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Sample records for northwestern ontario canada

  1. Carbon isotopic composition of deep carbon gases in an ombrogenous peatland, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Aravena, R. . Center for Groundwater Research and Wetlands Research Center); Warner, B.G. . Wetlands Research Center and Dept. of Geography); Charman, D.J. . Dept. of Geographical Sciences); Belyea, L.R. . School of Biological Sciences); Mathur, S.P. ); Dinel, H. )

    1993-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and carbon isotope analyses of deep peat and gases in a small ombrogenous peatland in northwestern Ontario reveals the presence of old gases at depth that are 1000-2000 yr younger than the enclosing peat. The authors suggest that the most likely explanation to account for this age discrepancy is the downward movement by advection of younger dissolved organic carbon for use by fermentation and methanogens bacteria. This study identifies a potentially large supply of old carbon gases in peatlands that should be considered in global carbon models of the terrestrial biosphere.

  2. Blastomycosis in Northwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Nine cases of blastomycosis were seen at the Sioux Lookout Zone Hospital in northwestern Ontario from 1970 to 1983. Although this region has been described as a focus of endemic infection, little published information is available. Seven male and two female Canadian Indians, aged 4-54 years, acquired the infection. Three children were infected; a mother and her son became ill one month apart. All cases presented as progressive pulmonary disease and no extrapulmonary involvement was found. Delay in diagnosis ranged from 11 days to eight weeks, with a mean of 31 days. Patients generally responded favorably to treatment with amphotericin B. Epidemiologic data suggest that environmental, geographic, occupational and recreational determinants are necessary factors in disease acquisition. PMID:21279155

  3. Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury at the remote Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, I.; Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Graydon, J. A.; St. Louis, V. L.

    2012-02-01

    Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury measured at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario, Canada were investigated using various receptor-based approaches. The data used in this study include gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), mercury bound to fine airborne particles (<2.5 μm) (PHg), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), major inorganic ions, sulphur dioxide, nitric acid gas, ozone, and meteorological variables, all of which were measured between May 2005 and December 2006. The source origins identified were related to transport of industrial and combustion emissions (associated with elevated GEM), photochemical production of RGM (associated with elevated RGM), road-salt particles with absorption of gaseous Hg (associated with elevated PHg and RGM), crustal/soil emissions, and background pollution. Back trajectory modelling illustrated that a remote site, like ELA, is affected by distant Hg point sources in Canada and the United States. The sources identified from correlation analysis, principal components analysis and K-means cluster analysis were generally consistent. The discrepancies between the K-means and Hierarchical cluster analysis were the clusters related to transport of industrial/combustion emissions, photochemical production of RGM, and crustal/soil emissions. Although it was possible to assign the clusters to these source origins, the trajectory plots for the Hierarchical clusters were similar to some of the trajectories belonging to several K-means clusters. This likely occurred because the variables indicative of transport of industrial/combustion emissions were elevated in at least two or more of the clusters, which means this Hg source was well-represented in the data.

  4. Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury at the remote experimental lakes area, Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, I.; Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Graydon, J. A.; St. Louis, V. L.

    2011-12-01

    Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury measured at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Northwestern Ontario, Canada were investigated using various receptor-based approaches. The data used in this study include gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), mercury bound to fine airborne particles (< 2.5 μm) (PHg), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), major inorganic ions, sulphur dioxide, nitric acid gas, ozone, and meteorological variables, all of which were measured between May 2005 and December 2006. The source origins identified were related to transport of industrial and combustion emissions (associated with elevated GEM), photochemical production of RGM (associated with elevated RGM), road-salt particles with adsorption of gaseous Hg (associated with elevated PHg and RGM), crustal/soil emissions, and background pollution. Back trajectory modelling illustrated that a remote site, like the ELA, is affected by distant Hg point sources in Canada and the United States. The sources identified from correlation analysis, principal components analysis and K-means cluster analysis were generally consistent. The discrepancies between the K-means and Hierarchical cluster analysis were the clusters related to transport of industrial/combustion emissions, photochemical production of RGM, and crustal/soil emissions. Although it was possible to assign the clusters to these source origins, the trajectory plots for the Hierarchical clusters were similar to some of the trajectories belonging to several K-means clusters. This likely occurred because the variables indicative of transport of industrial/combustion emissions were elevated in at least two or more of the clusters, which means this Hg source was well-represented in the data.

  5. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  6. An Integrated Multi-Institutional Diabetes Prevention Program Improves Knowledge and Healthy Food Acquisition in Northwestern Ontario First Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Lara S.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Rimal, Rajiv; Treuth, Margarita S.; Sharma, Sangita; Rosecrans, Amanda; Harris, Stewart B.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the impact results of a feasibility study in Canada for prevention of risk factors for diabetes in seven northwestern Ontario First Nations. Baseline and follow-up data were collected before and after the 9-month intervention program in schools, stores, and communities that aimed to improve diet and increase physical activity…

  7. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Parpia, Alyssa S.; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal

    2016-01-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002–December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20–44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August–September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions. PMID:26890626

  8. Acute rheumatic fever in First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Janet; Kirlew, Mike; Schreiber, Yoko; Saginur, Raphael; Bocking, Natalie; Blakelock, Brittany; Haavaldsrud, Michelle; Kennedy, Christine; Farrell, Terri; Douglas, Lloyd; Kelly, Len

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To document a case series of 8 young First Nations patients diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever (ARF), a preventable disease that resulted in the death of 2 patients, in northwestern Ontario in the context of late diagnosis, overcrowded housing, and inadequate public health response. Design Retrospective case series over an 18-month period. Setting Remote First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario. Participants Eight patients with ARF. Main outcome measures Incidence, mortality, residual rheumatic heart disease, time to diagnosis, barriers to diagnosis and treatment, housing situation of patients, patient demographic characteristics (age, sex), and investigation results. Results The incidence of ARF in this population was 21.3 per 100 000, which is 75 times greater than the overall Canadian estimated incidence. The average patient age was 9.4 years. Most cases developed joint findings, and 5 of the surviving patients had rheumatic heart disease when they received echocardiography. The average time to diagnosis was 88 days. Two 4-year-old children died from ARF. Most patients lived in inadequate and crowded housing. Conclusion This rare disease still exists in remote First Nations communities. These communities demonstrate an incidence equal to that in aboriginal communities in Australia and New Zealand, which have among the highest international incidence of ARF. Primordial prevention, including improved on-reserve housing, is urgently needed. Case detection and ongoing surveillance for primary and secondary prophylaxis requires a well resourced regional strategy. PMID:26759842

  9. Supporting Low-Performing Schools in Ontario, Canada. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Don; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the school turnaround programs underway as of summer 2009 in Ontario, Canada. In particular, it focuses on the policies and efforts of the Ontario Ministry of Education (MOE) and an MOE department, the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat (LNS), to support low-performing schools across the province. The report begins with a…

  10. Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Breiner, Ari; Widdifield, Jessica; Katzberg, Hans D; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence estimates in myasthenia gravis have varied widely. Recent studies based on administrative health data have large sample sizes but lack rigorous validation of MG cases, and have not examined the North American population. Our aim was to explore trends in MG incidence and prevalence for the years 1996-2013 in the province of Ontario, Canada (population 13.5 million). We employed a previously validated algorithm to identify MG cases. Linking with census data allowed for the calculation of crude- and age/sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates for the years 1996-2013. The regional distribution of MG cases throughout the province was examined. Mean age at the first myasthenia gravis encounter was 60.2 ± 17.1 years. In 2013, there were 3611 prevalent cases in Ontario, and the crude prevalence rate was 32.0/100,000 population. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates rose consistently over time from 16.3/100,000 (15.4-17.1) in 1996 to 26.3/100,000 (25.4-27.3) in 2013. Standardized incidence rates remained stable between 1996 (2.7/100,000; 95% CL 2.3-3.0) and 2013 (2.3/100,000; 2.1-2.6). Incidence was highest in younger women and older men, and geographic variation was evident throughout the province. In conclusion, this large epidemiological study shows rising myasthenia gravis prevalence with stable incidence over time, which is likely reflective of patients living longer, possibly due to improved disease treatment. Our findings provide accurate information on the Canadian epidemiology of myasthenia gravis and burden for health care resources planning for the province, respectively. PMID:26573434

  11. MISR View of Georgian Bay, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of the southeast portion of Georgian Bay in Ontario, Canada, acquired on March 6, 2000, during Terra orbit 1155. The color image is from the nadir (vertical) camera, and highlights a cloud to the southwest of Christian Island. In this view, the shadow cast by the cloud on the water is visible just north of the cloud itself. Bright areas in the image are either cloud or ice; an example of the latter is the frozen Lake Simcoe.

    The eight monochrome images are red band data from the off-nadir cameras. Starting with the one in the upper right and moving counterclockwise, the images progress from the most forward-viewing to the most aftward-viewing camera. Thus, the top (bottom) row of monochrome images are views acquired forward (aftward) of vertical. The apparent displacement of the cloud from south to north as the view progresses from forward to aftward is primarily a geometric parallax effect due to the cloud's elevation above the surface.

    In each image in the top row, a fainter feature with the same shape as the cloud is visible within Georgian Bay. The feature and the cloud itself approach one another as the view angle becomes less oblique. The feature is present only in the water, and disappears over the land surface of Christian Island. What is it?

    We are observing reflections of the cloud in the water. Their positions are dictated by the law of reflection, which states that the angle relative to the vertical of the reflected rays is the same as the angle of the incident rays. Therefore, the apparent location of a reflection relative to the cloud changes as a function of camera view angle. Unlike water, land does not act as a good mirror. Also, in the aftward views the reflections are less visible because they are blocked by the southern extension of the cloud. Reflections of this sort are not visible in conventional vertical imagery because in that case they lie directly underneath the cloud, and are consequently obscured.

    MISR was built

  12. Character Development and Critical Democratic Education in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Ontario, Canada's new character education policy is analyzed to determine how it supports and undermines critical democratic commitments to diversity, dialogue, equity, critical mindedness, and social justice. While policies are always open to interpretation, recent reform policies requiring evidence of continual improvement in students' academic…

  13. Organizing Mathematics Courses for the Gifted in Ontario, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Robert

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses methods used to differentiate the presentation of mathematics to gifted students in Ontario, Canada. Activities are described that help students to develop structured inquiry, reinforce categorization skills, develop efficient study habits, and encourage probing and divergent questions. (JDD)

  14. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  15. From Zero Tolerance to Student Success in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, Ontario, Canada's high school graduation rates have increased 13% while suspensions and expulsion rates have simultaneously decreased. This article examines relationships between the province's safe school policy and Student Success/Learning to 18 (SS/L18), a policy designed to increase graduation rates. Analyses of teachers'…

  16. Ontario Power Generation's Proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Tiverton, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing to develop a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site located near Tiverton, Ontario, 225 km northwest of Toronto. The shaft accessed repository, as envisioned, would accommodate 200,000 m3 (as packaged) of L&ILW in emplacement rooms excavated at a depth of 680 m within the Ordovician age argillaceous limestone Cobourg Formation. The Bruce site is underlain by an approximate 860 m thick Paleozoic sedimentary sequence comprised of near horizontally bedded carbonates, shales, evaporates and sandstones, Devonian to Cambrian in age, overlying crystalline basement rocks. Regional and site-specific geoscientific studies to verify the suitability of the Bruce site to host the DGR were initiated in 2006. The focus for the geoscientific investigations has been on gathering data to develop and test an understanding of the evolution and stability of the geologic, hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and geomechanical environ as it relates to demonstrating repository safety. Scheduled for completion in 2010, the interim results, which have included the drilling, coring and testing of 4 deep boreholes, are providing evidence of a predictable geosphere with a deep seated (>400 m), low permeability (K < 10-13 m sec-1), low porosity (0.01-0.08), saline (TDS > 250 gm l-1) groundwater regime that is ancient and resilient to external perturbations (e.g. glaciation). Work program activities in this regard have included, among others, detailed studies of rock core lithology, mineralogy and petrophysics, rock matrix pore fluid and groundwater characterisation, in-situ rock mass hydraulic testing, geomechanical rock core testing, 2-D seismic reflection surveys and long-term hydraulic borehole instrumentation. These data, in addition to regional and site-scale hydrogeologic modelling of the sedimentary sequence that among other aspects is examining groundwater

  17. Bachelors of Photonics in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantel, Marc; Beda, Johann; Jessop, Paul; Song, Shaowen

    2004-03-01

    Until recently, the only photonics education programs in Ontario were at the province's universities' graduate schools. After the introduction in 2001 of community college programs at the Photonics Technician/Technologist levels, the need to cover the educational space at the undergraduate level was addressed. In the last year, three very different new undergraduate degrees in photonics have started to develop in Ontario. These programs are presented in this paper. The Honours B.Sc. in Photonics at Wilfrid Laurier University (Waterloo) will develop a strong understanding of the theory and application of photonics, with practical hands-on exposure to optics, fibre optics, and lasers. This program benefits from the particularity that the department offering it combines both Physics and Computer Science. At McMaster University, the Engineering Physics program will provide students with a broad background in basic Engineering, Mathematics, Electronics, and Semiconductors, as well as an opportunity to pursue Photonics in greater depth and to have that fact recognized in the program designation. The Niagara and Algonquin college Bachelor of Applied Technology in Photonics program is co-op and joint between the two institutions. Emphasis is placed on the applied aspect of the field, with the more hands-on experimental learning taking precedence in the first years and the more advanced theoretical subjects following in the latter years.

  18. Perceptions of important retention and recruitment factors by therapists in northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P; Salvatori, P; Berry, S

    2001-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of health professionals in rural and remote communities are well-known challenges. Although the literature states that lifestyle factors and being from a rural background influence recruitment and retention, much of the research is dated and of limited relevance to rehabilitation professionals. This study reports on a survey of physical therapists (PTs) and occupational therapists (OTs) in northwestern Ontario. Seventy-four percent of the OTs and PTs from this geographically isolated region of Canada responded to a mail survey examining factors that influenced their job recruitment and retention decisions. Availability of leisure and recreation activities, proximity of family of origin, need for OTs and PTs and influence of spouse or partner frequently contributed to recruitment decisions and were also important in retention decisions. Although professional autonomy was an important source of job satisfaction for the respondents, almost one-third reported a feeling of professional isolation. Professional development initiatives appeared to influence job satisfaction but were unlikely to influence working life decisions. The findings suggest that recruitment and retention strategies should be multifaceted to reflect the complexity of therapists' decision-making. PMID:11765892

  19. Snowflake Size Distribution Measurements in South Central Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokay, A.; Bringi, V. N.; Huang, G.; Schoenhuber, M.; Bashor, P. G.; Hudak, D.; Jackson, G. S.; Petersen, W. A.

    2007-05-01

    In support of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission ground validation program, NASA's two laser optical disdrometers (Parsivel) and Colodaro State University (CSU) two-dimensional video disdrometer (2dvd) were deployed to a well-equipped precipitation observation site in South Central Ontario, Canada. The instruments were collocated and have been operating since late November 2006. So far, there has been numerous lake effect and synoptic winter storms over the site. In one event, parsivel disdrometers recorded 50 cm of snowfall. In addition, there have been at least 10 storms where the snow accumulation exceeded 4 cm. The leading objective of this study was to compare the parsivel and 2dvd size and fall velocity measurements for selected cases and relate the findings to the physical processes within and below the cloud. Unlike 2dvd, parsivel measures the maximum dimension of the snowflake in a single plane, while the fall velocity is calculated from the duration of the flake within the laser beam. The 2dvd samples the same flake in two planes from which fall velocity is obtained. The 2dvd also measures the maximum width and height in both planes. At the time of this abstract, two parsivels and 2dvd were operated nearly continuously for almost three months and preliminary data analysis is encouraging. The field site, which is known as Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE), is an atmospheric research facility operated by the Air Quality Research Branch of the Meteorological Service of Canada and is located 80 km north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada in a rural agricultural and forested region. During the past three winters, a field campaign was conduced in support of Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO validation project (c3vp). However, 2006-07 winter was the first since the satellites were in orbit. The coordinated efforts of aircraft missions over the CARE facility during the Intensive Operation Periods will enhance our understanding of cold cloud

  20. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Ellen Stephanie; Liberda, Eric Nicholas; Tsuji, Leonard James S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT), other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling) from 3 plots (A, B, and C) in Fort Albany (on the mainland), subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusion Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes. PMID:26025557

  1. Linezolid resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolated in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir N; Memari, Nader; Shahinas, Dea; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have described linezolid-resistant MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) occurring worldwide, including an outbreak of linezolid-resistant MRSA. The objective of this study was to determine if linezolid-resistant enterococci are present in clinical isolates in Ontario, Canada. From January 2010 to June 2012, all enterococcal isolates submitted to the Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for confirmation of VRE and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Of 2829 enterococcal isolates tested, 12 Enterococcus faecium were found to be resistant to linezolid. All linezolid-resistant isolates were also resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin. In addition, 33% of isolates were non-susceptible to daptomycin, whereas 41% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. Molecular characterization of these isolates showed that 8/12 isolates (66.7%) contained the mutation G2576T in 23S rRNA, which has been associated with linezolid resistance. Amplification and sequencing of L3- and L4-coding genes did not reveal mutations associated with linezolid resistance. One isolate contained the cfr gene, which is associated with linezolid resistance, and has been found in staphylococcal species and E. faecalis. These data show that occurrence of linezolid resistance is still rare among enterococcal isolates referred to PHOL though detection of cfr in E. faecium is concerning as it has the potential to disseminate among other enterococci. PMID:24095643

  2. Incidence of Major Cardiovascular Events in Immigrants to Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Anna; Rezai, Mohammad R.; Guo, Helen; Maclagan, Laura C.; Austin, Peter C.; Booth, Gillian L.; Manuel, Douglas G.; Chiu, Maria; Ko, Dennis T.; Lee, Douglas S.; Shah, Baiju R.; Donovan, Linda R.; Sohail, Qazi Zain; Alter, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Immigrants from ethnic minority groups represent an increasing proportion of the population in many high-income countries, but little is known about the causes and amount of variation between various immigrant groups in the incidence of major cardiovascular events. Methods and Results— We conducted the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team (CANHEART) Immigrant Study, a big data initiative, linking information from Citizenship and Immigration Canada’s Permanent Resident database to 9 population-based health databases. A cohort of 824 662 first-generation immigrants aged 30 to 74 as of January 2002 from 8 major ethnic groups and 201 countries of birth who immigrated to Ontario, Canada between 1985 and 2000 were compared with a reference group of 5.2 million long-term residents. The overall 10-year age-standardized incidence of major cardiovascular events was 30% lower among immigrants than among long-term residents. East Asian immigrants (predominantly ethnic Chinese) had the lowest incidence overall (2.4 in males, 1.1 in females per 1000 person-years), but this increased with greater duration of stay in Canada. South Asian immigrants, including those born in Guyana, had the highest event rates (8.9 in males, 3.6 in females per 1000 person-years), along with immigrants born in Iraq and Afghanistan. Adjustment for traditional risk factors reduced but did not eliminate the differences in cardiovascular risk between various ethnic groups and long-term residents. Conclusions— Striking differences in the incidence of cardiovascular events exist among immigrants to Canada from different ethnic backgrounds. Traditional risk factors explain a part but not all of these differences. PMID:26324719

  3. Meanings of Success and Successful Leadership in Ontario, Canada, in Neo-Liberal Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Pollock, Katina

    2016-01-01

    The provincial government of Ontario, Canada, has committed itself to raising student achievement, closing achievement gaps, and increasing the public's confidence in public education. It has introduced many policies, including the Ontario Leadership Strategy (OLS), to support these goals. Our study examined how teachers, administrators, support…

  4. Potential impacts of a scenario of CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change on Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.J.; Allsopp, T.R.

    1988-07-01

    In 1984, Environment Canada, Ontario Region, with financial and expert support from the Canadian Climate Program, initiated an interdisciplinary pilot study to investigate the potential impact, on Ontario, of a climate scenario which might be anticipated under doubling of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ conditions.

  5. Brief to the Canadian and Ontario Governments on the Financing of Higher Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    The Council of Ontario Universities, in view of important decisions to be made about the financing of university education, addresses a brief to the governments of Canada and Ontario. Discussed are: (1) the tripartite approach; (2) federal, provincial and university responsibilities; (3) federal-provincial funding arrangements; (4) the fiscal…

  6. Forest site-quality estimation using Forest Ecosystem Classification in Northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Carmean, W H

    1996-01-01

    Site index for jack pine, black spruce and trembling aspen was found to be poorly related to soil types described in the Northwestern Ontario Forest Ecosystem Classification (NWO FEC). Statistical analyses showed that average site indices for most soil types and groupings of soil types were not significantly different from each other.Site index varies greatly within presently defined NWO FEC soil types because certain soil and topographic features that are closely related to site index vary greatly within soil types or are not well described by the NWO FEC soil types. These critical soil features have been identified by soil-site studies that show features most closely related to site index usually are surface soil features found within the effective rooting zone of forest trees. These critical features include depth to bedrock, depth to root restricting soil layers, and coarse fragment content and texture of surface soil horizons.Site-quality research in Northwestern Ontario is closely integrated with the NWO FEC program, thus future NWO FEC soil classifications probably will use results from our soil-site research as a basis for soil type revisions. The result will be future soil types that are more closely related to forest site quality and thus to the capability of forest land to produce tree growth. PMID:24198025

  7. Shocked lithologies at the Wanapitei impact structure, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Ber, T. J.

    1994-09-01

    The approx. 7.5 diameter Wanapitei impact structure (46 deg 45 min N; 80 deg 45 min W) lies entirely within Lake Wanapitei in central Ontario, Canada. Impact lithologies are known only from glacial float at the southern end of the lake. Over 50% of the impact lithologies recovered from this float can be classified as suevite, less than 20% as highly shocked and partially melted arkosic metasediments of the target rock Mississagi Formation or, possibly, the Serpent Formation and less than 20% as glassy impact melt rocks. An additional less than 5% of the samples have similarities to the suevite but have up to 50% glass clasts and are tentatively interpreted as fall-back material. The glassy impact melt rocks fall into two textural and mineralogical types: a perlitically fractured, colorless glass matrix variant, with microlites of hypersthene with up to 11.5% Al2O3 and a 'felted' matrix variant, with evidence of flow prior to the crystallization of tabular orthopyroxene. These melt glasses show chemical inhomogeneities on a microscopic scale, with areas of essentially SiO2, even when appearing optically homogeneous. They are similar in bulk composition for major elements, but the felted matrix variant is approx. 5x more enriched in Ni, Co and Cr, the interelement ratios of which are indicative of an admixture of a chondritic projectile. Mixing models suggest that the glassy impact melt rocks can be made from the target rocks in the proportions: approx. 55% Gowganda wacke, approx. 42% Serpent arkose and approx. 3% Nipissing intrusives. Geologic reconstructions suggest that this is a reasonable mixture of potential target rocks at the time of impact.

  8. Rayleigh-wave Tomography Study of Northwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLellan, M. E.; Audet, P.; Schaeffer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the ongoing collision of the Yakutat block with the North American plate in southeastern Alaska, a significant amount of deformation is occurring in the northern Canadian Cordillera. The stress transfer associated with the accretion of this terrane is believed to be responsible for the seismicity across this widespread region. Estimates of crustal thickness within the Mackenzie and Richardson Mountains provide constraints on models describing the evolution of crustal roots responsible for supporting such belts that transmit tectonic stresses over long distances (>1000 km); unfortunately, current seismic velocity models used to map crustal thickness have limited resolution due to sparse coverage by seismograph networks. Here we use data from a new regional seismograph network (Yukon-Northwest Seismograph Network - YNSN) as well as permanent stations to map out crustal structure. Crustal thickness variations can be obtained from 3-D seismic velocity models determined from the inversion of surface-wave dispersion data. In this work we present preliminary results of a regional tomography study of northwestern Canada, encompassing the northern Canadian Cordillera, using dispersion curves derived from ambient noise cross-correlations in addition to teleseismic two-station interferometry. We collected all available vertical component seismic data from stations located in the Yukon and surrounding regions from the period between June 2012 and June 2015. Using this data set, we first cross-correlated hour-long segments of the ambient seismic noise between all available stations pairs that share common data availability and obtained virtual Rayleigh waves with energy over periods 10-50 s that are predominantly sensitive to crust and uppermost mantle structure. This data set is complemented by Rayleigh-wave dispersion measurements, spanning the period range 25—175 s, derived by cross-correlating vertical component data from teleseismic earthquakes (M>5) lying along

  9. Views from the Blackboard: Neoliberal Education Reforms and the Practice of Teaching in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Sara; Weber, Nadya; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses findings from two case studies examining the impact of neoliberal education reform on the classroom practice of teachers and adult educators in Ontario, Canada. We asked educators to comment on the impacts of 20 years of policy shifts in their classrooms. Teachers in public schools and adult literacy programmes echoed each…

  10. Children's Perceptions of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Beynon, Charlene E.; Gritke, Jennifer L.; Henderson, Michelle L.; Kurtz, Joanne M.; Sangster Bouck, Michelle; St. Onge, Renee L.; van Zandvoort, Melissa M.; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renee D.; Warren, Claire Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined students' perceptions of and suggestions for the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program, a free, school-based fruit and vegetable snack program implemented in elementary schools in 2 regions of northern Ontario, Canada. Methods: This was a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with students in 11 elementary…

  11. Discovery of the Western Palearctic bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum, (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), in Ontario Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bees of North America are very diverse, including over 3500 species. Approximately thirty of these bee species are not native to this continent. Recently another non-native bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum, was found in a naturalized area in Ontario, Canada. This bee nests in holes...

  12. Mapping the Early Intervention System in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the wide range of early intervention services across the province of Ontario. The services are mapped across the province showing geographic information as well as the scope of services (clinical, family-based, resource support, etc.), the range of early intervention professionals, sources of funding and the populations served…

  13. Incidence of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nowaczyk, M J; McCaughey, D; Whelan, D T; Porter, F D

    2001-07-22

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (OMIM 270400) (SLOS) is caused by inherited enzymatic deficiency of 3beta-hydroxysterol-Delta7-reductase (7-dehydrocholesterol-Delta7-reductase, DHCR7). SLOS is diagnosed clinically by the demonstration of elevated levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) in body fluids or tissues. SLOS is associated with mental retardation of variable degree and severe behavior abnormalities. The physical abnormalities range from minor facial anomalies to lethal malformations of the central nervous system, heart, kidneys, and other organs. The exact incidence of SLOS is not known. Although there exist estimates of the incidence of SLOS ranging from 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 60,000, no prospective studies of the incidence of SLOS, based on the clinical data and biochemical diagnosis of SLOS, have been performed. Five unrelated cases of SLOS were diagnosed in Ontario during a 12-month period. The diagnoses were made based on the demonstration of elevated 7DHC in plasma or amniotic fluid. The birth rate for Ontario for that period was 132,000 births. The incidence of SLOS in Ontario was at least 1 in 26,500 pregnancies in 1999-2000. Given that 86% of the population of Ontario is of European origin, the incidence of SLOS in the Ontario population of European origin was at least 1 in 22,700. As infants with mild forms of SLOS born during this period may remain undiagnosed, these numbers likely are underestimates. This observation has implications for prenatal and newborn screening for this potentially treatable inherited disorder. PMID:11471166

  14. High Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease Caused by Strains of Uncommon emm Types in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Athey, Taryn B T; Teatero, Sarah; Sieswerda, Lee E; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Li, Aimin; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; McGeer, Allison; Williams, David; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of type emm59 invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease was declared in 2008 in Thunder Bay District, Northwestern Ontario, 2 years after a countrywide emm59 epidemic was recognized in Canada. Despite a declining number of emm59 infections since 2010, numerous cases of iGAS disease continue to be reported in the area. We collected clinical information on all iGAS cases recorded in Thunder Bay District from 2008 to 2013. We also emm typed and sequenced the genomes of all available strains isolated from 2011 to 2013 from iGAS infections and from severe cases of soft tissue infections. We used whole-genome sequencing data to investigate the population structure of GAS strains of the most frequently isolated emm types. We report an increased incidence of iGAS in Thunder Bay compared to the metropolitan area of Toronto/Peel and the province of Ontario. Illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, homelessness, and hepatitis C infection were underlying diseases or conditions that might have predisposed patients to iGAS disease. Most cases were caused by clonal strains of skin or generalist emm types (i.e., emm82, emm87, emm101, emm4, emm83, and emm114) uncommonly seen in other areas of the province. We observed rapid waxing and waning of emm types causing disease and their replacement by other emm types associated with the same tissue tropisms. Thus, iGAS disease in Thunder Bay District predominantly affects a select population of disadvantaged persons and is caused by clonally related strains of a few skin and generalist emm types less commonly associated with iGAS in other areas of Ontario. PMID:26491184

  15. High Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease Caused by Strains of Uncommon emm Types in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Athey, Taryn B. T.; Teatero, Sarah; Sieswerda, Lee E.; Gubbay, Jonathan B.; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Li, Aimin; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; McGeer, Allison; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of type emm59 invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease was declared in 2008 in Thunder Bay District, Northwestern Ontario, 2 years after a countrywide emm59 epidemic was recognized in Canada. Despite a declining number of emm59 infections since 2010, numerous cases of iGAS disease continue to be reported in the area. We collected clinical information on all iGAS cases recorded in Thunder Bay District from 2008 to 2013. We also emm typed and sequenced the genomes of all available strains isolated from 2011 to 2013 from iGAS infections and from severe cases of soft tissue infections. We used whole-genome sequencing data to investigate the population structure of GAS strains of the most frequently isolated emm types. We report an increased incidence of iGAS in Thunder Bay compared to the metropolitan area of Toronto/Peel and the province of Ontario. Illicit drug use, alcohol abuse, homelessness, and hepatitis C infection were underlying diseases or conditions that might have predisposed patients to iGAS disease. Most cases were caused by clonal strains of skin or generalist emm types (i.e., emm82, emm87, emm101, emm4, emm83, and emm114) uncommonly seen in other areas of the province. We observed rapid waxing and waning of emm types causing disease and their replacement by other emm types associated with the same tissue tropisms. Thus, iGAS disease in Thunder Bay District predominantly affects a select population of disadvantaged persons and is caused by clonally related strains of a few skin and generalist emm types less commonly associated with iGAS in other areas of Ontario. PMID:26491184

  16. Social Indicators of Literacy Needs. A Project To Examine Literacy Needs of Northwestern Ontario Member Communities. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, Anne

    A pilot project developed a survey of social indicators of literacy within the Northwest region of Ontario, Canada. The project aimed to identify the following: social, economic, and cultural characteristics of the region; ways that local service providers were responding to them; and successes, gaps, and unmet challenges in literacy provision. Of…

  17. Off-label use of inhaled tobramycin in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tadrous, Mina; Khuu, Wayne; Paterson, J Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Gomes, Tara

    2016-09-01

    Inhaled tobramycin solution is indicated for use in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Concerns have been raised regarding increasing off-label use of inhaled tobramycin, particularly for the management of COPD. We conducted an 8-year repeated cross-sectional study examining the indication for prescription claims for inhaled tobramycin in Ontario paid for by the Public Drug Benefit Program, which covers all Ontario residents with financial needs or aged 65 and older. Inhaled tobramycin prescription claims increased approximately 3 times greater from 86 prescriptions in the second quarter of 2007 to 261 prescriptions in the first quarter of 2015. Approximately half of all prescriptions (range: 46-65%) per quarter were dispensed to patients with CF. A large proportion of prescriptions (range: 31-36%) were dispensed to individuals who did not have a diagnosis of CF but had a diagnosis of COPD. In 2014, there were 324 unique users of inhaled tobramycin solution in the Ontario Public Drug Program (OPDP). Only half of users (54%; n=163) had a diagnosis of CF. Our study found increasing prescriptions of inhaled tobramycin from 2007 to 2015 in the OPDP with approximately half of these claims being for off-label use, mostly among patients with COPD. PMID:27165985

  18. Impacts of logging and wildfire on an upland black spruce community in northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M H; Elliott, J A

    1996-01-01

    Plant species composition and community structure were compared among four sites in an upland black spruce community in northwestern Ontario. One site had remained undisturbed since the 1930s and three had been disturbed by either logging, fire, or both logging and fire. Canonical correspondence ordination analyses indicated that herbaceous species composition and abundance differed among the disturbance types while differences in the shrub and tree strata were less pronounced. In the herb stratum Pleurozium schreberi, Ptilium crista-castrensis and Dicranum polysetum were in greatest abundance on the undisturbed forest site, while the wildfire and burned cutover sites were dominated by Epilobium angustifolium and Polytrichum juniperinum. The unburned harvested site was dominated by Epilobium angustifolium, Cornus canadensis and Pleurozium schreberi. Species richness was lower on the undisturbed site than on any of the disturbed sites while species diversity (H') and evenness (Hill's E5) were higher on the unburned harvested site than on the other sites. Results suggest that herb re-establishment is different among harvested and burned sites in upland black spruce communities and we hypothesize that differences in the characteristics of the disturbance were responsible, in particular, the impact of burning on nutrient availability. These differences need to be taken into account in determining the effects of these disturbances on biodiversity and long-term ecosystem management. PMID:24198011

  19. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in a First Nations population in northwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Abhimanyu; Chaudhuri, Monica; Kelly, Len; Hopman, Wilma

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, reasons for referral for gastroscopy, and clinical findings of gastroscopy in a symptomatic First Nations population in northwestern Ontario from 2009 to 2011. Design Three hundred four hospital charts of symptomatic patients who underwent upper endoscopy between June 2009 and March 2011 were reviewed. Setting Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Sioux Lookout, Ont. Participants First Nations patients with dyspepsia undergoing gastroscopy. Main outcome measures Reason for referral, and clinical and histologic findings on gastroscopy. Results The most common reasons for referral for gastroscopy were dyspepsia (59.2%) and undiagnosed anemia (18.1%). Overall, 66.8% of patients underwent biopsies; 37.9% of these patients tested positive for H pylori. Gastritis was encountered the most often, in 46.1% of patients; gastric ulcers in 6.9% of patients; and normal gastric mucosa was seen 36.8% of the time. The rate of H pylori infection is higher than in urban Canadian populations, but lower than in previous aboriginal prevalence estimates, particularly those based on seroprevalence values. Conclusion This study raises the clinical question of how eradication testing and treatment protocols should be addressed in remote regions with high disease prevalence. As more is learned about the role H pylori infection plays in serious gastrointestinal diseases, rural and aboriginal populations might need a special focus on testing availability and treatment close to home. PMID:23585621

  20. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik-Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2007-01-01

    Background Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support this cross-national learning, a study was undertaken to compare health system performance approaches in The Netherlands with Ontario, Canada. Methods We explored the performance assessment framework and system of each constituency, the embeddedness of performance data in management and policy processes, and the interrelationships between the frameworks. Methods used included analysing governmental strategic planning and policy documents, literature and internet searches, comparative descriptive tables, and schematics. Data collection and analysis took place in Ontario and The Netherlands. A workshop to validate and discuss the findings was conducted in Toronto, adding important insights to the study. Results Both Ontario and The Netherlands conceive health system performance within supportive frameworks. However they differ in their assessment approaches. Ontario's Scorecard links performance measurement with strategy, aimed at health system integration. The Dutch Health Care Performance Report (Zorgbalans) does not explicitly link performance with strategy, and focuses on the technical quality of healthcare by measuring dimensions of quality, access, and cost against healthcare needs. A backbone 'five diamond' framework maps both frameworks and articulates the interrelations and overlap between their goals, themes, dimensions and indicators. The workshop yielded more contextual insights and further validated the comparative values of each constituency's performance assessment system. Conclusion To compare the health system performance approaches between The Netherlands and Ontario, Canada, several important conceptual and contextual issues must be addressed, before even attempting any

  1. ESEM Studies of Colloidal Sulfur Deposition in a Natural Microbial Community from a Cold Sulfide Spring Near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, S.; Douglas, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have used a relatively new microscopial technique, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light microscopy to investigate a unique microbial community from a temperate climate, cold sulfide spring near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada.

