± 1.2 ka representing the beginning of the deglaciation of lower-lying areas (< 60 m a.s.l.) of the northern James Ross Island, when Northern Prince Gustav Ice Stream split from the remaining James Ross Island ice cover. This age represents the minimum age of the transition from grounded ice stream to floating ice shelf in the middle continental shelf areas of the northern Prince Gustav Channel. The remaining ice cover located at higher elevations of northern James Ross Island retreated during the early Holocene due to gradual decay of terrestrial ice and increase of equilibrium line altitude. Schmidt hammer R-values are inversely correlated with 10Be exposure ages and could be used as a proxy for exposure history of individual granite boulders in this region and favour the hypothesis of earlier release of boulders with excessive 10Be concentrations from glacier directly at this site. These data provide evidences for an earlier deglaciation of northern James Ross Island when compared with other recently presented cosmogenic nuclide based deglaciation chronologies, but this timing coincides with rapid increase of atmospheric temperature in this marginal part of Antarctica.

  16. Discovery of an island population of dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleidae: Cheirogaleus) on Nosy Hara, far northern Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Charlie J; Jasper, Louise D

    2015-10-01

    The species-level diversity of Madagascar's lemurs has increased hugely over the last two decades, growing from 32 species in 1994 to 102 species in 2014. This growth is primarily due to the application of molecular phylogenetic analyses and the phylogenetic species concept to known populations, and few previously unknown lemur populations have been discovered during this time. We report on a new population of dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleus sp.) from Nosy Hara, a 312-ha island in far northern Madagascar, which constitutes the northernmost distribution record for the genus. The dwarf lemurs appeared to show two characteristics of island populations-insular dwarfism and predator naïveté-that suggest a long isolation, and may thus represent an undescribed taxon. If this is the case, the dwarf lemurs of Nosy Hara are probably one of the rarest primate taxa on Earth. PMID:26243504

  17. Regional genetic differentiation among northern high-latitude island populations of a broadcast-spawning coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Nishikawa, A.; Iguchi, A.; Sakai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of genetic connectivity is useful for understanding of the recovery potential of coral populations after various disturbances, such as coral mass bleaching. Population genetic studies in corals are mostly restricted to Australian and Caribbean species; studies in the northern Pacific are relatively limited. Using microsatellite markers, the population genetics of Acropora sp. 1 was examined between two regions in Japan, the Okinawa-Aka and Bonin Islands, which are separated by approximately 1,500 km of open water in a high-latitude area. Statistically significant but small genetic differentiation in Acropora sp. 1 was detected between and within these regions. Genetic diversity was not obviously reduced in populations of the Bonin Islands, which are relatively isolated. Thus, some level of connectivity appears to be maintained between the two regions, likely because of the high dispersal ability of this broadcast spawner.

  18. Distribution of sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in two Ionian Islands and northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulou, Kyriaki; Anagnostou, Vassiliki; Ivovic, Vladimir; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Rogozi, Elton; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Papa, Anna

    2011-12-01

    A field study on the distribution of phlebotomine sandflies was carried out during summer months of 2009 and 2010 in eight sites in two Ionian islands and in northern Greece. A total of 490 sandflies (74.5% females) were collected. Six species of the Phlebotomus genus and two of the Sergentomyia genus were identified. The species with the widest distribution in the islands were Phlebotomus neglectus (32.8%), Phlebotomus similis (30.3%), Phlebotomus tobbi (16.7%), and P. perfiliewi (15.9%), whereas P. simici (50%), P. neglectus (24.5%), and P. tobbi (9.6%) predominated in the mainland. As most of these species are proven or suspected vectors of human and animal pathogens, prevention measures have to be taken in these areas during the summer months when sandflies are active. PMID:21919729

  19. Copious, Long-lived Rejuvenated Volcanism in the Northern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D.; Hanano, D. W.; Jicha, B. R.; Ito, G.

    2015-12-01

    New marine surveying and submersible sampling of Kaul'a Volcano, located 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian Chain, have revealed widespread areas of young volcanism. New 40Ar/39Ar and geochemical analyses of the olivine-phyric submarine and subaerial volcanic rocks show that Kaul'a is shrouded with young alkalic basalts (1.9 to 0.5 Ma). The ages and chemistry of these rocks overlap with rejuvenated lavas from nearby shields Ni'ihau, Kaua'i and South Kaua'i Swell. Collectively, rejuvenated lavas cover a vast area (~7000 km2) in the northern Hawaiian Islands. Kaul'a rejuvenated lavas show a much larger (5x) variation of incompatible elements than those from adjacent Ni'ihau but comparable to Honolulu rejuvenated lavas. Unlike both suites, heavy REE elements in Kaul'a lavas are pinned at Ybn 10, indicating a strong garnet signature in the source. Rejuvenated lavas from the Kaua'i Ridge have slightly higher radiogenic Pb isotope ratios than those from the southern Hawaiian Islands (Maui to O'ahu) and partly straddle the LOA-KEA boundary. Rejuvenated volcanism was nearly coeval occurrence from ~0.3 to 0.6 Ma along a 450 km segment of the Hawaiian Islands (West Maui to north of Ni'ihau), which is inconsistent with most models for rejuvenated volcanism except the Ballmer et al.2 dynamic melting model. This model invokes increasing pyroxenite contributions and the interaction with scale-scale convection rolls in the lithosphere to enhance the volume and duration of rejuvenation volcanism. Thus, a pyroxenite-bearing, mixed Kea-Loa source component may have contributed to the prolonged and extensive rejuvenated volcanism in the northern Hawaiian Islands. 1Robinson & Eakins 2006, J. Vol. Geotherm. Res., 151, 309-317; 2Ballmer et al. 2011, Nat. Geosc. 4, 457-460.

  20. Baffin Island and West Greenland Current Systems in northern Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münchow, Andreas; Falkner, Kelly K.; Melling, Humfrey

    2015-03-01

    Temperature, salinity, and direct velocity observations from northern Baffin Bay are presented from a summer 2003 survey. The data reveal interactions between fresh and cold Arctic waters advected southward along Baffin Island and salty and warm Atlantic waters advected northward along western Greenland. Geostrophic currents estimated from hydrography are compared to measured ocean currents above 600 m depth. The Baffin Island Current is well constrained by the geostrophic thermal wind relation, but the West Greenland Current is not. Furthermore, both currents are better described as current systems that contain multiple velocity cores and eddies. We describe a surface-intensified Baffin Island Current seaward of the continental slope off Canada and a bottom-intensified West Greenland Current over the continental slope off Greenland. Acoustic Doppler current profiler observations suggest that the West Greenland Current System advected about 3.8 ± 0.27 Sv (Sv = 106 m3 s-1) towards the north-west at this time. The most prominent features were a surface intensified coastal current advecting 0.5 Sv and a bottom intensified slope current advecting about 2.5 Sv in the same direction. Most of this north-westward circulation turned southward in the Baffin Island Current System. The Baffin Island system was transporting 5.1 ± 0.24 Sv to the south-east at the time that includes additional contributions from Nares Strait to the north (1.0 ± 0.2 Sv) and Lancaster Sound to the east (1.0 ± 0.2 Sv). Net freshwater fluxes were 72 and 187 mSv for the West Greenland and Baffin Island Currents, respectively. Empirical uncertainty arises from unknown temporal variations at weekly time scales and pertubations introduced by unresolved eddies. Eddies with 10 km horizontal and 400 m vertical scales were common and recirculated up to 1 Sv. Our 2003 observations represent conditions when the North-Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO) was close to zero. Analysis of historical hydrographic

  1. An analysis of the current deflection around Dongsha Islands in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongxiao; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Weidong; Cai, Shuqun; Li, Li; Hong, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Based on the in situ data and ADCP observation in fall, it is found that a northeastward current at inter-middle level flows on the Northern South China Sea (NSCS) continental shelf. This current flows almost along the isobaths, and it deflects from the isobaths veering toward deep water when flowing over the Dongsha Islands. Geographic currents derived from the climatologic hydrography data (WOA01) and absolute dynamic topography (ADT) data confirm the deflection of the northeastward current on NSCS continent. A fine resolution regional ocean model which can well reproduce the large scale circulation in the NSCS is used to analyze the dynamic about the deflection. The vorticity term balances shows that JEBAR (Joint Effect of Baroclinicity and Relief) drives the water column to depart from the isobaths. To the east of the Dongsha Islands, the isopycnal is almost orthogonal to the isobaths. The joint effect of the topographic and the baroclinic effect supplies negative vorticity and drives the water column to deflect from the isobaths and veer to deeper water. Momentum analysis along the stream line shows that, when the sea water flows around the Dongsha islands, the pressure gradient along the isobath pushes the sea water to accelerate, and then the Coriolis force orthogonal to the isobath increases and overcomes the corresponding pressure gradient, which drives the water deflected from the isobath toward the deep sea.

  2. Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai and Niihau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.

    2010-08-01

    New land and marine gravity data reveal two positive residual gravity anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: one over Kaua'i, the other between the islands of Kaua'i and Ni'ihau. These gravitational highs are similar in size and magnitude to those of other Hawaiian volcanoes, indicating local zones of high-density crust, attributed to olivine cumulates in solidified magma reservoirs. The residual gravity high over Kaua'i is located in the Līhu'e Basin, offset 8-12 km east of Kaua'i's geologically mapped caldera. This offset suggests that the mapped caldera is a collapsed feature later filled in with lava and not the long-term center of Kaua'i shield volcanism. A second residual gravity high, in the submarine channel between Kaua'i and Ni'ihau, marks the volcanic center of the Ni'ihau shield volcano. This second residual gravity anomaly implies that Ni'ihau's eastern boundary extended ˜20 km east of its present location. Through inversion, the residual gravity anomalies were modeled as being produced by two solidified magma reservoirs with average densities of 3100 kg/m3 and volumes between 2470 and 2540 km3. Considering the locations and sizes of the residual gravity anomalies/magma reservoirs, the extent of the two islands' paleoshorelines and potassium-argon dating of shield-stage lavas, we conclude that the two islands were not connected subaerially during their respective shield stages and that Ni'ihau's topographic summit was removed by an eastern flank collapse between 4.3 and 5.6 Ma. Continued constructional volcanism on western Kaua'i likely covered much of the submerged remains of eastern Ni'ihau.

  3. Aerial radiological and photographic survey of eleven atolls and two islands within the Northern Marshall Islands. Dates of surveys, July-November 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over eleven atolls and two islands within the northern Marshall Islands between September and November 1978. This survey was part of a comprehensive radiological survey, which included extensive terrestrial and marine sampling, to determine possible residual contamination which might remain as a result of the United States nuclear testing program conducted at Bikini Enewetak Atolls between 1946 and 1958. A similar survey was conducted at Enewetak Atoll in 1972. The present survey covered those atolls known to have received direct fallout from the Bravo event, conducted in March 1954 at Bikini Atoll. These included Bikini, Rongelap, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Bikar, Taka, and Utirik Atolls. In addition, several atolls and islands which might have been at the fringes of the Bravo fallout were also surveyed, including Likiep and Ailuk Atolls, Jemo and Mejit Islands, and Wotho Atoll. Ujelang Atoll, which lies approximately 200 km southwest of Enewetak, was also surveyed. Island-averaged terrestrial exposure rates in the range of 30 to 50 ..mu..R/h were observed over parts of Bikini Atoll, including Bikini Island, and over the northern part of Rongelap Atoll. Levels over southern Rongelap and over Rongerik Atoll ranged from 4 to 7 ..mu..R/h. Levels were somewhat lower at Ailinginae Atoll (approximately 2 ..mu..R/h) and at Utirik Atoll (approximately 0.7 ..mu..R/h). The variations observed were consistent with what might be expected from the fallout pattern of the Bravo event. Levels at Ailuk, Likiep, Wotho and Ujelang Atolls and at Mejit and Jemo Islands were consistent with /sup 137/Cs activity, due to worldwide fallout, observed within the United States and at other locations in the central Pacific. These four atolls and the two islands, therefore, do not appear to have recieved any significant direct contamination from the Bravo event or the other tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls.

  4. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    PubMed Central

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

  5. Cryosols Formation and classification in the semiarid Antarctica: the Weddel Sea sector of northern Seymour Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjorup, Davi; Schaefer, Carlos; Francelino, Marcio

    2015-04-01

    The Seymour Island is located in the northern sector of the Weddell Sea zone, at the Antarctic Peninsular area, representing a transitional zone between Maritime and Continental Antarctica, with a subpolar, semiarid climate. The Seymour Island is predominantly composed by marine sedimentary rocks of Cretaceus to Eocene age. The aims of this work were to study the chemical, physical, mineralogical and morphological attributes of a selected, representative toposequence of soils at the northern sector of Seymour Island. Soil formation processes and taxonomical implications were discussed. Nine soil profiles were described, collected and analysed, following a toposequence according to different parent materials and landforms. Samples were subjected to textural analysis, routine chemical analysis, chemical extractions by ammonium oxalate and CBD, as well as X ray diffraction. Permafrost is continuous and widespread, generally at depths of less than 100 cm, so the Gelisols order (Soil Taxonomy), or Cryosols (WRB), are the dominant soils. Cryoturbation and organic matter accumulation were not observed. Soils were separated into two groups: acid-sulphate soils and alkaline soils, unaffected by sulphates. The first are the best developed in the study area, meaning a significant physico-chemical and mineralogical alteration. Low pH and high Al saturation and potential acidity are typical. This accounts for primary mineral dissolution, and its absence in the clay fraction. Secondary minerals are those related to sulphide oxidation: soluble and insoluble sulphates, low crystalline Fe-hydroxides and little crystalline Fe phases. The peculiar yellowish colour of these soils are attributed to the presence of Fe-oxides and Jarosite. The presence of 2:1 clays (smectite and illite) in the Clay fraction despite the acidity is due to low leaching. The alkaline soils, non affected by sulphates do not showed any marked weathering or transformation, with high pH, low potential acidity

  6. 75 FR 63213 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering the issuance of an...

  7. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  8. 76 FR 11521 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 1, Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... (76 FR 9827), which informed the public that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was considering the issuance of amendments to Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60, respectively, for the Prairie... COMMISSION Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 1, Northern States Power Company--Minnesota;...

  9. 75 FR 6225 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... revisions to 10 CFR part 73, as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967... Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The licensee currently maintains a security system... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and...

  10. 75 FR 3946 - License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60; Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...) published in the Federal Register on April 26, 1991 (56 FR 18997); and (C) Nuclear Energy Institute's (NEI...'' (56 FR 18997). The NRC is treating the petitioner's request pursuant to 10 CFR 2.206, ``Requests for... COMMISSION License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60; Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear...

  11. 75 FR 9625 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    .... As noted in the final Power Reactor Security Requirements rule (74 FR 13925, March 27, 2009), the... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60, which authorize operation of the...

  12. The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: A quality control program for radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kehl, S.R.; Mount, M.E.; Robison, W.L.

    1995-09-01

    From 1979 to 1989, approximately 25,000 Post Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (PNMIRS) samples were collected, and over 71,400 radiochemical and gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed to establish the concentration of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am, and plutonium isotopes in soil, vegetation, fish, and animals in the Northern Marshall Islands. While the Low Level Gamma Counting Facility (B379) in the Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division accounted for over 80% of all gamma spectroscopy analyses, approximately 4889 radiochemical and 5437 gamma spectroscopy analyses were performed on 4784 samples of soil, vegetation, terrestrial animal, and marine organisms by outside laboratories. Four laboratories were used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform the radiochemical analyses: Thermo Analytical Norcal, Richmond, California (TMA); Nuclear Energy Services, North Carolina State University (NCSU); Laboratory of Radiation Ecology, University of Washington (LRE); and Health and Ecological Assessment (HEA) division, LLNL, Livermore, California. Additionally, LRE and NCSU were used to perform gamma spectroscopy analyses. The analytical precision and accuracy were monitored by including blind duplicates and natural matrix standards in each group of samples analyzed. On the basis of reported analytical values for duplicates and standards, 88% of the gamma and 87% of the radiochemical analyses in this survey were accepted. By laboratory, 93% of the radiochemical analyses by TMA; 88% of the gamma-ray spectrometry and 100% of the radiochemistry analyses by NCSU; 89% of the gamma spectroscopy and 87% of the radiochemistry analyses by LRE; and 90% of the radiochemistry analyses performed by HEA`s radiochemistry department were accepted.

  13. A Study of Low-Frequency Earthquake Magnitudes in Northern Vancouver Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, L. Y.; Bostock, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic tremor and low frequency earthquakes (LFE) have been extensively studied in recent years in northern Washington and southern Vancouver Island (VI). However, far less attention has been directed to northern VI where the behavior of tremor and LFEs is less well documented. We investigate LFE properties in this latter region by assembling templates using data from the POLARIS-NVI and Sea-JADE experiments. The POLARIS-NVI experiment comprised 27 broadband seismometers arranged along two mutually perpendicular arms with an aperture of ~60 km centered near station WOS (lat. 50.16, lon. -126.57). It recorded two ETS events in June 2006 and May 2007, each with duration less than a week. For these two episodes, we constructed 68 independent, high signal to noise ratio LFE templates representing spatially distinct asperities on the plate boundary in NVI, along with a catalogue of more than 30 thousand detections. A second data set is being prepared for the complementary 2014 Sea-JADE data set. The precisely located LFE templates represent simple direct P-waves and S-waves at many stations thereby enabling magnitude estimation of individual detections. After correcting for radiation pattern, 1-D geometrical spreading, attenuation and free-surface magnification, we solve a large, sparse linear system for 3-D path corrections and LFE magnitudes for all detections corresponding to a single LFE template. LFE magnitudes range up to 2.54, and like southern VI are characterized by high b-values (b~8). In addition, we will quantify LFE moment-duration scaling and compare with southern Vancouver Island where LFE moments appear to be controlled by slip, largely independent of fault area.

  14. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended. PMID:24803576

  15. Status and habitat relationships of northern flying squirrels on Mount Desert Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, A.F.; Servello, F.; Higgins, J.; Halteman, W.

    2001-01-01

    Northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels occur in Maine, but there is uncertainty about range overlap in southcentral Maine where the southern flying squirrel reaches its geographic range limit. We surveyed flying squirrels on Mount Desert Island (MDI), located along the central Maine coast, to update the current status and distribution of these species. We captured only northern flying squirrels, and populations (> 2 individuals) were located in two conifer stands and one mixed conifer-hardwood stand. All three stands were located in relatively older forests, outside a large area burned in a 1947 fire. Tree diameters were similar between trap stations with and without captures, under-story density was low overall, and there was a trend of higher seedling density at capture locations. Low understory density may allow squirrels more effective gliding movements between trees, which may enhance predator avoidance. Although the southern flying squirrel was reported from MDI numerous times during the 20th century, no voucher specimens exist, and species identification and localities have been poorly documented. Future surveys on MDI should consider collection of voucher specimens to validate subsequent survey efforts and effectively document changes in local biodiversity.

  16. Biogeochemistry of Mariana Islands coastal sediments: terrestrial influence on /gd13, Ash, CaCO3, Al, Fe, Si and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Ernest A.

    1989-01-01

    Stable C isotope ratios (δ13C-PDB), percentages of organic matter, and HCl insoluble ash and soluble carbonates, extractable Fe, Al, Si and P were used to determine the distribution and accumulation of terrestrial material in reef-flat moats and lagoons of two high islands (Guam and Saipan) in the western tropical Pacific. Carbonate sediments of a reef-flat moat infiltrated by seepage of aquifer waters (but without surface runoff) were depleted in both P (by 38%) and 13C (by 41%) and enriched in Si (by 100%) relative to offshore lagoon sediments. Iron and ash accumulated in depositional regimes regardless of the occurrence of runoff but was depleted from coarse-grained carbonates in turbulent regimes. Aluminum (>ca. 10 to 20 μmol g-1), Fe (>ca. 1 to 3 μmol g-1) and ash (>0.5%) indicated terrigenous influence which was corroborated by depletions in both 13C and P. Low-salinity geochemical segregation, natural biochemical accumulation, as well as long-shore currents and eddies help sequester these materials nearshore.

  17. Fjord dynamics and glacio-marine interactions on Northern Ellesmere Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, A.; Mueller, D.; Laval, B.

    2012-12-01

    Despite the existence of ice shelves and glacier tongues along the northern coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada, for the majority of the past 4000 years (Evans and England, 1992; Antoniades et al., 2011) recent atmospheric warming has contributed to collapse of the remaining ice shelves and the loss of rare ice-shelf dammed lakes (epishelf lakes) (Mueller et al., 2003, 2008; Copland et al., 2007). These studies have primarily addressed surface processes as the causal factors for ice shelf breakup, but changes in ocean stratification and heat flux, meltwater input, and subglacial thermodynamics may strongly influence the integrity and fate of these systems. Despite the growing evidence of the importance of oceanic processes on tidewater glacier mass balance in Greenlandic fjords (Holland et al., 2008; Johnson et al., 2011; Straneo et al., 2011) these processes remain poorly studied on related systems in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). In addition, the recent sharp increase in mass loss from the glaciers and ice caps of the CAA, primarily in the form of meltwater runoff (Gardner et al., 2011) suggest understanding the aquatic and oceanic factors contributing to ice shelf and glacier tongue integrity and epishelf lake formation is critical. We will present observations from the Milne Fjord ice shelf, epishelf lake, and glacier tongue system on the northern coast of Ellesmere Island, Canada (Fig. 1). Two years of field observations include a 15-month under-ice ocean mooring deployment, through-ice oceanographic CTD and current velocity profiles, and ice mass balance estimates from ablation stake and GPR surveys. We will present the first ever observations of the seasonal and episodic oceanographic variations of Milne Fjord, with particular focus on ocean-epishelf lake-ice shelf dynamics. We aim to understand how all ice and ocean components interact to determine the evolution and stability of the system, with the goal of understanding and perhaps predicting large

  18. ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J

    2005-01-01

    The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud

  19. ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, D.; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud

  20. Trench Advance By the Subduction of Buoyant Features - Application to the Izu-Bonin-Marianas Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, S. D. B.; Fourel, L.; Morra, G.

    2014-12-01

    Most subduction trenches retreat, not only today but throughout the Cenozoic. However, a few trenches clearly advance during part of the evolution, including Izu-Bonin Marianas (IBM) and Kermadec. Trench retreat is well understood as a basic consequence of slab pull, but it is debated what causes trench advance. The IBM trench underwent a complex evolution: right after its initiation, it rotated clockwise, leading to very fast retreat in the north and slow retreat in the south. But since 10-15 Ma, IBM trench motions have switched to advance at the southern end, and since 5 Ma also the northern end is advancing. Based on 2-D subduction models, it has been proposed proposed that the change in age of the subducting plate at the IBM trench (from 40-70 m.y. at the initiation of the trench 45 m.y. ago to 100-140 m.y. lithosphere subducting at the trench today) and its effect on plate strength could explain the transition from trench retreat to trench advance, and that the age gradient (younger in the north and older in the south) could explain the rotation of the trench. However, with new 3-D coupled fluid-solid subduction model where we can include such lateral age gradients, we find that this does not yield the observed behaviour. Instead, we propose an alternative mechanism, involving the subduction of the buoyant Caroline Island Ridge at the southern edge of the Mariana trench and show that it can explain both trench motion history and the current morphology of the IBM slab as imaged by seismic tomography.

  1. Rapidly Melting Ice Caps of Northern Baffin Island: Insights From Cosmogenic and Conventional Radiocarbon Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. K.; Miller, G. H.; Briner, J. P.; Lifton, N.; Devogel, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    The interior plateau of northern Baffin Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic is home to several small (< 50 km2) ice caps whose melt has been well recorded since 1949. Modern equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is well above all existing ice and a continuation of current climatic conditions will lead to the disappearance of all ice on the plateau in the future. Between 2000 and 2005, approximately 1 km2 of ice was lost per year, equivalent to ~1.3% of the total ice cover on the plateau. To put this current melt into a larger picture of ice-cap history on the plateau since deglaciation 6 ka, several techniques have been used in concert. The recent extent of the ice caps during the Little Ice Age can be estimated from the preservation of lichen trimlines across much of the plateau. These trimlines represent previous multi-year snow or ice cover and their aerial extent can be measured via satellite imagery. Based on these measurements, modern ice caps represent only ~3% of ice-cap extent during the Little Ice Age. Radiocarbon dating of moss, preserved beneath the ice caps due to their cold-based nature, suggests a sudden expansion of ice cover around 520 calendar years before present (cal BP), indicated by a mode of 7 dates of approximately this age. This coincides with a pulse of global volcanic activity; predicted cooling from increased aerosol loading may have triggered rapid ice-cap growth. However, dead moss emerging at three sites is more than 1000 years old, with a maximum age of 1326±15 cal BP, indicating that portions of the remaining ice caps have remained intact from more than 1000 years Further constraints on ice cap size are provided by 14C cosmogenic exposure dating. 14C concentrations in rocks at the modern ice margin are too low to be the result of continuous exposure since deglaciation followed by shielding for 500-1000 years by ice cover. Exposure history modeling indicates at least one additional prior period of ice cover of approximately 1000 years

  2. "Urban heat island" effect on tree growth at several cities of Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilov, O. I.; Kasatkina, E. A.; Timonen, M.; Herva, H.; Kirtsideli, I.; Kanatjev, A. G.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated growth of larches being planted at several cities of Northern Europe: St. Petersburg (59°57'N, 30°19'E), Rovaniemi (66°30'N, 25°44'E), Apatity (67°34'N, 33°23'E). The data were collected at several sites inside of each city, and at one site in the rural area outside of each cities (about 50 km apart). Totally we studied 10 series. The longest chronology was about 190 years (in St. Petersburg). However, the most others were not very long (about 50 - 70 years). Firstly, it was shown that tree-rings of planted (not typical) larch trees don't reflect the influence of external (solar) factors in contrast with natural species. That is it could not be possible to detect some warming for the 1930-1960 period and some cooling later on. This effect was observed for both series inside the cities and outside of them. Secondly, it was revealed that for both northern cities (Apatity and Rovaniemi) variability of tree-ring indexes was more pronounced in series collected inside of them. Another situation was found for St. Petersburg. Growth of larch trees was stable inside of this megapolis. The preliminary interpretation of the results obtained seems to be connected to different influence of "urban heat island" effect on planted trees inside and outside of the cities for megapolis and relatively small towns. This work is financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

  3. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several northern Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Musolino, S.V.; Hull, A.P.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. Current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. External exposures and {sup 137}Cs Soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. 30 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several Northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Musolino, S V; Greenhouse, N A; Hull, A P

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. The current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. The external exposures and 137Cs soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. PMID:9314227

  5. HP-LT metamorphism in Elba Island: Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the inner Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Caterina; Brogi, Andrea; Caggianelli, Alfredo; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The inner Northern Apennines belt (i.e., northern Tyrrhenian Sea and Tuscany) is an Alpine chain affected by high-P metamorphic conditions during its evolution. Although Elba Island is structurally located close to the Adria-Europe suture zone, for several authors it represents a sector of the orogen affected by low-P metamorphism. The involvement of Elba Island tectonic units in high-P metamorphism was only suspected for the sparse presence of phengitic white mica in the metasedimentary rocks. This paper presents the first clear evidence of high-P and low-T metamorphism found in metabasite rocks embedded in the Cretaceous calcschist of eastern Elba Island. Mineral composition of metabasite includes Gln + Cpx + Ep + Ab + Act + Qtz + Ilm ± Ti-oxide ± Spn and is indicative of a former equilibration in the epidote blueschist subfacies and subsequent retrogression in the greenschist facies. Recorded metamorphic conditions are P = 0.9-1.0 GPa and T = 330-350 °C. Tectonic discrimination using immobile elements in the metabasite does not point to an oceanic setting. As a consequence, the metasedimentary succession containing metabasite is explained as belonging to the Tuscan continental domain and not to the Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, as previously interpreted. Our results have two significant implications: (i) it is confirmed and strengthened that the tectonic stacking of the Elba Island units did not occur in a low-pressure context; (ii) Elba Island is now completely reconciled in the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the inner Northern Apennines.

  6. Annual Migration of Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Observed on a Small Isolated Island in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianglong; Fu, Xiaowei; Wu, Xiao; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Migration behavior of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is not well known by far. Here, we present the data from an 11-year study on A. segetum by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection on Beihuang (BH) Island, which located in the center of the Bohai Strait in northern China. The data showed a large number of A. segetum flight across the strait each year, which provides direct evidence that A. segetum is a long-distance migrant, migrating at least 40 - 60 km to reach the trapping site. The migration period during 2003-2013 ranged from 115 to 172 d. Among the catches, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males in each month from May to September. Ovarian dissection showed that the proportion of mated females and the proportion of sexually mature females was significantly higher than that of unmated females and sexually immature females in early summer, respectively, but conversely in autumn. The early summer populations migrate in a south-north direction, which might undertake a long-distance flight on several successive nights. The autumn populations migrate in a north-south direction, which might originate not far from the trapping site. Based on these findings, the migratory physiology of A. segetum was discussed. PMID:26114576

  7. Baselines and Degradation of Coral Reefs in the Northern Line Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Donner, Simon D.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Konotchick, Talina; Malay, Machel; Maragos, James E.; Obura, David; Pantos, Olga; Paulay, Gustav; Richie, Morgan; Rohwer, Forest; Schroeder, Robert E.; Walsh, Sheila; Jackson, Jeremy B. C.; Knowlton, Nancy; Sala, Enric

    2008-01-01

    Effective conservation requires rigorous baselines of pristine conditions to assess the impacts of human activities and to evaluate the efficacy of management. Most coral reefs are moderately to severely degraded by local human activities such as fishing and pollution as well as global change, hence it is difficult to separate local from global effects. To this end, we surveyed coral reefs on uninhabited atolls in the northern Line Islands to provide a baseline of reef community structure, and on increasingly populated atolls to document changes associated with human activities. We found that top predators and reef-building organisms dominated unpopulated Kingman and Palmyra, while small planktivorous fishes and fleshy algae dominated the populated atolls of Tabuaeran and Kiritimati. Sharks and other top predators overwhelmed the fish assemblages on Kingman and Palmyra so that the biomass pyramid was inverted (top-heavy). In contrast, the biomass pyramid at Tabuaeran and Kiritimati exhibited the typical bottom-heavy pattern. Reefs without people exhibited less coral disease and greater coral recruitment relative to more inhabited reefs. Thus, protection from overfishing and pollution appears to increase the resilience of reef ecosystems to the effects of global warming. PMID:18301734

  8. Baselines and degradation of coral reefs in the Northern Line Islands.

    PubMed

    Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Demartini, Edward E; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Donner, Simon D; Friedlander, Alan M; Konotchick, Talina; Malay, Machel; Maragos, James E; Obura, David; Pantos, Olga; Paulay, Gustav; Richie, Morgan; Rohwer, Forest; Schroeder, Robert E; Walsh, Sheila; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Knowlton, Nancy; Sala, Enric

    2008-01-01

    Effective conservation requires rigorous baselines of pristine conditions to assess the impacts of human activities and to evaluate the efficacy of management. Most coral reefs are moderately to severely degraded by local human activities such as fishing and pollution as well as global change, hence it is difficult to separate local from global effects. To this end, we surveyed coral reefs on uninhabited atolls in the northern Line Islands to provide a baseline of reef community structure, and on increasingly populated atolls to document changes associated with human activities. We found that top predators and reef-building organisms dominated unpopulated Kingman and Palmyra, while small planktivorous fishes and fleshy algae dominated the populated atolls of Tabuaeran and Kiritimati. Sharks and other top predators overwhelmed the fish assemblages on Kingman and Palmyra so that the biomass pyramid was inverted (top-heavy). In contrast, the biomass pyramid at Tabuaeran and Kiritimati exhibited the typical bottom-heavy pattern. Reefs without people exhibited less coral disease and greater coral recruitment relative to more inhabited reefs. Thus, protection from overfishing and pollution appears to increase the resilience of reef ecosystems to the effects of global warming. PMID:18301734

  9. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on islands at its northern range.

    PubMed

    Michaelides, Sozos; Cornish, Nina; Griffiths, Richard; Groombridge, Jim; Zajac, Natalia; Walters, Graham J; Aubret, Fabien; While, Geoffrey M; Uller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France) populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR) of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction. PMID:25659074

  10. Phylogeography and Conservation Genetics of the Common Wall Lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Islands at Its Northern Range

    PubMed Central

    Michaelides, Sozos; Cornish, Nina; Griffiths, Richard; Groombridge, Jim; Zajac, Natalia; Walters, Graham J.; Aubret, Fabien; While, Geoffrey M.; Uller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Populations at range limits are often characterized by lower genetic diversity, increased genetic isolation and differentiation relative to populations at the core of geographical ranges. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that populations situated at range limits might be the result of human introductions rather than natural dispersal. It is therefore important to document the origin and genetic diversity of marginal populations to establish conservation priorities. In this study, we investigate the phylogeography and genetic structure of peripheral populations of the common European wall lizard, Podarcis muralis, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) and in the Chausey archipelago. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 200 individuals of P. muralis to infer the phylogeography of the island populations using Bayesian approaches. We also genotyped 484 individuals from 21 populations at 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure and diversity of island and mainland (Western France) populations. We detected four unique haplotypes in the island populations that formed a sub-clade within the Western France clade. There was a significant reduction in genetic diversity (HO, HE and AR) of the island populations in relation to the mainland. The small fragmented island populations at the northern range margin of the common wall lizard distribution are most likely native, with genetic differentiation reflecting isolation following sea level increase approximately 7000 BP. Genetic diversity is lower on islands than in marginal populations on the mainland, potentially as a result of early founder effects or long-term isolation. The combination of restriction to specific localities and an inability to expand their range into adjacent suitable locations might make the island populations more vulnerable to extinction. PMID:25659074

  11. Geology and hydrogeology of northern Guam

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, W.L.

    1995-12-31

    Recent site characterization activities on the northern portion of the island of Guam have provided data challenging the perception of expected rapid flow within the karst ground water system. The main water bearing formations consist of Tertiary and Quaternary age coralline reef limestones of the Barrigada and Mariana formations. The Barrigada formation lies on top of the underlying Tertiary aged volcanics, and the younger Mariana formation overlies and onlaps the Barrigada formation as a vertical and transgressional facies, changing from a deep to a shallow water depositional sequence. Rain water rapidly infiltrates through the limestone recharging the fresh water aquifer. Conditions that affect the occurrence and extent of the fresh water aquifer are: tidal fluctuations, storm surges, stratigraphic settings, and karstification of the limestone. Evidence from boreholes drilled inland and near the coast suggest karstification has occurred between the phreatic and vadose zone at a depth of approximately 150 meters below ground surface, and within the transition zone between the fresh and salt water interface, near sea level. Although one might expect a rapid flow system in this karst aquifer, non-flashy responses on water levels in wells, and current results from a dye tracing study, suggest ground water movement is indicative of diffuse porous flow. However, flow velocity within the vadose zone has been found to be several times that occurring within the aquifer and it is very difficult to predict the direction of movement. Andersen Air Force Base, located on the northern portion of the island of Guam, has been operating since World War II after re-capturing the island from the Japanese in 1944. In the intervening years, sanitary and industrial wastes have been disposed in various trenches, borrow pits, quarries, and sinkholes. Potential ground water degradation may result if hazardous substances, in the form of leachate, are released from these disposal areas.

  12. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) develop when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings. The difference in temperature between the city core and its surroundings is proportional to the size of the city and can be related to differences in vegetation cover, the amount of development, building materials, and the infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, and changes in the local meteorology. To begin to address UHI mitigation strategies, a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of the behavior of urban heat islands is necessary. Because the influence of UHIs is most notable in wintertime, solutions to mitigate them are compounded because of societal resistance to modifying the landscape and urban structures to reduce already low wintertime temperatures. To better understand the UHI behavior of a large northern latitude city and to evaluate mitigation strategies that have the desired effect year round, we have embarked on a comprehensive four-year research program - Islands in the Sun - aimed at 1) analyzing the UHIs of the largest urban areas on the planet, 2) monitoring the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming, and 3) developing a numerical UHI model to quantify the effect of different mitigation strategies. Here we present results from an observational study of the TCMA, a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. The TCMA is home to 2.8 million residents within a seven county area comprising an

  13. Pseudotachylite in eclogite-facies shear zones from the Lofoten Islands, northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leech, M. L.; Shulman, D.; Dutra, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Lofoten Islands of northern Norway are one of two areas on Earth where eclogite-facies pseudotachylite has been found. Pseudotachylite-bearing eclogite shear zones indicate brittle faulting below the brittle/ductile transition existing at approximately 40 km depth in mafic lithosphere. Localized eclogite-facies shear zones, containing omphacite and garnet, have been found in various types of host rock on the islands of Flakstadøy, Vestvagøya, and Austvagøya. These eclogite shear zones are thought to be the result of deep crustal processes during Caledonian subduction and continent-continent collision. Pseudotachylite veins within these ESZ were observed in two locations on Flakstadøy near Flakstad and Nusfjord. At both locations, pseudotachylite- and non-pseudotachylite-bearing eclogite shear zones were sampled with a one-inch core drill. Using Fe-Mg exchange between garnet and omphacite, eclogitization took place at approximately 1.5 GPa and 680° C or approximately 45 km depth. Mineral chemistry and microstructural analyses of the host rock to shear zone transitions will provide information on the relationship between deformation and high-grade metamorphism. The microstructural relationship between the eclogite shear zones and pseudotachylite formation will be analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) at San Francisco State University. We expect mineral chemistry and EBSD analyses will distinguish between deformation-controlled or fluid-induced eclogite-facies metamorphism in otherwise metastable host rocks. Based on field observations, the ESZ and pseudotachylite formed coseismically, indicating brittle faulting occurred at eclogite-facies P-T conditions in the lower crust. Previous attempts to date the ESZ have been hampered by a retrograde amphibolite-facies overprint during post-Caledonian extension and exhumation. We will use 40Ar/39Ar to date crystal-free portions (i.e., unretrogressed) of pseudotachylite veins and Rb-Sr or Lu-Hf to

  14. Change in the length of the northern section of the Chandeleur Islands oil berm, September 5, 2010, through September 3, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, N.G.; Guy, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon oil rig drilling at the Macondo Prospect site in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a marine oil spill that continued to flow through July 15, 2010. One of the affected areas was the Breton National Wildlife Refuge, which consists of a chain of low-lying islands, including Breton Island and the Chandeleur Islands, and their surrounding waters. The island chain is located approximately 115–150 kilometers north-northwest of the spill site. A sand berm was constructed seaward of, and on, the island chain. Construction began at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands in June 2010 and ended in April 2011. The berm consisted of three distinct sections based on where the berm was placed relative to the islands. The northern section of the berm was built in open water on a submerged portion of the Chandeleur Islands platform. The middle section was built approximately 70–90 meters seaward of the Chandeleur Islands. The southern section was built on the islands’ beaches. Repeated Landsat and SPOT satellite imagery and airborne lidar were used to observe the disintegration of the berm over time. The methods used to analyze the remotely sensed data and the resulting, derived data for the northern section are described in this report.

