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Sample records for northern nsw australia

  1. Politics of Teacher Education in NSW, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deer, Christine E.; And Others

    This paper examines political and government changes affecting higher education in Australia, particularly as they impact upon teacher education, and with specific emphasis upon practices in New South Wales (NSW). Structural features of the governance of education at the federal and state/territory levels are outlined, noting that teacher…

  2. Evaluation of the utility of water quality based indicators of estuarine lagoon condition in NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanes, Peter; Coade, Geoff; Doherty, Maria; Hill, Ross

    2007-08-01

    Environmental indicators must have a predictable relationship with stressors to be of value in ecological assessments. We evaluated the information provided by commonly implemented monitoring indicators as a means of assessing of the level of ecological impact experienced by coastal lagoons in New South Wales, Australia. Existing data for environmental variables in coastal lagoons were correlated with independent estimates of catchment disturbance. There were few relationships between the monitoring variables (particularly water chemistry) and nutrient loads and catchment land use. Data from NSW catchments and lagoons were compared to analogous data from published northern hemisphere studies and it was clear that stressor variables were up to one to two orders of magnitude smaller in NSW, potentially explaining the lack of relationships with recognised indicators. Our study has highlighted the importance of using a range of indicators to assess trends in ecological condition of an estuarine ecosystem, particularly where stressor levels are not great. Using water quality as the sole means of determining lagoon condition was simply inadequate in NSW lagoons. We recommended that ecological outcome indicators such as algal abundance (macro and micro) and turbidity were most likely to show interpretable patterns at low to moderate nitrogen loadings (<40 kg Ha -1 yr -1) and that these should form the basis of estuarine trend monitoring in NSW lagoons. The demonstrated value of seagrass and macroalgal monitoring in estuaries with moderate to high nutrient loadings suggests that these indicators should not be overlooked when planning monitoring programs, recognising, however, they will not have strong discrimination at lower catchment loadings.

  3. Fires in Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several fires were detected in Northern Australia by MODIS. The fires show up as red dots, superimposed on a surface reflectance product. The image also shows the Clarence Strait, which separates the mainland from Melville Island to the northwest and the smaller Bathurst Island to its west. The Strait connects the more confined, bowl-shaped Van Diemen Gulf to the Beagle Gulf. To the right of the image at the top is the Gulf of Carpentaria, which appears to be full of phytoplankton, as evidenced by the blue-green swirls in the waters

  4. Is groundwater discharge a significant source of carbon dioxide in North Creek, NSW, Australia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, M. L.; Santos, I. R.; Ruiz-Halpern, S.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolved carbon dioxide is enriched in groundwater. However, the contribution of groundwater discharge as a source of CO2 to freshwater ecosystems, estuaries and coastal waters is poorly understood. CO2 evasion from waterbodies has been considered a significant contributor to the global carbon cycle. We assessed for radon (natural groundwater tracer), pCO2 and other parameters in the tidal North Creek in northern NSW, Australia. Once a natural wetland area, the floodplain has been extensively drained for agricultural and residential development. A 16km high resolution spatial survey revealed increasing radon (up to 17.3 dpm L-1) and pCO2 (up to 11151 μatm) concentration in the upstream direction. Allocated 24-h time series experiments were performed at two fixed sites downstream and upstream. Creek water was continuously pumped into a shower head equilibrator. A Licor-7000 and RAD7 monitor were connected in series in a closed air loop system incorporating the showerhead exchanger to measure pCO2 and radon at 10 minute intervals. Under normal hydrological conditions, radon (17.5 - 58.7 dpm L-1) and pCO2 (3031 - 14880 μatm) concentrations were high. Upstream measurements demonstrated a strong correlation between pCO2 and radon (r2 = 0.81, n = 142, p <0.0001) and an inverse relationship between pCO2 and pH (r2 = 0.64, n = 163, p <0.0001) while downstream values resulted in significant relationships between pCO2 and dissolved oxygen (r2 = 0.24, n = 163, p <0.0001) and between pCO2 and pH (r2= 0.28, n = 145, p <0.0001). One of the time series was conducted immediately after a 245 mm precipitation event resulting in the highest recorded radon activities (up to 86.1 dpm L-1) and high pCO2 values (up to 11217 μatm), showing a strong groundwater influence after flooding. Overall, the associated CO2 fluxes (always directed towards the atmosphere) were highly variable, displaying mostly tidal driven differences with a minimum flux of 45 mmol m-2 d-1 and a maximum flux of

  5. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  6. Spectroscopic research on ultrahigh pressure (UHP) macrodiamond at Copeton and Bingara NSW, Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Barron, L; Mernagh, T P; Barron, B J; Pogson, R

    2011-10-01

    Millions of macrodiamonds were mined from Cenozoic placers across Eastern Australia, 98% from within the Copeton and Bingara area (85 km across) in the Phanerozoic New England region of New South Wales (NSW). Raman spectroscopy of inclusions in uncut diamond, from the Copeton and Bingara parcels, identifies them as ultrahigh pressure (UHP) macrodiamond formed during termination of subduction by continental collision. Infrared spectral properties of the two parcels are critically similar in terms of nitrogen abundance (low in zoned diamond, high in unzoned diamond), requiring a pair of different growth mechanisms/protoliths. Within each parcel, the degrees of nitrogen aggregation are relatively strong and coherent, but they are so different from each other (moderate aggregation for Bingara, strong for Copeton) that the two parcels require separate primary and local sources. The local sources are post-tectonic alkali basaltic intrusions which captured UHP minerals (garnet, pyroxene, diamond) from eclogite-dominated UHP terranes (density stranded at depth-mantle, lower crust). X-ray diffraction studies on Copeton diamond indicate a normal density, despite previous reports of anomalously high density. For non-fluorescent diamond, a 2nd order Raman peak, which is prominent in theoretical perfect diamond and in African cratonic diamond, is suppressed in Copeton and Bingara UHP macrodiamond. Pervasive deformation during macrodiamond growth probably causes this suppression, the strong nitrogen aggregation, and the exceptional durability documented through industrial use. PMID:21733747

  7. Spectroscopic research on ultrahigh pressure (UHP) macrodiamond at Copeton and Bingara NSW, Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, L.; Mernagh, T. P.; Barron, B. J.; Pogson, R.

    2011-10-01

    Millions of macrodiamonds were mined from Cenozoic placers across Eastern Australia, 98% from within the Copeton and Bingara area (85 km across) in the Phanerozoic New England region of New South Wales (NSW). Raman spectroscopy of inclusions in uncut diamond, from the Copeton and Bingara parcels, identifies them as ultrahigh pressure (UHP) macrodiamond formed during termination of subduction by continental collision. Infrared spectral properties of the two parcels are critically similar in terms of nitrogen abundance (low in zoned diamond, high in unzoned diamond), requiring a pair of different growth mechanisms/protoliths. Within each parcel, the degrees of nitrogen aggregation are relatively strong and coherent, but they are so different from each other (moderate aggregation for Bingara, strong for Copeton) that the two parcels require separate primary and local sources. The local sources are post-tectonic alkali basaltic intrusions which captured UHP minerals (garnet, pyroxene, diamond) from eclogite-dominated UHP terranes (density stranded at depth—mantle, lower crust). X-ray diffraction studies on Copeton diamond indicate a normal density, despite previous reports of anomalously high density. For non-fluorescent diamond, a 2nd order Raman peak, which is prominent in theoretical perfect diamond and in African cratonic diamond, is suppressed in Copeton and Bingara UHP macrodiamond. Pervasive deformation during macrodiamond growth probably causes this suppression, the strong nitrogen aggregation, and the exceptional durability documented through industrial use.

  8. Paleomagnetic and Clay δ18O Ages for Weathering in Northwestern NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. L.; Pillans, B. J.

    2005-12-01

    There is a complex history of erosion, deposition, tectonism and weathering relating to the Surat, Eromanga and Murray/Darling Basins in northwestern New South Wales. In this study we use paleomagnetic and δ18O measurements to demonstrate that the weathering history dates extends back to the Permain. Paleomagnetic dating of hematitic regolith profiles yields ages for the terminal stages of deep chemical weathering, often corresponding to drying out of a profile. Previous work identified two major periods of weathering across the Australian continent during the Tertiary. This study extends the data in the eastern part of the continent, and reveals several stages of weathering from the Jurassic through to the latest Tertiary, including the two Tertiary weathering events, at ~60-30 Ma, and ~3-12 Ma. A possible Jurassic weathering episode is recorded from two sites at Cobar. A 100 Ma weathering event is recorded in samples from Cobar and the Broken Hill Region, which is a new weathering event recorded from Australian regolith samples. Clay δ18O compositions reflect the chemical makeup of groundwaters active during weathering and clay formation. There is a predictable relationship between δ18O and age of authigenic clays in regolith profiles in Australia. Clay δ18O ages from this study range from Permian through to Late Tertiary. The two oldest ages represent inheritance of some fraction of clay from the weathered host lithology. Samples from White Cliffs, Cobar and Lightning Ridge yield Oligo-Miocene ages. Another sample from the Cobar region yields a Mio-Pliocene age. The results presented provide evidence for multiple periods of deep weathering across NW NSW, from the Jurassic through the Pliocene. Clay formation in weathering profiles occurs under humid conditions, whilst hematite formation occurs at the terminal stages of intense chemical weathering, at the end of periods of humid climatic regimes. When the results are combined, they indicate periods of humid

  9. Curriculum Decision Making in Early Childhood Centres in Two Regions of NSW, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Wendy

    A study was conducted to explore the nature of curriculum decision making in early childhood education centers in New South Wales (NSW). Focal questions were: (1) What perceptions did people hold concerning the meanings of curriculum in early childhood centers? (2) Within centers, who participated in the making of the decisions about curriculum?…

  10. Factors that influence the preventive care offered to adolescents accessing Public Oral Health Services, NSW, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Masoe, Angela V; Blinkhorn, Anthony S; Taylor, Jane; Blinkhorn, Fiona A

    2015-01-01

    Background Many adolescents are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease, which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions provided by oral health and dental therapists (therapists). Senior clinicians (SCs) can influence the focus of dental care in the New South Wales (NSW) Public Oral Health Services as their role is to provide clinical support and advice to therapists, advocate for their communities, and inform Local Health District (LHD) managers of areas for clinical quality improvement. The objective of this study was to record facilitating factors and strategies that are used by SCs to encourage therapists to provide preventive care and advice to adolescent patients. Methods In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 16 SCs from all of the 15 NSW LHDs (nine rural and six metropolitan). A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results All SCs from the 15 NSW Health LHDs participated in the study. Factors influencing SCs’ ability to integrate preventive care into clinical practice were: 1) clinical leadership and administrative support, 2) professional support network, 3) clinical and educational resources, 4) the clinician’s patient management aptitude, and 5) clinical governance processes. Clinical quality improvement and continuing professional development strategies equipped clinicians to manage and enhance adolescents’ confidence toward self-care. Conclusion This study shows that SCs have a clear understanding of strategies to enhance the therapist’s offer of scientific-based preventive care to adolescents. The problem they face is that currently, success is measured in terms of relief of pain activities, restorations placed, and extraction of teeth, which is an outdated concept. However, to improve clinical models of care will require the overarching administrative authority, NSW Health, to accept that the scientific

  11. Sedimentary environments and Pleistocene chronology of the Botany Basin, N.S.W., Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albani, A. D.

    1981-09-01

    The sedimentary sequence of the Pleistocene deposits of the Botany Basin were investigated using borehole samples and seismic data. A succession of environments from marine to terrestrial, separated by erosional surfaces, were recognized and, although absolute dating is not possible, a relative “minimum” chronology was established correlating erosional surfaces with sea-level fluctuations. Seismic surveys and borehole material from other sites indicate that the model presented here is applicable to other estuaries of N.S.W.

  12. Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Tony

    2014-05-01

    Influence of geology, regolith and soil on fluid flow pathways in an upland catchment in central NSW, Australia. Tony Bernardi and Leah Moore Dryland Salinity Hazard Mitigation Program (DSHMP), University of Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA The diversity of salt expression in central NSW has defied classification because salt expression, mobilisation and transport is highly variable and is typically site specific. Hydrological models are extensively used to simulate possible outcomes for a range of land use changes to mitigate the mobilisation and transport of salt into the streams or across the land surface. The ability of these models to mimic reality can be variable thereby reducing the confidence in the models outputs and uptake of strategic management changes by the community. This study focuses on a 250 ha semi-arid sub-catchment of Little River catchment in central west NSW in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. We propose that an understanding the structure of the landforms and configuration of rock, regolith and soil materials at the study site influences fluid flow pathways in the landscape and can be related to observed variations in the chemical composition and salinity of surface and aquifer water. Preliminary geological mapping of the site identified the dominant rock type as a pink and grey dacite and in localised mid-slope areas, a coarsely crystalline biotite-phyric granodiorite. Samples were taken at regular intervals from natural exposures in eroded stream banks and in excavations made during the installation of neutron moisture meter tubes. In order to establish mineral weathering pathways, samples were taken from the relatively unweathered core to the outer weathered 'onion skins' of corestones on both substrates, and then up through the regolith profile, including the soil zone, to the land surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was conducted on the rock and soil/saprock samples. Electromagnetic induction (EMI

  13. The effects of large-scale afforestation and climate change on water allocation in the Macquarie River catchment, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Herron, Natasha; Davis, Richard; Jones, Roger

    2002-08-01

    Widespread afforestation has been proposed as one means of addressing the increasing dryland and stream salinity problem in Australia. However, modelling results presented here suggest that large-scale tree planting will substantially reduce river flows and impose costs on downstream water users if planted in areas of high runoff yield. Streamflow reductions in the Macquarie River, NSW, Australia are estimated for a number of tree planting scenarios and global warming forecasts. The modelling framework includes the Sacramento rainfall-runoff model and IQQM, a streamflow routing tool, as well as various global climate model outputs from which daily rainfall and potential evaporation data files have been generated in OzClim, a climate scenario generator. For a 10% increase in tree cover in the headwaters of the Macquarie, we estimate a 17% reduction in inflows to Burrendong Dam. The drying trend for a mid-range scenario of regional rainfall and potential evaporation caused by a global warming of 0.5 degree C may cause an additional 5% reduction in 2030. These flow reductions will decrease the frequency of bird-breeding events in Macquarie Marshes (a RAMSAR protected wetland) and reduce the security of supply to irrigation areas downstream. Inter-decadal climate variability is predicted to have a very significant influence on catchment hydrologic behaviour. A further 20% reduction in flows from the long-term historical mean is possible, should we move into an extended period of below average rainfall years, such as occurred in eastern Australia between 1890 and 1948. Because current consumptive water use is largely adapted to the wetter conditions of post 1949, a return to prolonged dry periods would cause significant environmental stress given the agricultural and domestic water developments that have been instituted. PMID:12369401

  14. The Fire Distinguisher: a Baseline Study of Semi-Arid Karst Drip Waters in Wildman's Cave at Wombeyan, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Flemons, I.

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the impact of fire on karst systems in a semi-arid environment. There is limited knowledge of hydrological and geochemical changes that result from a fire over a karst system. Soil science literature has shown that fire can change surface properties and from this it has been hypothesized that these impacts will be mirrored in an underlying cave (see Figure). This project is the first phase of a pre/post-fire study of organic matter, drip rates, trace metal composition, and stable isotope composition changes in a semi-arid cave system. This project aims establishes the baseline hydrogeochemical processes at Wildman's cave, at Wombeyan in NSW, Australia. The Wildman's cave site has not been studied previously, so this study adds to expanding literature on cave systems. This pre-fire monitoring provides a new dataset for semiarid karst processes. We report the first 8 months of an ongoing dataset, obtained through collection of dripwater samples, with drip loggers indicating drip rates over the same period. Dripwaters were analysed for pH and EC, cation/anion content, organic matter content and stable isotope composition. Following the successful completion of this baseline study, post fire data will be obtained via a controlled burn. This will expand on current knowledge of the use of speleothems as accurate records of past climates and fire history.

  15. A multi-scale GIS and hydrodynamic modelling approach to fish passage assessment: Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Rita M.; Reinfelds, Ivars V.; Butler, Gavin L.; Walsh, Chris T.; Broderick, Tony J.; Chisholm, Laurie A.

    2016-05-01

    Natural barriers such as waterfalls, cascades, rapids and riffles limit the dispersal and in-stream range of migratory fish, yet little is known of the interplay between these gradient dependent landforms, their hydraulic characteristics and flow rates that facilitate fish passage. The resurgence of dam construction in numerous river basins world-wide provides impetus to the development of robust techniques for assessment of the effects of downstream flow regime changes on natural fish passage barriers and associated consequences as to the length of rivers available to migratory species. This paper outlines a multi-scale technique for quantifying the relative magnitude of natural fish passage barriers in river systems and flow rates that facilitate passage by fish. First, a GIS-based approach is used to quantify channel gradients for the length of river or reach under investigation from a high resolution DEM, setting the magnitude of identified passage barriers in a longer context (tens to hundreds of km). Second, LiDAR, topographic and bathymetric survey-based hydrodynamic modelling is used to assess flow rates that can be regarded as facilitating passage across specific barriers identified by the river to reach scale gradient analysis. Examples of multi-scale approaches to fish passage assessment for flood-flow and low-flow passage issues are provided from the Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW, Australia. In these river systems, passive acoustic telemetry data on actual movements and migrations by Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) provide a means of validating modelled assessments of flow rates associated with successful fish passage across natural barriers. Analysis of actual fish movements across passage barriers in these river systems indicates that two dimensional hydraulic modelling can usefully quantify flow rates associated with the facilitation of fish passage across natural barriers by a majority of individual fishes for use in management

  16. Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile.

    PubMed

    Swift, Wendy; Wong, Alex; Li, Kong M; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales "Cannabis Cautioning" scheme. A further 26 "Known Provenance" samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The "Cannabis Cautioning" samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). "Known Provenance" samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

  17. Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales “Cannabis Cautioning” scheme. A further 26 “Known Provenance” samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG), and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V). The “Cannabis Cautioning” samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88%) and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%). A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18%) and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%). “Known Provenance” samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:23894589

  18. Sediment Metal Concentration Survey Along the Mine-Affected Molonglo River, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wadige, Chamani P M Marasinghe; Taylor, Anne M; Krikowa, Frank; Maher, William A

    2016-04-01

    Metal concentrations were measured in sediments of the mine-affected Molonglo River to determine current metal concentrations and distribution along the river. Compared with an uncontaminated site at 6.5 km upstream of the Captains Flat mine, sediments collected from the river at ≤12.5 km distance below the mine had a significantly higher percentage of finely divided silt and clay with higher concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The measured metal concentrations in the mine affected sites of the river were in the following order: Zn = 697-6818 > Pb = 23-1796 > Cu = 10-628 > Cd = 0.13-8.7 µg/g dry mass. The highest recorded metal concentrations were Cd at 48, Cu at 45, Pb at 240, and Zn at 81 times higher than the background concentrations of these metals in the river sediments. A clear sediment metal-contamination gradient from the mine site to 63 km downstream was established for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the river sediments. Compared with sediment metal concentrations before a major flood in 2010, only Zn concentrations increased. For all of the mine-affected sites studied, Cd and Zn concentrations exceeded the (ANZECC/ARMCANZ, Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council/Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, 2000) interim sediment-quality guidelines low values for Cd (1.5 µg/g dry mass) and the high value for Zn (410 µg/g dry mass). Existing metal loads in the riverbed sediments may still be adversely affecting the river infauna. PMID:26795293

  19. Shoreface storm morphodynamics and mega-rip evolution at an embayed beach: Bondi Beach, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarroll, R. Jak; Brander, Robert W.; Turner, Ian L.; Leeuwen, Ben Van

    2016-03-01

    Embayed beach dynamics differ from open beaches due to the nature of headland control. Their resultant morphologies and morphodynamic behaviour are poorly understood due in part to a critical lack of surfzone and nearshore bathymetry observations. This study describes the morphodynamic storm response of a high-energy intermediate, 850 m long embayed beach over a three week period spanning a cluster of storms. A headland and subaqueous ridge protects the northern end of the beach, resulting in an alongshore wave height gradient. Contrary to existing beach state conceptual models, under energetic forcing the beach did not 'reset' or enter a 'cellular mega-rip' beach state. The protected northern end persisted in a low energy state, while the wave exposed southern section transitioned from transverse-bar-and-rip to a complex double-bar system, a process previously undescribed in the literature. Bar-rip morphology at the exposed end of the beach migrated offshore to greater depths, leaving an inner-reflective beach and longshore trough, while a mega-rip channel with 3 m relief developed at the exposed headland. The number of rip channels remained near constant over multiple storm events. Offshore sediment flux was 350 m3/m at the exposed headland and 20 m3/m at the protected end. Alongshore bathymetric non-uniformity decreased over the sub-aerial beach and inner surfzone, but increased in the outer surfzone and beyond. Suggested mechanisms for the persistence of 3D morphology during the cluster of storms include: (i) wave refraction to shore normal within the embayment; (ii) alongshore energy gradients; and (iii) pre-existing bar-rip morphology. Formation of the complex multi-bar state may be related to antecedent morphology, headland geometry, substrate gradient and localised hydrodynamic interactions near the headland. A new conceptual embayed beach state model is proposed for asymmetric, transitional embayed beaches. The model describes a pre-storm embayment where

  20. Who’s On Your Roots – Summary of Mycorrhiza Work from Northern NSW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry plants (Vaccinium) form beneficial associations with ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (EMF), yet there is almost no information concerning how these EMF influence the physiology of their host plants in horticultural production systems. Although Australia has several native ericaceous plants, main...

  1. Copper (II) lead (II), and zinc (II) reduce growth and zoospore release in four zoosporic true fungi from soils of NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Linda; Pilgaard, Bo; Gleason, Frank H; Lilje, Osu

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the responses of a group of four zoosporic true fungi isolated from soils in NSW Australia, to concentrations of toxic metals in the laboratory that may be found in polluted soils. All isolates showed greatest sensitivity to Cu and least sensitivity to Pb. All isolates showed significant reduction in growth at 60 ppm (0.94 mmol m(-3)) for Cu, while three declined significantly at 60 ppm (0.92 mmol m(-3)) Zn. The growth of two isolates declined significantly at 100 ppm (0.48 mmol m(-3)) Pb and one at 200 ppm (0.96 mmol m(-3)) Pb. The rate of production of zoospores for all isolates was reduced when sporangia were grown in solid PYG media with 60 ppm Cu. Three isolates significantly declined in production at 60 ppm Zn and three at 100 ppm Pb. All isolates recovered growth after incubation in solid media with 60 ppm Zn or 100 ppm Pb. Two isolates did not recover growth after incubation in 60 ppm Cu. If these metals cause similar effects in the field, Cu, Pb, and Zn contamination of NSW soils is likely to reduce biomass of zoosporic true fungi. Loss of the fungi may reduce the rate of mineralisation of soil organic matter. PMID:26058540

  2. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  3. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  4. A Descriptive Study on the Barriers and Facilitators to Implementation of the NSW (Australia) Healthy School Canteen Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardzejewska, K.; Tadros, R.; Baxter, D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators to, and the extent of the implementation of, the New South Wales (Australia) "Healthy School Canteen Strategy". Design: A purposeful sample was used and data were collected using a mixed method approach. Setting: Two primary and two secondary government schools from a low…

  5. Biotransference and biomagnification of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead in a temperate seagrass ecosystem from Lake Macquarie Estuary, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Barwick, M; Maher, W

    2003-10-01

    In this study the biotransference of selenium copper, cadmium, zinc, arsenic and lead was measured in a contaminated seagrass ecosystem in Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia, to determine if biomagnification of these trace metals is occurring and if they reach concentrations that pose a threat to the resident organisms or human consumers. Selenium was found to biomagnify, exceeding maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption within carnivorous fish tissue, the highest trophic level examined. Selenium concentrations measured within carnivorous fish were also above those shown to elicit sub-lethal effects in freshwater fish. As comparisons are made to selenium concentrations known to effect freshwater fish, inferences must be made with caution. There was no evidence of copper, cadmium, zinc or lead biomagnification within the food web examined. Copper, cadmium, zinc and lead concentrations were below concentrations shown to elicit adverse responses in biota. Copper concentrations within crustaceans M. bennettae and P. palagicus were found to exceed maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. It is likely that copper concentrations within these species were accumulated due to the essential nature of this trace metal for many species of molluscs and crustaceans. Arsenic showed some evidence of biomagnification. Total arsenic concentrations are similar to those found in other uncontaminated marine ecosystems, thus arsenic concentrations are unlikely to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms. Inorganic arsenic concentrations are below maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption. PMID:12860434

  6. Endmember identification from EO-1 Hyperion L1_R hyperspectral data to build saltmarsh spectral library in Hunter Wetland, NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sikdar M. M.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Ralph, Tim; Saintilan, Neil

    2015-10-01

    Saltmarsh is one of the important communities of wetlands, however, due to a range of pressures, it has been declared as an EEC (Ecological Endangered Community) in Australia. In order to correctly identify different saltmarsh species, development of spectral libraries of saltmarsh species is essential to monitor this EEC. Hyperspectral remote sensing, can explore the area of wetland monitoring and mapping. The benefits of Hyperion data to wetland monitoring have been studied at Hunter Wetland Park, NSW, Australia. After exclusion of bad bands from the original data, an atmospheric correction model was applied to minimize atmospheric effect and to retrieve apparent surface reflectance for different land cover. Large data dimensionality was reduced by Forward Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) algorithm. It was found that first 32 MNF band contains more than 80% information of the image. Pixel Purity Index (PPI) algorithm worked properly to extract pure pixel for water, builtup area and three vegetation Casuarina sp., Phragmitis sp. and green grass. The result showed it was challenging to extract extreme pure pixel for Sporobolus and Sarcocornia from the data due to coarse resolution (30 m) and small patch size (<3 m) of those vegetation on the ground . Spectral Angle Mapper, classified the image into five classes: Casuarina, Saltmarsh (Phragmitis), Green grass, Water and Builtup area with 43.55 % accuracy. This classification also failed to classify Sporobolus as a distinct group due to the same reason. A high spatial resolution airborne hyperspectral data and a new study site with a bigger patch of Sporobolus and Sarcocornia is proposed to overcome the issue.

  7. Venomous fish stings in tropical northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Isbister, G K

    2001-11-01

    Venomous fish stings are a common environment hazard worldwide. This study investigated the clinical effects and treatment of venomous fish stings. A prospective observational case series of patients presenting with venomous fish stings was conducted in tropical northern Australia. Twenty-two fish stings were included; subjects were 3 females and 19 males; mean age 35 (range 10-63). 9 by stingrays, 8 by catfish, 1 by a stonefish, 1 by a silver scat (Selenotocota multifasciata), and 3 by unknown fish. All patients had severe pain, but less commonly erythema, 3 cases (14%); swelling, 7 cases (33%); bleeding, 5 cases (24%); numbness, 4 cases (19%); and radiating pain, 3 cases (14%). Mild systemic effects occurred in one stingray injury. Treatment included hot water immersion, which was completely effective in 73% of cases, analgesia, wound exploration and prophylactic antibiotics. Stingray injuries should be explored and debrided with large wounds, while other stings only need appropriate cleaning. The routine use of antibiotics is not recommended. PMID:11699001

  8. Dynamic estuarine plumes and fronts: importance to small fish and plankton in coastal waters of NSW, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsford, M. J.; Suthers, I. M.

    1994-05-01

    In 1990, low density estuarine plumes in the vicinity of Botany Bay, Australia, extended up to 11 km across a narrow continental shelf ( ca 25 km) on ebb tides. The shape and seaward extent of plumes varied according to a combination of state of the tide, freshwater input and the direction and intensity of coastal currents. Offshore plumes dissipated on the flood tide and fronts reformed at the entrance of Botany Bay. Major differences in the abundance and composition of ichthyoplankton and other zooplankton were found over a 400-800 m stretch of water encompassing waters of the plume, front and ocean on seven occasions. For example, highest abundances of the fishes Gobiidae, Sillaginidae, Gerreidae and Sparidae as well as barnacle larvae and fish eggs were found in plumes. Cross-shelf distribution patterns of zooplankton, therefore, are influenced by plumes. Distinct assemblages of plankters accumulated in fronts, e.g. fishes of the Mugilidae and Gonorynchidae and other zooplankters (e.g. Jaxea sp.). Accumulation in fronts was variable and may relate to variable convergence according to the tide. We argue that plumes provide a significant cue to larvae in coastal waters that an estuary is nearby. Moreover, although many larvae may be retained in the turbid waters of plumes associated with riverine input, larvae are potentially exported in surface waters on ebb tides.

  9. Modelling the impacts of strategic tree plantings on salt loads and flows in the Macquarie river catchment, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Herron, Natasha; Davis, Richard; Dawes, Warrick; Evans, Ray

    2003-05-01

    In Australia, problems of dryland and stream salinity have recently become the focus of a National Action Plan. In many river catchments, preliminary stream salt load and salinity targets have been set to define maximum permissible export levels in 2015. Afforestation has been proposed as a strategy for meeting these targets, although several studies suggest that widespread commercial tree plantations are likely to deliver net dis-benefits. However, the impacts on stream salt loads of more localised tree plantings in high salt yielding areas have not been quantified. In this paper we use a simple empirical model to predict the effects of various strategic and non-strategic tree planting scenarios on flows and salt loads in the mid-Macquarie catchment, New South Wales. A simple salt routing model is then used to estimate the effect of these changes on salt loads at the end-of-valley monitoring site for the Macquarie catchment. Results suggest that widespread land management interventions will be required to meet the preliminary salt load targets for this catchment. On their own, small-scale, strategic tree planting in high salt export areas of the mid-Macquarie area will not have a significant impact on salt loads at the end-of-valley monitoring site. While widespread tree plantings may reduce salt loads in the longer term, they are likely to cause streamflow losses in the shorter term. Thus, stream salinities are expected to rise initially, due to the different response times of groundwater and surface water systems to land use change. PMID:12767861

  10. Evolution and Metallogenesis of the Great Serpentinite Belt in the New England Orogen, N.S.W. Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, R. J.; Buckman, S.; Nutman, A.