  2. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chaiton, Michael O.; Mecredy, Graham C.; Cohen, Joanna E.; Tilson, Melodie L.

    2013-01-01

    Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1) whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2) what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets. PMID:24351748

  3. Establishment of Culex (Melanoconion) erraticus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hunter, F F; Causarano, J; Gasparotto, A; Giordano, B V

    2015-05-01

    Culex (Melanoconion) erraticus (Dyar and Knab) is now established in southern Ontario, Canada. This species was first discovered in 2002 during a province-wide adult mosquito surveillance program for West Nile virus. Using CO2-baited CDC miniature light traps, a few Cx. erraticus were collected from 2002 to 2011, but the total number increased during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. The number of Ontario Public Health Units with records for Cx. erraticus has also increased since 2002, demonstrating that the geographic distribution of this species is expanding northward. Cx. erraticus is a potential arboviral bridge vector for a number of pathogens and its establishment in Ontario should be considered a potential public health concern. PMID:26334828

  4. Primary care in Ontario, Canada: New proposals after 15 years of reform.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P; Hutchison, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Primary care has proven to be extremely difficult to reform in Canada because of the original social compact between the state and physicians that led to the introduction of universal medical care insurance in the 1960s. However, in the past decade, the provincial government of Ontario has led the way in Canada in funding a suite of primary care practice models, some of which differ substantially from traditional solo and group physician practices based on fee-for-service payment. Independent evaluations show some positive improvements in patient care. Nonetheless, the Ontario government's large investment in the reform combined with high expectations concerning improved performance and the deteriorating fiscal position of the province's finances have led to major conflict with organized medicine over physician budgets and the government's consideration of an even more radical restructuring of the system of primary care in the province. PMID:27160481

  5. The Mapping and Evaluation of Groundwater Resources Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C. L.

    2009-05-01

    To delineate and assess Ontario's overburden and bedrock aquifers the Ontario Geological Survey (OGS) has established a multifaceted groundwater mapping program to support sustainable resource development and effective watershed planning. The mapping program consists of five inter-related themes: GIS-based geoscience compilations; watershed-scale inventories; bedrock and surficial aquifer mapping; regional-scale data compilation; and thematic (research) investigations. Historic and/or previously existing geoscience mapping data has been digitized and integrated to form the foundation for additional work by the OGS and other public and private agencies. On-going components of the program involve the integrated use of geologic mapping, stratigraphic investigations, geochemical/geophysical surveys and numeric modelling. Primary thrusts of the program include: determining the regional extent and character of aquifers; identification of new potable groundwater sources; and understanding controls on water quality and quantity. The products and information generated by the program are fundamental to the implementation of provincial water management polices and strategies in that they directly contribute to the management of groundwater resources and an understanding of the physical environment. Outcomes of the groundwater program include: knowledge of aquifer-aquitard relationships allowing realistic vulnerability assessments and thus influencing land-use planning decisions; determination of groundwater withdrawals on the ability of aquifers to sustain production; and population growth centres targeting aquifers discovered by geologic investigations and modeling. Further, the geochemical survey components of the program are establishing regional ambient groundwater/stream sediment parameters to determine anthropogenic influences and delineate areas of potential health concerns and environmental impact. In order to maximize the value of the program and enable the

  6. Share your story, shape your care: engaging the diverse and disperse population of Northwestern Ontario in healthcare priority setting.

    PubMed

    Shields, Kristin; DuBois-Wing, Gwen; Westwood, Ellis

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the North West Local Health Integration Network hosted Share Your Story, Shape Your Care, an innovative community engagement initiative. Over 800 residents and health service providers in Northwestern Ontario participated and identified healthcare priorities, reacted to proposed strategies and shared ideas and stories. Primarily web-based (with a Choicebook, message board, blog and YouTube video), paper copies and conversation guides supported informed and reflective participation. This project enabled community-level participation in healthcare, supporting local planning and decision-making, and was awarded the inaugural Innovation Using Technology Award by the International Association for Public Participation. PMID:20523159

  7. Parental perceptions of school-based influenza immunisation in Ontario, Canada: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Donna; Crowe, Lois; Pereira, Jennifer A; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Quach, Susan; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Ramsay, Hilary; Salvadori, Marina I; Russell, Margaret L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the perspectives of Ontario parents regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adding influenza immunisation to the currently existing Ontario school-based immunisation programmes. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Participants Parents of school-age children in Ontario, Canada, who were recruited using a variety of electronic strategies (social media, emails and media releases), and identified as eligible (Ontario resident, parent of one or more school-age children, able to read/write English) on the basis of a screening questionnaire. We used stratified purposeful sampling to obtain maximum variation in two groups: parents who had ever immunised at least one child against influenza or who had never done so. We conducted focus groups (teleconference or internet forum) and individual interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Setting Ontario, Canada. Results Of the 55 participants, 16 took part in four teleconference focus groups, 35 in 6 internet forum focus groups and four in individual interviews conducted between October 2012 and February 2013. Participants who stated that a school-based influenza immunisation programme would be worthwhile for their child valued its convenience and its potential to reduce influenza transmission without interfering with the family routine. However, most thought that for a programme to be acceptable, it would need to be well designed and voluntary, with adequate parental control and transparent communication between the key stakeholder groups of public health, schools and parents. Conclusions These results will benefit decision-makers in the public health and education sectors as they consider the advantages and disadvantages of immunising children in schools as part of a system-wide influenza prevention approach. Further research is needed to assess the perceptions of school board and public health stakeholders. PMID:24902736

  8. Epidemiology of serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in Ontario, Canada, 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by serogroup B is the last major serogroup in Canada to become vaccine-preventable. The anticipated availability of vaccines targeting this serogroup prompted an assessment of the epidemiology of serogroup B disease in Ontario, Canada. Methods We retrieved information on confirmed IMD cases reported to Ontario’s reportable disease database between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 and probabilistically-linked these cases to Public Health Ontario Laboratory records. Rates were calculated with denominator data obtained from Statistics Canada. We calculated a crude number needed to vaccinate using the inverse of the infant (<1 year) age-specific incidence multiplied by expected vaccine efficacies between 70% and 80%, and assuming only direct protection (no herd effects). Results A total of 259 serogroup B IMD cases were identified in Ontario over the 11-year period. Serogroup B was the most common cause of IMD. Incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.27/100,000/year, and fluctuated over time. Cases ranged in age from 13 days to 101 years; 21.4% occurred in infants, of which 72.7% were <6 months. Infants had the highest incidence (3.70/100,000). Case-fatality ratio was 10.7% overall. If we assume that all infant cases would be preventable by vaccination, we would need to vaccinate between 33,784 and 38,610 infants to prevent one case of disease. Conclusions Although rare, the proportion of IMD caused by serogroup B has increased and currently causes most IMD in Ontario, with infants having the highest risk of disease. Although serogroup B meningococcal vaccines are highly anticipated, our findings suggest that decisions regarding publicly funding serogroup B meningococcal vaccines will be difficult and may not be based on disease burden alone. PMID:22928839

  9. Isotope hydrology of the Chalk River Laboratories site, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell; Neymark, Leonid; King-Sharp, K.J.; Gascoyne, Mel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater (fracture water) and porewater, and physical property and water content measurements of bedrock core at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario. Density and water contents were determined and water-loss porosity values were calculated for core samples. Average and standard deviations of density and water-loss porosity of 50 core samples from four boreholes are 2.73 ± 12 g/cc and 1.32 ± 1.24 percent. Respective median values are 2.68 and 0.83 indicating a positive skewness in the distributions. Groundwater samples from four deep boreholes were analyzed for strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) isotope ratios. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses and selected solute concentrations determined by CRL are included for comparison. Groundwater from borehole CRG-1 in a zone between approximately +60 and −240 m elevation is relatively depleted in δ18O and δ2H perhaps reflecting a slug of water recharged during colder climatic conditions. Porewater was extracted from core samples by centrifugation and analyzed for major dissolved ions and for strontium and uranium isotopes. On average, the extracted water contains 15 times larger concentration of solutes than the groundwater. 234U/238U and correlation of 87Sr/86Sr with Rb/Sr values indicate that the porewater may be substantially older than the groundwater. Results of this study show that the Precambrian gneisses at Chalk River are similar in physical properties and hydrochemical aspects to crystalline rocks being considered for the construction of nuclear waste repositories in other regions.

  10. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira in wild mammals trapped on livestock farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Allen, Samantha E; Ojkic, Davor; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Leptospira serogroups circulating in wildlife on farms in Ontario, we tested samples from 51 raccoons (Procyon lotor), seven skunks (Mephitis mephitis), four rats (Rattus norvegicus), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) that were trapped on 27 livestock (swine [Sus scrofa], cattle [Bos taurus]) farms in 2010. Seventeen of 51 raccoons (33%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 21-48%) sampled were positive for at least one Leptospira serogroup using the microscopic agglutination test. None of the other 14 animals had detectable Leptospira antibodies. On swine farms, 13 of 30 raccoons (43%; 95% CI, 27-61%) were antibody positive, and on cattle farms, four of 21 raccoons (19%; 95% CI, 8-40%) were positive. Leptospira antibody prevalence in raccoons did not differ between swine and cattle farms. Raccoons were positive to serovars representative of serogroups Grippotyphosa, Australis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona and were negative to serovars of serogroups Autumnalis, Canicola, and Sejroe. The prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in raccoons in this study is similar to what has been reported previously; however, the diversity of serogroups was higher in this study than what has been reported in raccoons from an urban area of Ontario, Canada. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of Leptospira serogroups in wildlife in Ontario, Canada, is important for the development and maintenance of appropriate disease management strategies in humans, livestock, and companion animals. PMID:24807356

  11. Prevalence of Rickettsia species in Dermacentor variabilis ticks from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wood, Heidi; Dillon, Liz; Patel, Samir N; Ralevski, Filip

    2016-07-01

    Relatively little is known about the prevalence of rickettsial species in Dermacentor ticks in eastern Canada. In this study, Dermacentor ticks from the province of Ontario, Canada, were tested for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsial (SFGR) species, Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis. Rickettsia rickettsii was not detected in any ticks tested, but R. montanensis was detected at a prevalence of 2.2% in D. variabilis (17/778). Two other SFGR species, R. parkeri and Candidatus R. andeanae, were detected individually in 2 Amblyomma maculatum ticks. Rickettsia peacockii, a non-pathogenic endosymbiont, was detected in two D. andersonii ticks. Given the highly abundant nature of D. variabilis, surveillance for human pathogens in this species of tick has important public health implications, but the lack of detection of known human pathogens indicates a low risk of infection via this tick species in Ontario. However, the detection of R. parkeri in an adventive A. maculatum tick indicates that health care providers should be aware of the possibility of spotted fever rickettsioses in individuals with a history of travel outside of Ontario and symptoms compatible with a spotted fever rickettsiosis. Coxiella burnetii and Francisella tularensis, human pathogens also potentially transmitted by D. variabilis, were not detected in a subset of the ticks. PMID:27318438

  12. Feline onychectomy: Current practices and perceptions of veterinarians in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Lori R; Little, Susan E; Hellyer, Peter W; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the proportion of practitioners from Ontario, Canada who perform onychectomy, identify the techniques utilized, and obtain practitioners views on the procedure. An anonymous survey was distributed to Ontario Veterinary Medical Association members. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare responses of opinion questions related to declawing between respondents who indicated they perform declawing procedures and those who do not. Of 500 respondents, 75.8% reported performing onychectomy, with 60.1% of those reporting performing the procedure less than monthly and 73.3% only performing the procedure after recommending alternatives. Statistically significant differences were found between those who do and those who do not perform onychectomy for perception of procedural pain, concept of mutilation, perception of procedural necessity for behavior modification or prevention of euthanasia, and support of province-wide procedural bans. PMID:27587890

  13. Was the Coppermine Homocline of northwestern Canada uplifted as part of a Middle Proterozoic forebulge

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, F.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Application of the principles of elastic plate bending to subsurface geometric information and outcrop in northwestern Canada suggests that Proterozoic crust was loaded and deflected during orogenic activity between about 1.6 and 1.1 Ga. Exposed Hudsonian (ca. 1.8-2.0 Ga) basement separating younger but coeval stratigraphic sequences in the Coppermine Homocline on the west and Bathurst Inlet on the east can be explained as a forebulge associated with the loading.

  14. Language Skills for the Workplace: Developing a Framework for College Delivery of Occupation-Specific Language Training in Ontario--Report for Citizenship and Immigration Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Ontario is Canada's largest provincial destination for immigrants. Language barriers, lack of recognition for foreign credentials and lack of work experience in Canada prevent many from gaining employment in their field of expertise. There is an urgent and growing need for occupation-specific language training in Ontario. Immigrants cannot apply…

  15. Current-use pesticides in inland lake waters, precipitation, and air from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Teixeira, Camilla; Small, Jeff; Muir, Derek; Bidleman, Terry F

    2011-07-01

    Concentrations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in water, zooplankton, precipitation, and air samples as well as stereoisomer fractions (SF; herbicidally active/total stereoisomers) of metolachlor were determined in water samples collected from 10 remote inland lakes in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2005. The most frequently detected chemicals in lake water, precipitation, and air were α-endosulfan, atrazine, metolachlor, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, and trifluralin, and α-endosulfan and chlorpyrifos were the chemicals detected frequently in zooplankton. Air concentrations of these CUPs were within the range of previously reported values for background sites in the Great Lakes basin. High detection frequency of CUPs in lake water and precipitation was attributed to high usage amounts, but some CUPs such as ametryn and disulfoton that were not used in Ontario were also detected. Mean bioaccumulation factors (wet wt) in zooplankton for endosulfan ranged from 160 to 590 and from 20 to 60 for chlorpyrifos. The overall median SF of metolachlor in precipitation samples (0.846) was similar to that of the commercial S-metolachlor (0.882). However, the median SF of metolachlor in water from all sampled inland lakes (0.806) was significantly lower compared with Ontario rivers (0.873) but higher compared with previous measurements in the Great Lakes (0.710). Lakes with smaller watershed areas showed higher SFs, supporting the hypothesis of stereoselective processing of deposited metolachlor within the watersheds, followed by transport to the lakes. PMID:21472774

  16. Risk factors associated with participation in the Ontario, Canada doctors' strike.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, R L; Shapiro, M F; Linn, L S; Froelicher, E S

    1989-09-01

    To identify factors associated with participation in the 1986 Ontario, Canada doctors' strike, we surveyed 1,028 physicians; 69 percent responded, of whom 42 percent participated in the strike. Risk factors for participation included income greater than $135,000, being a surgeon or gynecologist, having previously "opted out" of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan, being professionally dissatisfied, being politically conservative, favoring political activism by physicians, holding a positive view of the social consequences of extrabilling, and perceiving family, associates, patients and the public to favor the strike. Eighty percent of strikers, but 32 percent of non-strikers, met criteria we established for four strike-prone groups: the "economically rational," the "ideologically committed," the "professionally disaffected," and the "socially malleable." Respondents belonging to one or more of these groups were much more likely to have participated in the strike (64 percent vs 17 percent). Strategies to deal with physician militancy should address the multiplicity of motives that appeared to have influenced doctors in Ontario. PMID:2764198

  17. Exploration strategy in Keg River carbonates of northwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.H.

    1987-05-01

    The analysis of reservoir quality and seal capacity of the Middle Devonian Keg River carbonate reservoirs in northwestern Alberta requires facies studies of rock units of the Keg River Formation and of the overlying Muskeg and Sulphur Point formations. Using lithologic criteria, faunal type, and stratigraphic positions, the entire sequence is subdivided into ten major facies. The system used is that of standard facies belts with second-order modification to Wilson's terminology. These facies are (from basin to land): basin, open sea shelf, toe of slope, foreslope, organic buildup, shoal lime sand, open lagoon, restricted lagoon, tidal flats, and sabkha evaporites. The upper member of the Keg River Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the study area. It consists of floatstone, rudstone, and boundstone with wackestone, packstone, and grainstone matrix. The principal faunal constituents are crinoids, brachiopods, stromatoporoids, corals, and stachyodes. The reservoir porosity is of primary intergranular and intragranular and secondary vugular textures. The upper Keg River member is composed of two major facies: patch reefs and banks. Both facies are formed in an open lagoon environment fronted by Presqu'ile barrier to the west-northwest. Water depth was the main factor in controlling the distribution of the bank and patch reef facies. Patch reefs were developed in areas of deeper water, whereas banks were formed in shallower areas of the open lagoon. Recent analogs of the Keg River buildups are found on the Bermuda Platform and Belize Shelf. A direct relationship exists between the thickness of overlying anhydrites of the Muskeg Formation and hydrocarbon occurrences in the Keg River Formation. Generally in areas where patch reefs are developed, the thickness of the anhydrite is more than 30 ft. However, areas of bank are covered by less than 30 ft of anhydrite.

  18. Tourism climatology for camping: a case study of two Ontario parks (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.

    2015-08-01

    Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.

  19. Workplace System Factors of Obstetric Nurses in Northeastern Ontario, Canada: Using a Work Disability Prevention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivère, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Belanger-Gardner, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship nursing personal and workplace system factors (work disability) and work ability index scores in Ontario, Canada. Methods A total of 111 registered nurses were randomly selected from the total number of registered nurses on staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas of four northeastern Ontario hospitals. Using a stratified random design approach, 51 participants were randomly selected in four northeastern Ontario cities. Results A total of 51 (45.9% response rate) online questionnaires were returned and another 60 (54.1% response rate) were completed using the paper format. The obstetric workforce in northeastern Ontario was predominately female (94.6%) with a mean age of 41.9 (standard deviation = 10.2). In the personal systems model, three variables: marital status (p = 0.025), respondent ethnicity (p = 0.026), and mean number of patients per shift (p = 0.049) were significantly contributed to the variance in work ability scores. In the workplace system model, job and career satisfaction (p = 0.026) had a positive influence on work ability scores, while work absenteeism (p = 0.023) demonstrated an inverse relationship with work ability scores. In the combined model, all the predictors were significantly related to work ability scores. Conclusion Work ability is closely related to job and career satisfaction, and perceived control at work among obstetric nursing. In order to improve work ability, nurses need to work in environments that support them and allow them to be engaged in the decision-making processes. PMID:26929842

  20. Paleomagnetism of the ~1.1 Ga Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada): Implications for Proterozoic geomagnetic field morphology and plate velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakov, Evgeniy; Smirnov, Aleksey; Diehl, Jimmy

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a detailed paleomagnetic study of the ~1108 Ma intrusive Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada) to investigate the apparent reversal asymmetry observed in some Midcontinent Rift (MCR) rocks. The rocks of eastern and central part of the Coldwell Complex are reversely magnetized with a group-mean direction of D=114.8

  1. Genome Sequence of Listeria monocytogenes Strain F6540 (Sequence Type 360) Collected from Food Samples in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gnaneshan, Saravanamuttu; Hsueh, Ya-Chih; Liang, Lindsay; Teatero, Sarah; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomic analysis between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Listeria monocytogenes strains provides a good model for studying the virulence of this organism. Here, we report the genome sequence of the nonpathogenic L. monocytogenes strain F6540 (sequence type 360) identified specifically in food samples in Ontario, Canada, in 2010. PMID:26769922

  2. Issues and Options in Adult Literacy: A National Symposium. Proceedings (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 17-29, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Secretariat, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document is a summary of the proceedings of a symposium that was attended by more than 100 adult literacy practitioners, researchers, and government officials in Ontario (Canada). The largest part of the document consists of summaries of the issues and policy/program options discussed in relation to the following aspects of adult literacy…

  3. A prospective matched nested case-control study of bacterial gill disease outbreaks in Ontario, Canada government salmonid hatcheries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early-rearing salmonids in Ontario, Canada government fish hatcheries have been persistently affected by bacterial gill disease (BGD), and outbreaks at these locations have often been associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causative agent of BGD, Flavobacterium branchiophilum, is consider...

  4. Educators' Beliefs about Raising Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in the Schools: The Experience in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Margaret; Dimito, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the experiences of 132 LGBT and heterosexual teachers and school administrators in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a survey that asked about their comfort addressing LGBT issues in the school setting, how safe they felt, how active they were, and their perceptions of barriers. There were few differences between the…

  5. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  6. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  7. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms. PMID:27152042

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in southern Ontario, Canada, green frogs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.W.; Gillan, K.A.; Haffner, G.D.

    1997-11-01

    Green frogs were collected from seven southern Ontario, Canada, locations and analyzed for chlorinated organic chemicals to establish the relative distribution of these chemicals at specific sites. At Hillman Marsh, a wildlife reserve in an agricultural area, green frogs accumulated significantly greater amount of highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) than green frogs from all other collection sites. The source of PCBs is unknown. At Ancaster, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) accumulated in green frogs to a significantly greater extent than at all other sites. This was attributed to the presence of agriculture at Ancaster and the historic use of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in agriculture. Chemical concentrations measured in green frogs from all locations were considerably lower than reported levels in other species resulting in observable effects. Specific data relating chronic effects in amphibians to environmental exposure to DDE and PCBs is lacking. Contaminant accumulation in southern Ontario amphibians may be an important factor contributing to amphibian declines only at specific sites.

  9. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Jan E.; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people’s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities. PMID:19826558

  10. Analysis of Anthraxolite and Precambrian Carbonates of Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Anthraxolite is a solid mass of black organic material, often composed of bitumen, that is used as a biomarker formed by oxidation processes. Anthraxolite occurs in veins and fractures that contain cross cutting properties in the carbonate bedding located at Kakabeka Falls, Ontario, Canada. While the hydrocarbons are primarly distributed in the stromatolite bearing units of the Gunflint Formation in the Animikie Group, little information is currently available concerning the highly altered Precambrian metamorphosed oil. This research summarizes the hydrocarbon and microfossiliferous cherty stromatolite horizon in the Gunflint Formation that has been dated at 1.9 Ga. By utilizing a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to retrieve a chemical analysis of the organic molecule samples found at outcrops and in cores, the preserved anthraxolite and carbonate facies were discovered to contain similar compositions. These new results will help provide i) a further understanding Precambrian paleontology by identifying microfossils; ii) the ecology of the region, and iii) the origin of the hydrocarbons.

  11. Strategies for Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening Amongst First Nations Communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Maar, Marion; Wakewich, Pamela; Wood, Brianne; Severini, Alberto; Little, Julian; Burchell, Ann N; Ogilvie, Gina; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    The high burden of cervical cancer in Indigenous populations worldwide is due to underscreening and inadequate follow-up. Using qualitative, participatory action research, we interviewed health care staff to identify ways to increase screening recruitment in First Nations communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada. Our findings suggest the value of a multilevel social-ecological model to promote behavioral changes at the community, health care service and stakeholder, and decision-maker level. Participants emphasized the central role of First Nations women as nurturers of life and for the well-being of their family members. They stressed the importance of building awareness and motivation for cervical cancer screening through various activities including continuous education, hosting screening events specifically for women, improving the attitude and service of health care providers, and promoting screening tools and policies that complement and are respectful of First Nations women. PMID:25375661

  12. Population Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Invasive Serotype IV Group B Streptococcus, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; McGeer, Allison; Li, Aimin; Gomes, Janice; Seah, Christine; Demczuk, Walter; Martin, Irene; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Dewar, Ken; Melano, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that 37/600 (6.2%) invasive infections with group B Streptococcus (GBS) in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, were caused by serotype IV strains. We report a relatively high level of genetic diversity in 37 invasive strains of this emerging GBS serotype. Multilocus sequence typing identified 6 sequence types (STs) that belonged to 3 clonal complexes. Most isolates were ST-459 (19/37, 51%) and ST-452 (11/37, 30%), but we also identified ST-291, ST-3, ST-196, and a novel ST-682. We detected further diversity by performing whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis and found evidence of recombination events contributing to variation in some serotype IV GBS strains. We also evaluated antimicrobial drug resistance and found that ST-459 strains were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin, whereas strains of other STs were, for the most part, susceptible to these antimicrobial drugs. PMID:25811284

  13. Toxicological findings in fatal motor vehicle collisions in ontario, Canada: a one-year study.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Karen L; Chow, Betty L C; Lauwers, Albert; Cass, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Drug-impaired driving is a complex area of forensic toxicology due in part to limited data concerning the type of drugs involved and the concentrations detected. This study analyzed toxicological findings in drivers from fatal motor vehicle collisions (FMVCs) in Ontario, Canada, over a one-year period using a standardized protocol. Of the 229 cases included in the study, 56% were positive for alcohol and/or drugs. After alcohol, cannabis was the most frequently encountered substance (27%), followed by benzodiazepines (17%) and antidepressants (17%). There were differences in drugs detected by age but no marked difference in drugs detected between single and multiple FMVC's. Not all drugs detected were considered impairing either due to drug type, concentration or case history. The findings indicate the importance of comprehensive drug testing in FMVCs and highlight the need to consider a variety of factors, in addition to drug type and concentration, when assessing the role of drugs in driving impairment. PMID:25693690

  14. Peatlands as Dynamic Biogeochemical Ecotones: Elemental Concentrations, Stoichiometries and Accumulation in Peatland Soils of Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. R.; Wang, M.; Talbot, J.; Riley, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands act as biogeochemical interfaces between terrestrial and aquatic systems and are 'hotspots', particularly for carbon cycling and the accumulation of nutrients and other elements within the peat profile. This results in storage of substantial amounts of carbon, nutrients and metals, particularly in northern peatlands. Using a data base of over 400 peat profiles and 1700 individual peat samples from bog, fen and swamp sites in Ontario, Canada, we examine the profile concentrations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Hg, Pb, As, Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe and Al, and estimate the storage and accumulation of these elements. We show how these profiles, spatial patterns, stoichiometries and accumulation rates are controlled by biogeochemical processes and influenced by geochemical setting, hydrology, atmospheric input and pollution, and ecological and microbial transformations.

  15. Barriers to Walking: An Investigation of Adults in Hamilton (Ontario, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew F.; Scott, Darren M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates perceived barriers to walking using data collected from 179 randomly-selected adults between the ages of 18 and 92 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A survey (Hamilton Active Living Study) asked questions about socio-demographics, walking, and barriers to walking. A series of binary logit models are estimated for twenty potential barriers to walking. The results demonstrate that different barriers are associated with different sub-groups of the population. Females, senior citizens, and those with a higher body mass index identify the most barriers to walking, while young adults, parents, driver’s license owners, and bus pass owners identify the fewest barriers. Understanding who is affected by perceived barriers can help policy makers and health promotion agencies target sub-groups of the population in an effort to increase walking. PMID:26840328

  16. Distribution of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Nordic Uranium Tailings Deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M.

    1987-01-01

    Iron-oxidizing bacteria are present within the top 2 m (but not always at the surface) and near the water table-capillary fringe of the vegetated Nordic uranium deposit, Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada. They are distributed uniformly in the top 0.5 m of unvegetated tailings. The locations of these bacteria correlate with zones of pyrite oxidation as delineated in previous studies by the formation of soluble iron and sulfate. Heterotrophic bacteria are also present in the tailings, with greatest concentrations at the surface and near the water table-capillary fringe. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were detected in the soil and peat at the base of the tailings. The results of this study suggest that the establishment of vegetation directly upon the tailings surface does not arrest bacterial pyrite oxidation. PMID:16347328

  17. Intestinal toxemia botulism in 3 adults, Ontario, Canada, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Yolanda D; Middleton, Dean; Whitfield, Yvonne; Tyndel, Felix; Haider, Shariq; Spiegelman, Jamie; Swartz, Richard H; Nelder, Mark P; Baker, Stacey L; Landry, Lisa; Maceachern, Ross; Deamond, Sherri; Ross, Lorrie; Peters, Garth; Baird, Michelle; Rose, David; Sanders, Greg; Austin, John W

    2012-01-01

    Five cases of intestinal toxemia botulism in adults were identified within an 18-month period in or near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We describe findings for 3 of the 5 case-patients. Clinical samples contained Clostridium botulinum spores and botulinum neurotoxins (types A and B) for extended periods (range 41-61 days), indicative of intestinal toxemia botulism. Patients' clinical signs improved with supportive care and administration of botulinum antitoxin. Peanut butter from the residence of 1 case-patient yielded C. botulinum type A, which corresponded with type A spores found in the patient's feces. The food and clinical isolates from this case-patient could not be distinguished by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Two of the case-patients had Crohn disease and had undergone previous bowel surgery, which may have contributed to infection with C. botulinum. These cases reinforce the view that an underlying gastrointestinal condition is a risk factor for adult intestinal toxemia botulism. PMID:22257757

  18. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety. PMID:20183193

  19. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  20. Projecting Fish Mercury Levels in the Province of Ontario, Canada and the Implications for Fish and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Tang, Rex W K; Arhonditsis, George B

    2015-12-15

    Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing in Ontario, Canada, which covers a wide geographical area and contains about 250 000 lakes including a share of the North American Great Lakes. Here we project 2050 mercury levels in Ontario fish, using the recently measured levels and rates of changes observed during the last 15 years, and present potential implications for fish and human health. Percentage of northern Ontario waterbodies where sublethal effects of mercury on fish can occur may increase by 2050 from 60% to >98% for Walleye (WE), 44% to 59-70% for Northern Pike (NP), and 70% to 76-92% for Lake Trout (LT). Ontario waterbodies with unrestricted fish consumption advisories for the general population may deteriorate from 24-76% to <1-33% for WE, 40-95% to 1-93% for NP, and 39-89% to 18-86% for LT. Similarly, Ontario waterbodies with do not eat advisories for the sensitive population may increase from 32-84% to 73-100% for WE, 9-72% to 12-100% for NP, and 19-71% to 24-89% for LT. Risk to health of Ontario fish and humans consuming these fish may increase substantially over the next few decades if the increasing mercury trend continues and updated advisories based on continued monitoring are not issued/followed. PMID:26592742

  1. Mercury in lake sediments of the Precambrian Shield near Huntsville, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, P.E.; Villard, D.J.; Fortescue, J.A.C.; Gardner, H.D.; Schiff, S.L.; Shilts, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    Long sediment cores (> 1 m) were collected from eight Precambrian Shield lakes in southern Ontario, Canada and analyzed for mercury (Hg), loss-on-ignition (LOI), and a suite of 36 other elements. Results indicated at least 100-fold variation in sediment Hg concentrations between lakes in close proximity (from 450 ppb), comparable to the variation reported for lakes across the whole of Canada. Strong areal correlations between Hg concentrations and LOI (r2=0.77), between Hg and other trace element concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cd, Sb, As, Br), and similarities in the vertical concentration profiles of Hg and LOI, all point to the importance of organic matter in the release, transport and redistribution of metals in watershed systems. The spatial pattern of Hg concentrations in deep, precolonial sediments (>20 cm) was found to mirror the pattern of Hg concentrations in modern surface sediments, an observation that was confirmed in a follow-up survey (r2= 0.85; n = 25 lakes), indicating that natural processes govern the unequal distribution of Hg among these lakes. Between-lake differences in surface sediment Hg concentrations normalized to organic carbon (Hg/C) were also reflected by Hg concentrations in small-mouth bass normalized to 35 cm length (R2=0.63; n= 15 lakes). The latter relationship suggests that small-mouth bass and lake sediment indicators provide mutually supportive information regarding Hg loading to the lacustrine environment from geological sources in the watershed system.