  15. Microbial ecology of four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands.

    PubMed

    Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Pantos, Olga; Smriga, Steven; Edwards, Robert A; Angly, Florent; Wegley, Linda; Hatay, Mark; Hall, Dana; Brown, Elysa; Haynes, Matthew; Krause, Lutz; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A; Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Willis, Bette L; Azam, Farooq; Knowlton, Nancy; Rohwer, Forest

    2008-01-01

    Microbes are key players in both healthy and degraded coral reefs. A combination of metagenomics, microscopy, culturing, and water chemistry were used to characterize microbial communities on four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands, central Pacific. Kingman, a small uninhabited atoll which lies most northerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of an open ocean ecosystem. On this atoll the microbial community was equally divided between autotrophs (mostly Prochlorococcus spp.) and heterotrophs. In contrast, Kiritimati, a large and populated ( approximately 5500 people) atoll, which is most southerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of a near-shore environment. On Kiritimati, there were 10 times more microbial cells and virus-like particles in the water column and these microbes were dominated by heterotrophs, including a large percentage of potential pathogens. Culturable Vibrios were common only on Kiritimati. The benthic community on Kiritimati had the highest prevalence of coral disease and lowest coral cover. The middle atolls, Palmyra and Tabuaeran, had intermediate densities of microbes and viruses and higher percentages of autotrophic microbes than either Kingman or Kiritimati. The differences in microbial communities across atolls could reflect variation in 1) oceaonographic and/or hydrographic conditions or 2) human impacts associated with land-use and fishing. The fact that historically Kingman and Kiritimati did not differ strongly in their fish or benthic communities (both had large numbers of sharks and high coral cover) suggest an anthropogenic component in the differences in the microbial communities. Kingman is one of the world's most pristine coral reefs, and this dataset should serve as a baseline for future studies of coral reef microbes. Obtaining the microbial data set, from atolls is particularly important given the association of microbes in the ongoing degradation of coral reef

  16. Microbial Ecology of Four Coral Atolls in the Northern Line Islands

    PubMed Central

    Smriga, Steven; Edwards, Robert A.; Angly, Florent; Wegley, Linda; Hatay, Mark; Hall, Dana; Brown, Elysa; Haynes, Matthew; Krause, Lutz; Sala, Enric; Sandin, Stuart A.; Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Willis, Bette L.; Azam, Farooq; Knowlton, Nancy; Rohwer, Forest

    2008-01-01

    Microbes are key players in both healthy and degraded coral reefs. A combination of metagenomics, microscopy, culturing, and water chemistry were used to characterize microbial communities on four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands, central Pacific. Kingman, a small uninhabited atoll which lies most northerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of an open ocean ecosystem. On this atoll the microbial community was equally divided between autotrophs (mostly Prochlorococcus spp.) and heterotrophs. In contrast, Kiritimati, a large and populated (∼5500 people) atoll, which is most southerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of a near-shore environment. On Kiritimati, there were 10 times more microbial cells and virus-like particles in the water column and these microbes were dominated by heterotrophs, including a large percentage of potential pathogens. Culturable Vibrios were common only on Kiritimati. The benthic community on Kiritimati had the highest prevalence of coral disease and lowest coral cover. The middle atolls, Palmyra and Tabuaeran, had intermediate densities of microbes and viruses and higher percentages of autotrophic microbes than either Kingman or Kiritimati. The differences in microbial communities across atolls could reflect variation in 1) oceaonographic and/or hydrographic conditions or 2) human impacts associated with land-use and fishing. The fact that historically Kingman and Kiritimati did not differ strongly in their fish or benthic communities (both had large numbers of sharks and high coral cover) suggest an anthropogenic component in the differences in the microbial communities. Kingman is one of the world's most pristine coral reefs, and this dataset should serve as a baseline for future studies of coral reef microbes. Obtaining the microbial data set, from atolls is particularly important given the association of microbes in the ongoing degradation of coral reef ecosystems

  17. Infant mortality and intra-household competition in the Northern Islands of Orkney, Scotland, 1855-2001.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Corey S; Wood, James W; Johnson, Patricia L

    2013-06-01

    This study applies principles from the theory of household life cycles to the study of early childhood mortality in the population of the Northern Orkney Islands, Scotland. The primary hypothesis is that unfavorable household economic conditions resulting from changes in household demographic composition increase the risk of death for children under the age of 5 years because of limited resources and intra-household competition. We apply Cox proportional hazards models to nearly 5,000 linked birth and death records from the Northern Orkney Islands, Scotland, from the period 1855 to 2001. The dependent variable is the child's risk of death before age 5. Findings suggest that children in households with unfavorable age compositions face higher risk of death. This elevated risk of death continues once heterogeneity among children, islands, and households is controlled. Results also show differential risk of death for male children, children of higher birth orders, and twin births. The analyses present evidence for intra-household competition in this historic setting. The most convincing evidence of competition is found in the effects of household consumer/producer ratios and twinning on child mortality risks. PMID:23580417

  18. Methods and approaches to support Indigenous water planning: An example from the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoverman, Suzanne; Ayre, Margaret

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous land owners of the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory Australia have begun the first formal freshwater allocation planning process in Australia entirely within Indigenous lands and waterways. The process is managed by the Northern Territory government agency responsible for water planning, the Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, in partnership with the Tiwi Land Council, the principal representative body for Tiwi Islanders on matters of land and water management and governance. Participatory planning methods ('tools') were developed to facilitate community participation in Tiwi water planning. The tools, selected for their potential to generate involvement in the planning process needed both to incorporate Indigenous knowledge of water use and management and raise awareness in the Indigenous community of Western science and water resources management. In consultation with the water planner and Tiwi Land Council officers, the researchers selected four main tools to develop, trial and evaluate. Results demonstrate that the tools provided mechanisms which acknowledge traditional management systems, improve community engagement, and build confidence in the water planning process. The researchers found that participatory planning approaches supported Tiwi natural resource management institutions both in determining appropriate institutional arrangements and clarifying roles and responsibilities in the Islands' Water Management Strategy.

  19. A new species of Plestiodon (Squamata: Scincidae) from Kuchinoshima Island in the Tokara Group of the Northern Ryukyus, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Kazuki; Hikida, Tsutomu

    2014-07-01

    A scincid lizard of the genus Plestiodon from Kuchinoshima Island in the Tokara Group of the Northern Ryukyus, Japan, has proved to be genetically and morphologically differentiated from any previously recognized species in the genus. We thus describe this island population as a new species, Plestiodon kuchinoshimensis. The new species shows characteristics of the P. latiscutatus species group, but differs from other species of this group by the combination of the following character states: postnasal absent; hatchling with five longitudinal light lines on dorsum; lateral light line on each side passing over ear opening and the sixth to eighth scale rows at midbody; dorsolateral light line beginning from behind supraoculars; patch of enlarged irregular scales on posterior femur absent; scale rows around midbody 27-32; and brownish background on the dorsal surface of the juvenile. PMID:25001918

  20. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981: State Conference Reports from the Fifty States, District of Columbia, Guam, Navajo Nation, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and Virgin Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 57 reports generated by the State White House Conferences held in each of the states and territories, and by the Navajo Nation from September 1980 through June 1981 in preparation for the National White House Conference on Aging. Each report provides information on the total number of participants in local/state/regional…

  1. Novel polyomaviral infection in the placenta of a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Goldstein, Tracey; Hearne, Carol; Gelatt, Tom; Spraker, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In 2010, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were identified in trophoblasts of a single northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) placenta from a presumed healthy birth on St. Paul Island, Alaska. On transmission electron microscopy, virions were approximately 40 nm in diameter and were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the nucleus. The tissue was positive for the polyomaviral major capsid gene (VP1) by PCR, and the sequenced product revealed a novel Orthopolyomavirus. Twenty-nine additional NFS placentas, devoid of viral inclusions on histologic examination, were tested for polyomavirus by PCR; all were negative. The significance of this novel virus for the infected animal is unknown, but the virus does not appear to be very prevalent within the placentas from newborn northern fur seal pups. PMID:23307383

  2. Age, origin, and significance of an unconformity that predates island-arc volcanism in the northern Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Robert J.; Moores, Eldridge M.

    1981-11-01

    The paleogeographic position of rocks of the northern Sierra Nevada relative to North America has long been the topic of debate. A detailed study of the Lakes Basin region of the northern Sierra Nevada substantiates that the Shoo Fly Complex, of early Paleozoic age, was folded and unconformably overlain by an island-arc sequence in late Paleozoic time. Microfossils recovered during the study represent the first in situ fauna ever collected from the Shoo Fly Complex and provide an Ordovician-Silurian lower limit on the early deformation. Late Jurassic (Nevadan) deformation strongly affected all rocks in the region. Regional considerations suggest that mid-Paleozoic deformation may have been widespread in the Sierra Nevada and could indicate an early phase of an eastward-prograding suture that ultimately resulted in emplacement of the Roberts Mountain allochthon of the Great Basin. *Present address: Union Oil Research Center, Box 76, Brea, California 92621

  3. Segmented Coastal Uplift Along an Erosional Subduction Margin, Northern Hikurangi Fore Arc, North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Clark, K.; Cochran, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Along the southern margin, frontal accretion and pronounced forearc uplift occur inboard of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. In the north, subduction erosion and segmented uplift occur inboard of subducting seamounts along the plateau flank. Prior workers have established a robust foundation for coastal terrace studies along the northern Hikurangi margin (e.g., Berryman et al., 1989; Ota et al., 1992; Berryman, 1993; Wilson et al., 2006, 2007; Clark et al., 2010; Litchfield et al, 2007, 2010). New field observations presented here provide additional constraints on terrace uplift along this erosional subduction margin. Along Raukumara Peninsula (north of Poverty Bay), multiple Holocene to late Pleistocene marine and fluvial terraces occur at varying elevations, recording differential uplift across six coastal segments from Gisborne to East Cape (Ota et al., 1992; Wilson et al., 2007). In this study, two to three late Pleistocene terraces were observed on rocky headlands within the first segment (Gisborne to Whangara) at elevations of 80-185 m above msl. Preliminary correlation with OIS 5a-e sea level high stands (80-125 ka) indicates net uplift at 1.2-1.5 m/ky. Uplifted Holocene wavecut platforms occur in steps along the seaward edge of these terraces, consistent with coseismic uplift. At Makorori Point, an uplifted bench occurs along the modern seacliff at 2.3 m above the cliff base. A fossil gastropod shell from paleo-beach gravels on the platform inner edge yielded a calibrated radiocarbon age of 1680 ×110 ybp. At Turihaua Point, a ≥1 m thick deposit of Holocene beach sands overlies an uplifted wavecut platform at ≥1.5 m above mean sea level. Carbonate-cemented beachrock at the base of the sand deposit yields a calibrated radiocarbon age of 2990 ×70 ybp. At Mahia Peninsula (between Poverty

  4. Sediment data collected in 2013 from the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buster, Noreen A.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Bernier, Julie C.; Flocks, James G.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; DeWitt, Nancy T.

    2014-01-01

    This data series serves as an archive of sediment data collected in July 2013 from the Chandeleur Islands sand berm and adjacent barrier-island environments. Data products include descriptive core logs, core photographs and x-radiographs, results of sediment grain-size analyses, sample location maps, and Geographic Information System data files with accompanying formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata.

  5. Post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island, Japan: possible evidence of oceanographic conditions on the northern East China Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hirota, Masashi; Paleo Labo AMS Dating Group; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2016-07-01

    Nansei Islands area; (2) the shelf-surface water is conveyed from the northern ECS to Iki Island by the Tsushima Current. Thus, it can be suggested that the post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island reflects oceanographic conditions of the northern ECS shelf.

  6. Differential timing of vertical-axis block rotations in the northern Ryukyu Arc: Paleomagnetic evidence from the Koshikijima Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonai, Satoshi; Suganuma, Yusuke; Ashi, Juichiro; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Oiwane, Hisashi; Kiyokawa, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    Over 300 samples for paleomagnetic analysis and K-Ar dating were collected from 27 sites at NW-SE and NE-SW trending dike swarms (herein, NW dikes and NE dikes, respectively) in the Koshikijima Islands, northern Ryukyu Arc. The NW dikes are Middle Miocene in age and have directions (D = - 37.7 ∘, I = 51.8 ∘, α95 = 9.6 ∘, and κ = 40.8) that are deflected westward relative to the stable eastern Asian continent. Conversely, the NE dikes, of Late Miocene age, have directions (D = 16.1 ∘, I = 57.7 ∘, α95 = 7.1 ∘, and κ = 41.9) that show no such deflection. These differences are interpreted as indicating that the Koshikijima Islands underwent approximately 40 ∘ of counter-clockwise rotation during the Middle to Late Miocene. A synthesis of the paleomagnetic and structural data suggests a three-stage history of extensional deformation: (1) displacement upon normal faults (F 1 faults) without vertical-axis block rotation, (2) strike-slip reactivation of F 1 faults and oblique-normal displacement on NE-SW-trending faults (F 2 faults) with vertical-axis block rotation, and (3) oblique-normal displacement on F 2 faults without vertical-axis block rotation. Regional differences in the timing and amount of counter-clockwise vertical-axis block rotations indicate that the northern Ryukyu Arc rotated as several distinct rigid blocks.

  7. Clastic Breccias at the Slates Islands Complex Impact Structure, Northern Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.; Schnieders, B.; Scott, J.

    1996-01-01

    About 150 impact craters are known on Earth and each year several structures are added to this number. The general geology of the Slate Islands archipelago has been described by Sage (1991) and a short summary based on Sage's work is given in Dressler et al. (1995). The reader is referred to these publications for information on the bedrock geology of the island group. Early studies on the Slate Islands impact structure include: Halls and Grieve (1976), Grieve and Robertson (1976) and Stesky and Halls (1983). In this report, we provide a summary of the impact process as presently understood. We also present some of the results of our laboratory investigations conducted in 1995 and 1996. We describe in some detail the various clastic breccias encountered on the islands during our 1994 and 1995 field work and relate them to the various phases of the impact process. A more encompassing treatise on the breccias has been submitted for publication. (Dressler and Sharpton 1996).

  8. Miocene Blanca Fan, Northern Channel Islands, California: Small fans reflecting tectonism and volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, H.; Howell, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Blanca fan is a submarine fan composed of Miocene volcaniclastic strata. Parts of the fan system are exposed on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands, and possibly correlative strata crop out on San Miguel and Santa Catalina Islands. The Blanca fan and underlying breccia reflect regional transcurrent faulting in the California Continental Borderland and development of a system of rapidly subsiding basins and uplifted linear ridges during early and middle Miocene time. Erosion of uplifted crystalline basement rocks followed by the onset of silicic volcanism created linear sediment sources for the alluvial and submarine fans, respectively. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  9. 77 FR 65417 - Northern States Power Company (Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Storage Installation); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) in the above-captioned Prairie Island... Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  10. Use of acoustic classification of sidescan sonar data for mapping benthic habitat in the Northern Channel Islands, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, G.R.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Highly reflective seafloor features imaged by sidescan sonar in nearshore waters off the Northern Channel Islands (California, USA) have been observed in subsequent submersible dives to be areas of thin sand coverihg bedrock. Adjacent areas of rocky seafloor, suitable as habitat for endangered species of abalone and rockfish, and encrusting organisms, cannot be differentiated from the areas of thin sand on the basis of acoustic backscatter (i.e. grey level) alone. We found second-order textural analysis of sidescan sonar data useful to differentiate the bottom types where data is not degraded by near-range distortion (caused by slant-range and ground-range corrections), and where data is not degraded by far-range signal attenuation. Hand editing based on submersible observations is necessary to completely convert the sidescan sonar image to a bottom character classification map suitable for habitat mapping. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of acoustic classification of sidescan sonar data for mapping benthic habitat in the Northern Channel Islands, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2002-03-01

    Highly reflective seafloor features imaged by sidescan sonar in nearshore waters off the Northern Channel Islands (California, USA) have been observed in subsequent submersible dives to be areas of thin sand covering bedrock. Adjacent areas of rocky seafloor, suitable as habitat for endangered species of abalone and rockfish, and encrusting organisms, cannot be differentiated from the areas of thin sand on the basis of acoustic backscatter (i.e. grey level) alone. We found second-order textural analysis of sidescan sonar data useful to differentiate the bottom types where data is not degraded by near-range distortion (caused by slant-range and ground-range corrections), and where data is not degraded by far-range signal attenuation. Hand editing based on submersible observations is necessary to completely convert the sidescan sonar image to a bottom character classification map suitable for habitat mapping.

  12. Frequent excitations of T waves by earthquakes in the South Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Fei; Chen, Kai-Xun; Cheng, Hui-Yun

    2015-02-01

    We used broadband stations in Taiwan and on the Ryukyu Arc islands to investigate T waves induced by earthquakes in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction zone. Of the 48 earthquakes that took place in 2005, 17 earthquakes exhibited T-wave signals consistent with predicted arrival times at stations. Of theses T-excited events, 13 were located in the South Mariana Arc, where the isobaths exhibit strong concave curvature, and were predominantly of normal faulting type. The energies of observed T waves were used quantitatively to evaluate the relative efficiency of receiver-side acoustic-elastic conversions by Gamma calculations. Results show that the steep slopes of offshore bathymetry together with nearly perpendicular angles of back azimuth relative to local isobaths are suitable conditions for T waves observations. In 2010, two clusters of repeated moderate earthquakes in the north and south ends of the Mariana Arc displayed stark contrasts in terms of T-wave excitations despite their normal faulting type. Examining of this discrepancy indicate that a specific curvature together with a specific radiation pattern accounts for the frequent excitations of T waves from shallow earthquakes in the South Mariana Arc.

  13. Drown carbonate platform and crustal characters in the northern offshore area of the Taiping Island, southern South China Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ying-Hui; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Hsu, Ho-Han

    2015-04-01

    A 217-km long multichannel seismic reflection profile, together with magnetic and gravity data have been acquired in a marine geophysical survey of the Taiping Island, north of the Chengho Reefs in northern Dangerous Grounds, South China Sea. A volcanic province is identified at the west end of the seismic profile. Eastward, the seismic profile is characterized by several sets of strong reflectors with their amplitudes dropping off westward. In addition, these reflectors are not vertically aggradational, but show reciprocal stacking patterns of progradation and retrogradation. These reciprocal stacking patterns implicate the relative sea-level fluctuations, and may mark the cessation of the South China Sea seafloor spreading. In the middle of the seismic section, several packages of reflections bounded by disconformible surfaces may stand for tilted carbonate platforms sitting above the rotated blocks. The application of gravity modeling help to delineate the crustal thickness and characteristics of the Chengho Reefs. Magnetic modeling help us determine the magnetic sources underlie the Taiping island, a carbonate platform.

  14. Sea level higher than present 3500 years ago on the northern main Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H., III

    1998-04-01

    New data from an emerged coastal bench and associated fossil beach on Kapapa Island (Oahu), Hawaii, preserve a detailed history of middle to late Holocene sea level. These include 29 new calibrated radiocarbon ages and elevations indicating mean sea level reached a maximum position of 2.00 ± 0.35 m ca. 3500 yr B.P. These results correlate with additional evidence from Hawaii and other Pacific islands and provide constraints on Oahu's long-term uplift rate (0.03 0.07 mm/yr), previously based solely on Pleistocene age shorelines. Our sea-level reconstruction is consistent with geophysical model predictions of Earth's geoid response to the last deglaciation and with observations of increased Antarctic ice volume during the late Holocene.

  15. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  16. Heterogeneous GPS Velocity Field and Active Faults in the Northern Puget Lowland and San Juan Island Region of Northwestern Washington: First Results From the Northwest Washington Geodetic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldow, J. S.; Apel, E. V.

    2002-12-01

    Velocities from a dense GPS network in the northern Puget lowland and San Juan Island region of northwestern Washington support geological and geophysical investigations and suggest active deformation on several throughgoing fault systems. The Northwest Washington Geodetic Network (NWGN) consists of 27 sites along an east-northeast transect stretching from the Pacific coast on the Olympic Peninsula to east of the northern Cascade Range. GPS sites within the network are concentrated along a broad north-south swath covering the San Juan Islands, northern Puget lowland, western Cascade foothills, and the eastern Olympic Peninsula. Baselines in the central part of the network range between 10 and 50 km and provide the site density needed to assess whether or not specific fault zones within the region are active. Twenty four sites of the NWGN were successfully reoccupied in 2001, five years after the initial network deployment in 1996. Of the original sites, two were destroyed and one site solution was contaminated by multipathing. Site occupations in 1995 ranged from 24 to 48 hours and in 2001 all sites were occupied for 48 hours. Although based on only two occupations, the NWGN velocities are consistent with those determined for the wide aperture Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array and give us a degree of confidence in the validity of the solutions. In a fixed North American reference frame, NWGN sites show a west to east decrease in velocity from near the Pacific coast where displacements of ~18 mm/yr directed to the northeast progressively decrease to essentially zero in the foothills east of the northern Cascade Range. In the northern Puget lowland and San Juan Island region, the regional velocity field is characterized by substantial spatial variability. When effects of the locked Cascadia megathrust are removed, differential motions of up to 5 mm/yr are recognized within the central NWGN. The velocity field is heterogeneous with significant variations in azimuth and

  17. Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1991-11-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southwest of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral islands, having a total land area of about 180 km{sup 2}, distributed over more than 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United states conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planning to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure {gamma}-emitters, such as {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 90}Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods.

  18. Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991). Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1991-11-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southwest of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral islands, having a total land area of about 180 km{sup 2}, distributed over more than 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United states conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planning to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure {gamma}-emitters, such as {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 90}Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods.

  19. Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1991-12-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southeast of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral island, having a total land area of about 180 km{sup 2}, distributed over more than 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United States conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planing to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure {gamma}-emitters, such as {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides, such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 90}Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods. 6 refs.

  20. Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991). Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1991-12-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is located in the central Pacific Ocean about 3500 km southeast of Hawaii and 4500 km east of Manila, Philippines. It consists of 34 atolls and 2 coral island, having a total land area of about 180 km{sup 2}, distributed over more than 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of ocean. Between 1946 and 1958 the United States conducted nuclear tests there: 43 at Enewetak and 23 at Bikini. Thirty-three years after the cessation of nuclear testing in the RMI, the impact of these operations on the health and radiological safety of the people living in or planing to return to their contaminated homelands is still an important concern. The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole-body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure {gamma}-emitters, such as {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides, such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 90}Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods. 6 refs.

  1. Assessing the Health Care System of Services for Non-Communicable Diseases in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: A Pacific Regional Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ichiho, Henry M

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been recognized as a major health threat in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and health officials declared it an emergency.1 In an effort to address this emergent pandemic, the Pacific Chronic Disease Council (PCDC) conducted an assessment in all six USAPI jurisdictions which include American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Guam, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau to assess the capacity of the administrative, clinical, support, and data systems to address the problems of NCD. Findings reveal significant gaps in addressing NCDs across all jurisdictions and the negative impact of lifestyle behaviors, overweight, and obesity on the morbidity and mortality of the population. In addition, stakeholders from each site identified and prioritized administrative and clinical systems of service needs. PMID:23901369

  2. Experimental Urban Heat Island Research of Four Biggest Polar Cities in Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, Pavel; Baklanov, Alexander; Varentsov, Mikhail; Kukanova, Evgenia; Repina, Irina; Shuvalov, Sergey; Samsonov, Timofey

    2014-05-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is well-known in modern climatology due to its influence on different economic features and urban air quality (Oke, 1987). Also UHI characteristics differs in different climate zones, for example in summer in Mediterranean and subtropical monsoon climate types it leads to growing energy consumption due to AC systems using (Ohashi et al, 2007). But there is only a few papers about UHI (Magee et al, 1999) in high latitudes, for the cities over the Polar Circle and especially about behavior of the heat islands during the polar night, while anthropogenic heat is the main source of thermal energy. The main goal of this study is to mitigate this lack of information about climatology of UHI formation in big cities (with population exceeding 50 000) of Arctic zone. In this paper, we consider the results of experimental research of the UHI of 4 biggest Arctic Cities (Murmansk, Norilsk, Apatity and Vorkuta), which were obtained during the expedition of Russian Geographic Society in 2013-2014. During the project we used a different measurements techniques: 1. Installation of two automatic weather stations (AWS) in rural zone and city center 2. Installation of small temperature sensors (iButton) network in the city and suburbs 3. Regular car-based temperature sounding of the city with AWS. 4. Using MTP-5 microwave temperature profiler. This investigations allowed to collect unique data about UHI in high latitudes. Analysis of the collected data showed the existence of UHI with the difference between city center and surrounding landscape up to few degrees Celcius. UHI characteristics in view of synoptic conditions was analyzed for several typical situations, for some cities (Norilsk) the negative correlation of the UHI power with air temperature was determined. The reported study was supported by RGS (Russian Geographical Society ), research project No.27/2013-NZ References: 1. Magee N., Curtis J., Wendler G., The Urban Heat Island Effect at

  3. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  4. To convey certain submerged lands to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in order to give that territory the same benefits in its submerged lands as Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa have in their submerged lands.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Sablan, Gregorio Kilili Camacho [D-MP-At Large

    2011-02-11

    10/04/2011 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. To clarify the application of certain Federal laws relating to elections in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the United States Virgin Islands.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Sablan, Gregorio Kilili Camacho [D-MP-At Large

    2013-03-06

    04/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Radiological dose assessments in the northern Marshall Islands (1989--1991)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The present Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program (MIRSP) began in 1987 with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objectives of the MIRSP are to determine the radionuclides present in the bodies of those people potentially exposed to residual radionuclide from weapon tests and fallout, and to assess their present and lifetime dose from external and internal sources. Field bioassay missions involving whole body counting (WBC) and urine sample collection have, therefore, been important components of the program. WBC is used to measure {gamma}-emitters, such as {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, present in individuals. Urine samples are used to measure {alpha} and {beta}-emitting nuclides, such as {sup 239}Pu and {sup 90}Sr, that are undetectable by WBC routine methods.

  7. Formation and Evolution of the San Cristobal Trough Transform Fault Linking the Southern Solomon Islands and Northern New Hebrides Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, K. P.; Hayes, G. P.; Herman, M. W.; Benz, H.

    2014-12-01

    The San Cristobal Trough, which occupies the southern segment of the South Solomon Trench, hosts a dominantly left-lateral transform plate boundary (SCTF) linking the southern end of the Solomon Islands subduction zone (SISZ) to the northern end of the New Hebrides (Vanuatu) subduction zone (NHSZ). At its western end (SISZ), the Australia plate is torn as a result of the transition from subduction to transform motion. The southern side of the tear translates approximately 375 km along the SCTF before subducting beneath the Santa Cruz Islands at the NHSZ. Earthquakes occurring along this transform reflect the processes of plate tearing, fault zone evolution, and subsequent underthrusting and subduction of the Australia-plate-side of the transform. A knot of earthquake activity at the western end of the SCTF juxtaposes high-angle thrust faulting events with left-lateral strike slip events. These record the tearing of Australian lithosphere, as shown by a recent pair of large earthquakes in that region - a Mw 7.6 strike-slip event (12 April 2014) followed 22 hours later by a Mw 7.4 high-angle reverse faulting event (13 April 2014). Associated displacements reflect oblique tearing (northern-side down and west), allowing the Australia Plate to follow two disparate paths - subduction at the SISZ to the north and translation along the SCTF to the south. Moving eastward along the transform, the plate boundary shows three styles of earthquake activity. The main transform is dominated by shallow, E-W striking, left-lateral faulting and E-W striking thrust faults (with a north-dipping shallow fault plane) - these reflect partitioning of oblique motion along the transform between the Australia and Pacific plates. Outboard (+/- 100 km) of the plate boundary, a group of E-W striking shallow normal faulting events reflect upward bending driven by the convergent component of plate motions. Approaching the NHSZ, normal faulting earthquakes in the Australia Plate rotate clockwise

  8. Trace metal distribution in sediments of northern continental shelf of Crete Island, Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulos, S. E.; Dounas, C. G.; Alexandrakis, G.; Koulouri, P.; Drakopoulos, P.

    2009-08-01

    The present study investigates the distribution of trace metals (Zn, Hg, Cd, Cu, and Pb), as indicators of pollution, in the surficial offshore shelf sediments along the northern coast of Heraklion Prefecture (Crete, Mediterranean Sea). The concentrations and the spatial distribution of the different trace metals, in relation to the sedimentological characteristics and the water circulation pattern of the entire continental shelf, are associated with human inshore sources of pollutants located along the coastline of the study area. Although the trace metal concentrations measured are higher than the background values, they are not considered to be dangerous to human health, as they are lower than the standard values given by the World Health Organisation, with only a few localised exceptions. Furthermore, results reveal the important role of local hydrodynamism that moves fine-grained material and associated trace metals offshore (seawards to wave breaking zone) and then transports them eastwards by entrapping them in the prevailing offshore shelf-water circulation.

  9. Melt Inclusions in Mariana Arc Lavas: Volatiles, Trace Elements and Linkages to Subducted Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. A.; Newman, S.; Plank, T.; Grove, T. L.; Parman, S.

    2001-12-01

    Melt inclusions (MIs) are particularly useful to study in volcanic arcs because they may provide samples of primitive liquids prior to extensive magma fractionation, assimilation, or crystal accumulation. Although volatile contents can also be inferred by a number of indirect petrological techniques, MIs also provide the only direct means of measuring volatile (H2O, CO2, etc.) concentrations in arc magmas, as most all other eruptive products are degassed. Volatiles are critical to the operation of the subduction factory since they are both the transport medium of material from the slab and the driver of melting in the mantle wedge. The presence of ``fluid components'' originating from subducted sediment or basaltic crust in arc magmas, however, is typically deduced from trace element compositions more than it is directly measured. We studied MI populations within four basaltic scoria samples from Guguan, Pagan and Agrigan islands of the Mariana arc. All MIs selected for study are hosted by olivine (Fo 68-82), are 50-200 †m in size, and are brown glass with no visible evidence of devitrification. We have analyzed these MIs for H2O and CO2 by FTIR, major elements by EMP and trace elements by laser ablation ICP-MS. H2O data reveal a range in water content of ~1-4 wt%, and a tighter grouping of 2-4 wt% for basaltic inclusions (<52% SiO2, Fo 72-82), higher than the highest water content reported for the Mariana back-arc trough. The single inclusion with detectable dissolved CO2 (630 ppm) also had the highest H2O content, which may indicate that lower H2O contents in the other inclusions could be due to degassing. The MIs are broadly similar in both major and trace elements to lavas from the same islands, and appear to define liquid lines of descent consistent with plagioclase suppression increasing with water concentrations. These Mariana MIs do not include high-Ca compositions like those reported by Schiano, et al. (2000), rather they are normal tholeiitic arc

  10. Recent activity of Anatahan volcano, Northern Marina Islands, and its magma plumbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, S.; Morita, Y.; Matsushima, T.; Tabei, T.; Watanabe, A.; Maeno, F.; Camacho, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    The volcanic activity of Anatahan that began in 2003 has declined such as faint emission of volcanic gas from the crater and scarcity of volcanic tremor in 2009. Our team carried out geological, geodetic and seismological observation repeatedly till mid-2009 from the beginning of the eruption. The early phase of the eruption (2003-2004) can be characterized by magmatic and phreatomagmatic explosions, contrasting to mainly phreatic nature in the later phase (2005-2008). The active crater (Eastern Crater) was widened and deepened (much below the sea level) as the eruption progressed. Dominant products of phreatic explosions comprise of thick accumulation of thin layers of fine ash. A rough estimate of the total volume during these 5 years is as much as 1 km3, close to the volume of materials lost by enlargement of the active crater. Seismic observation was carried out during mid-2008 and mid-2009 by settling 5 temporary stations covering the whole of the island, each of which includes a 3 components short-period seismometer with corner frequency of 1Hz and a low-power consumption digital data recorder with 24-bits AD resolutions. GPS campaign observation was repeated in the same station during this period. VT and LP event were observed, though very low in occurrence in this period. Hypocenters of VT and LP events show all events occurred at the depth of less than 8km around the eastern crater. Among them, LP events occurred in the shallower (less than 3km) region. The error in the depth may be not more than a few kilometers, but that in the epicenter should be smaller than 1km because the most events are located inside of the seismic network. Moreover, the tremors observed in the 2008 summer continued for about 3 weeks. The amplitude increased gradually, kept at the maximum, and stopped abruptly. During the maximum amplitude period, ash emission was observed by VAAC. Estimated reduced displacement at the maximum is about 1 cm2, typical of a hydro-magmatic eruption

  11. Experimental urban heat island research of Norilsk city in northern Russia in the polar night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsov, Mikhail; Konstantinov, Pavel; Repina, Irina; Samsonov, Timofey; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Growing socioeconomic activity in Arctic zone and prospective of planning and building new settlements and cities in this region requires better understanding of the urban-caused microclimatic features and their behavior in the conditions of arctic and sub-arctic climate. The most important of these features is well-known urban heat island (UHI) effect, because in high latitudes it could mitigate severe climatic conditions within urban areas and provide the economy of fuel for house heating. The UHI effect is quietly good investigated and described for the cities in low and moderate latitudes (Oke, 1987), but there is significant lack of knowledge about UHI of the cities over the Polar Circle and especially about its behavior during the polar night, while anthropogenic heat is the only source of energy to form heat island. In this study, we consider the results of experimental research of the UHI of Norilsk - the second biggest city over the Polar Circle, which were obtained during the expedition of Russian Geographic Society in December 2013, practically around the middle of the polar night. Field measurements in Norilsk included installation of three automatic weather stations (AWS) and the net of small temperature sensors (iButton) in the city and surrounding landscape and also car-based temperature sounding of the city with AWS. The influence of the relief and stratification was filtered by using the data of MTP-5 microwave temperature profiler. Analysis of the collected data showed the existence of significant UHI with the difference between city center and surrounding landscape up to 6 °C. The dependence of UHI power and shape on the synoptic conditions were analyzed for several typical synoptic situations, which were observed during the expedition, and the negative correlation of the UHI power with air temperature was determined. The reported study was supported by Russian Geographic Society, research projects No. 69/2013-H7 and 27/2013-H3. References: 1

  12. Aerosol size-resolved trace metal composition in remote northern tropical Atlantic marine environment: case study Cape Verde islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomba, K. W.; Müller, K.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.

    2013-05-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations of 15 elements in aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) under remote background conditions were investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during intensive field studies from January 2007 to November 2011 using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The identification of the main air mass origin that influence remote marine aerosol in the northern tropical Atlantic has been investigated. In total, 317 samples were collected. The dataset was analyzed according to the main air mass inflow at the station. We found that remote conditions make up about 45% of the meteorological conditions in a year at CVAO and thus the northern tropical Atlantic. Surprisingly, air masses from North America are often responsible for higher trace metal concentrations in this region. Elements such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and V were mostly found in the submicron size fractions, while elements with dominant crustal or oceanic origin such as Fe, Ti, Mn, Sr, and Rb were found in the coarse fractions (>1 μm). The highest metal concentrations, especially for Zn (3.23 ng m-3), Cu (0.81 ng m-3), Sr (2.63 ng m-3), and Cr (0.53 ng m-3), were observed in air masses originating from North America and the concentrations were within the same concentration range to those reported previously in the literature for remote marine aerosols. Fe (12.26 ng m-3), Ti (0.91 ng m-3), and Mn (0.35 ng m-3) showed higher concentrations when air mass came from Europe and the Canary Islands. Pb concentration was low (<0.20 ng m-3) and did not vary significantly with air mass direction. The low Pb concentration is indicative of the complete phase-out of leaded gasoline even in African countries. Crustal enrichment factor values decreased from fine to coarse-mode particles with low values (<4) observed for Fe, Mn, and Rb, and high values (>20) for Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Se. The observed enrichment of the elements was attributed to

  13. Aerosol size-resolved trace metal composition in remote northern tropical Atlantic marine environment: case study Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomba, K. W.; Müller, K.; van Pinxteren, D.; Herrmann, H.