    2013-12-01

    Current tectonic interpretations of disrupted ophiolitic complexes and scattered HP/LT eclogite-blueschist blocks within the New England Orogen are still problematic due to limited or unreliable geochronological data. Ophiolitic, island-arc and accretionary complex terranes are contained or spatially associated within the 'alpine-type' Great Serpentinite Belt, which is controlled by the ~350km long, NNW-SSE orientated, Peel-Manning Fault System. The Cambro-Ordovician blocks within the mélange contrast with the Permian emplacement age for the serpentinite. Early Cambrian (530 Ma) ages of the igneous zircons extracted from plagiogranites and tonalities record the formation of the ophiolitic protolith making them the oldest rocks in eastern Australia (Aitchison et al., 1992 Geology v. 20). The timing of serpentinite emplacement is problematic. The minimum age is constrained by the stitching pluton of the Late Permian Moonbi Adamellite (256 × 4 Ma) and the presence of serpentinite clasts within adjacent Early? Permian Manning Group rocks. However, the maximum emplacement age is less well constrained and limited to the absence of serpentinite clasts in older adjacent Carboniferous sedimentary rocks, thereby suggesting the serpentinite belt was not exposed until the Early Permian. In this study we present zircon U-Pb dates and REE chemistry of an eclogite block in the serpentinite belt at Attunga. REE chemistry of the zircons shows an age of 492 × 13 Ma for high pressure metamorphism. Igneous inheritance in metamorphic zircon has an age of ~530 Ma. Titanium in zircon thermometry (zircon + rutile + quartz) indicate high pressure zircon growth at 650 - 700°C. This is higher than the previously calculated 290 - 600°C, which was based on the distribution of Fe and Mg between co-existing garnet and pyroxene (Shaw and Flood 1974, AJES v. 21). We interpret this block as being a portion of the metamorphic sole of the original ophiolite. Ongoing studies will further

  11. Flow characteristics of rivers in northern Australia: Implications for development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petheram, Cuan; McMahon, Thomas A.; Peel, Murray C.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryAnnual, monthly and daily streamflows from 99 unregulated rivers across northern Australia were analysed to assess the general surface water resources of the region and their implications for development. The potential for carry-over storages was assessed using the Gould-Dincer Gamma method, which utilises the mean, standard deviation, skewness and lag-one serial correlation coefficient of annual flows. Runs Analysis was used to describe the characteristics of drought in northern Australia and the potential for 'active' water harvesting was evaluated by Base Flow Separation, Flow Duration Curves and Spells Analysis. These parameters for northern Australia were compared with data from southern Australia and data for similar Köppen class from around the world. Notably, the variability and seasonality of annual streamflow across northern Australia were observed to be high compared with that of similar Köppen classes from the rest of the world (RoW). The high inter-annual variability of runoff means that carry-over storages in northern Australia will need to be considerably larger than for rivers from the RoW (assuming similar mean annual runoff, yield and reliability). For example, in the three major Köppen zones across the North, it was possible (theoretically) to only exploit approximately 33% (Köppen Aw; n = 6), 25% (Köppen BSh; n = 12) and 13% (Köppen BWh; n = 11) of mean annual streamflow (assuming a hypothetical storage size equal to the mean annual flow). Over 90% of north Australian rivers had a Base Flow Index of less than 0.4, 72% had negative annual lag-one autocorrelation values and in half the rivers sampled greater than 80% of the total flow occurred during the 3-month peak period. These data confirm that flow in the rivers of northern Australia is largely event driven and that the north Australian environment has limited natural storage capacity. Hence, there is relatively little opportunity in many northern rivers to actively harvest water

  12. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  13. Learning for Sustainability: NSW Environmental Education Plan, 2002-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document is the first three-year environmental education plan for New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The plan is guided by a vision to achieve effective and integrated environmental education which builds the capacity of the people of NSW to be informed and active participants in moving society towards sustainability. The plan's priority…

  14. Genetic epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Walton, S F; Dougall, A; Pizzutto, S; Holt, D; Taplin, D; Arlian, L G; Morgan, M; Currie, B J; Kemp, D J

    2004-06-01

    Utilising three hypervariable microsatellite markers we have previously shown that scabies mites on people are genetically distinct from those on dogs in sympatric populations in northern Australia. This had important ramifications on the formulation of public health control policies. In contrast phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial markers on scabies mites infecting multiple animal hosts elsewhere in the world could not differentiate any genetic variation between mite haplotype and host species. Here we further analyse the intra-specific relationship of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis with S. scabiei var. canis by using both mitochondrial DNA and an expanded nuclear microsatellite marker system. Phylogenetic studies using sequences from the mitochondrial genes coding for 16S rRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I demonstrated significant relationships between S. scabiei MtDNA haplotypes, host species and geographical location. Multi-locus genotyping using 15 microsatellite markers substantiated previous data that gene flow between scabies mite populations on human and dog hosts is extremely rare in northern Australia. These data clearly support our previous contention that control programs for human scabies in endemic areas with sympatric S. scabiei var. hominis and var. canis populations must focus on human-to-human transmission. The genetic division of dog and human derived scabies mites also has important implications in vaccine and diagnostic test development as well as the emergence and monitoring of drug resistance in S. scabiei in northern Australia. PMID:15157767

  15. Burkholderia pseudomallei Genotype Distribution in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Stephanie N J; Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; McRobb, Evan; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is a tropical disease of high mortality caused by the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. We have collected clinical isolates from the highly endemic Northern Territory of Australia routinely since 1989, and animal and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates since 1991. Here we provide a complete record of all B. pseudomallei multilocus sequence types (STs) found in the Northern Territory to date, and distribution maps of the eight most common environmental STs. We observed surprisingly restricted geographic distributions of STs, which is contrary to previous reports suggesting widespread environmental dissemination of this bacterium. Our data suggest that B. pseudomallei from soil and water does not frequently disperse long distances following severe weather events or by migration of infected animals. PMID:26526925

  16. Surveys of tidal river systems in the northern territory of Australia and their crocodile populations

    SciTech Connect

    Vorlicek, G.C.; Messel, H.; Green, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an update on the population dynamics of Crocodylus porous in the tidal waterways of Van Diemen Gulf and the Southern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, during 1984 and 1985. Contents: Prologue; Dedication; Introduction; Status of Crocodylus porous. July 1984, in the tidal waterways of the Alligator Region and in the Adelaide River System of Northern Australia: recovery underway; Resurvey of Crocodylus porous populations in the tidal waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, September - October 1985; Local knowledge - Northern Australia style.

  17. Indigenous values and water markets: Survey insights from northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakis, William D.; Grafton, R. Quentin; To, Hang

    2013-09-01

    Drawing upon on the literature on Indigenous values to water, water markets and the empirical findings from a survey of 120 Indigenous and non-Indigenous respondents across northern Australia, the paper makes important qualitative and statistical comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets. The study is the first comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets based on the same survey instrument. Key results from Indigenous respondents include: (1) water markets are held to be an acceptable approach to managing water; (2) markets must be carefully designed to protect customary and ecological values; (3) the allocation of water rights need to encompass equity considerations; and (4) water and land rights should not be separated even if this enhances efficiency, as it runs counter to Indigenous holistic values. Overall, the survey results provide the basis for a proposed adaptive decision loop, which allows decision makers to incorporate stakeholder values in water markets.

  18. Imported malaria in the Northern Territory, Australia--428 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Gray, Timothy J; Trauer, James M; Fairley, Merv; Krause, Vicki L; Markey, Peter G

    2012-03-01

    Malaria is a notifiable disease in Australia with an average of 600 notifications per year in returned travellers or newly arrived refugees, migrants and visitors. Although endemic disease has been eliminated from the tropical north of Australia, the region remains malaria receptive due to the presence of efficient mosquito vectors. This study analyses enhanced surveillance data collected by the Centre for Disease Control on all cases of malaria notified in the Northern Territory from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. There were 428 malaria episodes notified that occurred in 391 individuals with a median age of 26 years. Of these, 71.4% were male, 40.5% were Australian nationals and 38.0% were prescribed chemoprophylaxis. Primary infection consisted of 196 (51.3%) cases of Plasmodium falciparum, 165 (43.2%) P. vivax, 2 (0.5%) P. ovale, 1 (0.3%) P. malariae and 18 were mixed infections. There were 46 episodes of relapsed infection. Residents of non-malarious countries were most likely to have acquired primary infection in East Timor (40.6%), Papua New Guinea (27.8%), Indonesia (18.7%) and Africa (6.4%). Primary infection was diagnosed after a median 19 days (interquartile range (IQR) 7-69) after arrival in Australia for cases of P. vivax compared with 4 days for P. falciparum (IQR 2-11). Screening protocols led to the diagnosis of 27.2% of cases. Eighty-seven per cent of patients were admitted to hospital at the time of their malaria diagnosis with median duration of 3 days (IQR 2-4) and one patient died. Resettlement of people from endemic countries, as well as military and civilian activities, influences the prevailing notification rates and Plasmodium species type. PMID:23153087

  19. Sprite observations in the Northern Territory of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardman, Simon F.; Dowden, Richard L.; Brundell, James B.; Bahr, John L.; Kawasaki, Zen-Ichiro; Rodger, Craig J.

    2000-02-01

    Sprites, a form of brief luminous discharge in the upper atmosphere above a thunderstorm, were observed and imaged on two video cameras in Australia's Northern Territory. These were the first such ground-based observations made outside the United States. Sprite discharges typically took place between the altitudes of 50 km and 80 km and spanned an average width of 44 km. Many of the sprite events were of long duration, with an average of 145 ms. These spatial and temporal features were similar to those observed from the ground and the air in the United States. During the longer events, some luminous discharge elements were observed to decay as other new elements formed. As the new elements were often laterally displaced from the old, the sprites sometimes appeared to dance across the sky. This phenomenon has been observed in Colorado and named "dancing sprites." The lateral progression of sprite elements observed in the Northern Territory was overwhelmingly in one direction and covered distances of up to 90 km.

  20. ESR and U-series analyses of faunal material from Cuddie Springs, NSW, Australia: implications for the timing of the extinction of the Australian megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Rainer; Eggins, Stephen; Aubert, Maxime; Spooner, Nigel; Pike, Alistair W. G.; Müller, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    The timing and cause of late Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Australia are subjects of a debate that has become polarised by two vigorously defended views. One contends that the late Pleistocene extinction was a short event caused by humans colonising the Australian continent, whereas the other promotes a gradual demise of the fauna, over a period of at least 10-20 ka, due to a combination of climatic changes and ecological pressures by humans. Cuddie Springs is central to this debate as it is the only site known in continental Australia where archaeological and megafauna remains co-occur. We have analysed more than 60 bones and teeth from the site by laser ablation ICP-MS to determine U, and Th concentrations and distributions, and those with sufficiently high U concentrations were analysed for U-series isotopes. Twenty-nine teeth were analysed by ESR. These new results, as well as previously published geochronological data, contradict the hypothesis that the clastic sediments of Stratigraphic Unit 6 (SU6) are in primary context with the faunal, archaeological and other materials found in SU6, and that all have ages consistent with the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) estimates of 30-36 ka. These young OSL results were used to argue for a relatively recent age of the extinct fauna. Our results imply that SU6 is either significantly older than the OSL results, or that a large fraction of the faunal material and the charcoal found in SU6 was derived from older, lateral deposits. Our U and Th laser ablation ICPMS results as well as the REE profiles reported by Trueman et al. [2008. Comparing rates of recystallisation and the potential for preservation of biomolecules from the distribution of trace elements in fossil bones. C.R. Palevol. General Paleontology (Taphonomy and Fossilization) 7, 145-158] contradict the interpretation of previously reported rare earth element compositions of bones, and the argument based thereon for the primary context of faunal

  1. Bedload parting in western Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new style of bedload parting from western Torres Strait, northern Australia. Outputs from a hydrodynamic model identified an axis of bedload parting centred on the western Torres Strait islands (~142°15‧E). This bedload parting is similar to others documented from mixed tidal regimes as it is driven dominantly by the O1, K1 and M2 tidal constituents. However, parting is aided by overtides on the eastern, mixed semidiurnal side of the strait. Bedload parting is also strongly impacted by wind-driven currents. Wind-driven currents during the trade wind season lead to the average estimates of bedload transport to be directed west, through the strait, over the 8 year model duration. As a result, east and west directed bedload parting is only active during the monsoon season when the influence of wind-driven circulation is negligible. A simulation of bedload transport using a range of sediment grain sizes indicated that sediments with a grainsize greater than ~2 mm were transported in a direction consistent with tidally driven bedload parting, as opposed to residual wind-driven flow.

  2. Skin infections and infestations in Aboriginal communities in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Currie, B J; Carapetis, J R

    2000-08-01

    The most important skin infections in Aboriginal communities in central and northern Australia are scabies and streptococcal pyoderma. Scabies is endemic in many remote Aboriginal communities, with prevalences in children up to 50%. The cycles of scabies transmission underlie much of the pyoderma. Up to 70% of children have skin sores, with group A streptococcus (GAS) the major pathogen. Group A streptococcus is responsible for the continuing outbreaks of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis and acute rheumatic fever (ARF). The cycles of scabies transmission in dogs and humans do not appear to significantly overlap. Guidelines have been developed for community control of scabies and skin sores and successful community initiated coordinated programmes have occurred. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is ubiquitous in many communities, again reflecting living conditions. Other skin infections related to the tropical environment include melioidosis, nocardiosis, Chromobacterium violaceum and chromoblastomycosis. Sustainable and long-term improvements in scabies, skin sores and GAS-related disease and tinea require fundamental changes that address social and economic inequities and, in particular, living conditions and overcrowding. PMID:10954983

  3. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Neave, Matthew; Luter, Heidi; Padovan, Anna; Townsend, Simon; Schobben, Xavier; Gibb, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial source tracking is an area of research in which multiple approaches are used to identify the sources of elevated bacterial concentrations in recreational lakes and beaches. At our study location in Darwin, northern Australia, water quality in the harbor is generally good, however dry-season beach closures due to elevated Escherichia coli and enterococci counts are a cause for concern. The sources of these high bacteria counts are currently unknown. To address this, we sampled sewage outfalls, other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall (Larrakeyah discharge) was a source of bacteria, including fecal bacteria that impacted nearby beaches. Two other treated effluent discharges did not appear to influence sites other than those directly adjacent. Several beaches contained fecal indicator bacteria that likely originated from urban rivers and creeks within the catchment. Generally, connectivity between the sites was observed within distinct geographical locations and it appeared that most of the bacterial contamination on Darwin beaches was confined to local sources. PMID:25224738

  4. A new geoarchaeology of Aboriginal artefact deposits in western NSW, Australia: establishing spatial and temporal geomorphic controls on the surface archaeological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanning, Patricia C.; Holdaway, Simon J.; Rhodes, Ed J.

    2008-10-01

    Surface deposits of stone artefacts are the most common feature of the Australian Aboriginal archaeological record, but they remain difficult for archaeologists to interpret. Among the many reasons is a lack of understanding of geomorphic processes that have exposed the artefacts at the surface. We describe research on the geomorphic environments in arid Australia from which we have developed a new geoarchaeological framework for describing and analysing surface artefact deposits. Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating of sediments upon which the artefacts currently rest demonstrates that the landscape, and the archaeological record it preserves, is spatially and temporally discontinuous. Exposure and/or burial of artefacts is controlled by geomorphic processes operating on timescales ranging from a few decades to thousands of years and spatial scales of tens to many thousands of square meters. These same processes, operating on similar scales, also determine whether or not artefact scatters are preserved in the contemporary landscape or in the sedimentary record of past landscapes, and hence whether or not they become part of the archaeological record. Models of settlement behavior in hunter-gatherer peoples that are largely derived from analysis of surface 'sites' must take account of these discontinuities.

  5. Buruli Ulcer Disease in Travelers and Differentiation of Mycobacterium ulcerans Strains from Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Caroline J.; Globan, Maria; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Charles, Patrick G. P.; Jenkin, Grant A.; Ghosh, Niladri; Clark, Benjamin M.; Martinello, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing infection of skin and soft tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. In Australia, most cases of BU are linked to temperate, coastal Victoria and tropical, northern Queensland, and strains from these regions are distinguishable by variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing. We present an epidemiological investigation of five patients found to have been infected during interstate travel and describe two nucleotide polymorphisms that differentiate M. ulcerans strains from northern Australia. PMID:22875890

  6. A Trans-disciplinary Hydrogeological Systems Analysis Approach for Identifying and Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Options: Example from the Darling River Floodplain, N.S.W., Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, K.; Brodie, R. S.; Tan, K. P.; Halas, L.; Magee, J.; Gow, L.; Christensen, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Surface water availability and quality generally limits managed aquifer recharge (MAR) opportunities in inland Australia's highly salinized landscapes and groundwater systems. Economic factors also commonly limit MAR investigations to shallow freshwater groundwater systems near existing infrastructure. Aquifer opportunities lie mainly in zones of fresh groundwater in relatively thin fluvial sedimentary aquifer systems with highly variable hydraulic properties. As part of a broader strategy to identify water savings in the Murray-Darling Basin, the Broken Hill Managed Aquifer Recharge (BHMAR) project was tasked with identifying and assessing MAR and/or groundwater extraction options to reduce evaporative losses from existing surface water storages, secure Broken Hill's water supply, protect the local environment and heritage, and return water to the river system. A trans-disciplinary research approach was used to identify and assess MAR options across a broad area of the Darling River floodplain. This methodology enabled the team to recognise fundamental problems in discipline approaches, helped identify critical data gaps, led to significant innovation across discipline boundaries, was critical in the development of a new hydrogeological conceptual model, facilitated development of new models of landscape, geological and tectonic evolution of the study area, and enabled completion of pre-commissioning maximal and residual MAR risk assessments. An airborne electromagnetics (AEM) survey, acquired over a large (>7,500 sq km) area of the Darling Floodplain, enabled rapid identification of a multi-layer sequence of aquifers and aquitards, while a phased assessment methodology was developed to rapidly identify and assess over 30 potential MAR targets (largely in fresh groundwater zones within palaeochannels and at palaeochannel confluences). Hydraulic properties were confirmed by a 7.5 km drilling program (100 sonic and rotary mud holes), and complementary field

  7. Trace gas emissions from savanna fires in northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton-Walsh, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Forgan, B. W.; Wilson, S. R.; Jones, N. B.; Edwards, D. P.

    2010-08-01

    We present analyses of near-infrared ground-based Fourier transform infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from a site in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (12.4°S, 130.9°E) from August 2005 to June 2008. Total column amounts of carbon monoxide derived from these spectra show a very clear annual cycle, with evidence of transported pollution from Indonesian fires in 2006. Aerosol optical depth measurements from the same site show a similar annual cycle but without exceptional values in 2006, suggesting significant loss of aerosol loading in the transported and aged smoke. In addition, we report the first ever measurements by remote sensing solar Fourier transform infrared of emission ratios with respect to carbon monoxide for formaldehyde (0.022 ± 0.007), acetylene (0.0024 ± 0.0003), ethane (0.0020 ± 0.0003), and hydrogen cyanide (0.0018 ± 0.0003) from Australian savanna fires. These are derived from mid-infrared spectra recorded through smoke plumes over Darwin on 20 separate days. The only previous measurements of emission ratios for formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide from Australian savanna fires involved cryogenic trapping and storage of samples that were gathered in very fresh smoke. The results reported here are nearly an order of magnitude higher (but in agreement with laboratory studies), suggesting losses in the collection, storage, or transfer of the gases in the earlier measurements and/or chemical production of these reactive gases within the smoke plumes. Emission ratios for acetylene and ethane from this work are in broad agreement with other literature values.

  8. Quaternary coastal evolution and vegetation history of northern New South Wales, Australia, based on dinoflagellates and pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMinn, Andrew

    1992-11-01

    The Richmond River Valley of northern N.S.W. contains a late Pleistocene succession dating back to approximately 250,000 yr B.P. Dinoflagellate and spore-pollen assemblages from the lowest interval, the lower "Dungarubba Clay" of Drury (1982), indicate deposition in a restricted estuarine environment at approximately 250,000 yr. Deposition in the overlying interval, the upper "Dungarubba Clay" and "Gundurimba Clay", at approximately 120,000 yr B.P., began in a restricted estuary, but rising sea level caused inundation and deposition in a more open, marine-dominated environment. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the last interglaciation (stage 5) are interpreted by analogy with those from the morphologically similar, modern Broken Bay, N.S.W. They are indicative of an open, marine-dominated environment and imply that barrier formation in the Richmond River Valley, and possibly elsewhere in northern N.S.W., did not commence until after the initial postglacial transgression. Synchronous changes in sea level and rainforest development suggest that there was no significant time lag between climate and sea-level change.

  9. The Cosmology Distinction Course in NSW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollow, Robert P.; McAdam, W. B.; O'Byrne, J.; White, Graeme L.; Holmes, R.; Webb, J. K.; Allen, L. R.; Zealey, W. J.; Hafner, R.

    1994-04-01

    The Cosmology Distinction Course is a new one-year course to be introduced for Year 12 candidates in the 1994 Higher School Certificate (HSC) examinations in NSW. It is one of three challenging courses of study that will enrich the HSC for talented students who accelerate and complete part of the HSC one year early. The courses will be taught through distance learning and will include residential seminars. They will be implemented on behalf of the Board of Studies by Charles Sturt University and the University of New England. The Cosmology Course is organized into nine modules of course work covering historical and social aspects of cosmology, observational techniques, key observatons and the various models developed--Newtonian, de Sitter, Friedmann, Lemaitre, steady-state, quasi-steady-state and big bang. Assessment will be through assignments, exams and a major project. As the first Distinction Course in a scientific area, the Cosmology Course represents an exciting and important educational initiative that needs the cooperation of NSW astronomers and, in return, promises to benefit the astronomical and general scientific community in Australia.

  10. Modelling spatio-temporal patterns of long-distance Culicoides dispersal into northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Eagles, D; Walker, P J; Zalucki, M P; Durr, P A

    2013-07-01

    Novel arboviruses, including new serotypes of bluetongue virus, are isolated intermittently from cattle and insects in northern Australia. These viruses are thought to be introduced via windborne dispersal of Culicoides from neighbouring land masses to the north. We used the HYSPLIT particle dispersal model to simulate the spatio-temporal patterns of Culicoides dispersal into northern Australia from nine putative source sites across Indonesia, Timor-Leste and Papua New Guinea. Simulated dispersal was found to be possible from each site, with the islands of Timor and Sumba highlighted as the likely principal sources and February the predominant month of dispersal. The results of this study define the likely spatial extent of the source and arrival regions, the relative frequency of dispersal from the putative sources and the temporal nature of seasonal winds from source sites into arrival regions. Importantly, the methodology and results may be applicable to other insect and pathogen incursions into northern Australia. PMID:23642857

  11. STS-65 Earth observation of northern Australia (winter burning) from OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows late winter burning in northern Australia and the extreme northern coastal area that includes the Cobourg Peninsula, as well as Melville and Bathurst Islands. These fires were probably set intentionally to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. The very dark lowland areas on Melville Island represent mangrove woodland. In contrast to some other tropical regions (for example Madagascar and Indonesia), no soil erosion (sediment plumes) is visible in this photograph.

  12. Phylogenetically distinct Staphylococcus aureus lineage prevalent among indigenous communities in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jacklyn W S; Holt, Deborah C; Lilliebridge, Rachael A; Stephens, Alex J; Huygens, Flavia; Tong, Steven Y C; Currie, Bart J; Giffard, Philip M

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to determine the evolutionary position of the Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 75 (CC75) that is prevalent in tropical northern Australia. Sequencing of gap, rpoB, sodA, tuf, and hsp60 and the multilocus sequence typing loci revealed a clear separation between conventional S. aureus and CC75 and significant diversity within CC75. PMID:19420161

  13. Hearing Parents' and Carers' Voices: Experiences of Accessing Quality Long Day Care in Northern Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nonie; Tinning, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores parents' and carers' experiences of accessing quality long day care in northern regional Australia. The data was gathered in 2009, after the collapse of ABC Developmental Learning Centres (herein referred to as ABC Learning) and before the implementation of the "National Quality Framework," and provides a snapshot of…

  14. Examining the Impact of ABRACADABRA on Early Literacy in Northern Australia: An Implementation Fidelity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Abrami, Philip C.; Helmer, Janet; Savage, Robert; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess

    2014-01-01

    To address students' poor literacy outcomes, an intervention using a computer-based literacy tool, ABRACADABRA, was implemented in 6 Northern Australia primary schools. A pretest, posttest parallel group, single blind multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted with 308 students between the ages of 4 and 8 years old (M age =…

  15. Drinking & Congenital Birth Defects: Alcohol Awareness in the Northern Rivers Region of New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony; Dip, Grad; Kean, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Guidelines developed to minimise the risk of harm associated with alcohol consumption in Australia focus on promoting population health by changing cultural attitudes. This research study was conducted to uncover attitudes toward maternal drinking and awareness of alcohol-related birth defects within the semi-rural Northern Rivers area of…

  16. To Be Transformed: Emotions in Cross-Cultural, Field-Based Learning in Northern Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sarah; Hodge, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Students undertaking field-based learning, in which they work with Indigenous people in Northern Australia, describe a profound learning experience redolent with emotion. Inspired, challenged and transformed, the students are compelled in ways that require them to interrogate their own selves and taken-for-granted beliefs. In this paper, we draw…

  17. Tropospheric carbon monoxide and hydrogen measurements over Kalimantan in Indonesia and northern Australia during October, 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Tsutsumi, Yukitomo; Jensen, Jørgen B.; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Makino, Yukio

    During the PACE-5 campaign over Australia and Indonesia in October 1997, we used an aircraft to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). Latitudinal distributions of CO and H2 clearly showed a large increase from northern Australia to Kalimantan in Indonesia. Elevated CO levels over northern Australia were observed only in the smoke plumes of savanna fires. A thick smoke haze from forest fires over Kalimantan contained very high CO mixing ratios of 3 to 9 ppm. These enhanced CO mixing ratios correlated well with increased concentrations of H2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and aerosols. Emission ratios from biomass burning in Kalimantan ranged 0.06 0.1 for H2/CO (ppb/ppb), 0.0002 to 0.0005 for NOx/CO (ppb/ppb), and 0.43 to 1.0 for number of aerosols/CO (cm-3/ppb). These values were much lower than emission ratios in northern Australia. This difference suggests that the biomass burning in Indonesia was intense and that, due to a strong El Niño event, an unique composition of trace gases was formed in the smoke haze.

  18. Correlates of Recent Declines of Rodents in Northern and Southern Australia: Habitat Structure Is Critical

    PubMed Central

    Lawes, Michael J.; Fisher, Diana O.; Johnson, Chris N.; Blomberg, Simon P.; Frank, Anke S. K.; Fritz, Susanne A.; McCallum, Hamish; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Abbott, Brett N.; Legge, Sarah; Letnic, Mike; Thomas, Colette R.; Thurgate, Nikki; Fisher, Alaric; Gordon, Iain J.; Kutt, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced dramatic declines and extinctions of its native rodent species over the last 200 years, particularly in southern Australia. In the tropical savanna of northern Australia significant declines have occurred only in recent decades. The later onset of these declines suggests that the causes may differ from earlier declines in the south. We examine potential regional effects (northern versus southern Australia) on biological and ecological correlates of range decline in Australian rodents. We demonstrate that rodent declines have been greater in the south than in the tropical north, are strongly influenced by phylogeny, and are consistently greater for species inhabiting relatively open or sparsely vegetated habitat. Unlike in marsupials, where some species have much larger body size than rodents, body mass was not an important predictor of decline in rodents. All Australian rodent species are within the prey-size range of cats (throughout the continent) and red foxes (in the south). Contrary to the hypothesis that mammal declines are related directly to ecosystem productivity (annual rainfall), our results are consistent with the hypothesis that disturbances such as fire and grazing, which occur in non-rainforest habitats and remove cover used by rodents for shelter, nesting and foraging, increase predation risk. We agree with calls to introduce conservation management that limits the size and intensity of fires, increases fire patchiness and reduces grazing impacts at ecological scales appropriate for rodents. Controlling feral predators, even creating predator-free reserves in relatively sparsely-vegetated habitats, is urgently required to ensure the survival of rodent species, particularly in northern Australia where declines are not yet as severe as those in the south. PMID:26111037

  19. Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Northern Australia, a Land of Diversity

    PubMed Central

    McRobb, Evan; Kaestli, Mirjam; Price, Erin P.; Sarovich, Derek S.; Mayo, Mark; Warner, Jeffrey; Spratt, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative soil bacillus that is the etiological agent of melioidosis and a biothreat agent. Little is known about the biogeography of this bacterium in Australia, despite its hyperendemicity in the northern region of this continent. The population structure of 953 Australian B. pseudomallei strains representing 779 and 174 isolates of clinical and environmental origins, respectively, was analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Bayesian population structure and network SplitsTree analyses were performed on concatenated MLST loci, and sequence type (ST) diversity and evenness were examined using Simpson's and Pielou's indices and a multivariate dissimilarity matrix. Bayesian analysis found two B. pseudomallei populations in Australia that were geographically distinct; isolates from the Northern Territory were grouped mainly into the first population, whereas the majority of isolates from Queensland were grouped in a second population. Differences in ST evenness were observed between sampling areas, confirming that B. pseudomallei is widespread and established across northern Australia, with a large number of fragmented habitats. ST analysis showed that B. pseudomallei populations diversified as the sampling area increased. This observation was in contrast to smaller sampling areas where a few STs predominated, suggesting that B. pseudomallei populations are ecologically established and not frequently dispersed. Interestingly, there was no identifiable ST bias between clinical and environmental isolates, suggesting the potential for all culturable B. pseudomallei isolates to cause disease. Our findings have important implications for understanding the ecology of B. pseudomallei in Australia and for potential source attribution of this bacterium in the event of unexpected cases of melioidosis. PMID:24657869

  20. Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in northern Australia, a land of diversity.

    PubMed

    McRobb, Evan; Kaestli, Mirjam; Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Mayo, Mark; Warner, Jeffrey; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J

    2014-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative soil bacillus that is the etiological agent of melioidosis and a biothreat agent. Little is known about the biogeography of this bacterium in Australia, despite its hyperendemicity in the northern region of this continent. The population structure of 953 Australian B. pseudomallei strains representing 779 and 174 isolates of clinical and environmental origins, respectively, was analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Bayesian population structure and network SplitsTree analyses were performed on concatenated MLST loci, and sequence type (ST) diversity and evenness were examined using Simpson's and Pielou's indices and a multivariate dissimilarity matrix. Bayesian analysis found two B. pseudomallei populations in Australia that were geographically distinct; isolates from the Northern Territory were grouped mainly into the first population, whereas the majority of isolates from Queensland were grouped in a second population. Differences in ST evenness were observed between sampling areas, confirming that B. pseudomallei is widespread and established across northern Australia, with a large number of fragmented habitats. ST analysis showed that B. pseudomallei populations diversified as the sampling area increased. This observation was in contrast to smaller sampling areas where a few STs predominated, suggesting that B. pseudomallei populations are ecologically established and not frequently dispersed. Interestingly, there was no identifiable ST bias between clinical and environmental isolates, suggesting the potential for all culturable B. pseudomallei isolates to cause disease. Our findings have important implications for understanding the ecology of B. pseudomallei in Australia and for potential source attribution of this bacterium in the event of unexpected cases of melioidosis. PMID:24657869

  1. Teachers Make a Difference to the Study of Aboriginal Music in NSW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Anne; Bradley, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Australian Indigenous music and culture are in the foreground when Australia celebrates itself in international contexts but their inclusion in the school curriculum is sporadic. In New South Wales (NSW), high school music teachers are responsible for educating students about Aboriginal music(s) and culture(s) within a mandatory focus on…

  2. Death by a Thousand Cuts: Indigenous Language Bilingual Education Programmes in the Northern Territory of Australia, 1972-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Territory's bilingual education programmes, in which local Australian Aboriginal languages and English were used side by side in a minority of Aboriginal primary schools in remote northern Australia, came into being in 1973 under the broader federal government policy imprimatur of "self-determination" for Indigenous Australians. These…

  3. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  4. Reactivated tectonic boundaries and implications for the reconstruction of southeastern Australia and northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.A.; Gleadow, A.J.W. )

    1992-03-01

    Rifted continental margins are strongly influenced by the location of zones of preexisting crustal weakness. Apatite fission track thermochronological data indicate that the Paleozoic lithospheric boundary between the Kanmantoo and Lachlan fold belts in western Victoria, Australia, was reactivated during Mesozoic rifting as a transfer fault. To the east of this boundary, 1-2 km of material was denuded during extension, while essentially no denudation took place during rifting to the west. The correlated tectonic boundary within the Bowers terrane of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, was also reactivated upon rifting. During fragmentation of Gondwana, movement on this zone perpendicular to the direction of rifting probably determined the location of the Tasman Fracture Zone. When Australia and Antarctica are reconstructed along the trace of the Tasman Fracture Zone, the tectonic boundary in Victoria falls into precise alignment with the Bowers terrane.

  5. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. ... variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color ...

  6. Crustal Structure of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia using Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Suhardjono, S.; Harjadi, P.

    2013-12-01

    We image Southeast Asia and the northern part of Australia by cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at over 500 stations. The group velocities are measured through applying narrow band filters on the retrieved Rayleigh wave Green's functions and used in a probabilistic tomographic approach to map the velocity structure of the region. The inverted images from 8 seconds to 40 seconds show details of the seismic structure of the region beneath the Indonesian archipelago, South China Sea, and northern shelf of Australia, including the boundaries of the oceanic lithosphere. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography is used to invert the traveltimes of Green's functions for periods between 8 and 40 seconds. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography does not require an explicit choice of smoothing, damping or grid parameterization; the resolution if the solution instead varies spatially and is determined by the data. By sampling the resulting tomographic images at different spatial points, we construct the group velocity dispersion curves. These curves are later inverted, again with a transdimensional Bayesian approach, to create the 2D shear wave velocity distrbition of the region. Various features are imaged, including low-velocity sedimentary basins at shallow depth and high velocities associated with the ongoing subduction of the Australian lithosphere beneath the Sunda Plate.

  7. Crustal Structure of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia from Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Suhardjono, Suhardjono; Harjadi, Prih

    2014-05-01

    We image Southeast Asia and the northern part of Australia by cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at over 500 stations. The group velocities are measured through applying narrow band filters on the retrieved Rayleigh wave Green's functions and used in a probabilistic tomographic approach to map the velocity structure of the region. The inverted images from 8 seconds to 40 seconds show details of the seismic structure of the region beneath the Indonesian archipelago, South China Sea, and northern shelf of Australia, including the boundaries of the oceanic lithosphere. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography is used to invert the traveltimes of Green's functions for periods between 8 and 40 seconds. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography does not require an explicit choice of smoothing, damping or grid parameterization; the resolution if the solution instead varies spatially and is determined by the data. By sampling the resulting tomographic images at different spatial points, we construct the group velocity dispersion curves. These curves are later inverted, again with a transdimensional Bayesian approach, to create the 2D shear wave velocity distribution of the region. Various features are imaged, including low-velocity sedimentary basins at shallow depth and high velocities associated with the ongoing subduction of the Australian lithosphere beneath the Sunda Plate.

  8. Photochemical production of O3 in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer over northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Ko, M.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Hu, W.; Scott, C.; Kawakami, S.; Miyazaki, Y.; Russell-Smith, J.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-05-01

    In situ aircraft measurements of ozone (O3) and its precursors were made over northern Australia in August-September 1999 during the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment Phase B (BIBLE-B). A clear positive correlation of O3 with carbon monoxide (CO) was found in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer (<3 km). The ΔO3/ΔCO ratio (linear regression slope of O3-CO correlation) is found to be 0.12 ppbv/ppbv, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.15 ppbv/ppbv observed at 0-4 km over the Amazon and Africa in previous studies. The net flux of O3 exported from northern Australia during BIBLE-B is estimated to be 0.3 Gmol O3/day. In the biomass burning region, large enhancements of O3 were coincident with the locations of biomass burning hot spots, suggesting that major O3 production occurred near fires (horizontal scale <50 km).