  2. Lead pellet ingestion and liver-lead concentrations in upland game birds from southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kreager, N; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; Tsuji, L J S

    2008-02-01

    One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16/47; 34%). Further, 13% (17/129) of the bird (wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo; Hungarian partridge, Perdix perdix; chukar; and common pheasant) livers analyzed had elevated lead concentrations (> or =6 microg/g wet weight [ww]). Liver-lead concentrations above Health Canada's guideline for human consumption of fish protein (<0.5 microg/g ww) were found in 40% (51/129) of livers analyzed. Data indicate that the ingestion of lead pellets in upland game birds and the potential consumption of lead-contaminated meat by humans are concerns related to the continued use of lead shotshell for hunting. PMID:17763885

  3. Translating Anxiety-Focused CBT for Youth in a First Nations Context in Northwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Manassis, Katharina; Jones, Emily; Bobinski, Tina; Mushquash, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We sought to evaluate a translation of anxiety-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to a First Nations children’s mental health provider in rural Ontario and to enhance our understanding of CBT challenges and adaptations unique to the First Nations context. Methods: The study was conceptualized as a mixed methods sequential explanatory approach using a quasi-experimental (before and after) design with quantitative and qualitative components. Data were produced in two ways: questionnaires completed by therapists, parents and clients pre- and post-training, and through a focus group with therapists working with First Nations clients. Participants of this study were a subset of a larger knowledge translation study involving ten agencies, and comprised nine therapists (two males and seven females), and seven children (six males and one female) from a single First Nations agency. The mean age of children was 11.8 years (±2.71), comparable to children in other agencies. Results: First Nations therapists’ scores on a child CBT knowledge questionnaire post-training did not differ from those of therapists in other agencies when controlling for initial values, suggesting comparable training benefit. Children did not differ between groups on any key measures, and all key measures showed improvement from pre- to post-training. Four key themes emerged from therapist focus groups: client challenges, value of supervision, practice challenges, and Northern/rural/remote challenges. Conclusions: The study highlights the importance of delivering a culturally appropriate CBT program to First Nations populations in Northern Ontario, and provides preliminary evidence of its effectiveness. PMID:26336378

  4. Mental Health and Substance Use among Bisexual Youth and Non-Youth in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lori E.; Bauer, Greta R.; MacLeod, Melissa A.; Robinson, Margaret; MacKay, Jenna; Dobinson, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that bisexuals have poorer health outcomes than heterosexuals, gays, or lesbians, particularly with regard to mental health and substance use. However, research on bisexuals is often hampered by issues in defining bisexuality, small sample sizes, and by the failure to address age differences between bisexuals and other groups or age gradients in mental health. The Risk & Resilience Survey of Bisexual Mental Health collected data on 405 bisexuals from Ontario, Canada, using respondent-driven sampling, a network-based sampling method for hidden populations. The weighted prevalence of severe depression (PHQ-9≥20) was 4.7%, possible anxiety disorder (OASIS≥8) was 30.9%, possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PCL-C≥50) was 10.8%, and past year suicide attempt was 1.9%. With respect to substance use, the weighted prevalence of problem drinking (AUDIT≥5) was 31.2%, and the weighted prevalence of illicit polydrug use was 30.5%. Daily smoking was low in this sample, with a weighted prevalence of 7.9%. Youth (aged 16–24) reported significantly higher weighted mean scores on depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and higher rates of past year suicidal ideation (29.7% vs. 15.2%) compared with those aged 25 and older. The burden of mental health and substance use among bisexuals in Ontario is high relative to population-based studies of other sexual orientation groups. Bisexual youth appear to be at risk for poor mental health. Additional research is needed to understand if and how minority stress explains this burden. PMID:25111292

  5. Contraband tobacco on post-secondary campuses in Ontario, Canada: analysis of discarded cigarette butts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background No studies to date have assessed young adults’ use of First Nations/Native tobacco, a common form of contraband tobacco in Canada. This study examined the proportion of First Nations/Native cigarette butts discarded on post-secondary campuses in the province of Ontario, and potential differences between colleges and universities and across geographical regions. Methods In 2009, discarded cigarette butts were collected from high-traffic smoking locations at 12 universities and 13 colleges purposively selected to represent a variety of institutions from all 7 health service regions across Ontario. Cigarette butts were identified as First Nations/Native tobacco if they were: known First Nations/Native brands; had names not matching domestic and international legally-manufactured cigarettes; had no visible branding or logos. Results Of 36,355 butts collected, 14% (95% CI = 9.75–19.04) were First Nations/Native. Use of this tobacco was apparent on all campuses, accounting for as little as 2% to as much as 39% of cigarette consumption at a particular school. Proportions of First Nations/Native butts were not significantly higher on colleges (M = 17%) than universities (M = 12%), but were significantly higher in the North region. Conclusions The presence of cheap First Nations/Native (contraband) tobacco on post-secondary campuses suggests the need for regulation and public education strategies aimed to reduce its use. Strategies should account for regional variations, and convey messages that resonate with young adults. Care must be taken to present fair messages about First Nations/Native tobacco, and avoid positioning regulated tobacco as a healthier option than contraband. PMID:23577796

  6. Spatial analysis of drumlins within the Arran, Guelph, and Galt drumlin fields of southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclachlan, John

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction of former ice conditions and glacier dynamics in previously glaciated terrains requires understanding of the processes and controls on the development of subglacial landforms such as drumlins. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of drumlins identified from digital elevation model (DEM) data within three drumlin fields in southern Ontario, Canada (the Arran, Galt and Guelph drumlin fields) formed in the Late Wisconsin by the Ontario and Georgian Bay ice lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Detailed field description of a partially excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field provides firther insight to compliment the geomorphometric analysis. Drumlins are identified and their morphological parameters documented using a computer-based process that allows direct comparison of forms within and between individual fields. Statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics and spatial distribution of drumlins within each of the three drumlin fields, using kernel density and nearest neighbour analysis, indicates that drumlins of particular types show distinct patterns of clustering that appear to be are related to several different factors including length of time under ice, bedrock topography, and ice velocity. Sediments exposed in an excavated drumlin within the Guelph drumlin field show a relatively undisturbed older fluvial or glaciofluvial crudely stratified sands draped by a thin veneer of coarse grained deformation till. This stratigraphy is similar to that described from modern drumlins in Iceland and is consistent with models of drumlin formation by subglacial deformation processes. The methodology of drumlin analysis can be applied to the study of any drumlin field with an adequate coverage of digital spatial data. The ability to consistently identify and characterize drumlin morphology and distribution will allow more objective and systematic comparison of these landforms both within and between

  7. Molecular Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Ontario, Canada, 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Tijet, Nathalie; Sheth, Prameet M.; Lastovetska, Olga; Chung, Catherine; Patel, Samir N.; Melano, Roberto G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of detailed reports of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing enterobacteria in Ontario, Canada, we perform a molecular characterization of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae submitted to the provincial reference laboratory from 2008 to 2011. Susceptibility profiles were accessed by E-test. Molecular types of isolates were determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. Screening of ß-lactamase genes was performed by multiplex PCR and alleles were identified by DNA sequencing. The genetic platform of blaKPC gene was analyzed by PCR. Plasmid replicons were typed using PCR-based typing approach. KPC-plasmids were also evaluated by S1 nuclease-PFGE and Southern blot. Thirty unique clinical isolates (26 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Citrobacter freundii and 1 Raoultella ornithinolytica) were identified as blaKPC positive: 4 in 2008, 3 in 2009, 10 in 2010 and 13 in 2011. The majority exhibited resistance to carbapenems, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and two isolates were also resistant to colistin. The isolates harbored blaKPC-2 (n = 23) or blaKPC-3 (n = 7). blaTEM-1 (n = 27) was commonly detected and occasionally blaOXA-1 (n = 3) and blaCTX-M-15 (n = 1). As expected, all K. pneumoniae isolates carried blaSHV-11. blaKPC genes were identified on Tn4401a (n = 20) or b (n = 10) isoforms, on plasmids of different sizes belonging to the incompatibility groups IncFIIA (n = 19), IncN (n = 3), IncI2 (n = 3), IncFrep (n = 2) and IncA/C (n = 1). The occurrence of KPC ß-lactamase in Ontario was mainly associated with the spread of the K. pneumoniae clone ST258. PMID:25549365

  8. Projected increases in near-surface air temperature over Ontario, Canada: a regional climate modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2015-09-01

    As the biggest economy in Canada, the Province of Ontario is now suffering many consequences caused by or associated with global warming, such as frequent and intense heat waves, floods, droughts, and wind gust. Planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies against the changing climate, which requires a better understanding of possible future climate outcomes over the Province in the context of global warming, is of great interest to local policy makers, stakeholders, and development practitioners. Therefore, in this study, high-resolution projections of near-surface air temperature outcomes including mean, maximum, and minimum daily temperature over Ontario are developed, aiming at investigating how the global warming would affect the local climatology of the major cities as well as the spatial patterns of air temperature over the entire Province. The PRECIS modeling system is employed to carry out regional climate ensemble simulations driven by the boundary conditions of a five-member HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble (i.e., HadCM3Q0, Q3, Q10, Q13, and Q15). The ensemble simulations are then synthesized through a Bayesian hierarchical model to develop probabilistic projections of future temperature outcomes with consideration of some uncertain parameters involved in the regional climate modeling process. The results suggest that there would be a consistent increasing trend in the near-surface air temperature with time periods from 2030s to 2080s. The most likely mean temperature in next few decades (i.e., 2030s) would be [-2, 2] °C in northern Ontario, [2, 6] °C in the middle, and [6, 12] °C in the south, afterwards the mean temperature is likely to keep rising by ~ 2 °C per 30-years period. The continuous warming across the Province would drive the lowest mean temperature up to 2 °C in the north and the highest mean temperature up to 16 °C in the south. In addition, the spread of the most likely ranges of future outcomes shows a consistent

  9. Predictors of low cervical cancer screening among immigrant women in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disparities in cervical cancer screening are known to exist in Ontario, Canada for foreign-born women. The relative importance of various barriers to screening may vary across ethnic groups. This study aimed to determine how predictors of low cervical cancer screening, reflective of sociodemographics, the health care system, and migration, varied by region of origin for Ontario's immigrant women. Methods Using a validated billing code algorithm, we determined the proportion of women who were not screened during the three-year period of 2006-2008 among 455 864 identified immigrant women living in Ontario's urban centres. We created eight identical multivariate Poisson models, stratified by eight regions of origin for immigrant women. In these models, we adjusted for various sociodemographic, health care-related and migration-related variables. We then used the resulting adjusted relative risks to calculate population-attributable fractions for each variable by region of origin. Results Region of origin was not a significant source of effect modification for lack of recent cervical cancer screening. Certain variables were significantly associated with lack of screening across all or nearly all world regions. These consisted of not being in the 35-49 year age group, residence in the lowest-income neighbourhoods, not being in a primary care patient enrolment model, a provider from the same region, and not having a female provider. For all women, the highest population-attributable risk was seen for not having a female provider, with values ranging from 16.8% [95% CI 14.6-19.1%] among women from the Middle East and North Africa to 27.4% [95% CI 26.2-28.6%] for women from East Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions To increase screening rates across immigrant groups, efforts should be made to ensure that women have access to a regular source of primary care, and ideally access to a female health professional. Efforts should also be made to increase the enrolment of

  10. Magnetic Properties of Rocks of the Kapuskasing Uplift (Ontario, Canada) and Origin of Long-Wavelength Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, D. J.; Ozdemir, O.; Costanzo-Alvarez, V.

    2010-12-01

    The sources of long wavelength magnetic anomalies (LWA) in the crust are poorly understood. We have measured remanent and induced magnetizations of 210 samples of anorthosite, tonalite and mafic gneiss from the Kapuskasing uplift, an exposed partial crustal cross-section in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Anorthosites have generally high Q ratios of remanent/ induced magnetization, in the range 0.3-60, and their natural remanent magnetization (NRM) is resistant to both thermal and alternating-field (AF) demagnetization. However, anorthosite NRMs (0.001 to 0.3 A/m) are too weak to explain LWA amplitudes. Mafic gneisses also have relatively high Q ratios, peaking in the range 1-10, and the NRM is resistant to thermal and AF demagnetization. NRM and induced magnetization (IM) intensities are in the ranges 0.01-2 and 0.01-0.6 A/m, respectively. Tonalites have a bimodal distribution of magnetization. The more strongly magnetic group has both NRM and IM intensities in the range 0.1-5 A/m and wide-ranging Q values, from 0.1-10 approximately. Some tonalites could be an LWA source, although the long-term stability of their NRMs at high temperature in the crust is questionable because unblocking temperatures are broadly distributed from 100 to 600°C. In general, Q values measured at surface temperatures overestimate remanence at depth. In the deep crust, IM remains more or less constant but remanence decreases both reversibly and irreversibly, leading to Q ratios of <0.2-0.3 for multidomain grains and ≈1-3 for single-domain grains near their blocking temperatures. Thermoviscous magnetization over the Brunhes chron could add substantially to the effective induced magnetization. Typically induced + thermoviscous magnetization in the direction of the present Earth’s field will outweigh remanence in the direction of an ancient field as a source of LWA originating in the deepest crust. Remanence may play a larger role for mid-crustal sources where single-domain grains are well

  11. Magnetic properties of rocks of the Kapuskasing uplift (Ontario, Canada) and origin of long-wavelength magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, David J.; Özdemir, Özden; Costanzo-Alvarez, Vincenzo

    2010-11-01

    The sources of long wavelength magnetic anomalies (LWA) in the crust are poorly understood. We have measured remanent and induced magnetizations of 210 samples of anorthosite, tonalite and mafic gneiss from the Kapuskasing uplift, an exposed partial crustal cross-section in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Anorthosites have generally high Q ratios of remanent/induced magnetization, in the range 0.3-60, and their natural remanent magnetization (NRM) is resistant to both thermal and alternating-field (AF) demagnetization. However, anorthosite NRMs (0.001-0.3 A m-1) are too weak to explain LWA amplitudes. Mafic gneisses also have relatively high Q ratios, peaking in the range 1-10, and the NRM is resistant to thermal and AF demagnetization. NRM and induced magnetization (IM) intensities are in the ranges 0.01-2 and 0.01-0.6 A m-1, respectively. Tonalites have a bimodal distribution of magnetization. The more strongly magnetic group has both NRM and IM intensities in the range 0.1-5 A m-1 and wide-ranging Q values, from 0.1 to 10 approximately. Some tonalites could be an LWA source, although the long-term stability of their NRMs at high temperature in the crust is questionable because unblocking temperatures are broadly distributed from 100 to 600°C. In general, Q values measured at surface temperatures overestimate remanence at depth. In the deep crust, IM remains more or less constant but remanence decreases both reversibly and irreversibly, leading to Q ratios of <0.2-0.3 for multidomain grains and ~1-3 for single-domain grains near their blocking temperatures. Thermoviscous magnetization over the Brunhes chron could add substantially to the effective induced magnetization. Typically induced + thermoviscous magnetization in the direction of the present Earth's field will outweigh remanence in the direction of an ancient field as a source of LWA originating in the deepest crust. Remanence may play a larger role for mid-crustal sources where single-domain grains are

  12. Pet husbandry and infection control practices related to zoonotic disease risks in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Despite this concern, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet husbandry and infection control practices. The objective of this study was to characterize zoonotic disease related-husbandry and infection preventive practices in pet-owning households in Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. One adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Four hundred one pet-owners completed the questionnaire. Households reported ownership of dogs (68%), cats (48%), fish (13%), exotic mammals (7%), such as hamsters, and reptiles and birds (each 6%). Across all species, individuals at higher risk of infections (i.e. < 5yrs, ≥ 65yrs, immunocompromised) were often (46-57%) present in households. Children < 16 yrs of age had close pet contact, as households reported dogs (13%) and cats (30%) usually slept in a child’s bed and dogs often licked a child’s face (24%). Household husbandry practices that increase zoonotic disease risk were frequently identified; some fed high-risk foods (i.e. raw eggs, raw meat, or raw animal product treats) to their dogs (28%) or cats (3%); 14% of reptile-owning households allowed the pet to roam through the kitchen or washed it in the kitchen sink. Reported hand washing by children was high for all species (> 76% washed hands sometimes or greater after touching the pet, its feces, or housing), although fewer reported children always washed their hands (3-57%; by species). With a few exceptions, practices were not associated with the presence of higher risk members in the household or recall of having previously received zoonotic disease education. Conclusions The results suggest there is a need for education on zoonotic disease prevention practices for pet-owning households

  13. A Coupled Snow Operations-Skier Demand Model for the Ontario (Canada) Ski Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, Marc; Scott, Daniel; Steiger, Robert; Rutty, Michelle; Johnson, Peter; Vilella, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar global ski industry is one of the tourism subsectors most directly impacted by climate variability and change. In the decades ahead, the scholarly literature consistently projects decreased reliability of natural snow cover, shortened and more variable ski seasons, as well as increased reliance on snowmaking with associated increases in operational costs. In order to develop the coupled snow, ski operations and demand model for the Ontario ski region (which represents approximately 18% of Canada's ski market), the research utilized multiple methods, including: a in situ survey of over 2400 skiers, daily operations data from ski resorts over the last 10 years, climate station data (1981-2013), climate change scenario ensemble (AR5 - RCP 8.5), an updated SkiSim model (building on Scott et al. 2003; Steiger 2010), and an agent-based model (building on Pons et al. 2014). Daily snow and ski operations for all ski areas in southern Ontario were modeled with the updated SkiSim model, which utilized current differential snowmaking capacity of individual resorts, as determined from daily ski area operations data. Snowmaking capacities and decision rules were informed by interviews with ski area managers and daily operations data. Model outputs were validated with local climate station and ski operations data. The coupled SkiSim-ABM model was run with historical weather data for seasons representative of an average winter for the 1981-2010 period, as well as an anomalously cold winter (2012-13) and the record warm winter in the region (2011-12). The impact on total skier visits and revenues, and the geographic and temporal distribution of skier visits were compared. The implications of further climate adaptation (i.e., improving the snowmaking capacity of all ski areas to the level of leading resorts in the region) were also explored. This research advances system modelling, especially improving the integration of snow and ski operations models with

  14. The Physical Activity Levels and Sedentary Behaviors of Latino Children in London (Ontario, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Mandich, Gillian; Burke, Shauna; Gaston, Anca; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of a sample of Latino children in London, Ontario, Canada. Methods: Seventy-four Latino children (54.1% male; mean age = 11.4) completed self-report questionnaires related to physical activity and sedentary behaviors. A subset of children (n = 64) wore Actical (Mini Mitter, Respironics) accelerometers for a maximum of four days. Results: Latino children self-reported moderate levels of physical activity (i.e., mean score of 2.8 on 5-point scale). Accelerometer data revealed that children spent an average of 50.0 min in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 59.2 min on weekdays and 50.6 min on weekend days) and were sedentary for an average of 8.4 h (508.0 min) per day (533.5 min on weekdays and 497.7 min on weekend days). Children reported spending an average of 3.8 h (228 min) daily in front of screens—1.7 h (102 min) watching television, 1.2 h (72 min) on the computer, and 0.9 h (54 min) playing video games. Conclusions: This feasibility project provided a preliminary account of objectively measured daily physical activity and sedentary time among a sample of Latino children in Canada, as well as insight into the challenge of measuring these behaviors. Sedentary behavior reduction techniques should be explored and implemented in this young population, along with strategies to promote adherence to accelerometer protocols. PMID:26006126

  15. Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Galway, Lindsay P

    2016-01-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities. PMID:27196919

  16. Geomorphic controls on the export of dissolved organic carbon from forested catchments in central Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creed, I. F.; Creed, I. F.; Lynch, M. D.; Sanford, S. E.; Beall, F. D.; Jeffries, D. S.

    2001-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a complex mixture of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds that has significant implications for the quality of surface water. In forests, wetlands have been shown to be a significant source of the natural variation in DOC export to streams; however, ephemeral wetlands (or surface saturated areas, SSAs) have not yet been considered as a potential source. For catchments in the Turkey Lakes Watershed (TLW) in central Ontario, Canada, the natural variation in DOC export was established and a statistical model to predict this natural variation was developed. For 12 catchments in the TLW, the natural variation in DOC export was significant, with annual averages ranging from 13.8 to 23.2 kg Chayr and catchment averages ranging from 11.9 to 31.5 kg Chayr. It was hypothesised that geomorphic controls on the distribution and organisation of SSAs within catchments influence DOC export. Three SSA indices were derived: (1) SSA size; (2) SSA connectivity to streams (reflecting the hydrologic efficiency of DOC transport); and (3) SSA curvature (reflecting the potential for hydrologic flushing into areas of replenished DOC sources). A multiple linear model indicated that the majority of the natural variation in DOC export was explained by a combination of the hydrologic efficiency and flushing potentials of the SSAs (R-sqr.=0.717, Adjusted R-sqr.4=0.654, p<0.05). To improve predictions of DOC export from forested catchments, the role of both permanent and ephemeral wetlands must be considered.

  17. Sensitivity of Landsat MSS and TM to land cover change in the Golden Horseshoe, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGibbon, Jamie; Chen, Dongmei

    2008-10-01

    An ideal situation for conducting change detection is to use multi-temporal images acquired from the same sensor. However, many conditions (such as the discontinuity of sensors, weather conditions) would bring an end to the ideal temporal change detection. Imagery availability issues will force change detection studies in the future to increasingly incorporate multiple sensors. This study conducted change detection between Landsat TM (TM) and Landsat MSS (MSS) images from July 30, 1995 to June 2, 2003. The study area was centered on the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in south-central Ontario, Canada. Post-classification change detection was used to determine the type of change between the images. Results demonstrated that despite the different spatial resolution of the MSS and TM data, the change detection using both MSS and TM was similar in results to that of TM alone. A change detection where MSS is resampled to 30 meters was most effective in capturing the amount and type of change in the TM change study.

  18. Prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Shannon L; Baiden, Philip; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada, and to explore some of the factors that influence the misuse of prescription medication. Data were obtained from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Mental Health. A total of 2,677 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years who were admitted into adult mental health beds were analyzed. Logistic regression was used in estimating the likelihood of misusing prescription medication. Overall, 17% of adolescent inpatients misused prescription medication. In the multivariate model, the following were found to be associated with misuse: being female, having multiple psychiatric admissions, education, threat or danger to self, problem with addiction, history of emotional abuse, use of alcohol, past year use of opiates and cannabis, as well as symptoms of depression. Misuse of prescription medication was less likely to occur among adolescents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and adolescents who were admitted as a result of posing a threat or danger to others. Implications of the findings are discussed with suggestions for future research. PMID:23461668

  19. Detection of Clostridium difficile in small and medium-sized wild Mammals in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Rousseau, Joyce; Weese, J Scott

    2013-04-01

    We sampled 325 small and medium-sized wild mammals in Ontario, Canada in 2007 and 2010 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile in wild mammals living in proximity to captive wildlife and livestock. Clostridium difficile was isolated from five of 109 animals (4.6%) on four of 25 farms (16%), but was not isolated from any of the 216 samples from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living on the grounds of the Toronto Zoo. The positive animals included two raccoons from one beef farm, one raccoon from a different beef farm, one raccoon from a swine farm, and a shrew (Blarina brevicauda) from a dairy farm. None had evidence of gastrointestinal disease. Three of the five isolates were toxinotype variants (II, IV, and XIII) that are rarely identified in humans and domestic animals. The other two were toxinotype 0, a common toxinotype in humans and animals; however, all five isolates were of different ribotypes. None of the recovered ribotypes were recognized as ribotypes present in the authors' reference library of over 3,000 human and domestic animal C. difficile isolates. Neither the public health nor the animal health relevance of these findings is clear. It is not known whether C. difficile is a pathogen of small and medium-sized wild mammals, although the susceptibility of various laboratory species suggests it could cause disease. PMID:23568920

  20. Simulation Of Broadband Seismic Wave Propagation In A Deep Mine in Sudbury Ontario Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, R.; Chen, H.; Milkereit, B.; Liu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    In an active underground mine, amplitudes and travel times of seismic events are critical parameters that have to be determined at various locations. These parameters are useful to better understand the process of spatial and temporal stress distributions in a mine. In this study, variations of travel time and amplitude of seismic waves derived from the conventional constant velocity models are compared to the ones derived from 3D variable velocity model. The results show a significant variation in seismic energy distribution at the mine due to presence of very strong elastic contrast, and the observed complexity of the propagated seismic waves require the use of a variable velocity model. An active deep mine located in Sudbury Ontario Canada hosted this study. Dense 3D arrays of geophones, which are distributed around ore-bodies, have been monitoring controlled production blasts and microseismic events since the mine has started production. It is shown here that the conventional empirical method used to calculate peak particle velocities and accelerations (PPVs/PPAs), tends to underestimate the intensity of seismic waves in stopes or areas close to blast sites. This could be corrected if a more realistic model was implemented. Comparing the travel time information from recorded events in the past few years showed the temporal changes in the mine velocity model as mining progressed, thus updating the velocity model of the mine is needed if better accuracy of event location is required. In this study, a 2D/3D finite difference modeling method is used.

  1. Equid herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) isolates from zebras in Ontario, Canada, 1989 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Ana Rita; Carman, Susy; Shapiro, Jan; van Dreumel, Tony; Hazlett, Murray; Nagy, Éva

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and partially characterize 3 equid herpesviruses that were isolated postmortem from zebras in Ontario, Canada in 1989, 2002, and 2007. These 3 virus isolates were characterized by plaque morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and sequence analyses of the full length of the glycoprotein G (gG) gene (ORF70) and a portion of the DNA polymerase gene (ORF30). The isolates were also compared to 3 reference strains of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). Using rabbit kidney cells, the plaques for the isolates from the zebras were found to be much larger in size than the EHV-1 reference strains. The RFLP patterns of the zebra viruses differed among each other and from those of the EHV-1 reference strains. Real-time PCR and sequence analysis of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene determined that the herpesvirus isolates from the zebras contained a G at nucleotide 2254 and a corresponding N at amino acid position 752, which suggested that they could be neuropathogenic EHV-1 strains. However, subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the gG gene suggested that they were EHV-9 and not EHV-1. PMID:25852233

  2. Does Predation Influence the Seasonal and Diel Timing of Moose Calving in Central Ontario, Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Brent R.; Mills, Kenneth J.; Middel, Kevin R.; Benson, John F.; Obbard, Martyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Birth synchrony is well documented among ungulates and is hypothesised to maximize neonate survival, either by minimizing the risk of predation through predator swamping or by synchronising birthing with increased seasonal food availability. We used encapsulated vaginal implant transmitters to locate and capture neonatal moose calves and document the seasonal and diel timing of parturition in two adjacent study areas with different predation pressure in central Ontario, Canada. We tested the hypothesis that predation promotes earlier and more synchronous birth of moose calves. Across both areas, proportionately more births occurred during the afternoon and fewer than expected occurred overnight. Mean date of calving averaged 1.5 days earlier and calving was also more synchronous in the study area with heavier predation pressure, despite average green-up date and peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index date occurring 2 days later in this study area than in the area receiving lighter predation pressure. We encourage analysis of data on timing of parturition from additional study areas experiencing varying degrees of predation pressure to better clarify the influence of predation in driving seasonal and diel timing of parturition in temperate ungulates. PMID:27082234

  3. Monensin might protect Ontario, Canada dairy cows from paratuberculosis milk-ELISA positivity.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Steven H; Duffield, Todd F; Leslie, Ken E; Lissemore, Kerry D; Archambault, Marie; Bagg, Randy; Dick, Paul; Kelton, David F

    2006-10-17

    Our objective was to define the role of monensin sodium in protecting cows from being milk-ELISA positive for paratuberculosis in Ontario, Canada dairy herds. In total, 4933 dairy cows from 94 herds were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Forty-four of the enrolled herds were selected purposively by their herd veterinarian and another 50 herds were randomly selected from a local milk production-recording agency. A herd-management survey was completed on each farm during the months of May through August 2003. During this same time-period, composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows and tested with a milk-ELISA for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Analyses were stratified according to the paratuberculosis history of the herds. In the 48 herds in which paratuberculosis had not been diagnosed before, the use of calf hutches and monensin in milking cows were both associated with reduced odds of a cow testing positive (OR=0.19 and 0.21, respectively). In the 46 herds with a prior history of paratuberculosis, feeding monensin to the breeding-age heifers was associated with decreased odds of a cow testing positive (OR=0.54). Monensin use might be associated with milk-ELISA positivity, but its impact on the transmission of paratuberculosis remains unknown. PMID:16787675

  4. Characterization of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients in Ontario, Canada, from 2004 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Willey, B; Low, D E; Staempfli, H R; McGeer, A; Boerlin, P; Mulvey, M; Weese, J S

    2008-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is the bacterium most commonly surmised to cause antimicrobial- and hospital-associated diarrhea in developed countries worldwide, and such infections are thought to be increasing in frequency and severity. A laboratory-based study was carried out to characterize C. difficile strains isolated from persons in Ontario, Canada, during 2004 to 2006 according to toxin type (enterotoxin A, cytotoxin B, and binary toxin [CDT]), tcdC gene characterization, ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and toxinotyping. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 1,080/1,152 (94%) samples from 21 diagnostic laboratories. Isolates with toxin profiles A(+) B(+) CDT(-), A(+) B(+) CDT(+), A(-) B(+) CDT(-), and A(-) B(+) CDT(+) accounted for 63%, 34%, 2.4%, and 0.6% of isolates, respectively. Alterations in tcdC were detected in six different ribotypes, including ribotype 027. A total of 39 different ribotypes were identified, with ribotype 027/North American pulsotype 1 (NAP1), an internationally recognized outbreak strain associated with severe disease, being the second most common ribotype (19% of isolates). Transient resistance to metronidazole was identified in 19 (1.8%) isolates. While a large number of ribotypes were found, a few predominated across the province. The high prevalence and wide distribution of ribotype 027/NAP1 are disconcerting in view of the severity of disease associated with it. PMID:18650360

  5. Bioaccessibility of uranium in soil samples from Port Hope, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Slobodan V; Pan, Pujing; Wong, Larry

    2012-08-21

    Adequate assessment of human health risk of uranium contamination at hazardous waste sites, which is an important step in determining the cleanup strategy, is based on bioavailability data. Bioavailability of uranium from contaminated soil has not been properly determined yet. Bioaccessibility is an in vitro conservative estimate of bioavailability and is thus frequently used for site-specific risk assessment. Bioaccessibility of uranium was measured in 33 soil samples from the Port Hope area in Ontario, Canada, by the physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Higher bioaccessibility values in the gastric plus intestinal phase, 48.4% ± 16.8%, than in the gastric phase, 20.8% ± 11.7%, are very probably the result of more efficient extraction of uranium from soil by intestinal fluid rich in carbonate ions. The observed variability of measured bioaccessibility values is discussed in light of the results of scanning electron microscope examination of the soil samples. Uranium bioaccessibility values in both gastric (acidic) and gastric plus intestinal (neutral) phases are higher in soil samples with smaller uranium-bearing particles and lower in samples where the uranium-bearing particles are larger. We postulate that the most important reason for variability of measured bioaccessibility values in Port Hope soil samples may be the difference in particle size of uranium-bearing particles. PMID:22852839

  6. Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  7. Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Galway, Lindsay P.

    2016-01-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities. PMID:27196919

  8. Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, E. J.; Brown, C.; Baxter, J.; Lemyre, L.; Masuda, J.R.; Ursitti, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours. PMID:23805055

  9. Promoting a smokers' quitline in Ontario, Canada: an evaluation of an academic detailing approach.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Maritt; Schwartz, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This study assesses the impact of an academic detailing quitline promotional outreach program on integration of patient referrals to the quitline by fax in healthcare settings and quitline utilization in Ontario, Canada. The study employed a mixed methods approach for evaluation, with trend analysis of quitline administrative data from the year before program inception (2005) to 2011 and qualitative interviews with quitline stakeholders. Participants in the qualitative interviews included academic detailing program staff, regional tobacco control stakeholders and quitline promotion experts. Quantitative outcomes included the number of fax referral partners and fax referrals received, and quitline reach. Trends in proximal and distal outreach program outcomes were assessed. The qualitative data were analysed through a process of data coding involving the constant comparative technique derived from grounded theory methods. The study identified that the outreach program has had some success in integrating the fax referral program in healthcare settings through evidence of increased fax referrals since program inception. However, organizational barriers to program partner engagement have been encountered. While referral from health professionals through the fax referral programs has increased since the inception of the outreach program, the overall reach of the quitline has not increased. The study findings highlight that an academic detailing approach to quitline promotion can have some success in achieving increased fax referral program integration in healthcare settings. However, findings suggest that investment in a comprehensive promotional strategy, incorporating academic detailing, media and the provision of free cessation medications may be a more effective approach to quitline promotion. PMID:23766445

  10. Measurement and Correlation of Ambient VOCs in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. J.; You, H.; Xu, X.; Molaroni, S.; Lemke, L.; Weglicki, L.; Krouse, H.; Krajenta, R.

    2009-05-01

    An air quality study has been carried out in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and Detroit, Michigan, USA as part of a pilot research study undertaken by the Geospatial Determinants of Health Outcomes Consortium (GeoDHOC), a multidisciplinary, international effort aimed at understanding the health effects of air pollution in urban environments. Exposure to volatile organic compounds has long been associated with adverse health conditions such as atrophy of skeletal muscles, loss of coordination, neurological damage, dizziness, throat, nose, and eye irritation, nervous system depression, liver damage, and respiratory symptoms. Twenty-six species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored during a 2-week period in September, 2008 at 100 sites across Windsor and Detroit, using 3M # 3500 Organic Vapour Monitors. Ten species with highest concentrations were selected for further investigation; Toluene (mean concentration =4.14 μm/m3), (m+p)-Xylene (2.30 μm/m3), Hexane (1.87 μm/m3), Benzene (1.37 μm/m3), 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (0.87 μm/m3), Dichloromethane (0.77 μm/m3), Ethylbenzene (0.68 μm/m3), o-Xylene (0.63 μm/m3), n-Decane (0.42 μm/m3), and 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (0.39 μm/m3). Comparison to a similar investigation in Sarnia, Ontario in October 2005 revealed that the mean concentrations of VOCs were higher in Windsor-Detroit for all species by a significant margin (31-958%), indicating substantial impact of local industrial and vehicular emissions in the WindsorVDetroit area. For most VOCs, the concentrations were higher in Detroit than in Windsor. The mean concentration of total VOC was 9.7 μm/m3 in Windsor, which is slightly higher than that in Sarnia in 2005 (7.9 um/m3), whilst total VOC concentration in Detroit was much higher (16.5 μm/m3). There were strong correlations among several of the 10 species, with the highest Pearson correlation coefficients (r=0.78 - 0.99, p<0.05) amongst the BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) group

  11. New species and distributional records of Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from Ontario, Canada, with a checklist of recorded species

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Adam J.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Dorval, Julie-Anne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paiero, Steven M.; Marshall, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of Ontario were reviewed in the context of recently studied material, primarily from insect surveys conducted by the University of Guelph Insect Collection (Ontario, Canada). Aleochara daviesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Agaricomorpha websteri Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Atheta (Microdota) alesi Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., Dinaraea backusensis Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n., and Strigota obscurata Klimaszewski & Brunke sp. n. are described as new to science. We also report 47 new Ontario records and 24 new Canadian records. Callicerus rigidicornis (Erichson) and Alevonota gracilenta (Erichson) are newly reported from North America as adventive species. A checklist, with Canadian distributions by province, of the 224 species of Aleocharinae known from Ontario is given. The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Dexiogyia angustiventris (Casey): (Dexiogyia asperata (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia abscissa (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia tenuicauda (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia intenta (Casey) syn. n., Dexiogyia alticola (Casey) syn. n.). The following species are placed in subjective synonymy with Acrotona subpygmaea (Bernhauer): (Acrotona avia (Casey) syn. n., Acrotona puritana (Casey) syn. n.). Lectotypes are designated for Thiasophila angustiventris Casey, Thiasophila asperata Casey, Ischnoglossa intenta Casey, Oxypoda rubescans Casey, Chilopora americana Casey, Chilopora fuliginosa Casey, Coprothassa smithi Casey, Atheta subpygmaea Bernhauer, Colpodota puritana Casey, Strigota seducens Casey, Trichiusa compacta Casey, Trichiusa hirsuta Casey and Trichiusa robustula Casey. PMID:22577320

  12. Practice patterns in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer in Ontario Canada 2000-2008

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The extent of treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the variations in practice prior to diagnosis and for the first year after diagnosis, including the investigations, the extent of surgery and the use of RAI 131, for all patients with thyroid cancer (TC) treated Jan 1 2000 to Dec 2008 across Ontario Canada. Method Population-based study of all patients who had a therapeutic surgical procedure for TC based on the data holdings of the Institute of Clinical Investigative Sciences (ICES) linking the Ontario Cancer Registry to the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and to the Canadian Institutes of Health Information. The analysis includes comparisons between health care utilization/geographic regions and between treating specialties. The study population was 12957 patients. Results There was a 112% increase in case detection over 9 years. Overall the initial (index) surgery was less-than-total thyroidectomy (LTT) in 37.6% and 63.4% of the patients who had total thyroidectomy (TT) as an index surgery went on to adjuvant RAI, however there was wide variation in all aspects of patient care across the province, between Local Health Networks and between surgical specialties. Conclusion In Ontario, there was wide variation for most aspects of the management of TC and, as the incidence of TC is increasing at least 7% per year in females, these data provide a foundation for future discussions, the provision of health care services and research. PMID:25055715

  13. Mineralogy of the deadhorse creek volcaniclastic breccia complex, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Eric G.; Mitchell, Roger H.