    2012-11-01

    Size-resolved trace metal concentrations of 15 elements in aerosol particles at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) under remote background conditions were investigated through analysis of aerosol samples collected during intensive field studies from January 2007 to November 2011 using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The identification of the main air mass origin that influence remote marine aerosol in the northern tropical Atlantic has been investigated. In total 317 samples were collected. The dataset was analyzed according to the main air mass inflow at the station. We found that remote conditions make up about 45% of the meteorological conditions in a year at CVAO and thus the northern tropical Atlantic. Surprisingly, air masses from North America are often responsible for higher trace metal concentrations in this region. Elements such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni, and V were mostly found in the submicron size fractions while elements with dominant crustal or oceanic origin such as Fe, Ti, Mn, Sr, and Rb, were found in the coarse fractions (>1 μm). The highest metal concentrations especially for Zn (3.23 ng m-3), Cu (0.81 ng m-3), Sr (2.63 ng m-3), and Cr (0.53 ng mm-3), were observed in air masses originating from North America and the concentrations were within the same concentration range to those reported previously in the literature for remote marine aerosols. Fe (12.26 ng m-3), Ti (0.91 ng m-3) and Mn (0.35 ng m-3) showed higher concentrations when air mass came from Europe and the Canary Islands. Pb concentration was low (< 0.20 ng m-3) and did not vary significantly with air mass direction. The low Pb concentration is indicative of the complete phased out of leaded gasoline even in African countries. Crustal enrichment factor values decreased from fine to coarse mode particles with low values (< 4) observed for Fe, Mn, and Rb and high values (> 20) for Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, and Se. The observed enrichment of the elements was attributed to

  14. Isolated communities of Epsilonproteobacteria in hydrothermal vent fluids of the Mariana Arc seamounts.

    PubMed

    Huber, Julie A; Cantin, Holly V; Huse, Susan M; Welch, David B Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L; Butterfield, David A

    2010-09-01

    Low-temperature hydrothermal vent fluids represent access points to diverse microbial communities living in oceanic crust. This study examined the distribution, relative abundance, and diversity of Epsilonproteobacteria in 14 low-temperature vent fluids from five volcanically active seamounts of the Mariana Arc using a 454 tag sequencing approach. Most vent fluids were enriched in cell concentrations compared with background seawater, and quantitative PCR results indicated that all fluids were dominated by bacteria. Operational taxonomic unit-based statistical tools applied to 454 data show that all vents from the northern end of the Mariana Arc grouped together, to the exclusion of southern arc seamounts, which were as distinct from one another as they were from northern seamounts. Statistical analysis also showed a significant relationship between seamount and individual vent groupings, suggesting that community membership may be linked to geographical isolation and not geochemical parameters. However, while there may be large-scale geographic differences, distance is not the distinguishing factor in the microbial community composition. At the local scale, most vents host a distinct population of Epsilonproteobacteria, regardless of seamount location. This suggests that there may be barriers to exchange and dispersal for these vent endemic microorganisms at hydrothermal seamounts of the Mariana Arc. PMID:20533947

  15. Changes in coral assemblages during an outbreak of Acanthaster planci at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef (1995-1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratchett, M. S.

    2010-09-01

    Population outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish ( Acanthaster planci L.) represent one of the most significant biological disturbances on tropical coral reefs and have the potential to devastate coral communities, thereby altering the biological and physical structure of reef habitats. This study reports on changes in area cover, species diversity and taxonomic composition of corals during an outbreak of A. planci at Lizard Island, in the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Mean coral cover declined by 28.8% across ten locations studied. However, densities of A. planci, and their effects on local coral assemblages, were very patchy. Declines in coral cover were mostly due to the selective removal of certain coral taxa (mainly Acropora and Pocilloporidae corals); such that the greatest coral loss occurred at locations with highest initial cover of preferred coral prey. Most notably, coral assemblages in back-reef locations were transformed from topographically complex staghorn Acropora-dominated habitats, to relatively depauperate assemblages dominated by alcyonacean soft corals. Although coral loss was greatest among formerly dominant taxa (especially Acropora), effects were sufficiently widespread across different coral taxa, such that overall coral diversity tended to decline. Clearly, moderate outbreaks of A. planci have the potential to greatly alter community structure of coral communities even if they do not devastate live corals. Recovery in this instance is expected to be very rapid given that all coral taxa persisted, and effects were greatest among fast growing corals.

  16. Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals. PMID:24361782

  17. Ecological, morphological, and molecular studies of Acanthocheilonema odendhali (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Kuzmin, Y I; Tkach, V V; Spraker, T R; Lyons, E T

    2013-09-01

    Studies of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) infection by the filariid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali were carried out in 2011-2012 on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Archipelago, Alaska. Skins of 502 humanely harvested northern fur seals from haul-out areas of five rookeries, Polovina (n = 122), Morjovi (n = 54), Zapadni (n = 72), Lukanin (n = 109), and Gorbatch (n = 145), were examined. A. odendhali was found in 18% of northern fur seals. The prevalence of infection ranged from 12.5% up to 22.9% on different haul-out areas on the island. The mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (range 1-7). Detailed morphological examination of collected specimens was performed using light microscopy. Several characters were added to the morphological description of the species, among them lateral thickening of the body cuticle, especially prominent in males, variations in number and position of genital papillae in males, transverse striation of the cuticle, and terminal dilation on tail end in microfilariae. The adult specimens studied had a shorter esophagus than type specimens from the California sea lion described by Perry (1967). Comparison of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cox1 gene from specimens collected from five sampling sites on St. Paul Island and a specimen from the type host and territory in California showed no significant differences and strongly supported conspecificity of the material from Alaska with A. odendhali. PMID:23760875

  18. Fluviokarst and classical karst: Examples from the Dinarics (Krk Island, Northern Adriatic, Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benac, Čedomir; Juračić, Mladen; Matičec, Dubravko; Ružić, Igor; Pikelj, Kristina

    2013-02-01

    In order to contribute to the debate on the role of fluvial erosion in the shaping of karst, two nearby areas with different karstic landscapes were compared. Areas A and B are located relatively close to each other on the southern side of the Krk Island (Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Both areas are composed of similar limestone with a very high CaCO3 content. Area A is a typical doline or polygonal type ("classical") of karst with numerous dolines (up to 57/km2) covered with terra rossa (red soil) and Mediterranean maquis shrubland. Dolines are located in zones which correspond to the strike of the main geological structures. Dry karstic valleys are visible only on gently inclined coastal slopes bordering the karstic plateau. In contrast, area B is typical of a bare karst landscape with a strong (palaeo)fluvial imprint. The dolines are absent, and the bedrock is only sporadically covered with terra rossa. Palaeogene marls have been observed in a few elongated depressions and in the coastal zone of area B. Along steep coastal slopes, valleys (up to 460 m/km2) are cut into the carbonates. The traces of episodic surface flows are visible in some of these valleys, in contrast to the valleys in area A. Remnants of a disrupted ancient fluvial network are clearly visible on the elevated karstic plateau in area B. Differences in the recent morphology are attributed mainly to varying thicknesses of the Palaeogene impermeable marly cover, and the intensity of tectonics in the two areas.

  19. Fine-scale isotopic variation in Mariana Trough basalts: evidence for heterogeneity and a recycled component in backarc basin mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Alan M.; Douglas Macdougall, J.; Lugmair, Gunter W.; Hawkins, James W.; Lonsdale, Peter

    1990-10-01

    Fine-scale sampling with ALVIN and by dredging of the axial ridge in the Mariana Trough between 17°40'N and 18°30°N recovered basalts with isotopic compositions that span the range between N-type MORB and Mariana island arc basalts. There is a local tectonic-morphological control on basalt compositions; MORB-like basalts are found on the deeper ridge segment bounded by the Pagan transform and the ridge offset at 17°56'N, while basalts from the shallower ridge to the north are typical Mariana Trough basalts (MTB) having compositions intermediate between the two endmember rock types. Arc-like basalts were recovered from one site on the axial ridge. The discovery of basalts with such diverse isotopic characteristics from a short (100 km) section of this backarc spreading center constrains the chemical characteristics and distribution of mantle source variability in the Mariana Trough. Sr sbnd Nd sbnd Pb isotopic variability suggests that the MTB source is heterogeneous on the scale of individual melt batches. The principal component in the MTB mantle source region is depleted peridotite similar to the source of MORB. The enriched component, most evident in the arc-like basalts and intimately mixed in MTB, has isotopic characteristics similar to those observed in the Mariana arc basalts. The isotopic data suggest that source variability for Mariana axial ridge basalts can be explained by mixed arc-like and MORB-like mantle. We hypothesize that there are fragments of old oceanic lithosphere in the backarc source region. This lithospheric component may reflect remnants of subducted seafloor or forearc-volcanic arc mantle that predate rifting in the backarc basin.

  20. The vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Cold Period, northern South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callard, S. Louise; Newnham, Rewi M.; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Alloway, Brent V.; Smith, Carol

    2013-08-01

    Pollen assemblages from Howard Valley, South Island, New Zealand, were used to reconstruct the palaeovegetation and infer past climate during the period ca 38-21 cal. ka, which encompasses the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3/2 transition and Last Glacial Cold Period (LGCP). A glacier occupied the upper Howard Valley during the Last Glacial, whilst extensive glaciofluvial outwash surfaces were constructed in the lower valley. Episodic periods of fluvial aggradation and incision have produced a complex sequence of terraces flanking the main Howard River and its tributaries. Sedimentary sequences from three exposed valley fills, sampled for palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating, consist of a complex vertical and lateral arrangement of coarse textured cobbly sandy gravels interbedded with organic-rich silt deposits. Palynology of these organic-rich horizons was directly compared to an existing beetle record from these same horizons. During late MIS 3 the site was dominated by marshy shrubland vegetation interspersed with mixed beech forest, indicating temperatures ˜2-3 °C cooler than present. Climate cooling began as early as 35.7 cal. ka and coincides with evidence of cooling from other sites in New Zealand, South America and with an Antarctic cooling signature. A three phase vegetation and inferred climate pattern occurs at the site during the LGCP beginning with a transition to an alpine/sub-alpine grassland comparable to communities growing near treeline today marking the change to glacial conditions before 31 cal. ka. A small increase in tree abundance between ca 25.8 and 22.7 cal. ka suggests minor climate amelioration during the mid-LGCP. During this phase, a possible volcanically induced vegetation disruption caused by the deposition of the Kawakawa Tephra at 25 cal. ka is evident in the pollen record. This is followed by a further decline in tree pollen and increase in alpine grassland and herb pollen indicating further deterioration of conditions and a

  1. Fluxes of magmatic chlorine and sulfur from volcano-hydrothermal systems. Examples for Northern Kuril Islands Paramushir and Shiashkotan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, Elena; Taran, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    The total flux of components degassed from the magma through persistently degassing volcanoes comprises of the volcanic vapor flux from fumaroles to the atmosphere, diffuse flux through volcanic slopes and the hydrothermal flux to the local hydrologic network. The hydrothermal flux may be provided by the discharge of fluids formed at depth over the magma body and/or by acid waters which are formed by the absorption of the ascending volcanic vapor by shallow ground. The anion composition (Cl and SO4) of the discharging thermal waters from a volcano-hydrothermal system originates from the volcanic vapor and should be taken into account in estimations of the magmatic volatile output and volatile recycling in subduction zones. Here we report the chemical (major and trace elements) and isotopic composition of acidic and neutral thermal waters, chemical and isotopic composition of volcanic vapors and solute fluxes from the northern Kurilian islands Paramushir (Ebeko volcanic center) and Shiashkotan (volcanoes Sinarka and Kuntomintar). The total measured outputs of chloride and sulfur from the system in 2006-2014 were estimated on average as 730 g/s and 980 g/s, respectively, which corresponds to the equivalent fluxes of 64 t/d of HCl and 169 t/d of SO2. These values are one order of magnitude higher than the fumarolic output of Cl and S from the low-temperature fumarolic field of Ebeko (<120°C). The estimated discharge rate of hot (85°C) water from the system with ~ 3500 ppm of chloride is about 0.3 m3s-1 which is among the highest hot water natural outputs ever measured for a volcano-hydrothermal system. The total hydrothermal discharge of Cl and S from Shiashkotan island to the Sea of Okhotsk associated with magmatic activity of two volcanoes is estimated as ca. 20 t/d and 40 t/d, respectively, which is close to the fumarolic output from both volcanoes (Sinarka and Kuntomintar) estimated using the chemistry and flow rates of fumaroles those measured temperature is

  2. Recent changes detected on two glaciers at the northern part of James Ross Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nývlt, Daniel; Kopačková, Veronika; Láska, Kamil; Engel, Zbyněk.

    2010-05-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is one of the regions, which have been exposed to the most rapid warming of the Earth since 1950. Consequences of climate changes are clearly documented by recent disintegration of ice shelves on both sides of the Antarctic Peninsula as well as by the retreat of land-based glaciers. James Ross Island, located close to the northernmost tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, represents an excellent place to study changes in the glacier mass-balance and their sensitivity to a regional warming trend. Two different types of glaciers of the Ulu Peninsula, the Whisky Glacier and the Davies Dome have been studied. Multi-temporal remote sensing data (aerial photographs, Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+ and Aster satellite optical and thermal multispectral data) and field survey allowed detecting changes in extent (2-D) as well as calculating glacier mass-balance changes (3-D) for these two glaciers from 1977 to 2009. The Whisky Glacier is a well-delimited valley glacier located mostly below the local Equilibrium line altitude (ELA). The glacier with high-flow velocities is fed by an intensive snow accumulation caused by prevailing southwestern winds. The Whisky Glacier covers an area of 2.3 km2 and its altitude varies from 215 to 475 m a.s.l. The Davies Dome is a flat-bottom dome glacier. Significant parts of its surface are located above the ELA and limited flow velocities are characteristic for the most parts of its body. However, the Davies Dome has a single 500-700 m wide southwestern outlet flowing towards the Whisky Bay. The Davies Dome extends an area of 6.7 km2 and its altitude ranges from 0 to 514 m a.s.l. Both glaciers experienced massive extension of their ice tongues towards the Brandy Bay during the mid Holocene. Lateral moraines located in front of the both glaciers heading down to the left coast of the Brandy Bay document this event. According to the remote sensing data and field investigations both glaciers have retreated since 1977. Between 2006 and

  3. Active Volcanic and Hydrothermal Processes at NW Rota-1 Submarine Volcano: Mariana Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, R. W.; Baker, E. T.; Butterfield, D. A.; Chadwick, W. W.; de Ronde, C.; Dower, J.; Evans, L.; Hein, J.; Juniper, K.; Lebon, G.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S.; Metaxas, A.; Nakamura, K.; Resing, J. E.; Roe, K.; Stern, R.; Tunnicliffe, V.

    2004-12-01

    Dives with the remotely operated vehicle ROPOS in March/April 2004 documented a volcanic eruption at NW Rota-1, a submarine volcano of basaltic composition located at 14\\deg 36.0'N, 144\\deg 46.5'E lying 65 km northwest of Rota Island in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The site was chosen as a dive target because of the of the high concentrations of H2S and alunite in the hydrothermal plume overlying its summit in February 2003. The summit of the volcano is composed of curvilinear volcanic ridge oriented NW-SE bounded by NE-SW trending normal faults. Lavas collected on the upper part of the edifice are primitive to moderately fractionated basalts (Mg# = 51-66). The eruptive activity is occurring within a small crater (Brimstone Pit) located on the upper south flank of the volcano at 550 m, about 30 m below the summit. The crater is approximately 15 m wide and at least 20 meters deep. The ROPOS's cameras observed billowing clouds of sulfur-rich fluid rising out of the crater, punctuated by frequent bursts of several minutes duration that entrained glassy volcanic ejecta up to at least 2 cm in diameter. ROPOS recorded a temperature of 38\\degC within the plume. The volcanic activity had substantial temporal variability on the scale of minutes. ROPOS was sometimes completely enveloped by the plume while on the rim of the crater, and its surfaces were coated with large sulfur droplets. Black glassy fragments were entrained in the plume up to least 50 m above the crater and deposits of this material were on ledges and tops of outcrops up to several hundred meters from Brimstone Pit. The pit crater fluids have an extremely high content of particulate sulfur and extremely acidic, with pH around 2.0. This strongly implicates magmatic degassing of SO2 and disproportionation into elemental S and sulfuric acid. Diffuse venting of clear fluids was also present on the summit of the volcano, with temperatures exceeding 100\\degC in volcaniclastic sands

  4. Magmatic Water Contents in Mariana and Izu Arc Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parman, S.; Grove, T.; Plank, T.

    2002-05-01

    We estimate the magmatic water content of magmas from the Mariana-Izu arc system using experimental phase equilibria. Our goal is to produce primary H2O estimates for Mariana-Izu magmas to compare with along-arc variations in the trace element and isotopic compositions of the magmas. Such correlations can be used to quantify the chemical inputs into the sub-arc mantle wedge from the subducting Pacific plate. The experiments are performed in externally heated, gas-pressure vessels. H2O-saturatation is maintained throughout the experiment, as well as an fO2 at the Ni-NiO buffer. The experimental melts contain between 5.5 and 6.2 wt.% H2O. The observed LLD for Pagan island in the Mariana arc falls midway between the hydrous 200 MPa LLD and an anhydrous LLD modeled using the MELTS program [Ghiorso and Sack, 1995], suggesting an initial H2O content of ~3 wt.%. This in good agreement with the H2O content (2.7 wt.%, Plank, unpub. data) of an olivine-hosted melt inclusion contained in the Pagan samples. Experiments at lower H2O contents are being conducted to verify this estimate. The LLD for Hachijo-jima in the Izu arc follows the 200 MPa, H2O saturated LLD fairly well, though there is significant scatter in the natural sample compositions, likely due to plagioclase accumulation. Thus our preliminary results indicate higher H2O contents in the Hachijo-jima magmas (5-7 wt.%) relative to the Pagan magmas. The compositions of minerals in the mafic Pagan sample (PAF3b; Woodhead, 1989) indicate a history of mixing. Relative to the hydrous experiments, olivine (ol) phenocrysts in the sample have higher Mg#s (0.867 vs. 0.809), while plag phenocrysts have lower anorthite (An) contents (0.889 vs. 0.946). The lower An contents are consistent with the lower estimated H2O contents in the Pagan magmas relative to the experiments, while the higher ol Mg# indicates that even the most mafic Pagan sample is fractionated or a mixed magma. Glomerocrysts in the sample contain ol with lower

  5. 76 FR 32950 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census of Island Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Title 13, United States Code (U.S.C.), is the primary source of facts about the structure and... Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and American Samoa. The economic census, is the primary source of facts about each of the island areas' economies, and features the only recognized source of...

  6. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregularis, the Brown Tree Snake (Reptilia: Colubridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Merrem, 1802), was accidentally transported to the island of Guam shortly after World War II. Over the following two decades it spread throughout the island with little public or professional recognition of its extent or impacts. This secretive nocturnal arboreal snake occurs in all habitats on Guam, from grasslands to forests. Under the right conditions, it is capable of high rates of reproduction and population growth. The Brown Tree Snake caused the extirpation of 13 of Guam's 22 native breeding birds and contributed to the extirpation of several species of native bats and lizards. Guam's 12 forest birds were especially impacted, with 10 species eliminated and the other two severely reduced. In addition, the snake continues to substantially impact domestic poultry, pets, the island's electrical power infrastructure, and human health. To protect other vulnerable Pacific islands, the U.S. government annually spends several million dollars inspecting cargo outbound from Guam to exclude Brown Tree Snakes. Cargo destinations most at risk are in Micronesia, especially the Northern Mariana Islands, but Guam also has direct air transportation links to Hawai'i that will soon be supplemented with direct ship traffic. Ultimately, all Pacific islands are at risk but especially those obtaining cargo through Guam. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Gravity Anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Evidence for an Alternative Magma Chamber on Kauai and a Conjoined Niihau-Kauai Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M.; Kim, S.; Appelgate, B.

    2008-12-01

    The shield stage evolution of the islands of Kauai and Niihau are poorly understood. Previous land-based gravity surveys provide only a coarse constraint on the observed gravitational field. Questions as to whether the island of Kauai was formed by a single or multiple shields and the developmental relationship between these neighboring islands are still debated. Our new land-based gravity survey of Kauai and ship-board gravity surveys around both islands identified large complete Bouguer gravitational anomalies under Kauai's Lihue Basin and offshore in the Kaulakahi Channel, a 30-km-long bathymetric ridge connecting the two islands. These gravitational highs are consistent in size and magnitude with those of other Hawaiian islands and imply local zones of high density crust, most likely attributed to magmatic intrusions; e.g. former magma chambers, or rift zones. The Lihue Basin anomaly observed is offset 20 km east from the geologically mapped caldera region. This offset implies either the unlikely case that the shield stage plumbing system connecting the magma chamber and caldera could have been inclined by up to 75 degrees from the vertical, or that the currently mapped caldera is a late feature, unrelated to shield volcanism. The location of the gravitational anomaly, in the Kaulakahi Channel, 20 km east of Niihau is consistent with geologic mapping, which indicates that Niihau is a remnant of an ancient shield volcano centered east of the island. The proximity of the Niihau gravitational anomaly 10 km from the western edge of Kauai supports the hypothesis that the two volcanoes were part of the same island.

  8. 78 FR 56682 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for Military Readiness Activities in the Mariana Islands Training and Testing... research, development, test, and evaluation activities (training and testing) conducted within the Mariana... Northern Mariana Islands ); operating areas; and special use airspace in the region of the Mariana...

  9. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  10. Multi-Channel Seismic Images of the Mariana Forearc: EW0202 Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, A. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Taylor, B.; Moore, G. F.; Fryer, P.

    2002-12-01

    During the Spring of 2002, the Mariana Subduction Factory was surveyed using multi-channel seismics (MCS) as the first major phase of a US-Japanese collaborative NSF-MARGINS funded project. The resulting geophysical transects extend from the Pacific Plate to the West Mariana remnant arc. For details of this survey, including the results from the back-arc, refer to Taylor et al. (this session). The incoming Pacific Plate and its accompanying seamounts are deformed by plate flexure, resulting in extension of the upper crust as it enters the subduction zone. The resultant trench parallel faults dominate the bathymetry and MCS data. Beneath the forearc, in the southern transects near Saipan, the subducting slab is imaged to a distance of 50-60 km arcward. In addition to ubiquitous trench parallel normal faulting, a N-S transect of the forearc clearly shows normal faults perpendicular to the trench resulting from N-S extension. On the east side of the Mariana Ridge, thick sediment packages extend into the forearc. Directly east of Saipan and Tinian, a large, deeply scouring slide mass is imaged. Several serpentine mud volcanoes (Big Blue, Turquoise and Celestial) were imaged on the Mariana Forearc. Deep horizontal reflectors (likely original forearc crust) are imaged under the flanks of some of these seamounts. A possible "throat" reflector is resolved on multiple profiles at the summit of Big Blue, the northern-most seamount in the study area. The flanks of Turquoise seamount terminate in toe thrusts that represent uplift and rotation of surrounding sediments as the volcano grows outward. These thrusts form a basal ridge around the seamount similar to that previously noted encircling Conical Seamount. Furthermore, MCS data has revealed that some forearc highs previously thought to be fault blocks are in actuality mud volcanoes.

  11. The bionomics of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti in Northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands: issues for successful vector control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The north coast of Guadalcanal has some of the most intense malaria transmission in the Solomon Islands. And, there is a push for intensified vector control in Guadalcanal, to improve the livelihood of residents and to minimize the number of cases, which are regularly exported to the rest of the country. Therefore, the bionomics of the target vector, Anopheles farauti, was profiled in 2007–08; which was after 20 years of limited surveillance during which time treated bed nets (ITNs) were distributed in the area. Methods In three villages on northern Guadalcanal, blood-seeking female mosquitoes were caught using hourly human landing catches by four collectors, two working indoors and two outdoors, from 18.00-06.00 for at least two nights per month from July 2007 to June 2008. The mosquitoes were counted, identified using morphological and molecular markers and dissected to determine parity. Results Seasonality in vector densities was similar in the three villages, with a peak at the end of the drier months (October to December) and a trough at the end of the wetter months (March to May). There was some variability in endophagy (indoor biting) and nocturnal biting (activity during sleeping hours) both spatially and temporally across the longitudinal dataset. The general biting pattern was consistent throughout all sample collections, with the majority of biting occurring outdoors (64%) and outside of sleeping hours (65%). Peak biting was 19.00-20.00. The proportion parous across each village ranged between 0.54-0.58. Parity showed little seasonal trend despite fluctuations in vector densities over the year. Conclusion The early, outdoor biting behaviour of An. farauti documented 20 years previously on north Guadalcanal was still exhibited. It is possible that bed net use may have maintained this biting profile though this could not be determined unequivocally. The longevity of these populations has not changed despite long-term ITN use. This early

  12. Impact Of Coral Structures On Wave Directional Spreading Across A Shallow Reef Flat - Lizard Island, Northern Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, J. X.; Baldock, T.; Callaghan, D. P.; Hoegh-guldberg, O.; Mumby, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.; Saunders, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Coral reef hydrodynamics operate at several and overlapping spatial-temporal scales. Waves have the most important forcing function on shallow (< 5 m) reefs as they drive most ecological and biogeochemical processes by exerting direct physical stress, directly mixing water (temperature and nutrients) and transporting sediments, nutrients and plankton. Reef flats are very effective at dissipating wave energy and providing an important ecosystem service by protecting highly valued shorelines. The effectiveness of reef flats to dissipate wave energy is related to the extreme hydraulic roughness of the benthos and substrate composition. Hydraulic roughness is usually obtained empirically from frictional-dissipation calculations, as detailed field measurements of bottom roughness (e.g. chain-method or profile gauges) is a very labour and time-consuming task. In this study we measured the impact of coral structures on wave directional spreading. Field data was collected during October 2012 across a reef flat on Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. Wave surface levels were measured using an array of self-logging pressure sensors. A rapid in situ close-range photogrammetric method was used to create a high-resolution (0.5 cm) image mosaic and digital elevation model. Individual coral heads were extracted from these datasets using geo-morphometric and object-based image analysis techniques. Wave propagation was modelled using a modified version of the SWAN model which includes the measured coral structures in 2m by 1m cells across the reef. The approach followed a cylinder drag approach, neglecting skin friction and inertial components. Testing against field data included bed skin friction. Our results show, for the first time, how the variability of the reef benthos structures affects wave dissipation across a shallow reef flat. This has important implications globally for coral reefs, due to the large extent of their area occupied by reef flats, particularly, as

  13. Digital Elevations and Extents of Regional Hydrogeologic Units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifer System From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Jason P.; David C. Andreasen; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-01-01

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  14. A Synthesis of Multibeam Bathymetry and Backscatter, and Sidescan Sonar of the Mariana Submarine Magmatic Arc, Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, R. W.; Chadwick, W. W.; Stern, R. J.; Merle, S. G.; Bloomer, S. H.; Nakamura, K.; Tamura, Y.

    2006-12-01

    A series of expeditions funded by the NSF MARGINS Program, the NOAA Ocean Exploration Program and JAMSTEC from 2001 to 2006 have collected a large data set that includes multibeam bathymetry and backscatter and surface-towed MR-1 sidescan sonar along more than 1200 km of the Mariana submarine magmatic arc between 12 and 23 degrees N. These data, along with more limited in situ observational data from remotely operated vehicle dives, are interpreted within an ESRI ArcGIS framework to produce a series of preliminary geologic maps showing a wide range of volcanic, tectonic and other morphologic features along the arc. The maps reveal a widespread channelized distribution of volcaniclastic material from volcanoes in the Southern Seamount Province (SSP) and Central Island Provinces (CIP). Giant sediment wave forms (up to 2 km in wavelength) occur on the flanks of many of the volcanoes and can be traced out to up to 60 km (Esmeralda). Relative ages of the activity of the volcanoes can be assigned in some areas where deposits from one edifice overlap others or where erosion has deeply dissected the flanks. Faulting is common on the frontal arc, especially in the SSP and the Northern Seamount Province (NSP). Many of the individual volcanoes have faults that are oriented at a range of azimuths but are commonly at either an arc-parallel or arc- orthogonal orientations. Several large extensional basins (>30 across in arc-parallel direction) occur in the NSP. One of these features exhibits a zone of headless channels on its western flank, implying that the feature may be a very large caldera.

  15. Petrological and tectono-magmatic significance of ophiolitic basalts from the Elba Island within the Alpine Corsica-Northern Apennine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccani, Emilio; Principi, G.

    2016-05-01

    Two distinct ophiolitic units, which represent remnants of the Jurassic Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, crop out in the Elba Island. They are the Monte Strega unit in central-eastern Elba and the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit in western Elba. Ophiolitic rocks from the Monte Strega unit are commonly affected by ocean floor metamorphism, whereas those from the Punta Polveraia-Fetovaia unit are affected to various extent by thermal metamorphism associated with the Late Miocene Monte Capanne monzogranitic intrusion. Both ophiolitic units include pillow lavas and dykes with compositions ranging from basalt to basaltic andesite, Fe-basalt, and Fe-basaltic andesite. Basaltic rocks from these distinct ophiolitic units show no chemical differences, apart those due to fractional crystallization processes. They display a clear tholeiitic nature with low Nb/Y ratios and relatively high TiO2, P2O5, Zr, and Y contents. They generally display flat N-MORB normalized high field strength element patterns, which are similar to those of N-MORB. Chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns show light REE / middle REE (LREE/MREE) depletion and marked heavy (H-) REE fractionation with respect to MREE. This HREE/MREE depletion indicates a garnet signature of their mantle sources. Accordingly, they can be classified as garnet-influenced MORB (G-MORB), based on Th, Nb, Ce, Dy, and Yb systematics. We suggest that the Elba Island ophiolitic basalts were generated at a magma starved, slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge. REE, Th, and Nb partial melting modelling shows that the compositions of the relatively primitive Elba Island ophiolitic basalts are compatible with partial melting of a depleted MORB mantle (DMM) source bearing garnet-pyroxenite relics. Hygromagmatophile element ratios suggest that basalts from both ophiolitic units were originated from chemically very similar mantle sources. A comparison with basalts and metabasalts from Alpine Corsica and northern Apennine ophiolitic units shows

  16. 50 CFR 665.460 - Mariana precious coral fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mariana precious coral fisheries. 665.460 Section 665.460 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.460 Mariana precious coral fisheries....

  17. 50 CFR 665.460 - Mariana precious coral fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mariana precious coral fisheries. 665.460 Section 665.460 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.460 Mariana precious coral fisheries....

  18. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.440 Mariana crustacean fisheries....

  19. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.440 Mariana crustacean fisheries....

  20. Hydrothermal Helium Plumes over Submarine Volcanoes of the Marianas Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, J. E.; Baker, E. T.; Embley, R. W.; Resing, J. E.; Massoth, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Greene, R.; Walker, S.; Lebon, G.

    2003-12-01

    During February-March, 2003, as part of the Submarine Ring of Fire project funded by NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program, the R/V T.G. Thompson conducted a comprehensive survey of hydrothermal activity along 1200 km of the Mariana Arc from 13.5° N to 22.5° N [see Embley et al., EOS Trans. AGU, 2003]. Plume surveys were conducted in the water-column above ~50 submarine volcanoes using a CTD/rosette system. A total of 70 CTD casts were completed, and discrete water samples were collected for analysis of a variety of hydrothermal tracers, including 3He, CH4, CO2, H2S, Fe, Mn, pH, and suspended particles. Although shorebased analysis of the samples is still underway, preliminary results indicate that about 11 of the 50 submarine volcanoes surveyed are hydrothermally active. Because many of the Marianas Arc volcanoes rise to within 500 m of the sea surface, hydrothermal plume signals such as light attenuation (suspended particles) and temperature anomaly have limited utility due to masking by near surface effects. For this reason 3He, an unambiguous hydrothermal tracer, has been particularly useful for identifying which of the shallow arc volcanoes are hydrothermally active. Our expectation was that the water-column helium signal might be reduced at shallow depths due to ventilation into the atmosphere. However, we observed very high 3He enrichments at shallow depths both at Maug Islands and at NW Rota #1 (14° 36'N; 144° 46.5'E). The 3He enrichments were strongly correlated with changes in pH, Mn, and other hydrothermal tracers. The three Maug Islands mark the perimeter of a caldera formed by an explosive eruption, and a single hydrocast in the center of the caldera detected a robust helium plume at 120-200 m depth with δ 3He reaching a maximum of 250% at 150m depth. Analysis of the co-variation of [3He] vs. [4He] at Maug gave R/Ra = 6.6 for an estimate of the end-member helium isotope ratio (R = 3He/4He and Ra = Rair). This value falls well within the range of R

  1. Contrasting retinoid and thyroid hormone status in differentially-contaminated northern fulmar colonies from the Canadian Arctic, Svalbard and the Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Verreault, Jonathan; Helgason, Lisa B; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Dam, Maria; Braune, Birgit M

    2013-02-01

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) has previously been shown to accumulate a wide range, and occasionally high concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) (e.g., PCBs, chlorobenzenes, DDT- and chlordane-related compounds, dioxins and furans). The present study aimed to investigate, using a meta-analysis approach, the variations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A-like enzyme induction based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (EROD) and selected physiological variables (retinoids and thyroid hormones) in northern fulmar breeding in three differentially OC-exposed populations: Nunavut (Canadian Arctic), Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic) and the Faroe Islands. Substantially higher (roughly two-fold) OC levels were uncovered in the liver of this long-lived fulmarine petrel breeding in the Faroe Islands relative to Svalbard and Nunavut. Liver levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in Faroe Islands fulmars were amongst the highest reported thus far in any seabirds from the northern regions. Positive correlations were depicted in combined fulmars (all three populations) between hepatic EROD activity and concentrations of OCs, in which strongest associations were found for dioxin-like compound (PCDFs and PCDDs) and TEQ concentrations. Moreover, moderate to strong positive correlations were found between liver OC concentrations and plasma total thyroxin (TT(4)) levels and TT(4)/total triiodothyronine (TT(3)) level ratios, as well as strong negative correlations between the same suite of OCs and plasma TT(3) levels. Hepatic OC concentrations (PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB, p,p'-DDE and oxychlordane) also were positively correlated with hepatic retinyl palmitate levels which, in turn, were associated with a significant decrease in plasma retinol levels and somewhat unchanged liver retinol levels. The present meta-analysis investigation on northern fulmar breeding in three geographically-distant sites illustrated that OC exposure (mainly PCBs and dioxins/furans) may be associated with

  2. Change in distribution and composition of vegetated habitats on Horn Island, Mississippi, northern Gulf of Mexico, in the initial five years following Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, K. L.; Carter, G. A.

    2013-10-01

    In the northern Gulf of Mexico, sudden alterations to barrier islands occur relatively often as a result of hurricanes. Barrier island vegetation is affected by storm impacts, such as burial under sand overwash and direct removal by erosion, and also by wind-driven salt spray and flooding by saltwater tidal surge. This study utilized field surveys in conjunction with remotely-sensed data to evaluate changes in the composition and distribution of vegetation on Horn Island, Mississippi, U.S.A., in the initial five years after Hurricane Katrina. The majority of habitat change occurred closer to the shoreline and in areas of overwash. Habitat change was most often associated with an adjustment to higher-elevation plant communities at the expense of wetlands. In addition, substantial tree and shrub mortality as a result of wind, storm surge, salt-spray, and saltwater flooding reduced maritime forest and stable dune habitat, decreasing habitat stability and ecosystem maturity. The lag time in vegetation establishment and foredune development following the storm allowed for sediment transport into back-barrier habitats. Thus, postponing restoration efforts, such as dune plantings or fencing, until at least one full growing season has elapsed following a hurricane may provide back-barrier habitats with the sediment deposition needed to offset sea-level rise and subsidence.

  3. Seismic hazard along the southern boundary of the Gônave microplate: block modelling of GPS velocities from Jamaica and nearby islands, northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, B.; DeMets, C.; Tikoff, B.; Williams, P.; Brown, L.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.

    2012-07-01

    We use block modelling of GPS site velocities from Jamaica and nearby islands, including Hispaniola, to test alternative plate boundary geometries for deformation in Jamaica and estimate slip rates along the island's major fault zones. Relative to the Caribbean Plate, GPS sites in northern Jamaica move 6.0 ± 0.5 mm yr-1 to the WSW, constituting a lower bound on the motion of the Gônave microplate across its southern boundary in Jamaica. Obliquely convergent motion of all 30 GPS sites on and near Jamaica relative to the island's ˜E-W-trending strike-slip faults may be partitioned into 2.6 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 of ˜N-S shortening across submarine faults south of Jamaica and 5-6 mm yr-1 of E-W motion. Guided by geological and seismic information about the strikes and locations of faults in Jamaica, inverse block modelling of the regional GPS velocities rejects plate boundary configurations that presume either a narrow plate boundary in Jamaica or deformation concentrated across a restraining bend defined by the topographically high Blue Mountains of eastern Jamaica. The best-fitting models instead place most deformation on faults in central Jamaica. The 4-5 mm yr-1 slip rate we estimate for the Plantain Garden fault and Blue Mountain restraining bend of southeastern Jamaica implies significant seismic hazard for the nearby capital of Kingston.

  4. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  5. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  6. Characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of cloud cover and fog inundation for the Northern Channel islands of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Bharat

    The presence of low-lying stratocumulus clouds and fog has been known to modify biophysical and ecological properties in a variety of ecosystems in different climates. This is especially true for California's Channel Islands, where forests are frequently shaded by low-lying clouds or immersed in fog during warm and dry summer months. Previous studies suggest that clouds strongly modulate forest distributions as well as carbon and water budgets in these semi-arid environments by reducing solar insolation and raising relative humidity and thus reducing evapotranspiration, while also potentially supplying water directly to the landscape from fog-drip. While summertime fog and stratus cover in California's Channel Islands can ameliorate summer drought stress and enhance soil water budgets, they often have different spatial and temporal patterns. These differing patterns and the resulting shifts in relative ecological importance of fog and stratus are understudied. The overall objective of this study is to map spatial and temporal distributions of daytime cloud cover frequency for the California Channel Islands, and to predict probabilities of surface cloud (fog) contact and immersion for these islands. The results of this research are significant for water balance modeling, help explain vegetation patterns on the islands, and better identify locations where native vegetation restoration efforts are likely to be most successful.