  9. Estimating the financial risks of Andropogon gayanus to greenhouse gas abatement projects in northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Setterfield, Samantha A.

    2013-06-01

    Financial mechanisms such as offsets are one strategy to abate greenhouse gas emissions, and the carbon market is expanding with a growing demand for offset products. However, in the case of carbon offsets, if the carbon is released due to intentional or unintentional reversal through environmental events such as fire, the financial liability to replace lost offsets will likely fall on the provider. This liability may have implications for future participation in programmes, but common strategies such as buffer pool and insurance products can be used to minimize this liability. In order for these strategies to be effective, an understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of expected reversals is needed. We use the case study of savanna burning, an approved greenhouse gas abatement methodology under the Carbon Farming Initiative in Australia, to examine potential risks to carbon markets in northern Australia and quantify the financial risks. We focus our analysis on the threat of Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) to savanna burning due to its documented impacts of increased fuel loads and altered fire regimes. We assess the spatial and financial extent to which gamba grass poses a risk to savanna burning programmes in northern Australia. We find that 75% of the eligible area for savanna burning is spatially coincident with the high suitability range for gamba grass. Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of gamba grass seriously impacts the financial viability of savanna burning projects. For example, in order to recuperate the annual costs of controlling 1 ha of gamba grass infestation, 290 ha of land must be enrolled in annual carbon abatement credits. Our results show an immediate need to contain gamba grass to its current extent to avoid future spread into large expanses of land, which are currently profitable for savanna burning.

  10. Predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Aboriginal tobacco smokers of reproductive age in regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia: quantitative and qualitative findings of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the predictors of intentions to quit smoking in a community sample of Aboriginal smokers of reproductive age, in whom smoking prevalence is slow to decline. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey involved 121 Aboriginal smokers, aged 18–45 years from January to May 2014, interviewed at community events on the Mid-North Coast NSW. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected on smoking and quitting attitudes, behaviours and home smoking rules. Perceived efficacy for quitting, and perceived threat from smoking, were uniquely assessed with a validated Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) Scale. Main outcome measures Logistic regression explored the impact of perceived efficacy, perceived threat and consulting previously with a doctor or health professional (HP) on self-reported intentions to quit smoking, controlling for potential confounders, that is, protection responses and fear control responses, home smoking rules, gender and age. Participants’ comments regarding smoking and quitting were investigated via inductive analysis, with the assistance of Aboriginal researchers. Results Two-thirds of smokers intended to quit within 3 months. Perceived efficacy (OR=4.8; 95% CI 1.78 to 12.93) and consulting previously with a doctor/HP about quitting (OR=3.82; 95% CI 1.43 to 10.2) were significant predictors of intentions to quit. ‘Smoking is not doing harm right now’ was inversely associated with quit intentions (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.8). Among those who reported making a quit attempt, after consulting with a doctor/HP, 40% (22/60) rated the professional support received as low (0–2/10). Qualitative themes were: the negatives of smoking (ie, disgust, regret, dependence and stigma), health effects and awareness, quitting, denial, ‘smoking helps me cope’ and social aspects of smoking. Conclusions Perceived efficacy and consulting with a doctor/HP about quitting may be important predictors of intentions to quit

  11. A geospatial evaluation of Aedes vigilax larval control efforts across a coastal wetland, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, N; Whelan, P I; Carter, J M; Jacups, S P

    2009-12-01

    Adjacent to the northern suburbs of Darwin is a coastal wetland that contains important larval habitats for Aedes vigilax (Skuse), the northern salt marsh mosquito. This species is a vector for Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus, as well as an appreciable human pest. In order to improve aerial larval control efforts, we sought to identify the most important vegetation categories and climatic/seasonal aspects associated with control operations in these wetlands. By using a generalized linear model to compare aerial control for each vegetation category, we found that Schoenoplectus/mangrove areas require the greatest amount of control for tide-only events (30.1%), and also extensive control for tide and rain events coinciding (18.2%). Our results further indicate that tide-affected reticulate vegetation indicated by the marsh grasses Sporobolus virginicus and Xerochloa imberbis require extensive control for Ae. vigilax larvae after rain-only events (44.7%), and tide and rain events coinciding (38.0%). The analyses of vector control efforts by month indicated that September to January, with a peak in November and December, required the most control. A companion paper identifies the vegetation categories most associated with Aedes vigilax larvae population densities in the coastal wetland. To maximize the efficiency of aerial salt marsh mosquito control operations in northern Australia, aerial control efforts should concentrate on the vegetation categories with high larval densities between September and January. PMID:20836835

  12. High burden of invasive group A streptococcal disease in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R; Patel, M; Currie, B J; Holt, D C; Harris, T; Krause, V

    2016-04-01

    Although the incidence of invasive group A streptococcal disease in northern Australia is very high, little is known of the regional epidemiology and molecular characteristics. We conducted a case series of Northern Territory residents reported between 2011 and 2013 with Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from a normally sterile site. Of the 128 reported episodes, the incidence was disproportionately high in the Indigenous population at 69·7/100 000 compared to 8·8/100 000 in the non-Indigenous population. Novel to the Northern Territory is the extremely high incidence in haemodialysis patients of 2205·9/100 000 population; and for whom targeted infection control measures could prevent transmission. The incidences in the tropical north and semi-arid Central Australian regions were similar. Case fatality was 8% (10/128) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurred in 14 (11%) episodes. Molecular typing of 82 isolates identified 28 emm types, of which 63 (77%) were represented by four emm clusters. Typing confirmed transmission between infant twins. While the diverse range of emm types presents a challenge for effective coverage by vaccine formulations, the limited number of emm clusters raises optimism should cluster-specific cross-protection prove efficacious. Further studies are required to determine effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis for contacts and to inform public health response. PMID:26364646

  13. Sustainable management for rangelands in a variable climate: evidence and insights from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Reagain, P J; Scanlan, J C

    2013-03-01

    Inter-annual rainfall variability is a major challenge to sustainable and productive grazing management on rangelands. In Australia, rainfall variability is particularly pronounced and failure to manage appropriately leads to major economic loss and environmental degradation. Recommended strategies to manage sustainably include stocking at long-term carrying capacity (LTCC) or varying stock numbers with forage availability. These strategies are conceptually simple but difficult to implement, given the scale and spatial heterogeneity of grazing properties and the uncertainty of the climate. This paper presents learnings and insights from northern Australia gained from research and modelling on managing for rainfall variability. A method to objectively estimate LTCC in large, heterogeneous paddocks is discussed, and guidelines and tools to tactically adjust stocking rates are presented. The possible use of seasonal climate forecasts (SCF) in management is also considered. Results from a 13-year grazing trial in Queensland show that constant stocking at LTCC was far more profitable and largely maintained land condition compared with heavy stocking (HSR). Variable stocking (VAR) with or without the use of SCF was marginally more profitable, but income variability was greater and land condition poorer than constant stocking at LTCC. Two commercial scale trials in the Northern Territory with breeder cows highlighted the practical difficulties of variable stocking and provided evidence that heavier pasture utilisation rates depress reproductive performance. Simulation modelling across a range of regions in northern Australia also showed a decline in resource condition and profitability under heavy stocking rates. Modelling further suggested that the relative value of variable v. constant stocking depends on stocking rate and land condition. Importantly, variable stocking may possibly allow slightly higher stocking rates without pasture degradation. Enterprise

  14. Evolution of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 in Northern Australia over 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Ritchie, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Melville, Lorna; Flanagan, David; Davis, Steven; Hunt, Neville; Weir, Richard

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV 1) was first isolated in Australia from cattle blood collected in 1979 at Beatrice Hill Farm (BHF), Northern Territory (NT). From long-term surveillance programs (1977 to 2011), 2,487 isolations of 10 BTV serotypes were made. The most frequently isolated serotype was BTV 1 (41%, 1,019) followed by BTV 16 (17.5%, 436) and BTV 20 (14%, 348). In 3 years, no BTVs were isolated, and in 12 years, no BTV 1 was isolated. Seventeen BTV 1 isolates were sequenced and analyzed in comparison with 10 Australian prototype serotypes. BTV 1 showed an episodic pattern of evolutionary change characterized by four distinct periods. Each period consisted primarily of slow genetic drift which was punctuated from time to time by genetic shifts generated by segment reassortment and the introduction of new genome segments. Evidence was found for coevolution of BTV genome segments. Evolutionary dynamics and selection pressure estimates showed strong temporal and clock-like molecular evolutionary dynamics of six Australian BTV genome segments. Bayesian coalescent estimates of mean substitution rates clustered in the range of 3.5 × 10−4 to 5.3 × 10−4 substitutions per site per year. All BTV genome segments evolved under strong purifying (negative) selection, with only three sites identified as under pervasive diversifying (positive) selection. The obligate replication in alternate hosts (insect vector and vertebrate hosts) imposed strong evolutionary constraints. The dominant mechanism generating genetic diversity of BTV 1 at BHF was through the introduction of new viruses and reassortment of genome segments with existing viruses. IMPORTANCE Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue disease in ruminants. It is a disease of concern globally and is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides species). Analysis of the evolutionary and selection pressures on BTV 1 at a single surveillance site in northern Australia showed strong

  15. Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Examines educational provisions for ethnic and racial groups in Australia, comprised primarily of the aborigines and the migrants or non-English speaking immigrants. Discussion of the official policies of "self determination" and "multiculturalism" emphasizes the important differences between the two and the considerations given them by the…

  16. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  17. What Can We Learn from "Innovative" Child Care Services? Children's Services Purposes and Practices in Australia's Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasoli, Lyn; Moss, Bonita

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the diversity of services designed for young children currently operating in Australia in remote Northern Territory (NT) Indigenous communities as a provocation for the renewal and revitalisation of mainstream (typical Australian conventional, Western values oriented and urban-based) child care services. Australian society…

  18. Amelia Creek, Northern Territory, Australia: A 20 x 12 km Oblique Impact Structure with No Central Uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, F. A.; Mitchell, K.

    2003-02-01

    The Amelia Creek Structure is located in the Davenport Ranges of the Northern Territory, Australia at lat. 20 deg. 55 sec.S, long. 134 deg. 50 sec.E. Shock metamorphic features are developed on the southern, downrange side of the structure. No central uplift is developed and the dimensions of the impact structure are at least 20 X 12 km.

  19. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  20. Numerical simulation of the October 2002 dust event in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yaping; Leys, John F.; McTainsh, Grant H.; Tews, Kenn

    2007-04-01

    In comparison to the major dust sources in the Northern Hemisphere, Australia is a relatively minor contributor to the global dust budget. However, severe dust storms do occur in Australia, especially in drought years. In this study, we simulate the 22-23 October 2002 dust storm using an integrated dust model, which is probably the most severe dust storm in Australia in at least the past 40 years. The model results are compared with synoptic visibility data and satellite images and for several stations, with high-volume sampler measurements. The model simulations are then used to estimate dust load, emission, and deposition, both for over the continent and for over the ocean. The main dust sources and sinks are identified. Dust sources include the desert areas in northern South Australia, the grazing lands in western New South Wales (NSW), and the farm lands in NSW, Victoria, and Western Australia, as well as areas in Queensland and Northern Territory. The desert areas appear to be the strongest source. The maximum dust emission is around 2000 μg m-2 s-1, and the maximum net dust emission is around 500 μg m-2 s-1. The total amount of dust eroded from the Australian continent during this dust event is around 95.8 Mt, of which 93.67 Mt is deposited on the continent and 2.13 Mt in the ocean. The maximum total dust load over the simulation domain is around 5 Mt. The magnitude of this Australian dust storm corresponds to a northeast Asian dust storm of moderate size.

  1. Discrete fracture simulations of the hydrogeology at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is studying the Alligator Rivers Natural Analogue Project site at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia to investigate and simulate radionuclide migration in fractured rocks. Discrete fracture simulations were conducted within a cubic volume (180-m edge length) of fractured Cahill Formation schist oriented with one major axis parallel to the trend of the Koongarra Fault. Five hundred fractures are simulated within this domain. The fractures have a mean orientation parallel to the idealized plane of the Koongarra Fault dipping 55{degrees} SE. Simple flow modeling of this fracture network was conducted by assigning constant head boundaries to upgradient and downgradient vertical faces of the cube, which trend parallel to the fault. No-flow boundaries were assigned to all other faces. The fracture network allows hydraulic communication across the block, in spite of relatively low fracture density across the block.

  2. Natural-series radionuclides in traditional aboriginal foods in tropical northern Australia: a review.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul; Ryan, Bruce

    2004-02-26

    This paper gives a review of available information on natural-series radionuclides in traditional Aboriginal foods of northern Australia. Research on this topic has been carried out primarily for radiological impact assessment purposes in relation to uranium mining activities in the region. Many of the studies have concentrated on providing purely concentration data or concentration ratios, although more detailed uptake studies have been undertaken for freshwater mussels, turtles, and water lilies. The most-studied radionuclides are 238U and 226Ra. However, dose estimates based on current data highlight the importance of 210Po, particularly for the natural (nonmining-related) dose. Data on uptake by terrestrial flora and fauna are scarce in comparison with aquatic organisms, and this knowledge gap will need to be addressed in relation to planning for uranium minesite rehabilitation. PMID:15004321

  3. Statistical analysis of the temperature records for the Northern Territory of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretti, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    The Northern Territory of Australia has a unique situation of an extension larger than France and a population of 200,000, with only three meteorology stations open for more than 40 years, Darwin (DW), Alice Springs (AS) and Tennant Creek, and only two of them, DW and AS, providing data over 100 years, and from 500 to more than 1,000 km separating these stations and the stations in the neighbouring states of Australia. Homogenizations of data in between different measuring sites for the same location as well as the way to derive the missed data to complete at least 100 years from the neighbouring locations are analysed in details and the effects on the temperature trends are straightforwardly investigated. Using properly homogenised data over 130 years and a linear fitting, the warming maximum and minimum temperatures are +0.009 and +0.057 °C/10 years for Alice Springs and -0.025 and 0.064 °C/10 years for Darwin. With the data available, the only option to produce warming trends is to overweight the cold years in the middle of the 1970s and the subsequent return to warmer temperatures. Starting from 1980, to compute trends, there is still a clear warming in Alice Springs, but also clear cooling in Tennant Creek, and a mixed behaviour with warming maximum temperatures and cooling minimum temperatures in Darwin.

  4. First report of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Phasey, Jordan; Boland, Tony; Ryan, Una

    2016-03-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Northern Territory in Australia was conducted. Fecal samples were collected from adult farmed (n = 50) and wild buffalo (n = 50) and screened using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR). Positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S nested PCR products. The qPCR prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo was 30 and 12 %, respectively. Sequence analysis identified two species: C. parvum and C. bovis, with C. parvum accounting for ~80 % of positives typed from the farmed buffalo fecal samples compared to 50 % for wild buffalo. Subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified C. parvum subtypes IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1) in the farmed buffalo and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 2) in the wild buffalo. The presence of C. parvum, which commonly infects humans, suggests that water buffaloes may contribute to contamination of rivers and waterways with human infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, and further research on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in buffalo populations in Australia is required. PMID:26758449

  5. Landscape Changes Influence the Occurrence of the Melioidosis Bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Harrington, Glenda; Ward, Linda; Watt, Felicity; Hill, Jason V.; Cheng, Allen C.; Currie, Bart J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The soil-dwelling saprophyte bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals in southeast Asia and northern Australia. Despite the detection of B. pseudomallei in various soil and water samples from endemic areas, the environmental habitat of B. pseudomallei remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a large survey in the Darwin area in tropical Australia and screened 809 soil samples for the presence of these bacteria. B. pseudomallei were detected by using a recently developed and validated protocol involving soil DNA extraction and real-time PCR targeting the B. pseudomallei–specific Type III Secretion System TTS1 gene cluster. Statistical analyses such as multivariable cluster logistic regression and principal component analysis were performed to assess the association of B. pseudomallei with environmental factors. The combination of factors describing the habitat of B. pseudomallei differed between undisturbed sites and environmentally manipulated areas. At undisturbed sites, the occurrence of B. pseudomallei was found to be significantly associated with areas rich in grasses, whereas at environmentally disturbed sites, B. pseudomallei was associated with the presence of livestock animals, lower soil pH and different combinations of soil texture and colour. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to the elucidation of environmental factors influencing the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and raises concerns that B. pseudomallei may spread due to changes in land use. PMID:19156200

  6. A Retrospective Case-Series of Children With Bone and Joint Infection From Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Brischetto, Anna; Leung, Grace; Marshall, Catherine S; Bowen, Asha C

    2016-02-01

    Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide.A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection.Seventy-nine patients were identified, of whom 57 (72%) had osteomyelitis ± associated septic arthritis and 22 (28%) had septic arthritis alone. Sixty (76%) were indigenous Australians. The incidence rate of osteomyelitis for indigenous children was 82 per 100,000 children. Staphylococcus aureus was the confirmed pathogen in 43/79 (54%), of which 17/43 (40%) were methicillin resistant. Median length of stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 10-31 days) and median length of IV antibiotics was 15 days (interquartile range: 6-24 days). Fifty-six (71%) required at least 1 surgical procedure. Relapse within 12 months was documented in 12 (15%) patients.We report 3 key findings: osteomyelitis incidence in indigenous children of northern Australia is amongst the highest reported in the world; methicillin-resistant S aureus accounts for 36% of osteomyelitis with a positive microbiological diagnosis; and the severity of disease requires extended antibiotic therapy. Despite this, 15% of the cohort relapsed within 12 months and required readmission. PMID:26937926

  7. A Retrospective Case-Series of Children With Bone and Joint Infection From Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Brischetto, Anna; Leung, Grace; Marshall, Catherine S.; Bowen, Asha C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide. A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection. Seventy-nine patients were identified, of whom 57 (72%) had osteomyelitis ± associated septic arthritis and 22 (28%) had septic arthritis alone. Sixty (76%) were indigenous Australians. The incidence rate of osteomyelitis for indigenous children was 82 per 100,000 children. Staphylococcus aureus was the confirmed pathogen in 43/79 (54%), of which 17/43 (40%) were methicillin resistant. Median length of stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 10–31 days) and median length of IV antibiotics was 15 days (interquartile range: 6–24 days). Fifty-six (71%) required at least 1 surgical procedure. Relapse within 12 months was documented in 12 (15%) patients. We report 3 key findings: osteomyelitis incidence in indigenous children of northern Australia is amongst the highest reported in the world; methicillin-resistant S aureus accounts for 36% of osteomyelitis with a positive microbiological diagnosis; and the severity of disease requires extended antibiotic therapy. Despite this, 15% of the cohort relapsed within 12 months and required readmission. PMID:26937926

  8. Cyanobacterial crusts linked to soil productivity under different grazing management practices in Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alchin, Bruce; Williams, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid Australia, the central role of healthy soil ecosystems in broad-acre grazing lands may be attributed to the widespread presence of cyanobacterial crusts. In terms of soil nutrient cycling and stability their role is particularly crucial in a climate dominated by annual dry seasons and variable wet seasons. In this study, we aimed to measure the contribution of cyanobacteria to soil nutrient cycling under contrasting levels of disturbance associated with grazing management. Field sampling was carried out on six paired sites (twelve properties) located across an east-west 3,000 km transect that covered different rangeland types on grazing properties in northern Australia (Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia). At each location paired sites were established and two different management systems were assessed, cell-paddock rotations (25-400 ha) and continuous grazing (200-2,000 ha). Cyanobacterial soil crusts were recorded from all of the twelve sites and cyanobacteria with the capacity to fix nitrogen were found at ten of the twelve sites. The overall diversity of cyanobacteria varied from three to ten species under any type of grazing system. As field work was conducted in the dry season, it is likely that the diversity may be greater in the wet season than the initial data may indicate. The average cyanobacterial soil crust cover across soil surfaces, between grass tussocks, during the dry season was estimated to be 50.9% and, 42.6% in the early wet season. This reflected longer established crust cover (dry season) versus newly established crusts. There was a high level of variability in the biomass of cyanobacteria however; the grazing system did not have any marked effect on the biomass for any one rangeland type. The grazing system differences did not appear to significantly influence the diversity at any location except on a floodplain in the Pilbara (WA). Biological nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria was recorded at all

  9. Determining meteorological drivers of salt marsh mosquito peaks in tropical northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Carter, Jane; Kurucz, Nina; McDonnell, Joseph; Whelan, Peter I

    2015-12-01

    In northern Australia the northern salt marsh mosquito Aedes vigilax is a vector of Ross River virus and is an appreciable pest. A coastal wetland adjacent to Darwin's residential suburbs offers a favorable habitat for Ae. vigilax, and despite vigilant mosquito control efforts, peaks of Ae. vigilax occur in excess of 500/trap/night some months. To improve mosquito control for disease and nuisance biting to nearby residential areas, we sought to investigate meteorological drivers associated with these Ae. vigilax peaks. We fitted a cross-sectional logistic regression model to weekly counts of female Ae. vigilax mosquitoes collected between July, 1998 and June, 2009 against variables, tide, rainfall, month, year, and larval control. Aedes vigilax peaks were associated with rainfall during the months September to November compared with January, when adjusted for larval control and tide. To maximize mosquito control efficiency, larval control should continue to be implemented after high tides and with increased emphasis on extensive larval hatches triggered by rainfall between September and November each year. This study reiterates the importance of monitoring and evaluating service delivery programs. Using statistical modelling, service providers can obtain solutions to operational problems using routinely collected data. These methods may be applicable in mosquito surveillance or control programs in other areas. PMID:26611962

  10. The legislation of active voluntary euthanasia in Australia: will the slippery slope prove fatal?

    PubMed Central

    Kerridge, I H; Mitchell, K R

    1996-01-01

    At 2.00 am on the morning of May 24, 1995 the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly Australia passed the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act by the narrow margin of 15 votes to 10. The act permits a terminally ill patient of sound mind and over the age of 18 years, and who is either in pain or suffering, or distress, to request a medical practitioner to assist the patient to terminate his or her life. Thus, Australia can lay claim to being the first country in the world to legalise voluntary active euthanasia. The Northern Territory's act has prompted Australia-wide community reaction, particularly in South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory where proposals to legalise euthanasia have already been defeated on the floor of parliament. In New South Wales (NSW) the AIDS Council of NSW has prepared draft euthanasia legislation to be introduced into the Upper House as a Private Member's Bill some time in 1996. In this paper, we focus on a brief description of events as they occurred and on the arguments for and against the legalisation of euthanasia which have appeared in the media. PMID:8910778

  11. Cane toads lack physiological enhancements for dispersal at the invasive front in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; Christian, Keith A; Baldwin, John; Phillips, Ben L

    2012-01-15

    Many invasive species have evolved behavioural and morphological characteristics that facilitate their dispersal into new areas, but it is unclear how selection on this level of the phenotype filters through to the underlying physiology. Cane toads have been dispersing westward across northern tropical Australia for more than 70 years. Previous studies of cane toads at the invasive front have identified several behavioural, morphological and locomotory characteristics that have evolved to facilitate dispersal of toads. We assessed a range of physiological characteristics associated with locomotory abilities in toads from the long-established, east coast of Australia, from the invasive front, and from a site in between these locations. We measured time to exhaustion and respiratory gases of toads exercising on a treadmill, time to recovery from exhaustion, blood properties (lactate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, blood cell volume), and muscle properties associated with locomotion (activities of the enzymes citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase, and pH buffering capacity). None of the measured physiological parameters supported the hypothesis that toads from the invasive front possess physiological adaptations that facilitate dispersal compared to toads from areas colonised in the past. The strongest difference among the three groups of toads, time to exhaustion, showed exactly the opposite trend; toads from the long-established populations in the east coast had the longest time to exhaustion. Successful colonisers can employ many characteristics to facilitate their dispersal, so the extent to which behaviour, morphology and physiology co-evolve remains an interesting question. However, in the present case at least, behavioural adaptations do not appear to have altered the organism's underlying physiology. PMID:23213366

  12. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  13. Field evaluations of the efficacy of Distance Plus on invasive ant species in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Webb, Garry A; Hoffmann, Benjamin D

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of Distance Plus Ant Bait, containing the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen, was tested in the field against two invasive ant species in northern Australia: African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala (F.)) and yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith)). Results were also gained for a third pest species, Singapore ant (Monomorium destructor (Jerdon)), from one trial focused primarily on P. megacephala. Five studies were conducted throughout northern Australia, each with different protocols, but common to all was the broad-scale dispersal of Distance Plus, coupled with long-term monitoring of ant population levels. Additionally, a laboratory trial was conducted to assess if there was a direct toxic effect by the bait on A. gracilipes workers, and ant community data were collected at some sites in the A. gracilipes trial to assess nontarget impacts and subsequent ecological recovery. All three species were greatly affected by the treatments. The abundance of P. megacephala declined dramatically in all trials, and by the final assessment for each study, very few ants remained, with those remaining being attributable to edge effects from neighboring untreated properties. At both sites that it occurred, M. destructor was initially at least codominant with P. megacephala, but by the final assessment, only three M. destructor individuals were present at one lure at one site, and only a single individual at the other site. Abundance of A. gracilipes fell, on average, to 31% of control levels by 91 d and then slowly recovered, with subsequent treatments only providing slightly greater control. No direct toxic effect on workers was found in the laboratory trial, indicating that population declines of A. gracilipes were typical bait-related declines resulting from reduced worker replacement. Nontarget impacts of the bait could not be distinguished from the negative competitive impacts ofA. gracilipes, but there was a noticeable absence of some key

  14. Analysis of long-term water quality for effective river health monitoring in peri-urban landscapes--a case study of the Hawkesbury-Nepean river system in NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pinto, U; Maheshwari, B L; Ollerton, R L

    2013-06-01

    The Hawkesbury-Nepean River (HNR) system in South-Eastern Australia is the main source of water supply for the Sydney Metropolitan area and is one of the more complex river systems due to the influence of urbanisation and other activities in the peri-urban landscape through which it flows. The long-term monitoring of river water quality is likely to suffer from data gaps due to funding cuts, changes in priority and related reasons. Nevertheless, we need to assess river health based on the available information. In this study, we demonstrated how the Factor Analysis (FA), Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA) and Trend Analysis (TA) can be applied to evaluate long-term historic data sets. Six water quality parameters, viz., temperature, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, oxides of nitrogen, suspended solids and reactive silicates, measured at weekly intervals between 1985 and 2008 at 12 monitoring stations located along the 300 km length of the HNR system were evaluated to understand the human and natural influences on the river system in a peri-urban landscape. The application of FA extracted three latent factors which explained more than 70 % of the total variance of the data and related to the 'bio-geographical', 'natural' and 'nutrient pollutant' dimensions of the HNR system. The bio-geographical and nutrient pollution factors more likely related to the direct influence of changes and activities of peri-urban natures and accounted for approximately 50 % of variability in water quality. The application of HACA indicated two major clusters representing clean and polluted zones of the river. On the spatial scale, one cluster was represented by the upper and lower sections of the river (clean zone) and accounted for approximately 158 km of the river. The other cluster was represented by the middle section (polluted zone) with a length of approximately 98 km. Trend Analysis indicated how the point sources influence river water quality on spatio

  15. Chloritization and associated alteration at the Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nutt, Constance J.

    1989-01-01

    Jabiluka is the largest of four known uncomformity-type uranium deposits that are hosted by brecciated and altered metasedimentary rocks in the Pine Creek geosyncline, Northern Territory, Australia. The alteration zone at Jabiluka is dominated by chlorite, but also contains white mica, tourmaline and apatite; hematite is present, but only in minor amounts. Added quartz is mainly restricted to fractures and breccias. Chlorite, which formed during episodic fluid movement, partly to totally replaced all pre-existing minerals. Chloritized rocks are enriched in Mg, and depleted in K, Ca, Na and Si. Five types of chlorite are optically and chemically distinguishable in the rocks at Jabiluka. Chloritization is proposed as a mechanism that lowered the pH of the circulating fluid, and also caused significant loss of silica from the altered rocks. The proposed constraints on alteration, and presumably on at least part of the uranium mineralization, neither require nor preclude the existence of the unconformity as necessary for the formation of ore.

  16. Monitoring Contrasting Land Management in the Savanna Landscapes of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Donald C.; Petty, Aaron M.; Williamson, Grant J.; Brook, Barry W.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2008-04-01

    We compared measures of ecosystem state across six adjacent land-tenure groups in the intact tropical savanna landscapes of northern Australia. Tenure groups include two managed by Aboriginal owners, two national parks, a cluster of pastoral leases, and a military training area. This information is of relevance to the debate about the role of indigenous lands in the Australian conservation estate. The timing and frequency of fire was determined by satellite imagery; the biomass and composition of the herb-layer and the abundance of large feral herbivores by field surveys; and weediness by analysis of a Herbarium database. European tenures varied greatly in fire frequencies but were consistently burnt earlier in the dry season than the two Aboriginal tenures, the latter having intermediate fire frequencies. Weeds were more frequent in the European tenures, whilst feral animals were most abundant in the Aboriginal tenures. This variation strongly implies a signature of current management and/or recent environmental history. We identify indices suitable for monitoring of management outcomes in an extensive and sparsely populated landscape. Aboriginal land offers a unique opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity through the maintenance of traditional fire regimes. However, without financial support, traditional practices may prove unsustainable both economically and because exotic weeds and feral animals will alter fire regimes. An additional return on investment in Aboriginal land management is likely to be improved livelihoods and health outcomes for these disadvantaged communities.

  17. Measurement of personal exposure to outdoor aeromycota in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett James; O'Meara, Timothy; Sercombe, Jason; Tovey, Euan

    2006-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling traditionally uses a volumetric spore trap located in a fixed position to estimate personal exposure to airborne fungi. In this study, the number and identity of fungi inhaled by human subjects (n=34), wearing Intra-nasal air samplers (INASs), was measured over 2-hour periods in an outdoor community setting, and compared to fungal counts made with a Burkard spore trap and Institute of Occupational Medicine personal filter air samplers (IOMs). All sampling devices were in close proximity and located in an outdoor environment in Casino, northern New South Wales, Australia. Using INASs, the most prevalent fungi inhaled belonged to soil or vegetation borne spores of Alternaria, Arthrinium, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicoccum, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Pithomyces, Spegazzinia and Tetraploa species, Xylariaceae ascospores, in addition to hyphal fragments. These results showed that inhaled fungal exposure in most people varied in a 2-fold range with 10-fold outliers. In addition, the INASs and personal air filters agreed more with each other than with Burkard spore trap counts (r=0.74, p < 0.0001). These findings further support a new paradigm of personal fungal exposure, which implicates the inhalation of a spectrum of fungi more closely associated with soil or vegetation borne mycoflora and hyphal fragments than what is collected by stationary spore traps in the same geographic region. PMID:17195994

  18. Burkholderia pseudomallei is frequently detected in groundwater that discharges to major watercourses in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anthony L; Warner, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the environmental bacterium that causes the serious disease melioidosis. Recently, a high prevalence of viable B. pseudomallei was reported from natural groundwater seeps around Castle Hill, a clinical focus of melioidosis in Townsville, Australia. This study sought to expand previous findings to determine the extent of B. pseudomallei in more diverse natural groundwater seeps in northern Queensland to ascertain if the presence of the organism in groundwater on Castle Hill was an isolated occurrence. Analysis of water samples (n = 26) obtained from natural groundwater seeps following an intensive rainfall event in the Townsville region determined the presence of B. pseudomallei DNA in duplicates of 18 samples (69.2 % [95 % CI, 51.5 to 87.0]). From 26 water samples, a single isolate of B. pseudomallei was recovered despite plating of both pre-enriched samples and original water samples onto selective media, indicating that the sensitivity of these molecular techniques far exceeds culture-based methods. Furthermore, the identification of new environments endemic for melioidosis may be more effectively determined by analysing surface groundwater seeps than by the analysis of random soil samples. This study suggests that a higher incidence of melioidosis following monsoonal rains may be partially the result of exposure to groundwater sources carrying B. pseudomallei, and that modifications to public health messages in endemic regions may be warranted. Moreover, these findings have implications for predictive models of melioidosis, effective models requiring consideration of topographical and surface hydrological data. PMID:26620184

  19. Sinkholes (Dolines) in lateritised sediments, western Sturt plateau, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twidale, C. R.