    2005-09-01

    The Proterozoic Deadhorse Creek volcaniclastic breccia complex was emplaced in Archean metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Schreiber-White River greenstone belt adjacent to the Proterozoic Coldwell alkaline complex. The western sub-complex of the Deadhorse Creek breccia consists of metasomatically-altered breccia, a U-Be-Zr-rich main mineralized zone and a Zr-Y-Th-rich carbonate vein. The main mineralized zone is enriched in beryllium, thorium, uranium, first and second row transition elements, and rare earth elements. The major minerals present include: albite; potassium feldspar; quartz; calcite; apatite; and phenakite. Accessory minerals include: aegirine-jervisite; aegirine-natalyite; allanite; barite; barylite; coffinite; Ca-Mn-silicate; magnetite; monazite-(Ce); niobian vanadian rutile; pyrite; thorite; thorogummite; thortveitite; uraninite; vanadian crichtonite; xenotime-(Y); zircon and hydrated zircon; and zircon-thorite-coffinite solid solutions. The carbonate vein consists of dolomite-ankerite and calcite with accessory zircon, xenotime, and monazite. Barite, baotite and Ba-rich feldspars, were formed during metasomatism of the earlier-formed and genetically-unrelated volcaniclastic breccia adjacent to the main mineralized zone. The complex mineral assemblage of the fault-controlled main mineralized zone is considered to have formed in three stages. An initial emplacement of a “granitic” melt/fluid was followed by introduction of CO2-bearing Cr-Nb-V-Ti-enriched alkaline fluids. The latter reacted with minerals which had crystallized from the “granitic” melt/fluid to produce the exotic V-, Sc- and Nb-bearing mineral assemblage. Subsequently, a supergene suite of minerals, consisting principally of calcite, thorogummite, hollandite and tyuyamanite, formed during post-Pleistocene alteration was superimposed onto the pre-existing Proterozoic age mineral assemblage. The major mineralogy of the main mineralized zone is essentially ‘granitic” and the melts/fluids are considered to be derived from an A-type granite source. However, the Deadhorse Creek mineralization is older (1129±6 Ma) than the A-type quartz syenites of the adjacent Coldwell complex (1108±1 Ma) which are the nearest potential sources of such melts. Thus, the source of the “granitic” melt together with that of the Cr-Nb-V-Ti-bearing alkaline fluids remains enigmatic.

  14. Human Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Animal Rabies in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D; Johnson, K O; Rosatte, R C; Hobbs, J L; Moore, S R; Rosella, L; Crowcroft, N S

    2015-08-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the implementation of an annual rabies control programme in wildlife that began in 1989 resulted in a marked, steady decrease in the number of animal rabies cases. The number of animal rabies cases decreased from 1870 in 1989 to 183 in 2000 (Nunan et al., 2002 Emerg Infect Dis 8, 214). In our study period, the number of animal rabies cases continued to decrease from 210 in 2001 to 28 in 2012. The marked decrease in animal rabies cases since 1989 has resulted in a decrease in the risk of human infection. A concomitant decrease in the number of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered was anticipated but failed to occur. The mean rate of RPEP, 13.9 RPEP administered per 100,000 persons, from 2001-2012 was approximately the same as the rate in the 1990 s. Two possible reasons that the rate of RPEP administration has not decreased include strict adherence to RPEP recommendations and administration of RPEP when it is not recommended. A reduction in the number of RPEP administered, consistent with the decrease in the animal rabies cases, would provide some financial savings for the government. Ideally, an increased use of the risk assessment approach in keeping with recent guidelines, rather than adhering to previous prescriptive recommendations for RPEP administration, coupled with a continuing low incidence of animal rabies cases will result in decreased, and yet appropriate, use of RPEP. Consideration should be given to identify how guidelines could be revised to more effectively target high-risk exposures and reduce the administration of RPEP for instances in which the risk of rabies virus exposure is exceedingly low. PMID:25244148

  15. Quantifying groundwater discharge to a small perennial stream in southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cey, Edwin E.; Rudolph, David L.; Parkin, Gary W.; Aravena, Ramon

    1998-09-01

    A study of the interaction between groundwater and surface water was undertaken within a small agricultural watershed in southern Ontario, Canada. Groundwater contributions to streamflow were measured along a section of stream during baseflow conditions and during rainfall events. Four techniques were used to estimate the contribution of groundwater to the stream along a 450 m reach (three during baseflow and one during stormflow conditions). Under baseflow conditions, streamflow measurements using the velocity-area technique indicated that the net groundwater flux to the stream during the summer months was ˜10 ml s -1 m -1. Hydrometric measurements (i.e. hydraulic gradient and hydraulic conductivity) taken using mini-piezometers installed in the sediments beneath the stream resulted in net groundwater flux estimates that were four to five times lower. Seepage meters failed to provide any measurements of water flux into or out of the stream. Therefore, based on these results, the velocity-area technique gives the best estimate of groundwater discharge. Hydrograph separations were conducted using 18O/ 16O isotopic ratios and electrical conductivity on two large rainfall events with different antecedent moisture conditions in the catchment. Both events showed that pre-event water (generally considered groundwater) dominated streamflow and tile drain flow with 64%-80% of the total discharge contributed by pre-event water. High water table conditions within the catchment resulted in greater stream discharge and a greater contribution of event water in the streamflow than that observed under low water table conditions for similar intensity storm events. The results also showed that differences in riparian zone width, vegetation and surface saturation conditions between the upper and lower catchment can influence the relative magnitude of streamflow response from the two catchment areas.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Claire M; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; Boerlin, Patrick; Chalmers, Gabhan; Kozak, Gosia; McEwen, Scott A; Reid-Smith, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from raccoons (Procyon lotor) living in Ontario, Canada. From June to October 2007, we trapped raccoons in three areas: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and one at the Toronto Zoo. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to investigate the temporal dynamics of fecal E. coli and AMR in raccoons. Reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent was detected in E. coli isolates from 19% of 16 raccoons at the urban site, 17% of 29 raccoons from the rural site, and 42% of 130 samples collected from 59 raccoons at the zoo site. Raccoons from the zoo site were significantly more likely to shed E. coli with reduced susceptibility to ≥1 antimicrobial agent than animals from the rural site (odds ratio [OR], 3.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 12.09; P = 0.02). Resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (and the associated bla(CMY-2) gene) was detected in two animals from the zoo site and one animal from the rural site. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis show that raccoons on the zoo grounds harbor a diverse assemblage of E. coli, with rapid bacterial turnover within individuals over time. Our study indicates that raccoons may shed resistant bacteria of public health significance and that raccoons have the potential to disseminate these bacteria throughout their environment. PMID:22447599

  17. Predictors of caregiver burden across the home-based palliative care trajectory in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Guerriere, Denise; Husain, Amna; Zagorski, Brandon; Marshall, Denise; Seow, Hsien; Brazil, Kevin; Kennedy, Julia; Burns, Sheri; Brooks, Heather; Coyte, Peter C

    2016-07-01

    Family caregivers of patients enrolled in home-based palliative care programmes provide unpaid care and assistance with daily activities to terminally ill family members. Caregivers often experience caregiver burden, which is an important predictor of anxiety and depression that can extend into bereavement. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective cohort study to comprehensively assess modifiable and non-modifiable patient and caregiver factors that account for caregiver burden over the palliative care trajectory. Caregivers (n = 327) of patients with malignant neoplasm were recruited from two dedicated home-based palliative care programmes in Southern Ontario, Canada from 1 July 2010 to 31 August 2012. Data were obtained from bi-weekly telephone interviews with caregivers from study admission until death, and from palliative care programme and home-care agency databases. Information collected comprised patient and caregiver demographics, utilisation of privately and publicly financed resources, patient clinical status and caregiver burden. The average age of the caregivers was 59.0 years (SD: 13.2), and almost 70% were female. Caregiver burden increased over time in a non-linear fashion from study admission to patient death. Increased monthly unpaid care-giving time costs, monthly public personal support worker costs, emergency department visits and low patient functional status were associated with higher caregiver burden. Greater use of hospice care was associated with lower burden. Female caregivers tended to report more burden compared to men as death approached, and burden was higher when patients were male. Low patient functional status was the strongest predictor of burden. Understanding the influence of modifiable and non-modifiable factors on the experience of burden over the palliative trajectory is essential for the development and targeting of programmes and policies to support family caregivers and reduce burden. Supporting caregivers can have

  18. Multicenter Collaborative Quality Assurance Program for the Province of Ontario, Canada: First-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Létourneau, Daniel; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to develop a collaborative quality assurance (CQA) program to assess the performance of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning and delivery across the province of Ontario, Canada. Methods and Materials: The CQA program was designed to be a comprehensive end-to-end test that can be completed on multiple planning and delivery platforms. The first year of the program included a head-and-neck (H and N) planning exercise and on-site visit to acquire dosimetric measurements to assess planning and delivery performance. A single dosimeter was used at each institution, and the planned to measured dose agreement was evaluated for both the H and N plan and a standard plan (linear-accelerator specific) that was created to enable a direct comparison between centers with similar infrastructure. Results: CQA program feasibility was demonstrated through participation of all 13 radiation therapy centers in the province. Planning and delivery was completed on a variety of infrastructure (treatment planning systems and linear accelerators). The planning exercise was completed using both static gantry and rotational IMRT, and planned-to-delivered dose agreement (pass rates) for 3%/3-mm gamma evaluation were greater than 90% (92.6%-99.6%). Conclusions: All centers had acceptable results, but variation in planned to delivered dose agreement for the same planning and delivery platform was noted. The upper end of the range will provide an achievable target for other centers through continued quality improvement, aided by feedback provided by the program through the use of standard plans and simple test fields.

  19. An air dispersion model for the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sylvestre-Williams, Barbara; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2012-01-01

    Air quality is a major concern for the public; therefore, the reliability of accurate models in predicting the air quality is of a major interest. In this study, a Gaussian air dispersion model, known as the Air dispersion model for Road Sources in Urban areaS (ARSUS), was developed to predict the ground level concentrations for a contaminant of interest. It was demonstrated that this model could be used successfully in place of or in conjunction with ambient air monitoring stations in determining the local Air Quality Index (AQI). The ARSUS model was validated against the US EPA ISC3 model before it was used to conduct two studies in this investigation. These two studies simulated weekday morning rush-hour tailpipe emissions of CO and predicted ground level concentrations. The first study used the ARSUS model to predict ground level concentrations of CO from the tailpipe emissions for roads and highways located in the vicinity of the Toronto West ambient air monitoring station. The second study involved an expansion of the domain to predict ground level concentrations of CO from tailpipe emissions from highways in the City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The predicted concentrations were then compared to the data collected from the Toronto West ambient air monitoring station. The results of the ARSUS model indicated that the air quality in the immediate vicinity of roads or highways is highly impacted by the tailpipe emissions. Higher concentrations were observed for the areas adjacent to the road and highway sources. The tailpipe emissions of CO from highways had a higher contribution to the local air quality. The predicted ground level concentrations from the ARSUS model under-predicted when compared to the observed data from the monitoring station; however, despite this, the predictive model is viable. PMID:22506705

  20. Sources of personal exposure to fine particles in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    David Kim; Andrea Sass-Kortsak; James T. Purdham; Robert E. Dales; Jeffrey R. Brook

    2005-08-01

    Individuals are exposed to particulate matter from both indoor and outdoor sources. The aim of this study was to compare the relative contributions of three sources of personal exposure to fine particles (PM2.5) by using chemical tracers. The study design incorporated repeated 24-hr personal exposure measurements of air pollution from 28 cardiac-compromised residents of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Each study participant wore the Rupprecht & Patashnick ChemPass Personal Sampling System 1 day a week for a maximum of 10 weeks. During their individual exposure measurement days the subjects reported to have spent an average of 89% of their time indoors. Particle phase elemental carbon, sulfate, and calcium personal exposure data were used in a mixed-effects model as tracers for outdoor PM2.5 from traffic-related combustion, regional, and local crustal materials, respectively. These three sources were found to contribute 13% {+-} 10%, 17% {+-}16%, and 7% {+-} 6% of PM2.5 exposures. The remaining fraction of the personal PM2.5 is hypothesized to be predominantly related to indoor sources. For comparison, central site outdoor PM2.5 measurements for the same dates as personal measurements were used to construct a receptor model using the same three tracers. In this case, traffic-related combustion, regional, and local crustal materials were found to contribute 19% {+-} 17%, 52% {+-} 22%, and 10% {+-} 7%, respectively. The results indicate that the three outdoor PM2.5 sources considered are statistically significant contributors to personal exposure to PM2.5. The results also suggest that among the Toronto subjects, who spent a considerable amount of time indoors, exposure to outdoor PM2.5 includes a greater relative contribution from combustion sources compared with outdoor PM2.5 measurements where regional sources are the dominant contributor. 56 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Pollari, Frank; Pintar, Katarina; Marshall, Barbara; Cook, Angela; Sargeant, Jan; Wilson, Jeff; Ribble, Carl; Knowles, Lewinda

    2008-01-01

    Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site) was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat) and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs). The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations. PMID:18950509

  2. The association between obesity and outpatient visits for acute respiratory infections in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Campitelli, Michael A.; Rosella, Laura C.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Recent evidence suggests that obesity increases the risk of severe outcomes following respiratory infection. It is less clear whether obesity is associated with the risk of being infected with influenza or other respiratory pathogens. Therefore, we examined the association between obesity and outpatient visits for acute respiratory infections. Design We conducted a retrospective cohort study over 13 years on 104,665 individuals in Ontario, Canada who responded to population health surveys and agreed to linkage with health administrative data. Individuals aged 18–64 years who responded to a survey within 5 years prior to the start of an influenza season were included. Poisson regression, with adjustment for relevant confounders, was used to measure the association between self-reported BMI and outpatient visits coded as acute respiratory infection. We conducted numerous sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of our findings. Results We observed higher rates of outpatient visits for ARI during influenza season periods compared with normal weight individuals for those who were overweight (BMI 25–29.9) (Rate Ratio [RR] 1.10; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.07–1.13), obese class I (BMI 30–34.9) (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.13–1.22), and obese class II or III (BMI ≥35) (RR 1.19; 95% CI 1.12–1.25) Associations of a similar magnitude were observed during non-influenza season periods. Obesity was a greater risk factor for acute respiratory infections managed in emergency departments than physician offices. Conclusions Obese individuals are at an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute respiratory infection during both influenza and non-influenza season periods, suggesting that the effect of obesity on the risk of respiratory infections is not limited to influenza. Interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of obesity may have the added benefit reducing the population burden of respiratory infections. PMID:23670219

  3. Quaternary Geologic Framework of the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, David S.; Denny, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Concern about the effect of geomorphic changes in the St. Clair River on water levels in the Upper Great Lakes resulted in the need for information on the geologic framework of the river. A geophysical survey of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, MI, and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, was conducted to determine the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. Previously available and new sediment samples and photographic and video data support the interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and surficial geology. Three seismic stratigraphic units and two unconformities were identified. Glacial drift, consisting of interbedded till and glaciolacustrine deposits, overlies shale. Glaciofluvial and modern fluvial processes have eroded the glacial drift. Glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits overlie this unconformity. Seismic facies were interpreted to identify areas where these geologic facies exist; however, in the absence of distinct boundaries between facies, these deposits were mapped as one undifferentiated unit. This unit is thickest in the northernmost 3 kilometers of the river, where it consists of relatively coarse-grained fluvial, reworked glaciofluvial, and possibly glaciofluvial deposits. To the south, this coarse-grained unit thins or is absent. The undifferentiated unit comprises most of the surficial deposits in the northernmost river area. Some areas of glacial drift, predominantly till, are exposed at the lake and riverbed. The shale is not exposed anywhere in the region. Geophysical surveys at sites downriver, together with the results of previous studies, indicate that the geologic framework is similar to that in the northernmost river area except for the absence or reduced thickness of the coarse-grained fluvial deposits. Instead, glacial drift is exposed at the riverbed or is covered by a veneer of sediment. This information on the substrate is important for ongoing sediment transport studies.

  4. Geophysical well log analysis of fractured granitic rocks at Atikokan, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two boreholes, drilled to approximate depths of 750 and 1,260 m in a granitic intrusion located near Atikokan, Ontario, were studied by obtaining a full suite of conventional borehole geophysical logs. In addition, selected intervals in these boreholes were logged with a borehole acoustic televiewer that produces a high-resolution image of the borehole wall, an acoustic waveform-logging system using 34-kiloHertz magnetostrictive and 5-kiloHertz sparker sources, and a highly sensitive heat-pulse flowmeter. Emphasis was on identifying and characterizing fracture zones that represent groundwater conduits in deeper portions of the granite, and on characterizing the properties of the largest intervals of unfractured granite. Major fracture zones were indicated by correlating geophysical log anomalies detected on the suite of conventional logs (unpublished data from Atomic Energy of Canada). However, several other anomalies, were identified as mafic intrusions of approximately the same thickness as major fracture zones. Geophysical log anomalies were compared for all major fracture zones that could serve as significant groundwater conduits, and fracture zone permeability is estimated on the basis of acoustic tube-wave attenuation in these intervals. Acoustic televiewer logs obtained at depths below 1,000 m in the deeper well indicate that most of the few fractures identified on core at these depths do not remain open enough under in situ conditions to produce detectable anomalies in acoustic refraction. Flowmeter data indicate that some groundwater circulation occurs in the upper portion of both boreholes. Water in the shallower of the two holes was observed to flow at 2.0 L/min; most of this flow entered the borehole at a depth < 25 m, and no flow occurred below a depth of 100 m. Downflow at rates < 0.5 L/min was determined to enter the deeper borehole within 20 m of the surface, and to exist at various fractures down to a depth of 250 m. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Geophysical well-log analysis of fractured crystalline rocks at East Bull Lake, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Various conventional geophysical borehole measurements were made in conjunction with measurements using a recently designed, low-frequency, acoustic-waveform probe and slow velocity flowmeter for characterization of a fractured mafic intrusion in southern Ontario, Canada. Conventional geophysical measurements included temperature, caliper, gamma, acoustic, single-point resistance, and acoustic televiewer logs. Hole stability problems prevented the use of neutron and gamma-gamma logs, because these logs require that a radioactive source be lowered into the borehole. Measurements were made in three boreholes as much as 850 m deep and penetrating a few tens of meters into granitic basement. All rocks within the mafic intrusion were characterized by minimal gamma radiation and acoustic velocities of about 6.9 km/sec. The uniformity of the acoustic velocities and the character of acoustic-waveform logs made with a conventional high-frequency logging source correlated with the density of fractures evident on televiewer logs. Sample intervals of high-frequency waveform logs were transformed into interpretations of effective fracture opening using a recent model for acoustic attenuation in fractured rocks. The new low-frequency sparker source did not perform as expected at depths below 250 m because of previously unsuspected problems with source firing under large hydrostatic heads. A new heat-pulse, slow velocity flowmeter was used to delineate in detail the flow regime indicated in a general way by temperature logs. The flowmeter measurements indicated that water was entering 2 of the boreholes at numerous fractures above a depth of 200 m, with flow in at least 2 of the boreholes exiting through large isolated fractures below a depth of 400 m. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Provenance of buried esker groundwater: the case of Vars-Winchester esker aquifer, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauriol, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    An innovative mode of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer is considered. The current conceptual model affords a natural safeguard to underlying aquifers from the overlying muds. A hypothesis of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer via preferential pathways across its overlying muds is tested here by heuristic numerical one-dimensional and two-dimensional modeling simulations. The hypothesis has been tested against two other conventionally accepted scenarios involving: (1) distal esker outcrop areas and (2) remote shallow-bedrock recharge areas. The main evidence comes from documented recharge pressure pulses in the overlying mud aquitard and in the underlying esker hydraulic-head time series for the Vars-Winchester esker aquifer in Eastern Ontario, Canada. These perturbations to the potentiometric surface are believed to be the aquifer response to recharge events. The migration rate of these pressure pulses is directly related to the hydraulic diffusivity of the formation. The measured response time and response amplitude between singular radar precipitation events and well hydrographs constituted the heuristic model calibration targets. The main evidence also includes mud-layering deformation (water escape features) which was observed in seismic surveys of the over-esker muds. These disturbed stratigraphic elements provide a realistic mechanism for migrating water to transit through the muds. The effective hydraulic conductivities of these preferential pathways in the muds were estimated to be between 2 × 10-6 and 7 × 10-6 m/s. The implications of these findings relate to the alleged natural safeguard of these overlying muds.

  7. Characterization and virulence of Beauveria spp. recovered from emerald ash borer in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Johny, Shajahan; Kyei-Poku, George; Gauthier, Debbie; Frankenhuyzen, Kees van; Krell, Peter J

    2012-09-15

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive wood boring beetle that is decimating North America's ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To find effective and safe indigenous biocontrol agents to manage EAB, we conducted a survey in 2008-2009 of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) infecting EAB in five outbreak sites in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A total of 78 Beauveria spp. isolates were retrieved from dead and mycosed EAB cadavers residing in the phloem tissues of dead ash barks, larval frass extracted from feeding galleries under the bark of dead trees. Molecular characterization using sequences of the ITS, 5' end of EF1-α and intergenic Bloc region fragments revealed that Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria pseudobassiana were commonly associated with EAB in the sampled sites. Based on phylogenetic analysis inferred from ITS sequences, 17 of these isolates clustered with B. bassiana, which further grouped into three different sub-clades. However, the combined EF1-α and Bloc sequences detected five genotypes among the three sub-clades. The remaining 61 isolates clustered with B. pseudobassiana, which had identical ITS sequences but were further subdivided into two genotypes by variation in the EF1-α and Bloc regions. Initial virulence screening against EAB adults of 23 isolates representing the different clades yielded 8 that produced more than 90% mortality in a single concentration assay. These isolates differed in virulence based on LC(50) values estimated from multiple concentration bioassay and based on mean survival times at a conidia concentration of 2×10(6) conidia/ml. B. bassiana isolate L49-1AA was significantly more virulent and produced more conidia on EAB cadavers compared to the other indigenous isolates and the commercial strain B. bassiana GHA suggesting that L49-1AA may have potential as a microbiological control agent against EAB. PMID:22664171

  8. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immunity disorders; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and respiratory systems, digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues; congenital anomalies, and infant mortality. Of particular concern was the early onset of the elevated rates of many of these diseases and conditions. Comparison of these incident rates with those in Hamilton, another industrial municipality in southern Ontario, suggested that in addition to a variety of local sources of industrial pollution from automobile manufacturing and use, transboundary air and water pollution from Detroit, Michigan, should be investigated as potentially important causes of these health outcomes in the Windsor Area of Concern. Some of the institutional and political trends of the past decade may need to be reversed before effective remedial programs are implemented for cleaning up contaminated sediments and for containment of leaking hazardous waste sites. This pilot project would seem to be a useful preliminary method of integrating human health concerns and of priority setting for the administration of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. PMID:11744501

  9. Sources of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in urban and rural catchments in Ontario, Canada: Glyphosate or phosphonates in wastewater?

    PubMed

    Struger, J; Van Stempvoort, D R; Brown, S J

    2015-09-01

    Correlation analysis suggests that occurrences of AMPA in streams of southern Ontario are linked mainly to glyphosate in both urban and rural settings, rather than to wastewater sources, as some previous studies have suggested. For this analysis the artificial sweetener acesulfame was analyzed as a wastewater indicator in surface water samples collected from urban and rural settings in southern Ontario, Canada. This interpretation is supported by the concurrence of seasonal fluctuations of glyphosate and AMPA concentrations. Herbicide applications in larger urban centres and along major transportation corridors appear to be important sources of glyphosate and AMPA in surface water, in addition to uses of this herbicide in rural and mixed use areas. Fluctuations in concentrations of acesulfame and glyphosate residues were found to be related to hydrologic events. PMID:26187493

  10. Mortality and Disease in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in Ontario, Canada, from 1992 to 2014: A Retrospective Review.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Amanda M; Jardine, Claire M; Campbell, G Douglas; Nemeth, Nicole M

    2016-09-01

    Wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) were extirpated from Ontario, Canada, in the early 1900s due to unregulated over-hunting and habitat loss. Despite a successful reintroduction program and strong population numbers, information regarding the health of wild turkeys in Ontario is scarce. A 22-yr (1992-2014) retrospective study was performed to evaluate diagnostic data, including the cause(s) and contributors to death, in wild turkeys submitted to the Ontario-Nunavut node of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (n = 56). Noninfectious diagnostic findings (39/56; 69.6%) were more common than infectious, with emaciation recognized most frequently (n = 19; 33.9%) followed by trauma (n = 11, 19.6%). The majority of deaths due to emaciation occurred in winter and spring (17/18; 94.4%), which is consistent with lack of access to or availability of food resources. Morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases was diagnosed in 16 (28.6%) wild turkeys. Avian poxvirus was the most common infectious cause of disease (n = 7; 12.5%), followed by bacterial infections (n = 5; 8.9%), the most common of which was Pasteurella multocida . Zinc phosphide toxicosis (n = 7; 12.5%) occurred in two incidents involving multiple birds. This study aims to provide baseline data that can be used for reference and comparison in future wild turkey disease surveillance and population monitoring studies. PMID:27610724

  11. Breccia formation at a complex impact crater: Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1997-07-01

    The Slate Islands impact structure is the eroded remnant of a ˜30-32 km-diameter complex impact structure located in northern Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. Target rocks are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, and diabase. A wide variety of breccias occurs on the islands, many of which contain fragments exhibiting shock metamorphic features. Aphanitic, narrow and inclusion-poor pseudotachylite veins, commonly with more or less parallel boundaries and apophyses branching off them, represent the earlist breccias formed during the compression stage of the impact process. Coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccias form small to very large, inclusion-rich dikes and irregularly shaped bodies that may contain altered glass fragments. These breccias have sharp contacts with their host rocks and include a wide range of fragment types some of which were transported over minimum distances of ˜2 km away from the center of the structure. They cut across pseudotachylite veins and contain inclusions of them. Field and petrographic evidence indicate that these polymictic breccias formed predominantly during the excavation and central uplift stages of the impact process. Monomictic breccias, characterized by angular fragments and transitional contacts with their host rocks, occur in parautochthonous target rocks, mainly on the outlying islands of the Slate Islands archipelago. A few contain fragmented and disrupted, coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccia dikes. This is an indication that at least some of these monomictic breccias formed late in the impact process and that they are probably related to a late crater modification stage. A small number of relatively large occurrences of glass-poor, suevitic breccias occur at the flanks of the central uplift and along the inner flank of the outer ring of the Slate Islands complex crater. A coarse, glass-free, allogenic breccia, containing shatter-coned fragments

  12. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in sheep in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-11-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium that can cause abortion in sheep in late gestation, as well as the delivery of stillborn, and non-viable lambs (Rodolakis, 2006). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ontario, Canada, to investigate C. burnetii exposure in sheep. Between August 2010 and January 2012, sera from 2363 reproductively active ewes from 72 farms were tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using the CHEKIT Q fever ELISA Test kit (IDEXX Laboratories). Overall, exposure was common; sheep-level seroprevalence was 14.7% (347/2363, 95% CI: 13.3-16.2), and was higher in dairy sheep (24.3%, 181/744) than meat sheep (10.2%, 166/1619) (p<0.0001). At the farm-level, 48.6% (35/72, 95% CI: 37.2-60.1) of farms had at least one seropositive sheep. A mixed multivariable logistic model that controlled for farm-level clustering, identified risk factors associated (p<0.05) with sheep seropositivity. Increasing female flock size (logarithmic scale) was associated with increased odds of seropositivity. By way of illustration, increasing the female flock size from 100 to 200 increased the odds of seropositivity by 2.26 times (95% CI: 1.5-3.5). Sheep that lambed in an airspace separate from the flock had 11.3 times (95% CI: 2.9-43.6) the odds of seropositivity relative to other sheep. The practice of loaning sheep that returned to the farm increased odds of seropositivity by 8.1 times (95% CI: 1.8-33.6). Lambing pen hygiene practices also influenced odds of seropositivity. Relative to sheep from farms where all lambing pen hygiene measures were practiced after lambing (i.e., adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection), sheep from farms that only added bedding, or those that just added bedding and removed birthing materials had 5.9 times (95% CI: 1.1-32.1) and 9.0 times (95% CI: 2.2-36.9) the odds of seropositivity, respectively. These results can be used to inform prevention and control strategies with the aim of reducing C. burnetii exposure in

  13. A cohort study relating urban green space with mortality in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Jerrett, Michael; Su, Jason G; Burnett, Richard T; Chen, Hong; Wheeler, Amanda J; Goldberg, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    Parks and green space areas are important to human health for psychological and physiological reasons. There have been few evaluations of access to green space on mortality. This paper describes a cohort study of approximately 575,000 adults, 35 years of age and older, who resided in 10 urban areas in Ontario, Canada, between 1982 and 1986. Individuals were identified from income tax filings, and vital status was determined up to December 31, 2004 through record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base. Place of residence was defined by postal code data that were extracted from income tax filings. Urban green space was defined by Landsat satellite retrievals with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and this was assigned to individuals' place of residence at inception into the cohort using both a 30 m grid cell and a 500 m buffer. The proportional hazards model was used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for selected underlying causes of death. The rate ratios were adjusted for income, marital status, ambient air pollution, and contextual neighborhood characteristics. About 187,000 subjects died during follow-up. An increase in the interquartile range of green space, using a 500 m buffer, was associated with reduced non-accidental mortality (RR=0.95, 95% CI=0.94-0.96). Reductions in mortality with increased residential green space were observed for each underlying cause of death; the strongest association was found for respiratory disease mortality (RR=0.91, 95% CI=0.89-0.93). Risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjusting for ambient air pollution. Our study suggests that green space in urban environments was associated with long-term reduction in mortality although this finding should be interpreted cautiously as this association may be influenced by residual confounding of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Further research is needed to: confirm these findings, better understand the

  14. Breccia Formation at a Complex Impact Crater: Slate Islands, Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Slate Islands impact structure is the eroded remnant of a approximately 30-32 km-diameter complex impact structure located in northern Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. Target rocks are Archean supracrustal and igneous rocks and Proterozoic metavolcanics, metasediments, and diabase. A wide variety of breccias occurs on the islands, many of which contain fragments exhibiting shock metamorphic features. Aphanitic, narrow and inclusion-poor pseudotachylite veins, commonly with more or less parallel boundaries and apophyses branching off them, represent the earliest breccias formed during the compression stage of the impact process. Coarse-grained, polymictic elastic matrix breccias form small to very large, inclusion-rich dikes and irregularly shaped bodies that may contain altered glass fragments. These breccias have sharp contacts with their host rocks and include a wide range of fragment types some of which were transported over minimum distances of approximately 2 km away from the center of the structure. They cut across pseudotachylite veins and contain inclusions of them. Field and petrographic evidence indicate that these polymictic breccias formed predominantly during the excavation and central uplift stages of the impact process. Monomictic breccias, characterized by angular fragments and transitional contacts with their host rocks, occur in parautochthonous target rocks, mainly on the outlying islands of the Slate Islands archipelago. A few contain fragmented and disrupted, coarse-grained, polymictic clastic matrix breccia dikes. This is an indication that at least some of these monomictic breccias formed late in the impact process and that they are probably related to a late crater modification stage. A small number of relatively large occurrences of glass-poor, suevitic breccias occur at the flanks of the central uplift and along the inner flank of the outer ring of the Slate Islands complex crater. A coarse, glass-free, allogenic breccia, containing

  15. Primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening: a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, Aisha K; Ng, Ryan; Lobb, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as both facilitators and barriers to cancer screening, particularly for under-screened groups such as immigrant patients. The objective of this study was to inform physician-targeted interventions by identifying primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening for their eligible patients, for their eligible immigrant patients, and for foreign-trained physicians, for their eligible immigrant patients from the same world region. A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed, looking back 3 years from 31 December 2010. The study was performed in urban primary care practices in Ontario, Canada's largest province. A total of 6303 physicians serving 1,156,627 women eligible for breast cancer screening, 2,730,380 women eligible for cervical screening, and 2,260,569 patients eligible for colorectal screening participated. Appropriate breast screening was defined as at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years, appropriate cervical screening was defined as at least one Pap test in the previous 3 years, and appropriate colorectal screening as at least one fecal occult blood test in the previous 2 years or at least one colonoscopy or barium enema in the previous 10 years. Just fewer than 40% of physicians were female, and 26.1% were foreign trained. In multivariable analyses, physicians who attended medical schools in the Caribbean/Latin America, the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and Western Europe were less likely to screen their patients than Canadian graduates. South Asian-trained physicians were significantly less likely to screen South Asian women for cervical cancer than other foreign-trained physicians who were seeing region-congruent patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.32–0.98] versus physicians from the USA, Australia and New Zealand). South Asian patients were the most vulnerable to under-screening, and decreasing patient income quintile was

  16. Azithromycin resistance is coevolving with reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Allen, Vanessa G; Seah, Christine; Martin, Irene; Melano, Roberto G

    2014-05-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is routinely recommended as a component of dual therapy for gonorrhea in combination with third-generation cephalosporins (3GC). In this study, we examined the prevalence of AZM-resistant (AZM(r)) Neisseria gonorrhoeae from July 2010 to February 2013, assessed the rate of concurrent cephalosporin resistance under the current treatment recommendations, and analyzed the clonal distribution of AZM(r) isolates in Ontario, Canada. Nineteen AZM(r) clinical isolates (one per patient; MIC, ≥2 μg/ml) were included in the study. Susceptibility profiles of these isolates to 11 antibiotics, molecular typing, characterization of macrolide resistance mechanisms, and penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) patterns were determined for all the isolates. Two groups were defined based on AZM(r) level; group A isolates displayed high-level resistance (MIC, ≥2,048 μg/ml) due to mutations (A2143G) in the four copies of the 23S rRNA rrl gene, and group B isolates had moderate resistance to AZM (MICs, 2 to 8 μg/ml, C2599T mutation in the rrl gene), with a subgroup belonging to sequence type 3158 (ST3158) (n = 8), which also showed reduced susceptibility to 3GC (MICs, 0.12 to 0.25 μg/ml, PBP2 pattern XXXIV). This AZM(r) phenotype was not observed in previous provincial surveillance in 2008 (the ST3158 clone was found, with AZM MICs of 0.25 to 0.5 μg/ml associated with mtrR mutations). We hypothesized that the AZM mutant prevention concentration (MPC) in the ST3158 subpopulation we found in 2008 was higher than the MPC in wild-type isolates (AZM MIC, ≤0.031 μg/ml), increasing the chances of additional selection of AZM(r) mutations. Full AZM resistance is now emerging in this clone together with reduced susceptibility to 3GC, threatening the future efficacy of these antibiotics as therapeutic options for treatment of gonorrhea. PMID:24514092

  17. Early detection of emerald ash borer infestation using multisourced data: a case study in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kongwen; Hu, Baoxin; Robinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) poses a significant economic and environmental threat to ash trees in southern Ontario, Canada, and the northern states of the USA. It is critical that effective technologies are urgently developed to detect, monitor, and control the spread of EAB. This paper presents a methodology using multisourced data to predict potential infestations of EAB in the town of Oakville, Ontario, Canada. The information combined in this study includes remotely sensed data, such as high spatial resolution aerial imagery, commercial ground and airborne hyperspectral data, and Google Earth imagery, in addition to nonremotely sensed data, such as archived paper maps and documents. This wide range of data provides extensive information that can be used for early detection of EAB, yet their effective employment and use remain a significant challenge. A prediction function was developed to estimate the EAB infestation states of individual ash trees using three major attributes: leaf chlorophyll content, tree crown spatial pattern, and prior knowledge. Comparison between these predicted values and a ground-based survey demonstrated an overall accuracy of 62.5%, with 22.5% omission and 18.5% commission errors.