  7. Wildfire and abrupt ecosystem disruption on California's Northern Channel Islands at the Ållerød-Younger Dryas boundary (13.0-12.9 ka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, D. J.; Kennett, J. P.; West, G. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Johnson, J. R.; Hendy, I. L.; West, A.; Culleton, B. J.; Jones, T. L.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    2008-12-01

    Sedimentary records from California's Northern Channel Islands and the adjacent Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) indicate intense regional biomass burning (wildfire) at the Ållerød-Younger Dryas boundary (˜13.0-12.9 ka) (All age ranges in this paper are expressed in thousands of calendar years before present [ka]. Radiocarbon ages will be identified and clearly marked " 14C years".). Multiproxy records in SBB Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site 893 indicate that these wildfires coincided with the onset of regional cooling and an abrupt vegetational shift from closed montane forest to more open habitats. Abrupt ecosystem disruption is evident on the Northern Channel Islands at the Ållerød-Younger Dryas boundary with the onset of biomass burning and resulting mass sediment wasting of the landscape. These wildfires coincide with the extinction of Mammuthus exilis [pygmy mammoth]. The earliest evidence for human presence on these islands at 13.1-12.9 ka (˜11,000-10,900 14C years) is followed by an apparent 600-800 year gap in the archaeological record, which is followed by indications of a larger-scale colonization after 12.2 ka. Although a number of processes could have contributed to a post 18 ka decline in M. exilis populations (e.g., reduction of habitat due to sea-level rise and human exploitation of limited insular populations), we argue that the ultimate demise of M. exilis was more likely a result of continental scale ecosystem disruption that registered across North America at the onset of the Younger Dryas cooling episode, contemporaneous with the extinction of other megafaunal taxa. Evidence for ecosystem disruption at 13-12.9 ka on these offshore islands is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary cosmic impact hypothesis [Firestone, R.B., West, A., Kennett, J.P., Becker, L., Bunch, T.E., Revay, Z.S., Schultz, P.H., Belgya, T., Kennett, D.J., Erlandson, J.M., Dickenson, O.J., Goodyear, A.A., Harris, R.S., Howard, G.A., Kloosterman, J.B., Lechler, P

  8. Molybdenum mobility and isotopic fractionation during subduction at the Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymuth, Heye; Vils, Flurin; Willbold, Matthias; Taylor, Rex N.; Elliott, Tim

    2015-12-01

    The fate of crustal material recycled into the convecting mantle by plate tectonics is important for understanding the chemical and physical evolution of the planet. Marked isotopic variability of Mo at the Earth's surface offers the promise of providing distinctive signatures of such recycled material. However, characterisation of the behaviour of Mo during subduction is needed to assess the potential of Mo isotope ratios as tracers for global geochemical cycles. Here we present Mo isotope data for input and output components of the archetypical Mariana arc: Mariana arc lavas, sediments from ODP Sites 800, 801 and 802 near the Mariana trench and the altered mafic, oceanic crust (AOC), from ODP Site 801, together with samples of the deeper oceanic crust from ODP Site 1256. We also report new high precision Pb isotope data for the Mariana arc lavas and a dataset of Pb isotope ratios from sediments from ODP Sites 800, 801 and 802. The Mariana arc lavas are enriched in Mo compared to elements of similar incompatibility during upper mantle melting, and have distinct, isotopically heavy Mo (high 98Mo/95Mo) relative to the upper mantle, by up to 0.3 parts per thousand. In contrast, the various subducting sediment lithologies dominantly host isotopically light Mo. Coupled Pb and Mo enrichment in the Mariana arc lavas suggests a common source for these elements and we further use Pb isotopes to identify the origin of the isotopically heavy Mo. We infer that an aqueous fluid component with elevated [Mo], [Pb], high 98Mo/95Mo and unradiogenic Pb is derived from the subducting, mafic oceanic crust. Although the top few hundred metres of the subducting, mafic crust have a high 98Mo/95Mo, as a result of seawater alteration, tightly defined Pb isotope arrays of the Mariana arc lavas extrapolate to a fluid component akin to fresh Pacific mid-ocean ridge basalts. This argues against a flux dominantly derived from the highly altered, uppermost mafic crust or indeed from an Indian

  9. Awareness of HIV/AIDS prevention and acceptance of HIV testing among residents in Likoma Island, northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hung Che; Yu, Kwong Leung; Yap, Shue Fang; Goh, Kah Kheng; Mo, Meng Hsuan; Yang, Ta Wei; Ngo, Yeh Giin; Hsu, Shu Jung; Wu, Yi Ching; Lai, Chung Sheng; Ko, Ying Chin; Chang, Po Ya

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the awareness of HIV/AIDS prevention education, and the acceptance of HIV testing among residents on Likoma Island, Malawi, a cross-sectional, population-based study of 579 residents aged > or =15 years from seven villages on Likoma Island was conducted during July and August 2007. Most of the subjects studied could correctly answer questions about their awareness of AIDS and knowledge of the ways to reduce HIV transmission. Moreover, the proportion of respondents (65.8%) who possessed complete knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention was greater than the national average. By contrast, condom utilization was slightly lower. Our results also showed that a high proportion of respondents (70.3%) had been HIV tested at any time, 93.5% of them voluntarily. Among correlated factors, females [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.7, 95% CI 1.1-1.6] and polygamous individuals (AOR=3.3, 95% CI 1.5-7.0) were more likely to receive an HIV test. Past experience of being HIV tested was a strong predictor of possessing good knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS prevention. We conclude that antiretroviral treatment provided by Likoma District Hospital has led to the successful scale-up of HIV testing in Likoma Island and consequently improved the awareness of HIV/AIDS. However, the use of condoms remains largely unsupported, and there is therefore still a need to intensify general HIV/AIDS education on the island. PMID:19628236

  10. 75 FR 44292 - Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...-AA90) published in the Federal Register on April 26, 1991 (56 FR 18997); and (C) The Nuclear Energy... contrary to the rationale for rulemaking, as discussed in 56 FR 18997. On October 26 and December 2, 2009... Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Issuance of...

  11. Tracing slab inputs along the Izu-Bonin-Marianas subduction zone: results from volatile emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T. P.; Hilton, D. R.; Shaw, A. M.; Hauri, E. R.; Kazahaya, K.; Mitchell, E.; Shimizu, A.; de Moor, M.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2005-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system extends 2800 km from the island of Honshu, Japan to Guam and is a type example of an intra-oceanic convergent margin. Subduction began 45 Ma ago and IBM subducts the oldest seafloor on Earth. A number of parameters vary systematically along the strike of the arc: the slab is steeply plunging in the S and gently dipping in the N; the age of the subducted crust varies from Mid-Jurassic in the S to Mid-Cretaceous in the N. Other parameters remain constant: crustal thickness (~20 km); no accretionary prism; no sediment fill in the trench. The sediment outboard of the arc is characterized based on ODP sites 801 (Marianas) and 1149 (Izu islands). 200 m of volcaniclastics are overlain by a 100 m of pelagic clay and chert in the S. In the N, volcaniclastics are lacking and the 400 m sediment sequence is dominated by 200 m of cherts, overlain by 40 m of pelagic clay and 120 m of volcanic ash and diatom/radiolarian clay. There is also a distinct layer (3 m) of hydrothermally altered MORB in the S. Thus, the IBM system is an ideal location to study the inputs and outputs of the subduction factory and to understand the processes occurring within the factory itself. We collected hydrothermal gas samples from 4 volcanic centers in the Marianas (Alamagan, Pagan, Agrigan, Uracas) and 6 centers in the Izu arc (Aogashima, Hachijojima, Niijima, Shikinejima, Oshima, Hakone). With the exception of Uracas (140C) and a well on Hachijojima (170C), all gas discharges were at or below the boiling temperature of water. As is typical for arc-related samples, the major gases are dominated by H2O, CO2 and S species. We see the following variations in N2/Ar and N2/He ratios of non-air contaminated samples along the arc: Agrigan clearly shows a mantle wedge signature of low N2/Ar (70) and N2/He (210) and negative δ15N (- 2.0 ‰). All other centers have N2/He ratios characteristic of that resulting from the addition of N from subducted sediments (1000 to

  12. Heavy metal accumulation in tissues of two sea cucumbers, Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra in the northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Afkhami, Majid; Mohammadizadeh, Flora; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan

    2016-02-15

    The concentrations of some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn andPb) were investigated in the sediments and the two species of sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra) from northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. The levels of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment varied significantly among sampling sites (p<0.05). The highest levels of Zn and Pb in H. leucospilota were recorded in body wall whereas the highest contents of Zn and Pb in H. scabra were measured in respiratory tree organ, respectively. Cu and Cd were the most abundant elements in gonads of H. leucospilota while highest levels of Cd and Cu in H. scabra were measured in the gonad and derm, respectively. Cu and Zn concentrations were below permissible limits for human consumption while Cd and Pb were above permissible limits for human consumption. PMID:26769107

  13. 40 CFR 1.7 - Location of principal offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Northern Mariana Islands; the territories of Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Islands; and certain U.S. Government activities in...

  14. Water resources data for Hawaii and other Pacific areas, water year 1989. Volume 2. Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, federated states of Micronesia, Palau, and American Samoa. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1988-30 September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, R.A.; Kunishige, V.E.; Lum, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    Water-resources data for the 1989 water year for other Pacific areas consist of records of discharge, and water quality of streams and stage of a lake and reservoir; water levels and water quality in wells; stage in a tide gage; and rainfall. This report volume 2 contains discharge records for 26 gaging stations; stage only for 2 gaging stations; water quality at 11 gaging stations, one streamflow partial record station, and 54 wells; water levels for 28 observations wells; and tide stages for one tide gage station. Also included are 2 crest-stage partial record stations, 4 miscellaneous partial-record stations, 15 low-flow partial-record stations, and 19 rainfall stations.

  15. Aerosol chemical properties and related pollutants measured in Dongsha Island in the northern South China Sea during 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Chang, You-Jia; Lee, Chung-Te

    2013-10-01

    Aerosol observations were conducted at Dongsha Island in two batches from 19 to 23 March and 10 to 19 April 2010. Dongsha Island is located in a remote area over the northern South China Sea (SCS), distantly surrounded by southern China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and the Indochinese Peninsula. During the study period, the average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations were 26.5 ± 19.4 and 12.6 ± 6.0 μg m-3, respectively. In particular, a daily PM10 concentration of 94.1 μg m-3 caused by a yellow-dust event originating from the Asian Continent was recorded on 21 March. Other than this event, the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 daily levels were 7.1 ± 1.2 and 12.6 ± 5.0 μg m-3, respectively, on days without pollution from anthropogenic sources in the surrounding areas. Water-soluble ions (WSIs) were the predominant components that accounted for 58.7% ± 10.5% and 51.1% ± 7.2% of the PM10 and PM2.5 mass. The second most abundant component was carbonaceous content, which accounted for 9.5% ± 4.7% and 17.5% ± 5.3% of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. SO42- was the most abundant PM2.5 WSI, whereas the Na+ and Cl- pair was the most abundant PM10-2.5 WSI. Based on the U.S. IMPROVE protocol, the resolved carbonaceous fractions were mainly distributed in PM2.5 and influenced by coal combustion, mobile vehicles, and biomass burning. Most of the resolved WSIs in particles were in the liquid phase due to the humid environment around the northern SCS.

  16. The large normal-faulting Mariana Earthquake of April 5, 1990 in uncoupled subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Satake, Kenji; Abe, Katsuyuki

    1992-02-01

    A large, Ms = 7.5, shallow earthquake occurred beneath the Mariana trench on April 5, 1990. From the relocated aftershock distribution, the fault area is estimated to be 70 × 40 km2. A tsunami observed on the Japanese islands verifies that the depth of the main shock is shallow. For waveform analysis, we use long-period surface waves and body waves recorded at global networks of GDSN, IRIS, GEOSCOPE and ERIOS. The centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution from surface waves indicates normal faulting on a fault whose strike is parallel to the local axis of the Mariana trench, with the tension axis perpendicular to it. The seismic moment is 1.4 × 1020 Nm (× 1027 dyn.cm) which gives Mw = 7.3. Far-field P and SH waves from 13 stations are used to determine the source time function. Since the sea around the epicentral region is about 5 km deep, body waveforms are contaminated with water reverberations. The inversion results in a source time function with a predominantly single event with a duration of 10 sec, a seismic moment of 2.1 × 1020 Nm, and a focal mechanism given by strike = 198°, dip = 48°, slip = 90°. The short duration indicates a small area of the rupture. The location of the main shock with respect to the aftershock area suggests that the nodal plane dipping to the west is preferred for the fault plane. The local stress drop of the single subevent is estimated to be 150 MPa (1.5 Kbars). The Mariana earthquake is considered to have occurred in an uncoupled region, in response to the gravitational pull caused by the downgoing Pacific plate.

  17. The occurrence of Clithon retropictus (v. Martens, 1879) (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in an unusual habitat, northern Jeju Island, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noseworthy, Ronald G.; Lee, Hee-Jung; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2013-09-01

    Clithon retropictus is a neritid gastropod inhabiting mainly brackish water. Currently this species has been listed as a second grade endangered species of wildlife in Korea by the Ministry of Environment, due to the decrease in its population size. C. retropictus has previously been identified from estuaries on the south coast of Korea. In Jeju Island, this species has been reported only from the south coast. However, a population has recently been discovered on the north coast of the island in an apparently new type of habitat, under rocks adjacent to a dry riverbed on a muddy substrate. C. retropictus was found to be aggregated under some of the larger rocks, and the habitat was located near the high tide line. The present study reports some possible reasons for the occurrence of the population in this unusual habitat, and provides useful information on the biometry and population size which can be used in the management of this endangered species.

  18. Northern Islands, human error, and environmental degradation: A view of social and ecological change in the medieval North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, T.H.; Bigelow, G.; Amorosi, T.; Russell, D. )

    1988-09-01

    Between ca. 790 and 1,000 AD, Scandinavian settlers occupied the islands of the North Atlantic: Shetland, the Orkneys, the Hebrides, the Faroes, Iceland, and Greenland. These offshore islands initially supported stands of willow, alder, and birch, and a range of non-arboreal species suitable for pasture for the imported Norse domestic animals. Overstocking of domestic animals, fuel collection, ironworking, and construction activity seems to have rapidly depleted the dwarf trees, and several scholars argue that soil erosion and other forms of environmental degradation also resulted from Norse land-use practices in the region. Such degradation of pasture communities may have played a significant role in changing social relationships and late medieval economic decline in the western tier colonies of Iceland and Greenland. This paper presents simple quantified models for Scandinavian environmental impact in the region, and suggests some sociopolitical causes for ultimately maladaptive floral degradation.

  19. Insular Area energy vulnerability, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands. Technical Appendix 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.; Willard, E.E.; Efferding, S.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 1406 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 192-486). The Act directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to ``conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption,`` and to ``outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency.`` The Act defines the insular areas to be the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean, and Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Palau in the Pacific. This report is the analysis of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In the study, ``unique vulnerabilities`` were defined as susceptibility to: (1) more frequent or more likely interruptions of oil supplies compared to the mainland, and/or (2) disproportionately larger or more likely economic losses in the event of an oil supply disruption. In order to asses unique vulnerabilities, the study examined in the insular areas` experience during past global disruptions of oil supplies and during local emergencies caused by natural disasters. The effects of several possible future global disruptions and local emergencies were also analyzed. Analyses were based on historical data, simulations using energy and economic models, and interviews with officials in the insular governments and the energy industry.

  20. Seismic and geodetic constraints on plate boundary deformation across the northern Macquarie Ridge and southern South Island of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. A.; Anderson, H. J.; Pearson, C.

    2000-12-01

    In the southern New Zealand region the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates changes from oblique continental convergence in the central South Island of New Zealand to interoceanic transcurrent motion along the Macquarie Ridge. Source parameters of recent (post-1964) upper crustal events, Mw>=5.3, in the region 43-53°S, 155-175°E are determined using P- and SH-waveform analysis in order to investigate the nature of strain accommodated seismically throughout the region. Repeated occupation of three geodetic networks across the southern South Island provides estimates of contemporary crustal strain. Seismicity over the last 35 years shows uneven spatial and temporal distribution, with clusters of events occurring in regions along the plate boundary that exhibit structural variation. Focal mechanisms of individual earthquakes vary widely but are consistent with the accommodation of long-term estimates of the relative plate motion. Across the southern South Island, geodetically measured principal contraction directions are consistent with P-axis orientations. The mode of accommodation of the relative plate motion varies throughout the region, influenced by the change in crustal composition on either side of the plate boundary, the underlying structure as a relic of previous relative motions, and the variation of obliquity of the relative motion with respect to these structures.

  1. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term.

  2. Migrating shoshonitic magmatism tracks Izu-Bonin-Mariana intra-oceanic arc rift propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, O.; Yuasa, M.; Tamura, Y.; Shukuno, H.; Stern, R. J.; Naka, J.; Joshima, M.; Taylor, R. N.

    2010-05-01

    The southernmost Izu-Bonin arc and northernmost Mariana arc are characterized by K-rich and shoshonitic lavas, referred to as the alkalic volcano province (AVP). These compositions are unusual for intra-oceanic arcs and the interpretation of the AVP is controversial. Rifting to form the Mariana Trough back-arc basin occurs just south of the AVP although back-arc seafloor spreading has not begun. Here we report the results of dredge sampling of the West Mariana Ridge (WMR) in the region of rift propagation; this recovered exclusively medium K to shoshonitic basalts that show clear arc-like geochemical signatures. Ar-Ar ages of WMR shoshonitics systematically young northward. Age of c. 6 Ma was obtained at 21.5°N, c. 3 Ma at 23-23.5°N, and zero-age shoshonites occur on Io-to Island (formerly Iwo Jima) at 24.8°N. Shoshonitic magmatism migrated northward at 4.3 cm/year, in advance of northward-propagating Mariana Trough rifting. This implies that AVP shoshonitic magmatism manifests processes and sources that are uniquely associated with earliest back-arc basin rifting. High-precision Pb isotopic analyses reveal that WMR lavas form a single trend between 2 components, one with lower 206Pb/ 204Pb and high Δ7/4 (arc-like), and another with high 206Pb/ 204Pb as well as low Δ 7/4 and 8/4 (HIMU-like). These components could correspond respectively to subducted pelagic sediment and subducted seamounts and volcaniclastics with HIMU isotopic signature. These slab-derived components alone, however, cannot fully explain chemical characteristics of WMR shoshonitic lavas. These lavas require a component with high Δ7/4 and high Ce/Pb, which is not likely to be either pelagic sediment or seamount volcanics. This component is only expressed when rifting begins, suggesting that it resides in enriched lithosphere or uppermost asthenosphere, which is easily melted due to decompression caused by rifting, when the lithosphere is first ruptured. This component might be linked to slow

  3. Magma Piracy in the Southern Mariana Backarc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. C.; Fryer, P.; Martinez, F.; Stern, R. J.; Bloomer, S. H.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1997 the southern Mariana convergent margin system has been mapped with Hydrosweep, MR-1, and SeaBeam swath sonar systems on five cruises resulting in 168,500 km2 of bathymetry data and 186,800 km2 of sidescan data, revealing anomalous processes relative to the rest of the Mariana region. Most of the Mariana Arc is characterized by arc volcanism dominated by large, central volcanoes located at the boundary between a backarc basin with slow-spreading ridge morphology and a nonaccretionary forearc composed of Eocene volcanic arc rocks But southwest of Tracey Seamount, the southernmost large central arc volcano, the character of the arc and backarc changes dramatically. The arc volcanoes become small or nonexistent, but those that do occur lie along relict spreading fabric within the backarc basin. Furthermore, the spreading center appears to have an inflated, fast-spreading morphology, including dueling propagator fabric, and this southern backarc basin forms a shallow plateau overall. The spreading center then becomes less well-defined west of 143oE, and the volcanism appears to cease altogether west of 142oE in an area of amagmatic rifting, an observation supported by earthquake focal mechanisms and magnetics. The inflated morphology of the spreading axis, along with the absence or reduced size of nearby arc volcanoes suggests that arc magmas have been entrained into the backarc-spreading magmatic system. This "magma piracy" would result in arc magma being erupted at the backarc spreading center, therefore the backarc crust would be formed in part from arc magmas. Dredge samples from along the active ridge show compositions consistent with this suggestion. We suggest that this magma piracy has dominated the southern backarc basin for at least the last 3 m.y. since the robust spreading began. We suggest that the apparently higher magma production rate and the hybridized crust could account for the shallowness of the basin, as the more evolved arc-lavas would

  4. The Mariana Trench: A new view based on multibeam echosounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. V.; Armstrong, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    The entire Mariana Trench, from its northern end at Dutton Ridge to the southwestern terminus at the Yap Trench, was mapped in 2010 using a Kongsberg EM122 12-kHz multibeam echosounder. The region ranges in depths from the shoreline at Guam to almost 11,000 m at the Challenger Deep. The northern part of the trench is receiving seamounts and guyots of the Magellan Seamount chain, whereas the southern section is receiving seafloor that carries the Caroline Ridge to the trench. The area immediately seaward of the trench where the Pacific Plate has bent downward toward the subduction zone has been broken by a series of subparallel horst and graben structures generated by extension on the bending upper surface of the Pacific Plate. Four bathymetric "bridges" span across the trench axis and extend from the Pacific Plate to the inner wall of the trench. The bridges stand as much as 2500 m above the trench axis and are composed of Latest Jurassic to Early Cretaceous accreted seamounts and guyots of the Magellan Seamount chain that are in the process of breaking up and being subducted beneath the Philippine Plate. Only two seamounts of the Caroline Ridge are in the vicinity of the trench and they both presently reside on the outer trench wall. The faults of the horsts and grabens have fractured the seamounts and guyots within the trench depression seaward from the axis outward for about 80 km, but within ~5 km of the trench axis the faults have reactivated to compressional thrust faults. The faults tend to parallel the axis of the trench until the immediate vicinity of an accreting seamount or guyot where the faults bend inward toward the trench axis, as has been observed in many other trenches. Most of the accreted seamounts and guyots are not associated with embayments or reentrants on the inner trench wall, as has been documented in the Middle America and Japan Trenches, perhaps because there is not a large accretionary prism that extends seaward of the forearc. The one

  5. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries....

  6. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC... Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.420 Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries....

  7. Subducted Fluid and Sediment Compositions Preserved in Mariana Arc Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. A.; Newman, S.; Plank, T.; Parman, S.; Grove, T. L.

    2002-12-01

    Melt inclusions (MIs) in arc lavas provide a direct means of measuring the content of volatile species (H2O, CO2, etc.) which are critical to the operation of the subduction factory. Besides preserving pre-eruptive, undegassed magma, MIs may also capture liquids prior to mixing in large magma chambers and thus may retain a broad range of slab-derived characteristics. This study focuses on MI populations from five basaltic scoria samples from Guguan, Pagan and Agrigan islands of the Mariana arc. The MIs studied are olivine-hosted (Fo 68-82), 50-300 æm, clear brown glass with no visible evidence of devitrification. We have analyzed these MIs for H2O and CO2 by FTIR, major elements by EMP and trace elements by laser ablation ICP-MS. The MI's range in water content from 1-4 wt.%, but MI's with detectable CO2 indicate a tighter range of H2O concentrations in undegassed inclusions from 2.5-4 wt.% and averaging 3 wt.% H2O. The MIs are broadly similar in both major and trace elements to lavas from the same islands, but these new data extend the range of trace element compositions observed in Mariana arc lavas. We have analyzed MIs from Agrigan with trace element systematics nearly identical in Ba/La and La/Sm to that of bulk subducting sediment in the Marianas, and from Guguan with a composition very close to the inferred slab-derived fluid composition. One Guguan inclusion is of particular interest. It has 3.5 wt.% H2O with an NMORB REE pattern (La/Sm=0.76), high Ba/La (70) and very high U/Th (1.1). It also has high Pb/U (25) demonstrating a preference for Pb over U in slab-derived fluids. The composition of this inclusion also plots near the y-intercept (zero sediment flux) on global arc-sediment flux correlation diagrams, confirming that it represents close to an average global sediment-free slab fluid composition. Compositions this extreme have never been measured in Mariana arc lavas before. On the other hand, this fluid-rich arc melt has a very different composition

  8. 77 FR 22349 - OSHA Training Institute Education Center; Notice of Competition and Request for Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Wake Island, Johnston Island, the Panama Canal Zone, and the Outer Continental Shelf Lands as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands...

  9. Largest global shark biomass found in the northern Galápagos Islands of Darwin and Wolf.

    PubMed

    Salinas de León, Pelayo; Acuña-Marrero, David; Rastoin, Etienne; Friedlander, Alan M; Donovan, Mary K; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Overfishing has dramatically depleted sharks and other large predatory fishes worldwide except for a few remote and/or well-protected areas. The islands of Darwin and Wolf in the far north of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) are known for their large shark abundance, making them a global scuba diving and conservation hotspot. Here we report quantitative estimates of fish abundance at Darwin and Wolf over two consecutive years using stereo-video surveys, which reveal the largest reef fish biomass ever reported (17.5 t [Formula: see text] on average), consisting largely of sharks. Despite this, the abundance of reef fishes around the GMR, such as groupers, has been severely reduced because of unsustainable fishing practices. Although Darwin and Wolf are within the GMR, they were not fully protected from fishing until March 2016. Given the ecological value and the economic importance of Darwin and Wolf for the dive tourism industry, the current protection should ensure the long-term conservation of this hotspot of unique global value. PMID:27190701

  10. Largest global shark biomass found in the northern Galápagos Islands of Darwin and Wolf

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Marrero, David; Rastoin, Etienne; Friedlander, Alan M.; Donovan, Mary K.; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Overfishing has dramatically depleted sharks and other large predatory fishes worldwide except for a few remote and/or well-protected areas. The islands of Darwin and Wolf in the far north of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) are known for their large shark abundance, making them a global scuba diving and conservation hotspot. Here we report quantitative estimates of fish abundance at Darwin and Wolf over two consecutive years using stereo-video surveys, which reveal the largest reef fish biomass ever reported (17.5 t \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${\\mathrm{ha}}^{-1}$\\end{document}ha−1 on average), consisting largely of sharks. Despite this, the abundance of reef fishes around the GMR, such as groupers, has been severely reduced because of unsustainable fishing practices. Although Darwin and Wolf are within the GMR, they were not fully protected from fishing until March 2016. Given the ecological value and the economic importance of Darwin and Wolf for the dive tourism industry, the current protection should ensure the long-term conservation of this hotspot of unique global value. PMID:27190701

  11. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Johnson, Charles B.; Garshelis, David L.; Parker, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001–2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  12. Brachyopa minima (Diptera: Syrphidae), a new species from Greece with notes on the biodiversity and conservation of the genus Brachyopa Meigen in the Northern Aegean Islands.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Radenković, Snezana; Vujić, Ante; Petanidou, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    An on-going study of the hoverfly fauna of the Northern Aegean Islands (Greece) has revealed the presence of four species of the genus Brachyopa Meigen. During the survey the following species were found: B. bicolor (Fallén), B. quadrimaculosa Thompson in Kaplan & Thompson, B. minima Vujić & Pérez-Bañón sp. nov. and an unidentified species very close to B. pilosa (Collin). Morphological characters and mitochondrial COI barcodes were used to link different life stages of B. minima, and to identify a larval specimen of B. bicolor. In this study adult and larval morphology and habitat preferences for B. minima are described. The description of larval morphology of B. bicolor and Brachyopa sp. aff. pilosa is amended too. An identification key to the adults of the B. quadrimaculosa group sensu Kassebeer (2002) in the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, Israel and Turkey) is provided. The importance of specific microhabitats for the continued existence of these taxa is discussed. PMID:27395920

  13. Petrological Characteristics of Upper Mantle Peridotites from the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana-Palau-Yap and Tonga Forearcs; Relation to Troodos and Semail Ophiolites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ISHII, T.; SATO, H.; FUJIOKA, K.

    2001-12-01

    Many ophiolitic igneous complexes in the ocean floor have been reported along trench inner wall of the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana-Palau-Yap and Tonga trenches. These igneous bodies from the ocean floor are called as proto-ophiolite in this paper. Serpentinite diapiric seamounts have been only reported from the forearc area of the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana (excluding Southern Mariana) arc-trench system in the world. Petrological characteristics of mantle peridotites constituting those seamounts were summarized in comparison with other trench region peridotites. Mantle peridotites drilled from the Conical seamounts during ODP Leg 125 (Site 779) have distinctive compositions both in bulk rock chemistry and mineral chemistry. Their compositions suggest that they underwent a higher degree of partial melting (more than 30 %) that is related to island arc volcanism in the mantle wedge. Most of compositions of mantle peridotites collected by submersible dives from other serpentinite seamounts (the Pacman seamount by Alvin, the Hahajima seamount by Shinkai 2000 and the Chamorro seamount by Shinkai 6500) in the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana forearc have also similar compositions to those from the Conical seamount. It indicates that most mantle peridotites from the seamounts are refractory residues (harzburgite and dunite) derived from partial melting in the high degree during the island-arc volcanism, including boninite and island-arc tholeiite. On the other hand, mantle peridotites recovered from the Tonga forearc exhibit wider chemistry including more fertile and intermediate peridotites as well as deplete peridotites, suggesting that the former are residues of relatively lower degrees of partial melting. It is probable that they are related to the volcanism during the formation of the back arc basin. Furthermore, although mantle peridotites of the Tonga forearc are considered to be derived from a layered sequence from the upper crust through the lower crust to the upper mantle rather than

  14. 33 CFR 173.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., firm, partnership, corporation, company, association, joint-stock association, or governmental entity..., American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the District of Columbia. (h)...

  15. 33 CFR 173.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., firm, partnership, corporation, company, association, joint-stock association, or governmental entity..., American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the District of Columbia. (h)...

  16. 42 CFR 435.907 - Written application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN THE STATES, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS..., and any documentation required to establish eligibility— (1) Via the internet Web site described...

  17. 41 CFR 60-741.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... person, corporation, partnership or joint venture, unincorporated association, State or local government... of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and...

  18. The Role of Philippine Sea Plate to the Genesis of Quaternary Magmas of Northern Kyushu Island, Japan, Inferred from Along-Arc Geochemical Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, J.; Ujike, O.; Miyoshi, M.; Takemura, K.

    2013-12-01

    Quaternary volcanoes on Kyushu Island comprise volcanoes Himeshima, Futagoyama, Yufu-Tsurumi, Kuju, Aso, Kirishima and Sakurajima from north to south alongstrike the volcanic front. Adakitic lavas are observed from Yufu-Tsurumi and Kuju volcanoes in northern Kyushu (Kita et al., 2001; Sugimoto et al., 2007), whereas no Quaternary adakites were observed at Aso (e.g., Hunter, 1998) and the volcanoes south of Aso along the entire Ryukyu arc. Sugimoto et al. (2007) suggested that the trace element and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of adakitic magmas from Yufu-Tsurumi volcano indicate derivation of the magmas by partial melting of the subducting PSP. In contrast, Zellmer et al. (2012) suggested that these adakites may have formed by fractional crystallization of mantle-derived mafic magmas within the garnet stability field in the crust. The Honshu-Kyushu arc transition is a particular favorable setting to address these controversial models for the origin of the adakitic lavas, because of the potential relationship between the PSP materials and the alongstrike variation of the lava chemistry. The Palau-Kyushu ridge divides the oceanic crust of the PSP into northeastern and southwestern segments with ages of 26-15 (Shikoku Basin) and 60-40 Ma (West Philippine Basin), respectively (Mahony et al., 2011). Although there are no clear plate images beneath northern Kyushu, the northern extension of the Palau-Kyushu ridge potentially corresponds to the boundary between the SW Japan and Ryukyu arcs. If adakite genesis was related to the subducted slab rather than the overlying crust, then the spatial distribution of Quaternary adakites should correlate with the age of the subducted PSP. In order to test such correlation and elucidate the petrogenesis of the northern Kyushu adakites, we compiled major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios from volcanoes along the arc front that includes the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic arc volcanism. Comprehensive

  19. Evidence of stable genetic structure across a remote island archipelago through self-recruitment in a widely dispersed coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Mark A; Halford, Andrew R; McIlwain, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    We used microsatellite markers to assess the population genetic structure of the scribbled rabbitfish Siganus spinus in the western Pacific. This species is a culturally important food fish in the Mariana Archipelago and subject to high fishing pressure. Our primary hypothesis was to test whether the individuals resident in the southern Mariana Island chain were genetically distinct and hence should be managed as discrete stocks. In addition to spatial sampling of adults, newly-settled individuals were sampled on Guam over four recruitment events to assess the temporal stability of the observed spatial patterns, and evidence of self-recruitment. We found significant genetic structure in S. spinus across the western Pacific, with Bayesian analyses revealing three genetically distinct clusters: the southern Mariana Islands, east Micronesia, and the west Pacific; with the southern Mariana Islands being more strongly differentiated from the rest of the region. Analyses of temporal samples from Guam indicated the southern Mariana cluster was stable over time, with no genetic differentiation between adults versus recruits, or between samples collected across four separate recruitment events spanning 11 months. Subsequent assignment tests indicated seven recruits had self-recruited from within the Southern Mariana Islands population. Our results confirm the relative isolation of the southern Mariana Islands population and highlight how local processes can act to isolate populations that, by virtue of their broad-scale distribution, have been subject to traditionally high gene flows. Our results add to a growing consensus that self-recruitment is a highly significant influence on the population dynamics of tropical reef fish. PMID:23301184

  20. Influence of environmental factors on the abundance of Anopheles farauti larvae in large brackish water streams in Northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The main vector of malaria in Solomon Islands is Anopheles farauti, which has a mainly coastal distribution. In Northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, high densities of An. farauti are supported by large brackish streams, which in the dry season are dammed by localized sand migration. The factors controlling the high larval productivity of these breeding sites have not been identified. Accordingly the influence of environmental factors on the presence and density of An. farauti larvae was assessed in three large naturally dammed streams. Methods Larval sites were mapped and anopheline larvae were collected monthly for 12 months (July 2007 to June 2008) from three streams using standard dippers. Larval collections were made from 10 locations spaced at 50 m intervals along the edge of each stream starting from the coast. At each collection point, floating filamentous algae, aquatic emergent plants, sun exposure, and salinity were measured. These environmental parameters along with rainfall were correlated with larval presence and density. Results The presence and abundance of An. farauti larvae varied between streams and was influenced by the month of collection, and distance from the ocean (p < 0.001). Larvae were more frequently present and more abundant within 50 m of the ocean during the dry season when the streams were dammed. The presence and density of larvae were positively associated with aquatic emergent plants (presence: p = 0.049; density: p = 0.001). Although filamentous algae did not influence the presence of larvae, this factor did significantly influence the density of larvae (p < 0.001). Rainfall for the month prior to sampling was negatively associated with both larval presence and abundance (p < 0.001), as high rainfall flushed larvae from the streams. Salinity significantly influenced both the presence (p = 0.002) and density (p = 0.014) of larvae, with larvae being most present and abundant in brackish water at < 10‰ seawater

  1. 48 CFR 52.222-54 - Employment Eligibility Verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 525.1(c)(2), “bulk cargo” means cargo that is loaded and carried in bulk onboard ship without mark... (after November 27, 2009, in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), who is directly... Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (b) Enrollment and...

  2. 48 CFR 52.222-54 - Employment Eligibility Verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...), such as agricultural products and petroleum products. Per 46 CFR 525.1(c)(2), “bulk cargo” means cargo... Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), who is directly performing work, in the United States, under a... Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  3. 48 CFR 52.222-54 - Employment Eligibility Verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...), such as agricultural products and petroleum products. Per 46 CFR 525.1(c)(2), “bulk cargo” means cargo... Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), who is directly performing work, in the United States, under a... Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the U.S. Virgin Islands....

  4. The Neogene Alert Bay Volcanic Belt of northern Vancouver Island, Canada: Descending-plate-edge volcanism in the arc-trench gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Muller, J. E.; Harakal, J. E.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1985-10-01

    The Alert Bay Volcanic Belt trends northeasterly across northern Vancouver Island, coincident with the trace of the subducted Juan de Fuca—Explorer plate edge. Volcanism began in the west, at Brooks Peninsula, about 8 Ma ago, but occurred in most centers 3.5 ± 1 Ma ago. There is a suggestion of eastward migration of activity and shift from basalt to dacite or rhyolite with time. Most of the volcanism was coincident with a time of rapid changes in the geometry of subduction, as inferred from offshore magnetic patterns, and with a hiatus in mainland, Cascade volcanic arc activity. Geometry and chronometry suggest this is a descending-plate-edge volcanic belt, where disruption of steady-state plate-consumption patterns triggered magma genesis. Chemically the rocks are quite variable, with divergent fractionation trends. One trend resembles that of Mull (Hebrides), with a plagiophyric basalt of transitional alkaline-subalkaline, mildly tholeiitic, and aluminous character which differentiated to clinopyroxene andesite, and eventually to tholeiitic rhyolite and mildly tholeiitic calc-alkaline dacite, both of K-poor magma type. The other trend is like the Cascades, with aluminous, aphyric, calc-alkaline basalt, hornblende and/or hypersthene andesite, and K-poor dacite. This divergent character is also evident in Ba, Rb, Nb, and Zr fractionation trends. Major- and trace-element discriminant diagrams generally identify the basalts as within-plate types. The 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratio is relatively low, averaging 0.70325, and shows no trend with rock type or differentiation series. Oxygen in the entire suite is relatively heavy, δ 18O averaging 7.1%. Even the basalts are 18O enriched. Oxygen shows no trend with degree of hydration, rock type, or series. These isotopic and chemical data are compatible with minor crustal contamination of mafic primary magmas, followed by fractional crystallization under different oxidation and hydration conditions.