    1987-07-01

    Sinkholes up to 50 m diameter and 15 m deep are developed in the lateritised Mullaman (Lower Cretaceous) quartzitic and argillaceous beds of the western Sturt Plateau, in the monsoonal north of the Northern Territory, Australia. Some sinkholes are degraded and of some antiquity: though their age is not precisely known, they formed during the late Cenozoic following the uplift and desiccation of the latertte. Others are fresh and a few have formed in living memory. Some sinkholes may be due to collapse of the Mullaman beds into voids in the underlying Cambrian limestone, but most have evolved wholly within the highly siliceous Mullaman beds, which have been dissolved or altered, creating either voids or compartments filled with uncosolidated material. Subsequent water-table lowering and collapse of the overlying beds into the low-density zones caused the formation of sinkholes. Fractures have significantly influenced the location, pattern and detailed plan shape of sinkholes. Sinkholes also occur within and at the margins of old drainage lines. The water table stood higher in the late Pleistocene, bringing alkaline groundwaters into contact with the country rock. A late Cenozoic fall in regional water table caused slacking or disaggregation. Litter derived from a Eucalyptus-dominated woodland facilitated iron mobilisation. Biogenic agents may have accelerated the weathering of the silica, silicates and iron oxides of which the country rock and laterite are largely composed.

  20. Geographic variability in radon exhalation at a rehabilitated uranium mine in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Storm, John; Martin, Paul; Tims, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    In this study, dry season radon flux densities and radon fluxes have been determined at the rehabilitated Nabarlek uranium mine in northern Australia using conventional charcoal canisters. Environmental background levels amounted to 31+/- 15 milli Becquerel per m(2) per second (mBq m(-2) s(-1)). Radon flux densities within the fenced rehabilitated mine area showed large variations with a maximum of 6500 mBq m(-2) s(-1) at an area south of the former pit characterised by a disequilibrium between (226)Ra and (238)U. Radon flux densities were also high above the areas of the former pit (mean 971 mBq m(-2) s(-1)) and waste rock dump (mean 335 mBq m(-2) s(-1)). The lower limit for the total pre-mining radon flux from the fenced area (140 ha) was estimated to 214 kBq s(-1), post-mining radon flux amounted to 174 kBq s(-1). Our study highlights that the results of radon flux studies are vitally dependant on the selection of individual survey points. We suggest the use of a randomised system for both the selection of survey points and the placement of charcoal canisters at each survey point, to avoid over estimation of radon flux densities. It is also important to emphasize the significance of having reliable pre-mining radiological data available to assess the success of rehabilitation of a uranium mine site. PMID:16502032

  1. Radionuclide migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Northern Australia Lessons from the Alligator Rivers analogue project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Airey, Peter L.

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in Northern Australia provides a ‘natural analogue’ for processes that are of relevance for assessing the safety of radioactive waste disposal. In an international project extending over two decades, the Koongarra ore body was studied to increase the understanding of radionuclide migration and retention mechanisms that might occur in the vicinity of a geological repository. The research effort included extensive characterisation of the geological, hydrological and geochemical conditions at the site. Patterns of the distribution of radionuclides (predominantly members of the 238U decay chain, but also the rare isotopes 239Pu, 99Tc and 129I) were studied in both solid and groundwater phases. The project included detailed studies of uranium adsorption on mineral surfaces, and of subsequent processes that may lead to long-term uranium immobilisation. Numerous models for uranium migration were developed during the project. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the research at Koongarra, and assesses the value of the site for integrating the results of a complex series of laboratory, modelling and field studies. The insights gained from this review of the Koongarra project may assist in maximising the potential scientific benefit of future natural analogue studies.

  2. The Nabarlek uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia: Some petrologic and geochemical constraints on genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ewers, G.R.; Donnelly, T.M.; Ferguson, J.

    1983-08-01

    The Nabarlek uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia, is confined to a shear zone in contorted and metasomatized early Proterozoic schists and occurs near an unconformity with overlying middle Proterozoic sandstone. Massive chlorite + or - sericite + or - hematite rocks, breccias, and intensely altered schists are characteristic of the ore zone, and at least three generations of chlorite have been recognized and described. The primary ore mineral assemblage is dominated by uraninite intergrown with chlorite. The orebody was sericitized at or after 920 m.y. ago, resulting in the widespread replacement and breakdown of chlorite, the formation of hematite, and the solution and redeposition of uraninite. Redox reactions involving iron and uranium are evident in sericitized rocks containing hematite and residual uraninite. High U/Th ratios in the ore zone suggest that uranium was transported to the site of deposition as a uranyl complex. Although no carbonaceous material occurs in the ore zone, isotopic data on minor carbonate associated with uraninite suggest that organic material was originally associated with the mineralization and indicate that these carbonates have evolved from the interaction of hydrothermal fluids with this material. Erosion of the middle Proterozoic cover rocks in the recent past has exposed the deposit to the effects of weathering.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  4. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-01-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species. PMID:26623840

  5. Maximum Flow Efficiency in an Anabranching River, Magela Creek, Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, J. D.; Nanson, G. C.

    2002-12-01

    In this field- and laboratory-based study, we demonstrate that the development of anabranching channels in some rivers increases the conveyance of sediment and water, compared with a single channel at the same flow discharge. That is, under certain conditions, anabranching channels exhibit greater sediment transporting capacity per unit available stream power. Anabranching is a globally widespread river pattern noted in diverse physiographic, hydrologic and sedimentologic environments, and recent efforts have sought to unravel controls on their origin and maintenance. It is widely held that most rivers form a single-channel in order to minimise boundary roughness while conveying water and sediment, but do all rivers show a tendency to develop a single channel? And if so, what factors lead to long-term anabranching? The observation that anabranching commonly develops in environments where water and sediment conveyance is maintained with little or no recourse to increasing energy slope prompted the hypothesis that rivers may adopt a multiple channel pattern in order to optimise their efficiency where they cannot otherwise increase slope. It is reasoned that development of a system of multiple channels reduces total flow width and raises mean flow depth, thereby maximising sediment transport per unit area of the channel bed and maintaining or enhancing water and sediment throughput. In testing the hypothesis we present: (1) results of a field experiment in which hydraulic variables and bedload discharge are measured and compared for single-channel versus multichannel reaches of the same river (Magela Creek, northern Australia); (2) comparison of these field results with bedload transport modelling via well known bedload equations; and (3) results of an experimental flume study comparing hydraulic variables and sediment flux in single-channel versus divided flow. Magela Creek is representative of several anabranching systems draining the Alligators Rivers Region of

  6. The Granites gold deposits, Northern Territory, Australia: evidence for an early syn-tectonic ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, G. J.; Both, R. A.; James, P.

    2007-01-01

    The ore deposits of The Granites goldfield are shear-hosted within Palaeoproterozoic amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks in the Tanami Region, Northern Territory, Australia. The ore bodies are located within a 5- to 35-m thick sequence of steeply dipping unit of metamorphosed iron-rich metasedimentary rocks. Deformation at The Granites was complex and is characterized by five successive deformation phases (D1-5). Shear veins (central and oblique) are the dominant type of vein geometry, with minor development of extensional veins and reverse-fault related veins. Four generations of syn-tectonic veins, corresponding to D1, D3, D4, and D5, have been recognized and are comprised of quartz, quartz-carbonate, calc-silicate, and calcite. In addition, two generations of disseminated sulfide-arsenide mineralization, dominated by pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and loellingite, with minor pyrite, chalcopyrite and rare marcasite, formed syn-D1 and syn- to post-D3. Textural and structural evidence indicates deposition of gold was contemporaneous with the syn-D1 veins and sulfide-arsenide mineralization. Four hydrothermal phases are proposed for the formation of the veins and disseminated sulfide-arsenide assemblages. The first phase (D1) was responsible for transport and deposition of the majority of the gold. Minor remobilization and deposition of gold occurred during the D3 and D4 phases. Little is known about the nature of the D1 ore fluid, although a relatively low sulfur content is indicated by the assemblage pyrrhotite-arsenopyrite-loellingite+rare pyrite. The growth of amphibolite facies metamorphic minerals andalusite and almandine garnet during D1 indicates a high temperature for the fluid. The D3 hydrothermal phase coincided with peak metamorphism. D4 fluids were hypersaline, high temperature, CO2-poor, and H2S-poor.

  7. Dissolution of dead corals by euendolithic microorganisms across the northern Great Barrier Reef (Australia).

    PubMed

    Aline, Tribollet

    2008-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variabilities in species composition, abundance, distribution, and bioeroding activity of euendolithic microorganisms were investigated in experimental blocks of the massive coral Porites along an inshore-offshore transect across the northern Great Barrier Reef (Australia) over a 3-year period. Inshore reefs showed turbid and eutrophic waters, whereas the offshore reefs were characterized by oligotrophic waters. The euendolithic microorganisms and their ecological characteristics were studied using techniques of microscopy, petrographic sections, and image analysis. Results showed that euendolithic communities found in blocks of coral were mature. These communities were dominated by the chlorophyte Ostreobium quekettii, the cyanobacterium Plectonema terebrans, and fungi. O. quekettii was found to be the principal agent of microbioerosion, responsible for 70-90% of carbonate removal. In the offshore reefs, this oligophotic chlorophyte showed extensive systems of filaments that penetrated deep inside coral skeletons (up to 4.1 mm) eroding as much as 1 kg CaCO3 eroded m(-2) year(-1). The percentage of colonization by euendolithic filaments at the surface of blocks did not vary significantly among sites, while their depths of penetration, especially that of O. quekettii (0.6-4.1 mm), increased significantly and gradually with the distance from the shore. Rates of microbioerosion (0.1-1.4 kg m(-2) after 1 year and 0.2-1.3 kg m(-2) after 3 years of exposure) showed a pattern similar to the one found for the depth of penetration of O. quekettii filaments. Accordingly, oligotrophic reefs had the highest rates ofmicrobioerosion ofup to 1.3 kg m(-2) year(-1), whereas the development of euendolithic communities in inshore reefs appeared to be limited by turbidity, high sedimentation rates, and low grazing pressure (rates < 0.5 kg m(-2) after 3 years). Those results suggest that boring microorganisms, including O. quekettii, have a significant impact on

  8. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies. PMID:26606745

  9. Assessing Surface Hydrological Processes on a Rehabilitated Mine Landform in Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi; Saynor, Mike; Lowry, John; Lu, Ping; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    To assist with the evaluation of the proposed rehabilitation designs for the mine closure at a Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia, a trial landform (200 m × 400 m) was constructed using waste rocks, with its surface ripped along the contour. The surface hydrological performance of this landform was investigated in this study. Field infiltration measurements were conducted using both large and regular ring infiltrometers to investigate the surface hydraulic properties, and water contents and surface runoff were monitored continuously in two 30 m × 30 m runoff plots for four years. A Cellular Automata based runoff model (RunCA) was also used to simulate the runoff behaviors under different rainfall conditions. Results showed a higher infiltration capacity in the areas of rip lines than the non-ripped areas due to the disturbance to the surface. Runoff coefficient was less than 6% and 10% for 80% of the 304 observed rainfall events on plot 1 and plot 2, respectively. The low levels of runoff were well explained by the simulated flow maps of RunCA, which demonstrated the roles of the rip lines in storing flow water and discontinuing the runoff paths. However, when the maximum storage capacity of these rip lines was exceeded during several large rainfall events, the runoff became much more significant and led to high potentials for erosion and landform instability. RunCA simulations on the virtual landforms with higher rip lines indicated dramatically reduced runoff rates. Therefore, it is suggested here that the current landform may be subjected to great runoff and erosion risks under extreme rainfall events, and raising the rip line height may potentially solve this problem.

  10. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M. Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies. PMID:26606745

  11. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    PubMed

    French, Veronica A; King, Susan Codi; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of <0.10 to 6.29±0.16 ng/L while levels of androgenic activity ranged from dihydrotestosterone equivalency quotients (DHTEQs) of <3.50 to 138.23±3.71 ng/L. Environmental concentrations of organic microcontaminants were comparable to ranges reported from aquatic environments worldwide with sewage effluent discharges representing the dominant source of entry into Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies. PMID:26247692

  12. Mega-scale Groundwater Flow in the Submarine Plover Aquifer, Continental Shelf of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garven, G.; James, B.; Gale, J.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a continental-scale groundwater flow system that exists under the sea floor along the ~2,000+ km long passive margin of northern Australia. The flow system has been mapped using data from off-shore petroleum exploration wells, and is confined within a 30~300-m thick sequence of quartzose sandstones of the Plover Formation. The Plover Aquifer comprises a Jurassic-age siliciclastic fluviodeltaic interval that grades stratigraphically into Cretaceous marine sandstones of the overlying Flamingo Group. Observed patterns of hydraulic head indicate a gentle northeast-to-southwest hydraulic gradient, which is parallel to a strong structural fabric created by faulting and extension along the Timor Trench/Australian continental margin. We propose that mostly lateral flow exists within the highly permeable Plover and Flamingo sandstones, over a distance of 1500-2000 km, that extends from the southern foreland basin of Papua, Indonesia, across the Arafura Basin and arches, and the 5-10 km thick passive margin sequence of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic age Sahul Platform. We further propose that this giant hydrodynamic system was created and sustained since Eocene time during uplift of the New Guinea fold-and-thrust belt. The flow system observed today is a paleohydrologic relict of Pleistocene-Holocene times, when glaciation-induced sea level lowstands resulted in subaerial emergence of the Arafura Basin and Sahul Platform. Finite element modeling supports our hypothesis that simple topographically-driven flow created this mega-scale groundwater flow system, which has since been submerged by rising sea levels in the most recent Holocene.

  13. Irrigator responses to groundwater resource management in northern Victoria, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Bruce C.; Webb, John; Wilkinson, Roger; Cherry, Don

    2014-10-01

    In northern Victoria, farmers are the biggest users of groundwater and therefore the main stakeholders in plans that seek to sustainably manage the resource. Interviews with 30 irrigation farmers in two study areas, analysed using qualitative social research methods, showed that the overwhelming majority of groundwater users agreed with the need for groundwater management and thought that the current plans had achieved sustainable resource use. The farmers also expressed a strong need for clear technical explanations for management decisions, in particular easily understood water level data. The social licence to implement the management plans arose through effective consultation with the community during plan development. Several additional factors combined to gain acceptance for the plans: good data on groundwater usage and aquifer levels is available; irrigation farmers had been exposed to usage restrictions since the late 1990s; an ‘adaptive’ management approach is in use which allowed refinements to be readily incorporated and fortuitously, plan development coincided with the 1998-2009 drought, when declines in groundwater levels reinforced the usefulness of the plans. The imposition of a nation-wide water use reduction plan in 2012 had relatively little impact in Victoria because of the early implementation of effective groundwater management plans. However, economic difficulties that reduce groundwater users’ capacity to pay groundwater management charges mean that the future of the plans in Victoria is not assured. Nevertheless, the high level of trust that exists between Victorian irrigation farmers and the management agencies suggests that the continued use of a consultative approach will continue to produce workable outcomes. Lessons from the Victorian experience may be difficult to apply in other areas of groundwater use in Australia and overseas, where there may be a quite different history of development and culture of groundwater management.

  14. Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei Near-Neighbor Species in the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, Jennifer L.; Mayo, Mark; Warrington, Stephanie D.; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mullins, Travis; Wagner, David M.; Currie, Bart J.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Identification and characterization of near-neighbor species are critical to the development of robust molecular diagnostic tools for biothreat agents. One such agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, is lacking in this area because of its genomic diversity and widespread geographic distribution. The Burkholderia genus contains over 60 species and occupies a large range of environments including soil, plants, rhizospheres, water, animals and humans. The identification of novel species in new locations necessitates the need to identify the true global distribution of Burkholderia species, especially the members that are closely related to B. pseudomallei. In our current study, we used the Burkholderia-specific recA sequencing assay to analyze environmental samples from the Darwin region in the Northern Territory of Australia where melioidosis is endemic. Burkholderia recA PCR negative samples were further characterized using 16s rRNA sequencing for species identification. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that over 70% of the bacterial isolates were identified as B. ubonensis indicating that this species is common in the soil where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals many novel branches within the B. cepacia complex, one novel B. oklahomensis-like species, and one novel branch containing one isolate that is distinct from all other samples on the phylogenetic tree. During the analysis with recA sequencing, we discovered 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the reverse priming region of B. oklahomensis. A degenerate primer was developed and is proposed for future use. We conclude that the recA sequencing technique is an effective tool to classify Burkholderia and identify soil organisms in a melioidosis endemic area. PMID:26121041

  15. Diet, Physical Activity, and Obesity in School-Aged Indigenous Youths in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Valery, Patricia C.; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C.; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K.; Garvey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake (“short nutrition questionnaire”) were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food (“fast food”) at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43–4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P < 0.001). Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07–3.35) more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity. PMID:22720140

  16. Simulating the evolution of glyphosate resistance in grains farming in northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Thornby, David F.; Walker, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The evolution of resistance to herbicides is a substantial problem in contemporary agriculture. Solutions to this problem generally consist of the use of practices to control the resistant population once it evolves, and/or to institute preventative measures before populations become resistant. Herbicide resistance evolves in populations over years or decades, so predicting the effectiveness of preventative strategies in particular relies on computational modelling approaches. While models of herbicide resistance already exist, none deals with the complex regional variability in the northern Australian sub-tropical grains farming region. For this reason, a new computer model was developed. Methods The model consists of an age- and stage-structured population model of weeds, with an existing crop model used to simulate plant growth and competition, and extensions to the crop model added to simulate seed bank ecology and population genetics factors. Using awnless barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona) as a test case, the model was used to investigate the likely rate of evolution under conditions expected to produce high selection pressure. Key Results Simulating continuous summer fallows with glyphosate used as the only means of weed control resulted in predicted resistant weed populations after approx. 15 years. Validation of the model against the paddock history for the first real-world glyphosate-resistant awnless barnyard grass population shows that the model predicted resistance evolution to within a few years of the real situation. Conclusions This validation work shows that empirical validation of herbicide resistance models is problematic. However, the model simulates the complexities of sub-tropical grains farming in Australia well, and can be used to investigate, generate and improve glyphosate resistance prevention strategies. PMID:19567415

  17. Estuarine infill and coastal progradation, southern van diemen gulf, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Mulrennan, M. E.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    There are several estuaries associated with the pronouncedly seasonal rivers which drain northwards from the Middle Proterozoic sandstone Arnhem Land plateau, and the Tertiary Koolpinyah land surface, into the macrotidal van Diemen Gulf, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Holocene development of these, investigated in greatest detail for the South Alligator River with an upland catchment of > 10,000 km 2. through drilling, palynology and radiocarbon dating, comprises both estuarine infill and coastal progradation. Three phases of estuarine infill can be recognised: (i) a transgressive phase (8000-6800 years B.P.) of marine incursion; (ii) a big swamp phase (6800-5300 years B.P.) of widespread mangrove forest development; and (iii) a sinuous/cuspate phase of floodplain development since 5300 years B.P., during which the tidal river has meandered and reworked earlier estuarine sediments. Since 6000 years B.P., the South Alligator coastal plain has prograded at a decelerating rate, with two phases of chenier ridge formation. A similar pattern of estuarine infill, and decelerating coastal plain progradation, is demonstrated for the Adelaide and Mary Rivers, both with catchments of > 6000 km 2. The southern shore of van Diemem Gulf appears to have changed its overall position little during the last 2000 years. The major source for the clay, silt and fine sands which have infilled the estuary and coastal plain has been from seaward. Dispite the similarity of development, coastal sediment build up has had different effects on the morphology of each tidal river. The Adelaide has undergone a major diversion and no longer flows directly into van Diemen Gulf, but occupies a former fluvial course, and the Mary has been blocked entirely, and its former estuarine palaeochannels have been infilled with tide-transported sediment.

  18. Age and paragenesis of mineralisation at Coronation Hill uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Karin; Meffre, Sebastien; Davidson, Garry

    2014-06-01

    Coronation Hill is a U + Au + platinum group elements deposit in the South Alligator Valley (SAV) field in northern Australia, south of the better known unconformity-style U East Alligator Rivers (EAR) field. The SAV field differs from the EAR by having a more complex basin-basement architecture. A volcanically active fault trough (Jawoyn Sub-basin) developed on older basement and then was disrupted by renewed faulting, before being buried beneath regional McArthur Basin sandstones that are also the main hanging wall to the EAR deposits. Primary mineralisation at Coronation Hill formed at 1607 ± 26 Ma (rather than 600-900 Ma as previously thought), and so it is likely that the SAV was part of a single west McArthur Basin dilational event. Most ore is hosted in sub-vertical faults and breccias in the competent volcanic cover sequence. This favoured fluid mixing, acid buffering (forming illite) and oxidation of Fe2+ and reduced C-rich assemblages as important uranium depositional mechanisms. However, reduction of U in fractured older pyrite (Pb model age of 1833 ± 67 Ma) is an important trap in diorite. Some primary ore was remobilised at 675 ± 21 Ma to form coarse uraninite + Ni-Co pyrite networks containing radiogenic Pb. Coronation Hill is polymetallic, and in this respect resembles the `egress'-style U deposits in the Athabascan Basin (Canada). However, these are all cover-hosted. A hypothesis for further testing is that Coronation Hill is also egress-style, with ores formed by fluids rising through basement-hosted fault networks (U reduction by diorite pyrite and carbonaceous shale), and into veins and breccias in the overlying Jawoyn Sub-basin volcano-sedimentary succession.

  19. Aerosols and their influence on radiation partitioning and savanna productivity in northern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kanniah, K. D.; Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effect of aerosols and clouds on the Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of savannas in northern Australia using aerosol optical depth, clouds and radiation data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin and carbon flux data measured from eddy covariance techniques from a site at Howard Springs, 35km southeast of Darwin. Generally we found that the concentration of aerosols in this region was relatively low than observed at other sites, therefore the proportion of diffuse radiation reaching the earths surface was only ~ 30%. As a result, we observed only a modest change in carbon uptake under aerosol laden skies and there was no significant difference for dry season Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) between clear sky, aerosols or thin clouds. On the other hand thick clouds in the wet season produce much more diffuse radiation than aerosols or thin clouds and therefore the initial canopy quantum efficiency was seen to increase 45 and 2.5 times more than under thin clouds and aerosols respectively. The normalized carbon uptake under thick clouds is 57% and 50% higher than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively even though the total irradiance received under thick clouds was reduced 59% and 50% than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively. However, reduction in total irradiance decreases the mean absolute carbon uptake as much as 22% under heavy cloud cover compared to thin clouds or aerosols. Thus, any increase in aerosol concentration or cloud cover that can enhance the diffuse component may have large impacts on productivity in this region.

  20. Fire regimes and vegetation change in tropical northern Australia during the late-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, Lydia; Moss, Patrick; Ulm, Sean; Sloss, Craig; Heijnis, Henk; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the impact of human occupation and abandonment on fire regimes and vegetation communities in the South Wellesley Islands, Gulf of Carpentaria, tropical northern Australia, using charcoal and pollen analysis from four sediment records. Pollen analysis from wetland sediments reveal vegetation succession from mangrove communities to hypersaline mudflats and open woodlands occurred during the late-Holocene. Aquatic species replaced salt tolerant species as the prograding shoreline and dune development formed the Marralda wetlands by 800 cal a BP on the south east coast of Bentinck Island. Wetlands developed on the north and west coast by 500 and 450 cal a BP, respectively. The timing of wetland initiation indicates localised late-Holocene sea level regression, stabilisation and coastal plain development in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Wetland initiation encouraged permanent human occupation of the South Wellesley archipelago, with ongoing archaeological research finding permanent occupation in the last 1500 years, followed by a significant increase in sites from 700 years ago, which peaks over the last 300 years. Macro-charcoal (>125μm) accumulation rates provide a record of fire intensity and frequency across the Island. Both local and regional fire events increase in the last 700 years as traditional owners occupied the Island, with local fires occurring every 104 and 74 years on average (N= 4 and 5 respectively). In the 1950's traditional Indigenous Kaiadilt fire management practices ceased, with the frequency and peak magnitude of fire events significantly increasing and vegetation communities becoming more open. The South Wellesley Islands were unoccupied until the 1980's and were not influenced by European occupation. This study of an Island ecosystem during the late-Holocene provides insight into the effect of human presence and fire regimes on vegetation composition and distribution in a fire resilient environment.

  1. History of metal contamination in Lake Illawarra, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Larissa; Maher, William; Potts, Jaimie; Batley, Graeme; Taylor, Anne; Krikowa, Frank; Chariton, Anthony; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk; Gruber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Lake Illawarra has a long history of sediment contamination, particularly by metals, as a result of past and current industrial operations and land uses within the catchment. In this study, we examined the history of metal contamination in sediments using metal analysis and (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating. The distributions of copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium and lead concentrations within sediment cores were in agreement with historical events in the lake, and indicated that metal contamination had been occurring since the start of industrial activities in Port Kembla in the late 1800 s. Most metal contamination, however, has occurred since the 1960s. Sedimentation rates were found to be 0.2 cm year(-1) in Griffins Bay and 0.3 cm year(-1) in the centre of the lake. Inputs from creeks bringing metals from Port Kembla in the northeast of the lake and a copper slag emplacement from a former copper refinery on the Windang Peninsula were the main sources of metal inputs to Lake Illawarra. The metals of highest concern were zinc and copper, which exceeded the Australian and New Zealand sediment quality guideline values at some sites. Results showed that while historical contamination persists, current management practices have resulted in reduced metal concentrations in surface sediments in the depositional zones in the centre of the lake. PMID:25061943

  2. Australia's First Public Private Partnership School Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of nine schools has commenced in Australia using a Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) methodology. This is the first project in Australia where social infrastructure has been acquired in this way. The Australian project is being managed by the New South Wales (NSW) State Government through its Department of Education…

  3. Working in hot conditions--a study of electrical utility workers in the northern territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Brearley, Matt; Harrington, Phillip; Lee, Doug; Taylor, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions of Australia's Northern Territory are seasonally conducive to excessive body heat storage by outdoor workers. For electrical utility workers who periodically work at height, in confined space, and in proximity to live power sources, the impact of the climate may be considered a hazardous condition. Therefore, this study examined the physiological and fluid balance responses of 20 power network workers (31.5 years; 86.0 kg; 1.71 m; BMI 29.5) throughout work shifts in the Northern and Southern regions of the Northern Territory, Australia. Twenty male heat-acclimatized power network workers provided written informed consent to be monitored during maintenance of electrical infrastructure that included replacing power pole components and transformer and substation repairs in the Northern (n = 13) and Southern regions (n = 7) of the Northern Territory (mean wet-bulb globe temperatures of 32.0°C and 28.7°C, respectively). An ingestible telemetry pill provided measurement of gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), that when combined with heart rate values, provided physiological strain index (PSI). Urine specific gravity, sweat rate, and level of dehydration were also determined. The Tgi values of this study were within the ISO9886 limit for monitored, heat-acclimatized workers, with a peak of 38.4°C. Mean PSI was 2.6, which represents overall low strain, with periods of moderate strain. Urinary analysis indicated that workers were dehydrated prior to and following the work shift, however the mean sweat rate of 0.44 L.h(-1) was matched by fluid consumption of 0.42 L.h(-1) to limit body mass loss to 0.1% during the shift. This study demonstrates that heat acclimatized electrical utility workers adhere to ISO9886 requirements when undertaking self-paced activity in hot conditions. PMID:25265189

  4. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  5. Carriers of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N Lineages Reached Australia around 50,000 Years Ago following a Northern Asian Route

    PubMed Central

    Larruga, Jose M.; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; González, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The modern human colonization of Eurasia and Australia is mostly explained by a single-out-of-Africa exit following a southern coastal route throughout Arabia and India. However, dispersal across the Levant would better explain the introgression with Neanderthals, and more than one exit would fit better with the different ancient genomic components discovered in indigenous Australians and in ancient Europeans. The existence of an additional Northern route used by modern humans to reach Australia was previously deduced from the phylogeography of mtDNA macrohaplogroup N. Here, we present new mtDNA data and new multidisciplinary information that add more support to this northern route. Methods MtDNA hypervariable segments and haplogroup diagnostic coding positions were analyzed in 2,278 Saudi Arabs, from which 1,725 are new samples. Besides, we used 623 published mtDNA genomes belonging to macrohaplogroup N, but not R, to build updated phylogenetic trees to calculate their coalescence ages, and more than 70,000 partial mtDNA sequences were screened to establish their respective geographic ranges. Results The Saudi mtDNA profile confirms the absence of autochthonous mtDNA lineages in Arabia with coalescence ages deep enough to support population continuity in the region since the out-of-Africa episode. In contrast to Australia, where N(xR) haplogroups are found in high frequency and with deep coalescence ages, there are not autochthonous N(xR) lineages in India nor N(xR) branches with coalescence ages as deep as those found in Australia. These patterns are at odds with the supposition that Australian colonizers harboring N(xR) lineages used a route involving India as a stage. The most ancient N(xR) lineages in Eurasia are found in China, and inconsistently with the coastal route, N(xR) haplogroups with the southernmost geographical range have all more recent radiations than the Australians. Conclusions Apart from a single migration event via a southern route

  6. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-02-01

    Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas. PMID:25102915

  7. Outbreak-related Hendra virus infection in a NSW pet dog.

    PubMed

    Halim, Sherly; Polkinghorne, Ben; Bell, Greg; van den Berg, Debra; Sheppeard, Vicky

    2015-09-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) infection is a zoonosis of importance in Australia. An outbreak of HeV occurred on the mid-north coast region of New South Wales (NSW) in June and July 2013. Four unvaccinated horses on four separate properties were confirmed to have HeV infection. A pet dog that had close contact with one of the horses was also confirmed to be infected with HeV. This paper documents the response to the canine infection and the resulting change to the public health management of HeV infection. PMID:26536509

  8. Diagnosing the seasonal land-atmosphere correspondence over northern Australia: dependence on soil moisture state and correspondence strength definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, M.; Pitman, A.; Evans, J.

    2015-08-01

    The similarity of the temporal variations of land and atmospheric states during the onset (September) through to the peak (February) of the wet season over northern Australia is statistically diagnosed using ensembles of offline land surface model simulations that produce a range of different background soil moisture states. We derive the temporal correspondence between variations in the soil moisture and the planetary boundary layer via a statistical measure of rank correlation. The simulated evaporative fraction and the boundary layer are shown to be strongly correlated during both SON (September-October-November) and DJF (December-January-February) despite the differing background soil moisture states between the two seasons and among the ensemble members. The sign and magnitude of the boundary layer-surface layer soil moisture association during the onset of the wet season (SON) differs from the correlation between the evaporative fraction and boundary layer from the same season, and from the correlation between the surface soil moisture and boundary layer association during DJF. The patterns and magnitude of the surface flux-boundary layer correspondence are not captured when the relationship is diagnosed using the surface layer soil moisture alone. The conflicting results arise because the surface layer soil moisture lacks strong correlation with the atmosphere during the monsoon onset because the evapotranspiration is dominated by transpiration. Our results indicate that accurately diagnosing the correspondence and therefore coupling strength in seasonally dry regions, such as northern Australia, requires root zone soil moisture to be included.

  9. Methods and approaches to support Indigenous water planning: An example from the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoverman, Suzanne; Ayre, Margaret

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous land owners of the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory Australia have begun the first formal freshwater allocation planning process in Australia entirely within Indigenous lands and waterways. The process is managed by the Northern Territory government agency responsible for water planning, the Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, in partnership with the Tiwi Land Council, the principal representative body for Tiwi Islanders on matters of land and water management and governance. Participatory planning methods ('tools') were developed to facilitate community participation in Tiwi water planning. The tools, selected for their potential to generate involvement in the planning process needed both to incorporate Indigenous knowledge of water use and management and raise awareness in the Indigenous community of Western science and water resources management. In consultation with the water planner and Tiwi Land Council officers, the researchers selected four main tools to develop, trial and evaluate. Results demonstrate that the tools provided mechanisms which acknowledge traditional management systems, improve community engagement, and build confidence in the water planning process. The researchers found that participatory planning approaches supported Tiwi natural resource management institutions both in determining appropriate institutional arrangements and clarifying roles and responsibilities in the Islands' Water Management Strategy.

  10. Communicable Diseases Report, NSW, November and December 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    For updated information, including data and facts on specific diseases, visit www.health.nsw.gov.au and click on Infectious Diseases or access the site directly at: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/publichealth/infectious/index.asp. PMID:19261214

  11. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  12. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina Province, Northern Territory, Australia: Implications for the Neoproterozoic to Devonian evolution of central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Madeline L.; Jowitt, Simon M.; Saleem, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Petrological and geochemical data for magmatic mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina and Aileron provinces of the Eastern Arunta region, Northern Territory, Australia constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of magmatic events covering ~ 500 million years. Six geochemically distinct magmatic suites, here named A-F, have been identified and provide evidence of the tectonic history of this region and also are linked to two mineralisation-related magmatic events: the Lloyd Gabbro (Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation) and the Riddoch Amphibolite (Cyprus-style Cu-Co volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralisation). The whole-rock geochemistry of Suites A and F is indicative of melts derived from a range of mantle depths (garnet to spinel lherzolite) and source enrichment. Suite D is likely related to the ~ 1070 Ma Warakurna/Giles event of central Australia, including the Alcurra (Musgrave) and Stuart (Arunta) dyke swarms, and likely formed through either: a) melting of subduction modified, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by an upwelling mantle plume; or b) a combination of intra-plate tectonic processes involving a long-lived thermal anomaly, lithospheric-scale architecture that focussed magmatism, and large-scale tectonism. Suite F represents more alkaline magmas, derived from a deeper source, but most likely formed during the same Warakurna LIP event (possibly contemporaneously) as Suite D. Suite E (the Riddoch Amphibolite) was most likely emplaced in a back-arc basin (BAB) setting at ~ 600 Ma, coincident with Delamerian subduction and BAB formation along the eastern Proterozoic margin of Australia from Queensland to the eastern Arunta and possibly further south. Subsequent destabilisation of the SCLM underneath the North Australian Craton generated the ~ 510 Ma Kalkarindji LIP in the form of Suite B intrusions that assimilated some of the older Suite E (Riddoch) material. This event is locally known as the ~ 506 Ma Stanovos Igneous Suite and represents the most

  13. Do suspended sediment and bedload move progressively from the summit to the sea along Magela Creek, northern Australia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, W. D.; Saynor, M. J.; Turner, K.; Whiteside, T.; Boyden, J.; Evans, K. G.