  18. Assessment of the effect of cold and hot temperatures on mortality in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Jun; Li, Qiongsi; Yagouti, Abderrahmane; Lavigne, Eric; Foty, Richard; Burnett, Richard T.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Cakmak, Sabit; Copes, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ambient high temperature is associated with death; however, heat-related risk of death has not been quantified systematically in Ontario, the most populous province in Canada. Less is known about cold-related risk in this population. Our objective was to quantify the health impact from cold and hot temperatures in Ontario. Methods: The study population consisted of all residents of Ontario who died between Jan. 1, 1996, and Dec. 31, 2010, from any nonaccidental cause. A case-crossover analysis was applied to assess the relation between daily temperature fluctuation and deaths from nonaccidental and selected causes in cold (December-February) and warm (June-August) seasons, respectively, adjusting for various potential confounders. Risk estimates were obtained for each census division, then pooled across Ontario. We examined potential effect modification for selected comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: In warm seasons, each 5°C increase in daily mean temperature was associated with a 2.5% increase in nonaccidental deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3% to 3.8%) on the day of exposure (lag 0). In cold seasons, each 5°C decrease in daily temperature was associated with a 3.0% (95% CI 1.8% to 4.2%) increase in nonaccidental deaths, which persisted over 7 days (lag 0-6). The cold-related effects (lag 0-6) were stronger for cardiovascular-related deaths (any cardiovascular death: 4.1%, 95% CI 2.3% to 5.9%; ischemic heart disease: 5.8%, 95% CI 3.6% to 8.1%), especially among people less than 65 years of age (8.0%, 95% CI 3.0% to 13.0%). Conversely, heat most strongly increased respiratory-related deaths during admission to hospital (26.0%, 95% CI 0% to 61.4%). Across Ontario, each 5°C change in daily temperature was estimated to induce 7 excess deaths per day in cold seasons and 4 excess deaths in warm seasons. Interpretation: Heat contributed to excess deaths in Ontario, although the effect of cold weather appeared to be

  19. Distribution and growth of thaw slumps in the Richardson Mountains-Peel Plateau region, northwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacelle, Denis; Brooker, Alex; Fraser, Robert H.; Kokelj, Steve V.

    2015-04-01

    Retrogressive thaw slumps are one of the most active geomorphic features in permafrost terrain. This study investigated the distribution and growth of thaw slumps in the Richardson Mountains and Peel Plateau region, northwestern Canada, using Tasseled Cap (TC) trend analysis of a Landsat image stack. Based on the TC linear trend image, more than 212 thaw slumps were identified in the study area, of which 189 have been active since at least 1985. The surface area of the slumps ranges from 0.4 to 52 ha, with 10 slumps exceeding 20 ha. The thaw slumps in the region are all situated within the maximum westward extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Based on relations between frequency distribution of slumps and that of terrain factors in the landscape, the slumps are more likely to occur on the ice-rich hummocky rolling moraines at elevations of 300-350 m and 450-500 m and along east-facing slopes (slope aspects of 15° to 180°) with gradients of 8° to 12°. Pixel-level trend analysis of the TC greenness transformation in the Landsat stack allowed calculating headwall retreat rates for 19 thaw slumps. The 20-year average retreat rates (1990-2010 period) for 19 slumps ranged from 7.2 to 26.7 m yr- 1, with the largest slumps having higher retreat rates. At the regional scale, the 20-yr headwall retreat rates are mainly related to slope aspect, with south- and west-facing slopes exhibiting higher retreat rates, and large slumps appear to be generating feedbacks that allow them to maintain growth rates well above those of smaller slumps. Overall, the findings presented in this study allow highlighting of key sensitive landscapes and ecosystems that may be impacted by the presence and growth of thaw slumps in one of the most rapidly warming region in the Arctic.

  20. Stream Corridor Lowering for Servicing: Considerations and Approaches to Natural Channel Design in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villard, P. V.

    2009-05-01

    Although there are numerous approaches to natural channel design, all approaches generally advocate application of geomorphic principles to develop stable watercourses with improved habitat function. In southern Ontario, natural channel design approaches are increasingly utilized in stream corridor management. In numerous greenfield developments within southern Ontario, creek corridors are lowered and relocated to address potential hazards and facilitate development. These projects usually utilize natural channel design approaches. Although lowering for servicing can be a controversial technique, this approach has resulted in the maintenance of channels that may have previously been enclosed and lost. In the southern Ontario context mimicking natural corridor form and function is complicated by a surficial geology dominated by glacial sediments. Approaches to natural channel design have evolved over time to address this encumbrance. This presentation examines the geomorphology of streams and stream corridors within southern Ontario. Case studies from southern Ontario are provided to illustrate many of the impediments to, and innovations in, natural channel design. This lays the foundation for illustrating how these design approaches address potential hazards, provide for stream form and function, and mimic much of the physical and biological interactions found within natural stream corridors.

  1. The Impact of Eutrophication on Mercury Cycling in Lake 227 at the Experimental Lakes Area in Northwestern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, J.; Lehnherr, I.; Gleason, A.; St. Louis, V. L.; Muir, D.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern as concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg), the toxic and bioaccumulative form of Hg, are often present in fish at levels high enough to pose health risks to consumers. Although we are beginning to understand the factors controlling MeHg production in freshwater lakes, the impacts of environmental disturbances, such as eutrophication, on Hg cycling are not known. As part of a larger project examining controls on eutrophication, we are studying Hg cycling and MeHg production in the artificially eutrophied Lake 227 at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario. In addition to 40 years of ancillary data, Lake 227 is ideal for this study as it has an anoxic hypolimnion which may be an important zone of microbial MeHg production. To determine sources and losses of inorganic Hg(II) and MeHg from the lake, we are using a mass balance approach including: detailed lake profiles to determine the water column pools of Hg(II) and MeHg, Hg(II) and MeHg inputs via precipitation, and losses of Hg(II) and MeHg from the lake via gaseous elemental Hg(0) evasion and MeHg photodemethylation, respectively. Rates of water column MeHg production are also being determined using Hg stable isotope tracer experiments. 2010-2011 water column profiles demonstrated that although total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations were fairly low in Lake 227 surface waters (2.42 ± 0.64 and 0.11 ± 0.06 ng/L, respectively), MeHg concentrations (1.08 ± 0.39 ng/L) and the % THg that was MeHg (16 ± 5%) were high in deep regions of the water column (6-9 m). The zone of elevated water column MeHg expanded throughout summers 2010-2011, closely following the zone of anoxia, suggesting MeHg is produced in the anoxic hypolimnion. The zone of high particulate-bound THg (62 ± 6%) also migrated with the zone of anoxia over the summer suggesting that particle sinking and sediment resuspension, which are controlled by the timing of algal blooms, are important

  2. Trends and Innovations in North American Libraries with an Emphasis on Developments in Canada, Especially Ontario. A Course Outline and Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joseph W.

    This outline for a graduate library school course at the State University of New York at Buffalo emphasizes trends and developments in North American librarianship with primary emphasis on Canada (especially Ontario). The participation of Canadian authorities as guest lecturers and field trips to Canadian libraries are important elements in the…

  3. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  4. Religious Education in Government-Run Primary and Secondary Schools in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec)--An International Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Teresa Anne; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, Mary Alice; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare the teaching of religion in government-run primary and secondary educational institutions in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec). The theoretical framework for this work is supplied by the general idea that the school is an organization and social institution. It is concluded that religious instruction in…

  5. Religious Education in Government--Run Primary and Secondary Schools in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec)--An International Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Teresa Ann; Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, Mary Alice; Kritsonis, William Allan; Herrington, David

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the teaching of religion in government-run primary and secondary educational institutions in Poland and Canada (Ontario and Quebec). The theoretical framework for this work is supplied by the general idea that the school is an organization and social institution. It is concluded that religious instruction…

  6. A Social Pedagogy Approach to Residential Care: Balancing Education and Placement in the Development of an Innovative Child Welfare Residential Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras; Groskleg, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the exploration and development of a residential program of the child welfare authority of Renfrew County in Ontario, Canada. Recognizing that virtually its entire population of youth in care was failing to achieve positive outcomes in education, Renfrew County Family and Children Services embarked on a program development…

  7. Private Service, Public Rights: The Private Children's Residential Group Care Sector in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gharabaghi, Kiaras

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the core themes and issues of private residential service delivery for children and youth in Ontario, with a specific focus on staffed group care within this sector. Such exploration highlights the juxtaposition of the public rights of children with the private world of service provision. Based on twenty interviews with…

  8. Show & Tell. Proceedings of the Ontario Universities' Conference (1st, Guelph, Canada, May 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Thom, Ed.

    Twenty-three conference papers focus on the use of information technology in Ontario's technical colleges and universities: "The Analytic Criticism Module--Authorial Structures & Design" (P. Beam); "Computing by Design" (R. D. Brown & J. D. Milliken); "Engineers and Computers" (P. S. Chisholm, M. Iwaniw, and G. Hayward); "Designing the CAL Screen:…

  9. Interpretation Seminar Proceedings (Irondale, Ontario, Canada, September 21-23, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Brent, Comp.

    The proceedings contain the text of the major presentations to the interpretation seminar, held September 21-23, 1983 at Bark Lake, Irondale, Ontario, and attended by 66 participants. The proceedings contain the keynote address, which defined interpretation for the participants, and 11 other presentations dealing with planning and evaluating…

  10. Chlorine-bearing amphiboles from the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: Description and crystal chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, K.A.; McDonald, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Three chemically distinct populations of Cl-bearing amphibole have been recognized in association with contact Ni-Cu ore deposits in Footwall Breccia at the Fraser mine, Sudbury, Ontario. The first population, defined as halogen-poor (700 ppm) and F (2500 ppm). These rocks thus may have been a significant contributor to the fluids.

  11. Assessments of the Value of Eighty Years of Formal and Practical Pharmacy Education in Ontario, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzzin, Linda J.; Hornosty, Roy W.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 302 pharmacy school graduates from the University of Toronto College of Pharmacists (Ontario) investigated perceptions of the adequacy of formal and clinical training for the practice of pharmacy. Assessments varied depending on time of training. All ratings suggest room for improvement and the need for special attention to the quality…

  12. Hospital Utilization among Persons with an Intellectual Disability, Ontario, Canada, 1995-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Robert S.; Hunter, Duncan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that persons with an intellectual disability consume a disproportionate amount of hospital services. Policy changes in Ontario in the 1970s and 1980s made it necessary for community health services to accommodate this population that formerly received most of its medical care in the institutions where they lived.…

  13. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  14. Era vaccine-derived cases of rabies in wildlife and domestic animals in Ontario, Canada, 1989-2004.

    PubMed

    Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Nadin-Davis, Susan; Armstrong, Janet; Muldoon, Frances; Bachmann, Peter; Wandeler, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    A vaccination program for the control of terrestrial rabies in the province of Ontario, Canada, began in 1989. During the period between 1989 and 2004, over 13 million baits containing the live, attenuated rabies virus ERA-BHK21 were distributed across the province, with the aim of immunizing foxes by the oral route. Animals recovered from bait distribution areas were assayed by fluorescent antibody test for rabies virus infection. Immunoreactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies that discriminate between ERA and rabies virus variants known to circulate in Ontario, and molecular genetic analyses were used to identify animals infected with ERA. Nine cases of ERA variant rabies were identified over the 16-yr period of study; these did not appear to be stratified by species, year of discovery, or location of capture. The ERA-positive animals were found across the province in eight counties, all of which had been baited in the year of case discovery. The nine ERA-positive cases included four red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), two raccoons (Procyon lotor), two striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and one bovine calf (Bos taurus). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the partial N gene sequences generated from these isolates indicated that these nine cases were due to infection with the ERA variant. The glycoprotein sequences were predicted from G gene sequencing of all nine field isolates and two laboratory stock ERA viruses. This revealed some heterogeneity at residue 120 (either arginine or histidine) in both field and laboratory stocks as well as a few other mutations in field isolates. The significance of this heterogeneity remains unclear. Our data demonstrate that the ERA vaccine distributed in Ontario carried residual pathogenicity; however, there does not appear to be any evidence of ERA establishment in wildlife populations over the 16-yr period. These results are consistent with previous reports of the rare detection of ERA vaccine-induced rabies and with

  15. Shear wave velocity models retrieved using Rg wave dispersion data in shallow crust in some regions of southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shutian; Motazedian, Dariush; Corchete, Victor

    2013-04-01

    Many crucial tasks in seismology, such as locating seismic events and estimating focal mechanisms, need crustal velocity models. The velocity models of shallow structures are particularly important in the simulation of ground motions. In southern Ontario, Canada, many small shallow earthquakes occur, generating high-frequency Rayleigh ( Rg) waves that are sensitive to shallow structures. In this research, the dispersion of Rg waves was used to obtain shear-wave velocities in the top few kilometers of the crust in the Georgian Bay, Sudbury, and Thunder Bay areas of southern Ontario. Several shallow velocity models were obtained based on the dispersion of recorded Rg waves. The Rg waves generated by an m N 3.0 natural earthquake on the northern shore of Georgian Bay were used to obtain velocity models for the area of an earthquake swarm in 2007. The Rg waves generated by a mining induced event in the Sudbury area in 2005 were used to retrieve velocity models between Georgian Bay and the Ottawa River. The Rg waves generated by the largest event in a natural earthquake swarm near Thunder Bay in 2008 were used to obtain a velocity model in that swarm area. The basic feature of all the investigated models is that there is a top low-velocity layer with a thickness of about 0.5 km. The seismic velocities changed mainly within the top 2 km, where small earthquakes often occur.

  16. A Multi-Method Study of the Geriatric Learning Needs of Acute Care Hospital Nurses in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary T; Butler, Jeffrey I; Persaud, Malini; Tregunno, Deborah; Sidani, Souraya; McCague, Hugh

    2016-02-01

    Older people are at risk of experiencing functional decline and related complications during hospitalization. In countries with projected increases in age demographics, preventing these adverse consequences is a priority. Because most Canadian nurses have received little geriatrics content in their basic education, understanding their learning needs is fundamental to preparing them to respond to this priority. This two-phased multi-method study identified the geriatrics learning needs and strategies to address the learning needs of acute care registered nurses (RNs) and registered practical nurses (RPNs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. In Phase I, a survey that included a geriatric nursing knowledge scale was completed by a random sample of 2005 Ontario RNs and RPNs. Average scores on the geriatric nursing knowledge scale were in the "neither good nor bad" range, with RNs demonstrating slightly higher scores than RPNs. In Phase II, 33 RN and 24 RPN survey respondents participated in 13 focus group interviews to help confirm and expand survey findings. In thematic analysis, three major themes were identified that were the same in RNs and RPNs: (a) geriatric nursing is generally regarded as simple and custodial, (b) older people's care is more complex than is generally appreciated, and (c) in the current context, older people's care is best learned experientially and in brief on-site educational sessions. Healthcare providers, policy-makers, and educators can use the findings to develop educational initiatives to prepare RNs and RPNs to respond to the needs of an aging hospital population. PMID:26471253

  17. Sexual Health of Trans Men Who Are Gay, Bisexual, or Who Have Sex with Men: Results from Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Nik; Bradley, Kaitlin; Scheim, Ayden I.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent reports have addressed the sexual health of female-to-male transgender or transsexual people who are gay, bisexual, and/or have sex with men (trans GB-MSM) using urban convenience samples. The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multimode, respondent-driven sampling survey in Ontario, Canada, in 2009–2010. Weighted estimates were calculated for trans GB-MSM (n = 173) for sexual orientation, behavior, partners, and HIV-related risk, as well as for psychosocial stressors and sexual satisfaction. An estimated 63.3% (95% CI [50.4, 73.5]) of trans men were GB-MSM (173/227). Results indicate great diversity in sexual behavior and experiences. Implications for sexual health promotion, counseling, and medical care are addressed. PMID:24971043

  18. Road-impacted sediment and water in a Lake Ontario watershed and lagoon, City of Pickering, Ontario, Canada: An example of urban basin analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nick; Meriano, Mandana

    2010-03-01

    The world is increasingly urban but there are few studies of how contaminated water and sediment move through urban basins with their built landscapes and complexly disturbed geology. The central Canadian city of Pickering, Ontario sprawls across a small (27 km 2) densely urbanized (pop: 53,000) watershed and is underlain by Pleistocene glacial sediments and thick artificial fill deposits. Almost 80% of the area is hardened by impervious cover; road and rail lines cover 40% and include Canada's busiest highway (12-lane Highway 401: 177,000 vehicles per day in 2003). The basin discharges to Lake Ontario through a small (85 ha) shallow (< 3.5 m) lagoon (Frenchman's Bay). A 3-D steady state finite element groundwater numerical model (FEFLOW) was applied to 200 cored and geophysically-logged (gamma and resistivity) boreholes and 3400 digital water wells. It identifies the subsurface stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphic function of deposits and the rates of groundwater flow. Year-round monitoring of groundwater, creek and lagoon water quality shows that transportation infrastructure is the primary source of contaminated water and sediment. Some 7600 tonnes of de-icing salt are applied to watershed roads each year; 52% accumulates in groundwater where it continues to be released as brackish baseflow to creeks in summer. The remainder is rapidly delivered by surface runoff to Frenchman's Bay where chloride contents are more than double the average values in waters across the Great Lakes. Highway 401 is the largest single source of salt contamination to the lagoon; it receives 26% of all road salt applied to the watershed but covers just 1.3% of its area. Prominent spikes in chloride content (> 2000 mg L - 1 ) occur during winter thaws in creeks downstream of the highway. Enhanced stream bank erosion as a consequence of flashy storm runoff from road surfaces moves ˜ 100 tonnes of contaminated sediment to Frenchman's Bay each year. Instantaneous suspended sediment

  19. Domestic impact of tuberculosis screening among new immigrants to Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Kamran; Hirji, M. Mustafa; Miniota, Jennifer; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jun; Gardam, Michael; Rawal, Sameer; Ellis, Edward; Chan, Angie; Creatore, Maria I.; Rea, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background: All Canadian immigrants undergo screening for tuberculosis (TB) before immigration, and selected immigrants must undergo postimmigration surveillance for the disease. We sought to quantify the domestic health impact of screening for TB in all new immigrants and to identify mechanisms to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of this screening. Methods: We linked preimmigration medical examination records from 944 375 immigrants who settled in Ontario between 2002 and 2011 to active TB reporting data in Ontario between 2002 and 2011. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we measured birth country–specific rates of active TB detected through preimmigration screening and postimmigration surveillance. We then quantified the proportion of active TB cases among residents of Ontario born abroad that were detected through postimmigration surveillance. Using Cox regression, we identified independent predictors of active TB postimmigration. Results: Immigrants from 6 countries accounted for 87.3% of active TB cases detected through preimmigration screening, and 10 countries accounted for 80.4% of cases detected through postimmigration surveillance. Immigrants from countries with a TB (all-sites) incidence rate of less than 30 cases per 100 000 persons resulted in pre- and postimmigration detection of 2.4 and 0.9 cases per 100 000 immigrants, respectively. Postimmigration surveillance detected 2.6% of active TB cases in Ontario residents born abroad, and TB was detected a median of 18 days earlier in those undergoing surveillance than in those who were not referred to surveillance or who did not comply. Predictors of active TB postimmigration included radiographic markers of old TB, birth country, immigration category, location of application for residency, immune status and age. Interpretation: Universal screening for TB in new immigrants has a modest impact on the domestic burden of active TB and is highly inefficient. Focusing preimmigration screening in

  20. Laboratory-based evaluation of legionellosis epidemiology in Ontario, Canada, 1978 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Legionellosis is a common cause of severe community acquired pneumonia and respiratory disease outbreaks. The Ontario Public Health Laboratory (OPHL) has conducted most testing for Legionella species in the Canadian province of Ontario since 1978, and represents a multi-decade repository of population-based data on legionellosis epidemiology. We sought to provide a laboratory-based review of the epidemiology of legionellosis in Ontario over the past 3 decades, with a focus on changing rates of disease and species associated with legionellosis during that time period. Methods We analyzed cases that were submitted and tested positive for legionellosis from 1978 to 2006 using Poisson regression models incorporating temporal, spatial, and demographic covariates. Predictors of infection with culture-confirmed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (LP1) were evaluated with logistic regression models. Results 1,401 cases of legionellosis tested positive from 1978 to 2006. As in other studies, we found a late summer to early autumn seasonality in disease occurrence with disease risk increasing with age and in males. In contrast to other studies, we found a decreasing trend in cases in the recent decade (IRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.95, P-value = 0.001); only 66% of culture-confirmed isolates were found to be LP1. Conclusion Despite similarities with disease epidemiology in other regions, legionellosis appears to have declined in the past decade in Ontario, in contrast to trends observed in the United States and parts of Europe. Furthermore, a different range of Legionella species is responsible for illness, suggesting a distinctive legionellosis epidemiology in this North American region. PMID:19460152

  1. Microstructural analysis of calcite-filled fractures inherited from basement structures, southern Ontario, Canada: long term instability of the craton?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Jennifer; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    Intra-cratonic regions are generally characterized by tectonic stability and low seismicity. In southern Ontario, Canada, moderate levels of seismicity have been recorded over the last few decades reaching magnitudes of 5 MN, indicating that the geosphere is not as stable as predicted. The stratigraphy of the region consists of Ordovician limestone with a thickness of ~200 m that unconformably overlays the Mesoproterozoic crystalline Grenville Province. Subsequent tectonism including repeated Paleozoic orogenies and rifting along the east coast of North America has reactivated Proterozoic structures that have propagated into the overlying carbonate platform forming mesoscopic-scale brittle structures. Exposed along the shores of Lake Ontario are decameter-scale fracture zones, with a fracture spacing of 0.5 to 10 meters. The dominant fracture set trends E-W, and often forms conjugate sets with less prominent NNE-oriented fractures. More locally, an older NW-oriented fracture set is cross cut by the E-W and NNE oriented fractures. Regionally, there have been six directions of maximum horizontal stress in southern Ontario since the Precambrian, with the current orientation of maximum stress oriented ENE as a consequence of far field Atlantic ridge-push forces generated at distant plate boundaries. Calcite mineralization along fractured surfaces locally form sub-horizontal slickenside fabrics which are covered by a layer of euhedral calcite crystals, suggesting that fracture dilation (and fluid flow) occurred after fracture slip to allow the growth of calcite crystals. Due to the proximity of the carbonate units to the crystalline basement, we expect the calcitic veins to be enriched in rare earth elements and are presently conducting geochemical analyses. The calcite veins and surfaces vary from 2.5 cm to 1 mm thicknesses, often with larger calcite crystals in the center of the vein and smaller crystals at the vein boundaries, likely representing nucleation on small

  2. Reported municipal costs from outdoor smoke-free by-laws-experience from Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2006, enclosed public and workplaces in Ontario were made smoke-free by the Smoke-free Ontario Act (SFOA). Numerous area municipalities across the province have since developed local by-laws that are more restrictive than the SFOA and ban smoking in outdoor environments including parks, beaches, and patios. The current study measured reported costs associated with the implementation and enforcement of smoke-free outdoor municipal by-laws including materials and staffing costs. The study also assessed the number of warnings or tickets issued to smokers. Ontario communities with a by-law in force for at least 2 years were included in the sample (n = 42). The study was completed by 88% of area municipalities (n = 37). Municipal staff and managers completed a survey by telephone between June-September 2012. Findings No area municipality surveyed reported that they hired additional enforcement staff as a result of their community’s smoke-free by-law. Most municipalities (95%) posted signage to support awareness of their by-law; signs costs ranged from $40-$150/sign with most municipalities reporting signs were made in-house. Most communities reported actively enforcing the by-law; six communities reported they had issued tickets to people not in compliance with outdoor smoking restrictions. Conclusions The implementation, promotion, and enforcement of outdoor smoke-free by-laws have required municipal staff time and in most cases have promotional costs, but these have come from existing budgets and using existing staff. Outdoor smoke-free by-laws have not created significant burdens on municipal enforcement staff or on municipal budgets. PMID:24581326

  3. Specialized multi-disciplinary heart failure clinics in Ontario, Canada: an environmental scan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi-disciplinary heart failure (HF) clinics have been shown to improve outcomes for HF patients in randomized clinical trials. However, it is unclear how widely available specialized HF clinics are in Ontario. Also, the service models of current clinics have not been described. It is therefore uncertain whether the efficacy of HF clinics in trials is generalizable to the HF clinics currently operating in the province. Methods As part of a comprehensive evaluation of HF clinics in Ontario, we performed an environmental scan to identify all HF clinics operating in 2010. A semi-structured interview was conducted to understand the scope of practice. The intensity and complexity of care offered were quantified through the use of a validated instrument, and clinics were categorized as high, medium or low intensity clinics. Results We identified 34 clinics with 143 HF physicians. We found substantial regional disparity in access to care across the province. The majority of HF physicians were cardiologists (81%), with 81% of the clinics physically based in hospitals, of which 26% were academic centers. There was a substantial range in the complexity of services offered, most notably in the intensity of education and medication management services offered. All the clinics focused on ambulatory care, with only one having an in-patient focus. None of the HF clinics had a home-based component to care. Conclusions Multiple HF clinics are currently operating in Ontario with a wide spectrum of care models. Further work is necessary to understand which components lead to improved patient outcomes. PMID:22863276

  4. A study on the levels of radioactivity in fish samples from the experimental lakes area in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Rennie, Michael D; Sadi, Baki; Zhang, Weihua; St-Amant, Nadereh

    2016-03-01

    To better understand background radiation levels in country foods, a total of 125 fish samples were collected from three lakes (Lake 226, Lake 302 and Lake 305) in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario of Canada during the summer of 2014. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po) as well as anthropogenic radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured. This study confirmed that (210)Po is the dominant contributor to radiation doses resulting from fish consumption. While concentrations of (210)Pb and (226)Ra were below conventional detection limits, (210)Po was measured in almost all fish samples collected from the ELA. The average concentration was about 1.5 Bq/kg fresh weight (fw). None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs. An average (137)Cs level of 6.1 Bq/kg fw was observed in freshwater fishes harvested in the ELA, almost twice that of samples measured in the National Capital Region of Canada in 2014 and more than 20 times higher than the levels observed in marine fish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 and 2014. However, it is important to note that the concentrations of (137)Cs in fish samples from these inland lakes are considered very low from a radiological protection perspective. The resulting radiation dose for people from fish consumption would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. The results indicate that fishes from inland lakes do not pose a radiological health concern. PMID:26803403

  5. BIOLOGY OF THE LEECH ACTINOBDELLA INEQUIANNULATA MOORE, 1901 (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: RHYNCHOBDELLIDA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE), PARASITIC ON THE WHITE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS COMMERSONI LACEPEDE, 1803 AND THE LONGNOSE SUCKER, CATOSTOMUS CATOSTOMUS FORSTER, 1773, IN ALGONQUIN PROVINCIAL PARK, ONTARIO, CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Catostomus commersoni parasitized with Act. inequiannulata was collected from July ...

  6. Mercury exposure in breeding common loons (Gavia immer) in central Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Evers, D.C.; Atchison, C.M.; Wong, A.H.K.

    1998-02-01

    Total Hg concentrations were determined in blood and feather samples of breeding common loons (Gavia immer) and their chicks from 24 lakes in Ontario with a range of water chemistry and fish Hg concentrations. In paired comparisons, males had significantly higher blood and feather concentrations than their female mates. Sex differences in Hg concentrations were attributable to size differences between the two sexes and to the possible transfer of Hg to eggs by females during egg-laying. Significantly higher blood and feather Hg concentrations were found in adult loons compared to their chicks. Adult blood Hg concentrations were significantly correlated with those of their chicks. Adult blood concentrations averaged about 13 times those of corresponding chicks. Both adult and chick blood Hg concentrations were positively correlated with fish Hg concentrations, indicating that adult loons in central Ontario, like their chicks, probably feed mainly on their breeding lakes and reflect the fish Hg concentrations of those lakes. Three of 24 lakes had 20- to 50-g fish with Hg concentrations at or exceeding the critical concentration reported to cause reproductive impairment in loons. Monitoring Hg in blood (adult and chick) and feathers (chicks only) is useful for assessing the local bioavailability of methylmercury and the degree of current dietary Hg exposure in loons and other piscivorous birds.

  7. Monitoring wood shaving litter and animal products for polychlorophenols residues, Ontario, Canada 1978-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Stonefield, K.I.; Luyken, H.

    1988-03-01

    Timber is extensively treated with the wood preservative pesticides collectively called the polychlorophenols (PxCP) which include tri-(T3CP), tetra-(T4CP), and pentachlorophenol (P5CP). These treatments are intended to protect lumber against the attacks of wood eating or boring insects and the wood decaying and staining fungi. Wood shavings are a by-product of the lumber industry that have been utilized widely in agriculture for many years as a major bedding litter for poultry, swine, and cattle and a minor litter for other domestic animals. Complaints were lodged within the Province of Ontario of off-flavors in locally produced poultry meat. Many local poultry producers reported having difficulties with (1) the fertility of their breeding flocks and (2) the ineffectiveness of vaccines among poultry raised on wood shavings but which disappeared when raised on cereal straw. An Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food service was offered whereby producers could have their wood shavings analyzed and receive guidance on the advisability of use. This paper reports on this service started in 1978 for wood shavings, and on a follow-up monitoring program to determine residues of PxCP in domestic animal products.

  8. Hidden plastics of Lake Ontario, Canada and their potential preservation in the sediment record.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Patricia L; Norris, Todd; Ceccanese, Trevor; Walzak, Mary Jane; Helm, Paul A; Marvin, Chris H

    2015-09-01

    Microplastics are a source of environmental pollution resulting from degradation of plastic products and spillage of resin pellets. We report the amounts of microplastics from various sites of Lake Ontario and evaluate their potential for preservation in the sediment record. A total of 4635 pellets were sampled from the Humber Bay shoreline on three sampling dates. Pellet colours were similar to those from the Humber River bank, suggesting that the river is a pathway for plastics transport into Lake Ontario. Once in the lake, high density microplastics, including mineral-polyethylene and mineral-polypropylene mixtures, sink to the bottom. The minerals may be fillers that were combined with plastics during production, or may have adsorbed to the surfaces of the polymers in the water column or on the lake bottom. Based on sediment depths and accumulation rates, microplastics have accumulated in the offshore region for less than 38 years. Their burial increases the chance of microplastics preservation. Shoreline pellets may not be preserved because they are mingled with organic debris that is reworked during storm events. PMID:25898233

  9. Modeling Phosphorus Dynamics in Multi-branched River and Lake Systems in the Lake Simcoe Catchment, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Whitehead, P. G.; Baulch, H. M.; Butterfield, D.; Crossman, J.; Dillon, P.; Oni, S. K.; Futter, M.; O'Connor, E.