  5. Linking Vital Rates of Landbirds on a Tropical Island to Rainfall and Vegetation Greenness

    PubMed Central

    Saracco, James F.; Radley, Paul; Pyle, Peter; Rowan, Erin; Taylor, Ron; Helton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Remote tropical oceanic islands are of high conservation priority, and they are exemplified by range-restricted species with small global populations. Spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall and plant productivity may be important in driving dynamics of these species. Yet, little is known about environmental influences on population dynamics for most islands and species. Here we leveraged avian capture-recapture, rainfall, and remote-sensed habitat data (enhanced vegetation index [EVI]) to assess relationships between rainfall, vegetation greenness, and demographic rates (productivity, adult apparent survival) of three native bird species on Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands: rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus), and golden white-eye (Cleptornis marchei). Rainfall was positively related to vegetation greenness at all but the highest rainfall levels. Temporal variation in greenness affected the productivity of each bird species in unique ways. Predicted productivity of rufous fantail was highest when dry and wet season greenness values were high relative to site-specific 5-year seasonal mean values (i.e., relative greenness); while the white-eye species had highest predicted productivity when relative greenness contrasted between wet and dry seasons. Survival of rufous fantail and bridled white eye was positively related to relative dry-season greenness and negatively related to relative wet-season greenness. Bridled white-eye survival also showed evidence of a positive response to overall greenness. Our results highlight the potentially important role of rainfall regimes in affecting population dynamics of species on oceanic tropical islands. Understanding linkages between rainfall, vegetation, and animal population dynamics will be critical for developing effective conservation strategies in this and other regions where the seasonal timing, extent, and variability of rainfall is expected to change in the coming

  6. Linking Vital Rates of Landbirds on a Tropical Island to Rainfall and Vegetation Greenness.

    PubMed

    Saracco, James F; Radley, Paul; Pyle, Peter; Rowan, Erin; Taylor, Ron; Helton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Remote tropical oceanic islands are of high conservation priority, and they are exemplified by range-restricted species with small global populations. Spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall and plant productivity may be important in driving dynamics of these species. Yet, little is known about environmental influences on population dynamics for most islands and species. Here we leveraged avian capture-recapture, rainfall, and remote-sensed habitat data (enhanced vegetation index [EVI]) to assess relationships between rainfall, vegetation greenness, and demographic rates (productivity, adult apparent survival) of three native bird species on Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands: rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus), and golden white-eye (Cleptornis marchei). Rainfall was positively related to vegetation greenness at all but the highest rainfall levels. Temporal variation in greenness affected the productivity of each bird species in unique ways. Predicted productivity of rufous fantail was highest when dry and wet season greenness values were high relative to site-specific 5-year seasonal mean values (i.e., relative greenness); while the white-eye species had highest predicted productivity when relative greenness contrasted between wet and dry seasons. Survival of rufous fantail and bridled white eye was positively related to relative dry-season greenness and negatively related to relative wet-season greenness. Bridled white-eye survival also showed evidence of a positive response to overall greenness. Our results highlight the potentially important role of rainfall regimes in affecting population dynamics of species on oceanic tropical islands. Understanding linkages between rainfall, vegetation, and animal population dynamics will be critical for developing effective conservation strategies in this and other regions where the seasonal timing, extent, and variability of rainfall is expected to change in the coming

  7. 6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest Pumpkin Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Keeper's house, southeast parlor, looking northwest - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  8. Wide-Angle Imaging of the Mariana Subduction Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, B. C.; Klemperer, S.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 we collected wide-angle refraction data using 53 OBSIP ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in an effort to elucidate the structure of lower crust and upper mantle of the Mariana arc. The OBSs were deployed in 3 arc-parallel lines along the magmatic arc, frontal arc, and forearc. We used the R/V Ewing's 20-gun, 10,810 c.i. air-gun array to shoot 2603 km of arc-parallel and perpendicular lines with 200-m or 250-m shot spacings. We also concurrently recorded 15-fold or 12-fold, 240-channel seismic data, as well as magnetic, gravity, and swath bathymetry data. Twenty-five OBSs were deployed along the volcanic arc with a 10-km spacing, twenty OBSs along the frontal arc at 15-km spacing, and eight OBSs along the forearc (roughly halfway between the magmatic arc and the trench) at 20-km spacing. The lines were located between 14.5 and 18.5 degrees north. All 53 OBSs were successfully recovered, with all but two successfully recording every shot. Preliminary examination of the data shows refracted arrivals from shots in excess of 200 km from some OBSs. Major bathymetric variation (0.1 to 3 km) along the volcanic-arc line and the frontal-arc line makes preliminary estimates of crustal structure difficult. So far, mid-to-deep crustal reflections can not be consistently identified between adjacent OBSs, especially along the magmatic arc for which topographic variation is most dramatic. F-K and F-X filters are being tested to better identify reflected arrivals. Preliminary first-arrival analysis of the frontal-arc line suggests velocities of c. 6.4 km/s at 5-10 km depth, and c. 7.3 km/s at 15-25 km depth. These preliminary estimates of "continental-type" velocities in the upper crust, and very high velocities in the lower crust, are directly analogous to results from a Japanese study across the Izu arc at 32 degrees north, despite changes in tectonic style along the arc. Possible scattered Moho reflections are seen at 25-30 km depth beneath the northern end of the

  9. 50 CFR 665.400 - Mariana bottomfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mariana bottomfish fisheries. 665.400 Section 665.400 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  10. 50 CFR 665.400 - Mariana bottomfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mariana bottomfish fisheries. 665.400 Section 665.400 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  11. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  12. 50 CFR 665.400 - Mariana bottomfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mariana bottomfish fisheries. 665.400 Section 665.400 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  13. 50 CFR 665.400 - Mariana bottomfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mariana bottomfish fisheries. 665.400 Section 665.400 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  14. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  15. 50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mariana crustacean fisheries. 665.440 Section 665.440 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  16. 50 CFR 665.400 - Mariana bottomfish fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana bottomfish fisheries. 665.400 Section 665.400 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  17. 50 CFR 665.460 - Mariana precious coral fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana precious coral fisheries. 665.460 Section 665.460 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  18. 50 CFR 665.460 - Mariana precious coral fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mariana precious coral fisheries. 665.460 Section 665.460 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  19. 50 CFR 665.460 - Mariana precious coral fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mariana precious coral fisheries. 665.460 Section 665.460 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC...

  20. Seismicity associated with back arc crustal spreading in the central Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussong, Donald M.; Sinton, John B.

    Numerous low-magnitude earthquakes were recorded in the central Mariana Trough by an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) array deployed during late 1978. Although shallow seismic activity strong enough to be detected on worldwide seismic stations was seldom observed in this back arc basin, on the basis of other geological and geophysical data the basin was thought to be actively spreading. On this assumption, we deployed our OBS array on seafloor structure that has the morphology of a ridge/transform fault/ridge intersection portion of a roughly east-west valley that we named the Pagan fracture zone. Six OBS's recorded an average of 15 local events per day with magnitudes (based on event durations) ranging from 1.5 to 4.0 and low b values of 0.42 or 0.61, depending on the magnitude-duration relationship used. More than 300 hypocenters were determined. An earthquake swarm was located at 17°14'N latitude, 144°55'E longitude, at the base of a bathymetric high at the intersection of the northern spreading center and the transform valley. Hypocenters are concentrated in a zone roughly 15 km wide and 7.5 km deep that trends N30°E between the offset spreading centers, but which does not follow the Pagan fracture zone strike. Hypocenters in the transform zone are deeper than those in or near the crustal spreading areas. The low b values, maximum event magnitude of less than 4.5, and complex bathymetry and hypocenter trends all suggest that spreading in this back arc basin is unstable and is subject to frequent geometric reorientation. The Mariana volcanic arc is a small plate that is tectonically isolated by subduction on its east side and by subduction of the Philippine plate on its west side, producing a highly stressed region under tension even though it lies between major converging plates.

  1. 75 FR 57049 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Application for Replacement of Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-777, Application for Replacement of Northern Mariana Card ACTION: Correction to 30-day notice of Information Collection Under Review: Form...

  2. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia. PMID:26624084

  3. 12 CFR 191.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purchase of an annuity through an insurance company, or in any other manner. The loan may be due either on... Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, and...

  4. 12 CFR 591.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purchase of an annuity through an insurance company, or in any other manner. The loan may be due either on... Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, and...

  5. Two isotopically distinct fluid components involved in the Mariana arc: Evidence from Nb/B ratios and B, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tera, Fouad

    1999-01-01

    Nb/B ratios and δ11B values of Mariana lavas reveal the involvement of two isotopically distinct slab-derived fluids in the magma genesis. The evidence of one type of fluid is observed in lavas of the islands of Anatahan, Alamagan, Agrigan, and Uracas, in which simple mixing between fluid with very homogeneous δ11B values (+5.40‰ ± 0.05‰) and the mantle wedge controls the magma compositions. In lavas of the islands of Guguan, Asuncion, and Pagan, however, the fluids that mixed with the mantle wedge are significantly heterogeneous in δ11B (+5.4‰ to +7.6‰) even within a single island. The compositional difference between these two types of fluid can result from different ratios of sediment to altered oceanic crust (AOC) in the slabs, and this hypothesis is consistent with the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope data. We propose that the variable isotope compositions of the latter fluid may be derived from local changes in sediment/AOC ratios of the slab that are caused by subduction of the Magellan seamounts beneath the Mariana arc.

  6. An assessment of urban heat island effect adopting urban parameterizations in COSMO-CLM simulations over big cities in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesarchio, Myriam; Rianna, Guido; Mercogliano, Paola; Castellari, Sergio; Schiano, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, about 80% of people live in urban areas, which most of them can be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts (e.g. high air temperatures along with heat waves, flooding due to intense precipitation events, water scarcity and droughts). In fact, the density of people and assets within relatively small geographic areas, such as an urban settlements, mean more risk exposure than in rural areas. Therefore, reliable numerical climate models are needed for elaborating climate risk assessment at urban scale. These models must take into account the effects of the complex three-dimensional structure of urban settlements, combined with the mixture of surface types with contrasting radiative, thermal and moisture characteristics. In this respect, previous studies (e.g. Trusilova et al., 2013) have already assessed the importance to consider urban properties in very high resolution regional climate modeling to better reproduce the features of urban climate, especially in terms of urban heat island effect. In this work, two different configurations of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at the horizontal resolution of 0.02° (about 2.2km), one including urban parameterization scheme and another without including them, have been applied in order to perform two different climate simulations covering the entire northern Italy. In particular, the present study is focused on large urban settlements such as Milan and Turin. Due to high computational cost required to run very high resolution simulations, the results of the two simulations have been compared over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1989. Preliminary results indicate that the modification of climate conditions, due to the presence of urban areas, is present mainly in the areas covered by big cities and surrounding them, or rather the presence of urban areas induces modification mainly in their local climate. Other evidences are that the simulation including urban parameterization scheme shows, in general

  7. Roaming behaviour and home range estimation of domestic dogs in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia using four different methods.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2014-11-15

    Disease transmission parameters are the core of epidemic models, but are difficult to estimate, especially in the absence of outbreak data. Investigation of the roaming behaviour, home range (HR) and utilization distribution (UD) can provide the foundation for such parameter estimation in free-ranging animals. The objectives of this study were to estimate HR and UD of 69 domestic dogs in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia and to compare four different methods (the minimum convex polygon, MCP; the location-based kernel density estimation, LKDE; the biased random bridge, BRB; and Time Local Convex Hull, T-LoCoH) for investigation of UD and estimating HR sizes. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to community dogs for a period of 1-3 days and positions (fixes) were recorded every minute. Median core HRs (50% isopleth) of the 69 dogs were estimated to range from 0.2 to 0.4 ha and the more extended HR (95% isopleth) to range from 2.5 to 5.3 ha, depending on the method used. The HR and UD shapes were found to be generally circular around the dog owner's house. However, some individuals were found to roam much more with a HR size of 40-104 ha and cover large areas of their community or occasionally beyond. These far roaming dogs are of particular interest for infectious disease transmission. Occasionally, dogs were taken between communities and out of communities for hunting, which enables the contact of dogs between communities and with wildlife (such as dingoes). The BRB and T-LoCoH are the only two methods applied here which integrate the consecutiveness of GPS locations into the analysis, a substantial advantage. The recently developed BRB method produced significantly larger HR estimates than the other two methods; however, the variability of HR sizes was lower compared to the other methods. Advantages of the BRB method include a more realistic analytical approach (kernel density estimation based on movements

  8. Pickling Peridotites in the IBM Mantle Wedge: Inferences from the Guguan Cross-Chain, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Bloomer, S. H.; Leybourne, M.; Miller, N. R.; Hargrove, U. S.; Griffin, W. R.; Fouch, M.; Kohut, E.; Vervoort, J.; Prytulak, J.

    2003-12-01

    Variations in lava compositions observed in arc `cross-chains' reveal chemical and isotopic gradients resulting from 'pickling' of convecting asthenosphere by fluids and melts from the descending slab. This can be studied using lavas from arc cross-chains. We report geochemical and isotopic data for basalts and basaltic andesites from the Guguan cross-chain at 17° 15'N in the Mariana Arc, comprising the active volcanic island Guguan (and submarine cone N. Guguan) along the magmatic front (~125 km above the subducted slab) and two seamounts to the west, W. Guguan (~150km) and Guguan II (~230 km). Guguan lavas represent the `fluid-dominated' endmember of Mariana arc lavas, and comprise fractionated basalts, basaltic andesites, and subordinate andesites (Mg# = 35-51, Ni<30ppm). Lavas from N. Guguan seamount consists of less fractionated basalts (Mg# = 52, ~50ppm Ni). Basalts from W. Guguan (Mg# = 61, 60-80 ppm Ni) and Guguan II (Mg#= 63-75, 100-400 ppm Ni) are much less fractionated. Guguan, N. Guguan, and W. Guguan lavas straddle the Low- to Medium-K boundary on a K2O-SiO2 plot, whereas Guguan II lavas are slightly more enriched and plot in the Medium-K field. Strong enrichments in K and other LIL elements observed for the Kasuga cross-chain farther north in the Mariana arc are absent. Olivine Fo decreases and plagioclase An increases towards the magmatic front. These relations suggest that water contents increase towards the magmatic front in the Guguan cross-chain. Spider diagrams for Guguan cross-chain lavas show the characteristic elemental enrichments of arc lavas, most notably LIL elements (Rb, Ba, Th, U, K, Pb, and Sr); similar but muted enrichments are found in basalts formed by seafloor spreading in the Mariana Trough (MTSB). Trace element variations observed across the Guguan cross-chain indicate that the fluid-dominated `Subduction Component' diminishes away from the magmatic front and is replaced by a component that manifests either sediment melt or the

  9. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and magmatic processes in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of the Monte Capanne pluton (Elba Island, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, M.; Pandeli, E.; Principi, G.

    2003-04-01

    -crystallized and the original structure is oblitered. D_3M_4: is linked to the intrusion of the Monte Capanne pluton (6.9 Ma). Because of the flattening of the country rocks a penetrative foliation, sub-parallel to the surface of the plutonic body, developed during its intrusion and the uplift. Fluidal structures and discharge folding also developed. This structures affected both the country rocks and the laccoliths intruded in. At the meso-scale are also evident fractures, filled by calcite, cutting the garnet/wollastonite aggregate and later flattened and-or partially transposed. Late felsic products associated with the Monte Capanne pluton partly are deformed by the flattening and partly cut the flattening structures. The contact between the pluton and the country rocks itself is locally deformed by flattening structures. At the microscope the growth of HT/LP minerals, mimetic on the previous associations, or syn-kinematic or static, is evident. M_5: finally, during the last intrusive event (Orano porphyries, 6.8 Ma) a static thermo-metamorphic blastesis locally occurs post-dating the structures previously described. Only gentle folding, veins and fractures formation, and faulting processes followed the tectono-metamorphic and thermo-metamorphic deformation events. Conclusions The Punta Nera Unit represents another important element to understand the relationships between Alps and Apennines. In fact, the evidences of a pre-granitoid polyphased tectono-metamorphic framework in this metamorphic oceanic unit allow to correlate it to the Schistes Lustrés of the Alpine Corsica (e.g. Inzecca Massif, Duran Delga, 1984) and of the Northern Tyrrhenian area (e.g. the outcrops of oceanic metamorphic units in the Gorgona Island, Giglio Island and eastern Elba Island: Bortolotti et al., 2001; Pandeli et alii, 2001; Rossetti et al., 2001; Orti et al., 2002). References Barberi et al. (1969). F.126. Isola d'Elba. Note Ill. Carta Geol. It., 1:100.000. Ser. Geol. d'It. Bortolotti V. et al

  10. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  12. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  13. Microbial Community in the Hydrothermal System at Southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Itahashi, S.; Kakegawa, T.; Utsumi, M.; Maruyama, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Marumo, K.; Urabe, T.; Yamagishi, A.

    2004-12-01

    There is unique ecosystem around deep-sea hydrothermal area. Living organisms are supported by chemical free energy provided by the hydrothermal water. The ecosystem is expected to be similar to those in early stage of life history on the earth, when photosynthetic organisms have not emerged. In this study, we have analyzed the microbial diversity in the hydrothermal area at southern Mariana trough. In the "Archaean Park Project" supported by special Coordination Fund, four holes were bored and cased by titanium pipes near hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana trough in 2004. Hydrothermal fluids were collected from these cased holes and natural vents in this area. Microbial cells were collected by filtering the hydrothermal fluid in situ or in the mother sip. Filters were stored at -80C and used for DNA extraction. Chimneys at this area was also collected and stored at -80C. The filters and chimney samples were crushed and DNA was extracted. DNA samples were used for amplification of 16S rDNA fragments by PCR using archaea specific primers and universal primers. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. These PCR clones of different samples will be compared. We will extend our knowledge about microbiological diversity at Southern Mariana trough to compare the results obtained at other area.

  14. 78 FR 23920 - Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Notice of Intent To Prepare the Commonwealth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Joint Military Training Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas...), is extending the public scoping comment period for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Please visit the project Web site or contact the CNMI Joint Military...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4215 - What requirements must I meet for engines used in Guam, American Samoa, or the Commonwealth of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Special Requirements § 60.4215 What requirements must I meet for engines used in Guam, American Samoa, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands? (a) Stationary... engines used in Guam, American Samoa, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands? 60.4215...

  16. 14 CFR 211.33 - Interstate and interstate authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... transportation between Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and Honolulu, Hawaii, and interstate air transportation within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. A request for all or... establishing: (1) The impact of such interstate air transportation services on the economic projections of...

  17. 14 CFR 211.33 - Interstate and interstate authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... transportation between Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and Honolulu, Hawaii, and interstate air transportation within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. A request for all or... establishing: (1) The impact of such interstate air transportation services on the economic projections of...

  18. 14 CFR 211.33 - Interstate and interstate authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... transportation between Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and Honolulu, Hawaii, and interstate air transportation within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. A request for all or... establishing: (1) The impact of such interstate air transportation services on the economic projections of...

  19. 14 CFR 211.33 - Interstate and interstate authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... transportation between Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and Honolulu, Hawaii, and interstate air transportation within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. A request for all or... establishing: (1) The impact of such interstate air transportation services on the economic projections of...

  20. 14 CFR 211.33 - Interstate and interstate authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... transportation between Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and Honolulu, Hawaii, and interstate air transportation within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. A request for all or... establishing: (1) The impact of such interstate air transportation services on the economic projections of...

  1. 77 FR 43416 - Application of Star Marianas Air, Inc. for Commuter Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Star Marianas Air, Inc. for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department... tentatively finding Star Marianas Air, Inc., fit, willing, and able to provide scheduled passenger service...

  2. Multiscale Terrain Analysis of Multibeam Bathymetry Data for Lake Trout Spawning Habitat Mapping in the Drummond Island Refuge, northern Lake Huron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattrus, N. J.; Binder, T.

    2012-12-01

    Until the 1950s, lake trout supported a valuable commercial fishery in the Great Lakes. The introduction of sea lamprey into the Great Lakes and overfishing resulted in the loss of most populations. Despite consistent stocking efforts since the 1960s, restoration of these populations has been slow. The reasons are numerous, but may be related to differences in the spawning behavior between hatchery and wild trout. A four-year study initiated in 2010, utilizes acoustic telemetry to characterize and compare the spawning behaviors of hatchery and wild lake trout in the Drummond Island Refuge in northern Lake Huron. In this project, the movement of tagged fish are monitored by an array of over 125 lake floor hydrophones during the fall spawning period. Fish behavior is overlaid over detailed bathymetric and substrate data and compared with environmental variables (e.g. water temperature, wind speed and direction, and wave height and direction) to develop a conceptual behavioral model. Sites suspected of being spawning sites based upon telemetry data are verified through the use of divers and trapping eggs and fry. Prior to this study, the factors that influenced how the spawning fish utilize the lake floor shoals have been poorly understood. Among the factors thought to impact spawning success were: bathymetry and substrate composition. Diver and telemetry data suggest that the fish(both hatchery raised and wild) are particularly attracted to rocky substrates and that fragment size is important. High resolution multibeam bathymetric surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 have been used to characterize the shape and composition of the lake floor in the study area. Classification of the substrate is a labor intensive process requiring divers, drop cameras and sediment sampling. To improve this, the traditional approach has been to use supervised and unsupervised classification techniques that are based upon measured acoustic backscatter from an echosounder or sidescan sonar

  3. Estimated water use and availability in the lower Blackstone River basin, northern Rhode Island and south-central Massachusetts, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barolw, Lora K.

    2003-01-01

    The Blackstone River basin includes approximately 475 square miles in northern Rhode Island and south-central Massachusetts. The study area (198 square miles) comprises six subbasins of the lower Blackstone River basin. The estimated population for the study period 1995?99 was 149,651 persons. Water-use data including withdrawals, use, and return flows for the study area were collected. Withdrawals averaged 29.869 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) with an estimated 12.327 Mgal/d exported and an estimated 2.852 Mgal/d imported; this resulted in a net export of 9.475 Mgal/d. Public-supply withdrawals were 22.694 Mgal/d and self-supply withdrawals were 7.170 Mgal/d, which is about 24 percent of total withdrawals. Two users withdrew 4.418 Mgal/d of the 7.170 Mgal/d of self-supply withdrawals. Total water use averaged 20.388 Mgal/d. The largest aggregate water use was for domestic supply (10.113 Mgal/d, 50 percent of total water use), followed by industrial water use (4.127 Mgal/d, 20 percent), commercial water use (4.026 Mgal/d, 20 percent), non-account water use (1.866 Mgal/d, 9 percent) and agricultural water use (0.252 Mgal/d, 1 percent). Wastewater disposal averaged 15.219 Mgal/d with 10.395 Mgal/d or 68 percent disposed at National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfalls for municipal wastewater-treatment facilities. The remaining 4.824 Mgal/d or 32 percent was self-disposed, 1.164 Mgal/d of which was disposed through commercial and industrial NPDES outfalls. Water availability (base flow plus safe-yield estimates minus streamflow criteria) was estimated for the low-flow period, which included June, July, August, and September. The median base flow for the low-flow period from 1957 to 1999 was estimated at 0.62 Mgal/d per square mile for sand and gravel deposits and 0.19 Mgal/d per square mile for till deposits. Safe-yield estimates for public-supply reservoirs totaled 20.2 Mgal/d. When the 7-day, 10-year low flow (7Q10) was subtracted from base

  4. Characterizing Spatial Patterns of Cloud Cover and Fog Inundation in the Northern Channel Islands Using Satellite Datasets and Comparison to Ground Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, B.; Still, C. J.; Fischer, D. T.; Iacobellis, S. F.; Toomey, M. P.; Greer, B.; Baguskas, S. A.; Williams, P.; McEachern, K.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal forests in Mediterranean climates are frequently covered by clouds or immersed in fog. Previous studies suggest that clouds strongly modulate forest distributions as well as carbon budgets in these semi-arid environments. Both low level stratocumulus cloud cover and fog can enhance the water status of vegetation along the Californian coast and the Channel Islands by reducing solar insolation, raising relative humidity and supplying water directly to the landscape during otherwise warm and rainless summers. While summertime fog and stratus cover in California's Channel Islands can ameliorate summer drought stress and enhance soil water budgets, they have different spatial patterns. These differing spatial patterns and the resulting shifts in relative ecological importance of fog and stratus are largely unknown. The overall objective of this project was to map spatial distributions of daytime cloud cover frequency for the California Channel Islands, and to predict probabilities of surface cloud (fog) contact and immersion for these islands. Daytime cloud cover maps were generated for the Channel Islands using data from GOES satellite imagery. Cloud frequency maps were compared and found to be in agreement with solar insolation data collected at several sites on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa islands for the summer of 2005. These cloud frequency maps were then combined with airport cloud height data and topographic data to map estimated weekly and monthly fog inundation. The fog inundation maps were then compared to fog drip data collected at several sites on the two islands. Correlation between fog inundation and fog drip accumulation enabled spatial and temporal extrapolation to understand seasonal and inter-annual variations in cloud cover frequency and fog inundation and drip. Future studies will use these cloud and fog distributions for water balance modeling and studies of plant geography and forest distributions.

  5. A bill to convey certain submerged lands to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in order to give that territory the same benefits in its submerged lands as Guam, the Virgin Islands, and American Samoa have in their submerged lands.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2011-03-15

    05/18/2011 Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Public Lands and Forests. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 112-39. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Activity of Deep Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Ohki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Sugioka, H.; Suyehiro, K.

    2003-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) has been started since June 2003 for about one year. It is a part of the MARGINS program (US-JAPAN COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: MULTI-SCALE SEISMIC IMAGING OF THE MARIANA SUBDUCTION FACTORY), and the aim of this observation is the crustal and mantle structure modeling by using passive and active seismic sources. The 50 and 8 LTOBSs are owned by LDEO and ERI, respectively, and they were deployed during the cruise of R/V Kaiyo (Jamstec), KY03-06. Prior to this experiment, we made a pilot long-term seismic array observation in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs, deployed in Oct. 2001 by R/V Yokosuka (Jamstec) and recovered in Feb. 2003 by R/V Kaiyo. This LTOBS has been developed by ERI, which has the PMD sensor (WB2023LP) and a titanium sphere housing (D=50cm) and was already used in several long-term observations (ex. trans-PHS array observation presented at the AGU fall meeting, 2000, S51B-02). Two of 10 LTOBSs could not be recovered due to malfunction of the releasing system, and one recovered had a trouble in the sensor control unit. But, seven others have obtained more than 11 months long data continuously. As passive source studies of these observations use characteristic deep earthquakes in this area, the activity of them will be introduced in this presentation, from the data obtained just above them. At the first step, difference of hypocenters of known events, listed on the PDE catalog, is examined. There are 59 events of epicenters within a circular area centered at 19° N, 145° E with radius of 1000km from the catalog during the observation. P and S arrivals are picked by using the WIN system, and the iasp91 model (only {VP} with {{VP}/{V_S}=1.732}) is used for the hypocenter determination. Station corrections are applied only for the sediment layer, estimated from several arrival time data of P and P-S converted

  7. Observations of Flatfish "Spas" From Three Hydrothermally Active Seamounts in the Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dower, J.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Tyler, J.; Juniper, K.; Stevens, C.; Kouris, A.; Takano, B.

    2006-12-01

    During a cruise to the Mariana Islands in spring 2004, dense aggregations of small flatfish were recorded from areas of diffuse flow on two hydrothermally active seamounts known as Kasuga-2 and Daikoku. This is quite novel, as flatfish are not known to be part of vent faunas elsewhere. Based on a single specimen, it was determined to be a new species of tonguefish in the genus Symphurus, and is currently under description. In October 2005, we returned to the Mariana Arc and collected about 60 specimens from Kasuga-2, Daikoku, and a third site, Nikko Seamount. Interestingly, the Nikko specimens were about twice as large as the flatfish from Kasuga-2 and Daikoku. Current molecular work (using the Barcode of Life Data System) will determine the relationship among these populations, and verify whether they are the same species. Under the microscope, the sandy sediments from the flatfish habitat were found to be full of tiny nematodes and polychaete worms. Our current hypothesis is that the fish are feeding on both and, thus, are ultimately supported by chemosynthesis, since the worms likely feed on bacteria in the sediments. However, during our most recent cruise in May 2006, we also observed several instances in which dead (or nearly dead) mid-water fish and shrimp fell out of the water column onto the bottom, after which they were almost immediately fed upon by the flatfish. This suggests that there may also be an additional energy subsidy to the seamount benthos from the water column. We hypothesize that sulfite (or some other toxic chemical) in the plume overlying these active volcanoes either kills or anesthetizes small pelagics that get advected over the seamount summit while feeding in near-surface waters at night. Stable isotope and lipid analysis of samples from these "fish spas" are currently underway to establish trophic relationships. We hope to use otolith microstructure analyses to quantify individual growth trajectories and population age structure of

  8. Primitive Submarine Basalts and Magmatic Variation of Pagan and Daon, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Y.; Ishizuka, O.; Stern, R. J.; Nunokawa, A.; Shukuno, H.; Kawabata, H.; Embley, R. W.; Bloomer, S. H.; Nichols, A. R.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Pagan is an active volcano located in the central island province of the Mariana arc (18°07'N) and is one of the largest volcanoes in the Mariana arc; its main edifice rises from a base ~3,000 m below sea level (b.s.l.) and has a volume of 2,160 km3 (Bloomer et al., 1989). Daon is a small reararc seamount 25 km SW of Pagan (17°58'N). We visited the submarine portions of the two volcanoes in 2010 (NT10-12), using ROV Hyper-Dolphin and RV Natsushima. Rocks were collected from the northeastern and southwestern flanks of the Pagan volcano at 1,500-2,000 m b.s.l. (dive HPD1147) and at 2,020-2,330 m b.s.l. (HPD1148), respectively, and from the southern flank of Daon at 2,360-2,580 m b.s.l. (HPD1149). Fresh pillow lavas dominate in all three dives, but the rocks recovered from HPD1147 seem to be the youngest based on very light sediment cover and no Mn coating. Sediment cover is considerably more extensive at HPD1148, and all rocks from Daon (HPD1149) had 0-10 mm thick Mn coating. Submarine Pagan lavas show major element compositions typical of subaerial Pagan basalts (Marske et al., 2011; Elliott et al., 1997; Woodhead, 1989), although the least fractionated compositions recovered from HPD1147 extend to much higher MgO (7-11 wt %) and Mg# (60-70), than the subaerial lavas. We recognize two types of primitive basalts from Pagan and Daon. Daon has plagioclase-olivine basalt (POB) and clinopyroxene-olivine basalt (COB), petrographic types that are similar to those reported from NW Rota-1 volcano (Tamura et al., 2011). Pagan has two types of COB, both having 10-11 wt % MgO; COB-1 has higher Ba/Zr and Sr/Zr and lower Zr/Y than COB-2 at the same MgO content, indicating that COB-1 has a greater subduction component and formed from higher degrees of mantle melting than COB-2. Similar distinct primitive magmas like those recognized from NW Rota-1 also coexist at Pagan and Daon.

  9. Rock magnetic and petrographical-mineralogical studies of the dredged rocks from the submarine volcanoes of the Sea-of-Okhotsk slope within the northern part of the Kuril Island Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidov, V. A.; Pilipenko, O. V.; Petrova, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The rock magnetic properties of the samples of dredged rocks composing the submarine volcanic edifices within the Sea-of-Okhotsk slope of the northern part of the Kuril Island Arc are studied. The measurements of the standard rock magnetic parameters, thermomagnetic analysis, petrographical studies, and microprobe investigations have been carried out. The magnetization of the studied rocks is mainly carried by the pseudo-single domain and multidomain titanomagnetite and low-Ti titanomagnetite grains. The high values of the natural remanent magnetization are due to the pseudo-single-domain structure of the titanomagnetite grains, whereas the high values of magnetic susceptibility are associated with the high concentration of ferrimagnetic grains. The highest Curie points are observed in the titanomagnetite grains of the igneous rocks composing the edifices of the Smirnov, Edelshtein, and 1.4 submarine volcanoes.

  10. Variations in normal faulting and plate deformation along the Mariana trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Lin, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate variations in normal faulting along the Mariana trench through analyzing deformation of the subducting Pacific plate and geodynamic modeling. Detailed investigation was focused on three areas where high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data are available: the Southern (S) region at 140.8-144°E; the Central (C) region at 14.7-16.8°N; and the Northern (N) region at 18-21.2°N. In each of the study regions, we analyzed seafloor normal faults and calculated the statistics of fault parameters including strike, throw, density, and location relative to the trench axis. Our analysis revealed several key constraints: (1) Most of the normal faults are sub-parallel to the local strike of the trench axis, indicating that the normal faults were initiated by bending stresses in the subducting plate and not by pre-existing seafloor abyssal tectonic fabrics. (2) The normal faults were likely initiated within the outer rise region and reached maximum throw toward the trench. (3) The S-region has the largest trench relief (average of ~6 km) as well as the largest fault throw (maximum throw reached ~320 m when averaged over 5 km of trench-perpendicular profiles). In contrast, the N-region has much smaller trench relief (~2 km) and smaller fault throw (maximum fault throw reached only ~180 m). We then modeled the subducting plate as an elasto-plastic slab subjected to tectonic forcing at the trench axis, including vertical load (V0), bending moment (M0), and horizontal tensional force (F0). Using the above observations as constraints, modeling revealed the following key results: (1) The best-fitting solutions for the S-region are V0 = 5.8 x 1012 N/m, M0 = 9.6 x 1016 N, and F0 = 3.6 x 1012 N/m, yielding the horizontal extensional force to vertical loading ratio F0/V0 = 62%. (2) The best-fitting V0 for the N- and C-regions are about 33% and 41% that of the S-region. Meanwhile, the best-fitting M0 for the N- and C-regions are about 80% and 60% that of the S-region. (3

  11. Submarine Arc Volcanism in the Southern Mariana Arc: Results of Recent ROV studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, A. R.; Tamura, Y.; Stern, R. J.; Embley, R. W.; Hein, J. R.; Jordan, E.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Sica, N.; Kohut, E. J.; Whattam, S. A.; Hirahara, Y.; Senda, R.; Nunokawa, A.

    2009-12-01

    The submarine Diamante cross-arc volcanoes (~16°N) and the Sarigan-Zealandia Bank Multi-Volcano Complex (SZBMVC; ~16°45’N), north and south, respectively, of Anatahan Island in the southern Mariana Arc, were studied during several dives in June 2009 using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin, cruise NT09-08 (R/V Natsushima); neither has been studied in detail before. The data collected provide a new perspective on how the subduction factory operates to complement previous studies on other cross-arc volcanic chains in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. The Diamante complex consists of three major edifices, two cones (West and Central Diamante) and a more complex caldera-like edifice at the volcanic front (East Diamante). West and Central Diamante are basaltic volcanoes but East Diamante has a more complex history. Our studies indicate initial construction of a basaltic volcano. Magmatic evolution led to a violent caldera-forming and quieter dome-building events. Post-caldera quiescence allowed a carbonate platform to grow, now preserved on the eastern caldera wall. Felsic magma or hot rock provides a heat source for an active hydrothermal field associated with felsic domes in the caldera, which NOAA investigators discovered in 2004. A new type of hydrothermal deposit was discovered in the hydrothermal field, consisting of large sulfide-sulfate mounds topped by bulbous constructions of low-temperature Fe and Mn oxides. Vents on the mounds were observed to emit shimmering water. The SZBMVC consists of six closely spaced edifices whose loci are aligned along two parallel trends, one along the volcanic front (Zealandia Bank, Sarigan and South Sarigan), and one about 15 km west towards the rear-arc (Northwest Zealandia, West Zealandia and West Sarigan). Zealandia Bank dives revealed that, as with East Diamante, initial activity was basaltic and became more evolved with time. The western half of Zealandia Bank is dominated by felsic lavas centered on a small (~2 km diameter) caldera and

  12. [Aquatic heteroptera from Mariana County, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Marco A A; de Melo, Alan L; Vianna, Gustavo J C

    2006-01-01

    In surveys carried out in lotic and lentic environments in Mariana County, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, 35 genera and 64 species of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera were recorded, distributed in 13 families. Thirty four species were collected in lentic environments, while in lotic environments 48 species were collected, some of them common to both environments. Nepomorpha presented the greatest number of species (45), markedly for the family Naucoridae, represented by 12 species. Among the 19 Gerromorpha species collected, eight were Veliidae and six were Gerridae. PMID:17273712

  13. Emplacement and Growth of Serpentinite Seamounts on the Mariana Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, A. J.; Taylor, B.; Moore, G. F.; Fryer, P.; Morgan, J. K.; Goodliffe, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    Seamounts comprised primarily of serpentinite muds are found on the outer forearc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system. They represent some of the first material outputs of the recycling process that takes place in subduction zones. Therefore, understanding their evolution is necessary to correctly quantify the flux of material through the subduction system. Serpentinite seamounts have been described as mud diapirs, mud volcanoes, uplifted blocks of mantle material, and a composite of the latter two. Multi-channel seismic (MCS) data collected in 2002 from the outer Mariana forearc imaged, for the first time, the large-scale internal structure of these seamounts. These data, combined with new bathymetry, have provided insight into how the seamounts grow and deform with time and have allowed us to evaluate proposed models for their formation. The serpentinite seamounts rest on faulted and sedimented Mariana forearc basement. Flank flows of serpentinite muds downlap existing forearc substrate, leaving the underlying stratigraphy largely undisturbed. Reflections located 3.5-5 km beneath forearc basement may represent Moho, suggesting that the seamounts are built on anomalously thin forearc crust. A strong reflection at the summit of Big Blue, the largest serpentinite seamount in the Mariana Forearc, represents a collapse structure that has been partially in-filled by younger muds, supporting the idea that serpentinite seamount growth is episodic. Basal thrusts that incorporate forearc sediments at the toe of Turquoise Seamount provide evidence for seamount settling and lateral growth. We are conducting numerical simulations of seamount growth and evolution using the discrete element method (DEM), previously used to examine gravity spreading phenomena in magmatic volcanoes. Simulations employing distinctly low basal and internal friction coefficients provide a good match to the overall morphology of the serpentinite seamounts, and offer insight into their internal

  14. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  15. Geologic control on the evolution of the inner shelf morphology offshore of the Mississippi barrier islands, northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, high-resolution geophysical surveys were conducted around the Mississippi barrier islands and offshore. The sonar surveys included swath and single-beam bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom data collection. The geophysical data were groundtruthed using vibracore sediment collection. The results provide insight into the evolution of the inner shelf and the relationship between the near surface geologic framework and the morphology of the coastal zone. This study focuses on the buried Pleistocene fluvial deposits and late Holocene shore-oblique sand ridges offshore of Petit Bois Island and Petit Bois Pass. Prior to this study, the physical characteristics, evolution, and interrelationship of the ridges between both the shelf geology and the adjacent barrier island platform had not been evaluated. Numerous studies elsewhere along the coastal margin attribute shoal origin and sand-ridge evolution to hydrodynamic processes in shallow water (<20 m). Here we characterize the correlation between the geologic framework and surface morphology and demonstrate that the underlying stratigraphy must also be considered when developing an evolutionary conceptual model. It is important to understand this near surface, nearshore dynamic in order to understand how the stratigraphy influences the long-term response of the coastal zone to sea-level rise. The study also contributes to a growing body of work characterizing shore-oblique sand ridges which, along with the related geology, are recognized as increasingly important components to a nearshore framework whose origins and evolution must be understood and inventoried to effectively manage the coastal zone.