    2015-03-01

    Soil erosion rates on plots of waste rock at Ranger uranium mine and basin sediment yields have been measured for over 30 years in Magela Creek in northern Australia. Soil erosion rates on chlorite schist waste rock are higher than for mica schist and weathering is also much faster. Sediment yields are low but are further reduced by sediment trapping effects of flood plains, floodouts, billabongs and extensive wetlands. Suspended sediment yields exceed bedload yields in this deeply weathered, tropical landscape, but the amount of sand transported greatly exceeds that of silt and clay. Nevertheless, sand is totally stored above the topographic base level. Longitudinal continuity of sediment transport is not maintained. As a result, suspended sediment and bedload do not move progressively from the summit to the sea along Magela Creek and lower Magela Creek wetlands trap about 90.5% of the total sediment load input.

  14. Genetically distinct dog-derived and human-derived Sarcoptes scabiei in scabies-endemic communities in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Walton, S F; Choy, J L; Bonson, A; Valle, A; McBroom, J; Taplin, D; Arlian, L; Mathews, J D; Currie, B; Kemp, D J

    1999-10-01

    Overcrowding is a significant factor contributing to endemic infection with Sarcoptes scabiei in human and animal populations. However, since scabies mites from different host species are indistinguishable morphologically, it is unclear whether people can be infected from scabies-infested animals. Molecular fingerprinting was done using three S. scabiei-specific single locus hypervariable microsatellite markers, with a combined total of 70 known alleles. Multilocus analysis of 712 scabies mites from human and dog hosts in Ohio, Panama and Aboriginal communities in northern Australia now shows that genotypes of dog-derived and human-derived scabies cluster by host species rather than by geographic location. Because of the apparent genetic separation between human scabies and dog scabies, control programs for human scabies in endemic areas do not require resources directed against zoonotic infection from dogs. PMID:10548286

  15. Characterization of an isolate of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) from the Northern Territory, Australia, using morphology and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Sagun, John Henry; Davies, Kerrie Ann; Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich; Chan, Merab Antone; Laurente, Darren Anton

    2015-01-01

    An entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis H39, was found in Darwin, Australia. Based on morphological and morphometric similarities, and molecular characterisation, it is an isolate of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Males, hermaphrodites, females and juveniles showed important similarities on most characters that define H. bacteriophora. The morphometrics of the infective juvenile of Heterorhabditis H39 are similar to those of H. bacteriophora, including average body length (562 (537-587) vs 570 (520-600) µm), maximum body width (21 (19-22) vs 24 (21-31) µm), distance from the anterior end to the EP (96 (87-104) vs 104 (94-109) µm) and tail length (101 (94-111) vs 91 (83-99) µm). The morphology of the spicules and gubernaculum of male Heterorhabditis H39 are indistinguishable from those of H. bacteriophora. The biology and life cycle of Heterorhabditis H39 are similar to those of other Heterorhabditis species. The Neighbour-Joining Tree based on 475 nucleotides of the SSU rRNA gene showed that Heterorhabditis H39 formed a monophyletic group with other H. bacteriophora isolates with a bootstrap value of 100. Thus, phylogenetic study of SSU sequence data provided strong evidence that Heterorhabditis H39 is an isolate of H. bacteriophora. This is the first record of H. bacteriophora in northern Australia. PMID:26624648

  16. Field evaluation of repellent formulations against daytime and nighttime biting mosquitoes in a tropical rainforest in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Van Dung, Nguye; Beebe, N W; Debboun, Mustapha

    2002-05-01

    Field trials to compare repellent formulations containing either picaridin or deet against rainforest mosquitoes in northern Queensland, Australia, were conducted. Three repellents were compared at night: 9.3% picaridin and 19.2% picaridin (Autan Repel and Autan Repel Army 20, respectively, Bayer, Sydney, Australia) and 35% deet in a gel (Australian Defense Force [ADF]). During the day, the following three repellents were compared: 19.2% picaridin, 20% deet in a controlled release formulation (Sawyer Controlled Release Deet), and 33% deet in a polymer formulation (U.S. Army Extended Duration Topical Insect and Arthropod Repellent [EDTIAR]). The predominant mosquito species collected was Verrallina lineata (Taylor), with smaller numbers of Ochlerotatus kochi (Donitz), Anopheles farauti s.s. Laveran, Ochlerotatus notoscriptus (Skuse), and Coquilletidia xanthogaster (Edwards). In nighttime tests, 19.2% picaridin provided >94.7% protection for at least 9 h, and ADF deet provided >95% protection for 7 h. The 9.3% picaridin formulation provided >95% protection for only 2 h, and provided 60% protection at 9 h. In daytime tests, Sawyer 20% deet provided >95% protection for 6 h, and both 19.2% picaridin and U.S. Army EDTIAR provided >95% protection for 8 h. In both nighttime and daytime tests 19.2% picaridin provided similar or better protection than deet formulations. PMID:12061453

  17. Description of drill-hole VIIIV core from the Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit is one of four large unconformity-type deposits in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field in the eastern part of the Pine Creek geosyncline, Northern Territory, Australia. These unconformity-type uranium deposits occur as veins, disseminations, and breccia matrix in metasedimentary rocks of the Lower Proterozoic Cahill Formation and are near a regional unconformity that separates the Cahill from the sedimentary rocks of the Middle Proterozoic Kombolgie Formation. The study of unconformity-type deposits - a new type of uranium deposit typified by deposits discovered in the past 15 years in Australia and Canada - is part of the US Geological Survey uranium program; funding was also provided by the US Department of Energy National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Pancontinental Mining Limited kindly gave us access to Jabiluka core and made their geological and geophysical data available for inclusion in our reports. Data and interpretations from the mineralogy and stratigraphy of Jabiluka should aid in defining characteristics and setting of these world class deposits and guide exploration for similar deposits in the United States. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Quaternary stratigraphy, geochronology and evolution of the Magela Creek catchment in the monsoon tropics of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanson, Gerald C.; East, T. Jon; Roberts, Richard G.

    1993-03-01

    Magela Creek, a major tributary of the East Alligator River in northern Australia, has left a detailed sedimentary record of a fluvial landscape dominated by climatic and eustatic changes associated with Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. Uranium-series dates from young pisoliths in floodplain deposits indicate that ferruginisation is probably ongoing under present conditions while ferricretes in degraded terraces that flank the lower valley reveal a fluvial history extending back to early Pleistocene or Tertiary time. Inset within this older alluvium is a valley fill which, from thermoluminescence dates, was initiated about 300 kyr ago. With each glacial climate change and associated fall in sea level, distinct palaeochannels have been eroded into these floodplains, infilling later with alluvium when climate and base-level conditions were conducive to fluvial deposition. Radiocarbon dates show that the most recent palaeochannel beneath the modern Magela Creek last started to fill by downstream progradation and vertical accretion of bedload sand about 8 kyr. The palaeochannel filled at an accelerating rate, probably as a result of declining stream competence associated with drier conditions in the late Holocene augmented by the backwater effects of sea-level rise. Continued aggradation blocked the mouths of tributary valleys along Magela Creek, forming alluvial-dammed tributary lakes and deferred-junction tributary streams. From about 300 kyr, cyclic episodes of channel incision and sediment evacuation in this tropical-monsoon river valley have become less effective, possibly because increasing aridity in the late Quaternary has reduced the erosional effectiveness of Australia's northern rivers. Reduced flow regime and rising sea level in the late Holocene has resulted in the latest phase of alluvial accretion.

  19. Low-temperature thermochronology of the northern Thomson Orogen: Implications for exhumation of basement rocks in NE Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdel, Charles; Stockli, Daniel; Purdy, David

    2016-01-01

    The Tasmanides of eastern Australia record much of the Phanerozoic tectonic development of the retreating Pacific-Australia plate boundary and are an oft-cited example of an orogen that has undergone "tectonic mode switching." To begin to constrain the timing of exhumation of basement rocks that are now exposed in portions of the NE Tasmanides, we measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 180 Ma (Early Jurassic) to 375 Ma (Late Devonian). (U-Th)/He zircon ages from several individual samples are negatively correlated with effective uranium (eU), a pattern that is also true of the dataset as a whole, suggesting that variations in U and Th zoning and radiation damage are partially responsible for the age variability. The oldest zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages coincide with the formation of regionally extensive Late Devonian-early Carboniferous back-arc basins, suggesting that Late Devonian extension played a significant role in exhumation of parts of the northern Thomson Orogen. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages from a basement sample and a late Permian sandstone in the overlying Bowen Basin, which are also marked by intra-sample variability and age-eU correlations, span from the Early Cretaceous through Oligocene, in general agreement with previous apatite fission track data. In conjunction with observations of key geologic relationships and prior K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar data, our results suggest four overall phases in the thermal history of the northern Thomson Orogen: (1) Cambrian-early Silurian metamorphism during the Delamerian and Benambran Orogenies; (2) protracted cooling during the Late Devonian through mid-Permian that likely resulted from extensional

  20. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  1. Reproductive strategies of two invasive tilapia species Oreochromis mossambicus and Tilapia mariae in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, D J; Thuesen, P A; Thomson, F E

    2012-05-01

    The reproductive biology of two invasive tilapia species, Oreochromis mossambicus and Tilapia mariae, resident in freshwater habitats in north-eastern Australia was investigated. Oreochromis mossambicus exhibited plasticity in some of its life-history characteristics that enhanced its ability to occupy a range of habitats. These included a shallow, weed-choked, freshwater coastal drain that was subject to temperature and dissolved oxygen extremes and water-level fluctuations to cooler, relatively high-altitude impoundments. Adaptations to harsher conditions included a decreased total length (L(T) ) and age (A) at 50% maturity (m50), short somatic growth intervals, early maturation and higher relative fecundities. Potential fecundity in both species was relatively low, but parental care ensured high survival rates of both eggs and larvae. No significant difference in the relative fecundity of T. mariae populations in a large impoundment and a coastal river was found, but there were significant differences in relative fecundities between several of the O. mossambicus populations sampled. Total length (L(T) ) and age at 50% maturity of O. mossambicus populations varied considerably depending on habitat. The L(Tm50) and A(m50) values for male and female O. mossambicus in a large impoundment were considerably greater than for those resident in a small coastal drain. Monthly gonad developmental stages and gonado-somatic indices suggested that in coastal areas, spawning of O. mossambicus and T. mariae occurred throughout most of the year while in cooler, high-altitude impoundments, spawning peaked in the warmer, summer months. The contribution these reproductive characteristics make to the success of both species as colonizers is discussed in the context of future control and management options for tilapia incursions in Australia. PMID:22551176

  2. A new species of freshwater turtle of the genus Elseya (Testudinata: Pleurodira: Chelidae) from the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Scott; Georges, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The genus Elseya has had a checkered taxonomic history, but is now restricted to species characterized by an alveolar ridge on the triturating surfaces of the jaw. The Australian forms were once regarded as a single widespread species extending from the Mary River of south-eastern Queensland to the Fitzroy River of north Western Australia, but a number of Australian species have now been identified based on a combination of molecular and morphological data-Elseya dentata, E. irwini, E. lavarackorum and E. albagula. The genus is represented in New Guinea by E. branderhorsti, E. novaeguineae, E. schultzii, and E. rhodini. One additional Australian taxon first identified in 1981 and subsequently established as a distinct taxon by molecular studies, is described here. It is a large chelid turtle that can be distinguished from all other Australian members of the genus Elseya by the distinctive cream or yellow plastron, free of the dark streaking, blotches or suffusing present in other species; an extensive bridge with little or no abrupt angle between the bridge and the ventral surface of the plastron; a head shield broken into a series of small plates rather than a single unit; flat uncornified temporal scales; and a narrower, less robust skull. Osteologically, it can be distinguished from Elseya dentata by the contact of the vomer and the pterygoids. The carapace is typically a light to medium brown in color whereas the carapace of Elseya dentata is typically dark brown to almost black in color. Distribution is the Mary, South Alligator, East Alligator, Goyder and Mann River drainages of the north east of the Northern Territory, Australia. It does not appear to be in sympatry with any other member of Elseya. It is, however, in sympatry with three species of Chelodina, at least two species of Emydura, Myuchelys latisternum and Carettochelys insculpta. PMID:27395476

  3. Davenport Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Davenport Ranges of central Australia have been inferred to be among the oldest persisting landforms on Earth, founded on the belief that the interior of Australia has been tectonically stable for at least 700 million years. New rock age dating techniques indicate that substantial erosion has probably occurred over that time period and that the landforms are not nearly that old, but landscape evolution certainly occurs much slower here (at least now) than is typical across Earth's surface.

    Regardless of their antiquity, the Davenport Ranges exhibit a striking landform pattern as shown in this display of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Quartzites and other erosion resistant strata form ridges within anticlinal (arched up) and synclinal (arched down) ovals and zigzags. These structures, if not the landforms, likely date back at least hundreds of millions of years, to a time when tectonic forces were active. Maximum local relief is only about 60 meters (about 200 feet), which is enough to contrast greatly with the extremely low relief surrounding terrain.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest (image top to bottom) direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To

  4. Models for the dispersal in Australia of the arbovirus vector, Culicoides brevitarsis Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Bishop, A L; Barchia, I M; Spohr, L J

    2000-12-01

    Culicoides brevitarsis is the main biting midge responsible for the transmission of bluetongue and Akabane viruses to livestock in Australia. Models are given for its dispersal after winter from endemic areas at the southern limit of its distribution in New South Wales (NSW); the models might also be applicable elsewhere. Model 1 shows that dispersal can be explained by distance from a key point just outside the endemic area in mid-northern/northern coastal NSW. The model provides probability data for times of first occurrence at sites within regions down the southern coastal plain or up the Hunter Valley towards (but rarely reaching) the western slopes and tablelands. Model 2 shows that the movement depends on temperature and wind speed from northerly and easterly directions. Preliminary data also are given to suggest a relationship between density in the endemic area and the maximum distance that C. brevitarsis can travel in a given year. The models can be linked to other information which in combination can provide probabilities for winter survival outside the endemic area, times of occurrence at sites where it cannot survive winter and times when activity ceases naturally at these sites at the end of the season. This information can be used to predict the potential for virus transmission and indicate zones of seasonal freedom from both vector and virus for the export of livestock. PMID:11087955

  5. Environmental Attributes Influencing the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anthony L.; Ezzahir, Jessica; Gardiner, Christopher; Shipton, Warren; Warner, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Factors responsible for the spatial and temporal clustering of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment remain to be elucidated. Whilst laboratory based experiments have been performed to analyse survival of the organism in various soil types, such approaches are strongly influenced by alterations to the soil micro ecology during soil sanitisation and translocation. During the monsoonal season in Townsville, Australia, B. pseudomallei is discharged from Castle Hill (an area with a very high soil prevalence of the organism) by groundwater seeps and is washed through a nearby area where intensive sampling in the dry season has been unable to detect the organism. We undertook environmental sampling and soil and plant characterisation in both areas to ascertain physiochemical and macro-floral differences between the two sites that may affect the prevalence of B. pseudomallei. In contrast to previous studies, the presence of B. pseudomallei was correlated with a low gravimetric water content and low nutrient availability (nitrogen and sulphur) and higher exchangeable potassium in soils favouring recovery. Relatively low levels of copper, iron and zinc favoured survival. The prevalence of the organism was found to be highest under the grasses Aristida sp. and Heteropogon contortus and to a lesser extent under Melinis repens. The findings of this study indicate that a greater variety of factors influence the endemicity of melioidosis than has previously been reported, and suggest that biogeographical boundaries to the organisms’ distribution involve complex interactions. PMID:26398904

  6. Environmental Attributes Influencing the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anthony L; Ezzahir, Jessica; Gardiner, Christopher; Shipton, Warren; Warner, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Factors responsible for the spatial and temporal clustering of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment remain to be elucidated. Whilst laboratory based experiments have been performed to analyse survival of the organism in various soil types, such approaches are strongly influenced by alterations to the soil micro ecology during soil sanitisation and translocation. During the monsoonal season in Townsville, Australia, B. pseudomallei is discharged from Castle Hill (an area with a very high soil prevalence of the organism) by groundwater seeps and is washed through a nearby area where intensive sampling in the dry season has been unable to detect the organism. We undertook environmental sampling and soil and plant characterisation in both areas to ascertain physiochemical and macro-floral differences between the two sites that may affect the prevalence of B. pseudomallei. In contrast to previous studies, the presence of B. pseudomallei was correlated with a low gravimetric water content and low nutrient availability (nitrogen and sulphur) and higher exchangeable potassium in soils favouring recovery. Relatively low levels of copper, iron and zinc favoured survival. The prevalence of the organism was found to be highest under the grasses Aristida sp. and Heteropogon contortus and to a lesser extent under Melinis repens. The findings of this study indicate that a greater variety of factors influence the endemicity of melioidosis than has previously been reported, and suggest that biogeographical boundaries to the organisms' distribution involve complex interactions. PMID:26398904

  7. Geochronology of Precambrian granites and associated U-Ti-Th mineralization, northern Olary province, South Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Proterozoic granitoids and metamorphic rocks in the Olary province of the Willyama block of South Australia host ore-grade amounts of U-Th-Ti and U-Fe-Ti-Th minerals. U-Pb-Th isotope analyses on zircons from all granitoids associated with the Crocker Well brannerite deposit indicate that these granitoids were intruded within a short time span, close to the 1579.2??1.5 m.y. age of the brannerite-bearing host-rock. Though the early Paleozoic Delamerian orogeny was intense in this region, the zircon isotopic systems remained unaffected; rather, the best-defined zircon chords on concordia plots show a welldefined lower intercept of 43.8??6.5 Ma, which can only be associated with early Tertiary block faulting. Pb-U-Th isotope analyses on brannerite from the Crocker Well deposit and davidite from the Mt. Victoria deposit and the Radium Hill deposit yield badly scattered and discordant apparent ages that suggest a primary age at least as old as the age of the Crocker Well granitoids, followed by a severe disturbance in the early Paleozoic. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  8. A billion years of environmental stability and the emergence of eukaryotes: new data from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Brasier, M D; Lindsay, J F

    1998-06-01

    Carbon isotopes through 6km of fully cored drill holes in 1.7 to 1.5 Ga carbonates of the Mount Isa and McArthur basins, Australia (which host the earliest known eukaryote biomarkers) provide the most comprehensive and best-dated delta 13C stratigraphy yet obtained from such ancient rocks. Both basins reveal remarkably stable temporal delta 13C trends (mean of -0.6% +/- 2% PDB [Peedee belemnite]) and confirm the impression of delta 13C stasis between 2.0 and 1.0 Ga, which, together with other evidence, suggest a prolonged period of stability in crustal dynamics, redox state of surface environments, and planetary climate. This delta 13C stasis is consistent with great stability in the carbon cycle controlled, we suggest, by P limitation of primary productivity. Recent evidence shows that P depletion is a major factor in obligate associations between photosymbionts and host cells. We argue that a billion years of stability in the carbon and nutrient cycles may have been the driving force that propelled prokaryotes toward photosymbiosis and the emergence of the autotrophic eukaryote cell. PMID:11541449

  9. Historical Consequences of Colonialism, Disempowerment, and Reactionary Government Decisions in Relation to Imprisonment Rates in Australia's Northern Territory: A Potential Solution.

    PubMed

    Kapellas, Kostas; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2016-02-01

    The Northern Territory (N.T.) of Australia has the highest imprisonment rate per capita in the country. The vast majority of prisoners (86%) are Indigenous Australian despite only 30% of the N.T. population identifying as Indigenous. This paper investigates factors influencing this over-representation. The most common reason for imprisonment concerns violence. Alcohol is consumed in high quantities, particularly in Central Australia and is thought to affect incarceration rates. Recent strategies to control alcohol abuse in the N.T. have been ineffective in comparison with other states of Australia. Notwithstanding that crimes committed are serious enough to warrant arrest, the cumulative effects of past and recent history have resulted in poor educational outcomes for Indigenous Australian children which influence employment opportunities. Solutions to reduce imprisonment must address the nexus between education, meaningful employment and community-led alcohol management strategies. Failure to adopt this approach may perpetuate ever-increasing imprisonment of Indigenous Australians. PMID:26853196

  10. Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics.

    PubMed

    Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Smith, Emma J; MacHunter, Barbara; Harrington, Glenda; Theobald, Vanessa; Hall, Carina M; Hornstra, Heidie M; McRobb, Evan; Podin, Yuwana; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul; Kaestli, Mirjam; Currie, Bart J

    2016-02-01

    Melioidosis is a disease of humans and animals that is caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Once thought to be confined to certain locations, the known presence of B. pseudomallei is expanding as more regions of endemicity are uncovered. There is no vaccine for melioidosis, and even with antibiotic administration, the mortality rate is as high as 40% in some regions that are endemic for the infection. Despite high levels of recombination, phylogenetic reconstruction of B. pseudomallei populations using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has revealed surprisingly robust biogeographic separation between isolates from Australia and Asia. To date, there have been no confirmed autochthonous melioidosis cases in Australia caused by an Asian isolate; likewise, no autochthonous cases in Asia have been identified as Australian in origin. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis of 455 B. pseudomallei genomes to confirm the unprecedented presence of an Asian clone, sequence type 562 (ST-562), in Darwin, northern Australia. First observed in Darwin in 2005, the incidence of melioidosis cases attributable to ST-562 infection has steadily risen, and it is now a common strain in Darwin. Intriguingly, the Australian ST-562 appears to be geographically restricted to a single locale and is genetically less diverse than other common STs from this region, indicating a recent introduction of this clone into northern Australia. Detailed genomic and epidemiological investigations of new clinical and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates in the Darwin region and ST-562 isolates from Asia will be critical for understanding the origin, distribution, and dissemination of this emerging clone in northern Australia. PMID:26607593

  11. Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emma J.; MacHunter, Barbara; Harrington, Glenda; Theobald, Vanessa; Hall, Carina M.; Hornstra, Heidie M.; McRobb, Evan; Podin, Yuwana; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul; Kaestli, Mirjam; Currie, Bart J.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a disease of humans and animals that is caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Once thought to be confined to certain locations, the known presence of B. pseudomallei is expanding as more regions of endemicity are uncovered. There is no vaccine for melioidosis, and even with antibiotic administration, the mortality rate is as high as 40% in some regions that are endemic for the infection. Despite high levels of recombination, phylogenetic reconstruction of B. pseudomallei populations using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has revealed surprisingly robust biogeographic separation between isolates from Australia and Asia. To date, there have been no confirmed autochthonous melioidosis cases in Australia caused by an Asian isolate; likewise, no autochthonous cases in Asia have been identified as Australian in origin. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis of 455 B. pseudomallei genomes to confirm the unprecedented presence of an Asian clone, sequence type 562 (ST-562), in Darwin, northern Australia. First observed in Darwin in 2005, the incidence of melioidosis cases attributable to ST-562 infection has steadily risen, and it is now a common strain in Darwin. Intriguingly, the Australian ST-562 appears to be geographically restricted to a single locale and is genetically less diverse than other common STs from this region, indicating a recent introduction of this clone into northern Australia. Detailed genomic and epidemiological investigations of new clinical and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates in the Darwin region and ST-562 isolates from Asia will be critical for understanding the origin, distribution, and dissemination of this emerging clone in northern Australia. PMID:26607593

  12. Educational Reform in NSW: Mismatched Freedoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezzina, Michael; Koop, Tony

    This paper examines the nature of educational changes in Australia, places them in a historical perspective, and describes their implications for the teaching profession and education system. Harrison's (1979) model of the school as a socio-technical system is used to explore current changes in the locus on decision making in New South Wales…

  13. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  14. A study of radium bioaccumulation in freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, in the Magela Creek catchment, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Brazier, Jenny; Humphrey, Chris; Ryan, Bruce; Esparon, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, along Magela Creek in Australia's Northern Territory were examined to study radionuclide activities in mussel flesh and to investigate whether the Ranger Uranium mine is contributing to the radium loads in mussels downstream of the mine. Radium loads in mussels of the same age were highest in Bowerbird Billabong, located 20 km upstream of the mine site. Variations in the ratio of [Ra]:[Ca] in filtered water at the sampling sites accounted for the variations found in mussel radium loads with natural increases in calcium (Ca) in surface waters in a downstream gradient along the Magela Creek catchment gradually reducing radium uptake in mussels. At Mudginberri Billabong, 12 km downstream of the mine, concentration factors for radium have not significantly changed over the past 25 years since the mine commenced operations and this, coupled with a gradual decrease of the (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios observed along the catchment, indicates that the (226)Ra accumulated in mussels is of natural rather than mine origin. The (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio has been used to model radium uptake and a radium biological half-life in mussels of approximately 13 years has been determined. The long biological half-life and the low Ca concentrations in the water account for the high radium concentration factor of 30,000-60,000 measured in mussels from the Magela Creek catchment. PMID:20430491

  15. The melioidosis agent Burkholderia pseudomallei and related opportunistic pathogens detected in faecal matter of wildlife and livestock in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Höger, A C R; Mayo, M; Price, E P; Theobald, V; Harrington, G; Machunter, B; Choy, J Low; Currie, B J; Kaestli, M

    2016-07-01

    The Darwin region in northern Australia has experienced rapid population growth in recent years, and with it, an increased incidence of melioidosis. Previous studies in Darwin have associated the environmental presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, with anthropogenic land usage and proximity to animals. In our study, we estimated the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and Burkholderia spp. relatives in faecal matter of wildlife, livestock and domestic animals in the Darwin region. A total of 357 faecal samples were collected and bacteria isolated through culture and direct DNA extraction after enrichment in selective media. Identification of B. pseudomallei, B. ubonensis, and other Burkholderia spp. was carried out using TTS1, Bu550, and recA BUR3-BUR4 quantitative PCR assays, respectively. B. pseudomallei was detected in seven faecal samples from wallabies and a chicken. B. cepacia complex spp. and Pandoraea spp. were cultured from wallaby faecal samples, and B. cenocepacia and B. cepacia were also isolated from livestock animals. Various bacteria isolated in this study represent opportunistic human pathogens, raising the possibility that faecal shedding contributes to the expanding geographical distribution of not just B. pseudomallei but other Burkholderiaceae that can cause human disease. PMID:26935879

  16. Stoibocephalum n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider (Elasmobranchii: Rhinopristiformes), from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cielocha, Joanna J; Jensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of lecanicephalidean cestode, Stoibocephalum arafurense n. gen., n. sp., is described from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider, off northern Australia. Stoibocephalum arafurense n. gen., n. sp. is apolytic, and possesses a large, muscular, retractable apical organ, 3 pairs of excretory vessels, and testes in several columns and layers. The presence of 3 pairs of excretory vessels distinguishes this new genus from all other valid lecanicephalidean genera, except Hexacanalis Perrenoud, 1931, from which it can be distinguished based on ovary shape and egg morphology. Stoibocephalum n. gen. most closely resembles Tylocephalum Linton, 1890 but differs from that genus in its ability to completely retract its apical organ into the scolex proper. Scolex microthrix pattern and histological sections of scoleces attached in situ suggest S. arafurense n. gen., n. sp. to attach to the host's intestinal mucosa with apical organ and scolex proper surfaces, rather than just the apical organ surface. This is the third lecanicephalidean species described from the sharkray. PMID:26176156

  17. High Protein- and High Lipid-Producing Microalgae from Northern Australia as Potential Feedstock for Animal Feed and Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13 μg mL−1 culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed. PMID:26042215

  18. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource. PMID:26255373

  19. Are High-Impact Species Predictable? An Analysis of Naturalised Grasses in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    van Klinken, Rieks D.; Panetta, F. Dane; Coutts, Shaun R.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting which species are likely to cause serious impacts in the future is crucial for targeting management efforts, but the characteristics of such species remain largely unconfirmed. We use data and expert opinion on tropical and subtropical grasses naturalised in Australia since European settlement to identify naturalised and high-impact species and subsequently to test whether high-impact species are predictable. High-impact species for the three main affected sectors (environment, pastoral and agriculture) were determined by assessing evidence against pre-defined criteria. Twenty-one of the 155 naturalised species (14%) were classified as high-impact, including four that affected more than one sector. High-impact species were more likely to have faster spread rates (regions invaded per decade) and to be semi-aquatic. Spread rate was best explained by whether species had been actively spread (as pasture), and time since naturalisation, but may not be explanatory as it was tightly correlated with range size and incidence rate. Giving more weight to minimising the chance of overlooking high-impact species, a priority for biosecurity, meant a wider range of predictors was required to identify high-impact species, and the predictive power of the models was reduced. By-sector analysis of predictors of high impact species was limited by their relative rarity, but showed sector differences, including to the universal predictors (spread rate and habitat) and life history. Furthermore, species causing high impact to agriculture have changed in the past 10 years with changes in farming practice, highlighting the importance of context in determining impact. A rationale for invasion ecology is to improve the prediction and response to future threats. Although our study identifies some universal predictors, it suggests improved prediction will require a far greater emphasis on impact rather than invasiveness, and will need to account for the individual circumstances of

  20. Nutrition and health (1948) of Aborigines in settlements in Arnhem Land, northern Australia.

    PubMed

    McArthur, M; Billington, B P; Hodges, K T; Specht, R L

    2000-09-01

    During the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land in 1948, a nutritionist (Margaret McArthur), a medical officer (Brian Billington), a biochemist (Kelvin Hodges) and also the 'flying dentist' (John Moody) observed the nutrition and health of Aborigines in the settlements on Groote Eylandt, at Yirrkala and at Oenpelli, Northern Territory. The results of their research were published in the Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land Volume 2 Anthropology and Nutrition. (Melbourne University Press, 1960). Although seasonal and regional variations in food supply were a constant problem for nomadic Aborigines living on 'bush tucker' gathered from marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, the variety of food provided a well-balanced diet according to the international recommendations of 1948. In contrast, improvements in the 1948 diet of Aborigines in the settlements were strongly recommended. 1 An increase in the quantity of food given to older children and adolescents. 2 Regular distribution of fresh fruit and vegetables throughout the year from settlement gardens. 3 Regular supplies of fish, meat and other animal products, particularly for children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating mothers. 4 Increased production of milk and greater care in its handling. 5 Greater use of whole grain cereals in preference to refined products. PMID:24394450

  1. The prevalence and characteristics of homelessness in the NSW substance treatment population: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Allan, Julaine; Kemp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of homelessness episodes in Australian substance misuse treatment. A dataset containing all closed substance treatment episodes in NSW, Australia from July 2006 to June 2011 was used. Statistical analysis was used to determine any relationships between demographic and treatment variables and homelessness. Of the 213, 129 treatment episodes in the dataset 12.8% have some form of homelessness. Non-government and residential services have the highest prevalence of homelessness. Sex, age, and drug type have weak relationships with homelessness. Leaving against the advice of the treatment provider is more common in episodes where homelessness is a factor. Homelessness is a problem experienced by a significant proportion of the substance treatment population and treatment providers have an opportunity and an obligation to address it in their treatment delivery. PMID:24483335

  2. Dynamics of arsenic in the mining sites of Pine Creek Geosyncline, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Eapaea, Miro Peter; Parry, David; Noller, Barry

    2007-07-01

    The transportation and fixation of arsenic (As) in soil and sediments from five mine sites within the Pine Creek Geosyncline, Northern Territory, were examined based on measurements of operationally-defined fractions of As in soils, sediment and evaporates. Arsenic was mainly retained in sediments in the form iron arsenate (Fe-As). In wetland systems, As was retained as Fe-As together with calcium arsenate (Ca-As) from alkaline groundwater and organic-bound As from detrital material. In retention ponds As was retained as Fe-As, Ca-As and residual As (Res-As) up to 1700 mg/kg. Sediment traps can retain As from alkaline and acidic source seepages. The retention of Res-As and other mineral particulates during erosional or controlled process water discharges was associated with high Fe-As and organic-bound As in sediment. Arsenic was retained as Fe-As, Ca-As and residual As in 100 year old tailings at Millar's Battery, Union Reefs mine nearby McKinlay River and the small copper mine lease MLN 95 adjacent Copperfield Creek nearby Pine Creek. Natural geo-mobilisation of As was observed in upstream sediments at Copperfield Creek (5-8 mg/kg), Mt. Bundey Creek (10-12 mg/kg), upstream Ryan's Creek (10-12 mg/kg) and downstream East branch Ryan's Creek (7 mg/kg). Erosion of As-containing mineralisation was observed in the McKinlay River upstream and downstream (23-26 mg/kg) and upstream Ryan's Creek boundary of the Goodall mine lease MLN 1049 (24-40 mg/kg). Overall, As was mainly retained in sediments in the form Fe-As. The concentration data for As were used to propose mechanisms of As dispersion and retention occurring at the various mine sites that can be utilised for future mine water management design to minimise As dispersion. PMID:17499841