    2011-12-01

    Nutrient enrichment has long been recognized as a major cause of impaired water quality. In southern Ontario, Canada, high rates of agricultural and urban nutrient loading, particularly phosphorus (P), have contributed to serious problems of surface water eutrophication and groundwater contamination. In Lake Simcoe, the second largest lake in southern Ontario, anthropogenic nutrients have contributed to increased algal growth, low hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations and impaired fish reproduction. Even though efforts in recent years have reduced P loads to the lake and led to improved water quality, the improvement is not yet sufficient and continuing efforts are required. An ambitious water quality management program has been initiated to reduce phosphorus loads by 40% to the lake by 2045. Increasing population growth within the catchment, superimposed on increased climate variability and future climate change may make this P load reduction even more challenging to achieve. The main P sources to Lake Simcoe are tributaries and atmospheric deposition. Because atmospheric inputs are difficult to control, a significant focus must be on reducing loading from the tributaries of Lake Simcoe. To improve the understanding of the phosphorus delivery, storage and transport within the Lake Simcoe catchment, a new version of integrated catchment phosphorus model (INCA-P) with the full-branched river network has been applied to the Black River, a tributary of Lake Simcoe. The model simulates the fluxes of P entering the lake and apportions P among different sources in the catchment. The model can be used independently to explore impacts of increased sewage loads due to population growth, land use change, climate change as well as to assess different management practices and remediation strategies. The multi-branched nature of the new version of the model enables concurrent modelling of all tributaries (>20), which will facilitate large-scale assessment of growth and climate

  10. Active Neotectonic Structures in Glacial and Postglacial Sediment in Lake Timiskaming, Timiskaming Graben, Ontario/Quebec Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, M.; Eyles, N.; Eyles, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Timiskaming Graben (TG) is a northwest-trending arm of the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben and the St. Lawrence Rift System (SLRS) in eastern Canada. Together they form a 600 km long failed rift in the Canadian Shield, extending southward along the border of Ontario and Quebec to the St.Lawrence River Valley onto the Hudson Valley and Lake Champlain in the USA. The Timiskaming Graben preserves faulted outliers of Early Paleozoic limestones and has been reactivated several time during the Phanerozoic most recently during the breakup of Pangea. The 110 kilometre-long, ~100 m deep Lake Timiskaming fills the inner part of the Timiskaming Graben along the border of Ontario and Quebec. It is the postglacial successor to glacial Lake Barlow ponded against the northward-retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet some 9,000 years BP. The sedimentary record of Lake Timiskaming was established by collecting more than 1000 line kilometres of high-resolution 'chirp' seismic profiles, side scan and multibeam survey data between 2003 and 2007. These show that bathymetric relief is the product of ongoing tectonic subsidence where lateglacial Barlow glaciolacustrine and postglacial sediments are extensively deformed by closely-spaced horst and grabens. The greatest subsidence has occurred within a narrow (< 3 km) and deep (up to 209 m) central graben basin. We are able to infer the presence of hitherto unrecognized bounding and relay faults within the graben, and a 20 km long 8 m high fault scarp and sand blows produced by large postglacial earthquakes. The region is one of the most seismically active areas in eastern North America (Western Quebec Seismic Zone) with frequent moderate to large magnitude (> M5) intracratonic earthquakes. Structural activity is ongoing along the Timiskaming Graben and its lateglacial and postglacial sediment record provides the clearest evidence to date of modern intracratonic faulting anywhere in eastern North America.

  11. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface and treated waters of Louisiana, USA and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Glen R; Reemtsma, Helge; Grimm, Deborah A; Mitra, Siddhartha

    2003-07-20

    A newly developed analytical method was used to measure concentrations of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in samples from two surface water bodies, a sewage treatment plant effluent and various stages of a drinking water treatment plant in Louisiana, USA, and from one surface water body, a drinking water treatment plant and a pilot plant in Ontario, Canada. The analytical method provides for simultaneous extraction and quantification of the following broad range of PPCPs and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: naproxen; ibuprofen; estrone; 17beta-estradiol; bisphenol A; clorophene; triclosan; fluoxetine; and clofibric acid. Naproxen was detected in Louisiana sewage treatment plant effluent at 81-106 ng/l and Louisiana and Ontario surface waters at 22-107 ng/l. Triclosan was detected in Louisiana sewage treatment plant effluent at 10-21 ng/l. Of the three surface waters sampled, clofibric acid was detected in Detroit River water at 103 ng/l, but not in Mississippi River or Lake Pontchartrain waters. None of the other target analytes were detected above their method detection limits. Based on results at various stages of treatment, conventional drinking-water treatment processes (coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation) plus continuous addition of powdered activated carbon at a dosage of 2 mg/l did not remove naproxen from Mississippi River waters. However, chlorination, ozonation and dual media filtration processes reduced the concentration of naproxen below detection in Mississippi River and Detroit River waters and reduced clofibric acid in Detroit River waters. Results of this study demonstrate that existing water treatment technologies can effectively remove certain PPCPs. In addition, our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining data on removal mechanisms and byproducts associated with PPCPs and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals in drinking water and sewage treatment processes. PMID:12826389

  12. Risk of Incident Diabetes in Relation to Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Richard T.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Brook, Robert D.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Martin, Randall V.; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Copes, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laboratory studies suggest that fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 µm in diameter; PM2.5) can activate pathophysiological responses that may induce insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, epidemiological evidence relating PM2.5 and diabetes is sparse, particularly for incident diabetes. Objectives: We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine whether long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with incident diabetes. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 62,012 nondiabetic adults who lived in Ontario, Canada, and completed one of five population-based health surveys between 1996 and 2005. Follow-up extended until 31 December 2010. Incident diabetes diagnosed between 1996 and 2010 was ascertained using the Ontario Diabetes Database, a validated registry of persons diagnosed with diabetes (sensitivity = 86%, specificity = 97%). Six-year average concentrations of PM2.5 at the postal codes of baseline residences were derived from satellite observations. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the associations, adjusting for various individual-level risk factors and contextual covariates such as smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and neighborhood-level household income. We also conducted multiple sensitivity analyses. In addition, we examined effect modification for selected comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: There were 6,310 incident cases of diabetes over 484,644 total person-years of follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratio for a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21). Estimated associations were comparable among all sensitivity analyses. We did not find strong evidence of effect modification by comorbidities or sociodemographic covariates. Conclusions: This study suggests that long-term exposure to PM2.5 may contribute to the development of diabetes. PMID:23632126

  13. Attractiveness of employment sectors for physical therapists in Ontario, Canada (1999-2007): implication for the long term care sector

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining health professions remains a high priority for health system planners. Different employment sectors may vary in their appeal to providers. We used the concepts of inflow and stickiness to assess the relative attractiveness of sectors for physical therapists (PTs) in Ontario, Canada. Inflow was defined as the percentage of PTs working in a sector who were not there the previous year. Stickiness was defined as the transition probability that a physical therapist will remain in a given employment sector year-to-year. Methods A longitudinal dataset of registered PTs in Ontario (1999-2007) was created, and primary employment sector was categorized as ‘hospital’, ‘community’, ‘long term care’ (LTC) or ‘other.’ Inflow and stickiness values were then calculated for each sector, and trends were analyzed. Results There were 5003 PTs in 1999, which grew to 6064 by 2007, representing a 21.2% absolute growth. Inflow grew across all sectors, but the LTC sector had the highest inflow of 32.0%. PTs practicing in hospitals had the highest stickiness, with 87.4% of those who worked in this sector remaining year-to-year. The community and other employment sectors had stickiness values of 78.2% and 86.8% respectively, while the LTC sector had the lowest stickiness of 73.4%. Conclusion Among all employment sectors, LTC had highest inflow but lowest stickiness. Given expected increases in demand for services, understanding provider transitional probabilities and employment preferences may provide a useful policy and planning tool in developing a sustainable health human resource base across all employment sectors. PMID:22643111

  14. Incidence, distribution, seasonality, and demographic risk factors of Salmonella Enteritidis human infections in Ontario, Canada, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, surveillance systems have highlighted the increasing trend of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections. Our study objectives were to evaluate the epidemiology of S. Enteritidis infections in Ontario using surveillance data from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2009. Methods Annual age-and-sex-adjusted incidence rates (IRs), annual and mean age-adjusted sex-specific IRs, and mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs by public health unit (PHU), were calculated for laboratory-confirmed S. Enteritidis cases across Ontario using direct standardization. Multivariable Poisson regression with PHU as a random effect was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of S. Enteritidis infections among years, seasons, age groups, and sexes. Results The annual age-and-sex-adjusted IR per 100,000 person-years was 4.4 [95% CI 4.0-4.7] in 2007, and 5.2 [95% CI 4.8-5.6] in both 2008 and 2009. The annual age-adjusted sex-specific IRs per 100,000 person-years ranged from 4.5 to 5.5 for females and 4.2 to 5.2 for males. The mean age-adjusted sex-specific IR was 5.1 [95% CI 4.8-5.4] for females and 4.8 [95% CI 4.5-5.1] for males. High mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs (6.001-8.10) were identified in three western PHUs, one northern PHU, and in the City of Toronto. Regression results showed a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections in 2009 [IRR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32; P = 0.003] and 2008 [IRR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.31; P = 0.005] compared to 2007. Compared to the fall season, a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections was observed in the spring [IRR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29; P = 0.040]. Children 0–4 years of age (reference category), followed by children 5–9 years of age [IRR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.52-0.78; P < 0.001] had the highest IRRs. Adults ≥ 60 years of age and 40–49 years of age [IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.26-0.37; P < 0.001] had the lowest IRRs. Conclusions The study findings suggest that there was an increase in the incidence of S

  15. An Assessment of the Expected Cost-Effectiveness of Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines in Ontario, Canada Using a Static Model

    PubMed Central

    Chit, Ayman; Roiz, Julie; Aballea, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Ontario, Canada, immunizes against influenza using a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) under a Universal Influenza Immunization Program (UIIP). The UIIP offers IIV3 free-of-charge to all Ontarians over 6 months of age. A newly approved quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) offers wider protection against influenza B disease. We explored the expected cost-utility and budget impact of replacing IIV3 with IIV4, within the context of Ontario’s UIIP, using a probabilistic and static cost-utility model. Wherever possible, epidemiological and cost data were obtained from Ontario sources. Canadian or U.S. sources were used when Ontario data were not available. Vaccine efficacy for IIV3 was obtained from the literature. IIV4 efficacy was derived from meta-analysis of strain-specific vaccine efficacy. Conservatively, herd protection was not considered. In the base case, we used IIV3 and IIV4 prices of $5.5/dose and $7/dose, respectively. We conducted a sensitivity analysis on the price of IIV4, as well as standard univariate and multivariate statistical uncertainty analyses. Over a typical influenza season, relative to IIV3, IIV4 is expected to avert an additional 2,516 influenza cases, 1,683 influenza-associated medical visits, 27 influenza-associated hospitalizations, and 5 influenza-associated deaths. From a societal perspective, IIV4 would generate 76 more Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and a net societal budget impact of $4,784,112. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for this comparison was $63,773/QALY. IIV4 remains cost-effective up to a 53% price premium over IIV3. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that IIV4 was cost-effective with a probability of 65% for a threshold of $100,000/QALY gained. IIV4 is expected to achieve reductions in influenza-related morbidity and mortality compared to IIV3. Despite not accounting for herd protection, IIV4 is still expected to be a cost-effective alternative to IIV3 up to a price

  16. Reading the Urban Landscape: The Case of a Campus Tour at York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardekjian, Adrina; Classens, Michael; Sandberg, L. Anders

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a campus tour assignment in a first-year undergraduate environmental studies course at York University, Toronto, Canada. As a pedagogical tool, the assignment enables students to interrogate the dominant narratives of a university's immediate physical spaces and to apply broader theoretical and practical concepts to their…

  17. First report of QoI insensitive Cercospora beticola on sugarbeet in Ontario, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cercospora beticola causes Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) and is the most destructive foliar disease of sugarbeet worldwide. The QoI fungicide pyraclostrobin has been an important management tool for CLS in Canada since 2003. Beginning in 2010 some growers reported unsatisf...

  18. Canadian Distance Educators Meeting (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, July 8-9, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver (British Columbia).

    The Commonwealth of Learning (COL), in cooperation with Laurentian University, convened a 2-day meeting of some 30 Canadian educators to ascertain through discussion and dialogue how best and to what purposes COL might cooperate with institutions and associations involved in distance education in Canada. This report summarizes six presentations…

  19. PCB and DDE residues in milk supplies of Ontario, Canada 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Braun, H.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Concerns on the presence of PCB's in milk have arisen because of spills of these industrial chemicals on roads, around storage sites, and because of their presence in waste oils used to treat gravel roads with up to 25 ppm being allowed up to 1970 and 5 ppm up to 1984. The possibility of the spread of PCB into water supplies of rural areas of the province has been a constant concern and the presence of PCB in bovine milk serves as a reliable indicator of the degree of contamination. Milk supplies in Southern Ontario have been monitored for PCB and DDE since 1970-71. In 1985-86 the monitoring program was extended to include all regions of the province where milk is produced in order to further assess the incidence, levels, and trends of PCB in the provincial milk supply.

  20. 3-D crust and mantle structure in southern Ontario, Canada via receiver function imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Frederiksen, A. W.

    2013-11-01

    A teleseismic data set from the POLARIS project is used to obtain 3-D images of southern Ontario using two imaging techniques: scattering tomography and common-conversion-point stacking. The resulting images reveal a layered crust, the layering being interrupted by discontinuities associated with major crustal-scale faulting. Breaks in crustal continuity and Moho deflections associated with the Ottawa-Bonnechère Graben indicate that the graben is associated with faulting on a whole crust scale. We also detect similar discontinuities across the Mississauga Domain, supporting the previous interpretation that the domain is bounded by crustal-scale faults. We locate discontinuous sub-lithospheric negative-polarity arrivals which indicate complex three-dimensional structures within the lithosphere and may be associated with subduction remnants or a mid-lithosphere discontinuity.

  1. Floodplain management: Land acquisition versus preservation of historic buildings in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Wendy J.; Mitchell, Bruce

    1983-07-01

    Non-structural adjustments in floodplain management are often avoided because they are seen to infringe on personal rights, adversely affect property values and restrict local tax bases. Land acquisition programs in urban areas encounter a further problem when they lead to demolition of buildings and other structures considered to have historical or architectural value. An experience in Cambridge, Ontario demonstrates that the potential conflict between flood damage reduction and historical preservation objectives can be exacerbated as a result of uncoordinated planning efforts, inflexibility in interpreting mandates, unclear roles for participating agencies, and lack of cooperation Many of these dilemmas can be resolved through consultation and discussion early in the planning process as well as through a willingness to be flexible and to search for a compromise

  2. Metal burdens in two species of fiddleheads growing near the ore smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, L.V.; Parker, G.H. )

    1988-06-01

    The usefulness of selected plant species as potential bioindicators of environmental metal pollution has been clearly demonstrated. High levels of contamination within soils of the Sudbury, Ontario region are characteristically reflected in elevated plant burdens reported for the area. Previous studies investigating plant uptake of metals from Sudbury-area soils have been complicated, however, by the contribution of direct atmospheric deposition onto the foliage. The present study examines metal burdens in two fern species, Interrupted fern and Ostrich fern, resulting solely via root uptake from the soil, thus seeking to assess the indirect influences of the Sudbury-area smelters. The above condition was ensured by collecting the ferns immediately after appearance in the spring while they were still tightly curled and protected from aerial contamination of by the external wooly pubescence.

  3. Investigation of exposure to swine influenza viruses in Ontario (Canada) finisher herds in 2004 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert M; Carman, Susy; McNab, W Bruce; Dewey, Catherine E

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of influenza in the North American swine population has changed since the emergence of a triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza virus. Although seen previously in North America, the Ontario swine population had likely been free of viruses of the reassortant H3N2 lineage until 2005. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of exposure to H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes in the Ontario finisher pig population prior to and after the H3N2 outbreak that occurred in 2005. This included investigating prevalence and spatial distribution of positive herds, assessing proportion of random variation at different hierarchical levels, and evaluating selected demographic factors and management procedures as potential risk factors. In total, 919 and 978 sera collected in cross-sectional studies from 46 and 49 finisher herds in 2004 and 2005 were tested by a H1N1 subtype-specific and a H3N2 subtype-specific commercial ELISA. For the H1N1 subtype, the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 19.5% and 30.6% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. For the H3N2 subtype the point prevalence of positive herds (>3 reactors) was 6.5% and 40.8% in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Sera from 2004 that were positive on H3N2 ELISA did not cross-react with any of the H3N2 variants used as antigen on a sequential HI test. Only herds positive for H3N2 subtype in 2005 clustered in space (P<0.01). The H1N1 status in 2005 was associated with the H1N1 status in 2004, and with reported distance to the nearest herd. The H3N2 status in 2005 was associated with reported distance to the nearest herd and a type of replacement gilt source. For H3N2, distance seemed to be important even after controlling for type of gilt source. Most variability in seropositivity was between herds with little variability between pens. This study confirms that in 2005, the epidemic H3N2 subtype co-circulated with endemic H1N1 subtype in the Ontario finisher herds. We concluded that in

  4. SO2 damage to forests recorded by ERTS-1. [Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murtha, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide fumes have been affecting the forests around Wawa, Ontario, which have been under surveillance for a number of years and were recently covered by ultra-small-scale (1:160,000) air photography for damage-assessment purposes. Image interpretation supported by electronic color enhancement was used to delineate on ERTS imagery three damage zones (total-kill, heavy-kill and medium-damage zones). The zones delineated on ERTS imagery are similar to the results of aerial sketch-mapping and air photo interpretation. Band 5 provided the greatest detail for assessing the damage to the forests, followed in successive order by bands 4, 6 and 7. Comparison with ERTS images obtained in the winter showed that even though the total-kill could be separated from heavy-kill damage zones, total-kill could not be consistently separated from clear-cut logging, burned areas, frozen lakes and bogs.

  5. Outbreaks of West Nile virus in captive waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cox, Sherri L; Campbell, G Douglas; Nemeth, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    The detrimental effects of West Nile virus (WNV) have been well characterized in several taxonomic groups of North American birds, such as corvids and raptors. Relatively less is known about the virus' effects in waterfowl species, many of which are abundant in North America and occupy habitats, for example wetlands and marshes, likely to harbour dense mosquito populations. In two successive years, outbreaks of WNV-associated disease were observed in waterfowl at a rehabilitation centre. In the present report, clinical and pathological findings are provided for seven mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and one Canada goose (Branta canadensis) that developed acute disease and either died or were killed humanely. The most severe and consistent microscopic lesion in mallards was myocardial degeneration and coagulative necrosis consistent with acute heart failure. The Canada goose had necrotizing myocarditis. Other lesions included pulmonary perivascular oedema, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis, and splenic and bursal lymphoid depletion. WNV infection was confirmed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. Myofibres within all cardiac muscle layers had positive immunohistochemical staining, as did blood vessel walls in the heart and spleen. These results suggest that juvenile mallards are highly susceptible to fatal WNV-associated cardiac failure, and confirm that adult Canada geese are susceptible to fatal WNV-associated disease. The synchronous timing of clinical disease and death in these waterfowl are consistent with WNV mosquito-borne infections within a WNV transmission focus during the summer (July and August) of 2012 and 2013. PMID:25636141

  6. Detection of Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in ready-to-eat packaged leafy greens in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brent; Parrington, Lorna; Cook, Angela; Pollari, Frank; Farber, Jeffrey

    2013-02-01

    Numerous foodborne outbreaks of diarrheal illness associated with the consumption of produce contaminated with protozoan parasites have been reported in North America in recent years. The present study reports on the presence of Cyclospora, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in precut salads and leafy greens purchased at retail in Ontario, Canada. A total of 544 retail samples were collected between April 2009 and March 2010 and included a variety of salad blends and individual leafy greens. Most of these products were grown in the United States, with some from Canada and Mexico. Parasites were eluted and concentrated before detection by PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy. DNA sequences were aligned with reference sequences in GenBank. Cyclospora spp. were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in nine (1.7 % ) samples and by DNA sequence analysis. Cryptosporidium spp. were identified in 32 (5.9%) samples; 29 were sequenced and aligned with the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis was identified in 10 (1.8%) samples, and of the 9 samples successfully sequenced, 7 aligned with G. duodenalis assemblage B and 2 with assemblage A, both of which are also zoonotic. The presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was confirmed in some of the PCR-positive samples using microscopy, while Cyclospora -like oocysts were observed in most of the Cyclospora PCR-positive samples. The relatively high prevalence of these parasites in packaged salads and leafy greens establishes a baseline for further studies and suggests a need for additional research with respect to the possible sources of contamination of these foods, the determination of parasite viability and virulence, and means to reduce foodborne transmission to humans. PMID:23433379

  7. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity and associated risk factors in goats in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Meadows, S; Jones-Bitton, A; McEwen, S; Jansen, J; Menzies, P

    2015-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic bacterium, and infection in goats with this bacterium can result in abortion, stillbirth or birth of non-viable kids. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the seroprevalence and risk factors for C. burnetii exposure in Ontario goats. Sera were collected between August 2010 and February 2012, and tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IDEXX). Overall, 63.2% (48/76, 95% CI=51.9-73.4) of farms had one or more seropositive goats. A higher farm-level seroprevalence of 78.6% (33/42) was found on dairy goat farms, compared to 44.1% (15/34) on meat goat farms (p<0.01). At the overall individual-animal level, 32.5% (714/2195, 95% CI=30.6-34.5) of goats were seropositive. Similarly, a higher individual-level seroprevalence was identified for dairy goats (43.7%, 633/1447) compared to meat goats (10.8%, 81/748) (p<0.001). A mixed multivariable logistic model that controlled for farm-level clustering identified risk factors associated with seropositivity (p<0.05). Increases in the female herd size (logarithmic scale) were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, while increases in male herd size had a negative association with seropositivity. If other sheep or goat farms were located in a 5-km radius, goats had 5.6 times (95% CI=1.01-30.8) times the odds of seropositivity compared to those that were not. Relative to goats from farms where all kidding pen hygiene was practiced (adding bedding, removing birth materials and disinfection after kidding), goats from farms which only added bedding and removed birth materials had a higher odds of seropositivity (OR=19.3, 95% CI=1.1-330.4), as did goats from farms which practiced none of these measures (OR=161.0, 95% CI=2.4-10822.2). An interaction term revealed kidding outdoors when there were no swine on farm had a protective effect on seropositivity compared to kidding indoors, or kidding outdoors with swine on the farm. These

  8. Rates of prenatal screening across health care regions in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hayeems, Robin Z.; Campitelli, Michael; Ma, Xiaomu; Huang, Tianhua; Walker, Mark; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Background It is recommended that all pregnant women be offered screening for Down syndrome and open neural tube defects, but emerging prenatal tests that are not publicly insured may compromise access. We evaluated screening rates for publicly insured screening tests across health care regions in the province of Ontario and determined whether maternal, provider or regional characteristics are associated with screening uptake. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study involving pregnant women in Ontario who were at or beyond 16 weeks’ gestation in 2007–2009. We ascertained prenatal screening rates using linked health administrative and prenatal screening datasets. We examined maternal, provider and regional characteristics associated with screening uptake. Rate ratios (RRs) were estimated. Results Of the 264 737 women included in the study, 62.2% received prenatal screening; uptake varied considerably by region (range 27.8%–80.3%). A greater proportion of women initiated screening in the first rather than the second trimester (50.0% v. 12.2%). Factors associated with lower screening rates included living in a rural area versus an urban area (adjusted rate ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.66), receiving first-trimester care from a family physician or midwife versus an obstetrician (adjusted rate ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.90–0.92, and 0.40, 95% CI 0.38–0.43, respectively) and being in a lower income quintile (adjusted RR for lowest v. highest 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.96). Being an immigrant or a refugee was associated with higher screening rates. Interpretation There were significant maternal, provider and regional differences in the uptake of prenatal screening across the province. With discrepancies expected to increase with the emergence of noninvasive prenatal tests paid for out of pocket by many women, policy efforts to reduce barriers to prenatal screening and optimize its availability are warranted. PMID:26389102

  9. Evaluation of the Johne's disease risk assessment and management plan on dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor J; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David F

    2015-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a production-limiting gastrointestinal disease in cattle. To minimize the effects of JD, the Ontario dairy industry launched the Ontario Johne's Education and Management Assistance Program in 2010. As part of the program, trained veterinarians conducted a risk assessment and management plan (RAMP), an on-farm questionnaire where high RAMP scores are associated with high risk of JD transmission. Subsequently, veterinarians recommended farm-specific management practices for JD prevention. Milk or serum ELISA results from the milking herd were used to determine the herd ELISA status (HES) and within-herd prevalence. After 3.5 yr of implementation of the program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the associations among RAMP scores, HES, and recommendations. Data from 2,103 herds were available for the analyses. A zero-inflated negative binomial model for the prediction of the number of ELISA-positive animals per farm was built. The model included individual RAMP questions about purchasing animals in the logistic portion, indicating risks for between-herd transmission, and purchasing bulls, birth of calves outside the designated calving area, colostrum and milk feeding management, and adult cow environmental hygiene in the negative binomial portion, indicating risk factors for within-herd transmission. However, farms which fed low-risk milk compared with milk replacer had fewer seropositive animals. The model additionally included the JD herd history in the negative binomial and the logistic portion, indicating that herds with a JD herd history were more likely to have at least 1 positive animal and to have a higher number of positive animals. Generally, a positive association was noted between RAMP scores and the odds of receiving a recommendation for the respective risk area; however, the relationship was not always linear. For general JD risk and calving area risk, seropositive herds had higher odds of receiving recommendations compared

  10. Airborne Pollen Concentrations and Emergency Room Visits for Myocardial Infarction: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Lavigne, Eric; Villeneuve, Paul J; Reeves, François

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined the acute cardiovascular effects of airborne allergens. We conducted a case-crossover study to evaluate the relationship between airborne allergen concentrations and emergency room visits for myocardial infarction (MI) in Ontario, Canada. In total, 17,960 cases of MI were identified between the months of April and October during the years 2004-2011. Daily mean aeroallergen concentrations (pollen and mold spores) were assigned to case and control periods using central-site monitors in each city along with daily measurements of meteorological data and air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and ozone). Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for time-varying covariates. Risk of MI was 5.5% higher (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4, 7.6) on days in the highest tertile of total pollen concentrations compared with days in the lowest tertile, and a significant concentration-response trend was observed (P < 0.001). Higher MI risk was limited to same-day pollen concentrations, with the largest risks being observed during May (odds ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.35) and June (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.22), when tree and grass pollen are most common. Mold spore concentrations were not associated with MI. Our findings suggest that airborne pollen might represent a previously unidentified environmental risk factor for myocardial infarction. PMID:26934896

  11. Ecological factors contributing to variability of persistent organic pollutant bioaccumulation within forage fish communities of the Detroit River, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Anne M; Paterson, Gord; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Understanding variability of contaminant bioaccumulation within and among fish populations is critical for distinguishing between the chemical and biological mechanisms that contribute to food web biomagnification and quantifying contaminant exposure risks in aquatic ecosystems. The present study examined the relative contributions of chemical hydrophobicity (octanol-water partition coefficient [KOW ]) and habitat use as factors regulating variability in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener bioaccumulation in 3 lower trophic level cyprinid species across spatial and temporal scales. Bluntnose minnows (Pimephales notatus), spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius), and emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides) were sampled at 3 locations in the Detroit River, Ontario, Canada. Variability in PCB concentration was evaluated with respect to several factors, including chemical hydrophobicity, site, season, species, and weight using sum of squares and Levene's test of homogeneity of variance. Individual variability in bioaccumulated congener-specific residues depended on chemical hydrophobicity with mid- and high-range KOW congeners (log KOW  >6.0), demonstrating the highest amount of variance compared with low KOW congeners. Different feeding strategies also contributed to the variance observed for mid-range KOW congeners among species. In the present study, benthic feeding specialists exhibited lower variance in PCB concentrations compared with the 2 generalist species. The results indicate that chemical hydrophobicity and feeding ecology not only contribute to differences in the biomagnification potentials of fish, but also regulate between-individual variation in PCB concentrations both across and within fish species. PMID:24729083

  12. Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by people living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Loutfy, Mona R; Logie, Carmen H; Zhang, Yimeng; Blitz, Sandra L; Margolese, Shari L; Tharao, Wangari E; Rourke, Sean B; Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by 1026 HIV-positive individuals living in Ontario, Canada that were enrolled in the OHTN Cohort Study. Total and subscale HIV-related stigma scores were measured using the revised HIV-related Stigma Scale. Correlates of total stigma scores were assessed in univariate and multivariate linear regression. Women had significantly higher total and subscale stigma scores than men (total, median = 56.0 vs. 48.0, p<0.0001). Among men and women, Black individuals had the highest, Aboriginal and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified people intermediate, and White individuals the lowest total stigma scores. The gender-ethnicity interaction term was significant in multivariate analysis: Black women and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified men reported the highest HIV-related stigma scores. Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma were identified in our cohort. Findings suggest differing approaches may be required to address HIV-related stigma based on gender and ethnicity; and such strategies should challenge racist and sexist stereotypes. PMID:23300514

  13. Gender Differences in Severity and Correlates of Depression Symptoms in People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aljassem, Kinda; Raboud, Janet M; Hart, Trevor A; Benoit, Anita; Su, DeSheng; Margolese, Shari L; Rourke, Sean B; Rueda, Sergio; Burchell, Ann; Cairney, John; Shuper, Paul; Loutfy, Mona R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in severity and correlates of depression symptoms among 1069 men and 267 women living with HIV in Ontario, Canada, who completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Women had higher CES-D scores than that of men (median [interquartile range]: 13 [5-26] versus 9 [3-20], P=.0004). More women had total CES-D scores>15 (mild-moderate depression; 44% versus 33%, P=.002) and >21 (severe depression; 31% versus 23%, P=.003). Unlike men, at age 40, women's scores increased yearly (0.4 per increased year, P=.005). The distribution of scores differed by gender: There was no difference in the 10th percentile of depression scores, 0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.0) but the 75th percentile of depression scores for women was 6 (95% CI: 2.0-10.0) points higher than that of men. Important gender differences exist in depression symptoms and in correlates of symptoms in people living with HIV. PMID:24899261

  14. Substrate selection and seasonal variation in abundance and size composition of isopod Lirceus fontinalis in Ontario streams, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoxia; Fox, Michael G.; Lasenby, David C.; Armit, Alexis C.; Kothawala, Dolly N.

    2007-04-01

    The abundance and size composition of stream isopods Lirceus fontinalis were investigated from April 2001 to August 2002 in 3 streams in southern Ontario, Canada. Effects of current speed was released from the analysis by choosing slow flowing water. The effects of substrate, season and water depth on the abundance, distribution and size composition of the isopods were analyzed. It was found that substrate and season influence isopods the most. The rocky substrate with attached filamentous macro-algae contains an isopod abundance 7.05 times that of bare rock substrate and 14.6 times that of fine-sand and mud substrate. There was a large variation with respect to seasonality in both abundance and size composition of the isopods, with the highest abundance occurring in summer and the lowest in winter and spring; individual isopods also tend to be larger in the winter and spring. In all substrates, shallow areas tend to support higher densities of isopods than deeper areas.

  15. Gender and Ethnicity Differences in HIV-related Stigma Experienced by People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona R.; Logie, Carmen H.; Zhang, Yimeng; Blitz, Sandra L.; Margolese, Shari L.; Tharao, Wangari E.; Rourke, Sean B.; Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by 1026 HIV-positive individuals living in Ontario, Canada that were enrolled in the OHTN Cohort Study. Total and subscale HIV-related stigma scores were measured using the revised HIV-related Stigma Scale. Correlates of total stigma scores were assessed in univariate and multivariate linear regression. Women had significantly higher total and subscale stigma scores than men (total, median = 56.0 vs. 48.0, p<0.0001). Among men and women, Black individuals had the highest, Aboriginal and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified people intermediate, and White individuals the lowest total stigma scores. The gender-ethnicity interaction term was significant in multivariate analysis: Black women and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified men reported the highest HIV-related stigma scores. Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma were identified in our cohort. Findings suggest differing approaches may be required to address HIV-related stigma based on gender and ethnicity; and such strategies should challenge racist and sexist stereotypes. PMID:23300514

  16. Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Yukari; Gough, William A.; Butler, Ken; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2016-07-01

    In northern Canada, winter roads are essential for communities. The duration of the winter road season depends on particular meteorological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between seasonal weather trends and the historical opening dates of the James Bay Winter Road in Ontario's Far North. The statistical significance of the temporal trends and their magnitude are determined by the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Results showed that decreasing trends in the freezing degree-days (FDDs) are statistically significant, along with the statistically significant increasing trends of monthly averages of both T min and T mean during the winter months in the western James Bay region for the 1961-2014 period. However, there were no statistically significant linkages between opening dates and FDDs detected, perhaps due to the paucity of opening dates data, although early opening dates in the last 10 years may be the result of larger FDDs. The FDDs during the months of October through December were more closely linked to opening dates than FDDs that were calculated up the opening date (including January dates), suggesting the key role of preconditioning during late fall and early winter. The lowest FDDs for the months of October to December that resulted in a viable winter road were 380 degree-days (°C). This threshold can be potentially used as a lower threshold for winter roads.