  16. Geologic control on the evolution of the inner shelf morphology offshore of the Mississippi barrier islands, northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack L.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2015-06-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, high-resolution geophysical surveys were conducted around the Mississippi barrier islands and offshore. The sonar surveys included swath and single-beam bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom data collection. The geophysical data were groundtruthed using vibracore sediment collection. The results provide insight into the evolution of the inner shelf and the relationship between the near surface geologic framework and the morphology of the coastal zone. This study focuses on the buried Pleistocene fluvial deposits and late Holocene shore-oblique sand ridges offshore of Petit Bois Island and Petit Bois Pass. Prior to this study, the physical characteristics, evolution, and interrelationship of the ridges between both the shelf geology and the adjacent barrier island platform had not been evaluated. Numerous studies elsewhere along the coastal margin attribute shoal origin and sand-ridge evolution to hydrodynamic processes in shallow water (<20 m). Here we characterize the correlation between the geologic framework and surface morphology and demonstrate that the underlying stratigraphy must also be considered when developing an evolutionary conceptual model. It is important to understand this near surface, nearshore dynamic in order to understand how the stratigraphy influences the long-term response of the coastal zone to sea-level rise. The study also contributes to a growing body of work characterizing shore-oblique sand ridges which, along with the related geology, are recognized as increasingly important components to a nearshore framework whose origins and evolution must be understood and inventoried to effectively manage the coastal zone.

  17. P and S velocity tomography of the Mariana subduction system from a combined land-sea seismic deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklage, Mitchell; Wiens, Douglas A.; Conder, James A.; Pozgay, Sara; Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko

    2015-03-01

    Seismic imaging provides an opportunity to constrain mantle wedge processes associated with subduction, volatile transport, arc volcanism, and back-arc spreading. We investigate the seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle across the Central Mariana subduction system using data from the 2003-2004 Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment, an 11 month deployment consisting of 20 broadband seismic stations installed on islands and 58 semibroadband ocean bottom seismographs. We determine the three-dimensional VP and VP/VS structure using over 25,000 local and over 2000 teleseismic arrival times. The mantle wedge is characterized by slow velocity and high VP/VS beneath the fore arc, an inclined zone of slow velocity underlying the volcanic front, and a strong region of slow velocity beneath the back-arc spreading center. The slow velocities are strongest at depths of 20-30 km in the fore arc, 60-70 km beneath the volcanic arc, and 20-30 km beneath the spreading center. The fore-arc slow velocity anomalies occur beneath Big Blue seamount and are interpreted as resulting from mantle serpentinization. The depths of the maximum velocity anomalies beneath the arc and back arc are nearly identical to previous estimates of the final equilibrium depths of mantle melts from thermobarometry, strongly indicating that the low-velocity zones delineate regions of melt production in the mantle. The arc and back-arc melt production regions are well separated at shallow depths, but may be connected at depths greater than 80 km.

  18. 50 CFR 86.12 - Definitions of terms used in part 86.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... specific plan or design. Proposal means a description of one or more projects for which a State requests..., American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Survey...

  19. 47 CFR 101.523 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Northern Mariana Islands; (2) Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; (3) American Samoa, and (4) the Gulf... also available on the FCC Web site at www.fcc.gov/oet/info/maps/areas/. (b) Where an incumbent...

  20. 47 CFR 101.523 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Northern Mariana Islands; (2) Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; (3) American Samoa, and (4) the Gulf... also available on the FCC Web site at www.fcc.gov/oet/info/maps/areas/. (b) Where an incumbent...

  1. 47 CFR 101.523 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Northern Mariana Islands; (2) Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; (3) American Samoa, and (4) the Gulf... also available on the FCC Web site at www.fcc.gov/oet/info/maps/areas/. (b) Where an incumbent...

  2. 47 CFR 101.523 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Northern Mariana Islands; (2) Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; (3) American Samoa, and (4) the Gulf... also available on the FCC Web site at www.fcc.gov/oet/info/maps/areas/. (b) Where an incumbent...

  3. 47 CFR 101.523 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Northern Mariana Islands; (2) Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; (3) American Samoa, and (4) the Gulf... also available on the FCC Web site at www.fcc.gov/oet/info/maps/areas/. (b) Where an incumbent...

  4. 42 CFR 51d.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Trust..., including any Native village as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims...

  5. 33 CFR 169.5 - How are terms used in this part defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands... means a report containing the following information: (1) The identity of the ship; (2) The position...

  6. 33 CFR 169.5 - How are terms used in this part defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands... means a report containing the following information: (1) The identity of the ship; (2) The position...

  7. 33 CFR 169.5 - How are terms used in this part defined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands... means a report containing the following information: (1) The identity of the ship; (2) The position...

  8. Fires in Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several fires were detected in Northern Australia by MODIS. The fires show up as red dots, superimposed on a surface reflectance product. The image also shows the Clarence Strait, which separates the mainland from Melville Island to the northwest and the smaller Bathurst Island to its west. The Strait connects the more confined, bowl-shaped Van Diemen Gulf to the Beagle Gulf. To the right of the image at the top is the Gulf of Carpentaria, which appears to be full of phytoplankton, as evidenced by the blue-green swirls in the waters

  9. The Southern Mariana Forearc: An Active Subduction Initiation (SI) Analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Bloomer, S. H.; Brounce, M. N.; Ishii, T.; Ishizuka, O.; Kelley, K. A.; Martinez, F.; Ohara, Y.; Pujana, I.; Reagan, M. K.; Ribeiro, J.

    2014-12-01

    It is important to understand how new subduction zones form. Some subduction zones begin spontaneously, with sinking of dense oceanic lithosphere adjacent to a lithospheric weakness. The Eocene evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana convergent margin is the type example of this process, with an increasingly well-documented evolution including results from IODP 352 drilling. A lack of any active examples of spontaneous SI hinders our understanding, but our studies of the evolution of the southernmost Mariana convergent margin provides important insights. Here the Mariana Trough backarc basin terminates against the Challenger Deep trench segment, where it has opened ~250 km in the past ~4 Ma. This corresponds to GPS opening rate of ~4.5cm/y at the latitude of Guam (Kato et al., 2003). This newly formed and rapidy widening margin faces the NW-converging Pacific plate and causes it to contort and tear. Pacific plate continues to move NW but the upper plate response is illustrative of a newly formed subduction zone. Slab-related earthquakes can be identified to ~200 km deep beneath this margin; with convergence rate of 3cm/yr, this may reflect no more than 7 Ma of subduction. The usual well-defined magmatic arc is missing; its position ~100 km above the subducted slab is occupied by the magma-rich (inflated) Malaguana-Gadao Ridge (MGR), and hydrous MORB-like basalts with ~2 wt. % H2O have erupted unusually close to the trench where they overly mantle peridotites ~6 km water depth. HMR-1 sonar backscatter mapping reveals a chaotic fabric that is at a high angle to the trend of the MGR to the east but is concordant to the west. This unusual spreading fabric may have formed by chaotic upper plate extension in response to rapid rollback of the short, narrow Pacific slab in a manner similar to that thought to occur during SI. Further interdisciplinary studies are needed to understand this rapidly-evolving tectono-magmatic province and what it can teach us about SI.

  10. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Results of the DD inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Oki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Suyehiro, K.

    2004-12-01

    In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) had been performed from June 2003 until April 2004, which is a part of the MARGINS program funded by the NSF. Prior to this observation, a pilot long-term seismic array observation was conducted in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs from Oct. 2001 until Feb. 2003. By using seven LTOBS's data, those are about 11 months long, hypocenter determination was performed at first and more than 3000 local events were found, although the PDE list contains only 59. A 1D velocity structure based on the iasp91 model was used, and a systematic shift of epicenters between the PDE list and this study was seen. To investigate the detail of hypocenter distribution and the 3D velocity structure, the DD inversion (tomoDD: Zhang and Thurber, 2003) was applied for this data set with a 1D structure initial model except for the crust, which has been surveyed by using a dense airgun-OBS system (Takahashi et al., 2003). The result of relocated hypocenters shows double seismic zones until about 200km depth and a lined focuses along the current ridge axis in the back-arc basin, and the result of the tomographic inversion shows a image of subducting slab and a low-Vs region below the Pagan island erupted in 1981 at 80km depth. The mantle structure beneath the back-arc basin was not clearly resolved due to the inadequate source-receiver coverage, which is cleared in the recent experiment.

  11. Re-establishment of the IMS Hydroacoustic Station HA03, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Stanley, Jerry; Zampolli, Mario; Pautet, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Water column hydrophone stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) comprise typically two triplets of moored hydrophones deployed on both sides of an island. Triplet distances vary approximately between 50 - 200 km from the island, with each triplet connected to the receiving shore equipment by fibre-optic submarine data cables. Once deployed, the systems relay underwater acoustic waveforms in the band 1 - 100 Hz in real time to Vienna via a shore based satellite link. The design life of hydroacoustic (HA) stations is at least 20 years, without need for any maintenance of the underwater system (UWS). The re-establishment of hydrophone station HA03 at Robinson Crusoe Island (670 km West of the Chilean mainland) is presented here. The station was destroyed in February 2010 by a Tsunami induced by an 8.8 magnitude earthquake. After a major engineering and logistical undertaking HA03 is now back in operation since April 2014. The main phases of the project are presented: (i) the installation of a shore facility for the reception of the hydrophone data from the UWS, which also relays the data back to the CTBTO International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna via a real-time satellite connection, (ii) the manufacturing and testing of the system to meet the stringent requirements of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, and (iii) the installation of the UWS with a state-of-the-art cable ship. Examples of data acquired by HA03 are also presented. These include hydroacoustic signals from the 1 April 2014 magnitude 8.2 earthquake in Northern Chile, bursting underwater bubbles from a submarine volcano near the Mariana Islands (15,000 Km away from the station), and vocalizations from the numerous marine mammals which transit in the vicinity of HA03. The use of CTBTO data for scientific purposes is possible via the virtual Data Exploitation Centre (vDEC), which is a platform that enables registered researchers to access

  12. 40 CFR 69.31 - New exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands § 69.31 New... Clean Air Act and a petition submitted by the Governor of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana... comply with all other applicable requirements of the Clean Air Act. For purposes of complying with...

  13. The Monograph of CNMI Educational Leadership Research: Implications for Capacity Building To Address Issues of Disability in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego State Univ., CA. Interwork Inst.

    This monograph is a compilation of abstracts of the research conducted by students who participated in a collaborative Educational Leadership master's degree program through San Diego State University and Northern Marianas College, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). The research projects include: (1) teacher satisfaction and…

  14. 76 FR 20805 - Aviation Proceedings, Agreements Filed the Week Ending March 26, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Association. Subject: (a) TC3 (except within/to/from South West Pacific, between Korea (Rep. of). Malaysia and... (except within/to/from South West Pacific, between Korea, (Rep. of). Malaysia and Guam, Northern, Mariana..., between Korea (Rep. of). Malaysia and Guam, Northern Mariana Islands), Flex Fares Resolutions, Beijing,...

  15. Submarine venting of liquid carbon dioxide on a Mariana Arc volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, John; Butterfield, David; Lilley, Marvin; Evans, Leigh; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Chadwick, William; Resing, Joseph; Embley, Robert; Olson, Eric; Proskurowski, Giora; Baker, Edward; de Ronde, Cornel; Roe, Kevin; Greene, Ronald; Lebon, Geoff; Young, Conrad

    2006-08-01

    Although CO2 is generally the most abundant dissolved gas found in submarine hydrothermal fluids, it is rarely found in the form of CO2 liquid. Here we report the discovery of an unusual CO2-rich hydrothermal system at 1600-m depth near the summit of NW Eifuku, a small submarine volcano in the northern Mariana Arc. The site, named Champagne, was found to be discharging two distinct fluids from the same vent field: a 103°C gas-rich hydrothermal fluid and cold (<4°C) droplets composed mainly of liquid CO2. The hot vent fluid contained up to 2.7 moles/kg CO2, the highest ever reported for submarine hydrothermal fluids. The liquid droplets were composed of ˜98% CO2, ˜1% H2S, with only trace amounts of CH4 and H2. Surveys of the overlying water column plumes indicated that the vent fluid and buoyant CO2 droplets ascended <200 m before dispersing into the ocean. Submarine venting of liquid CO2 has been previously observed at only one other locality, in the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin (Sakai et al., 1990a), a geologic setting much different from NW Eifuku, which is a young arc volcano. The discovery of such a high CO2 flux at the Champagne site, estimated to be about 0.1% of the global MOR carbon flux, suggests that submarine arc volcanoes may play a larger role in oceanic carbon cycling than previously realized. The Champagne field may also prove to be a valuable natural laboratory for studying the effects of high CO2 concentrations on marine ecosystems.

  16. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  17. Structural analysis of the Creignish Hills Mylonite Zone, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia: implications for Neoproterozoic core complex development along the northern Gondwanan margin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Zachary R.; Nance, R. Damian; Keppie, J. Duncan; Murphy, J. Brendan

    2005-04-01

    Late Neoproterozoic ductile shear zones that juxtapose low-grade over high-grade assemblages are characteristic features of parts of the peri-Gondwanan terranes of the Canadian Appalachians. One such ductile shear zone, in the Creignish Hills of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, brings low-grade platformal metasedimentary rocks of the George River Metamorphic Suite into contact with underlying high-grade rocks of the Bras d’Or Gneiss. The low-grade assemblage includes quartzite, marble, schist, and phyllite with interlayered felsic volcanogenic units and mafic flows, whereas the high-grade unit comprises low-pressure, high-temperature gneiss and migmatite, including pelitic paragneiss of likely volcanogenic origin. The ductile shear zone between the two assemblages (Creignish Hills Mylonite Zone) envelopes the high-grade rocks in the form of a WNW-plunging antiform. The structural dome is truncated to the east against Carboniferous strata by high-angle faulting. Kinematic indicators within the mylonite, including asymmetric porphyroclasts, fractured veins, S C fabrics, and folded mylonitic foliation, suggest a broadly top-to-the-southeast (dextral) sense of shear, while the presence of gneissic granitoid sheets that are broadly concordant but locally cross-cut and are folded about the mylonitic foliation, suggest that mylonitization was accompanied by partial melting and syntectonic intrusion. Monazite from the gneiss and zircon from the granitoid sheets have yielded near-identical U Pb ages of ca. 550 Ma. Juxtaposition of low-grade over high-grade assemblages in several peri-Gondwanan basement blocks in central Cape Breton Island suggests that the Creignish Hills Mylonite Zone is part of a series of regional low-angle detachments with a core complex geometry. Similar ductile shear zones with easterly components of shear and low-angle pre-Carboniferous orientations also place low-grade over high-grade rocks in southern New Brunswick and the Cobequid Highlands of

  18. The Transition Between N-S and NE-SW Directed Crustal Shortening in the Central and Northern Puget Lowland: New Thoughts on the Southern Whidbey Island Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Blakely, R. J.; Wells, R. E.; Sherrod, B. L.; Ramachandran, K.

    2005-12-01

    We hypothesize that the southern Whidbey Island fault (SWIF) is a NW-SE oriented fold and thrust belt accommodating NE-directed crustal shortening. The SWIF has been considered a dextral strike-slip fault based largely on two interpretations: (1) its northwest orientation in a region believed to be undergoing dominantly N-S compression, and (2) interpretation of industry seismic-reflection data across the SWIF as a flower structure, suggestive of transpressional faulting. Both interpretations require reconsideration based on evidence outlined below. Recent GPS studies (e.g., Miller et al., 2001) have shown that the Puget Lowland is a zone of transition between N-directed compression to the south and NE-SW directed compression (parallel to the plate-convergence vector) to the north. While N-S compression provides an adequate explanation for the E-trending Seattle and Tacoma thrust faults to the south, recent paleoseismic and geophysical studies suggest that NE-SW compression producing NE-directed tectonic wedging (passive roof duplexing) dominates at the SWIF. Evidence for a SW-dipping floor thrust forming the base of the tectonic wedge is provided by gravity and seismic tomography models demonstrating higher structural relief of basement rocks to the south of the SWIF than to its north. Aeromagnetic anomalies, lidar studies, and paleoseismic evidence indicate a broader (about 25 km wide) zone of abundant NE-side-up shallow reverse faults parallel to the SWIF than previously recognized. We interpret these faults as evidence for a zone of NW-oriented, NE-dipping splay faults soling into a shallow (3 to 4 km deep), NE-dipping detachment surface forming the top of the tectonic wedge. We re-examined oil industry seismic-reflection profiles across the SWIF, previously seen as evidence for transpressional faults, and find them more compatible with shallow thrust folds associated with shallow (upper 3 to 4 km) splay faults. In sum, these observations are consistent with a

  19. Impact of a medical waste incinerator on mercury levels in lagoon fish from a small tropical island in the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Denton, Gary R W; Trianni, Michael S; Bearden, Brian G; Houk, Peter C; Starmer, John A

    2011-01-01

    In 2004-2005, several species of marine fish were collected for mercury (Hg) analysis from Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Relatively high concentrations were found in representatives from the Hafa Adai Beach area located some distance from known sources of Hg contamination. A follow-up investigation aimed at identifying additional land-based sources of Hg in the area was launched in early 2007. The study identified a medical waste incinerator as the primary source of Hg enrichment. The incinerator was operational for about 20 years before it was closed down by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in January 2006, for multiple violations of the Clean Air Act. Stormwater runoff from this facility entered a drainage network that discharged into the ocean at the southern end of Hafa Adai Beach, about 1 km away. At the time of this investigation storm drain sediments at the coast were only marginally enriched with mercury although values some 50x above background were detected in drainage deposits a few meters down-gradient of the incinerator site. Mercury concentrations in fish from the Hafa Adai Beach area were also significantly lower than those determined in similar species 3 yr earlier. The implications of the data are briefly discussed. PMID:21598167

  20. Iron Stable Isotopes, Magmatic Differentiation and the Oxidation State of Mariana Arc Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. M.; Prytulak, J.; Plank, T. A.; Kelley, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Arc magmas are widely considered to be oxidized, with elevated ferric iron contents (Fe3+/ΣFe) relative to mid-ocean ridge lavas (1, 2). However, it is unclear whether the oxidized nature of arc basalts is a primary feature, inherited from the sub-arc mantle, or the product of magmatic differentiation and/or post eruptive alteration processes (3). Iron stable isotopes can be used to trace the distribution of Fe during melting and magmatic differentiation processes (4, 5). Here we present Fe isotope data for well-characterized samples (6-8) from islands of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) of the intra-oceanic Mariana Arc to explore the effect of magmatic differentiation processes on Fe isotope systematics. The overall variation in the Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) of samples from the CVZ islands ranges from -0.10 ±0.04 to 0.29 ± 0.01 ‰. Lavas from Anatahan are displaced to lower overall δ57Fe values (range -0.10 ±0.04 to 0.18 ±0.01 ‰) relative to other CVZ samples. Fe isotopes in the Anatahan suite (range -0.10 ±0.04 to 0.18 ±0.01 ‰) are positively correlated with SiO2 and negatively correlated with Ca, Fe2O3(t), Cr and V and are displaced to lower overall δ57Fe values relative to other CVZ samples. These correlations can be interpreted in terms of clinopyroxene and magnetite fractionation, with magnetite saturation throughout the differentiation sequence. Magnetite saturation is further supported by negative correlations between V, Fe2O3(t), Cr and MgO (for MgO <3.5 wt%). The early saturation of magnetite in the Anatahan and CVZ lavas is likely to be a function of high melt water content (9, 10) and potentially elevated melt oxidation state. Future work will focus on determining the relationships between mineral Fe isotope partitioning effects and melt composition and oxidation state. 1. R. Arculus, Lithos (1994). 2. K. A. Kelley et al., Science (2009). 3. C.-T. A. Lee et al., J. Pet. (2005). 4. N. Dauphas et al., EPSL (2014). 5. P. A. Sossi et al

  1. Submarine landslides offshore Vancouver Island along the northern Cascadia margin, British Columbia: why preconditioning is likely required to trigger slope failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Nastasja A.; Riedel, Michael; Urlaub, Morelia; Spence, George D.; Hyndman, Roy D.

    2016-05-01

    Bathymetric data reveal abundant submarine landslides along the deformation front of the northern Cascadia margin that might have significant tsunami potential. Radiocarbon age dating showed that slope failures are early to mid-Holocene. The aim of this study is the analysis of slope stability to investigate possible trigger mechanisms using the factor of safety analysis technique on two prominent frontal ridges. First-order values for the earthquake shaking required to generate instability are derived. These are compared to estimated ground accelerations for large (M=5 to 8) crustal earthquakes to giant (M=8 to 9) megathrust events. The results suggest that estimated earthquake accelerations are insufficient to destabilize the slopes, unless the normal sediment frictional resistance is significantly reduced by, for example, excess pore pressure. Elevated pore pressure (overpressure ratio of 0.4) should significantly lower the threshold for earthquake shaking, so that a medium-sized M=5 earthquake at 10 km distance may trigger submarine landslides. Preconditioning of the slopes must be limited primarily to the mid- to early Holocene as slope failures are constrained to this period. The most likely causes for excess pore pressures include rapid sedimentation at the time of glacial retreat, sediment tectonic deformation, and gas hydrate dissociation as result of ocean warming and sea level rise. No slope failures comparable in size and volume have occurred since that time. Megathrust earthquakes have occurred frequently since the most recent failures in the mid-Holocene, which emphasizes the importance of preconditioning for submarine slope stability.

  2. Trophic ecology in a Northern Brittany (Batz Island, France) kelp ( Laminaria digitata) forest, as investigated through stable isotopes and chemical assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the relationships between the food web's structure and the nutritive value of basal food sources in a Northern Brittany (France) Laminaria digitata bed. Stable isotopes were used to identify the food sources consumed by benthic invertebrates, and the nutritive value of primary producers was assessed according to four descriptors (total organic matter, C/N ratio, proteins content, lipids content). Although the food web appeared to be based on a wide diversity of food sources, only Rhodophyta (red algae) and biofilms (epilithic and epiphytic) were heavily consumed by grazers. In contrast, Phaeophyta (brown algae), which are dominant in this habitat, have no specialized grazer (with the exception of Helcion pellucidum, specialized grazer of Laminaria digitata). This selective consumption may be related to the higher protein content and lower C/N ratio of Rhodophyta and biofilms, in comparison with Phaeophyta. Fresh brown algae are thus of poor nutritive value, but processes associated with their degradation are likely to improve this nutritive value, leading in the assimilation of detritus by filter-feeders, revealed by high δ13C in these consumers. Our results thus suggest that the nutritive value of basal food sources may be an important factor involved in the structuration of kelp-associated food webs.

  3. 3 CFR 8335 - Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument 8335 Proclamation 8335 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009 Proc. 8335 Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National MonumentBy the President of the...

  4. Differences in carcass and meat characteristics between chicken indigenous to northern Thailand (Black-boned and Thai native) and imported extensive breeds (Bresse and Rhode Island red).

    PubMed

    Jaturasitha, S; Srikanchai, T; Kreuzer, M; Wicke, M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 genotypes of chicken, all suitable for extensive fattening, on carcass and meat quality using 320 chickens divided into 4 equally sized groups. The comparison included 2 indigenous chicken strains from Thailand, Black-boned and Thai native (Thai), and 2 imported chicken breeds, Bresse and Rhode Island Red (Rhode, a layer breed). The animals were fed until 16 wk of age. Breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles were studied in detail. Chickens of the imported breeds were heavier at slaughter than indigenous strains, especially Black-boned chickens. Proportions of retail cuts with bones were similar among genotypes, whereas deboned breast meat and lean:bone ratio were lowest in the layer breed (Rhode). The meat of the Black-boned chickens was darker than that of the other genotypes. Thai and Rhode chickens had a particularly yellow skin. The ratio of red and intermediate to white fibers was higher in the thigh muscle, and the diameter of all muscle fiber types in both muscles was smaller in the indigenous compared with the imported breeds. The meat of the 2 indigenous Thai strains had lower contents of fat and cholesterol compared with that of the imported breeds, especially relative to the Rhode chickens (thigh meat). The meat of the indigenous origins, especially of the Thai chickens, was higher in shear force and collagen content (thigh only) than meat of the imported breeds. The meat lipids of the Thai chickens had particularly high proportions of n-3 fatty acids and a favorably low n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio compared with the other genotypes. In conclusion, meat of indigenous chickens has some unique features and seems to have more advantages over imported breeds than disadvantages, especially when determined for a niche market serving consumers who prefer chewy, low-fat chicken meat. PMID:18079466

  5. Isotopic composition of water-soluble nitrate in bulk atmospheric deposition at Dongsha Island: sources and implications of external N supply to the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.-Y. T.; Hsu, S.-C.; Dai, M.; Hsiao, S. S.-Y.; Kao, S.-J.

    2013-06-01

    Increased reactive nitrogen (Nr, NO3- + NH4+ + dissolved organic nitrogen) emission from Asian continent poses profound threats on ecosystem safety from terrestrial throughout the ocean proper. To diagnose the sources of atmospheric Nr input and quantify its influence on marine nitrogen cycle of the South China Sea (SCS), an oligotrophic marginal sea adjacent to the emission hotspot China, we conducted measurements of dual isotopes of water-soluble nitrate (δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3) and concentrations of major ions for bulk atmospheric deposition collected from Dongsha Island off south China. The δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 for bulk deposition ranged from -7.5‰ to +3.9‰ and ˜ +17‰ to +88‰, respectively. A relatively uniform low δ15NNO3 and high δ18ONO3 endmember were observed in winter. Non-sea-salt sulfate/calcium (nssSO42- and nssCa2+) peaked as the increasing nitrate depositional flux (one exception caused by typhoon), implying a pollution source of nitrate during high deposition. Meanwhile, the flux-weighted average of δ15NNO3 was -2.7± 2.3‰, resembling the isotopic signature of fossil fuel combustion in inland China. More variable dual isotopic values observed in July and September suggest relatively dynamics sources and conversion chemistry. During the period affected by the peripheral circumfluence of Typhoon Fanapi, a high nitrate deposition with uniform isotopic composition (δ15NNO3 of ~ -0.5‰ and δ18ONO3 of ˜ +19‰) was observed accompanying with low terrestrial constituents such as dust and pollutants (e.g. nssSO42- and nssCa2+). This high nitrate deposition was likely a natural endmember sourced from lightning. The summarized total atmospheric Nr deposition (AND) is ˜ 50 mmol N m-2 yr-1. If without this additional AND fertilization, CO2 release (currently 460 ± 430 mmol C m-2 yr-1) from the SCS would be doubled. Our study demonstrates that AND may serve as an important external Nr supply to the SCS yet difficult to separate from N

  6. Geology and Petrology of the Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. M.; Anthony, E. Y.; Bloomer, S. H.; Girard, G.; Ishizuka, O.; Kelley, K. A.; Manton, W. I.; Martinez, F.; Merle, S. G.; Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Ren, M.; Stern, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The southernmost Mariana convergent margin is tectonically and magmatically very active, with submarine arc volcanoes that are sub-parallel to the Malaguana-Gadao Ridge backarc spreading center at ~110km from the trench axis. This activity reflects widening of the S. Mariana Trough. Stretching formed 3 southeast-facing, broad rifts extending from the trench to an extinct arc volcano chain (~80km from the trench axis) that is mostly composed of outcrops and fragments of pillow lavas partially covered by sediments. The 3 rifts comprise the S.E. Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR) and are 50-56km long and 3600 to 8200m deep, with axial valleys that narrow near the extinct arc. We studied the SEMFR using one Shinkai 6500 dive in 2008 and two Shinkai 6500 dives and 7 deep-tows in 2010. Near the trench, the SEMFR flanks are very steep and dominated by talus slopes of lava, fine-grained gabbro, diabase and peridotite, sometimes covered by thin volcaniclastic sediments. Few outcrops of pillow lavas, lava flows and volcaniclastics are observed, strongly suggesting that SEMFR morphology is dominated by faulting and landsliding. Lava outcrops are smoother and better preserved towards the extinct arc, suggesting that magmatic activity dominates that part of the rift. 40Ar-39Ar ages of 3 SEMFR lavas are 3.0-3.7Ma, so post-magmatic rifting is younger than ~3Ma. SEMFR pillow lavas are vesicular and microporphyritic with crystallite-rich glassy rinds, indicating they erupted underwater at near-liquidus conditions. In contrast, the lava flows are more crystallized and less vesicular. SEMFR lavas exhibit similar ranges in mineral composition with 2 kinds of plagioclase (An>80% and An<80%), clinopyroxene (Mg#≥80% and Mg#<80%), olivine (Fo>90 and Fo<90), suggesting magma mixing. Gabbroic rocks are slightly altered and have olivine and clinopyroxene compositions similar to those of the lavas, but contain less anorthitic plagioclase with a wider range in composition (An20-70) than the lavas

  7. Distribution and origin of igneous rocks from the landward slopes of the Mariana Trench: Implications for its structure and evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, S.H.

    1983-09-10

    The landward slope of the Mariana Trench is composed largely of igneous rocks. Serpentinites and serpentinized ultramafic rocks occur at nearly all structural levels on the slope from depths of 8000 to 1200 m. Seamountlike features on the trench slope break are the surface expression of serpentinite diapirs. Cumulate and massive gabbros are found; several varieties of volcanic rocks are common including boninites, altered and metamorphosed basalts, andesites, and dacites. The chemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks indicate that nearly all are products of island arc volcanism. Together with the gabbros, these volcanic rocks represent what is probably a late Eocene arc complex. These rocks were probably the first volcanic products to result from the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Phillippine Sea plate; their exposure on the trench slope today implies a significant amount of tectonic erosion of the landward slope since Eocene time. Most of this removal of material appears to have occurred during the early stages of subduction. There are isolated occurrences on the landward slope of rock assemblages including alkalic basalts, chert, hyaloclastites, upper Cretaceous siliceous sediments, and shallow water limestones. These assemblages are very similar to rocks dredged from seamounts on the offshore flank of the trench, and their presence on the landward slope suggests that since the cessation of vigorous tectonic erosion, there has been episodic accretion of seamount fragments to the landward slope.

  8. Plant Conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean Islands, comprising the Bahamas, Greater and Lesser Antilles and some islands located off the northern coast of South America, represent the most important insular system of the New World. As one of the 34 biodiversity hotspots, these islands represent a global priority for conservatio...

  9. Hydrothermal Venting in the Southern Most Portion of the Mariana Backarc Spreading Center at 12.57 Degrees N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheat, C. G.; Fryer, P.; Hulme, S.; Becker, N.; Curtis, A.; Moyer, C.

    2003-12-01

    The southernmost portion of the Mariana Trough is a complex zone of deformation and magmatism. The centerpiece of the trough is the Malaguana-Gadao Spreading Center Ridge, which has a morphology that is inflated relative to all of the other spreading segments in the Mariana Backarc Basin. This inflated morphology is similar to that of the EPR and is consistent with a high rate of eruption. Samples of lavas from the spreading center are island arc tholeiites, which typically contain higher concentrations of CO2 relative to MORBs. In February 2003 the NOAA VENTS program conducted two CTD tow-yos in this area, revealing a hydrothermal plume consistent with the presence of a high temperature hydrothermal site. In May 2003 we used the ROV Jason II to survey a hydrothermal site at 12 degrees 57.214'N, 143 degrees 37.147'E in a water depth of ~2860 m. Here we collected vent fluids, sulfides, basalt, microbial mats, and macrofauna. Two styles of venting were identified within an 80 m by 70 m area. Higher temperature venting was located in cracks among extinct mounds that were 2-5 m high and wide and are nearly monomineralic (sphalerite) in composition. The exterior is soft and vuggy in contrast to the interior that has crystalline layers with bladed habit lining the orifices. Maximum temperatures of 248 degrees C were recorded 30 cm into these cracks, which were covered with abundant large provannid snails, Alvinoconcha Hessleri, and crabs. In contrast, lower temperature diffuse venting (77 degrees C) emanated from mounds that have a porous structure that is composed of amorphous iron oxide and opal. These mounds are covered with microbial mats, which exhibit a high degree of biomass as detected by Cyto-13 nucleic acid epifluorescent staining. Filament and amorphous particulate morphotypes are observed in association with microbial cells, but sheaths have not been detected. These mats have a morphology that is similar to that of neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria. Fluid

  10. Imaging the structure of the Northern Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe - Virgin Island) to assess the tectonic and thermo-mechanical behavior of an arcuate subduction zone that undergoes increasing convergence obliquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurencin, M.; Marcaillou, B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Graindorge, D.; Bouquerel, H.; Conin, M.; Crozon, J.; De Min, L.; De Voogd, B.; Evain, M.; Heuret, A.; Laigle, M.; Lallemand, S.; Lucazeau, F.; Pichot, T.; Prunier, C.; Rolandone, F.; Rousset, D.; Vitard, C.

    2015-12-01

    Paradoxically, the Northern Lesser Antilles is the less-investigated and the most tectonically and seismically complex segment of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone: - The convergence obliquity between the North American and Caribbean plates increases northward from Guadeloupe to Virgin Islands raising questions about the fore-arc tectonic partitioning. - The margin has undergone the subduction of the rough sediment-starved Atlantic Ocean floor spiked with ridges as well as banks docking, but the resulting tectonic deformation remains hypothetical in the absence of a complete bathymetry and of any seismic line. - Recent geodetic data and low historical seismic activity suggest a low interplate coupling between Saint-Martin and Anegada, but the sparse onshore seismometers located far from source zone cast doubt on this seismic gap. To shed new light on these questions, the ANTITHESIS project, 5 Marine Geophysical legs totaling 72 days, aims at recording a complete bathymetric map, deep and shallow seismic reflexion lines, wide-angle seismic data, heat-flow measurements and the seismic activity with a web of sea-bottom seismometers. Our preliminary results suggest that: - A frontal sliver of accretionary prism is stretched and expulsed northward by 50km along the left-lateral Bunce fault that limits the prism from the margin basement as far southward as 18.5°N. So far, this structure is the only interpreted sign of tectonic partitioning in the fore-arc. - The Anegada Passage extends eastward to the accretionary prism through strike-slip faults and pull-apart basins that possibly form a lef-lateral poorly-active system inherited from a past tectonic phase, consistently with geodetic and seismologic data. - The anomalously cold interplate contact, consistent with a low interseismic coupling, is possibly due to fluid circulation within the shallow crustal aquifer or a depressed thermal structure of the oceanic crust related to the slow-spreading at the medio

  11. The first Shinkai dive study of the southwestern Mariana arc system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Martinez, F.; Brounce, M. N.; Pujana, I.; Ishii, T.; Stern, R. J.; Ribeiro, J.; Michibayashi, K.; Kelley, K. A.; Reagan, M. K.; Watanabe, H.; Okumura, T.; Oya, S.; Mizuno, T.