  3. Genesis of the central zone of the Nolans Bore rare earth element deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoneveld, Louise; Spandler, Carl; Hussey, Kelvin

    2015-08-01

    The Nolans Bore rare earth element (REE) deposit consists of a network of fluorapatite-bearing veins and breccias hosted within Proterozoic granulites of the Reynolds Range, Central Australia. Mineralisation is divided into three zones (north, central, and south-east), with the north and south-east zones consisting of massive REE-bearing fluorapatite veins, with minor brecciation and carbonate infill. The central zone is distinctively different in mineralogy and structure; it features extensive brecciation, a high allanite content, and a large, epidote-rich enveloping alteration zone. The central zone is a reworking of the original solid apatite veins that formed during the Chewings Orogeny at ca. 1525 Ma. These original apatite veins are thought to derive from phosphate-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluid exsolved from as-yet unrecognised alkaline magmatic bodies at depth. We define four ore breccia types (BX1-4) in the central zone on the basis of detailed petrological and geochemical analysis of drillcore and thin sections. BX1 ore comprises fluorapatite with minor crackle brecciation with carbonate infill and resembles ore of the north and south-east zones. Breccia types BX2, BX3, and BX4 represent progressive stages of ore brecciation and development of calc-silicate mineral (amphibole, epidote, allanite, calcite) infill. Comparison of bulk ore sample geochemistry between breccia types indicates that REEs were not mobilised more than a few centimetres during hydrothermal alteration and brecciation. Instead, most of the REEs were partitioned from the original REE fluorapatite into newly formed allanite, REE-poor fluorapatite and minor REE carbonate in the breccias. Negative europium (Eu) anomalies in the breccia minerals are accounted for by a large positive Eu anomaly in epidote from the alteration zones surrounding the ore breccias. This observation provides a direct link between ore recrystallisation and brecciation, and the formation of the alteration halo in

  4. Uncertainties around the implementation of a clearing-control policy in a unique catchment in northern Australia: exploring equity issues and balancing competing objectives.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vanessa M; Pressey, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Land use change is the most significant driver linked to global species extinctions. In Northern Australia, the landscape is still relatively intact with very low levels of clearing. However, a re-energized political discourse around creating a northern food bowl means that currently intact ecosystems in northern Australia could be under imminent threat from increased land clearing and water extraction. These impacts are likely to be concentrated in a few regions with suitable soils and water supplies. The Daly River Catchment in the Northern Territory is an important catchment for both conservation and development. Land use in the Daly catchment has been subject to clearing guidelines that are largely untested in terms of their eventual implications for the spatial configuration of conservation and development. Given the guidelines are not legislated they might also be removed or revised by subsequent Territory Governments, including the recently-elected one. We examine the uncertainties around the spatial implications of full implementation of the Daly clearing guidelines and their potential effects on equity of opportunity across land tenures and land uses. We also examine how removal of the guidelines could affect conservation in the catchment. We conclude that the guidelines are important in supporting development in the catchment while still achieving conservation goals, and we recommend ways of implementing the guidelines to make best use of available land resources for intensified production. PMID:24798486

  5. Uncertainties around the Implementation of a Clearing-Control Policy in a Unique Catchment in Northern Australia: Exploring Equity Issues and Balancing Competing Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change is the most significant driver linked to global species extinctions. In Northern Australia, the landscape is still relatively intact with very low levels of clearing. However, a re-energized political discourse around creating a northern food bowl means that currently intact ecosystems in northern Australia could be under imminent threat from increased land clearing and water extraction. These impacts are likely to be concentrated in a few regions with suitable soils and water supplies. The Daly River Catchment in the Northern Territory is an important catchment for both conservation and development. Land use in the Daly catchment has been subject to clearing guidelines that are largely untested in terms of their eventual implications for the spatial configuration of conservation and development. Given the guidelines are not legislated they might also be removed or revised by subsequent Territory Governments, including the recently-elected one. We examine the uncertainties around the spatial implications of full implementation of the Daly clearing guidelines and their potential effects on equity of opportunity across land tenures and land uses. We also examine how removal of the guidelines could affect conservation in the catchment. We conclude that the guidelines are important in supporting development in the catchment while still achieving conservation goals, and we recommend ways of implementing the guidelines to make best use of available land resources for intensified production. PMID:24798486

  6. Differing impact of a major biogeographic barrier on genetic structure in two large kangaroos from the monsoon tropics of Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Mark D B; Potter, Sally; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G

    2014-01-01

    Tropical savannas cover 20–30% of the world's land surface and exhibit high levels of regional endemism, but the evolutionary histories of their biota remain poorly studied. The most extensive and unmodified tropical savannas occur in Northern Australia, and recent studies suggest this region supports high levels of previously undetected genetic diversity. To examine the importance of barriers to gene flow and the environmental history of Northern Australia in influencing patterns of diversity, we investigated the phylogeography of two closely related, large, vagile macropodid marsupials, the antilopine wallaroo (Macropus antilopinus; n = 78), and the common wallaroo (Macropus robustus; n = 21). Both species are widespread across the tropical savannas of Australia except across the Carpentarian Barrier (CB) where there is a break in the distribution of M. antilopinus. We determined sequence variation in the hypervariable Domain I of the mitochondrial DNA control region and genotyped individuals at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the historical and contemporary influence of the CB on these species. Surprisingly, we detected only limited differentiation between the disjunct Northern Territory and QueenslandM. antilopinus populations. In contrast, the continuously distributedM. robustus was highly divergent across the CB. Although unexpected, these contrasting responses appear related to minor differences in species biology. Our results suggest that vicariance may not explain well the phylogeographic patterns in Australia's dynamic monsoonal environments. This is because Quaternary environmental changes in this region have been complex, and diverse individual species’ biologies have resulted in less predictable and idiosyncratic responses. PMID:25035797

  7. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    considerable intensity. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Cambrian—Early Ordovician age (S-pole at: 75.8°E 17.4°N, d p = 4.2°, d m = 1.9°, N = 54 specimens), attributed to thermochemical activity predating the main folding phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component corresponding to a S-pole position at 15.1°E 33.8°S (d p = 6.2°, d m = 12.3°, N = 16 sites). Both the primary and the secondary magnetic component are in very good directional agreement with the magnetization pattern from the correlated Billy Creek Formation of the Flinders Ranges (I). Consequently, noticeable rotational movement since late-Early Cambrian times between Kangaroo Island and the northwestern part of the Adelaide "Geosyncline" can be ruled out. III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin (Northern Territory) A total of 328 samples from a Middle Cambrian red-bed succession and a Middle to early-Late Cambrian carbonate succession in the Amadeus Basin (Central Australia) have been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of considerable intensity which became broken down, respectively below 200°C in the carbonate samples and between 300°C and 500°C in the red-bed samples. Another recent field component, broken down between 600°C and 675°C, was noted in some of the red-bed samples. Three characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Devonian—Early Carboniferous age (S-pole at 110.5°E 46.9°S, N = 2 localities) which predates the main folding phase of the Early Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny. (B) Another secondary magnetic component (S-pole at 60.8°E 33.8°N, N = 2 localities) which is very similar to a thermo-chemically induced Cambro-Ordovician magnetic component, noted in rocks from the Adelaide "Geosyncline". (C) A primary magnetic component which suggests

  8. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    considerable intensity. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Cambrian—Early Ordovician age (S-pole at: 75.8°E 17.4°N, d p = 4.2°, d m = 1.9°, N = 54 specimens), attributed to thermochemical activity predating the main folding phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component corresponding to a S-pole position at 15.1°E 33.8°S (d p = 6.2°, d m = 12.3°, N = 16 sites). Both the primary and the secondary magnetic component are in very good directional agreement with the magnetization pattern from the correlated Billy Creek Formation of the Flinders Ranges (I). Consequently, noticeable rotational movement since late-Early Cambrian times between Kangaroo Island and the northwestern part of the Adelaide "Geosyncline" can be ruled out. III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin (Northern Territory) A total of 328 samples from a Middle Cambrian red-bed succession and a Middle to early-Late Cambrian carbonate succession in the Amadeus Basin (Central Australia) have been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of considerable intensity which became broken down, respectively below 200°C in the carbonate samples and between 300°C and 500°C in the red-bed samples. Another recent field component, broken down between 600°C and 675°C, was noted in some of the red-bed samples. Three characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Devonian—Early Carboniferous age (S-pole at 110.5°E 46.9°S, N = 2 localities) which predates the main folding phase of the Early Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny. (B) Another secondary magnetic component (S-pole at 60.8°E 33.8°N, N = 2 localities) which is very similar to a thermo-chemically induced Cambro-Ordovician magnetic component, noted in rocks from the Adelaide "Geosyncline". (C) A primary magnetic component which suggests

  9. The role of decarbonization and structure in the Callie gold deposit, Tanami Region of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Nicholas C.

    2007-01-01

    The Callie deposit is the largest (6.0 Moz Au) of several gold deposits in the Dead Bullock Soak goldfield of the Northern Territory’s Tanami Region, 550 km northwest of Alice Springs. The Callie ore lies within corridors, up to 180 m wide, of sheeted en echelon quartz veins where they intersect the 500-m-wide hinge of an ESE-plunging F1 anticlinorium. The host rocks are the Blake beds, of the Paleoproterozoic Dead Bullock Formation, which consist of a > 350-m-thick sequence of lower greenschist facies graphitic turbidites and mudstones overlying in excess of 100 m of thickly bedded siltstones and fine sandstones. The rocks are Fe-rich and dominated by assemblages of chlorite and biotite, both of which are of hydrothermal and metamorphic origin. A fundamental characteristic of the hydrothermal alteration is the removal of graphite, a process which is associated with bleaching and the development of bedding-parallel bands of coarse biotite augen. Gold is found only in quartz veins and only where they cut decarbonized chloritic rock with abundant biotite augen and no sulfide minerals. Auriferous quartz veins differ from barren quartz veins by the presence of ilmenite, apatite, xenotime, and gold and the absence of sulfide minerals. The assemblage of gold-ilmenite-apatite-xenotime indicates a linked genesis and mobility of Ti, P, and Y in the mineralizing fluids. Geochemical analysis of samples throughout the deposit shows that gold only occurs in sedimentary rocks with high FeO/(FeO+Fe2O3) and low C/(C+CO2) ratios (> 0.8 and < 0.2, respectively). This association can be explained by reactions that convert C from reduced graphitic host rocks into CO2 and reduce ferric iron in the host rocks to ferrous iron in biotite and chlorite. These reactions would increase the CO2 content of the fluid, facilitating the transport of Ti, P, and Y from the host rocks into the veins. Both CO2 and CH4 produced by reaction of H2O with graphite, effervesced under the lower confining

  10. The Implementation of Families First NSW: Process Lessons from the First Four Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Karen; Thomson, Cathy; Valentine, Kylie

    2006-01-01

    Families First is a NSW Government strategy that aims to improve the effectiveness of early intervention services supporting families and communities to care for children. Its implementation is the joint responsibility of the five NSW Human Services agencies: the NSW departments of Community Services (DoCS); Ageing, Disability and Home Care…

  11. Are childhood immunization programmes in Australia at risk? Investigation of the cold chain in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Miller, N C; Harris, M F

    1994-01-01

    Since vaccines may lose their potency if transported or stored outside the recommended temperature range (2-8 degrees C), we carried out a study in the Darwin area of the Northern Territory of Australia to determine the links in the cold chain, including the extent of vaccine monitoring, and whether the vaccines were being exposed to unsafe temperatures. Sabin oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) and recombinant hepatitis-B (HB) vaccine were selected for special monitoring. A total of 127 vials of OPV and 144 vials of HB vaccine were dispatched during October, November and December 1990 to the government, independent health services and general practitioner surgeries which routinely administer these vaccines. We distributed the two vaccines with MonitorMark time/temperature and Coldside indicator tags attached to cards for recording the date, location and temperature exposures each time the vaccines were moved or used. A total of 65% of the OPV and 41% of the HB vaccine monitor cards were returned for analysis. The vaccines were transported and stored at one to four locations prior to being administered. Some 23% of tagged OPV was exposed for 48 hours or more to a temperature > 10 degrees C; 47.5% of tagged HB vaccines were exposed to -3 degrees C or less, the majority of them during storage in health facilities or clinics. Exposures were independent of distance from the distribution centre, mode of transport, or type of facility. Our results show that the vaccines were often exposed to temperatures outside the recommended range during transport and storage, putting them at risk of loss of potency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8062398

  12. Train-borne Measurements of Enhanced Wet Season Methane Emissions in Northern Australia - Implications for Australian Tropical Wetland Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W.; Paton-Walsh, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first transect measurements of CH4, CO2, CO and N2O taken on the Ghan railway travelling on a N-S transect of the Australian continent between Adelaide (34.9°S, 138.6°E) and Darwin (12.5°S, 130.9°E). The Ghan crosses Australia from the mainly agricultural mid-latitude south through the arid interior to the wet-dry tropical savannah south of and around Darwin. In the 2008 wet season (February) we observed a significant latitudinal gradient of CH4 increasing towards the north. The same pattern was observed in the late 2008 wet season (March-April), with a smaller latitudinal gradient. These will be compared with a dry season transect, to be undertaken in September/October 2008. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), a regional scale prognostic meteorological model, is used to estimate the surface methane source strength required to explain the observed latitudinal gradient in CH4 in the wet season, and investigate the source type. Fluxes from cattle and termites together contribute up to 25% of the enhancements seen, leaving wetlands as the major source of wet season methane in the Australian tropics. Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and tropical wetlands are responsible for the majority of the interannual variation in methane source strength. We attempt to quantify the annual methane flux contributed by anaerobic organic breakdown due to wet- season flooding in tropical Northern Territory.

  13. Strong purifying selection in endogenous retroviruses in the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) in the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of exogenous retroviruses that have integrated into the nuclear DNA of a germ-line cell. Here we present the results of a survey into the ERV complement of Crocodylus porosus, the saltwater crocodile, representing 45 individuals from 17 sampling locations in the Northern Territory of Australia. These retroelements were compared with published ERVs from other species of Crocodylia (Crocodilians; alligators, caimans, gharials and crocodiles) as well as representatives from other vertebrates. This study represents one of the first in-depth studies of ERVs within a single reptilian species shedding light on the diversity of ERVs and proliferation mechanisms in crocodilians. Results Analyses of the retroviral pro-pol gene region have corroborated the presence of two major clades of ERVs in C. porosus and revealed 18 potentially functional fragments out of the 227 recovered that encode intact pro-pol ORFs. Interestingly, we have identified some patterns of diversification among those ERVs as well as a novel sequence that suggests the presence of an additional retroviral genus in C. porosus. In addition, considerable diversity but low genetic divergence within one of the C. porosus ERV lineages was identified. Conclusions We propose that the ERV complement of C. porosus has come about through a combination of recent infections and replication of ancestral ERVs. Strong purifying selection acting on these clades suggests that this activity is recent or still occurring in the genome of this species. The discovery of potentially functional elements is an interesting development that warrants further investigation. PMID:23217152

  14. Varied Diazotrophies, Morphologies, and Toxicities of Genetically Similar Isolates of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanophyceae) from Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Saker, Martin L.; Neilan, Brett A.

    2001-01-01

    The potentially toxic freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii has become increasingly prevalent in tropical and temperate water bodies worldwide. This paper investigates the effects of different nitrogen sources (NO3−, NH4+, and omission of a fixed form of nitrogen) on the growth rates, morphologies, and cylindrospermopsin (CYL) concentrations (expressed as a percentage of the freeze-dried weight) of seven C. raciborskii isolates obtained from a range of water bodies in northern Australia and grown in batch culture. In general, growth rates were lowest in the absence of a fixed-nitrogen source and highest with NH4+ as the nitrogen source. Conversely, the highest concentrations of CYL were recorded in cultures grown in the absence of a fixed-nitrogen source and the lowest were found in cultures supplied with NH4+. Cultures supplied with NO3− were intermediate with respect to both CYL concentration and growth rate. Different nitrogen sources resulted in significant differences in the morphology of C. raciborskii trichomes. Most notable were the loss of heterocysts and the tapering of end cells in cultures supplied with NH4+ and the statistically significant increase in vegetative cell length (nitrogen depleted < NO3− < NH4+). The morphological changes induced by different nitrogen sources were consistent for all isolates, despite measurable differences in vegetative-cell and heterocyst dimensions among isolates. Such induced morphological variation has implications for Cylindrospermopsis taxonomy, given that distinctions between species are based on minor and overlapping differences in cell lengths and widths. The close phylogenetic association among all seven isolates was confirmed by the high level (>99.8%) of similarity of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Another genetic technique, analysis of the HIP1 octameric-palindrome repeated sequence, showed greater heterogeneity among the isolates and appears to be a useful method for distinguishing

  15. Rockpool ichthyofaunas of temperate Australia: species composition, residency and biogeographic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Shane P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper provides the first large-scale data of the rockpool ichthyofaunas of southeastern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, and compares the fish assemblage structure of this region with other regions in Australia and the world. A range of studies undertaken between August 1999 and September 2001 at 14 locations yielded 14,225 fish comprising 50 species from 26 families. About 64% of species were endemic to Australia, 30% have an Indo-Pacific distribution, while 6% have a trans-Tasman distribution. The dominant families were Gobiidae (4836 fish, four species), Tripterygiidae (3589 fish, three species) and Clinidae (1672 fish, five species). Permanent rockpool residents comprised 85% of assemblages ( Bathygobius cocosensis, Enneapterygius rufopileus and Lepidoblennius haplodactylus), opportunistic temporary residents comprised 14% ( Girella elevata) and the remaining 1% comprised seasonally abundant transients ( Chaetodon auriga and Kuhlia mugil). Fish assemblages in the present study were similar to other rockpool fish assemblages in northern NSW, although latitudinal variation was evident with a gradual replacement of temperate fishes with those of a tropical origin. On a global scale, Australian rockpools support unique ichthyofaunas but the dominant families (Blenniidae, Tripterygiidae, Gobiidae, Gobiesocidae and Clinidae) are similar to those in many countries of Gondwanan origin, such as Chile, Portugal, New Zealand and particularly South Africa where some species are even shared. Rockpools in countries of Laurasia origin (United States, Mexico, and Canada) support very different fish assemblages mainly representing the families Cottidae, Stichaeidae, Scorpaenidae and Pholidae. This probably represents speciation of rockpool fishes since separation of these landmasses in geological time, which may be driven by limited larval dispersal and colonisation of some species in specific regions.

  16. Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanpaeae, Harri T.; Holliday, Jon; Schroeder, Helge; Goddard, Timothy J.; Fister, Richard von; Carmichael, Wayne W

    2005-03-15

    Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 10{sup 6} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 10{sup 4} cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 10{sup 4} cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 {mu}g/kg dw; ELISA) during the

  17. The role of vegetation in the formation of anabranching channels in an ephemeral river, Northern plains, arid central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, Stephen; Nanson, Gerald C.

    2000-10-01

    As the distribution and abundance of vegetation in drylands is often controlled by the greater availability of water along river channels, riparian vegetation has the potential to influence significantly dryland river form, process and behaviour. This paper demonstrates how a small indigenous shrub, the inland teatree (Melaleuca glomerata), influences the formation and maintenance of anabranching channels in a reach of the ephemeral Marshall River, Northern Plains, arid central Australia. Here, the Marshall is characterized by ridge-form anabranching, where water and sediment are routed through subparallel, multiple channels of variable size which occur within a typically straight channel-train. Channels are separated by channel-train ridges - narrow, flow-aligned, vegetated features - or by wider islands. By providing a substantial element of boundary roughness, dense stands of teatrees growing on channel beds or atop the ridges and islands influence flow velocities, flow depths and sediment transport, resulting in flow diversion, bank and floodplain erosion, and especially sediment deposition. Ridges and islands represent a continuum of forms, and their formation and development can be divided into a three-stage sequence involving teatree growth and alluvial sedimentation.1Teatrees colonize a flat, sandy channel bed, initiating the formation of ridges by lee-side accretion. Individual ridges grow laterally, vertically and longitudinally and maintain a geometrically similar streamlined (lemniscate) form that presents minimum drag.2Individual ridges grow in size, and interact with neighbouring ridges, causing the lemniscate forms to become distorted. Ridges in the lee of other ridges tend to be protected from the erosive effects of floods and survive, whereas individual teatrees or small ridges exposed to flow concentrated between larger ridges, tend to be removed.3

  18. Dalcroze Eurhythmics: Interaction in Australia in the 1920s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Although musical, rhythmical and aural training aspects are at the heart of the Dalcroze approach it was physical educators rather than music educators in Australia who showed more interest. Lillian Mills and Ella Gormley, inaugural supervisors of physical training in WA and NSW respectively, contributed to the awareness of its benefits.…

  19. Dustman, Milliner and Watchcase Maker: Skilling Australia. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddie, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This paper was presented at the Professional Historians Association (NSW) Islands of History conference held on Norfolk Island in July 2010. It argues that the reliance on overseas workers to address skills shortages has been present ever since the first white settlement of Australia, which has, in turn, shaped attitudes to the governance of…

  20. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barry; And Others

    This document contains 24 case studies of adult education in Australia: (1) N.S.W. (New South Wales) Department of Agriculture Home Study Program (O'Neill); (2) Increasing Citizen Participation in Local Government (Holderness-Roddam); (3) School for Seniors (Benham and Vickers); (4) Community Living Project (Bleechmore); (5) Learning for the Less…

  1. Adult ADHD Among NSW Prisoners: Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth; Sunjic, Sandra; Kaye, Sharlene; Archer, Vicki; Indig, Devon

    2013-10-17

    Objective: Given the paucity of research among prisoners, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity associated with adult ADHD. Method: The study was conducted at four NSW correctional facilities (2 male; 2 female). Results: Thirty-five percent of the sample screened positive for adult ADHD, and 17% of the sample met criteria for a full diagnosis. After adjustment, benzodiazepine dependence, borderline personality disorder, social phobia, antisocial personality disorder, and a number of lifetime psychological disorders remained significantly and independently associated with the diagnosis of adult ADHD. Lowering the threshold on the ADHD Self-Rating Scale to ≥3 (vs. ≥4) increased the sensitivity (80%-93%), but lowered the specificity (55%-47%). Conclusion: Adult ADHD among NSW prisoners is elevated, with substance use disorders and psychiatric comorbidity common. A greater acceptance of this disorder among prisoners, and appropriate treatment, is warranted. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134874

  2. Distribution, relative abundance and size composition of the threatened serranid Epinephelus daemelii in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harasti, D; Malcolm, H

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake baseline surveys on the distribution, relative abundance and total lengths (LT ) of a threatened epinephelid species, black cod Epinephelus daemelii, in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, their westernmost distribution. Diving surveys at 83 sites where E. daemelii were expected to occur were undertaken from 2009 to 2011 using 45 min roving diver counts. Sites were spread through northern NSW, including Lord Howe Island (LHI). Individual fish were measured using stereo-video, enabling accurate length measurement. Surveys were repeated at a sub-set of sites to assess temporal variation across days, seasons and years. A total of 117 E. daemelii were recorded during baseline surveys, occurring at 42% of the surveyed sites. Across all surveys, the highest numbers recorded (14-18 individuals at a site) were at the outer Solitary Islands and Fish Rock (Smoky Cape). Fewer E. daemelii were found southwards, but two sites in the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park had consistent numbers (three to six) over four annual surveys. Only 12 E. daemelii were recorded from eight of the 18 sites at LHI. The numbers observed at re-surveyed sites were generally stable over years. There were latitudinal and cross-shelf differences in LT . Individuals in the north were found to be significantly larger than those further south, and fish offshore were significantly larger than those inshore. The largest measured fish was 135 cm, smaller than the maximum LT (c. 170 cm) recorded for this species. The smallest fish was 26 cm. Overall, it is considered that the abundance of E. daemelii is low compared to anecdotal data even though they have been protected for c. 30 years in NSW. These findings provide an essential benchmark to assess ongoing status and response to protective management. PMID:23902312

  3. Indigenous Tertiary Education--We Are All Learning: Both-Ways Pedagogy in the Northern Territory of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bat, Melodie; Kilgariff, Claire; Doe, Tina

    2014-01-01

    In this new era in tertiary education in Australia, the opportunity exists not only to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students and thus redress low access and participation rates, but also to build a system that privileges Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledges and ways of learning. To be able to do such a thing…

  4. Progressive increase in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Indigenous populations in northern Australia from 1993 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Tong, S Y C; Varrone, L; Chatfield, M D; Beaman, M; Giffard, P M

    2015-05-01

    Hospital-based studies have determined high rates of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Indigenous populations. However, there is a paucity of community-based data. We obtained 20 years (1993-2012) of data on S. aureus isolates (N = 20 210) collected from community clinics that provide services for Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia. Methicillin resistance increased from 7% to 24%, resistance to macrolides remained stable at ~25%, and there was a slight increase in resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The increase in methicillin resistance is concerning for the Indigenous communities represented by this data, but it is also of significance if virulent MRSA clones emerge and spread more widely from such settings. PMID:25302939

  5. New craniodental remains of Wakaleo alcootaensis (Diprotodontia: Thylacoleonidae) a carnivorous marsupial from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Yates, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    New jaws and teeth referable to the rare thylacoleonid marsupial Wakaleo alcootaensis are figured and described. The species is the geologically youngest known member of the genus and is only known from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia. A revised diagnosis of the species is presented which is found to be morphologically distinct from its congeners. W. alcootaensis can be distinguished from other species of Wakaleo by its greater size, deeply recessed masseteric fossa, more steeply angled I1, loss of P2, greater P3 to M1 ratio and loss of M3. Several characters of W. alcootaensis, including the increase in size, steeply angled I1, increase of the relative size of P3, and reduction of the molar row are present in at least some species of Thylacoleo. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these character states are convergences and that there was parallel evolution in these two thylacoleonid lineages. PMID:26587359

  6. Description of a new species of brooding spider crab in the genus Paranaxia Rathbun, 1924 (Brachyura: Majoidea), from northern Australia and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Andrew M; Hara, Ana

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Paranaxia keesingi sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected in northern Australia. The new species differs from its only congener, P. serpulifera (Guérin, 1832, in Guérin-Méneville 1829-1837), by several characters including carapace setation, sternal cavities, absence of a subhepatic spine, presence of a sharp spine on the posterodistal angle of the cheliped merus, relatively shorter chelipeds, and longer and more slender ambulatory legs. Morphological separation of the two species is supported by 12s rDNA sequence divergences of 7.4-8.2%. Like P. serpulifera, the newly described species exhibits direct development with females carrying juvenile individuals under the pleon. Both species are sympatric, but Paranaxia keesingi sp. nov. is found in deeper waters than P. serpulifera. PMID:27395615

  7. New craniodental remains of Wakaleo alcootaensis (Diprotodontia: Thylacoleonidae) a carnivorous marsupial from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    New jaws and teeth referable to the rare thylacoleonid marsupial Wakaleo alcootaensis are figured and described. The species is the geologically youngest known member of the genus and is only known from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia. A revised diagnosis of the species is presented which is found to be morphologically distinct from its congeners. W. alcootaensis can be distinguished from other species of Wakaleo by its greater size, deeply recessed masseteric fossa, more steeply angled I1, loss of P2, greater P3 to M1 ratio and loss of M3. Several characters of W. alcootaensis, including the increase in size, steeply angled I1, increase of the relative size of P3, and reduction of the molar row are present in at least some species of Thylacoleo. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these character states are convergences and that there was parallel evolution in these two thylacoleonid lineages. PMID:26587359

  8. Fodinomyces uranophilus gen. nov. sp. nov. and Coniochaeta fodinicola sp. nov., two uranium mine-inhabiting Ascomycota fungi from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Campos, Xabier; Kinsela, Andrew S; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N; Neilan, Brett A

    2014-01-01

    Seven acidophilic/acidotolerant fungal strains were characterized from samples of process waters (raffinate) at one of Australia's largest uranium mines, the Ranger Mine in Northern Territory. They were isolated from raffinate, which typically were very acidic (pH 1.7-1.8) and contained high concentrations of total dissolved/colloidal salts (> 100 g/L). Five of the isolates correspond to two new acidotolerant Ascomycota fungi. The first is a member of a new genus, here described as Fodinomyces (Teratosphaeriaceae, Capnodiales, Dothideomycetes) and does not show clear close affiliation with any other described fungus in the scientific literature. The second belongs to the genus Coniochaeta (Coniochaetaceae, Coniochaetales, Sordariomycetes) and is closely related to Coniochaeta hansenii. PMID:25143478

  9. Distribution of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B among children living in a remote indigenous community of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Asher, Amy J; Holt, Deborah C; Andrews, Ross M; Power, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is a communicable gastrointestinal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis and two genetic assemblages, A and B, cause human infection. In remote Indigenous communities of Australia, giardiasis is highly prevalent among children but disease transmission is poorly understood. This study investigated the prevalence of Giardia and genetic subtypes contributing to human disease in a remote Indigenous community, in the Northern Territory of Australia. Eighty-seven faecal samples were collected from 74 children (<15 years) over an 18 month period, and the distribution of positive cases relative to participant age and gender were examined. Screening by microscopy and 18S rRNA PCR amplification showed 66.7% (58/87) of faecal samples were positive for Giardia. Both males and females were equally affected and high detection rates were obtained for participants aged 0-<5 years and 5-<10 years (66.0 and 60.0% respectively). For 58.6% of the positive samples, Giardia was only detected by 18S rRNA PCR. Approximately 75% of cases were assemblage B, and subassemblage analyses using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene demonstrated that a variety of genetic variants were present. The high proportion of positive cases that were not detectable by microscopy, and dominance of assemblage B cases highlights the need for further research in this community, to assess the contribution of Giardia to chronic gastrointestinal disease among children, and to understand conditions conductive to assemblage B transmission. PMID:25412502

  10. High-resolution melting analysis of the spa locus reveals significant diversity within sequence type 93 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tong, S Y C; Lilliebridge, R A; Holt, D C; McDonald, M I; Currie, B J; Giffard, P M

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution melting analysis is an inherently robust, easy and inexpensive approach to the examination of genomic regions containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hypervariable loci. Staphylococcus aureus sequence type (ST) 93 is a singleton, Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive clone unique to Australia. A high-resolution melting-based method for the identification of ST93 was developed, and a similar approach was used to reveal diversity within the spa locus of this lineage. Statistical and graphical methods that account for instrumental and operator-dependent variation in high-resolution melting curves were developed, to allow greater confidence and reproducibility in deciding whether another curve is truly different from the baseline curve of an amplicon with known sequence. The data support a very early acquisition, or multiple independent acquisitions, of SCCmec by ST93 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and the coexistence of MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus versions of the same lineage within northern Australia. PMID:19392885

  11. The influence of the La Niña-El Niño cycle on giant mud crab (Scylla serrata) catches in Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Grubert, Mark; Arthur, James Michael; Boston, Ray; Lee, Shing Yip

    2012-03-01

    Mud crabs (Scylla spp.) are a high value commodity harvested in the Indo-West Pacific. Scylla species support important artisanal fisheries in south-east Asia and intensive commercial fisheries in Australia where the market demand and catch has increased markedly over the last decade. Over-fishing of Scylla spp. has been observed at varying levels throughout its distribution. Fluctuations in catch rates and abundance are thought to be driven by climate parameters. Here we analyse monthly, seasonal and annual patterns in catch and effort data (from 1990 to 2008) for the commercial giant mud crab (Scylla serrata) fishery in the Northern Territory, Australia, with corresponding climatic data (rainfall, freshwater runoff, sea surface temperature) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) as an indicator of La Niña/El Niño events. Between 30 and 40% of the variation in catch per unit effort can be explained by rainfall and SOI alone. This result was supported by linear mixed models which identified SOI as the main contributor to the model. Spectral analyses showed that catch peaks coincided with a four year La Niña cycle. One- and two-year time lags (consistent with S. Serrata's life cycle) were also significantly correlated to SOI values and rainfall. These outcomes may assist fishery managers in planning fishing exposure period and duration. Furthermore, findings of this study provide information on the vulnerability of S. serrata to fluctuations in environmental conditions and can help to apply protective measures when and where necessary.