  17. Challenges of Diabetes Self-Management in Adults Affected by Food Insecurity in a Large Urban Centre of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Justine; DeMelo, Margaret; Gingras, Jacqui; Gucciardi, Enza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To explore how food insecurity affects individuals' ability to manage their diabetes, as narrated by participants living in a large, culturally diverse urban centre. Design. Qualitative study comprising of in-depth interviews, using a semistructured interview guide. Setting. Participants were recruited from the local community, three community health centres, and a community-based diabetes education centre servicing a low-income population in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants. Twenty-one English-speaking adults with a diagnosis of diabetes and having experienced food insecurity in the past year (based on three screening questions). Method. Using six phases of analysis, we used qualitative, deductive thematic analysis to transcribe, code, and analyze participant interviews. Main Findings. Three themes emerged from our analysis of participants' experiences of living with food insecurity and diabetes: (1) barriers to accessing and preparing food, (2) social isolation, and (3) enhancing agency and resilience. Conclusion. Food insecurity appears to negatively impact diabetes self-management. Healthcare professionals need to be cognizant of resources, skills, and supports appropriate for people with diabetes affected by food insecurity. Study findings suggest foci for enhancing diabetes self-management support. PMID:26576154

  18. Spatial, temporal, and dietary determinants of organic contaminants in nestling tree swallows in Point Pelee National Park, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Smits, Judit E G; Bortolotti, Gary R; Sebastian, Mary; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2005-12-01

    Point Pelee National Park of Canada in southwestern Ontario, an important migratory route and vital breeding area for many birds, has localized areas of organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination from agricultural production during the 1950s and 1960s. During 2001 and 2002, we investigated movement of persistent contaminants through the food web with the insectivorous tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) as a sentinel. The a priori site classifications, contaminated or reference, were based on soil residues of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its breakdown products (sigmaDDT), dieldrin, and other OC pesticides. In 2001, all nestling tissue samples were pooled by site, and residue levels did not reflect the soil contaminant status. To improve sampling accuracy in 2002, tissue residues were determined from birds in individual nests. This showed OC pesticides to be higher in samples from contaminated sites compared with reference sites (p = 0.031). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which were not detected in soil samples, were present in the nestlings and were not related to site of origin (p = 0.422). In 2002, dietary samples were collected from nestlings and identified to taxon, and representative insects collected from nesting sites were analyzed for PCBs and other OCs. Consumption of terrestrial prey was positively correlated with tissue residues of sigmaDDT (p = 0.006), whereas PCBs came from aquatic prey, Hexagenia mayflies (p = 0.003). Dietary details proved valuable in this study of contaminant transfer in insectivorous vertebrates. PMID:16445099

  19. Clay mineralogical evidence of a bioclimatically-affected soil, Rouge River basin, South-Central Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Holocene soils in drainage basins of South-Central Ontario, Canada, are generally Fluvisols (Entisols) in floodplains transitioning to Brunisols (Inceptisols), Luvisols (Alfisols) and Podzols (Spodosols) in older terraces and in the glaciated tableland. A single landslide sourced from the highest fluvial terrace in the Rouge basin, with a rubble drop of ~ 12 m emplaced a lobe-shaped mass of reworked stream gravel, glaciolacustrine sediment and till, emplaced approximately 6 m above mean water level at a height roughly equivalent to previously dated mid-Holocene terraces and soils. Clay mineralogy of the soil formed in this transported regolith produced the usual semi-detrital/pedogenic distribution of 1:1 (Si:Al = 1:1), 2:1 and 2:1:1 clay minerals as well as primary minerals consisting of plagioclase feldspar, quartz, mica and calcite. Unexpectedly, the presence of moderate amounts of Ca-smectite in the Bk and Ck horizons, relative to a clay-mineral depleted parent material (Cuk), argues for a soil hydrological change affecting the wetting depth in the deposit. The presence of the uncommon 'maidenhair fern' (Adiantum pedantum) in the mass wasted deposit, a plant capable of high evapotranspiration, is interpreted as producing a bioclimatic disruption limiting soil water penetration to near root depth (wetting depth), thus producing a clay mineral anomaly.

  20. Desires, Need, Perceptions, and Knowledge of Assisted Reproductive Technologies of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Age in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimeng; Margolese, Shari; Yudin, Mark H; Raboud, Janet M; Diong, Christina; Hart, Trevor A; Shapiro, Heather M; Librach, Cliff; Gysler, Matt; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to assess the desire, need, perceptions, and knowledge of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) for women living with HIV (WLWHIV) and determine correlates of ART knowledge desire. WLWHIV of reproductive age were surveyed using the survey instrument "The HIV Pregnancy Planning Questionnaire" at HIV/AIDS service organizations across Ontario, Canada. Of our cohort of 500 WLWHIV, median age was 38, 88% were previously pregnant, 78% desired more information regarding ART, 59% were open to the idea of receiving ART, 39% felt they could access a sperm bank, and 17% had difficulties conceiving (self-reported). Age, African ethnicity, and residence in an urban center were correlated with desire for more ART information. Of participants, 50% wanted to speak to an obstetrician/gynecologist regarding pregnancy planning, and 74% regarded physicians as a main source of fertility service information. While the majority of participants in our cohort desire access to ART information, most do not perceive these services as readily accessible. Healthcare practitioners were viewed as main sources of information regarding fertility services and need to provide accurate information regarding access. Fertility service professionals need to be aware of the increasing demand for ART among WLWHIV. PMID:22957265

  1. Polychlorinated dioxins and furans in sediments at a site colonized by Dreissena in western Lake Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, C.H.; Howell, E.T.; Reiner, E.J.

    2000-02-01

    Potential impacts of Dreissena on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in sediment were investigated by comparing PCDD/PCDF levels in colonized sediment with levels in sediment in the same area that was not colonized but that was exposed to similar environmental conditions. Levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were also determined in Dreissena tissues. The particle size distribution of colonized sediment was characterized by silt-size material with peak abundance in the range of 7.5 to 20 {micro}m, whereas noncolonized sediment was coarser in nature (30--60 {micro}m). Total organic carbon (TOC) and concentrations of the PCDD/PCDF congener groups and individual 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers were greater in colonized sediment. A trend was observed toward decreasing concentrations of PCDF congener groups with increased chlorine substitution in mussel tissues in contrast to increasing concentrations of PCDF congener groups with increased chlorination in sediments. The trend in the PCDD congener group profile in mussel tissues appeared more similar to the profile in sediments. Areal estimates of toxicity equivalents (TEQ) in Dreissena biomass at Port Dalhousie, Ontario, Canada (approx. 1,300 pg/m{sup 2}) were about 0.9% of the TEQ in the top 3 cm of sediment (approx. 135,000 pg/m{sup 2}). Differences in particle size distribution and PCDD/PCDF levels between colonized and noncolonized sediment suggest that Dreissena may influence chemical and physical properties of sediment they colonize.

  2. Are clinicians being prepared to care for abused women? A survey of health professional education in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wathen, C Nadine; Tanaka, Masako; Catallo, Cristina; Lebner, Adrianne C; Friedman, M Kinneret; Hanson, Mark D; Freeman, Clare; Jack, Susan M; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2009-01-01

    Background The current project undertook a province-wide survey and environmental scan of educational opportunities available to future health care providers on the topic of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Methods A team of experts identified university and college programs in Ontario, Canada as potential providers of IPV education to students in health care professions at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. A telephone survey with contacts representing these programs was conducted between October 2005 and March 2006. The survey asked whether IPV-specific education was provided to learners, and if so, how and by whom. Results In total, 222 eligible programs in dentistry, medicine, nursing and other allied health professions were surveyed, and 95% (212/222) of programs responded. Of these, 57% reported offering some form of IPV-specific education, with undergraduate nursing (83%) and allied health (82%) programs having the highest rates. Fewer than half of undergraduate medical (43%) and dentistry (46%) programs offered IPV content. Postgraduate programs ranged from no IPV content provision (dentistry) to 41% offering content (nursing). Conclusion Significant variability exists across program areas regarding the methods for IPV education, its delivery and evaluation. The results of this project highlight that expectations for an active and consistent response by health care professionals to women experiencing the effects of violence may not match the realities of professional preparation. PMID:19575776

  3. Nonprescribed Hormone Use and Self-Performed Surgeries: “Do-It-Yourself” Transitions in Transgender Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Greta R.; Scanlon, Kyle; Kaay, Matthias; Travers, Robb; Travers, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the extent of nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries among transgender or transsexual (trans) people in Ontario, Canada. Methods. We present original survey research from the Trans PULSE Project. A total of 433 participants were recruited from 2009 to 2010 through respondent-driven sampling. We used a case series design to characterize those currently taking nonprescribed hormones and participants who had ever self-performed sex-reassignment surgeries. Results. An estimated 43.0% (95% confidence interval = 34.9, 51.5) of trans Ontarians were currently using hormones; of these, a quarter had ever obtained hormones from nonmedical sources (e.g., friend or relative, street or strangers, Internet pharmacy, herbals or supplements). Fourteen participants (6.4%; 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 9.0) reported currently taking nonprescribed hormones. Five indicated having performed or attempted surgical procedures on themselves (orchiectomy or mastectomy). Conclusions. Past negative experiences with providers, along with limited financial resources and a lack of access to transition-related services, may contribute to nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries. Promoting training initiatives for health care providers and jurisdictional support for more accessible services may help to address trans people’s specific needs. PMID:23948009

  4. Examining the Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behavior (TDIB) Model for Fertility Planning in Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena L.; Hart, Trevor A.; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of fertility behavior (i.e., trying to become pregnant) in a large representative sample of women living with HIV of reproductive age in Ontario, Canada. The Traits-Desires-Intentions-Behavior model was used to examine the key predictors of reproductive decision making and behavior. A total of 320 women living with HIV were included in the current analysis. The women living with HIV were between the ages of 18 and 52 (mean=37.23, SD=7.53), 56.4% had at least one child living in the home, over 40% identified as being of African ethnicity, and the average time since HIV diagnosis was 10.49 years (SD=5.71). In hierarchical multilevel analysis, perceived family support for trying to become pregnant, living in a large metropolitan city (i.e., Toronto), women's fertility desires, and fertility intentions were associated with fertility behavior (χ29=59.97, p<0.001). As only 10.6% of participants reported engaging in fertility-related behavior, while 57.5% intended a pregnancy in the future, identifying barriers to fertility and discrepancies between intentions and behaviors can support policy programs and assist health care providers to better facilitate the fertility goals of women living with HIV. PMID:25291213

  5. Tracking Crop Leaf Area Index and Chlorophyll Content Using RapidEye Data in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J.; Liu, J.; Ma, B.; Zhao, T.; Kovacs, J. M.; Jiao, X.; Dong, T.; Huffman, T.; Geng, X.; Walters, D.

    2014-12-01

    Information on crop phenological state such as flowering, maturing, drying, senescence, and harvesting is essential for crop production surveillance and yield prediction. Earth Observation data provide an important information source for monitoring crop development at various temporal and spatial scales. In particular, the availability of many high-spatial-resolution space sensors offers a powerful tool for precision farming. This study reports the results of a two-year (2012, 2013) study over spring wheat and canola fields using six different vegetation indices derived from the high-resolution (6.5m) RapidEye optical satellite data in northern Ontario, Canada. The study revealed that for both wheat and canola, significant relationships were observed between the ground-derived leaf area index (LAI) and all 6 vegetation indices tested. For spring wheat, the strongest relationship was found between LAI and the Modified Triangular Vegetation Index 2 (MTVI2), with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.95. For canola, a R2 of 0.92 was achieved. Strong relationships were also found between all six vegetation indices and the chlorophyll concentration index (CCI) measured in the fields using a CCM-200 device. The strongest correlation exists between CCI and the ratio of Modified the Chlorophyll Absorption Reflected Index (MCARI) and the Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), with an R2 of 0.86. It suggests that RapidEye data can be used to track field-scale crop LAI and monitor crop chlorophyll content.

  6. Defining Socially-Based Spatial Boundaries in the Region of Peel, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the project was to delineate a series of contiguous neighbourhood-based "Data Zones" within the Region of Peel (Ontario) for the purpose of health data analysis and dissemination. Zones were to be built on Census Tracts (N = 205) and obey a series of requirements defined by the Region of Peel. This paper explores a method that combines statistical analysis with ground-truthing, consultation, and the use of a decision tree. Data Census Tract data for Peel were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census Master file. Methods Following correlation analysis to reduce the data set, Principal Component Analysis was applied to the data set to reduce the complexity and derive an index. The Getis-Ord Gi*statistic was then applied to look for statistically significant clusters of like Census Tracts. A detailed decision tree for the amalgamation of remaining zones and ground-truthing with Peel staff verified the resulting zones. Results A total of 15 Data Zones that are similar with respect to socioeconomic and sociodemographic attributes and that met criteria defined by Peel were derived for the region. Conclusion The approach used in this analysis, which was bolstered by a series of checks and balances throughout the process, gives statistical validity to the defined zones and resulted in a robust series of Data Zones for use by Peel Public Health. We conclude by offering insight into alternative uses of the methodology, and limitations. PMID:21600012

  7. Search for chronic beryllium disease among sarcoidosis patients in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcos; Fritscher, Leandro G; Al-Musaed, Ahmed M; Balter, Meyer S; Hoffstein, Victor; Mazer, Bruce D; Maier, Lisa A; Liss, Gary M; Tarlo, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clinically similar to other granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis. It is often misdiagnosed if a thorough occupational history is not taken. When appropriate, a beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) need to be performed. We aimed to search for CBD among currently diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and to identify the occupations and exposures in Ontario leading to CBD. Questionnaire items included work history and details of possible exposure to beryllium. Participants who provided a history of previous work with metals underwent BeLPTs and an ELISPOT on the basis of having a higher pretest probability of CBD. Among 121 sarcoid patients enrolled, 87 (72%) reported no known previous metal dust or fume exposure, while 34 (28%) had metal exposure, including 17 (14%) with beryllium exposure at work or home. However, none of these 34 who underwent testing had positive test results. Self-reported exposure to beryllium or metals was relatively common in these patients with clinical sarcoidosis, but CBD was not confirmed using blood assays in this population. PMID:21400234

  8. Glacial marine sediments in the precambrian Gowganda formation at Whitefish Falls, Ontario (Canada)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1971-01-01

    Study of a well-exposed section of the Gowganda Formation at Whitefish Falls, Ontario, suggests criteria for the recognition of glacial marine sediments. Thickness of hundreds of feet, lateral continuity, faint internal stratification, sorted lenses of sandstone and conglomerate, and dropstones characterize much of the tillite. Thickness of hundreds of feet, lateral continuity, and marked development of irregular and lenticular laminae instead of varve structure characterize much of the argillite. These characteristics, together with evidence for a nearshore, marine-to-deltaic environment for the overlying beds, suggest a glacial marine interpretation even though no fossil evidence is available. Massive tillite, tillite containing faint stratification and lenses of sorted conglomerate and sandstone, and dropstone-bearing argillite, all of which interfinger, suggest a glacial marine environment composed of: (1) a subglacial facies; (2) a periglacial facies; and (3) a facies of marine ice rafting, respectively. Separation of the two tillite-bearing members by as much as 700 ft. of argillite containing no dropstones suggests two distinct ice ages during Gowganda time. ?? 1971.

  9. Intake of phytoestrogen foods and supplements among women recently diagnosed with breast cancer in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Beatrice A; Cotterchio, Michelle; Curca, Ioan A; Kreiger, Nancy; Harris, Shelley A; Kirsh, Victoria A; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are found in foods such as soy (isoflavones) and flaxseed (lignans), and certain botanical supplements. Their role in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer recurrence and treatment is controversial, and it is unknown how this affects intake among patients. The Ontario Cancer Registry was used to identify 417 population-based breast cancer cases (mean time from diagnosis was 57 days). A questionnaire was mailed to determine intake of phytoestrogen foods and supplements in the last 2 mo, changes since diagnosis and differences by ER tumor status or hormonal treatment. Of 278 (67%) respondents, 56% consumed soy foods, 39% consumed isoflavone-rich foods (tofu, soybeans, soy milk, soy nuts), and 70% ate lignan-rich foods, including flaxseed (33%). Only soy milk, flaxseed, and flaxseed bread were commonly consumed more than once/wk. Few patients (4%) took isoflavone (soy, red clover, kudzu, licorice, isoflavones) or lignan/flaxseed supplements. Since diagnosis, 17% started or stopped soy foods (most stopped); this was more prevalent among those receiving hormonal treatment (20%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 14, 26) than not (6%; 95% CI: 1, 12). No other differences by ER status or hormonal treatment were observed. Research is needed to confirm this and to explore influencing factors. PMID:22642930

  10. Contemporary (1979-1988) and inferred historical status of headwater lakes in North Central Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kelso, J R; Shaw, M A; Jeffries, D S

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-six headwater Canadian Shield lakes were repetitively sampled from 1979 to 88 to determine their response to changes in acidic deposition of the period. Annual wet sulphate loadings varied between 38 and 83 meq m(-2), with highest deposition in the late 1970s followed by somewhat lower but variable deposition in the 1980s. Median pH of the lakes increased 0.42 pH units from 1979 to 1985 and decreased by 0.15 units between 1985 and 1988. Short water renewal times (x=1.1 y) promoted rapid equilibration. Since lake were so responsive to changes in SO4(2-) inputs, they were at or near steady state at all times. Comparison of predicted original pH and ANC with 1979 data indicate a median decline of 0.45 pH units and a loss of 34 microeq litre(-1). ANC. Four of 9 lakes were found to be historically fishless, based on the continued presence of Chaoborus americanus in sediment cores. The remaining five lakes historically had fish populations, but fish were not collected in 1979 when pH ranged betwen 4.6 and 5.3. By 1987, fish species were found in five of these lakes where pH had increased on average by 0.9 pH units. Our data indicate that water quality improvements could allow for the reinvasion or resumption of recruitment for a significant number of Ontario lakes. PMID:15091929

  11. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature.

  12. The effect of temperature on arson incidence in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Kielasinska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Studies of crime and weather have largely excluded arson from empirical and theoretical consideration, yet weather could influence arson frequency over short time frames, influencing the motivation and activity of potential arsonists, as well as the physical possibility of fire ignition. This study aims to understand the role of weather on urban arson in order to determine its role in explaining short-term variations in arson frequency. We use data reported to the Ontario Fire Marshall's office of arson events in the City of Toronto between 1996 and 2007 to estimate the effect of temperature, precipitation, wind conditions and air pressure on arson events while controlling for the effects of holidays, weekends and other calendar-related events. We find that temperature has an independent association with daily arson frequency, as do precipitation and air pressure. In this study area, cold weather has a larger influence on arson frequency than hot weather. There is also some evidence that extremely hot and cold temperatures may be associated with lower day-time arson frequency, while night-time arson seems to have a simpler positive linear association with temperature. PMID:26362852

  13. The Impact of Private Insurance Coverage on Prescription Drug Use in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, Jillian; Cheng, Lucy; Allin, Sara; Law, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Canadians obtain prescription drug coverage through a patchwork of public insurance, private benefit plans and out-of-pocket payments. Prior evidence suggests that insurance coverage, in general, leads to higher utilization rates of essential medicines; it is unclear whether individuals with private insurance have better access to medicines. Using data from the 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey, we identified cohorts from Ontario who reported having been diagnosed by a physician with asthma, high blood pressure or diabetes. Using propensity score stratification techniques, we compared drug utilization of individuals holding private insurance with that of individuals holding either public insurance (for those aged over 65 years) or no insurance (aged under 65 years). In five out of six comparisons, individuals with private insurance were more likely to take prescribed drugs than those without. Raw differences in the percentage of patients taking medicines ranged from 0.1 to 8.1%. Ontarians with chronic conditions holding private drug insurance are more likely to use prescription drugs than those who do not. Whether these inequities result in health outcome differences remains unknown. PMID:26142359

  14. Saturation of ecosystems with toxic metals in Sudbury basin, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nriagu, J O; Wong, H K; Lawson, G; Daniel, P

    1998-11-10

    Mining and resource recovery activities have not been kind to ecosystems in the Sudbury basin, Ontario. The combination of logging, smelting, fires and erosion resulted in an unusual anthropogenic ecosystem of denuded barren land with lifeless lakes, or a micro-desert. Since the 1970s, however, the concerted efforts made to reduce the emissions and rehabilitate parts of the degraded ecosystem have resulted in improvements in water quality, and recoveries in phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and fish communities but have had little impact on toxic metal concentrations in many lakes. We show that most of the catchments in the Sudbury basin have become saturated with Cu and Ni, and some with Zn and Pb. It is estimated that mobilization of metals stored in soils and glacial overburden by surface runoff, groundwater drainage and wind re-working of tailings can sustain the high concentrations of Cu and Ni in many lakes for well over 1000 years. Strategies to immobilize the pollutant metals in the watershed rather than further emission controls may be required for dealing with high levels of toxic metals in surface waters of the saturated ecosystems. PMID:9861730

  15. Late Wisconsinan sub-glacial clastic intrusive sheets along Lake Erie bluffs, at Bradtville, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreimanis, Aleksis; Rappol, Martin

    1997-07-01

    Numerous clastic intrusive sheets, a few decimetres to more than 16 m long, 1-120 cm thick, and extending one to more than 25 m laterally, occur along a 350 m long section of the late Wisconsinan Catfish Creek Drift in the Lake Erie bluffs at Bradtville, southwestern Ontario. Most of them are downglacier-dipping dikes, the largest one terminating in the underlying middle Wisconsinan Tyrconnell Formation. Most dikes strike NNE-SSW, at right angles to the local direction of glacier movement during the deposition of Catfish Creek Drift. The tops of some of them are truncated or displaced downglacier by shearing. The main concentration of clastic intrusive sheets is on the upglacier side of a glaciotectonically folded anticline of Tyrconnell Formation clays and silts underlying the Catfish Creek Drift. The host sediments are Catfish Creek till, gravel, sand and silt, and Tyrconnell Formation silt and clay. Most intrusive sheets, particularly the small to medium ones, consist of massive to crudely laminated sand and silt, intruded from below by a dewatering process. The largest dike reflects in its composition mainly the adjoining or higher-lying host-sediment materials, and its main part was formed by downward infilling, or by gravity flows into an open fracture. The large dike is flanked by small laminated silty sand sheets and several small apophyses, some of them injected downward and sideways, others upward by dewatering. The clastic intrusive sheets were formed under a moving glacier, the Erie lobe, probably both at the beginning and towards the end of the deposition of Catfish Creek till. Their location and position was predetermined by glaciotectonically induced listric planar structures and zones of weakness, mainly tension fractures, that strike transverse to glacier movement and dip downglacier and also by confinement of pore-water in a permeable sediment wedge between the less pervious Tyrconnell Formation and massive Catfish Creek basal till.

  16. Attitudes toward waste to energy facilities and impacts on diversion in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Jamie; Ho, Yvonne; Rollins, Yvonne; Maclaren, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Despite progress in residential waste diversion, residual waste - that fraction which cannot be recycled or composted - must continue to be managed by municipalities. Zero waste and environmental groups worry that waste-to-energy (WtE) incinerators discourage diversion, while both incineration and landfill have been stigmatized in the popular consciousness such that WtE incinerators in particular are being cancelled more often than they are approved. We conducted a mail-back survey of 217 residents in Toronto, Durham and Peel, Ontario, to understand attitudes toward diversion, levels of support for WtE incineration and WtE landfill (landfill gas recovery) facilities, and predictors of facility support. Contrary to experiences elsewhere, diversion seems threatened by WtE when measured as attitudes with 18%, and 14% agreeing that they would be less inclined to divert recyclable/compostable materials if they knew materials went to a WtE landfill or incinerator. When forced to choose between four options landfill or incineration with and without energy recovery, WtE incineration is most preferred (65%) and landfill without WtE is the least preferred option (61%). However, measurement has a large influence on public opinion results in the sense that support for WtE incineration drops to 43% when asked as a "vote in favor" question and to only 36% when measured as a 4-item index of support. When the indexes of support for landfill and WtE incineration are modeled, the prominence of odor in the landfill model distinguishes it from the WtE incinerator model which is dominated more by community and concern about health effects. Implications for policy are discussed, particularly mandatory diversion targets to accompany WtE. PMID:26951720

  17. A Comparative Organic and Inorganic Geochemical Study of Bottom Sediments, Lake Ontario, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruge, M. A.; Coakley, J. P.; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Lewis, C. F.

    2001-05-01

    Three sediment cores roughly 1 m in length were collected in Lake Ontario near the mid-point between Toronto and the mouth of the Niagara River, in approximately 100 m water depth. Subsamples of the core material were analyzed for major and trace elements, as well as 210Pb. They were also subjected to molecular-level organic analysis by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The target organic analytes were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as compounds known to be characteristic of degraded aquatic organic matter. Py-GC/MS was performed using a rapid GC program and, for increased sensitivity to the target analytes, selected ion monitoring. Two principal geochemical trends are apparent. The first trend is one of continued organic diagenesis over the millennial timespan of each core. The organic matter becomes increasingly aromatized with age and there is also a loss of pyrrole and nitrile nitrogen. The second (and most noticeable) trend is the overprint of human influence on the lake environment. There has been a roughly five-fold increase in heavy metal concentrations (notably Zn, Pb, Cd) over background levels since the early 20th century. Relative concentrations of combustion-derived 5- and 6-ring PAHs (such as benzo[e]pyrene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene) also increase sharply during the same time period. This sediment contamination is apparent even though the core sites are > 20 km from Toronto. Thus, the uppermost sediments in the cores document significant anthropogenic impact, even in deep waters fairly distant from urbanized shore areas. It is likely that aeolian transport of particulate pollutants is (at minimum) a contributing factor.

  18. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0-9 years old) and older adults (55-74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases. PMID:25171252

  19. Population-Based Passive Tick Surveillance and Detection of Expanding Foci of Blacklegged Ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme Disease Agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Nelder, Mark P.; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N.; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0–9 years old) and older adults (55–74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases. PMID:25171252

  20. Radiochemistry Lab Decommissioning and Dismantlement. AECL, Chalk River Labs, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Stephen

    2008-01-15

    Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) was originally founded in the mid 1940's to perform research in radiation and nuclear areas under the Canadian Defense Department. In the mid 50's The Canadian government embarked on several research and development programs for the development of the Candu Reactor. AECL was initially built as a temporary site and is now faced with many redundant buildings. Prior to 2004 small amounts of Decommissioning work was in progress. Many reasons for deferring decommissioning activities were used with the predominant ones being: 1. Reduction in radiation doses to workers during the final dismantlement, 2. Development of a long-term solution for the management of radioactive wastes in Canada, 3. Financial constraints presented by the number of facilities shutdown that would require decommissioning funds and the absence of an approved funding strategy. This has led to the development of a comprehensive decommissioning plan that is all inclusive of AECL's current and legacy liabilities. Canada does not have a long-term disposal site; therefore waste minimization becomes the driving factor behind decontamination for decommissioning before and during dismantlement. This decommissioning job was a great learning experience for decommissioning and the associated contractors who worked on this project. Throughout the life of the project there was a constant focus on waste minimization. This focus was constantly in conflict with regulatory compliance primarily with respect to fire regulations and protecting the facility along with adjacent facilities during the decommissioning activities. Discrepancies in historical documents forced the project to treat every space as a contaminated space until proven differently. Decommissioning and dismantlement within an operating site adds to the complexity of the tasks especially when it is being conducted in the heart of the plant. This project was very successful with no lost time accidents in over one hundred

  1. Identification of potential regional sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in Windsor, Ontario, Canada using hybrid receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Akhtar, U. S.

    2009-11-01

    Windsor (Ontario) - the automotive capital of Canada does not have any significant mercury (Hg) sources. However, Windsor experiences trans-boundary air pollution as it is located immediately downwind of industrialized regions of the United States of America. A study was conducted in 2007 aimed to identify the potential regional sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and investigate the effects of regional sources and other factors on seasonal variability of TGM concentrations in Windsor. TGM concentration was measured at the University of Windsor campus using a Tekran® 2537A Hg vapour analyzer. An annual mean of 2.02±1.63 ng/m3 was observed in 2007. The average TGM concentration was high in the summer (2.48 ng/m3) and winter (2.17 ng/m3), compared to spring (1.88 ng/m3) and fall (1.76 ng/m3). Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF) was used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of TGM in Windsor. The results of PSCF were analyzed in conjunction with the Hg emissions inventory of North America (by state/province) to identify regions affecting Windsor. In addition to annual modeling, seasonal PSCF modeling was also conducted. The potential source region was identified between 24-61° N and 51-143° W. Annual PSCF modeling identified major sources southwest of Windsor, stretching from Ohio to Texas. The emissions inventory also supported the findings, as Hg emissions were high in those regions. Results of seasonal PSCF modeling were analyzed to find the combined effects of regional sources, meteorological conditions, and surface reemissions, on intra-annual variability of Hg concentrations. It was found that the summer and winter highs of atmospheric Hg can be attributed to areas where large numbers of coal fired power plants are located in the USA. Weak atmospheric dispersion due to low winds and high reemission from surfaces due to higher temperatures contributed to high concentrations in the summer. In the

  2. Effects of geodemographic profiles on healthcare service utilization: a case study on cardiac care in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although literature has associated geodemographic factors with healthcare service utilization, little is known about how these factors — such as population size, age profile, service accessibility, and educational profile — interact to influence service utilization. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining both the direct and the moderating effects of geodemographic profiles on the utilization of cardiac surgery services. Methods We aggregated secondary data obtained from Statistics Canada and Cardiac Care Network of Ontario to derive the geodemographic profiles of Ontario and the corresponding cardiac surgery service utilization in the years between 2004 and 2007. We conducted a two-step test using Partial Least Squares-based structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships between geodemographic profiles and healthcare service utilization. Results Population size and age profile have direct positive effects on service utilization (β=0.737, p<0.01; β=0.284, p<0.01, respectively), whereas service accessibility is negatively associated with service utilization (β=−0.210, p<0.01). Service accessibility decreases the effect of population size on service utilization (β=−0.606, p<0.01), and educational profile weakens the effects of population size and age profile on service utilization (β=−0.595, p<0.01; β=−0.286, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions In this study, we found that (1) service accessibility has a moderating effect on the relationship between population size and service utilization, and (2) educational profile has moderating effects on both the relationship between population size and service utilization, and the relationship between age profile and service utilization. Our findings suggest that reducing regional disparities in healthcare service utilization should take into account the interaction of geodemographic factors such as service accessibility and education. In addition, the allocation of

  3. Risk factors for Recurrent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Population Study in Ontario, Canada with 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    FRCSC, David Wasserstein; Khoshbin, Amir; Dwyer, Tim; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Gandhi, Rajiv; Mahomed, Nizar; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is routinely performed to treat symptomatic instability. Despite being a common procedure, significant variation persists in technique and graft choice. How patient, provider and surgical factors influence the risk of revision or contralateral primary ACLR has not been investigated using administrative data. The goal of our study was to define the rate and risk factors for ACL re-operation in Ontario. Methods: All primary elective ACLR performed in Ontario, Canada from July 2003 to March 2008 in patients aged 15 to 60 years were identified via billing, diagnosis and procedural databases. The main outcomes were revision and contralateral ACLR, sought until January 2012. Patient factors (age, gender, co-morbidity, income quintile, and length of index hospital admission), provider factors (surgeon volume, academic hospital status) and surgical factors (allograft vs. autograft; fixation: screw, button, staple; concomitant operative procedures) were used as covariates in a Cox Proportional Hazards survivorship model to generate Hazard Ratios (HR) with confidence intervals (alpha 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves to revision were generated. Results: A total of 12,967 ACLR with a mean follow-up of 5.2 years were identified. The revision rate was 2.6% [after a median 2.72 years (interquartile range 1.38, 4.11)]. The rate of primary contralateral ACLR was 4.6% [after a median 2.71 years (interquartile range 1.49, 4.22)]. In the Cox model, younger age [15-19 years; HR=2.1 (95% CI: 1.5-2.9), p<0.001], ACLR performed at an academic hospital [HR=1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.1), p<0.001] and the use of allograft [HR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6), p=0.02] significantly increased the risk of revision ACLR. The K-M curves to revision ACLR for allograft and autograft demonstrated equivalent survivorship for approximately 3 years, after which allograft ACLR were more commonly revised (Figure 1). Only younger age [15-19 years; HR=2

  4. Analyzing remote sensing geobotanical trends in Quetico Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada, using digital elevation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Timothy A.; Campagna, David J.; Levandowski, Don W.; Cetin, Haluk; Evans, Carla S.

    1991-01-01

    A 10 x 13-km area in Quetico Provincial Park, Canada has been studied using a digital elevation model to separate different drainage classes and to examine the influence of site factors and lithology on vegetation. Landsat Thematic Mapper data have been classified into six forest classes of varying deciduous-coniferous cover through nPDF, a procedure based on probability density functions. It is shown that forests growing on mafic lithologies are enriched in deciduous species, compared to those growing on granites. Of the forest classes found on mafics, the highest coniferous component was on north facing slopes, and the highest deciduous component on south facing slopes. Granites showed no substantial variation between site classes. The digital elevation derived site data is considered to be an important tool in geobotanical investigations.

  5. Distribution of Ticks and the Risk of Lyme Disease and Other Tick-Borne Pathogens of Public Health Significance in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clow, Katie M; Ogden, Nicholas H; Lindsay, L Robbin; Michel, Pascal; Pearl, David L; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-04-01

    Over the past two decades, the northward spread of Ixodes scapularis across Ontario, Canada, has accelerated and the risk of Lyme disease has increased. Active surveillance is a recognized and effective method for detecting reproducing populations of I. scapularis. In this study, we conducted field sampling consistent with an active surveillance approach from May to October 2014 at 104 sites in central, eastern, and southern Ontario to determine the current distribution of I. scapularis and other tick species, and enhance our understanding of the geographic risk associated with Borrelia burgdorferi and other tick-borne pathogens of public health significance in this region. I. scapularis was present at 20 of the 104 sites visited. Individuals of the tick species Dermacentor variabilis, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, and Ixodes dentatus were also collected. I. scapularis was positive by PCR for B. burgdorferi at five sites. These sites formed a significant spatial cluster in eastern Ontario. No ticks were PCR positive for Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. This study provides an up-to-date picture of the distribution of I. scapularis and other tick species, and the risk of B. burgdorferi and other pathogens of public health significance in central, eastern, and southern Ontario. This information may allow for more effective surveillance efforts and public health interventions for Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases in this region. PMID:26870937

  6. Enigmatic diamonds in Archean calc-alkaline lamprophyres of Wawa, southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Stefano, Andrea; Lefebvre, Nathalie; Kopylova, Maya

    2006-02-01

    A suite of 80 macrodiamonds recovered from volcaniclastic breccia of Wawa (southern Ontario) was characterized on the basis of morphology, nitrogen content and aggregation, cathodoluminescence (CL), and mineral inclusions. The host calc-alkaline lamprophyric breccias were emplaced at 2.68-2.74 Ga, contemporaneously with voluminous bimodal volcanism of the Michipicoten greenstone belt. The studied suite of diamonds differs from the vast majority of diamond suites found worldwide. First, the suite is hosted by calc-alkaline lamprophyric volcanics rather than by kimberlite or lamproite. Second, the host volcanic rock is amongst the oldest known diamondiferous rocks on Earth, and has experienced regional metamorphism and deformation. Finally, most diamonds show yellow-orange-red CL and contain mineral inclusions not in equilibrium with each other or their host diamond. The majority of the diamonds in the Wawa suite are colorless, weakly resorbed, octahedral single crystals and aggregates. The diamonds contain 0-740 ppm N and show two modes of N aggregation at 0-30 and 60-95% B-centers suggesting mantle storage at 1,100-1,170°C. Cathodoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy shows that emission peaks present in orange CL stones do not likely result from irradiation or single substitutional N, in contrast to other diamonds with red CL. The diamonds contain primary inclusions of olivine (Fo92 and Fo89), omphacite, orthopyroxene (En93), pentlandite, albite, and An-rich plagioclase. These peridotitic and eclogitic minerals are commonly found within single diamonds in a mixed paragenesis which also combines shallow and deep phases. This apparent disequilibrium can be explained by effective small-scale mixing of subducted oceanic crust and mantle rocks in fast “cold” plumes ascending from the top of the slabs in convergent margins. Alternatively, the diamonds could have formed in the pre-2.7-2.9 Ga cratonic mantle and experienced subsequent alteration of syngenetic inclusions

  7. Holocene vegetation histories from three sites in the Tundra of Northwestern Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, K. ); Garralla, S.