    2014-12-01

    The 3000 km long Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system is an outstanding example of an intraoceanic convergent plate margin. The IBM forearc is a typical nonaccretionary convergent plate margin; the inner trench slope exposes lithologies found in many ophiolites. To more clearly delineate the geology of the forearc, we have been investigating a ~500 km long region of the Mariana forearc south of ~13°N using the DSV Shinkai 6500 and deep-tow camera since 2006. Discoveries includes the presence of MORB-like basalts that formed during subduction initiation (~51 Ma) [Reagan et al., 2010, G3], a region of forearc rifting unusually close to the trench axis, the Southeast Mariana Forearc Rift [Ribeiro et al., 2013, G3], and a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem near the Challenger Deep, the Shinkai Seep Field [Ohara et al., 2012, PNAS]. However, there have been no studies on the southern Mariana area west of the Challenger Deep except one [Hawkins and Batiza, 1977, EPSL], hindering our understanding of the IBM system. To advance our biogeoscientific understanding of this region, a Shinkai 6500 diving cruise (YK14-13) was conducted in July 2014 on two major sites: the inner trench slope west of the Challenger Deep (Site A), and the southwesternmost tip of the Mariana Trough (Site B). Dives at Site A recovered very fresh mantle peridotite associated with troctolite and limestone. The limestone preserves the remnants of corals, clearly indicating that the limestone is an accreted material originating from the incoming (colliding) Caroline Ridge. The freshness of the peridotites also indicates that the collision is an ongoing event, resulting in a protruding peridotite ridge along the inner trench slope west of the Challenger Deep. Dives at Site B recovered basalt and gabbro, which is either new backarc basin crust or rifted West Mariana Ridge crust. This cruise allowed for continued sampling of the inner trench slope of the Mariana Trench, from south of Guam to the Yap Trench

  12. Storage capacity of the Fena Valley Reservoir, Guam, Mariana Islands, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Wright, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of the bathymetric data indicate that the reservoir currently has 6,915 acre-feet of storage capacity. The engineering drawings of record show that the total reservoir capacity in 1951 was estimated to be 8,365 acre-feet. Thus, between 1951 and 2014, the total storage capacity decreased by 1,450 acre-feet (a loss of 17 percent of the original total storage capacity). The remaining live-storage capacity, or the volume of storage above the lowest-level reservoir outlet elevation, was calculated to be 5,511 acre-feet in 2014, indicating a decrease of 372 acre-feet (or 6 percent) of the original 5,883 acre-feet of live-storage capacity. The remaining dead-storage capacity, or volume of storage below the lowest-level outlet, was 1,404 acre-feet in 2014, indicating a decrease of 1,078 acre-feet (or 43 percent) of the original 2,482 acre-feet of dead-storage capacity.

  13. Tilt recorded by a portable broadband seismograph: The 2003 eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Douglas A.; Pozgay, Sara H.; Shore, Patrick J.; Sauter, Allan W.; White, Randall A.

    2005-09-01

    The horizontal components of broadband seismographs are highly sensitive to tilt, suggesting that commonly deployed portable broadband seismic sensors may record important tilt information associated with volcanic eruptions. We report on a tilt episode that coincides with the first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano on May 10, 2003. The tilt was recorded by a Strekheisen STS-2 seismograph deployed in an underground insulated chamber 7 km west of the active vent. An ultra-long period signal with a dominant period of several hours was recorded on the E-W component beginning at 06:20 GMT on May 10, which coincides with the onset of continuous volcano-tectonic (VT) seismicity and is one hour prior to the eruption time estimated by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center. The signal is much smaller on the N-S component and absent on the vertical component, suggesting it results from tilt that is approximately radial with respect to the active vent. An estimate of tilt as a function of time is recovered by deconvolving the record to acceleration and dividing by the acceleration of gravity. The record indicates an initial episode of tilt downward away from the volcanic center from 06:20-09:30 GMT, which we interpret as inflation of the shallow volcanic source. The tilt reverses, recording deflation, from 09:30 until 17:50, after which the tilt signal becomes insignificant. The inflation corresponds to a period of numerous VT events, whereas fewer events were recorded during the deflation episode, and the VT events subsequently resumed after the end of the deflationary tilt. The maximum tilt of 2 microradians can be used to estimate the volume of the source inflation (~2 million m3), assuming a simple Mogi source model. These calculations are consistent with other estimates of source volume if reasonable source depths are assumed. Examination of broadband records of other eruptions may disclose further previously unrecognized tilt signals.

  14. Neurotoxic flying foxes as dietary items for the Chamorro people, Marianas Islands.

    PubMed

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan J; Cox, Paul Alan

    2006-06-15

    Fanihi -- flying foxes (Pteropus mariannus mariannus, Pteropodidae) -- are a highly salient component of the traditional Chamorro diet. A neurotoxic, non-protein amino acid, beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) accumulates in flying foxes, which forage on the seeds of Cycas micronesica (Cycadaceae) in Guam's forests. BMAA occurs throughout flying fox tissues both as a free amino acid and in a protein-bound form. It is not destroyed by cooking. Protein-bound BMAA also remains in cycad flour which has been washed and prepared by the Chamorro people as tortillas, dumplings, and thickened soups. Other animals that forage on cycad seeds may also provide BMAA inputs into the traditional Chamorro diet. PMID:16457975

  15. Tilt recorded by a portable broadband seismograph: The 2003 eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiens, D.A.; Pozgay, S.H.; Shore, P.J.; Sauter, A.W.; White, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The horizontal components of broadband seismographs are highly sensitive to tilt, suggesting that commonly deployed portable broadband seismic sensors may record important tilt information associated with volcanic eruptions. We report on a tilt episode that coincides with the first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano on May 10, 2003. The tilt was recorded by a Strekheisen STS-2 seismograph deployed in an underground insulated chamber 7 km west of the active vent. An ultra-long period signal with a dominant period of several hours was recorded on the E-W component beginning at 06:20 GMT on May 10, which coincides with the onset of continuous volcano-tectonic (VT) seismicity and is one hour prior to the eruption time estimated by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center. The signal is much smaller on the N-S component and absent on the vertical component, suggesting it results from tilt that is approximately radial with respect to the active vent. An estimate of tilt as a function of time is recovered by deconvolving the record to acceleration and dividing by the acceleration of gravity. The record indicates an initial episode of tilt downward away from the volcanic center from 06:20-09:30 GMT, which we interpret as inflation of the shallow volcanic source. The tilt reverses, recording deflation, from 09:30 until 17:50, after which the tilt signal becomes insignificant. The inflation corresponds to a period of numerous VT events, whereas fewer events were recorded during the deflation episode, and the VT events subsequently resumed after the end of the deflationary tilt. The maximum tilt of 2 microradians can be used to estimate the volume of the source inflation (???2 million in m3), assuming a simple Mogi source model. These calculations are consistent with other estimates of source volume if reasonable source depths are assumed. Examination of broadband records of other eruptions may disclose further previously unrecognized tilt signals. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Demonstration of base catalyzed decomposition process, Navy Public Works Center, Guam, Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Brown, M.D.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.N.; Wilcox, W.A.; Gano, S.R.; Kim, B.C.; Gavaskar, A.R.

    1996-02-01

    Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) is a chemical dehalogenation process designed for treating soils and other substrate contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), pesticides, dioxins, furans, and other hazardous organic substances. PCBs are heavy organic liquids once widely used in industry as lubricants, heat transfer oils, and transformer dielectric fluids. In 1976, production was banned when PCBs were recognized as carcinogenic substances. It was estimated that significant quantities (one billion tons) of U.S. soils, including areas on U.S. military bases outside the country, were contaminated by PCB leaks and spills, and cleanup activities began. The BCD technology was developed in response to these activities. This report details the evolution of the process, from inception to deployment in Guam, and describes the process and system components provided to the Navy to meet the remediation requirements. The report is divided into several sections to cover the range of development and demonstration activities. Section 2.0 gives an overview of the project history. Section 3.0 describes the process chemistry and remediation steps involved. Section 4.0 provides a detailed description of each component and specific development activities. Section 5.0 details the testing and deployment operations and provides the results of the individual demonstration campaigns. Section 6.0 gives an economic assessment of the process. Section 7.0 presents the conclusions and recommendations form this project. The appendices contain equipment and instrument lists, equipment drawings, and detailed run and analytical data.

  17. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Yasuhiko; Reagan, Mark K.; Fujikura, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiromi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Teruaki; Stern, Robert J.; Pujana, Ignacio; Martinez, Fernando; Girard, Guillaume; Ribeiro, Julia; Brounce, Maryjo; Komori, Naoaki; Kino, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Several varieties of seafloor hydrothermal vents with widely varying fluid compositions and temperatures and vent communities occur in different tectonic settings. The discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has stimulated interest in the role of serpentinization of peridotite in generating H2- and CH4-rich fluids and associated carbonate chimneys, as well as in the biological communities supported in highly reduced, alkaline environments. Abundant vesicomyid clam communities associated with a serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vent system in the southern Mariana forearc were discovered during a DSV Shinkai 6500 dive in September 2010. We named this system the “Shinkai Seep Field (SSF).” The SSF appears to be a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem within a forearc (convergent margin) setting that is supported by fault-controlled fluid pathways connected to the decollement of the subducting slab. The discovery of the SSF supports the prediction that serpentinite-hosted vents may be widespread on the ocean floor. The discovery further indicates that these serpentinite-hosted low-temperature fluid vents can sustain high-biomass communities and has implications for the chemical budget of the oceans and the distribution of abyssal chemosynthetic life. PMID:22323611

  18. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Yasuhiko; Reagan, Mark K; Fujikura, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiromi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Teruaki; Stern, Robert J; Pujana, Ignacio; Martinez, Fernando; Girard, Guillaume; Ribeiro, Julia; Brounce, Maryjo; Komori, Naoaki; Kino, Masashi

    2012-02-21

    Several varieties of seafloor hydrothermal vents with widely varying fluid compositions and temperatures and vent communities occur in different tectonic settings. The discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has stimulated interest in the role of serpentinization of peridotite in generating H(2)- and CH(4)-rich fluids and associated carbonate chimneys, as well as in the biological communities supported in highly reduced, alkaline environments. Abundant vesicomyid clam communities associated with a serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vent system in the southern Mariana forearc were discovered during a DSV Shinkai 6500 dive in September 2010. We named this system the "Shinkai Seep Field (SSF)." The SSF appears to be a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem within a forearc (convergent margin) setting that is supported by fault-controlled fluid pathways connected to the decollement of the subducting slab. The discovery of the SSF supports the prediction that serpentinite-hosted vents may be widespread on the ocean floor. The discovery further indicates that these serpentinite-hosted low-temperature fluid vents can sustain high-biomass communities and has implications for the chemical budget of the oceans and the distribution of abyssal chemosynthetic life. PMID:22323611

  19. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem in the Southern Mariana Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Yasuhiko; Reagan, Mark K.; Fujikura, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiromi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Teruaki; Stern, Robert J.; Pujana, Ignacio; Martinez, Fernando; Girard, Guillaume; Ribeiro, Julia; Brounce, Maryjo; Komori, Naoaki; Kino, Masashi

    2012-02-01

    Several varieties of seafloor hydrothermal vents with widely varying fluid compositions and temperatures and vent communities occur in different tectonic settings. The discovery of the Lost City hydrothermal field in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge has stimulated interest in the role of serpentinization of peridotite in generating H2- and CH4-rich fluids and associated carbonate chimneys, as well as in the biological communities supported in highly reduced, alkaline environments. Abundant vesicomyid clam communities associated with a serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal vent system in the southern Mariana forearc were discovered during a DSV Shinkai 6500 dive in September 2010. We named this system the "Shinkai Seep Field (SSF)." The SSF appears to be a serpentinite-hosted ecosystem within a forearc (convergent margin) setting that is supported by fault-controlled fluid pathways connected to the decollement of the subducting slab. The discovery of the SSF supports the prediction that serpentinite-hosted vents may be widespread on the ocean floor. The discovery further indicates that these serpentinite-hosted low-temperature fluid vents can sustain high-biomass communities and has implications for the chemical budget of the oceans and the distribution of abyssal chemosynthetic life.

  20. A community engagement process identifies environmental priorities to prevent early childhood obesity: the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) program for remote underserved populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; DeBaryshe, Barbara; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Rojas, Gena; Areta, Aufa'i Apulu Ropeti; Vargo, Agnes; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; Castro, Rose; Luick, Bret; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-12-01

    Underserved minority populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI), Hawaii, and Alaska display disproportionate rates of childhood obesity. The region's unique circumstance should be taken into account when designing obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this paper is to (a), describe the community engagement process (CEP) used by the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the USAPI, Hawaii, and Alaska (b) report community-identified priorities for an environmental intervention addressing early childhood (ages 2-8 years) obesity, and (c) share lessons learned in the CEP. Four communities in each of five CHL jurisdictions (Alaska, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Hawai'i) were selected to participate in the community-randomized matched-pair trial. Over 900 community members including parents, teachers, and community leaders participated in the CEP over a 14 month period. The CEP was used to identify environmental intervention priorities to address six behavioral outcomes: increasing fruit/vegetable consumption, water intake, physical activity and sleep; and decreasing screen time and intake of sugar sweetened beverages. Community members were engaged through Local Advisory Committees, key informant interviews and participatory community meetings. Community-identified priorities centered on policy development; role modeling; enhancing access to healthy food, clean water, and physical activity venues; and healthy living education. Through the CEP, CHL identified culturally appropriate priorities for intervention that were also consistent with the literature on effective obesity prevention practices. Results of the CEP will guide the CHL intervention design and implementation. The CHL CEP may serve as a model for other underserved minority island populations. PMID:24043557

  1. 9 CFR 381.224 - Designation of States under section 11 of the Act; application of sections of the Act and the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Dakota Tennessee Virgin Islands Washington July 31, 1999. Apr. 1, 1976... Hampshire New Jersey New York Northern Mariana Islands Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Dakota Tennessee Virgin Islands Washington July 31, 1999. Apr. 1, 1976. July 1, 1975. Oct. 1, 1975....

  2. 9 CFR 381.224 - Designation of States under section 11 of the Act; application of sections of the Act and the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Dakota Tennessee Virgin Islands Washington July 31, 1999. Apr. 1, 1976... Hampshire New Jersey New York Northern Mariana Islands Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Dakota Tennessee Virgin Islands Washington July 31, 1999. Apr. 1, 1976. July 1, 1975. Oct. 1, 1975....

  3. Climate Change Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai';i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). These Pacific Islands spread across 4.9 million square miles and include diverse indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance their and our understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. The PCEP Strategic Plan incorporates a range of interconnected strategic goals grouped into four priority education areas: Climate Education Framework --Implement a next-generation Climate Education Framework that focuses on the content and skills necessary for understanding the science of global and Pacific island climates, as well as the adaptation to climate impacts in the USAPI region. Indigenous Knowledge and Practices --Gather appropriate local indigenous knowledge based on the cultural stories and traditional practices related to environmental stewardship, climate, and local climate adaptation strategies. Learning and Teaching--Enhance conditions for learning about climate change in K-14 classrooms with the CEF through college-based, credentialed climate education programs; professional learning opportunities for teachers; and increased teacher

  4. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Venting of a separate CO2-rich gas phase from submarine arc volcanoes: Examples from the Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, John; Lilley, Marvin; Butterfield, David; Evans, Leigh; Embley, Robert; Massoth, Gary; Christenson, Bruce; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Schmidt, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Submersible dives on 22 active submarine volcanoes on the Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec arcs have discovered systems on six of these volcanoes that, in addition to discharging hot vent fluid, are also venting a separate CO2-rich phase either in the form of gas bubbles or liquid CO2 droplets. One of the most impressive is the Champagne vent site on NW Eifuku in the northern Mariana Arc, which is discharging cold droplets of liquid CO2 at an estimated rate of 23 mol CO2/s, about 0.1% of the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) carbon flux. Three other Mariana Arc submarine volcanoes (NW Rota-1, Nikko, and Daikoku), and two volcanoes on the Tonga-Kermadec Arc (Giggenbach and Volcano-1) also have vent fields discharging CO2-rich gas bubbles. The vent fluids at these volcanoes have very high CO2 concentrations and elevated C/3He and δ13C (CO2) ratios compared to MOR systems, indicating a contribution to the carbon flux from subducted marine carbonates and organic material. Analysis of the CO2 concentrations shows that most of the fluids are undersaturated with CO2. This deviation from equilibrium would not be expected for pressure release degassing of an ascending fluid saturated with CO2. Mechanisms to produce a separate CO2-rich gas phase at the seafloor require direct injection of magmatic CO2-rich gas. The ascending CO2-rich gas could then partially dissolve into seawater circulating within the volcano edifice without reaching equilibrium. Alternatively, an ascending high-temperature, CO2-rich aqueous fluid could boil to produce a CO2-rich gas phase and a CO2-depleted liquid. These findings indicate that carbon fluxes from submarine arcs may be higher than previously estimated, and that experiments to estimate carbon fluxes at submarine arc volcanoes are merited. Hydrothermal sites such as these with a separate gas phase are valuable natural laboratories for studying the effects of high CO2 concentrations on marine ecosystems.

  6. Bird populations on the Island of Tinian: persistence despite wholesale loss of native forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Amidon, Frederick A.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2012-01-01

    Bird habitat on the island of Tinian, Mariana Islands, has been substantially altered, and only around 5% of the island has native forest today. The modern bird fauna is likely to be a subset of the original avifauna where only species tolerant to native forest loss and human disturbance have survived. Avian surveys were conducted on the island in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current densities and abundances of the remaining species, and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. During the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 11 species. Five of the nine native species and one alien bird have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two birds (one native and one alien) were considered relatively stable. Only five birds, including the Tinian Monarch, showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Increased development on Tinian may result in increases in habitat clearing and expansion of human-dominated habitats, and declines in some bird populations would likely continue or be exacerbated with these actions. Expanded development activities on Tinian would also mean increased cargo movement between Guam and Tinian, elevating the probability of transporting the Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) to Tinian, which would lead to precipitous decreases and extinctions.

  7. Trench-parallel flow and seismic anisotropy in the Mariana and Andean subduction systems.

    PubMed

    Kneller, Erik A; van Keken, Peter E

    2007-12-20

    Shear-wave splitting measurements above the mantle wedge of the Mariana and southern Andean subduction zones show trench-parallel seismically fast directions close to the trench and abrupt rotations to trench-perpendicular anisotropy in the back arc. These patterns of seismic anisotropy may be caused by three-dimensional flow associated with along-strike variations in slab geometry. The Mariana and Andean subduction systems are associated with the largest along-strike variations of slab geometry observed on Earth and are ideal for testing the link between slab geometry and solid-state creep processes in the mantle. Here we show, with fully three-dimensional non-newtonian subduction zone models, that the strong curvature of the Mariana slab and the transition to shallow slab dip in the Southern Andes give rise to strong trench-parallel stretching in the warm-arc and warm-back-arc mantle and to abrupt rotations in stretching directions that are accompanied by strong trench-parallel stretching. These models show that the patterns of shear-wave splitting observed in the Mariana and southern Andean systems may be caused by significant three-dimensional flow induced by along-strike variations in slab geometry. PMID:18097407

  8. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN...

  9. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN...

  10. 50 CFR 665.420 - Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mariana coral reef ecosystem fisheries. 665.420 Section 665.420 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN...

  11. 47 CFR 101.1315 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... bands not licensed on a site-by-site basis, the geographic service areas for MAS are Economic Areas (EAs... Commission. The EAs will consist of 176 areas, which includes Guam and the Northern Marianas Islands,...

  12. 47 CFR 101.1315 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bands not licensed on a site-by-site basis, the geographic service areas for MAS are Economic Areas (EAs... Commission. The EAs will consist of 176 areas, which includes Guam and the Northern Marianas Islands,...

  13. 47 CFR 101.1315 - Service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bands not licensed on a site-by-site basis, the geographic service areas for MAS are Economic Areas (EAs... Commission. The EAs will consist of 176 areas, which includes Guam and the Northern Marianas Islands,...

  14. 76 FR 35186 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Rambutan From Puerto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the interstate movement of rambutan from Puerto... Northern Mariana Islands to prevent plant pests and noxious weeds from being introduced into and...

  15. 31 CFR 212.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... character “XX” encoded in positions 54 and 55 of the Company Entry Description field and the number “2... Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American...

  16. 42 CFR 435.905 - Availability of program information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Eligibility in the States and District of Columbia... information in electronic and paper formats (including through the Internet Web site described in §...

  17. 76 FR 66035 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Insular Watch and Jewelry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... Northern Mariana Islands. The primary consideration in collecting information is the enforcement of the law.... It is also available at http://ita-web.ita.doc.gov/doc/eFormsPub.nsf and may be completed online...

  18. 42 CFR 435.905 - Availability of program information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Eligibility in the States and District of Columbia... information in electronic and paper formats (including through the Internet Web site described in §...

  19. 42 CFR 435.912 - Notice of agency's decision concerning eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COLUMBIA, THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Eligibility in the States and District of... applicants, including applicant preferences for mode of application (such as through an internet Web...

  20. 42 CFR 435.905 - Availability of program information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Eligibility in the States and District of Columbia... (including through the Internet Web site described in § 435.1200(f) of this part), and orally as...

  1. 31 CFR 285.1 - Collection of past-due support by administrative offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Secretary means... notice shall inform the payee of the type and amount of the payment that was offset; the identity of...

  2. 7 CFR 3419.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... address food and agricultural sciences components of an eligible institution. Secretary means the... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MATCHING FUNDS REQUIREMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION..., Micronesia, Northern Marianas, and the Virgin Islands. Formula funds means agricultural research...

  3. Find an Eye M.D.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia-Federated States Moldova - Republic Of Monaco Mongolia ... Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Northern Mariana ...

  4. East Mariana Basin tholeiites: Cretaceous intraplate basalts or rift basalts related to the Ontong Java plume?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castillo, P.R.; Pringle, M.S.; Carlson, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns suggest the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in a large area in the western Pacific that includes the East Mariana, Nauru and Pigafetta Basins. Sampling of the igneous crust in this area by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) allows direct evaluation of the age and petrogenesis of this crust. ODP Leg 129 drilled a 51 m sequence of basalt pillows and massive flows in the central East Mariana Basin. 40Ar 39Ar ages determined in this study for two Leg 129 basalts average 114.6 ?? 3.2 Ma. This age is in agreement with the Albian-late Aptian paleontologic age of the overlying sediments, but is distinctively younger than the Jurassic age predicted by magnetic anomaly patterns in the basin. Compositionally, the East Mariana Basin basalts are uniformly low-K tholeiites that are depleted in highly incompatible elements compared to moderately incompatible ones, which is typical of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) erupted near hotspots. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the tholeiites ( 87Sr 86Srinit = 0.70360-0.70374; 143Nd 144Ndinit = 0.512769-0.512790; 206Pb 204Pbmeas = 18.355-18.386) also overlap with some Indian Ocean Ridge MORB, although they are distinct from the isotopic compositions of Jurassic basalts drilled in the Pigafetta Basin, the oldest Pacific MORB. The isotopic compositions of the East Mariana Basin tholeiites are also similar to those of intraplate basalts, and in particular, to the isotopic signature of basalts from the nearby Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. The East Mariana Basin tholeiites also share many petrologic and isotopic characteristics with the oceanic basement drilled in the Nauru Basin at DSDP Site 462. In addition, the new 110.8 ?? 1.0 Ma 40Ar 39Ar age for two flows from the bottom of Site 462 in the Nauru Basin is indistinguishable from the age of the East Mariana Basin flows. Thus, while magnetic anomaly patterns predict that the igneous

  5. Definition and kinematics of the northern of the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands block and the Lesser Antilles forearc based on an updated and improved GPS velocity field and revised block models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Stafford-Glenn, M.; Calais, E.

    2011-12-01

    The presence of small tectonic blocks the Greater Antilles, for example the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands block (PRVI), which may be translating, rotating, and possibly internally deforming, has been proposed and some cases well-documented by several workers. In addition, the existence of a Lesser Antilles forearc has been proposed based on interplate earthquake slip vectors (Lopez et al. 2006). Manaker et al. (2008) used sparse GPS and earthquake slip data from the northeastern Caribbean to construct a DEFNODE block and fault model to constrain interseismic fault coupling among the microplates in the northeastern Caribbean. They concluded that the Enriquillo fault in Haiti could produce a Mw7.2, if the entire accumulated elastic strain was released in one event. On January 12, 2010, the strain was released in a Mw7.0 earthquake that left Port-au-Prince in rubble. The interseismic GPS velocity field has been updated for Hispanolia (Calais et al, 2010); in addition, new data have been collected in the northern Lesser Antilles (NLA) in 2009 as well as throughout the PRVI block in 2007 and 2011, and the existing GPS time series updated and transformed into ITRF05 (IGS05). GPS data from the NLA are consistent with a NLA forearc sliver that moves differently from the Caribbean and North American plates as originally proposed by Lopez et al. (2006). The forearc does not, however, continue as single tectonic entity across the Anegada Passage as previously suggested. Here we report revised DEFNODE models using both the original geometry and constraints of Manaker et al. (2008) with an updated GPS data set as well as new models that explicitly include a forearc block. The models may be used to explicitly define the rotation parameters of the block as well as the coupling along block bounding faults. The original model geometry (without a forearc sliver) yields a higher reduced chi-squared (2.57 vs. 2.01), when additional the GPS velocities from NLA are used to condition the

  6. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  7. The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. ); Handley, L. ); Michot, T. ); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

  8. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  9. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    considerable intensity. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Cambrian—Early Ordovician age (S-pole at: 75.8°E 17.4°N, d p = 4.2°, d m = 1.9°, N = 54 specimens), attributed to thermochemical activity predating the main folding phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component corresponding to a S-pole position at 15.1°E 33.8°S (d p = 6.2°, d m = 12.3°, N = 16 sites). Both the primary and the secondary magnetic component are in very good directional agreement with the magnetization pattern from the correlated Billy Creek Formation of the Flinders Ranges (I). Consequently, noticeable rotational movement since late-Early Cambrian times between Kangaroo Island and the northwestern part of the Adelaide "Geosyncline" can be ruled out. III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin (Northern Territory) A total of 328 samples from a Middle Cambrian red-bed succession and a Middle to early-Late Cambrian carbonate succession in the Amadeus Basin (Central Australia) have been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of considerable intensity which became broken down, respectively below 200°C in the carbonate samples and between 300°C and 500°C in the red-bed samples. Another recent field component, broken down between 600°C and 675°C, was noted in some of the red-bed samples. Three characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Devonian—Early Carboniferous age (S-pole at 110.5°E 46.9°S, N = 2 localities) which predates the main folding phase of the Early Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny. (B) Another secondary magnetic component (S-pole at 60.8°E 33.8°N, N = 2 localities) which is very similar to a thermo-chemically induced Cambro-Ordovician magnetic component, noted in rocks from the Adelaide "Geosyncline". (C) A primary magnetic component which suggests

  10. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    considerable intensity. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Cambrian—Early Ordovician age (S-pole at: 75.8°E 17.4°N, d p = 4.2°, d m = 1.9°, N = 54 specimens), attributed to thermochemical activity predating the main folding phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component corresponding to a S-pole position at 15.1°E 33.8°S (d p = 6.2°, d m = 12.3°, N = 16 sites). Both the primary and the secondary magnetic component are in very good directional agreement with the magnetization pattern from the correlated Billy Creek Formation of the Flinders Ranges (I). Consequently, noticeable rotational movement since late-Early Cambrian times between Kangaroo Island and the northwestern part of the Adelaide "Geosyncline" can be ruled out. III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin (Northern Territory) A total of 328 samples from a Middle Cambrian red-bed succession and a Middle to early-Late Cambrian carbonate succession in the Amadeus Basin (Central Australia) have been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of considerable intensity which became broken down, respectively below 200°C in the carbonate samples and between 300°C and 500°C in the red-bed samples. Another recent field component, broken down between 600°C and 675°C, was noted in some of the red-bed samples. Three characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Devonian—Early Carboniferous age (S-pole at 110.5°E 46.9°S, N = 2 localities) which predates the main folding phase of the Early Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny. (B) Another secondary magnetic component (S-pole at 60.8°E 33.8°N, N = 2 localities) which is very similar to a thermo-chemically induced Cambro-Ordovician magnetic component, noted in rocks from the Adelaide "Geosyncline". (C) A primary magnetic component which suggests

  11. Recent Results of Hadal Investigations in the Southern Mariana Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, P. B.; Hellebrand, E.; Sharma, S. K.; Acosta-Maeda, T.; Jicha, B. R.; Cameron, J.

    2014-12-01

    The deepest parts of the southern Mariana Trench have variously been interpreted to 1) indicate strike-slip motion along the trench, 2) contain a series of 3 sediment ponds at greater than 10,900 m depth separated from one another by fault-controlled ridges on the subducting plate, and 3) have an even deeper feature in the western-most pond (Vitiaz Deep). Recent lander deployments in all three ponds and the Deepsea Challenger submersible dive by J. Cameron in 2012 showed that the deepest ponds within the Challenger Deep area have nearly unbroken, flat surfaces. One point explored showed veined serpentinite at a depth of 10,800+ m. The potential for active serpentinite-hosted seeps and vent communities was demonstrated for the Shinkai Vent Field at 5,800m depth. Rocks collected using the Wood Hole Oceanographic Institution's hybrid remotely operated vehicle, Nereus, in 2009 from deep (10,879 m) on the incoming plate south of the Challenger Deep, were recovered from the base of a fault scarp where large, columnar-jointed blocks are draped with sediment. Optical microscopy, electron-microprobe and Raman analysis show that they are partially altered massive diabase with altered interstitial glass and containing microbial tubules in vug-filling secondary phases. The chain of seamounts striking NNW, colinear with the Lyra Trough, has been interpreted as a boundary between the Pacific Plate and the seafloor north of the Caroline Ridge. Sediments, drilled from above postulated basement north of the Caroline Ridge are no older that Oligocene. Ar/Ar age dates completed for one rock collected by Nereus in 2009 give a weighted mean plateau age, based on two experiments, of 24.6 +/- 3.2 Ma. Thus, the igneous basement of the subducting plate south of the Challenger Deep is, far younger than the Jurassic Pacific Plate subducting further east. This represents a previously unidentified tectonic plate. With new vehicles and technologies the future for hadal exploration is ripe.

  12. Chlorine isotope variations across the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jaime D.; Sharp, Zachary D.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2008-11-01

    Chlorine isotope ratios were determined for volcanic gas, geothermalwell, ash, and lava samples along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana volcanicfront, serpentinite clasts and muds from serpentine seamounts(Conical, South Chamorro, Torishima), basalts from the Guguancross-chain, and sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)Sites 800, 801, 802, and 1149. There is no systematic variationin {delta}37Cl values along the volcanic front in either gas or ashsamples. In contrast, distinct variations occur across the arc,implying variations in the fluid source at different depthswithin the subduction zone. Serpentinite clasts and serpentinemuds from the seamounts tap a source of 30 km depth and have{delta}37Cl values of structurally bound chloride of +0.4{per thousand} ±0.4{per thousand} (n = 24), identical to most seafloor serpentinites, suggestinga serpentinite (chrysotile and/or lizardite to antigorite transition)fluid source. Tapping deeper levels of the subduction zone ( 115-130km depth), volcanic gases and ashes have {delta}37Cl values averaging-1.1{per thousand} ± 1.0{per thousand} (n = 29), precisely overlapping therange measured in sediments from ODP cores (-1.1{per thousand} ±+0.7{per thousand}, n = 11) and limited altered oceanic crust (AOC). Bothsediments and AOC are possible Cl sources in the volcanic front.The Guguan cross-chain basalts come from the greatest depthsand have an average {delta}37Cl value of +0.2{per thousand} ± 0.2{per thousand</p>
      </li>

      <li>
      <p><a target=Submarine Explosive Eruptions: Physical Volcanology of NW Rota-1, Marianas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deardorff, N. D.; Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.; Cashman, K. V.

    2006-12-01

    The discovery of an actively erupting submarine arc volcano is a scientific breakthrough that greatly extends our understanding of submarine volcanism. NW Rota-1, located at 14¢X40'N in the Mariana volcanic arc, is a conical basaltic andesite volcano with a summit at 517 m b.s.l, a base at 2700 m, and a diameter of 16- km. In April 2006, on the most recent cruise of the "Submarine Ring of Fire" (SROF) expeditions, violently explosive submarine eruptions were observed and sampled at the active vent, Brimstone Pit (550 m depth), through the use of JASON II remotely operated vehicle (ROV). During six dives repeated observations made at close range over a week documented a diverse and increasingly energetic range of activity that culminated in explosive bursts of glowing red lava propelled by violently expanding gases. Preliminary work shows erupted clasts to vary greatly in density (vesicularity) and crystallinity. Densities of representative larger clasts are moderately high (1700-1900 kg/m3, or ~ 30-40% vesicularity assuming a solid density of 2800 kg/m3; Fig 5b), although the more vigorous activity clearly produced some lower density (< 1000 kg/m3;> 66% vesicularity) material. Grain sizes were measured in 1.0 intervals from -5 to 3 using dry sieving techniques. The grain size distribution is approximately log normal with a mode at -1 (2 mm). Clast morphology consists of three components: (1) very glassy juveniles ranging from light to dark brown (sideromelane), often fluidal and irregularly shaped with obvious vesicle stretching, (2) phenocryst-rich blocky juveniles ranging from dark brown to black (tachylite), (3) non-juvenile lithics are equant, often rounded, ranging from light grey to dark grey and are often coated with altered material. Initial FTIR analyses show a lack of CO2 and a range of H20 from 0.3-1.15wt%, with the average approximately in equilibrium for 550 m water depth. The high vesicularity of the samples collected directly from Brimstone Pit and

  13. Seafloor character and sedimentary processes in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, L. J.; Digiacomo-Cohen, M. L.; Smith, S. M.; Stewart, H. F.; Forfinski, N. A.

    2006-06-01

    Multibeam bathymetric data and seismic-reflection profiles collected in eastern Long Island Sound and western Block Island Sound reveal previously unrecognized glacial features and modern bedforms. Glacial features include an ice-sculptured bedrock surface, a newly identified recessional moraine, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and remnants of stagnant-ice-contact deposits. Modern bedforms include fields of transverse sand waves, barchanoid waves, giant scour depressions, and pockmarks. Bedform asymmetry and scour around obstructions indicate that net sediment transport is westward across the northern part of the study area near Fishers Island, and eastward across the southern part near Great Gull Island.

  14. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  15. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7, 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.

  16. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Using seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic temperature response functions, we quantified the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts in mature (~40-45 year old) Picea mariana trees in an ombrotrophic Sphagnum-bog, northern Minnesota, USA. We measured photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd), biochemistry and morphology to estimate annual carbon (C) uptake by cohort, season and canopy position. Temperature response of key photosynthetic parameters at 25 C (i.e., light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), light-saturated rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), light-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax)) were clearly dependent on season and were generally less responsive in younger needles. Temperature optimums range between 18.7-23.7,more » 31.3-38.3 and 28.7-36.7 C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax respectively. Current-year (Y0) foliage had lower photosynthetic capacities compared to one-year-old (Y1) and two-year-old (Y2) foliage. As Y0 needles matured, values of Asat, Vcmax, Jmax, foliar LMA and nitrogen increased. Values of Vcmax, Jmax and Rd were related to foliar nitrogen but only in the youngest (Y0) cohort. Foliar ontogeny affected photosynthetic capacity more than growth temperature. Morphological and physiological cohort differences were reflected by their annual contribution to modeled C uptake, with a ~36% lower estimated annual C uptake by Y0 needles (LAI 0.52 m2m-2) compared to Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0.67 m2m-2). Collectively, these results illustrate the physiological and ecological significance of characterizing multiple foliar cohorts during bud break and throughout the growth season, and for cumulative C uptake model estimates.« less

  17. Diffuse Deformation Across the Southern Mariana Margin: Possible Effects of Water on Large-Scale Lithospheric Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, F.; Sleeper, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    The southern Mariana margin is extending in an approximately E-W direction at about 45 mm/yr above the subducting Pacific slab. We use earthquake locations, shallow- and new deep-towed side-scan sonar imagery together with compiled multibeam bathymetry to document the nature of the tectonic and volcanic deformation. A well-defined and magmatically robust spreading center takes up part of this extension along the northern part of the southern margin. However, it does not intersect the trench. Instead the spreading center curves westward and becomes a diffuse zone of volcanism extending to the western end of the back-arc basin. The approximately E-W oriented fabric of this diffuse volcanic zone suggest it is taking up a southerly-directed extensional component associated with southward trench rollback in this area. The main E-W oriented extension in the southern margin appears to be distributed broadly across the margin to the south, as indicated by ~N-S-oriented seafloor fabric and the distribution of earthquakes in this area. Near the outer margin, deep-towed side-scan sonar data to near the 6000 m isobath image possible isolated volcanic emplacements within an otherwise tectonized terrain. Possible ~E-W oriented mullion structures are also imaged suggesting low angle tectonic deformation within the margin. The transition of the organized spreading center to a diffuse volcano-tectonic zone and the broadly distributed deformation in the entire southern margin may be consequences of the high water content in the mantle wedge and overlying lithosphere predicted here. Hydrous and therefore weak subduction margin lithosphere may not be able to localize the narrow plate boundary zones characteristic of extension in oceanic lithosphere.

  18. Land use of northern megalopolis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B.; Lindgren, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    The major objective is to map and digitize the land use of northern megalopolis, the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, and to evaluate ERTS as a planning tool for megalopolitan areas. The southern New England region provides a good test ERTS's capabilities because of its complex landscape. Not only are there great differences in the degree of urban development, but in relief and vegetative cover as well.

  19. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  1. Mechanism for Normal Faulting in the Subducting Plate at the Mariana Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Lin, J.; Behn, M. D.; Olive, J. A. L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the characteristics of normal faulting between the trench and outer rise in the subducting Pacific plate through analysis of high-resolution multi-beam bathymetry and geophysical data and geodynamic modeling. Analysis of multi-beam bathymetry data reveals significant variations in normal faulting characteristics along the Mariana trench: (1) The vast majority of the observed surface normal faulting scarps are observed to be sub-parallel to the local strike of the Mariana trench axis, indicating that the orientation of normal faults is predominantly controlled by subduction-related stresses rather than by pre-existing abyssal hill fabrics. (2) Trench-parallel normal fault scarps become apparant as the subducting plate approaches the outer rise of the Mariana trench, indicating that normal faulting initiates in this region. (3) Along the Mariana trench, the Challenger Deep region is associated with the greatest trench depth and largest average values of normal fault throw, while regions with seamounts near the trench axis show the smallest average values of fault throw. To explore the mechanisms that control normal faulting in a subducting plate, we perform numerical simulations of elasto-plastic plate subjected to tectonic loading, bending, and horizontal forces from slab pull. Modeling results suggest that bending-induced extensional stresses in the upper plate reaches maximum values near the outer rise, consistent with the onset of normal faulting in this region. However, bending alone does not predict the continued growth of normal faults toward the trench. We hypothesize that this additional fault growth could be related to (1) tectonic stresses induced by steep topographic slopes; and/or (2) slab pulling forces that are originated in the upper mantle due to the negative buoyancy of a subducted slab but are transmitted to the shallower part of the lithospheric plate prior to its subduction.