  12. Distribution of Giardia duodenalis Assemblages A and B among Children Living in a Remote Indigenous Community of the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Amy J.; Holt, Deborah C.; Andrews, Ross M.; Power, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is a communicable gastrointestinal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis and two genetic assemblages, A and B, cause human infection. In remote Indigenous communities of Australia, giardiasis is highly prevalent among children but disease transmission is poorly understood. This study investigated the prevalence of Giardia and genetic subtypes contributing to human disease in a remote Indigenous community, in the Northern Territory of Australia. Eighty-seven faecal samples were collected from 74 children (<15 years) over an 18 month period, and the distribution of positive cases relative to participant age and gender were examined. Screening by microscopy and 18S rRNA PCR amplification showed 66.7% (58/87) of faecal samples were positive for Giardia. Both males and females were equally affected and high detection rates were obtained for participants aged 0–<5 years and 5–<10 years (66.0 and 60.0% respectively). For 58.6% of the positive samples, Giardia was only detected by 18S rRNA PCR. Approximately 75% of cases were assemblage B, and subassemblage analyses using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene demonstrated that a variety of genetic variants were present. The high proportion of positive cases that were not detectable by microscopy, and dominance of assemblage B cases highlights the need for further research in this community, to assess the contribution of Giardia to chronic gastrointestinal disease among children, and to understand conditions conductive to assemblage B transmission. PMID:25412502

  13. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. PMID:22324342

  14. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: II—Model validation, and impacts on air quality and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Mitchell, Ross M.; (Mick) Meyer, C. P.; Qin, Yi; Campbell, Susan; Gras, John L.; Parry, David

    This two-part series investigates the emission and transport of biomass burning aerosol (or particulate matter) across the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. In Part I, Meyer et al. [2008. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: I—Modelling the distribution of hourly emissions. Atmospheric Environment, in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.089.] used a fuel load distribution coupled with a satellite-derived imagery of fire scars and hotspots and the diurnal variation of a fire danger index to estimate hourly emission rates of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5) for the dry season April-November 2004 at a spatial resolution of 1 km×1 km. In the present paper, these emission rates are used in TAPM, a three-dimensional meteorological and air pollution model, and the modelled PM 2.5 concentrations and aerosol optical depths are compared with satellite and ground-based measurements. This exercise also seeks to fine-tune and validate the emission calculation methodology, a process through which it is found that cases with hotspots without any corresponding fire scars (e.g. in mountainous terrain), which were initially ignored, need to be included to improve the accuracy of model predictions. Overall, the model is able to describe the measurements satisfactorily, considering the issues associated with the model resolution, emission uncertainty, and modelled meteorology. The model hindcasts numerous exceedences of the advisory maximum PM 2.5 exposure limit across the study region, with large areas in excess of 30 exceedences during the study period. Estimated mean top of atmosphere direct radiative forcing due to aerosol shows a seasonal mean of -1.8 W m -2 with a region of strong enhancement over the western portion of the Top End.

  15. Three new genera and six new species of lecanicephalideans (Cestoda) from eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from northern Australia and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Koch, K R; Jensen, K; Caira, J N

    2012-02-01

    New lecanicephalidean cestodes inhabiting the spiral intestine were investigated in 4 of the 6 known species of eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus Garman. Hosts examined consisted of 5 specimens of Aetomylaeus vespertilio from northern Australia, 5 of Aetomylaeus maculatus from Borneo, 10 of Aetomylaeus nichofii sensu stricto from Borneo, and 7 of Aetomylaeus cf. nichofii 2 from northern Australia. As a result of these new collections, 3 new genera and 6 new species of lecanicephalideans are formally described. Aetomylaeus vespertilio hosted the new genera and species Collicocephalus baggioi n. gen., n. sp. and Rexapex nanus n. gen., n. sp., as well as Aberrapex weipaensis n. sp. Aetomylaeus maculatus and A. nichofii sensu stricto hosted 3 new species of the novel genus Elicilacunosus , with the former eagle ray hosting Elicilacunosus sarawakensis n. sp. and the latter hosting both Elicilacunosus dharmadii n. sp. and Elicilacunosus fahmii n. sp. No new lecanicephalideans were described from A. cf. nichofii 2. Collicocephalus n. gen. is conspicuously unique among the genera of its order in possessing a large, retractable apical organ that, in cross-section, is transversely oblong, rather than round. Rexapex n. gen. is distinctive in its possession of an apical organ that bears 18 papilliform projections around its perimeter, and Elicilacunosus n. gen. is unlike any other known lecanicephalidean, or eucestode, in its possession of a region of musculo-glandular tissue along the midline of the dorsal and ventral surfaces of its proglottids, manifested externally as a tandem series of depressions. Among other features, A. weipaensis n. sp. differs from its congeners in its lack of post-ovarian vitelline follicles. All 6 new species were each restricted to a single species of Aetomylaeus . These records formally establish species of Aetomylaeus as hosts of lecanicephalideans. A summary of cestodes of myliobatid rays is presented. PMID:21882975

  16. The Australian Rural Health Research Collaboration: building collaborative population health research in rural and remote NSW.

    PubMed

    Perkins, David A; Barclay, Lesley; Browne, Kim M; Blunden, Lou-Anne; Fragar, Lyn J; Kelly, Brian J; Lower, Tony; Lyle, David M; Saberi, Vahid; Stain, Helen J; Sidford, Jan R

    2011-04-01

    The health problems faced by rural and remote communities are complex and not amenable to simple or short-term solutions. The Australian Rural Health Research Collaboration, which comprises rural research centres, area health services and policy makers in NSW, investigates these problems. Founded in 2002, it has grown to become the leading rural research collaboration in Australia. It aims to: conduct high quality research; build the capacity of researchers and clinicians; and encourage the translation of research evidence into practice for the benefit of rural and remote communities. The success of the Collaboration is illustrated by the increase in research outputs, funds generated, the strength of the relationships between partners and the ability to address complex research problems such as the mental health of rural and remote communities often deemed too difficult or expensive to include in metropolitan-based research. Keys to success have been the inclusive public health ethos, the participation of senior researchers and service managers, the critical mass of researchers achieved through collaboration and effective leadership and governance. This demonstrates the value of supporting cooperative research and capacity building in rural and remote areas where the size of research groups is small and where effective multi-disciplinary and co-operative research can pay dividends. PMID:21527077

  17. Southeastern Australia's Submarine Landslides : a Model for Their Occurence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubble, T.; Clarke, S. L.; Yu, P.; Airey, D.; Keene, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has identified an extensive region of the eastern Australian Continental Margin offshore Northern NSW and Southern Queensland which has experienced intense submarine erosion dominated by large-scale, submarine-landsliding that has removed enormous amounts of Neogene to recent sediment from the upper and middle continental slope. Preliminary findings demonstrate that i) some upper slope slides are geologically very young (< 20 kA), ii) the most recent slides occurred in relatively shallow depths and were volumetrically large enough (~3 cu km) to have been capable of generating damaging tsunami if shed as single masses and iii) the mid-slope slides are comprised of compacted Neogene sediments; iv) some of the mid-slope slide scars are huge (several 10's of cu km); and v) some of the mid-slope slide masses probably remained largely intact during sliding, potentially generated megatsunami, and are suspected to located on the abyssal Tasman Sea plain adjacent to the margin. A conceptual model that accounts for the apparent onset of sliding approximately 15 million years ago and the continuing deconstruction of the margin has been developed. This model posits that erosion of material from the middle and lower slope by deep, cold-water, ocean currents originating in Antartica occurred contemporaneously with an increase in the frequency and intensity of earthquakes due to increasing tectonic interaction between Australia and Asia. These two processes acted together to initiate and then sustain the submarine landsliding.

  18. Remote supervision of medical training via videoconference in northern Australia: a qualitative study of the perspectives of supervisors and trainees

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Robin; Sabesan, Sabe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Telemedicine has revolutionised the ability to provide care to patients, relieve professional isolation and provide guidance and supervision to junior medical officers in rural areas. This study evaluated the Townsville teleoncology supervision model for the training of junior medical officers in rural areas of North Queensland, Australia. Specifically, the perspectives of junior and senior medical officers were explored to identify recommendations for future implementation. Design A qualitative approach incorporating observation and semistructured interviews was used to collect data. Interviews were uploaded into NVivo 10 data management software. Template analysis enabled themes to be tested and developed through consensus between researchers. Setting One tertiary level and four secondary level healthcare centres in rural and regional Queensland, Australia. Participants 10 junior medical officers (Interns, Registrars) and 10 senior medical officers (Senior Medical Officers, Consultants) who participated in the Townsville teleoncology model of remote supervision via videoconference (TTMRS) were included in the study. Primary and Secondary outcome measures Perspectives on the telemedicine experience, technology, engagement, professional support, satisfaction and limitations were examined. Perspectives on topics raised by participants were also examined as the interviews progressed. Results Four major themes with several subthemes emerged from the data: learning environment, beginning the learning relationship, stimulus for learning and practicalities of remote supervision via videoconference. While some themes were consistent with the current literature, new themes like increased professional edge, recognising non-verbal cues and physical examination challenges were identified. Conclusions Remote supervision via videoconference provides readily available guidance to trainees supporting their delivery of appropriate care to patients. However, resources

  19. Flinders University School of Medicine, Northern Territory, Australia: Achieving Educational Excellence along with a Sustainable Rural Medical Workforce.

    PubMed

    Worley, Paul

    2008-10-01

    Introduction Medical schools today are being challenged to educate doctors who are willing and able to practice in areas of poverty and workforce need. In many countries, there is a shortage of doctors practicing in rural and remote communities. There is evidence that locating undergraduate medical education in rural areas increases the likelihood that graduates will choose to practice in underserved areas. Through its Parallel Rural Community Curriculum (PRCC), Flinders University School of Medicine (FUSM) now enables over 25% of its students to undertake an entire clinical year based in small rural communities supervised principally by rural family physicians. Objective The PRCC was conceived to provide a high quality educational intervention that would result in an increased number of students choosing to practice in rural and remote Australia. It was also designed to test the hypothesis that small rural and remote practices were capable of facilitating a full year of medical training at a standard comparable to that provided at a major tertiary hospital. Intervention Starting with eight students in four towns in 1997, the PRCC now places 30 students across 18 towns in rural Australia. The students simultaneously learn the disciplines of medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and family medicine. At the end of the year, all Flinders students, regardless of training location, take the same comprehensive exam. Outcomes PRCC students improved their academic performance in comparison to their tertiary trained peers. This improvement has been consistent over the ten years studied. Seventy percent of the PRCC students have chosen to practice in rural locations, compared to 18 percent of tertiary-trained students. Over twelve years, the program has proved to be sustainable in a private practice environment with a workforce shortage. Conclusions Evaluation of the PRCC indicates that a rural community-based clinical education can provide a

  20. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  1. Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.; Group, A.; Milligan, P.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW dierction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. The Ant-Plane #4 consists of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 25kg including 12.4 litter fuels and the coursing speed is 130. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto- resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time can be recorded in every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were obtained from the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The magnetic noise level during the flight increased to 30nT, when the plane was flight in the tail wind. However, it is much higher when the plane flew in the head wind. The anomaly pattern obtained from Ant-Plane 4 was compared with the magnetic anomaly map published by

  2. A modern analogue for tectonic, eustatic, and climatic processes in cratonic basins: Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine; Mattick, R.E.; de Deckker, Patrick; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Carpentaria is a tropical, silled epicontinental sea and may be a modern analogue for ancient cratonic basins. For the purpose of this study, the Gulf of Carpentaria is compared to Pennsylvanian cratonic basins of the United States. During the Pennsylvanian, the North American continent moved from the Southern Hemisphere, through the Equator, into the Northern Hemisphere. Today, the Gulf of Carpentaria–New Guinea region is a few degrees south of the Equator and is moving towards it. During the Pennsylvanian, the world was subjected to major glaciations and associated sea-level changes. The island of New Guinea and the Gulf of Carpentaria have undergone similar processes during the Quaternary. A reconnaissance seismic survey of the gulf conducted by the USGS and the Australian National University (ANU), combined with oil-exploration well data, provided the first step in a systematic evaluation of a modern tropical epicontinental system. During the Cenozoic, the region was dominated by terrestrial sedimentation in a temperate climate. At the same time, carbonates were being deposited on the northern shelf edge of the Australian Plate. During the Miocene, carbonate deposition expanded southward into the gulf region. Then in the Late Miocene, carbonate sedimentation was replaced by terrigenous clastics derived from the developing Central Range of the island of New Guinea, which developed a wetter climate while moving northwards into the tropics. At least 14 basin-wide transgressive–regressive cycles are identified by channels that were eroded under subaerial conditions since about the Miocene. Comparison of the modern Gulf of Carpentaria sequences with those of the Pennsylvanian reveals many similarities.

  3. Re-evaluation of the petrogenesis of the Proterozoic Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, Paul A.; Kurt Kyser, T.; Thomas, David; Marlatt, Jim; Drever, Garth

    2005-11-01

    The world class Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field, Australia, contains >163,000 tons of contained U3O8. Mineralization is hosted by shallow-to-steeply dipping basement rocks comprising graphitic units of chlorite-biotite-muscovite schist. These rocks are overlain by flat-lying coarse-grained sandstones belonging to the Kombolgie Subgroup. The deposit was discovered in 1971, but has never been mined. The construction of an 1,150 m decline into the upper eastern sector of the Jabiluka II deposit combined with closely spaced underground drilling in 1998 and 1999 allowed mapping and sampling from underground for the first time. Structural mapping, drill core logging and petrographic studies on polished thin sections established a detailed paragenesis that provided the framework for subsequent electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction, fluid inclusion, and O-H, U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar isotope analysis. Uranium mineralization is structurally controlled within semi-brittle shears that are sub-conformable to the basement stratigraphy, and breccias that are developed within the hinge zone of fault-related folds adjacent to the shears. Uraninite is intimately associated with chlorite, sericite, hematite ± quartz. Electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis of syn-ore illite and chlorite indicates a mineralization temperature of 200°C. Pre- and syn-ore minerals extracted from the Kombolgie Subgroup overlying the deposit and syn-ore alteration minerals in the Cahill Formation have δ18Ofluid and δ D fluid values of 4.0±3.7 and -27±17‰, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from illite separates extracted from diagenetic aquifers in the Kombolgie Subgroup up to 70 km to the south and east of the deposit and believed to be the source of the uraniferous fluid. New fluid inclusion microthermometry data reveal that the mineralising brine was saline, but not saturated. U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios of uraninite by

  4. Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-09-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia (near Darwin): Philometra carangis n. sp. from the bluespotted trevally Caranx bucculentus Alleyne & Macleay (Carangidae) and P. carponotati n. sp. from the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae). Philometra carangis is mainly characterised by the length of the spicules (153-189 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the males (3.22-4.15 mm). Philometra carponotati is distinguished from other congeneric species parasitising lutjanids by the length of the spicules and gubernaculum (225-252 and 99-117 µm, respectively), the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum, the presence of a U-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, a pair of large post-cloacal papillae and the body length of the male (3.74-4.31 mm). Besides the recently established Philometra zabidii Moravec & Diggles, 2014 (based on a single female), these two newly described nematodes are the only nominal gonad-infecting species of Philometra known to parasitise marine fishes in Australian waters. PMID:25079814

  5. Characterization of a G1P[8] rotavirus causing an outbreak of gastroenteritis in the Northern Territory, Australia, in the vaccine era

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Celeste M; Cowley, Daniel; Snelling, Thomas L; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, a large outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The outbreak occurred 43 months after the introduction of the G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine Rotarix®. Forty-three infants were hospitalized during the outbreak and analysis of fecal samples from each infant revealed a G1P[8] rotavirus strain. The outbreak strain was adapted to cell culture and neutralization assays were performed using VP7 and VP4 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The outbreak strain exhibited a distinct neutralization resistance pattern compared to the Rotarix® vaccine strain. Whole genome sequencing of the 2010 outbreak virus strain demonstrated numerous amino acid differences compared to the Rotarix® vaccine strain in the characterized neutralization epitopes of the VP7 and VP4 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the outbreak strain revealed a close genetic relationship to global strains, in particular RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE0098/2009/G1P[8] and RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE00038/2008/G1P[8] for numerous genes. The 2010 outbreak strain was likely introduced from a globally circulating population of strains rather than evolving from an endemic Australian strain. The outbreak strain possessed antigenic differences in the VP7 and VP4 proteins compared to the Rotarix® vaccine strain. The outbreak was associated with moderate vaccine coverage and possibly low vaccine take in the population. PMID:26038746

  6. Characterization of a G1P[8] rotavirus causing an outbreak of gastroenteritis in the Northern Territory, Australia, in the vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Donato, Celeste M; Cowley, Daniel; Snelling, Thomas L; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-07-01

    In 2010, a large outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The outbreak occurred 43 months after the introduction of the G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine Rotarix(®). Forty-three infants were hospitalized during the outbreak and analysis of fecal samples from each infant revealed a G1P[8] rotavirus strain. The outbreak strain was adapted to cell culture and neutralization assays were performed using VP7 and VP4 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The outbreak strain exhibited a distinct neutralization resistance pattern compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. Whole genome sequencing of the 2010 outbreak virus strain demonstrated numerous amino acid differences compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain in the characterized neutralization epitopes of the VP7 and VP4 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the outbreak strain revealed a close genetic relationship to global strains, in particular RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE0098/2009/G1P[8] and RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE00038/2008/G1P[8] for numerous genes. The 2010 outbreak strain was likely introduced from a globally circulating population of strains rather than evolving from an endemic Australian strain. The outbreak strain possessed antigenic differences in the VP7 and VP4 proteins compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. The outbreak was associated with moderate vaccine coverage and possibly low vaccine take in the population. PMID:26038746

  7. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered. PMID:25055621

  8. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994–1996

    PubMed Central

    Aland, Kieran; Kearns, Thérèse; Gongdjalk, Glenda; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart; Prociv, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%); hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%); Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni) (25%); S. stercoralis (19%); Rodentolepis nana (16%); and Giardia duodenalis (10%). Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87) than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41), while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91). Discussion Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species. PMID:25960921

  9. The archaeology, chronology and stratigraphy of Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II): A site in northern Australia with early occupation.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Chris; Smith, Mike; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley A; Faulkner, Patrick; Manne, Tiina; Hayes, Elspeth; Roberts, Richard G; Jacobs, Zenobia; Carah, Xavier; Lowe, Kelsey M; Matthews, Jacqueline; Florin, S Anna

    2015-06-01

    Published ages of >50 ka for occupation at Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II) in Australia's north have kept the site prominent in discussions about the colonisation of Sahul. The site also contains one of the largest stone artefact assemblages in Sahul for this early period. However, the stone artefacts and other important archaeological components of the site have never been described in detail, leading to persistent doubts about its stratigraphic integrity. We report on our analysis of the stone artefacts and faunal and other materials recovered during the 1989 excavations, as well as the stratigraphy and depositional history recorded by the original excavators. We demonstrate that the technology and raw materials of the early assemblage are distinctive from those in the overlying layers. Silcrete and quartzite artefacts are common in the early assemblage, which also includes edge-ground axe fragments and ground haematite. The lower flaked stone assemblage is distinctive, comprising a mix of long convergent flakes, some radial flakes with faceted platforms, and many small thin silcrete flakes that we interpret as thinning flakes. Residue and use-wear analysis indicate occasional grinding of haematite and woodworking, as well as frequent abrading of platform edges on thinning flakes. We conclude that previous claims of extensive displacement of artefacts and post-depositional disturbance may have been overstated. The stone artefacts and stratigraphic details support previous claims for human occupation 50-60 ka and show that human occupation during this time differed from later periods. We discuss the implications of these new data for understanding the first human colonisation of Sahul. PMID:25957653

  10. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Fish Assemblages Following an Artificially Extended Floodplain Inundation Event, Northern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolls, Robert J.; Wilson, G. Glenn

    2010-04-01

    Water extraction from dryland rivers is often associated with declines in the health of river and floodplain ecosystems due to reduced flooding frequency and extent of floodplain inundation. Following moderate flooding in early 2008 in the Narran River, Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, 10,423 ML of water was purchased from agricultural water users and delivered to the river to prolong inundation of its terminal lake system to improve the recruitment success of colonial waterbirds that had started breeding in response to the initial flooding. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of fish assemblages in river and floodplain habitats over eight months following flooding to assess the possible ecological benefits of flood extension. Although the abundances of most fish species were greater in river channel habitats, the fish assemblage used floodplain habitats when inundated. Young-of-the-year (4-12 months age) golden perch ( Macquaria ambigua) and bony bream ( Nematalosa erebi) were consistently sampled in floodplain sites when inundated, suggesting that the floodplain provides rearing habitat for these species. Significant differences in the abundances of fish populations between reaches upstream and downstream of a weir in the main river channel indicates that the effectiveness of the environmental water release was limited by restricted connectivity within the broader catchment. Although the seasonal timing of flood extension may have coincided with sub-optimal primary production, the use of the environmental water purchase is likely to have promoted recruitment of fish populations by providing greater access to floodplain nursery habitats, thereby improving the ability to persist during years of little or no flow.

  11. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in streams of intermittent flow - linkages with ecohydrologic processes from pool to catchment in northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grierson, Pauline; Siebers, Andre; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Fellman, Jason; Pettit, Neil; Dogramaci, Shawan

    2015-04-01

    Changes in both the frequency and intensity of flood-drought cycles of intermittent streams, either through changing climate or anthropogenic management, may have significant impacts on stream functioning. However, little is known about how and to what extent the quantity and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) changes during inter-flood periods and how this relates to stream hydrology, particularly of intermittent rivers. We hypothesised that with increasing time since flooding, controls on stream biogeochemical processes transition from predominantly hydrological to more local scale environmental factors. We also argue that in strongly seasonal and oligotrophic regions, such as those of the tropical northwest of Australia, groundwater inputs of old DOC may increase the bioavailability of stream organic matter. We used δ18O and δ2H values of surface water and groundwater in the alluvium (AW) together with DOM fluorescence excitation-emission spectroscopy and radiocarbon dating to (i) characterise DOM and (ii) assess the relative importance of autochthonous versus allochthonous sources among pools according to how connected they are to groundwater. Our findings show that as streams increase in size and accumulate aromatic DOC from terrestrial plant material, percent bioavailability decreases concomitant with the modernization of the DOC pool. Therefore, rapid biotic uptake of old, bioavailable DOC originating in groundwater springs and the accumulation of modern, terrestrially derived DOC work in opposite directions affecting the dynamics of DOC along fluvial networks. The metabolism of old DOC in small streams is a direct link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems but also provides a biogeochemical link between non-contemporary carbon fixation and modern river productivity. Recognition of the hydrologic complexity of dryland rivers is clearly necessary for more effective catchment-scale management strategies that balance an increasing demand for

  12. Field Validation of a Transcriptional Assay for the Prediction of Age of Uncaged Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Leon E.; Cook, Peter E.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Rapley, Luke P.; Kay, Brian H.; Ryan, Peter A.; Ritchie, Scott A.; O'Neill, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    Background New strategies to eliminate dengue have been proposed that specifically target older Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the proportion of the vector population that is potentially capable of transmitting dengue viruses. Evaluation of these strategies will require accurate and high-throughput methods of predicting mosquito age. We previously developed an age prediction assay for individual Ae. aegypti females based on the transcriptional profiles of a selection of age responsive genes. Here we conducted field testing of the method on Ae. aegypti that were entirely uncaged and free to engage in natural behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings We produced “free-range” test specimens by releasing 8007 adult Ae. aegypti inside and around an isolated homestead in north Queensland, Australia, and recapturing females at two day intervals. We applied a TaqMan probe-based assay design that enabled high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR of four transcripts from three age-responsive genes and a reference gene. An age prediction model was calibrated on mosquitoes maintained in small sentinel cages, in which 68.8% of the variance in gene transcription measures was explained by age. The model was then used to predict the ages of the free-range females. The relationship between the predicted and actual ages achieved an R2 value of 0.62 for predictions of females up to 29 days old. Transcriptional profiles and age predictions were not affected by physiological variation associated with the blood feeding/egg development cycle and we show that the age grading method could be applied to differentiate between two populations of mosquitoes having a two-fold difference in mean life expectancy. Conclusions/Significance The transcriptional profiles of age responsive genes facilitated age estimates of near-wild Ae. aegypti females. Our age prediction assay for Ae. aegypti provides a useful tool for the evaluation of mosquito control interventions against dengue where mosquito

  13. Metamorphic and volcanic quartz of the siliciclastic Tipuma Formation, West Papua, Indonesia: an insight into Triassic palaeogeography of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Indra; Hall, Robert; Augustsson, Carita

    2013-04-01

    along with other techniques. Quartz from Tipuma Formation sandstone is dominated by quartz of low-T metamorphic and volcanic origin and only with little plutonic quartz. This strongly suggests an input of detritus derived from contemporaneous acid volcanic rocks and some local low-grade metamorphic rocks. The results confirm assessment based on zircon study of the main contemporaneous volcanic activity, which waned or ceased during deposition of the Middle Member of the Tipuma Formation. Widespread Permo-Triassic volcanic activity in the Bird's Head possibly caused contact metamorphism in the area with uplift and erosion of low-T metamorphic rocks. The Tasman Line continues from Eastern Australia through New Guinea, into the Bird's Head region. At least since the Triassic, the Bird's Head has been part of the Gondwana margin and for the first time, we can provide compelling evidence that volcanic activity has played a major role in this region.

  14. Extremely high levels of melanoma in Tauranga, New Zealand: possible causes and comparisons with Australia and the northern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul Jm; Chan, Weng Chen; Griffin, Jenny; McKenzie, Richard; Rademaker, Marius

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of melanoma in the Tauranga region of New Zealand, to compare these findings within Australasia and the northern hemisphere, and to understand the causes of the relatively high rates in Tauranga. Data were obtained from retrospective review of histology reports from the public and private health systems in greater Tauranga (Tauranga and Western Bay of Plenty Districts). Primary cutaneous melanomas (including both invasive and in situ melanomas) reported during 2003 were included. Age-standardized melanoma rates were calculated for the entire population as well as for the non-Maori population of the region, identified from the 2001 New Zealand Census. The age-standardized incidence of invasive melanoma in the non-Maori population of the greater Tauranga region was 79/100,000. The age-standardized rate for the entire population was 70/100,000. The rate of in situ disease was 78/100,000 for non-Maori and 72/100,000 for the entire population. The Tauranga region of New Zealand has an exceptionally high incidence of invasive and in situ melanomas. This is likely related to environmental, geographical and societal factors, including relatively high levels of UV exacerbated in recent times by ozone depletion, relatively cool summer temperatures which encourage outdoor exposure, and relatively fair skin colouring. PMID:17956477

  15. Gambling, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in remote indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent government reports have identified gambling, along with alcohol abuse, drug abuse and pornography, as contributing to child neglect and abuse in Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory (NT). These reports also identify gaps in empirical evidence upon which to base sound policy. To address this shortfall, data from ten remote Indigenous communities was analysed to determine the relationship between gambling problems, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in indigenous communities. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess associations between gambling problems, community contexts, housing conditions and child health. Separate multivariable models were developed for carer reported gambling problems in houses and six child health outcomes. Results Carer reported gambling problems in households across the ten communities ranged from 10% to 74%. Inland tropical communities had the highest level of reported gambling problems. Less access to a doctor in the community showed evidence of a multivariable adjusted association with gambling problems in houses. No housing variables showed evidence for a multivariable association with reported gambling problems. There was evidence for gambling problems having a multivariable adjusted association with carer report of scabies and ear infection in children. Conclusions The analyses provide evidence that gambling is a significant problem in Indigenous communities and that gambling problems in households is related to poor child health outcomes. A comprehensive (prevention, treatment, regulation and education) public health approach to harm minimisation associated with gambling amongst the Indigenous population is required that builds on current normative community regulation of gambling. PMID:22632458

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in a cross-sectional study of urogenital samples from remote Northern and Central Australia

    PubMed Central

    Giffard, Philip M; Brenner, Nicole C; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Holt, Deborah C; Andersson, Patiyan; Lilliebridge, Rachael A; Tong, Steven Y C; Karimi, Mahdad; Boylan, Prudence; Ryder, Nathan; Johns, Tracy; Singh, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to determine the frequency of trachoma genotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis-positive urogenital tract (UGT) specimens from remote areas of the Australian Northern Territory (NT). Setting The setting was analysis of remnants of C. trachomatis positive primarily UGT specimens obtained in the course of clinical practice. The specimens were obtained from two pathology service providers. Participants From 3356 C. trachomatis specimens collected during May 2012–April 2013, 439 were selected for genotyping, with a focus on specimens from postpubescent patients, in remote Aboriginal communities where ocular trachoma is potentially present. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the proportion of successfully genotyped UGT specimens that were trachoma genotypes. The secondary outcome measures were the distribution of genotypes, and the frequencies of different classes of specimens able to be genotyped. Results Zero of 217 successfully genotyped UGT specimens yielded trachoma genotypes (95% CI for frequency=0–0.017). For UGT specimens, the genotypes were E (41%), F (22%), D (21%) and K (7%), with J, H and G and mixed genotypes each at 1–4%. Four of the five genotyped eye swabs yielded trachoma genotype Ba, and the other genotype J. Two hundred twenty-two specimens (50.6%) were successfully genotyped. Urine specimens were less likely to be typable than vaginal swabs (p<0.0001). Conclusions Unlike in some other studies, in the remote NT, trachoma genotypes of C. trachomatis were not found circulating in UGT specimens from 2012 to 2013. Therefore, C. trachomatis genotypes in UGT specimens from young children can be informative as to whether the organism has been acquired through sexual contact. We suggest inclusion of C. trachomatis genotyping in guidelines examining the source of sexually transmitted infections in young children in areas where trachoma genotypes may continue to circulate, and continued

  17. Roaming behaviour and home range estimation of domestic dogs in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia using four different methods.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2014-11-15

    Disease transmission parameters are the core of epidemic models, but are difficult to estimate, especially in the absence of outbreak data. Investigation of the roaming behaviour, home range (HR) and utilization distribution (UD) can provide the foundation for such parameter estimation in free-ranging animals. The objectives of this study were to estimate HR and UD of 69 domestic dogs in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia and to compare four different methods (the minimum convex polygon, MCP; the location-based kernel density estimation, LKDE; the biased random bridge, BRB; and Time Local Convex Hull, T-LoCoH) for investigation of UD and estimating HR sizes. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to community dogs for a period of 1-3 days and positions (fixes) were recorded every minute. Median core HRs (50% isopleth) of the 69 dogs were estimated to range from 0.2 to 0.4 ha and the more extended HR (95% isopleth) to range from 2.5 to 5.3 ha, depending on the method used. The HR and UD shapes were found to be generally circular around the dog owner's house. However, some individuals were found to roam much more with a HR size of 40-104 ha and cover large areas of their community or occasionally beyond. These far roaming dogs are of particular interest for infectious disease transmission. Occasionally, dogs were taken between communities and out of communities for hunting, which enables the contact of dogs between communities and with wildlife (such as dingoes). The BRB and T-LoCoH are the only two methods applied here which integrate the consecutiveness of GPS locations into the analysis, a substantial advantage. The recently developed BRB method produced significantly larger HR estimates than the other two methods; however, the variability of HR sizes was lower compared to the other methods. Advantages of the BRB method include a more realistic analytical approach (kernel density estimation based on movements

  18. Spatial patterns of sub-tidal seagrasses and their tissue nutrients in the Torres Strait, northern Australia: Implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, James K.; Carter, Alex B.; McKenzie, Len J.; Pitcher, C. Roland; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    The distribution and nutritional profiles of sub-tidal seagrasses from the Torres Strait were surveyed and mapped across an area of 31,000 km 2. Benthic sediment composition, water depth, seagrass species type and nutrients were sampled at 168 points selected in a stratified representative pattern. Eleven species of seagrass were present at 56 (33.3%) of the sample points. Halophila spinulosa, Halophila ovalis, Cymodocea serrulata and Syringodium isoetifolium were the most common species and these were nutrient profiled. Sub-tidal seagrass distribution (and associated seagrass nutrient concentrations) was generally confined to northern-central and south-western regions of the survey area (

  19. Pockmark development in the Petrel Sub-basin, Timor Sea, Northern Australia: Seabed habitat mapping in support of CO2 storage assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, W. A.; Nichol, S. L.; Howard, F. J. F.; Picard, K.; Dulfer, H.; Radke, L. C.; Carroll, A. G.; Tran, M.; Siwabessy, P. J. W.