    1992-11-01

    Two pollen diagrams from lakes north of treeline in northwestern Quebec indicate that Picea never extended north of its present-day limit during the past 6000 yr BP. Alnus crispa was slightly more abundant around 5000 BP, but there are few major changes in the vegetation of the region during the Holocene. A third site in the tundra along Hudson Bay has a slightly longer sequence (7000 yr BP) which indicates more open conditions in the early and recent part of the record. Picea may have been more abundant locally around 3000 BP. Few major changes in these diagrams can be unequivocally attributed to local changes in plant abundance; changes in tree and shrub pollen abundance parallel those seen south of treeline.

  8. Stemflow and soil water recharge during rainfall in a red pine chronosequence on the Oak Ridges Moraine, southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttle, J. M.; Toye, H. J.; Greenwood, W. J.; Bialkowski, R.

    2014-09-01

    Stemflow focusses water delivery to the forest floor in a relatively small area surrounding the tree bole, with the potential to enhance soil water contents and water recharge relative to more distal sites beneath the canopy. These stemflow fluxes may decrease as a given tree species ages due to changes in branch orientation and bark roughness, suggesting that the relative contribution of stemflow to water recharge near the bole will decline with time. The hypothesis that stemflow fluxes decline with tree age was tested in a chronosequence of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) stands in a managed forest in southern Ontario, Canada, and stemflow contributions to soil water recharge below 1 m depth were quantified. Throughfall, stemflow and sub-canopy soil water contents (0.1 m and 1.5 m from the tree bole to 1 m depth) in stands ranging from 28 to 80 years in age were studied from late-Spring to Fall in 2012, supplemented by artificial irrigations of stemflow to examine short-term soil wetting at the two distances from the bole. The hypothesized decline in stemflow with increasing tree age was not supported, and canopy cover variations and forest management exerted a greater control on inter-stand differences in stemflow fluxes. Stemflow contributions generally resulted in greater soil water recharge below 1 m depth at 0.1 m from the tree bole compared to the 1.5 m distance. This enhanced recharge was greatest for the youngest stand and differences in recharge between the 0.1 m and 1.5 m distances from the bole were likely not significant for stands between 40 and 80 years of age. Nevertheless, the relative contribution of stemflow to soil water recharge may increase in this managed forest as red pine stands give way to a mixed hardwood-conifer forest, due to greater stemflow fluxes from hardwood species in this landscape.

  9. Paleomagnetism of the ~1.1 Ga Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada): Implications for Proterozoic geomagnetic field morphology and plate velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakov, Evgeniy V.; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Diehl, Jimmy F.

    2014-12-01

    We report new paleomagnetic data from the ~1108 Ma intrusive Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada) to investigate the apparent reversal asymmetry observed in some Midcontinent Rift (MCR) rocks. The rocks of eastern and central part of the complex are reversely magnetized with a group mean direction of D = 114.8°, I = -63.7° (α95 = 3.6°, N = 30). The corresponding paleomagnetic pole at Plat = 47.2°N, Plong = 206.5°E (A95 = 4.8°) is located close to the paleomagnetic poles from nearly coeval reversely magnetized rocks of the MCR system, including the lower lava flows at Mamainse Point. The rocks of western part of the complex are normally magnetized with a group mean direction (D = 298.0°, I = 56.9°, α95 = 5.8°, N = 10) that passes the reversal test with respect to the reversed group mean direction. Our results do not support the previous model in which the complex was emplaced during two periods of reversed geomagnetic field polarity separated by a period of normal polarity and hence encompasses two geomagnetic reversals. Instead, our new data indicate that the Coldwell Complex records only two polarity intervals separated by a symmetrical reversal at ~1102-1105 Ma. This reversal is likely equivalent to the lowermost reversal recorded at Mamainse Point and provides further evidence that the apparent reversal asymmetry reflects a plate motion rather than a persistent nondipole field geometry. Together with a high-quality data from the ~1098 Ma North Shore Volcanics, our data indicate a rapid velocity of Laurentia at ~25 ± 4 cm/yr. The fast plate motion may reflect a decreased mantle drag due to vigorous mantle indicated by widespread intraplate magmatism at ~1.1 Ga.

  10. Drivers of Change in a 7300-Year Holocene Diatom Record from the Hemi-Boreal Region of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kristen K; Medeiros, Andrew S; Finkelstein, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    A Holocene lake sediment record spanning the past 7300 years from Wishart Lake in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in the Hemi-Boreal of central Ontario, Canada, was used to evaluate the potential drivers of long-term change in diatom assemblages at this site. An analysis of diatom assemblages found that benthic and epiphytic taxa dominated the mid-Holocene (7300-4000 cal yr BP), indicating shallow, oligotrophic, circum-neutral conditions, with macrophytes present. A significant shift in diatom assemblages towards more planktonic species (mainly Cyclotella sensu lato, but also several species of Aulacoseira, and Tabellaria flocculosa) occurred ~4000 cal yr BP. This change likely reflects an increase in lake level, coincident with the onset of a more strongly positive moisture balance following the drier climates of the middle Holocene, established by numerous regional paleoclimate records. Pollen-inferred regional changes in vegetation around 4000 yrs BP, including an increase in Betula and other mesic taxa, may have also promoted changes in diatom assemblages through watershed processes mediated by the chemistry of runoff. A more recent significant change in limnological conditions is marked by further increases in Cyclotella sensu lato beginning in the late 19th century, synchronous with the Ambrosia pollen rise and increases in sediment bulk density, signaling regional and local land clearance at the time of Euro-Canadian settlement (1880 AD). In contrast to the mid-Holocene increase in planktonic diatoms, the modern increase in Cyclotella sensu lato likely indicates a response to land use and vegetation change, and erosion from the watershed, rather than a further increase in water level. The results from Wishart Lake illustrate the close connection between paleoclimate change, regional vegetation, watershed processes, and diatom assemblages and also provides insight into the controls on abundance of Cyclotella sensu lato, a diatom taxonomic group which has shown

  11. Late Quaternary seismo-stratigraphy of Lake Wanapitei, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: Arguments for a possible meteorite impact origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazorek, Michael; Eyles, Nick; Eyles, Carolyn; Doughty, Mike; L'Heureux, Elizabeth; Milkereit, Berndt

    2006-12-01

    Lake Wanapitei (132.75 km2) fills what has been identified as an Eocene (c. 37 Ma) meteorite impact basin in the Canadian Shield near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The area was glaciated many times during the Pleistocene and the basin lies immediately north of the prominent Cartier Moraine built during the last glaciation by the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet some 11,000 years ago. Study of the deeper geophysics of the basin using magnetic and gravity techniques, and confirmation of its origin, is hampered by lack of data regarding water depths, the form of the bedrock surface and the thickness and character of glacial and postglacial sediment. To this end, more than 300 km of high-resolution single channel seismic chirp and 200 kHz bathymetric data were collected from the basin in the summer of 2002. Water depths reach a maximum of 118 m and acoustic basement is defined by a glacially scoured bedrock surface. The overlying Pleistocene sediment fill exceeds 35 m in thickness and consists of a lowermost late-glacial succession of rhythmically laminated silty clays deposited when the basin was flooded by a deep and regionally extensive ice dammed water body (Glacial Lake Algonquin). Truncation of the upper surface of this succession across large parts of the lake floor records the drainage of Lake Algonquin and the isolation of Wanapitei Lake as a separate water body. Overlying Holocene sediment is up to 10 m thick but is markedly discontinuous and commonly occurs as mounded ‘drifts’ reflecting strong bottom currents and low inputs of modern sediment. The presence of apparently undisturbed Precambrian bedrock below large portions of the lake basin places significant constraints on the dimensions of any meteorite impact structure.

  12. Geography, Deer, and Host Biodiversity Shape the Pattern of Lyme Disease Emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K.; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K.; Leighton, Patrick A.; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Jardine, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

  13. Task shifting in the provision of home and social care in Ontario, Canada: implications for quality of care.

    PubMed

    Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Zeytinoglu, Isik; Plenderleith, Jennifer; Barken, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Growing healthcare costs have caused home-care providers to look for more efficient use of healthcare resources. Task shifting is suggested as a strategy to reduce the costs of delivering home-care services. Task shifting refers to the delegation or transfer of tasks from regulated healthcare professionals to home-care workers (HCWs). The purpose of this paper is to explore the impacts of task shifting on the quality of care provided to older adults from the perspectives of home healthcare workers. This qualitative study was completed in collaboration with a large home and community care organisation in Ontario, Canada, in 2010-2011. Using a purposive sampling strategy, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 home healthcare workers including HCWs, home-care worker supervisors, nurses and therapists. Study participants reported that the most common skills transferred or delegated to HCWs were transfers, simple wound care, exercises, catheterisation, colostomies, compression stockings, G-tube feeding and continence care. A thematic analysis of the data revealed mixed opinions on the impacts of task shifting on the quality of care. HCWs and their supervisors, more often than nurses and therapists, felt that task shifting improved the quality of care through the provision of more consistent care; the development of trust-based relationships with clients; and because task shifting reduced the number of care providers entering the client's home. Nurses followed by therapists, as well as some supervisors and HCWs, expressed concerns that task shifting might compromise the quality of care because HCWs lacked the knowledge, training and education necessary for more complex tasks, and that scheduling problems might leave clients with inconsistent care once tasks are delegated or transferred. Policy implications for regulating bodies, employers, unions and educators are discussed. PMID:25471361

  14. Primary Care Physician Panel Size and Quality of Care: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dahrouge, Simone; Hogg, William; Younger, Jaime; Muggah, Elizabeth; Russell, Grant; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the number of patients under a primary care physician’s care (panel size) and primary care quality indicators. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of fee-for-service and capitated interprofessional and non-interprofessional primary health care practices in Ontario, Canada between April 2008 and March 2010, encompassing 4,195 physicians with panel sizes ≥1,200 serving 8.3 million patients. Data was extracted from multiple linked, health-related administrative databases and covered 16 quality indicators spanning 5 dimensions of care: access, continuity, comprehensiveness, and evidence-based indicators of cancer screening and chronic disease management. RESULTS The likelihood of being up-to-date on cervical, colorectal, and breast cancer screening showed relative decreases of 7.9% (P <.001), 5.9% (P = .01), and 4.6% (P <.001), respectively, with increasing panel size (from 1,200 to 3,900). Eight chronic care indicators (4 medication-based and 4 screening-based) showed no significant association with panel size. The likelihood of individuals with a new diagnosis of congestive heart failure having an echocardiogram, however, increased by a relative 8.1% (P <.001) with higher panel size. Increasing panel size was also associated with a 10.8% relative increase in hospitalization rates for ambulatory-care–sensitive conditions (P = .04) and a 10.8% decrease in non-urgent emergency department visits (P = .004). Continuity was highest with medium panel sizes (P <.001), and comprehensiveness had a small decrease (P = .03) with increasing panel size. CONCLUSIONS Increasing panel size was associated with small decreases in cancer screening, continuity, and comprehensiveness, but showed no consistent relationships with chronic disease management or access indicators. We found no panel size threshold above which quality of care suffered. PMID:26755780

  15. Drivers of Change in a 7300-Year Holocene Diatom Record from the Hemi-Boreal Region of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kristen K.; Medeiros, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    A Holocene lake sediment record spanning the past 7300 years from Wishart Lake in the Turkey Lakes Watershed in the Hemi-Boreal of central Ontario, Canada, was used to evaluate the potential drivers of long-term change in diatom assemblages at this site. An analysis of diatom assemblages found that benthic and epiphytic taxa dominated the mid-Holocene (7300–4000 cal yr BP), indicating shallow, oligotrophic, circum-neutral conditions, with macrophytes present. A significant shift in diatom assemblages towards more planktonic species (mainly Cyclotella sensu lato, but also several species of Aulacoseira, and Tabellaria flocculosa) occurred ~4000 cal yr BP. This change likely reflects an increase in lake level, coincident with the onset of a more strongly positive moisture balance following the drier climates of the middle Holocene, established by numerous regional paleoclimate records. Pollen-inferred regional changes in vegetation around 4000 yrs BP, including an increase in Betula and other mesic taxa, may have also promoted changes in diatom assemblages through watershed processes mediated by the chemistry of runoff. A more recent significant change in limnological conditions is marked by further increases in Cyclotella sensu lato beginning in the late 19th century, synchronous with the Ambrosia pollen rise and increases in sediment bulk density, signaling regional and local land clearance at the time of Euro-Canadian settlement (1880 AD). In contrast to the mid-Holocene increase in planktonic diatoms, the modern increase in Cyclotella sensu lato likely indicates a response to land use and vegetation change, and erosion from the watershed, rather than a further increase in water level. The results from Wishart Lake illustrate the close connection between paleoclimate change, regional vegetation, watershed processes, and diatom assemblages and also provides insight into the controls on abundance of Cyclotella sensu lato, a diatom taxonomic group which has shown

  16. Seasonal Dynamics in Runoff Generation, Flowpaths and Phosphorus Mobilization From Reduced-till Agricultural Fields in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrae, M. L.; van Esbroeck, C.; Brunke, R.; McKague, K.

    2014-12-01

    Reduced tillage systems used in agriculture have been shown to decrease losses of particulate phosphorus (P), but may increase the risk of dissolved P transport in some landscapes. Most of our knowledge of P losses from agricultural systems is based on observations made during the frost-free season and little is known about winter processes. Given the magnitude of the spring freshet in many regions, it is important to characterize P dynamics during this period. Discharge and P transport in overland flow and subsurface (tile) drainage were monitored at three reduced-till fields in southern Ontario, Canada for 18 months to (1) quantify runoff and P loads from fields; (2) characterize seasonality in the relative contributions of tile drainage and overland flow to runoff and P loads, and (3) demonstrate variable responses among different event types. Transport pathways were active throughout the non-growing season (NGS) and this period accounted for the majority of annual P loads over the study period. Drainage tiles were the dominant hydrologic pathway from fields throughout the study period, but were a small source of P when compared to P loss in overland flow. Overland flow was predominantly observed during winter thaws when ground frost was present. However, the magnitude and speciation of P losses during individual winter events were variable, and, were governed by a combination of antecedent conditions and precipitation characteristics. Given the importance of the NGS to annual P losses, we suggest that management steps should be taken to minimize the risk of losses during this period.

  17. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia coli Populations in the South Nation River Drainage Basin, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lyautey, Emilie; Lu, Zexun; Lapen, David R.; Wilkes, Graham; Scott, Andrew; Berkers, Tanya; Edge, Thomas A.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and diversity of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface waters from multiple watersheds within the South Nation River basin in eastern Ontario, Canada. The basin is composed of mixed but primarily agricultural land uses. From March 2004 to November 2007, a total of 2,004 surface water samples were collected from 24 sampling sites. E. coli densities ranged from undetectable to 1.64 × 105 CFU 100 ml−1 and were correlated with stream order and proximity to livestock production systems. The diversity of 21,307 E. coli isolates was characterized using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR), allowing for the identification of as many as 7,325 distinct genotypes, without capturing all of the diversity. The community was temporally and spatially dominated by a few dominant genotypes (clusters of more than 500 isolates) and several genotypes of intermediary abundance (clustering between 10 and 499 isolates). Simpson diversity indices, assessed on a normalized number of isolates per sample, ranged from 0.050 to 0.668. Simpson indices could be statistically discriminated on the basis of year and stream order, but land use, discharge, weather, and water physical-chemical properties were not statistically important discriminators. The detection of Campylobacter species was associated with statistically lower Simpson indices (greater diversity; P < 0.05). Waterborne E. coli isolates from genotypes of dominant and intermediary abundance were clustered with isolates obtained from fecal samples collected in the study area over the same period, and 90% of the isolates tested proved to share genotypes with fecal isolates. Overall, our data indicated that the densities and distribution of E. coli in these mixed-use watersheds were linked to stream order and livestock-based land uses. Waterborne E. coli populations that were distinct from fecal isolates were detected and, on this basis, were possibly naturalized E. coli strains. PMID

  18. Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Werden, Lisa; Barker, Ian K; Bowman, Jeff; Gonzales, Emily K; Leighton, Patrick A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    In the Thousand Islands region of eastern Ontario, Canada, Lyme disease is emerging as a serious health risk. The factors that influence Lyme disease risk, as measured by the number of blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) vectors infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, are complex and vary across eastern North America. Despite study sites in the Thousand Islands being in close geographic proximity, host communities differed and both the abundance of ticks and the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection in them varied among sites. Using this archipelago in a natural experiment, we examined the relative importance of various biotic and abiotic factors, including air temperature, vegetation, and host communities on Lyme disease risk in this zone of recent invasion. Deer abundance and temperature at ground level were positively associated with tick abundance, whereas the number of ticks in the environment, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection, and the number of infected nymphs all decreased with increasing distance from the United States, the presumed source of this new endemic population of ticks. Higher species richness was associated with a lower number of infected nymphs. However, the relative abundance of Peromyscus leucopus was an important factor in modulating the effects of species richness such that high biodiversity did not always reduce the number of nymphs or the prevalence of B. burgdorferi infection. Our study is one of the first to consider the interaction between the relative abundance of small mammal hosts and species richness in the analysis of the effects of biodiversity on disease risk, providing validation for theoretical models showing both dilution and amplification effects. Insights into the B. burgdorferi transmission cycle in this zone of recent invasion will also help in devising management strategies as this important vector-borne disease expands its range in North America. PMID:24416435

  19. Paleoproterozoic paleosol formation, Schreiber Beach, Ontario, Canada: Evidence for a warm, humid continental climate at ca.1.9 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, A.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    We report the occurrence of a new subaerial weathering profile below a Paleoproterozoic unconformity separating ca. 2.7 Ga pillow basalts and ca. 1.88 Ga Gunflint Formation and basal conglomerates at Schreiber Beach, Ontario, Canada. Rocks at Schreiber Beach are characterized by pillow cores, pillow rims, hyaloclastites, weathered red basalts, and weathered brown to green basalts. There are gradual textural, mineralogical, and geochemical transitions from unweathered pillow basalts to intensely weathered hematite-bearing basalts with stratigraphic height, consistent with uplift and subaerial weathering of Neorachean greenstones prior to deposition of the Gunflint Formation. Pillow basalts underwent seafloor hydrothermal alteration and greenschist facies regional metamorphism in the Neoarchean. Following the subaerial weathering, they were buried and re-metamorphosed to greenschist facies in the Paleoproterozoic. Pillow rims and hyaloclastites are characterized by moderate losses or gains of many major and trace elements during Neoarchean seafloor alteration. Alteration of these rocks at relatively low temperatures is indicated by enrichment in 18O (δ=+10.4 to +12.7‰) relative to fresh basalt (δ=~ +5.5‰). Subaerial weathering resulted in significant textural, mineralogical, and geochemical variations in metamorphosed basalts, causing additional redistribution of most major and trace elements and further enrichment in 18O. Many elements, including LILE, REE and HFSE, are strongly enriched (>100%) or depleted (up to 96%) relative to their original abundances. Alkaline metasomatism, which is a characteristic of Precambrian paleosols, is also evident at Schreiber Beach, where extreme enrichment in K (280 to 1000%), Rb (390 to 660%), and Cs (1160 to 2560%) occurs in the weathering profile. We interpret the weathered red basalts indicative of a warm, humid Paleoproterozoic continental climate.

  20. How Do People Attribute Income-Related Inequalities in Health? A Cross-Sectional Study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, Aisha; Slater, Morgan; Kirst, Maritt; Shankardass, Ketan; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Context Substantive equity-focused policy changes in Ontario, Canada have yet to be realized and may be limited by a lack of widespread public support. An understanding of how the public attributes inequalities can be informative for developing widespread support. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine how Ontarians attribute income-related health inequalities. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of 2,006 Ontarians using random digit dialing. The survey included thirteen questions relevant to the theme of attributions of income-related health inequalities, with each statement linked to a known social determinant of health. The statements were further categorized depending on whether the statement was framed around blaming the poor for health inequalities, the plight of the poor as a cause of health inequalities, or the privilege of the rich as a cause of health inequalities. Results There was high agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences between the rich and the poor in terms of employment, social status, income and food security, and conversely, the least agreement for statements that attributed inequalities to differences in terms of early childhood development, social exclusion, the social gradient and personal health practices and coping skills. Mean agreement was lower for the two statements that suggested blame for income-related health inequalities lies with the poor (43.1%) than for the three statements that attributed inequalities to the plight of the poor (58.3%) or the eight statements that attributed inequalities to the privilege of the rich (58.7%). Discussion A majority of this sample of Ontarians were willing to attribute inequalities to the social determinants of health, and were willing to accept messages that framed inequalities around the privilege of the rich or the plight of the poor. These findings will inform education campaigns, campaigns aimed at increasing public support for equity

  1. Geophysical data collected from the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada (2008-016-FA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Jane F.; Foster, D.S.; Worley, C.R.; Irwin, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a geophysical and sampling survey of the riverbed of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, Mich., and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. The objectives were to define the Quaternary geologic framework of the riverbed of the St. Clair River to evaluate the relationship between morphologic change of the riverbed and underlying stratigraphy. This report presents the geophysical and sample data collected from the St. Clair River, May 29-June 6, 2008, as part of the International Upper Great Lakes Study, a 5-year project funded by the International Joint Commission of the United States and Canada to examine whether physical changes in the St. Clair River are affecting water levels within upper Great Lakes, to assess regulation plans for outflows from Lake Superior, and to examine the potential effect of climate change on the Great Lakes water levels (http://www.iugls.org). This document makes available the data that were used in a separate report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1137, which detailed the interpretations of the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. This report includes a description of the high-resolution acoustic and sediment-sampling systems that were used to map the morphology, surficial sediment distribution, and underlying geology of the Upper St. Clair River during USGS field activity 2008-016-FA (http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/cgi-bin/datasource/public_ds_info.pl?fa=2008-016-FA). Video and photographs of the riverbed were also collected and are included in this data release. Future analyses will be focused on substrate erosion and its effects on river-channel morphology and geometry. Ultimately, the International Upper Great Lakes Study will attempt to determine where physical changes in the St. Clair River affect water flow and, subsequently, water levels in the Upper Great

  2. Influence of fur trade, famine, and forest fires on moose and woodland caribou populations in northwestern Ontario from 1786 to 1911

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Ronald; Suffling, Roger; Younger, Thomas Ajit

    1993-07-01

    Hudson’s Bay Company records were used to estimate the 1786 1911 annual number of moose ( Alces alces andersonii) and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus caribou) involved in trade by northern Ojibwa natives to the company post at Osnaburgh House (51°10'N 90°15'W) in northwest Ontario, Canada. The human population for the early 19th century, and the number and severity of human starvations from 1786 to 1911 were estimated. The extent of forest fires in the region around Osnaburgh was documented using a “fire-day” index computed from Hudson’s Bay Company journals and using qualitative archival information. It is argued that the human population was too small to have caused the observed early 19th century moose and caribou population decline solely through predation. Likewise, severe early 19th century famines were caused by climatic factors rather than by declines in moose and caribou numbers. Habitat change caused by increased forest fires correlates with the observed decline of caribou, while moose increased and subsequently collapsed as winter shelter was destroyed. A burgeoning human population, sustained during winter food shortages on potatoes donated by the Hudson’s Bay Company, then kept ungulate populations to low levels until the late 19th century. Only then did maturing forests and a new outbreak of fires provide renewed habitat for resurgences of, respectively, caribou and moose.

  3. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  4. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Newmarket Till forms a regionally extensive aquitard separating two major aquifer systems in the Greater Toronto area, Canada. The till is incised, and sometimes eroded entirely, by a network of sand- and gravel-filled channels forming productive aquifers and, locally, high-conductivity windows between aquifer systems. Leakage through the till may also be substantial in places. This study investigates the spatial variability of aquitard leakance in order to assess the relative importance of recharge processes to the lower aquifers. With a large database derived from water-well records and containing both hard and soft information, the Sequential Indicator Simulation method is used to generate maps of aquitard thickness and window probability. These can be used for targeting channel aquifers and for identifying potential areas of recharge to the lower aquifers. Conductivities are modeled from sparse data assuming that their correlation range is much smaller than the grid spacing. Block-scale leakances are obtained by upscaling nodal values based on simulated conductivity and thickness fields. Under the "aquifer-flow'' assumption, upscaling is performed by arithmetic spatial averaging. Histograms and maps of upscaled leakances show that heterogeneities associated with aquitard windows have the largest effect on regional groundwater flow patterns. Résumé. La moraine glaciaire de Newmarket constitue un imperméable d'extension régionale séparant deux systèmes aquifères dans la région du Grand Toronto (Canada). La moraine est entaillée, et parfois entièrement érodée, par un réseau de chenaux comblés de sables et de graviers formant des aquifères productifs et, localement, des «fenêtres», zones à forte conductivité hydraulique reliant les systèmes aquifères. Une drainance au travers de la moraine peut également être significative par endroits. Cette étude s'intéresse à la variabilité spatiale de la drainance au travers de l

  5. Geostatistical mapping of leakance in a regional aquitard, Oak Ridges Moraine area, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbarats, A. J.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Newmarket Till forms a regionally extensive aquitard separating two major aquifer systems in the Greater Toronto area, Canada. The till is incised, and sometimes eroded entirely, by a network of sand- and gravel-filled channels forming productive aquifers and, locally, high-conductivity windows between aquifer systems. Leakage through the till may also be substantial in places. This study investigates the spatial variability of aquitard leakance in order to assess the relative importance of recharge processes to the lower aquifers. With a large database derived from water-well records and containing both hard and soft information, the Sequential Indicator Simulation method is used to generate maps of aquitard thickness and window probability. These can be used for targeting channel aquifers and for identifying potential areas of recharge to the lower aquifers. Conductivities are modeled from sparse data assuming that their correlation range is much smaller than the grid spacing. Block-scale leakances are obtained by upscaling nodal values based on simulated conductivity and thickness fields. Under the "aquifer-flow'' assumption, upscaling is performed by arithmetic spatial averaging. Histograms and maps of upscaled leakances show that heterogeneities associated with aquitard windows have the largest effect on regional groundwater flow patterns. Résumé. La moraine glaciaire de Newmarket constitue un imperméable d'extension régionale séparant deux systèmes aquifères dans la région du Grand Toronto (Canada). La moraine est entaillée, et parfois entièrement érodée, par un réseau de chenaux comblés de sables et de graviers formant des aquifères productifs et, localement, des «fenêtres», zones à forte conductivité hydraulique reliant les systèmes aquifères. Une drainance au travers de la moraine peut également être significative par endroits. Cette étude s'intéresse à la variabilité spatiale de la drainance au travers de l

  6. Biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic correlation of Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions: upper Tindir Group, northwestern Canada, as a test case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Knoll, A. H.; Awramik, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in Proterozoic micropaleontology and sedimentary isotope geochemistry suggest that improved interbasinal correlation of Neoproterozoic (1000-540 Ma) successions is possible. Because widely varying interpretations of its age have been suggested and no reliable radiometric dates or paleomagnetic data are available, the upper Tindir Group of northwestern Canada provides an opportunity to test this hypothesis. The age of these strata is of paleontological importance because silicified carbonates near the top of the group contain disc-shaped-scale microfossils that may provide insights into the early evolution of biomineralization. A reinterpretation of upper Tindir microfossil assemblages suggests a late Riphean age. Although diagenesis and contact metamorphism have altered the isotopic compositions of some carbonates, least altered samples indicate that delta 13C of contemporaneous seawater was at least +4.7%, typical of Neoproterozoic, but not Cambrian, carbonates. Strontium isotopic compositions of the least altered samples yield values of approximately 0.7065, which can be uniquely correlated with late Riphean seawater. Together, micropaleontology and the isotopic tracers of C and Sr constrain the upper Tindir carbonates and their unique fossils to be late Riphean, likely between 620 and 780 Ma.

  7. Biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic correlation of Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions: upper Tindir Group, northwestern Canada, as a test case.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A J; Knoll, A H; Awramik, S M

    1992-02-01

    Recent advances in Proterozoic micropaleontology and sedimentary isotope geochemistry suggest that improved interbasinal correlation of Neoproterozoic (1000-540 Ma) successions is possible. Because widely varying interpretations of its age have been suggested and no reliable radiometric dates or paleomagnetic data are available, the upper Tindir Group of northwestern Canada provides an opportunity to test this hypothesis. The age of these strata is of paleontological importance because silicified carbonates near the top of the group contain disc-shaped-scale microfossils that may provide insights into the early evolution of biomineralization. A reinterpretation of upper Tindir microfossil assemblages suggests a late Riphean age. Although diagenesis and contact metamorphism have altered the isotopic compositions of some carbonates, least altered samples indicate that delta 13C of contemporaneous seawater was at least +4.7%, typical of Neoproterozoic, but not Cambrian, carbonates. Strontium isotopic compositions of the least altered samples yield values of approximately 0.7065, which can be uniquely correlated with late Riphean seawater. Together, micropaleontology and the isotopic tracers of C and Sr constrain the upper Tindir carbonates and their unique fossils to be late Riphean, likely between 620 and 780 Ma. PMID:11537751

  8. Regional Permafrost Probability Modelling in the northwestern Cordillera, 59°N - 61°N, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnaventure, P. P.; Lewkowicz, A. G.

    2010-12-01

    and Radburn, 1992; Heginbottom et al., 1995) but is several orders of magnitude more detailed. It also exhibits some significant differences, including the presence of an area of valley-floor continuous permafrost around Beaver Creek near the Alaskan border in the west, as well as higher probabilities of permafrost in the central parts of the region near the boundaries of the sporadic and extensive discontinuous zones. In addition, parts of the northernmost portion of the region would be classified as sporadic discontinuous permafrost because of inversions in the terrestrial surface lapse rate which cause permafrost probabilities to decrease with elevation through the forest. These model predictions are expected to of direct use for infrastructure planning and northern development and can serve as a benchmark for future studies of permafrost distribution in the Yukon. References Heginbottom JR, Dubreuil MA and Haker PT. 1995. Canada Permafrost. (1:7,500,000 scale). In The National Atlas of Canada, 5th Edition, sheet MCR 4177. Ottawa: National Resources Canada. Heginbottom, J.A. and Radburn, L.K. 1992. Permafrost and ground ice conditions of northwestern Canada; Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1691A, scale 1:1,000,000. Digitized by S. Smith, Geological Survey of Canada.

  9. Thermal maturity and source-rock potential in Northwestern Melville Island, Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzis, T. ); Goodarzi, F. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that approximately 130 core and drillhole cuttings samples taken from the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic of northwestern Melville Island were examined using reflected-light microscopy and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. The Palaeozoic section is dominated by bitumen, and often numerous bitumen populations are identified based on morphology, texture, and optical properties. Bitumen reflectance increases with depth, following a trend almost parallel to vitrinite, an indication that it is primary and has been subjected to similar thermal stress. The upper Palaeozoic sediments are within the hydrocarbon generation zone but have limited potential, except for an algal-rich interval in the Permian Trold Fiord Formation. Overall, the study is important because it attempts to identify the source rocks in an area of Melville Island where no previous work has been reported on the hydrocarbon-generating potential of the sedimentary succession. In addition, the use of bitumen reflectance in lower Palaeozoic strata devoid of vitrinite is evaluated and the amount of eroded section is calculated based on the thermal maturity pattern of bitumen.

  10. Diamonds in an Archean greenstone belt: Diamond suites in unconventional rocks of Wawa, Northern Ontario (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Maya; Bruce, Loryn; Ryder, John

    2010-05-01

    Diamonds typically are found on Archean cratons entrained by younger Phanerozoic kimberlites. In contrast, Wawa diamonds are hosted in "unconventional", non-kimberlitic rocks that formed contemporaneously with the mafic and sedimentary rocks of the Archean Michipicoten Greenstone Belt (MGB). We studied two diamond suites that occur within the 2.9-2.7 Ga greenschist facies rocks of MGB located in the southwest portion of the Superior Craton (E. Canada). The first diamond suite henceforth referred to as the Wawa breccia diamonds (384 stones), are hosted in the 2618-2744 Ma calc-alkaline lamprophyres and volcaniclastic breccias, contemporaneous with pillow basalts and felsic volcanics of MGB. The second suite, the Wawa conglomerate diamonds (80 crystals), are hosted in the 2697-2700 Ma poorly sorted sedimentary polymictic conglomerate which is interpreted as a proximal alluvial fan debris flow in a fan-delta environment. The majority of the diamonds was found within the matrix of the conglomerate. The diamondiferous breccia occurs 20 km north of the town of Wawa, whereas the conglomerate is found 12 km northeast of Wawa. Diamonds from the 2 occurrences were characterized and described for provenance studies. Both the breccia and conglomerate diamonds show similar crystal habits, with the predominance of octahedral single crystals and ~ 10% of cubes. The conglomerate diamonds are significantly less resorbed (no resorbtion in 43% of the stones) than the breccia diamonds (8% non-resorbed stones). In both suites, only 21-24% show high degrees of resorption. The majority of crystals in both suites are colourless, with some yellow, brown and grey stones. Conglomerate diamonds had a wider variety of colours that were not seen in the breccia diamonds, including green and pink. The breccia diamonds contain 0-740 ppm N and show two modes of N aggregation at 0-30 and 60-95%. Among the breccia diamonds, Type IaA stones comprise 17%, whereas IaAB stones make up 49% of the