  2. MARGINS mini-lessons: A tour of the Mariana Subduction System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodliffe, A. M.; Oakley, A.

    2009-12-01

    MARGINS mini-lessons provide an efficient way to quickly move cutting edge MARGINS research into the university classroom. Instructors who are not necessarily familiar with the MARGINS program can easily use mini-lessons in a variety of educational settings. The mini-lesson described herein is centered on bathymetric and multi-channel seismic data collected during a 2003 NSF-MARGINS funded marine geophysical survey in the Mariana Basin. Designed as an approximately sixty minute lecture segment, the lesson covers both the techniques used to collect marine geophysical data and a description of the geology of the system. All geological provinces are included, from the subducting Pacific Plate in the east to the remnant arc in the west. Representative seismic lines and bathymetric images are presented for each province, along with a description of key processes including deformation of the subducting plate, serpentinite mud volcanism, forearc faulting, potentially tsunamigenic landslides, arc volcanism, and backarc spreading. The Mariana subduction system mini-lesson requires a computer with an internet connection, powerpoint, Google Earth, and a web-browser. Questions are embedded in the powerpoint presentation that can be adapted to a specific interactive response system as needed. Optimally the lesson should be used in parallel with a GeoWall. A 3-dimensional ArcScene visualization of the Mariana system is available for download through the MARGINS mini-lessons web site. Such visualizations are particularly effective in helping students understand complex three-dimensional systems. If presented in a computer lab students will benefit from being able to explore the Mariana system using tools such as GeoMapApp.

  3. Large, pre-digital earthquakes of the Bonin-Mariana subduction zone, 1930-1974

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, Emile A.; Reymond, Dominique; Hongsresawat, Sutatcha

    2013-02-01

    The Bonin-Mariana subduction zone is the end-member example of a decoupled system, as described by Uyeda and Kanamori (1979), with no interplate thrust solutions of moments greater than 8 × 1025 dyn cm known in the CMT catalog, although a number of earthquakes are reported with assigned magnitudes around or above 7, both during the WWSSN period and the historical pre-1962 era. We present a systematic study of these events, including relocation and inversion of moment tensors. We obtain 15 new moment tensor solutions, featuring a wide variety of focal mechanisms both in the fore-arc and the outer rise, and most importantly a shallow-dipping interplate thrust mechanism with a moment of 4 × 1027 dyn cm for the event of 28 December 1940 at a location 175 km East of Pagan. Our results show that the modern CMT catalog still undersamples the seismicity of the Mariana arc, which is thus not immune to relatively large, albeit rare, interplate thrust events, with moments 40 times that of the largest Global-CMT solution. Frequency-magnitude relations would then suggest a return time of 320 years for a magnitude 8 interplate thrust faulting earthquake in the Bonin-Mariana system.

  4. Eleuthera Island, Bahamas seen from STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The striking views provided by the Bahama Islands lend insights into the important problems of limestone (CaCO3) production and transport. This photograph includes the southern part of Eleuthera Island in the northern Bahamas. The hook-shaped island encloses a relatively shallow platform (light blue) which is surrounded by deep water (dark blue). The feathery pattern along the western edge of Eleuthera's platform are sand bars and sand channels created by tidal currents sweeping on and off the platform. The channels serve to funnel large amounts of CaCO3 off the platform and into the deeper water.

  5. Northern Ireland: NIPPA--The Early Years Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Northern Ireland is a small island nation, a divided island that since the middle ages has witnessed war and conflict and sectarian strife. Their recent conflict erupted in 1969, and for 30 years they have subjected themselves to a sectarian warfare. All was not bleak throughout the 1970s, '80s, and early '90s. NIPPA--The Early Years…

  6. Late Cretaceous and Eocene volcanism in the southern Line Islands and implications for hotspot theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, Janet A.; Schlanger, Seymour O.; Premoli Silva, Isabella

    1982-08-01

    Rocks dredged from a seamount 100 km northwest of Caroline Island, at the southern end of the Line Islands chain, contain Late Cretaceous fossils associated with volcanic debris. This association is evidence for the existence of a reef-bearing volcanic edifice with a minimum age of Late Cretaceous, 70 to 75 m.y., near Caroline Island. With the discovery of this seamount, the known occurrences of Late Cretaceous, reef-capped, volcanic edifices now extend a distance of 2,500 km, from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 165 to 100 km northwest of Caroline Island. The apparent synchroneity of Late Cretaceous volcanism over this distance argues against the proposition that a single hotspot of the Hawaiian-Emperor type produced the Line Islands chain. Biochronologic data from the Line Islands indicate that the chain is not the temporal equivalent of the Emperor chain. Volcanic edifices of Cretaceous age are now known to extend from the Line Islands through the Mid-Pacific Mountains to the Marshall Islands and the western margin of the Pacific plate from Japan to the Marianas. A volcanic event occurred in the southern Line Islands during middle Eocene time; Eocene sediments were engulfed and altered by a volcanic eruption. The occurrence of both Cretaceous and Eocene volcanism in the southern Line Islands indicates that the history of the Line Islands is similar to that of the Marshall Islands. *Present addresses: (Haggerty) Department of Geosciences, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104; (Schlanger) Department of Geological Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60201

  7. Asymmetry in the slow-spreading Mariana back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, A.; Fujiwara, T.; Goto, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Mariana Trough is an active back-arc basin opening behind the Mariana subduction zone. Its spreading history is fairly complicated, due to ridge segments propagations and trenchward jumps. The basin is asymmetric, with its spreading center located closer to the active arc than next to the West Mariana remnant arc. At latitude 18°N, the spreading axis is located 185 km from the remnant West Mariana Ridge, and 110 km from the active arc to the east. In the central part of the basin, the rift valley has a morphology that is typical of slow-spreading ridges. Its shape varies between a fairly symmetric graben and an asymmetric half-graben with a single large fault scarp on one side of the valley, generally on its eastern side. This asymmetry is well expressed at latitudes 17°20'N and 18°35'N for example. Between 17°40'N and 18°25'N, the neovolcanic zone is expressed as an unfaulted region within the valley floor, which covers an area wide of 6 km in average. The series of hummocky to linear axial volcanic ridges (AVRs) mark the locus of the most active recent accretion. The AVRs ranges in size up to 1 km high, 1-5 km wide, and tens of kilometers long. Along this segment, spreading occurs following a N75E direction at a half rate of 1.4 cm/yr. One striking feature is the location of the Brunhes anomaly, which is not centered on the AVRs. At 18°N for example, the eastern and western sides of the central Brunhes anomaly have markedly different widths, and are 15km and 10km, respectively, from the AVR, suggesting different spreading rates on both sides of the valley. We observe similar pattern more to the north, between latitudes 19°20'N and 19°50'N. We hypothesize that the asymmetry of the Mariana basin is not only due to eastward ridge jumps, but also to asymmetric magmatic accretion. It is probable that the magmatic accretion is one sided with new crust mainly added to the western flank. Along the eastern flank, spreading is mainly accommodated by significant

  8. Liquid Carbon Dioxide Venting at the Champagne Hydrothermal Site, NW Eifuku Volcano, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, J.; Lilley, M.; Butterfield, D.; Evans, L.; Embley, R.; Olson, E.; Proskurowski, G.; Resing, J.; Roe, K.; Greene, R.; Lebon, G.

    2004-12-01

    In March/April 2004, submersible dives with the remotely-operated vehicle ROPOS discovered an unusual CO2-rich hydrothermal system near the summit of NW Eifuku, a submarine volcano located at 21.49° N, 144.04° E in the northern Mariana Arc. Although several sites of hydrothermal discharge were located on NW Eifuku, the most intense venting was found at 1600-m depth at the Champagne site, slightly west of the volcano summit. The Champagne site was found to be discharging two distinct fluids into the ocean: a) several small white chimneys were emitting milky 103° C gas-rich hydrothermal fluid with at least millimolar levels of H2S and b) cold (< 4° C) droplets coated with a milky skin were rising slowly from the sediment. These droplets were later determined to consist mainly of liquid CO2, with H2S as a probable secondary component. The droplets were sticky, and did not tend to coalesce into larger droplets, even though they adhered to the ROV like clumps of grapes. The film coating the droplets was assumed to be CO2 hydrate (or clathrate) which is known to form whenever liquid CO2 contacts water under these P,T conditions. Samples of the 103° C hydrothermal fluids were collected in special gas-tight titanium sampling bottles that were able to withstand the high internal pressures created by the dissolved gases. The Champagne hydrothermal fluids contained a surprising 2.3 moles/kg of CO2, an order of magnitude higher than any CO2 values previously reported for submarine hydrothermal fluids. The overall gas composition was 87% CO2, < 0.1% CH4, < 2 ppm H2, 0.012 mM/kg 4He, with the remaining 13% (322 mM/kg) assumed to be sulfur gases (H2S, SO2, etc.). (Additional analyses planned will confirm the speciation of this sulfur gas component). The helium had R/RA = 7.3, typical of subduction zone systems (R = 3He/4He and RA = Rair). Isotopic analysis of the CO2 yielded δ 13C = -1.75 ‰ , much heavier than the -6.0 ‰ typical for carbon in MOR vent fluids. The C/3He

  9. Locating, constructing, and managing islands for nesting waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, John T.; Messmer, Terry A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this extension bulletin is to assist public and private managers in locating, constructing, and managing islands to enhance nest success of waterfowl. The information is from studies by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota, and information collected by biologists working at sites throughout the northern hemisphere.

  10. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... equipment and technology that may be deployed during a human mission to Mars. One of the many objectives of the project scientists is to ... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's ...

  11. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  12. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Snorkelers around this island are likely to encounter the fish Achilles Tang and the Moorish Idol (Acanthurus achilles and Zanclus ... Terra circles the Earth in the same orbit as Landsat 7, flying at an altitude of about 700 kilometers above the Earth's surface. ...

  13. NORTHERN GUAM SOLE SOURCE AQUIFER- DESIGNATED AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northern Guam Sole Source Aquifer Designated Area: In the Territory of Guam, entirely contained within the island of Guam. Specifically, that area within the coastal boundary defined by the line of Mean High water and north of the Adelup-Pago fault, plus some area south of the f...

  14. Physical Properties and Seismic Structure of Izu-Bonin-Mariana Fore Arc crust: Results From IODP Expedition 352 and Comparison with Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christeson, G. L.; Morgan, S.; Kodaira, S.; Yamashita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the well-preserved ophiolite complexes are believed to form in supra-subduction zone settings. One of the goals of IODP Expedition 352 was to test the supra-subduction zone ophiolite model by drilling forearc crust at the northern Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system. IBM forearc drilling successfully cored 1.22 km of volcanic lavas and underlying dikes at four sites. A surprising observation is that basement compressional velocities measured from downhole logging average ~3.0 km/s, compared to values of 5 km/s at similar basement depths at oceanic crust sites 504B and 1256D. Typically there is an inverse relationship in extrusive lavas between velocity and porosity, but downhole logging shows similar porosities for the IBM and oceanic crust sites, despite the large difference in measured compressional velocities. These observations can be explained by a difference in crack morphologies between IBM forearc and oceanic crust, with a smaller fractional area of asperity contact across cracks at EXP 352 sites than at sites 504B and 1256D. Seismic profiles at the IBM forearc image many faults, which may be related to the crack population.

  15. Structure and composition of the Southern Mariana Forearc: new observations and samples from Shinkai 6500 dive studies in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Ishizuka, O.; Stern, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    The 3000-km long Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc system is an outstanding example of an intraoceanic convergent plate margin, and has become the particular focus of Japanese and US efforts to understand the operation of the “Subduction Factory”. In 2006 and 2008, twelve DSV Shinkai 6500 dives (973-977 and 1091-1097) were performed during YK06-12 and YK08-08 Leg 2 cruises along the landward slope of the southern Mariana Trench. The goal was to sample the remaining early arc crust associated with subduction initiation in the IBM system and upper mantle exposed in the forearc in order to gain a clearer understanding of the structure and evolution of Mariana forearc crust and upper mantle. The fruitful results include the recovery of the entire suite of rocks associated with what could be termed a “supra-subduction zone ophiolite” that formed during subduction initiation. An important discovery is that MORB-like tholeiitic basalts crop out over large areas. These “fore-arc basalts” (FAB) underlie boninites and overlie diabasic and gabbroic rocks. Potential origins include eruption at a spreading center before subduction began or eruption during near-trench spreading after subduction began (Reagan et al., 2010, G3). Another important discovery is a region of active forearc rifting at the southern end of the Mariana arc, named SE Mariana Forearc Rift (SEMFR). The SEMFR was firstly mapped with HMR-1 sonar (Martinez et al., 2000, JGR). Two dives at SEMFR recovered less-depleted backarc related peridotites (at Dive 973; Michibayashi et al., 2009, G3), and fresh basalts and basaltic andesites with petrographic characteristics like backarc basin lavas (at Dive 1096; see Ribeiro et al., AGU FM 2010). Although our previous studies have produced a number of important new observations about the geology of the southern Mariana forearc, our understanding of the region is still primitive. We will be conducting another cruise (YK10-12) during late September, 2010 to tackle

  16. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  17. 75 FR 18193 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Dresden Island Project. f. Location: U.S. Army Corps... Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue, Joliet, IL 60435, (312) 320-1610. i....

  18. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  19. Glimpses into Pacific Lives: Some Outstanding Women (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-McWilliams, Ethel, Comp.; Green, Karen Reed, Ed.

    This booklet provides brief biographies of women who have made outstanding contributions to the social and economic development of these Pacific islands: American Samoa, the Republic of Belau, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Hawaii, the Marshall islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands. The 66 women profiled include educators, health…

  20. Micronesian Texts for the K-12 Reader. A Selection Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriveau, Kenneth L., Jr., Comp.; Cunningham, Lawrence J., Comp.

    Micronesia is an ethno-geographical grouping of over 2000 islands spread out over 7,000,000 square kilometers of the Pacific Ocean and includes the Republic of Kiribati, the Republic of Nauru, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam,…

  1. Looking for Larvae Above an Erupting Submarine Volcano, NW Rota-1, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, M.; Beaulieu, S.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Chadwick, W.; Breuer, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    In 2009 the first marine protected areas for deep-sea hydrothermal vents in U.S. waters were established as part of the Volcanic Unit of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. In this region, hydrothermal vents are located along the Mariana Arc and back-arc spreading center. In particular hydrothermal vents are located near the summit of NW Rota-1, an active submarine volcano on the Mariana Arc which was erupting between 2003 through 2010 and ceased as of 2014. In late 2009, NW Rota-1 experienced a massive landslide decimating the habitat on the southern side of the volcano. This presented an enormous natural disturbance to the community. This project looked at zooplankton tow samples taken from the water column above NW Rota-1 in 2010, searching specifically for larvae which have the potential to recolonize the sea floor after such a major disturbance. We focused on samples for which profiles with a MAPR sensor indicated hydrothermal plumes in the water column. Samples were sorted in entirety into coarse taxa, and then larvae were removed for DNA barcoding. Overall zooplankton composition was dominated by copepods, ostracods, and chaetognaths, the majority of which are pelagic organisms. Comparatively few larvae of benthic invertebrates were found, but shrimp, gastropod, barnacle, and polychaete larvae did appear in low numbers in the samples. Species-level identification obtained via genetic barcoding will allow for these larvae to be matched to species known to inhabit the benthic communities at NW Rota-1. Identified larvae will give insight into the organisms which can re-colonize the seafloor vent communities after a disturbance such as the 2009 landslide. Communities at hydrothermal vents at other submarine volcanoes in the Monument also can act as sources for these planktonic, recolonizing larvae. As the microinvertebrate biodiversity in the Monument has yet to be fully characterized, our project also provides an opportunity to better describe both

  2. Results of ODP Leg 125 drilling in the Mariana/Izu-Bonin forearcs

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, P. ); Pearce, J.A. ); Stokking, L. )

    1990-06-01

    ODP Leg 125 drilled a total of nine sites in the Mariana and Izu-Bonin forearcs, the regions between the active volcanic arc and the trench axis. Six sites were located on or adjacent to serpentine seamounts, four of these (Sites 778-781) on Conical Seamount in the Mariana forearc, and two others (783 and 784) on the Torishima Forearc Seamount in the Izu-Bonin forearc. The remaining sites (Sites 782, 785, and 786) were drilled into volcanic sequences along the eastern edge of the Izu-Bonin forearc basin. The principal results of the drilling were to achieve (1) the recovery of the first evidence for Pliocene or younger magmatic activity in an extant intraoceanic forearc terrain; (2) the first deep penetration of the Eocene basement of the Izu-Bonin outer-arc high to recover 650 m of boninite flows and hyaloclastite, andesite-dacite flows, breccias, sills, and dikes; (3) the confirmation that some forearc serpentine seamounts can form by flows of clast-bearing serpentine mud from a central conduit, as do mud volcanoes; (4) the discovery of mafic clasts within the serpentine mud flows that have both IAT and MORB affinities, that are metamorphosed in the low to moderate temperature/pressure regimes; (5) the confirmation of high-pH, low-chlorinity fluids at shallow levels near the summit of the seamount which probably originated beneath the forearc and are subduction-related; (6) the recovery of complex hydrocarbon-rich gases also of probable subduction related origin within the Mariana serpentine seamount; and (7) the identification of numerous ash layers within the Izu-Bonin forearc basin that indicate peaks of volcanic activity in the Eocene-Oligocene and from the late Miocene to the Holocene.

  3. Thallium as a tracer of fluid-rock interaction in the shallow Mariana forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Klein, Frieder; Kading, Tristan; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wickham, Katie

    2015-11-01

    Fluids driven off the subducting Pacific plate infiltrate the shallow Mariana forearc and lead to extensive serpentinization of mantle peridotite. However, the sources, pathways, and chemical modifications of ascending, slab-derived fluids remain poorly constrained and controversial. In this study, we use thallium (Tl) concentrations and isotopic ratios of serpentinized peridotite and rodingitized diabase from the South Chamorro and Conical Seamounts to discriminate between potential fluid sources with distinct Tl isotope compositions. Serpentinite samples from the Mariana forearc all display ε205 Tl > - 0.5 (where ε205 Tl = 10 , 000 × (205Tl /Tl203sample -205Tl /SRM 997 203Tl) / (205Tl / - 0.5 and, therefore, we interpret the heavy Tl isotope signatures as signifying that the serpentinizing fluids were derived from subducting pelagic sediments. A rodingitized diabase from Conical Seamount was found to have an ε205 Tl of 0.8, suggesting that sediment-sourced serpentinization fluids could also affect diabase and other mafic lithologies in the shallow Mariana forearc. Forearc rodingitization of diabase led to a strong depletion in Tl content and a virtually complete loss of K, Na and Rb. The chemical composition of hybrid fluids resulting from serpentinization of harzburgite with concomitant rodingitization of diabase can be highly alkaline, depleted in Si, yet enriched in Ca, Na, K, and Rb, which is consistent with the composition of fluids emanating from mud volcanoes in the Mariana forearc. Our study suggests that fluid-rock interactions between sedimentary, mafic, and

  4. Larval abundance and dispersal at deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the southern Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Watanabe, H.; Mills, S. W.; Pradillon, F.; Kojima, S.; Mullineaux, L. S.

    2010-12-01

    Since the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents over thirty years ago, scientists have been perplexed by the question: “How are the faunal populations established and maintained at these very discrete and often ephemeral habitats?” For the animals that are sessile or have limited mobility as adults, dispersal to these habitats occurs early in the life cycle, as planktonic larvae in the water column. Due to the difficulties in sampling deep-sea larvae, including low abundances (dilute concentrations), we have very few quantitative estimates of larval dispersal between or larval supply to hydrothermal vents. Here, we will present results of an international, collaborative effort to study larval abundance and dispersal at vents near the back-arc spreading center in the southern Mariana Trough. On R/V Yokosuka cruise YK10-11 in September 2010, we will deploy large-volume plankton pumps at approximately 3000-m depth at Snail (also called South Backarc), Archaean, and Pika, three of the Vents (Volcanic) Unit sites in the U.S. Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. These vents are being studied as part of the Japanese multi-disciplinary program TAIGA (Trans-crustal Advection and In-situ biogeochemical proceses of Global sub-sea floor Aquifer). These will be the first collections of vent larvae in the Mariana back-arc, and we will compare the abundances and diversity of larvae to similar work conducted at the Ridge 2000 East Pacific Rise Integrated Studies Site. We will deploy a current meter near the Snail site (on-axis) for preliminary estimates of passive larval transport on the time scale of the cruise. The three study sites are situated in a line perpendicular to the back-arc spreading axis, and thus may be interesting in terms of local dispersal processes. Perhaps more interesting, however, is that the back-arc vents that we will visit are as close as 25 km to known vents on the arc, yet 600 km south of the other known vents in the back-arc. These two

  5. Flexural bending of the oceanic plates near the Mariana, Japan, and Philippines trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, M.; Lin, J.; Zhang, F.

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a detailed analysis of flexural bending of oceanic plates near the Mariana, Japan, and Philippines trenches to better understand the similarities and differences among these major subduction systems in the western Pacific Ocean. For each of the systems, we first obtained a 3-D deformation surface of the subducting plate by removing from the seafloor bathymetry the estimated topographic effects of sediment thickness, seamounts, and age-related thermal subsidence. We then calculated theoretical models of plate deformation along a series of trench-perpendicular profiles and inverted for the vertical force (Vo) and bending moment (Mo) at the trench axis, as well as variations in the elastic plate thickness (Te) that can best explain the observed plate deformation. From analysis of profiles across all trenches, we found that Te is reduced significantly from a value seaward of the outer rise (TeMax) to a value near the trench (TeMin), with the transition at distance Xr from the trench axis. Results of analysis reveal that the Mariana trench has the greatest amplitude of flexural bending (i.e., the greatest trench depth) in the range of 1.39 - 5.67 km and an average of 2.91 km, comparing to the Japan trench (range of 1.0 - 4.08 km, average of 2.59 km) and the Philippines trench (range of 0.48 - 4.04 km, average of 2.41 km). In contrast, the Philippines trench has the relatively narrow trench width (Xr range of 36 - 107 km, average of 68 km), in comparison to the Japan trench (Xr range of 47 - 122 km, average of 83 km) and the Mariana trench (Xr range of 60 - 125 km, average of 92 km). The best-fitting models reveal that for the Mariana trench, the effective elastic thickness is reduced significantly from a value seaward of the outer rise (TeMax = 45 - 55 km) to a value trench-ward of the outer rise region (TeMin = 19 - 40 km), with a corresponding reduction in Te in the range of 20 - 60%. In comparison, for the Japan trench, TeMax = 35 - 55 km, TeMin = 14

  6. Diffuse Crustal Accretion at the Southern Terminus of the Malaguana-Gadao Ridge, Mariana Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeper, J. D.; Martinez, F.; Fryer, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    The mode of extension and crustal accretion in backarc basins is strongly affected by proximity to the arc volcanic front. The factor that likely has the strongest control on these processes is mantle water content. At Mid-Ocean Ridges, the small amount of water in the mantle is efficiently extracted into the melt, dehydrating the residual material and increasing the viscosity and strength of the lithosphere. This may aid in focusing melt generated over a broad (~200+ km wide) zone in the mantle toward a narrow zone of crustal accretion ~1-2 km wide. In the near-arc setting, the continuous flux of water into the mantle wedge should oppose lithospheric dehydration and inhibit strengthening of the lithosphere, which may allow deformation, volcanism, and crustal accretion to occur over a broad area instead of along a narrow axis. A possible example of this process can be observed at the southern terminus of the Malaguana-Gadao Ridge, a backarc spreading center in the Southern Mariana Trough, at the southern end of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana convergent margin. The spreading axis, which forms an axial high in this area, abruptly terminates at 143˚20'E, 12˚37'N and is replaced by a broad zone of active volcanism and tectonism characterized by short volcanic ridges, volcanic cones, and low-relief grabens. This study uses deep-towed and ship multibeam sonar, gravity, and magnetics data collected during an early 2012 cruise on R/V Thomas G. Thompson (TN273) along with available geophysical and geochemical data in the Southern Mariana Trough to gain insight into the nature of the diffuse crustal accretion process. Evidence of a similar transition from organized to "disorganized" spreading can also be observed at Valu Fa Ridge in the southern Lau basin and other backarc spreading centers. This suggests that this process is not unique to the Southern Mariana Trough, and may be an important mode of crustal accretion in a variety of backarc settings where there is extension in

  7. [Population genetic structure of the char species of the Northern Kuril Islands and the rank of the Dolly Varden Char in the system of the genus Salvelinus (Salmonidae: Teleostei)].

    PubMed

    Shubina, E A; Ponomareva, E V; Gritsenko, O F

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the taxonomic position of most species and forms of the char (genus Salvelinus, Salmonidae: Teleostei) was made based on RAPD-PCR. The material was represented by samples from 29 populations from the Kuril Islands, coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, Chukotka, Taymyr, Transbaikalia, the Kola Peninsula, Svalbard, Finland, and North America. It was shown that the genus Salvelinus splits into three well-justified clusters: (1) all the forms assigned to the Salvelinus alpinus--S. malma complex; (2) two samples of the White-Spotted Char from the Southern Kuril Islands and from Kamchatka; (3) two North American species, S. fontinalis and S. namaycush (samples of the North American species S. confluentis were absent from the collection). Analysis of the absolute values of genetic disctances of the S. alpinus--S. malma forms relative to S. leucomaenis, S. fontinalis, and S. namaycush revealed distances approaching the species rank between the following isolates: Frolikh Char, Mountain Char, Black Lake Char, Goggle-Eyed Char, and Neyva Char. Samples of Dolly Varden currently considered as "S. malma", do not constitute a separate cluster, falling within the group of the Arctic char S. alpinus. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of the results of three series of experiments by R. Phillips on ITS1 ribosome genes (Pleute et al., 1992; Phillips et al., 1995; Phillips et al., 1999). This indicates the infraspecific rank of malma within S. alpinus. Isolated populations of "Salvethymus svetovidovi" from the lake Elgygytgyn (Chukotka Peninsula) and of the char from the lake Chyornoye (Onekotan Island), recently described as S. gritzenkoi (Vasil'eva, Stygar, 2000), fell withing the S. alpinus--S. malma complex, the Onekotan char grouped together with another isolate from the same island. Comparison of genetic distances between the samples showed that the differences between the two isolated of Onekotan and migratory forms of the Kuril Islands are

  8. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  9. Ancient oceanic crust in island arc lower crust: Evidence from oxygen isotopes in zircons from the Tanzawa Tonalitic Pluton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazue; Kitajima, Kouki; Sawaki, Yusuke; Hattori, Kentaro; Hirata, Takafumi; Maruyama, Shigenori

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the lithological variability and genesis of island arc crust is important for understanding continental growth. Although the volcanic architecture of island arcs is comparatively well known, the nature of island arc middle- and lower-crust remains uncertain owing to limited exposure. One of the best targets for deciphering the evolution of an island arc system is the Tanzawa Tonalites (4-9 Ma), in the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. These tonalities which occupied a mid-crustal position were generated by partial melting of lower crust. To constrain protoliths of the plutonic rocks in the island arc lower crust, in-situ O-isotopic analysis using an IMS-1280 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer was carried out on 202 zircon grains separated from 4 plutons in the Tanzawa Tonalite. δ18O value of the zircons ranges from 4.1‰ to 5.5‰ and some zircons have δ18O slightly lower than the mantle range. The low zircon δ18O values from the Tanzawa Tonalite suggest that their protoliths involved materials with lower δ18O values than those of the mantle. Hydrothermally altered gabbros in the lower oceanic crust often have lower δ18O values than mantle and can be primary components of arc lower crust. The Tanzawa Tonalite is interpreted to have been formed by partial melting of island arc lower crust. Thus the low δ18O values in zircons from the Tanzawa Tonalites may originate by melting of the hydrothermally altered gabbro. Ancient oceanic crustal material was likely present in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc lower crust, at the time of formation of the Tanzawa Tonalites.

  10. Evolution of a North Slope barrier island (Narwhal Island, North Arctic Alaska) 1955- 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravens, T. M.; Lee, W. J.

    2007-12-01

    In 1955, Narwhal island was a 4 km long and 30 to 200 m wide barrier island, located at 145 30' W; 70 24' N, about 20 km offshore of the North Slope coast by Foggy Island Bay and near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. According to available aerial photography, by 1979, the island had been breached in 4 locations creating a five island chain. By 1984, the chain consisted of 3 pieces indicating a reformation process. In subsequent years, the chain appears to have gone through a couple more cycles of breakup and reformation. The island is subject to wind waves, sea-ice impacts, and storm surges. Preliminary GIS analysis and recent GPS surveys indicate that, in the past 50 years, the western end of the island had migrated about 200 m to the west consistent with the direction of sea-ice movement and consistent with the frequent east winds during the summer (open water) period. The rate of migration is consistent with the findings of earlier studies. In addition to the island's westward migration, the northern (seaward) side of the island has retreated landward by about 5 m/year during the past decade. Here, the details of the GIS and GPS work are described. In addition, a preliminary wave (SWAN) and sediment transport model is presented that explains the morphodynamic changes. Considering continued sea ice retreat consequent to global warming, we speculate about future morphodynamic changes.

  11. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis).

    PubMed

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Funk, W Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L; Collins, Paul W; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L; Morrison, Scott A; Newsome, Seth D; Sillett, T Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics. PMID:25714775

  12. Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest Rapid Evolution of Dwarf California Channel Islands Foxes (Urocyon littoralis)

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Funk, W. Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L.; Collins, Paul W.; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L.; Morrison, Scott A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Sillett, T. Scott; Fleischer, Robert C.; Maldonado, Jesus E.

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California’s Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200–7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics. PMID:25714775

  13. Genetic Divergence of an Avian Endemic on the Californian Channel Islands

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Amy G.; Chan, Yvonne; Taylor, Sabrina S.; Arcese, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Californian Channel Islands are near–shore islands with high levels of endemism, but extensive habitat loss has contributed to the decline or extinction of several endemic taxa. A key parameter for understanding patterns of endemism and demography in island populations is the magnitude of inter–island dispersal. This paper estimates the extent of migration and genetic differentiation in three extant and two extinct populations of Channel Island song sparrows (Melospiza melodia graminea). Inter–island differentiation was substantial (G''ST: 0.14–0.37), with San Miguel Island having the highest genetic divergence and lowest migration rates. Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Island populations were less diverged with higher migration rates. Genetic signals of past population declines were detected in all of the extant populations. The Channel Island populations were significantly diverged from mainland populations of M. m. heermanni (G''ST: 0.30–0.64). Ten mtDNA haplotypes were recovered across the extant and extinct Channel Island population samples. Two of the ten haplotypes were shared between the Northern and Southern Channel Islands, with one of these haplotypes being detected on the Californian mainland. Our results suggest that there is little contemporary migration between islands, consistent with early explanations of avian biogeography in the Channel Islands, and that song sparrow populations on the northern Channel Islands are demographically independent. PMID:26308717

  14. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  15. A record of spontaneous subduction initiation in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arculus, Richard J.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Bogus, Kara A.; Gurnis, Michael; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Aljahdali, Mohammed H.; Bandini-Maeder, Alexandre N.; Barth, Andrew P.; Brandl, Philipp A.; Drab, Laureen; Do Monte Guerra, Rodrigo; Hamada, Morihisa; Jiang, Fuqing; Kanayama, Kyoko; Kender, Sev; Kusano, Yuki; Li, He; Loudin, Lorne C.; Maffione, Marco; Marsaglia, Kathleen M.; McCarthy, Anders; Meffre, Sebastién; Morris, Antony; Neuhaus, Martin; Savov, Ivan P.; Sena, Clara; Tepley, Frank J., III; van der Land, Cees; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Zhang, Zhaohui

    2015-09-01

    The initiation of tectonic plate subduction into the mantle is poorly understood. If subduction is induced by the push of a distant mid-ocean ridge or subducted slab pull, we expect compression and uplift of the overriding plate. In contrast, spontaneous subduction initiation, driven by subsidence of dense lithosphere along faults adjacent to buoyant lithosphere, would result in extension and magmatism. The rock record of subduction initiation is typically obscured by younger deposits, so evaluating these possibilities has proved elusive. Here we analyse the geochemical characteristics of igneous basement rocks and overlying sediments, sampled from the Amami Sankaku Basin in the northwest Philippine Sea. The uppermost basement rocks are areally widespread and supplied via dykes. They are similar in composition and age--as constrained by the biostratigraphy of the overlying sediments--to the 52-48-million-year-old basalts in the adjacent Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore-arc. The geochemical characteristics of the basement lavas indicate that a component of subducted lithosphere was involved in their genesis, and the lavas were derived from mantle source rocks that were more melt-depleted than those tapped at mid-ocean ridges. We propose that the basement lavas formed during the inception of Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction in a mode consistent with the spontaneous initiation of subduction.

  16. Community Structure Comparisons of Hydrothermal Vent Microbial Mats Along the Mariana Arc and Back-arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, K. W.; Fullerton, H.; Moyer, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal vents along the Mariana Arc and back-arc represent a hotspot of microbial diversity that has not yet been fully recognized. The Mariana Arc and back-arc contain hydrothermal vents with varied vent effluent chemistry and temperature, which translates to diverse community composition. We have focused on iron-rich sites where the dominant primary producers are iron oxidizing bacteria. Because microbes from these environments have proven elusive in culturing efforts, we performed culture independent analysis among different microbial communities found at these hydrothermal vents. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina sequencing of small subunit ribosomal gene amplicons were used to characterize community members and identify samples for shotgun metagenomics. Used in combination, these methods will better elucidate the composition and characteristics of the bacterial communities at these hydrothermal vent systems. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate and compare taxonomic and metabolic diversity among different communities of microbial mats. We compared communities collected on a fine scale to analyze the bacterial community based on gross mat morphology, geography, and nearby vent effluent chemistry. Taxa richness and evenness are compared with rarefaction curves to visualize diversity. As well as providing a survey of diversity this study also presents a juxtaposition of three methods in which ribosomal small subunit diversity is compared with T-RFLP, next generation amplicon sequencing, and metagenomic shotgun sequencing.

  17. Temporal Evolution of the Mariana Arc: Mantle Wedge and Subducted Slab Controls Revealed with a Tephra Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, S. M.; Woodhead, J. D.; Arculus, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Tephra recovered by deep-sea drilling from forearc to backarc across the Mariana volcanic arc system record the last 34 million years of the Arc's evolution. Major and trace element abundances and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope ratios have been determined for tephra with high temporal precision and an average resolution of ˜1 million years. Temporal variations of source-sensitive radiogenic isotopes and large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) are decoupled from the steady trends of silica and other archetypical crust-forming major elements. Modeling confirms the temporal isotopic and elemental abundance trends are controlled by subducted slab and mantle sources. Pb and Sr fluxes can be linked to fluids from altered oceanic crust (AOC), Nd is influenced by contributions from the mantle wedge and partial slab melts, while Hf mostly derives from the subarc mantle. Most plausibly, the K2O increase and fluctuations thereafter can be linked to a collision of the Mariana Arc with the leading trace of the Cretaceous-aged Western Pacific Seamount Province. The Province is inferred to have arrived at the Mariana Trench at ˜15-16 Ma coincident with the termination of spreading in the Parece Vela Backarc Basin. A short period of slab melting followed, possibly induced by slab rollback that peaked at ˜8-9 Ma and ended with the incipient rifting in the Mariana Trough at ˜7 Ma. Individual periods of Arc formation (52-24, 22-11, and 10-0 Ma) are characterized by a distinctive melee of source materials which is not repeated through time. Mariana Arc crustal growth has occurred through the addition of predominantly mafic and silicic melts formed during relatively short time intervals traceable via the chemically-distinctive subducted slab inputs.

  18. 76 FR 29279 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION NORTHERN STATES POWER COMPANY Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Plants Regarding the License Renewal of Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plants, Units 1 and 2... years of operation for Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and Unit 2 (PINGP 1 and 2)....

  19. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  20. Origins and antiquity of the island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) on California's Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Torben C.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Vellanoweth, René L.; Braje, Todd J.; Collins, Paul W.; Guthrie, Daniel A.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    The island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) is one of few reportedly endemic terrestrial mammals on California's Channel Islands. Questions remain about how and when foxes first colonized the islands, with researchers speculating on a natural, human-assisted, or combined dispersal during the late Pleistocene and/or Holocene. A natural dispersal of foxes to the northern Channel Islands has been supported by reports of a few fox bones from late Pleistocene paleontological localities. Direct AMS 14C dating of these "fossil" fox bones produced dates ranging from ˜ 6400 to 200 cal yr BP, however, postdating human colonization of the islands by several millennia. Although one of these specimens is the earliest securely dated fox from the islands, these new data support the hypothesis that Native Americans introduced foxes to all the Channel Islands in the early to middle Holocene. However, a natural dispersal for the original island colonization cannot be ruled out until further paleontological, archaeological, and genetic studies (especially aDNA [ancient DNA]) are conducted.