    2014-07-01

    The extent to which fluids may leak from sedimentary basins to the seabed is a critical issue for assessing the potential of a basin for carbon capture and storage. The Petrel Sub-basin, located beneath central and eastern Joseph Bonaparte Gulf in tropical northern Australia, was identified as potentially suitable for the geological storage of CO2 because of its geological characteristics and proximity to offshore gas and petroleum resources. In May 2012, a multidisciplinary marine survey (SOL5463) was undertaken to collect data in two targeted areas of the Petrel Sub-basin to facilitate an assessment of its CO2 storage potential. This paper focuses on Area 1 of that survey, a 471 km2 area of sediment-starved shelf (water depths of 78 to 102 m), characterised by low-gradient plains, low-lying ridges, palaeo-channels and shallow pockmarks. Three pockmark types are recognised: small shallow unit pockmarks 10-20 m in diameter (generally <1 m, rarely to 2 m deep), composite pockmarks of 150-300 m diameter formed from the co-location of several cross-cutting pockmarks forming a broad shallow depression (<1 m deep), and pockmark clusters comprised of shallow unit pockmarks co-located side by side (150-300 m width overall, <1 m deep). Pockmark distribution is non-random, focused within and adjacent to palaeo-channels, with pockmark clusters also located adjacent to ridges. Pockmark formation is constrained by AMS 14C dating of in situ mangrove deposits and shells to have begun after 15.5 cal ka BP when a rapid marine transgression of Bonaparte Shelf associated with meltwater pulse 1A drowned coastal mangrove environments. Pockmark development is likely an ongoing process driven by fluid seepage at the seabed, and sourced from CO2 produced in the shallow sub-surface (<2 m) sediment. No evidence for direct connection to deeper features was observed.

  20. A comparison of the sports safety policies and practices of community sports clubs during training and competition in northern Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, A; Forero, R; Finch, C; Hill, T

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the safety policies and practices reported to be adopted during training and competition by community sports clubs in northern Sydney, Australia. Methods: This cross sectional study involved face to face interviews, using an 81 item extensively validated questionnaire, with representatives of 163 community netball, rugby league, rugby union, and soccer clubs (response rate 85%). The study was undertaken during the winter sports season of 2000. Two separate 14 item scales were developed to analyse the level of safety policy adoption and safety practice implementation during training and competition. The statistical analysis comprised descriptive and inferential analysis stratified by sport. Results: The reliability of the scales was good: Cronbach's α = 0.70 (competition scale) to 0.81 (training scale). Significant differences were found between the safety scores for training and competition for all clubs (mean difference 11.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.0 to 12.5) and for each of the four sports: netball (mean difference 14.9; 95% CI 12.6 to 17.2); rugby league (mean difference 10.3; 95% CI 7.1 to 13.6); rugby union (mean difference 9.4; 95% CI 7.1 to 11.7); and soccer (mean difference 8.4; 95% CI 6.5 to 10.3). Conclusions: The differences in the mean competition and training safety scores were significant for all sports. This indicates that safety policies were less often adopted and practices less often implemented during training than during competition. As injuries do occur at training, and sports participants often spend considerably more time training than competing, sporting bodies should consider whether the safety policies and practices adopted and implemented at training are adequate. PMID:14751948

  1. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kinsela, Andrew S; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations. PMID:22225826

  2. Early Triassic stromatolites in a siliciclastic nearshore setting in northern Perth Basin, Western Australia: Geobiologic features and implications for post-extinction microbial proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Wang, Yongbiao; Kershaw, Stephen; Luo, Mao; Yang, Hao; Zhao, Laishi; Feng, Yuheng; Chen, Jianbo; Yang, Li; Zhang, Lei

    2014-10-01

    An Early Triassic stromatolite deposit in Gondwana is documented from the Smithian succession of the Lower Triassic Kockatea Shale Formation in the Northampton area, northern Geraldton, Western Australia. Abundant tube-like sheaths of filaments and tiny circular microspherule balls are well preserved in laminae of the Northampton stromatolites, which are characterized by finely laminated domes and digitate high-relief columns. These filament sheaths are superficially analogous to their counterparts of modern stromatolites, and thus are interpreted as putative fossilized filamentous cyanobacteria. Elemental mapping of EDS analysis shows very high contents of both Fe and Si elements as well as common presence of both S and Al elements along the laminae of the stromatolites, suggesting that the stromatolites may have been ferritized or silicified. Both ferritization and silicification may have played a crucial role in the exceptional preservation of the micro-structures in the Northampton stromatolites. The high content of Al along the laminae indicates that the stromatolites may have been influenced by terrigenous fine-grained clastics during their growth. The Northampton stromatolites show several growth modes, initiating on either pebbles/conglomerates or sandy seafloor and building laminar domes and digitate, high-relief columns during an initial transgression period. Steady increase in sea level facilitated the growth of stromatolites. The Early Triassic stromatolites ceased growth due to either rapid rise in sea level or increased clay influx probably sourced from increased weathering on land at that time, or both. The occurrence of the Northampton stromatolites in the siliciclastic succession, in comparison with published records of Early Triassic microbialites, reveals that post-extinction microbialites were widespread in the Smithian. Stromatolites show a broad geographic distribution from low-latitude to southern high-latitude regions of Gondwana and

  3. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host. PMID:27522363

  4. N2O, NO, N2, and CO2 emissions from tropical savanna and grassland of Northern Australia: an incubation experiment with intact soil cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Reiser, K.; Dannenmann, M.; Hutley, L. B.; Jacobeit, J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-06-01

    Strong seasonal variability of hygric and thermal soil conditions are a defining environmental feature in Northern Australia. However, how such changes affect the soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and dinitrogen (N2) is still not well explored. By incubating intact soil cores from four sites (3 savanna, 1 pasture) under controlled soil temperatures (ST) and soil moisture (SM) we investigated the release of the trace gas fluxes of N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, the release of N2 due to denitrification was measured using the helium gas flow soil core technique. Under dry pre-incubation conditions NO and N2O emission were very low (<7.0 ± 5.0 μg NO-N m-2 h-1; <0.0 ± 1.4 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1) or in case of N2O, even a net soil uptake was observed. Substantial NO (max: 306.5 μg N m-2 h-1) and relatively small N2O pulse emissions (max: 5.8 ± 5.0 μg N m-2 h-1) were recorded following soil wetting, but these pulses were short-lived, lasting only up to 3 days. The total atmospheric loss of nitrogen was dominated by N2 emissions (82.4-99.3% of total N lost), although NO emissions contributed almost 43.2% at 50% SM and 30 °C ST. N2O emissions were systematically higher for 3 of 12 sample locations, which indicates substantial spatial variability at site level, but on average soils acted as weak N2O sources or even sinks. Emissions were controlled by SM and ST for N2O and CO2, ST and pH for NO, and SM and pH for N2.

  5. 3D representation of geochemical data, the corresponding alteration and associated REE mobility at the Ranger uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Louise A.; Cleverley, James S.; Pownceby, Mark; MacRae, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Interrogation and 3D visualisation of multiple multi-element data sets collected at the Ranger 1 No. 3 uranium mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia, show a distinct and large-scale chemical zonation around the ore body. A central zone of Mg alteration, dominated by extensive clinochlore alteration, overprints a biotite-muscovite-K-feldspar assemblage which shows increasing loss of Na, Ba and Ca moving towards the ore body. Manipulation of pre-existing geochemical data and integration of new data collected from targeted `niche' samples make it possible to recognise chemical architecture within the system and identify potential fluid conduits. New trace element and rare earth element (REE) data show strong fractionation associated with the zoned alteration around the deposit and with fault planes that intersect and bound the deposit. Within the most altered portion of the system, isocon analysis indicates addition of elements including Mg, S, Cu, Au and Ni and removal of elements including Ca, K, Ba and Na within a zone of damage associated with ore precipitation. In the more distal parts of the system, processes of alteration and replacement associated with the mineralising system can be recognised. REE element data show enrichment in HREE centred about a characteristic peak in Dy in the high-grade ore zone while LREEs are enriched in the outermost portions of the system. The patterns recognised in 3D in zoning of geochemical groups and contoured S, K and Mg abundance and the observed REE patterns suggest a fluid flow regime in which fluids were predominately migrating upwards during ore deposition within the core of the ore system.

  6. Making Research Count at Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool, Armidale NSW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dianne; Power, Kerith

    This interview with Dianne Roberts, director of the Minimbah Aboriginal Preschool in Armidale, New South Wales (Australia), explores research issues, leadership styles, and how decision making and responsibilities are handled at Minimbah. Incoming researchers must show how research will benefit the community under study, how they will work in…

  7. Geographic variation of failure-to-rescue in public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Kenneth; Flabouris, Arthas; Hollis, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of Failure-to-Rescue (FTR) as a patient safety indicator (defined as the deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), no study has explored the geographic variation of FTR in a large health jurisdiction. Our study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We conducted a population-based study using all admitted surgical patients in public acute hospitals during 2002-2009 in NSW, Australia. We developed a spatiotemporal Poisson model using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methods in a Bayesian framework to obtain area-specific adjusted relative risk. Local Government Area (LGA) was chosen as the areal unit. LGA-aggregated covariates included age, gender, socio-economic and remoteness index scores, distance between patient residential postcode and the treating hospital, and a quadratic time trend. We studied 4,285,494 elective surgical admissions in 82 acute public hospitals over eight years in NSW. Around 14% of patients who developed at least one of the six FTR-related complications (58,590) died during hospitalization. Of 153 LGAs, patients who lived in 31 LGAs, accommodating 48% of NSW patients at risk, were exposed to an excessive adjusted FTR risk (10% to 50%) compared to the state-average. They were mostly located in state's centre and western Sydney. Thirty LGAs with a lower adjusted FTR risk (10% to 30%), accommodating 8% of patients at risk, were mostly found in the southern parts of NSW and Sydney east and south. There were significant spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across NSW over an eight-year span. Areas identified with significantly high and low FTR risks provide potential opportunities for policy-makers, clinicians and researchers to learn from the success or failure of adopting the best care for surgical patients and build a self-learning organisation and health system. PMID:25310260

  8. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia. PMID:26624084

  9. Assessing the impacts of climate change and dams on floodplain inundation and wetland connectivity in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Fazlul; Dutta, Dushmanta; Marvanek, Steve; Petheram, Cuan; Ticehurst, Catherine; Lerat, Julien; Kim, Shaun; Yang, Ang

    2015-03-01

    Floodplain wetlands and their hydrological connectivity with main river channels in the Australian wet-dry tropics are under increasing pressure from global climate change and water resource development, and there is a need for modelling tools to estimate the time dynamics of connectivity. This paper describes an integrated modelling framework combining conceptual rainfall-runoff modelling, river system modelling and hydrodynamic (HD) modelling to estimate hydrological connectivity between wetlands and rivers in the Flinders and Gilbert river catchments in northern Australia. Three historical flood events ranging from a mean annual flood to a 35-year return period flood were investigated using a two dimensional HD model (MIKE 21). Inflows from upstream catchments were estimated using a river network model. Local runoff within the HD modelling domain was simulated using the Sacramento rainfall-runoff model. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) derived 30 m DEM was used to reproduce floodplain topography, stream networks and wetlands in the HD model. The HD model was calibrated using stream gauge data and inundation maps derived from satellite (MODIS: MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery. An algorithm was developed to combine the simulated water heights with the DEM to quantify inundation and flow connection between wetlands and rivers. The connectivity of 18 ecologically important wetlands on the Flinders floodplain and 7 on the Gilbert floodplain were quantified. The impacts of climate change and water resource development on connectivity to individual wetlands were assessed under a projected dry climate (2nd driest of 15 GCMs), wet climate (2nd wettest of 15 GCMs) and dam conditions. The results indicate that changes in rainfall under a wetter and drier future climate could have large impacts on area, duration and frequency of inundation and connectivity. Topographic relief, river bank elevation and flood magnitude were found to be the key

  10. Morphologies and depositional/erosional controls on evolution of Pliocene-Pleistocene carbonate platforms: Northern Carnarvon Basin, Northwest Shelf of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goktas, P.; Austin, J. A.; Fulthorpe, C. S.; Gallagher, S. J.

    2016-08-01

    The detailed morphologies, evolution and termination of latest Neogene tropical carbonate platforms in the Northern Carnarvon Basin (NCB), on the passive margin of the Northwest Shelf (NWS) of Australia, defined based upon mapping using 3D seismic images, reveal the history of local/regional oceanographic processes, fluctuations in relative sea-level and changing climate. Cool-water carbonate deposition, dominant during the early-middle Miocene, was followed by a siliciclastic influx, which prograded across the NWS beginning in the late-middle Miocene, during a period of long-term global sea-level fall. The resulting prograding clinoform sets, interpreted as delta lobes, created relict topographic highs following Pliocene termination of the siliciclastic influx. These highs constituted multiple favorable shallow-water environments for subsequent photozoan carbonate production. Resultant platform carbonate development, in addition to being a response to cessation of siliciclastic influx and the existence of suitable shallow-water substrate, was also influenced by development of the warm-water Leeuwin Current (LC), flowing southwestward along this margin. Four flat-topped platforms are mapped; each platform top is a sequence boundary defined by reflection onlap above and truncation below. Successive platforms migrated southwestward through time, along margin strike. All platforms exhibit predominantly progradational seismic geometries. Mapped tops are ≥10 km wide. Seismic evidence of karst on three of four platform tops, e.g., v-shaped troughs up to 50 m deep and ~1 km wide, and broader basins with areas up to 20 km2, suggests episodic subaerial exposure that may have contributed to platform demise. Platform 4, the most recent, is unique in having interpreted biohermal build-ups superimposed on the progradational platform base. The base of these interpreted patch reefs now lies at a water depth of ~153 m; therefore, we suggest that these reefs developed post

  11. Recovery of fish communities in the Finniss River, northern Australia, following remediation of the Rum Jungle uranium/copper mine site.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, R A; Twining, J R; Thomson, J

    2001-07-15

    The Finniss River in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia has received acid rock drainage (ARD) contaminants from the Rum Jungle uranium/copper mine site over more than four decades. Annual-cycle loads of Cu, Zn, Mn, and sulfate, calculated from daily water and flow measurements, have been determined both prior to and following mine-site remediation, that began in the early 1980s. The effects of varying contaminant loads on the relative abundances of seven fish species, sampled by enmeshing nets during dry seasons, were determined by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), in combination with cluster-analysis and other nonparametric statistical techniques. These analyses showed that (i) prior to remediation, the impacted region of the Finniss River in 1974 had significantly dissimilar (P < 0.001) and more heterogeneous fish communities, generally characterized by reduced diversity and abundance, compared to sites unexposed to elevated contaminant water concentrations and (ii) postremediation, recovery in fish communities from the impacted region was indicated because they were not significantly dissimilar from those sampled at contemporary (P = 0.16) unimpacted sites, that were also similar to preremedial unimpacted sites. Even though considerable contaminant loads are still being delivered to the impacted region of the Finniss River over the annual cycle, the recovery in fish diversity and abundances is consistent with (a) reductions of in situ contaminant water concentrations at the time of fish sampling, (b) reductions in annual-cycle contaminant loads of sulfate, Cu, Zn, and Mn by factors of 3-7, (c) greatly reduced frequencies of occurrence and magnitude of elevated contaminant water concentrations over the annual cycle, that was most pronounced for Cu, and (d) the absence of extensive fish-kills during the first-flushes of contaminants into the Finniss river proper at the beginning of the wet season, that were observed prior to remediation. As such

  12. Gaseous Nitrogen Losses from Tropical Savanna Soils of Northern Australia: Dynamics, Controls and Magnitude of N2O, NO, and N2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Hickler, T.; Hutley, L. B.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical savanna covers a large fraction of the global land area and thus may have a substantial effect on the global soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen. The pronounced seasonality of hygric conditions in this ecosystem affects strongly microbial process rates in the soil. As these microbial processes control the uptake, production, and release of nitrogen compounds, it is thought that this seasonality finally leads to strong temporal dynamics and varying magnitudes of gaseous losses to the atmosphere. However, given their areal extent and in contrast to other ecosystems, still few in-situ or laboratory studies exist that assess the soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen. We present laboratory incubation results from intact soil cores obtained from a natural savanna site in Northern Australia, where N2O, NO, and N2 emissions under controlled environmental conditions were investigated. Furthermore, in-situ measurements of high temporal resolution at this site recorded with automated static and dynamic chamber systems are discussed (N2O, NO). This data is then used to assess the performance of a process-based biogeochemical model (LandscapeDNDC), and the potential magnitude and dynamics of components of the site-scale nitrogen cycle where no measurements exist (biological nitrogen fixation and nitrate leaching). Our incubation results show that severe nutrient limitation of the soil only allows for very low N2O emissions (0.12 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and even a periodic N2O uptake. Annual NO emissions were estimated at 0.68 kg N ha-1 yr-1, while the release of inert nitrogen (N2) was estimated at 6.75 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (data excl. contribution by pulse emissions). We observed only minor N2O pulse emissions after watering the soil cores and initial rain events of the dry to wet season transition in-situ, but short-lived NO pulse emissions were substantial. Interestingly, some cores exhibited a very different N2O emission potential, indicating a substantial spatial variability of

  13. Analysis of patient reports on the referral process to two NSW cancer genetic services.

    PubMed

    Butel-Simoes, Grace I; Spigelman, Allan D

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate trends and associations surrounding patient referral to cancer genetics services in NSW. The specific aims of the questionnaire used to collect information were to: (1) quantify the types of cancers being referred, (2) identify the source of referral for the patients, (3) categorise the referral as being either sought by the patient or suggested by the doctor, (4) quantify how often family history was asked, (5) determine who first raised the topic of family history, (6) identify any discouragement faced by patients, (7) clarify the cancer status of patients referred. A comparative patient-reported study was carried out using a questionnaire as the data collection tool in structured short interviews. The questions were aimed at eliciting the patient's understanding of why they were referred to the clinic, whether family history was discussed at the time of referral and who raised the issue via a series of YES/NO and open response questions. Data were collected from March 2012 to August 2012 from two different clinics, St Vincent's Hereditary Cancer Clinic, Sydney and the Hunter Family Cancer Service, Newcastle-both in New South Wales, Australia. Written consent was obtained. The study found that specialists were responsible for the majority of the 150 referrals and were more likely to be proactive in referring, as opposed to GPs (Phi and Cramer's V test). Patients reported that at the time of referral their family history was not asked in 13.5 % of cases, despite being significant. In the 131 cases where family history was discussed, it was the patient on approximately 2 in 5 occasions that brought up the topic. The most common types of cancer seen were breast cancer and colorectal. At both services GP referrals were more common then specialist referrals. On three occasions patients sought referral after being notified that the bloods they had collected by their GP for genetic testing were held by the laboratory due to failure to follow protocol. Six

  14. Arts practice and disconnected youth in Australia: Impact and domains of change

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter; Davies, Christina; Haseman, Brad; Down, Barry; White, Mike; Rankin, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper describes research conducted with Big hART, Australia's most awarded participatory arts company. It considers three projects, LUCKY, GOLD and NGAPARTJI NGAPARTJI across separate sites in Tasmania, Western NSW and Northern Territory, respectively, in order to understand project impact from the perspective of project participants, Arts workers, community members and funders. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 respondents. The data were coded thematically and analysed using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Results: Seven broad domains of change were identified: psychosocial health; community; agency and behavioural change; the Art; economic effect; learning and identity. Conclusions: Experiences of participatory arts are interrelated in an ecology of practice that is iterative, relational, developmental, temporal and contextually bound. This means that questions of impact are contingent, and there is no one path that participants travel or single measure that can adequately capture the richness and diversity of experience. Consequently, it is the productive tensions between the domains of change that are important and the way they are animated through Arts practice that provides sign posts towards the impact of Big hART projects. PMID:25530802

  15. Our Stories: Innovation and Excellence in Rural Education. Proceedings of National Rural Education Conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (21st, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, October 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The papers contained in this document represent the keynote addresses, refereed and non-refereed conference papers from the 21st National Conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA). The theme for this national annual conference was: Our Stories: Innovation and Excellence in Rural Education. Keynote…

  16. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the

  17. The Challenges of Practitioner Research: A Comparative Study of Singapore and NSW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Neville; Loughland, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Practitioner research is considered an integral form of professional learning for teachers but in its implementation it will often encounter significant challenges. This qualitative comparative case-study of teachers in Singapore and NSW investigated the range of challenges they encountered during their work as practitioner researchers. The study…

  18. Integrating biology into invasive species management is a key principle for eradication success: the case of yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B D

    2015-04-01

    The lack of biological knowledge of many invasive species remains as one of the greatest impediments to their management. Here I detail targeted research into the biology of the yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes within northern Australia and detail how such knowledge can be used to improve the management outcomes for this species. I quantified nest location and density in three habitats, worker activity over 24 h, infestation expansion rate, seasonal variation of worker abundance and the timing of production of sexuals. Nests were predominantly (up to 68%) located at the bases of large trees, indicating that search efforts should focus around tree bases. Nest density was one nest per 22, 7.1 and 6.3 m2 in the three habitats, respectively. These data form the baselines for quantifying treatment efficacy and set sampling densities for post-treatment assessments. Most (60%) nests were underground, predominantly (89%) occurring in an open area rather than underneath a rock or log. Some seasonality was evident for nests within leaf litter, with most (83%) occurring during the 'wet season' (October-March). Of the underground nests, most were shallow, with 44% being less than 10 cm deep, and 67% being less than 20 cm deep. Such nest location and density information serves many management purposes, for improving detection, mapping and post-treatment assessments, and also provided strong evidence that carbohydrate supply was a major driver of A. gracilipes populations. Just over half of the nests (56%) contained queens. Of the 62 underground nests containing queens, most queens (80%) were located at the deepest chamber. When queens were present, most often (38%) only one queen was present, the most being 16. Queen number per nest was the lowest in July and August just prior to the emergence of virgin queens in September, with queen numbers then remaining steadily high until April. Nothing is known for any ant species about how the queen number per nest/colony affects

  19. N2O, NO, N2 and CO2 emissions from tropical savanna and grassland of northern Australia: an incubation experiment with intact soil cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Reiser, K.; Dannenmann, M.; Hutley, L. B.; Jacobeit, J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    Strong seasonal variability of hygric and thermal soil conditions are a defining environmental feature in northern Australia. However, how such changes affect the soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and dinitrogen (N2) is still not well explored. By incubating intact soil cores from four sites (three savanna, one pasture) under controlled soil temperatures (ST) and soil moisture (SM) we investigated the release of the trace gas fluxes of N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, the release of N2 due to denitrification was measured using the helium gas flow soil core technique. Under dry pre-incubation conditions NO and N2O emissions were very low (<7.0 ± 5.0 μg NO-N m-2 h-1; <0.0 ± 1.4 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1) or in the case of N2O, even a net soil uptake was observed. Substantial NO (max: 306.5 μg N m-2 h-1) and relatively small N2O pulse emissions (max: 5.8 ± 5.0 μg N m-2 h-1) were recorded following soil wetting, but these pulses were short lived, lasting only up to 3 days. The total atmospheric loss of nitrogen was generally dominated by N2 emissions (82.4-99.3% of total N lost), although NO emissions contributed almost 43.2% to the total atmospheric nitrogen loss at 50% SM and 30 °C ST incubation settings (the contribution of N2 at these soil conditions was only 53.2%). N2O emissions were systematically higher for 3 of 12 sample locations, which indicates substantial spatial variability at site level, but on average soils acted as weak N2O sources or even sinks. By using a conservative upscale approach we estimate total annual emissions from savanna soils to average 0.12 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N2O), 0.68 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (NO) and 6.65 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (N2). The analysis of long-term SM and ST records makes it clear that extreme soil saturation that can lead to high N2O and N2 emissions only occurs a few days per year and thus has little impact on the annual total. The potential contribution of nitrogen released due to pulse events

  20. The Need for New Models for Delivery of Therapy Intervention to People with a Disability in Rural and Remote Areas of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Angela; Veitch, Craig; Lincoln, Michelle; Brentnall, Jennie; Bulkeley, Kim; Gallego, Gisselle; Bundy, Anita; Griffiths, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Therapy service delivery models to non-Indigenous and Indigenous people living in outer regional, remote, and very remote areas of Australia have typically involved irregular outreach from larger regional towns and capital cities. New South Wales (NSW) is the most populous Australian state with 7.23 million people of whom 4.58 million live in the…

  1. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  2. Protocol for an open-label, single-arm trial of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among people at high risk of HIV infection: the NSW Demonstration Project PRELUDE

    PubMed Central

    Vaccher, S; Grulich, A; McAllister, J; Templeton, D J; Bloch, M; McNulty, A; Holden, J; Poynten, I M; Prestage, G; Zablotska, I

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite a number of HIV prevention strategies, the number of new HIV infections remains high. In Australia, over three-quarters of new HIV diagnoses are in gay and bisexual men (GBM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to be effective at preventing new HIV infections in several randomised trials. The PRELUDE study aims to evaluate the implementation of PrEP in healthcare settings in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, among a sample of high-risk adults. Methods and analysis PRELUDE is an ongoing open-label, single-arm demonstration project, conducted in public and private clinics across NSW, Australia. Enrolment began in November 2014. The study is designed for 300 high-risk participants—mainly GBM and heterosexual women. Participants receive daily oral PrEP, composed of emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), for up to 2.5 years. Quarterly study visits include testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), assessment of ongoing eligibility and side effects, and self-reported adherence. Following each study visit, online behavioural surveys are administered to collect information on medication adherence, risk behaviours and attitudes. Blood samples will be collected in a subset of patients 1, 6 and 12 months after PrEP initiation to measure FTC/TDF concentrations. Analyses using longitudinal regression models will focus on feasibility, adherence, safety, tolerability and effects of PrEP on behaviour. This study will inform PrEP policy and guide the implementation of PrEP in Australia in people at high risk of HIV. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. All patients will provide written informed consent prior to participation in the study. Publications relating to each of the primary end points will be gradually released after 12 months of follow-up is complete. Trial registration number NCT02206555; Pre-results. PMID:27324719

  3. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  4. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  5. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Hendra Virus Infection in Pteropid Bats (Flying-Foxes) in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Field, Hume; Jordan, David; Edson, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Melville, Debra; Parry-Jones, Kerryn; Broos, Alice; Divljan, Anja; McMichael, Lee; Davis, Rodney; Kung, Nina; Kirkland, Peter; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) causes highly lethal disease in horses and humans in the eastern Australian states of Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW), with multiple equine cases now reported on an annual basis. Infection and excretion dynamics in pteropid bats (flying-foxes), the recognised natural reservoir, are incompletely understood. We sought to identify key spatial and temporal factors associated with excretion in flying-foxes over a 2300 km latitudinal gradient from northern QLD to southern NSW which encompassed all known equine case locations. The aim was to strengthen knowledge of Hendra virus ecology in flying-foxes to improve spillover risk prediction and exposure risk mitigation strategies, and thus better protect horses and humans. Monthly pooled urine samples were collected from under roosting flying-foxes over a three-year period and screened for HeV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. A generalised linear model was employed to investigate spatiotemporal associations with HeV detection in 13,968 samples from 27 roosts. There was a non-linear relationship between mean HeV excretion prevalence and five latitudinal regions, with excretion moderate in northern and central QLD, highest in southern QLD/northern NSW, moderate in central NSW, and negligible in southern NSW. Highest HeV positivity occurred where black or spectacled flying-foxes were present; nil or very low positivity rates occurred in exclusive grey-headed flying-fox roosts. Similarly, little red flying-foxes are evidently not a significant source of virus, as their periodic extreme increase in numbers at some roosts was not associated with any concurrent increase in HeV detection. There was a consistent, strong winter seasonality to excretion in the southern QLD/northern NSW and central NSW regions. This new information allows risk management strategies to be refined and targeted, mindful of the potential for spatial risk profiles to shift over time with changes in flying-fox species distribution

  6. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Hendra Virus Infection in Pteropid Bats (Flying-Foxes) in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume; Jordan, David; Edson, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Melville, Debra; Parry-Jones, Kerryn; Broos, Alice; Divljan, Anja; McMichael, Lee; Davis, Rodney; Kung, Nina; Kirkland, Peter; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) causes highly lethal disease in horses and humans in the eastern Australian states of Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW), with multiple equine cases now reported on an annual basis. Infection and excretion dynamics in pteropid bats (flying-foxes), the recognised natural reservoir, are incompletely understood. We sought to identify key spatial and temporal factors associated with excretion in flying-foxes over a 2300 km latitudinal gradient from northern QLD to southern NSW which encompassed all known equine case locations. The aim was to strengthen knowledge of Hendra virus ecology in flying-foxes to improve spillover risk prediction and exposure risk mitigation strategies, and thus better protect horses and humans. Monthly pooled urine samples were collected from under roosting flying-foxes over a three-year period and screened for HeV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. A generalised linear model was employed to investigate spatiotemporal associations with HeV detection in 13,968 samples from 27 roosts. There was a non-linear relationship between mean HeV excretion prevalence and five latitudinal regions, with excretion moderate in northern and central QLD, highest in southern QLD/northern NSW, moderate in central NSW, and negligible in southern NSW. Highest HeV positivity occurred where black or spectacled flying-foxes were present; nil or very low positivity rates occurred in exclusive grey-headed flying-fox roosts. Similarly, little red flying-foxes are evidently not a significant source of virus, as their periodic extreme increase in numbers at some roosts was not associated with any concurrent increase in HeV detection. There was a consistent, strong winter seasonality to excretion in the southern QLD/northern NSW and central NSW regions. This new information allows risk management strategies to be refined and targeted, mindful of the potential for spatial risk profiles to shift over time with changes in flying-fox species distribution

  7. Lifting the burden: a coordinated approach to action on Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control in NSW.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Jasmine; Hunt, Jennifer; Ivers, Rowena; Smyth, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence continues to be significantly higher among Aboriginal people than non-Aboriginal people, resulting in a range of serious health consequences and inequities. The Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of New South Wales (AHandMRC) and the New South Wales (NSW) Ministry of Health (the Ministry) have worked in partnership to develop The ATRAC Framework: A Strategic Framework for Aboriginal Tobacco Resistance and Control in NSW, in collaboration with Aboriginal communities and a range of stakeholders. The goal of the ATRAC Framework is to reduce smoking prevalence and the harmful impacts of tobacco use among Aboriginal people and communities in NSW. The framework includes reviews of relevant evidence and recommended actions, organised under six areas: leadership, partnerships and coordination; community action, awareness and engagement; workforce development; supportive environments; quitting support; and evidence, evaluation and research. The framework stresses that, to be successful, Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control programs and activities need to be evidence based, coordinated, integrated and involve Aboriginal people and Aboriginal community controlled health organisations in all aspects, from development through to implementation and evaluation. Consultations and evidence reviews highlight the importance of workforce support and development, including the ongoing need for more workers specialising in Aboriginal tobacco resistance and control, as well as ongoing training for all staff involved in delivering care to Aboriginal people. Other key strategies identified in the framework include improving access to nicotine replacement therapy and other medications to support quitting; supporting, strengthening and building on existing innovative community-based programs; and further developing the evidence base. The AHandMRC and the Ministry will continue to work in partnership to drive the use of the ATRAC Framework by all people

  8. An evaluation of dental information sessions provided to childcare educators in NSW in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Noller, Jennifer M

    2013-12-01

    Childcare services provide ideal settings to promote good oral health and help reduce tooth decay in young children. This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the dental information session component of the NSW Little Smiles Program provided by public oral health service professionals to childcare educators in NSW in 2010-2011. The evaluation sought to determine if a face-to-face information session provided to childcare educators by oral health professionals: (i) can improve the confidence of childcare educators to reach national quality standards that relate to oral health; and (ii) is an appropriate model to use. In 2010-2011, 163 dental information sessions were provided to 1716 participants from over 526 childcare centres across NSW. Results showed that a dental information session can improve the confidence of childcare educators to assist their service to reach the required national quality standards for oral hygiene and diet-related oral health issues. Further evaluation is required to determine if oral health can be embedded in the daily practice of childcare services and other options need to be explored to deliver the sessions in a more cost-effective way. PMID:24360212

  9. Novel measles virus genotype, East Timor and Australia.

    PubMed

    Chibo, Doris; Riddell, Michaela; Catton, Michael; Birch, Christopher

    2002-07-01

    Measles outbreaks in 1999 in Queensland and Victoria, Australia, were caused by a novel strain of clade G virus (proposed name g3). Epidemiologic and molecular evidence supports independent circulation of this virus in Queensland, northern Australia, in addition to importation of the virus by East Timor refugees seeking safe haven in Australia. PMID:12095446

  10. Australia: a continuing genocide?

    PubMed

    Short, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Debates about genocide in Australia have for the most part focussed on past frontier killings and child removal practices. This article, however, focuses on contemporary culturally destructive policies, and the colonial structures that produce them, through the analytical lens of the concept of genocide. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning of cultural genocide, locating the idea firmly in Lemkin's work before moving on to engage with the debates around Lemkin's distinction between genocide and cultural 'diffusion.' In contrast to those scholars who prefer the word 'ethnocide,' the underlying conceptual contention is that the term 'cultural genocide' simply describes a key method of genocide and should be viewed, without the need for qualification, as genocide. While direct physical killing and genocidal child removal practices may have ceased in Australia, some indigenous activists persuasively contend that genocide is a continuing process in an Australia that has failed to decolonise. Concurring with these views the article argues that the contemporary expression of continuing genocidal relations in Australia can be seen principally, and perversely, in the colonial state's official reconciliation process, native title land rights regime and the recent interventionist 'solutions' to indigenous 'problems' in the Northern Territory. PMID:20941881